http://www.eetindia.com/CAT_1800006_networkingdesign.HTM?refer=google_cpc&gclid=CMHE9ueB6Y4CFQfIbgodJmYODQ ref:- http://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Computer_network#Definition A computer network is composed of multiple connected computers that communicate over a wired or wireless medium to share data and other resources. For instance, a home computer network may consist of two or more computers that share files and a printer using the network. The size and scalability of any computer network are determined both by the physical medium of communication and by the software controlling the communication (i.e., the protocols). Computer networks may be classified according to the network topology upon which the network is based, such as Bus network, Star network, Ring network, Mesh network, Starbus network, Tree or Hierarchical topology network, etc. Network Topology signifies the way in which intelligent devices in the network see their logical relations to one another. The use of the term "logical" here is significant. That is, network topology is independent of the "physical" layout of the network. Even if networked computers are physically placed in a linear arrangement, if they are connected via a hub, the network has a Star topology, rather than a Bus Topology. In this regard the visual and operational characteristics of a network are distinct.

By network layer
Computer networks may be classified according to the network layer at which they operate according to some basic reference models that are considered to be standards in the industry such as the seven layer OSI reference model and the four layer Internet Protocol Suite model. In practice, the great majority of networks use the Internet Protocol (IP) as their network layer. Some networks, however, are using IP Version 6 IPv6, usually in coexistence with IPv4. IPv6 use is often experimental. it is an interconnection of a group of computers in other words. A network as simple as two computers linked with a crossover cable has several points at which the network could fail: either network interface, and the cable. Large networks, without careful design, can have many points at which a single failure could disable the network. When networks are critical the general rule is that they should have no single point of failure. The broad factors that can bring down networks, according to the Software Engineering Institute [3] at Carnegie-Mellon University: 1. Attacks: these include software attacks by various miscreants (e.g., malicious hackers, computer criminals) as well as physical destruction of facilities. 2. Failures: these are in no way deliberate, but range from human error in entering commands, bugs in network element executable code, failures of electronic

components, and other things that involve deliberate human action or system design. 3. Accidents: Ranging from spilling coffee into a network element to a natural disaster or war that destroys a data center, these are largely unpredictable events. Survivability from severe accidents will require physically diverse, redundant facilities. Among the extreme protections against both accidents and attacks are airborne command posts and communications relays[4], which either are continuously in the air, or take off on warning. In like manner, systems of communications satellites may have standby spares in space, which can be activated and brought into the constellation.

Why Networking ?? • Network Criteria • Networking Basics a.) LAN(Local Area Network) b.) MAN(Metropolitan Area Network) c.) WAN(Wide Area Network) • Types of Connection • Topologies • Transmission Media • N/W Interface Card • N/W Connectivity Devices
• INTRODUCTION • NEED OF NETWORKS • NETWORK CLASSIFICATION • NETWORK DEVICES • NETWORK TOPOLOGIES • NETWORK SOFTWARE • APPLICATIONS • CONCLUSION • BIBLIOGRAPHY

A computer network is a system for communication among two or more computers.
TOPICS TO BE COVERED
• INTRODUCTION • TYPES • TOPOLOGIES • OSI MODEL

• HARDWARE • PROTOCOLS • SECURITY(FIREWALL) • FUTURE ASPECTSRED

NETWORKING & NETWORK COMPONENTS
• INTRODUCTION • TYPES OF NETWORK • NETWORK RELATIONSHIP • FEATURES OF NETWORK • OSI MODEL • NETWORK HARDWARE COMPONENT • CONCLUSION • BIBLIOGRAPHY

FUTURE ASPECTS OF NETWORKING
NEEDS OF NETWORKING 1 - RESOURCE SHARING . 2 - HIGH RELIABILITY . 3 - COMMUNICATION MEDIUM

CONTENTS:
• VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK(VPN) • GIGABIT ETHERNET • COMMON USES • ADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES

http://freecomputerebooks.blogspot.com/2007/05/free-computer-networking-ebooks.html http://more-networking.blogspot.com/2007/02/computer-networks-and-internets.html There are many different computing and networking technologies -- some available today, some just now emerging, some well-proven, some quite experimental. Understanding the computing dilemma more completely involves

recognizing technologies; especially since a single technology by itself seldom suffices, and instead, multiple technologies are usually necessary. This document describes a sampling of technologies of various types, by using a tutorial approach. It compares the technologies available in the three major technology areas: application support, transport networks, and subnetworking. In addition, the applicability of these technologies within a particular situation is illustrated using a set of typical customer situations. This document can be used by consultants and system designers to better understand, from a business and technical perspective, the options available to solve customers' networking problems. http://basic-networking.blogspot.com/2007/08/computer-network-devices-andcomponent.html A Computer network is comprised of different devices to share, transmit, and  boost the signal, voice and data. Network devices or components are the  physical parts connected to a network. There is a large number of the network  devices and are increasing daily. The basic network devices are: Individual  Computers, Server, Hub, Switch, Bridges, Routers, Modems, Printers, DSL  Modems & Routers, Gateways, Network Interface Cards, Cabling & Wireless  access point. The following is a overview of each of these network devices. INDIVIDUAL COMPUTERS: The personal computer is usually a desktop  computer, a work station or a laptop. The personal computers are most widely  used in any organization or for personal use. The individual computers are the  most common types of the microcomputers. SERVER: A server is a computer on a network, which process request and is  used to share the data and resources among the other computers in a network. A  server stores all the necessary information and provides the different services  like, workstation computer’s logon access, internet sharing, print sharing, disk  space sharing etc. There are different types of servers e.g File and print server,  database server, proxy server, Fax server, backup server etc. A database server  stores all the data and software, which may related to the certain database and it  allows other network devices to access and process the database queries. A file  server is used to store the data of any user on the network and a print server  manages one or more printers in a network. Similarly a network server is a server 

 In a basic hub all the computers are connected with the  hub and the speed of the network is defined by the slowest computer network  card connected. MODEMS: Modems are the devices.that manages the network traffic. Computers in  a network are connected to a hub with a twisted pair (CAT5) cables.  Modulation and demodulation.e data is forwarded towards the all ports of a hub. Switch is a layer 2 device. HUBS: Hub is a simplest network device. There are  two types of the hubs. NETWORK INTERFACE CARD: Network interface cards are attached with the  computer or other network devices and are used to provide the connectivity  between the two computers.  Unlike hubs. it will allow all the faster  connections in the network to remain at the higher speed and still interact with  the 10Mbps system.  Swith provides the same function as a hub or a bridge but it has the advance  functionality of connecting the two computers together temporarily. FDDI. Passive Hubs. SWITCHES: Switch is a intelligence device than hub. NIC basically defines  the physical connection methods and the control signals that provides the timings  of the data transfer over the network. switch only transmit or forwards the data to the destined computer  and it does not broadcasts the data to all its ports. Active Hubs. 2. The function of the hub is broadcasting  i. Switch  contains the switch matrix or switch fabric that can connect and disconnect ports. which are used to translate the digital data  into the analog format and vice versa. regardless of whether the  data was intended for the particular systems in the network or not. For example if you have 10/100 Mbps cards in a network and  only one card of 10Mbps speed then the system cannot run faster than the 10  Mbps. 1. It performs the two main functions.e Physical layer and datalink layer specifications. Each network card is specifically designed for the  different types of the network like Ethernet. A modulated data can travel across the  . Now if you have a switching hub in a network. The Network card operates on the first and second layers of the OSI  models i. Token Ring and Wireless  Networks. SWITCHING HUB: The Switching hub (also called “switch” is the most advance  shape of the basic hub.

 The same can be said of  translational switch converts from a Ethernet network to a token ring network. 10baseT is a four paired cable. GATEWAY: A gateway performs the function of translating the data from one  format to another format without changing the data itself. PCMCIA cards  are used for this purpose and many new laptops having the built in integrated  modems. system. router uses logical network address such as IP address to  make the decision in determining the destination of the data. ROUTERS: Routers route the data between two logically and physically different  networks. Router  gets this capability through its software called routing software. software. Router acts as a gateway e. (like a telephone  connector) called RJ45 connector. . A Router has the capability to determine the destination address for the  data and hence provides the best way for the data to continue its journey. UTP  (unshielded twisted pair) and 2. medium or large networks. Modem can  be the internal devices that plug into the expansion slots in a system or can be  external devices that plug into the serial or USB ports. Unlike Switches  and Bridges. 10baseT and  10base2. STP is most secure  cable covered with the silver coated twisted paper to protect the cable. 10baseT/Cat5 cables are most commonly used  cables to connect the computers. It has the connector. STP (shielded twisted pair. In Laptops. DSL and 56K data modem. 10baseT has further two types 1. CABLES: There are two most common types of the cables. Modems are required for different  types of the access methods such ISDN. A gateway can be a  device. A computer with two NIC cards can function as a  gateway. The modem modulates the signals at the sending  end and demodulates at the receiving end.conventional telephone lines. On the  other end Thin 10base2 looks like the copper coaxial cabling that often used to  connect TV sets and VCR.g a router that routes the data from a IPX  network to a IP network is technically a gateway. In ISPs where the large scaled modems are required. which use hardware configured MAC address to determine the  destination of the data. Twisted pair cables are ideal for the small. The specialized devices are designed for use in the systems such as  handheld computers. 1. rack­ mounted modems are used.

computer criminals) as well as physical destruction of facilities. it is an interconnection of a group of computers in other words. When networks are critical the general rule is that they should have no single point of failure. Survivability from severe accidents will require physically diverse.org/wiki/Computer_network#By_network_topology By network layer Computer networks may be classified according to the network layer at which they operate according to some basic reference models that are considered to be standards in the industry such as the seven layer OSI reference model and the four layer Internet Protocol Suite model. and the cable. and other things that involve deliberate human action or system design. which either are continuously in the air. can have many points at which a single failure could disable the network. according to the Software Engineering Institute [1] at Carnegie-Mellon University: 1. to independent generators with large battery banks. In like manner. these are largely unpredictable events. or take off on warning..g. redundant facilities.wikipedia. Large networks.http://en. protection from power failures can range from simple filters against excessive voltage spikes. Failures: these are in no way deliberate. 3. to consumer-grade Uninterruptible Power Supplies(UPS) that can protect against loss of commercial power for a few minutes. IPv6 use is often experimental. the great majority of networks use the Internet Protocol (IP) as their network layer.where the voltage level is below . In practice. Some networks. systems of communications satellites may have standby spares in space. which can be activated and brought into the constellation. Depending on the criticality and budget of the network. bugs in network element executable code. Among the extreme protections against both accidents and attacks are airborne command posts and communications relays[2]. [edit] Dealing with Power Failures One obvious form of failure is the loss of electrical power. Accidents: Ranging from spilling coffee into a network element to a natural disaster or war that destroys a data center. usually in coexistence with IPv4. failures of electronic components. Critical installations may switch from commercial to internal power in the event of a brownout. malicious hackers. however. without careful design. The broad factors that can bring down networks. A network as simple as two computers linked with a crossover cable has several points at which the network could fail: either network interface. are using IP Version 6 IPv6. Attacks: these include software attacks by various miscreants (e. 2. but range from human error in entering commands.

or incorrectly phased. motherboard and device configuration and power management. are made intentionally to prevent a full power outage. UPS may provide a signal called the "Power-Good" signal. or a set of factory robots. [edit] By scale Computer networks may be classified according to the scale: Personal Area Network (PAN). Client-server and Peer-to-peer (workgroup) architectures. Campus Area Network. the computer shuts down. Controller Area Networks are a special niche. as in control of a vehicle's engine. Some network elements operate in a manner to protect themselves and shut down gracefully in the event of a loss of power. Systems supplied with three-phase electric power also suffer brownouts if one or more phases are absent. called voltage reductions. The Power-Good signal prevents the computer from attempting to operate on improper voltages and damaging itself To help standardize approaches to power failures. for example Active Networking. [edit] By functional relationship Computer networks may be classified according to the functional relationships which exist between the elements of the network.the normal minimum level specified for the system. [edit] By connection method Computer networks may be classified according to the hardware technology that is used to connect the individual devices in the network such as Ethernet. [edit] By network topology . to achieve the desired Quality of Service (QoS). the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) specification is an open industry standard first released in December 1996 developed by HP. Wireless LAN. Metropolitan area network (MAN). Phoenix and Toshiba that defines common interfaces for hardware recognition. a boat's electronics. Network administrators may have to tune the network. at reduced voltage. but not true network elements such as routers. If the Power-Good signal is not present. Local Area Network. HomePNA. Its purpose is to tell the computer all is well with the power supply and that the computer can continue to operate normally. these distinctions are more important to the network administrator than the end user. Microsoft. Such malfunctions are particularly damaging to electric motors. As Ethernet increasingly is the standard interface to networks. Intel. based on delay that derives from distance. or Wide area network (WAN). Some brownouts. or Power line communication. These might include noncritical application and network management servers.

Ring network. In this regard the visual and operational characteristics of a network are distinct. such as Bus network. Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire. [edit] By protocol Computer networks may be classified according to the communications protocol that is being used on the network. Star network. like a home. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. Even if networked computers are physically placed in a linear arrangement. network topology is independent of the "physical" layout of the network. [edit] Personal Area Network (PAN) Main article: Personal area network A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person. The defining characteristics of LANs. etc. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. include their much higher data transfer rates. if they are connected via a hub.Main article: Network Topology Computer networks may be classified according to the network topology upon which the network is based. or building. Starbus network. [edit] Types of networks: Below is a list of the most common types of computer networks in order of scale. Current LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. smaller geographic range. rather than a Bus Topology. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication). Network Topology signifies the way in which intelligent devices in the network see their logical relations to one another. or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink). Tree or Hierarchical topology network. The use of the term "logical" here is significant. in contrast to WANs (wide area networks). [edit] Local Area Network (LAN) Main article: Local Area Network A network covering a small geographic area. That is. office. . Mesh network. the network has a Star topology. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA and Bluetooth. See the articles on List of network protocol stacks and List of network protocols for more information.

so it is called a CAN. may be considered a type of MAN (metropolitan area network). A CAN.e. . or a military base. This term is most often used to discuss the implementation of networks for a contiguous area. one country to another and one continent to another continent) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. Inverse multiplexing is commonly used to build a faster aggregate from slower physical streams. tend to be optimized to have many Ethernet interfaces rather than an arbitrary mixture of Ethernet and WAN interfaces. or by configuring DHCPDynamic Host Configuration Protocol autoconfiguration to give the host an address in the appropriate range. The network elements used. the data link layer. called "campus switches". In the past. [edit] Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Main article: Metropolitan Area Network A network that connects two or more Local Area Networks or CAN together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town. until they grew to very large size.e. bridging (networking) was cheaper than routing. Multiple routers.. a campus may use a mixture of routing and bridging. but is generally limited to an area that is smaller than a typical MAN. campuses were good candidates for layer 2 networks. Today. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer.Hosts can be made part of a specific LAN can be defined by setting their address to one within the address range of the LAN subnet This can be done by manual configuration. [edit] Campus Area Network (CAN) Main article: Campus Area Network A network that connects two or more LANs but that is limited to a specific and contiguous geographical area such as a college campus. switches & hubs are connected to create a MAN [edit] Wide Area Network (WAN) Main article: Wide Area Network A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i. such as telephone companies. city. and possibly 40 Gbit/s. when layer 2 switching (i. or metropolitan area. and the network layer. Currently standardized LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 100 Gbit/s. such as bringing 4 Gbit/s aggregate stream into a computer or network element with four 1 Gbit/s interfaces. industrial complex.

Mobile IP is a network layer technique. In IEEE Project 802. [edit] Intranet Main article: Intranet . satellite coverage areas. however. [edit] Global Area Network (GAN) Main article: Global Area Network Global area networks (GAN) specifications are in development by several groups. In modern practice. as a single bitstream. [edit] Internetwork Main article: Internetwork Two or more networks or network segments connected using devices that operate at layer 3 (the 'network' layer) of the OSI Basic Reference Model. the interconnected networks use the Internet Protocol. such as a router. com. on WANs is 40 Gbit/s. a GAN is a model for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs. The key challenge in mobile communications is "handing off" the user communications from one local coverage area to the next. this involves a succession of terrestrial Wireless local area networks (WLAN) is the [3]. although the Internet may serve as a portal for access to portions of an extranet. can put multiple 10 or 40 Gbyte/s streams onto the same optical fiber. If connected to the Internet. principally used between large service providers. which is independent of the media type and can run over different media while still keeping the connection. developed by the IETF. etc. however. the intranet or extranet is normally protected from being accessed from the Internet without proper authorization. The Internet itself is not considered to be a part of the intranet or extranet. or governmental networks may also be defined as an internetwork. depending on who administers and who participates in them: • • • Intranet Extranet "The" Internet Intranets and extranets may or may not have connections to the Internet. In general. Wavelength Division Multiplexing. INMARSAT has defined a satellite-based Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN). private. There are at least three variants of internetwork.The highest data rate commercially available. and there is no common definition. Any interconnection among or between public. IEEE mobility efforts focus on the data link layer and make assumptions about the media.

Department of Defense – also home to the World Wide Web (WWW) and referred to as the 'Internet' with a capital 'I' to distinguish it from other generic internetworks. Bridges. public.11) or optical cable ("optical fiber"). by definition. [edit] Network Interface Cards Main article: Network card A network card. because an extranet must have at least one connection with an outside network. some method of connecting these building blocks is required. consisting of a worldwide interconnection of governmental. The Main article: Internet A specific internetwork. a company's customers may be provided access to some part of its intranet thusly creating an extranet while at the same time the customers may not be considered 'trusted' from a security standpoint). such as Network Interface Cards (NICs).. trusted organizations or entities (e. and allows only specific users. and Routers.g. [edit] Extranet Main article: Extranet A extranet is network or internetwork that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity but which also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually. although. WAN. Service providers and large enterprises also exchange information on the reachability of their address ranges through the Border Gateway Protocol. an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN. That administrative entity closes the intranet to the rest of the world.S. usually in the form of galvanic cable (most commonly Category 5 cable). academic. obtained from address registries that control assignments. an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN.An intranet is a set of interconnected networks. Hubs. that is under the control of a single administrative entity. and private networks based upon the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by ARPA of the U. but not necessarily. or other type of network. network adapter or NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer . Less common are microwave links (as in IEEE 802. using the Internet Protocol and uses IPbased tools such as web browsers. an intranet is the internal network of a company or other enterprise. Most commonly. [edit] Internet. Switches. MAN. In addition. Technically. [edit] Basic Hardware Components All networks are made up of basic hardware building blocks to interconnect network nodes.

Once the bridge associates a port and an address. it will send traffic for that address only to that port. When a packet arrives at one port. When the packets are copied. it is copied the packets to all the ports of the hub. the destination address in the frame does not change to a broadcast address. Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs . Bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports. It does this in a rudimentary way. as does a hub. Bridges learn the association of ports and addresses by examining the source address of frames that it sees on various ports. the bridge will forward the frame to all ports other than the one on which the frame arrived. It provides physical access to a networking medium and provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses. Bridges come in three basic types: 1. 3. Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. it simply copies the data to all of the Nodes connected to the hub. [4] [edit] Bridges Main article: Network bridge A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. but learns which MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. Remote bridges. The first time that a previously unknown destination address is seen. and do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted.network. Bridges do send broadcasts to all ports except the one on which the broadcast was received. the first layer of the OSI model. largely have been replaced by routers. where the connecting link is slower than the end networks. its source address is stored and the bridge assumes that MAC address is associated with that port. Local bridges: Directly connect local area networks (LANs) 2. [edit] Repeaters Main article: Repeater A Because repeaters work with the actual physical signal. they operate on the Physical layer.BY HAYTECH [edit] Hubs Main article: Network hub A hub contains multiple ports. It allows users to connect to each other either by using cables or wirelessly. Once a frame arrives through a port.

A router is connected to at least two networks. Routers also provide interconnectivity between like and unlike media. Routers work at the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI model. Many experienced network designers and operators recommend starting with the logic of devices dealing with only one protocol level. a Web URL identifier). [edit] Routers Main article: Router Routers are the networking device that forwards data packets along networks by using headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path to forward the packets. or transport (i. but multilayer switching is simply not a realworld design concept. Practical networks generally consist of more than two interconnected computers and generally require special devices in addition to the Network Interface Controller that each computer needs to be equipped with. Examples of some of these special devices are hubs. Multilayer device selection is an advanced topic that may lead to selecting particular implementations. not all of which are covered by OSI. Some DSL and Cable Modems have been integrated with routers for home consumers.[edit] Switches Main article: Network switch Switches are a marketing term that encompasses routers and bridges. Alternatively. This type of network is useful for transferring information between two computers that are not normally connected to each other by a permanent network connection or for basic home networking applications.. A device that operates simultaneously at more than one of these layers is called a multilayer switch. Overemphasizing the ill-defined term "switch" often leads to confusion when first trying to understand networking. as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content (e. [edit] Building a simple computer network A simple computer network may be constructed from two computers by adding a network adapter (Network Interface Controller (NIC)) to each computer and then connecting them together with a special cable called a crossover cable. including physical.e.g. commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's network. data link. network.[6] They use routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts. a network between two computers can be established without dedicated extra hardware by using a standard connection such as the RS-232 serial port on both computers.[5] This is accomplished by examining the Header of a data packet. . end-to-end). connecting them to each other via a special crosslinked null modem cable.. switches and routers. Switches may operate at one or more OSI layers.

which can be anywhere from a line-charged battery to take the element through a brief power dropout. Routers and bridges intended more for the enterprise or ISP market than home use. These computers can be linked together using a wide variety of different cabling types. If the problem disappears when the spare is manually replaced.html Networking Fundamentals.0 By Brian Brown Networks are an interconnection of computers. http://more-networking. to an extensive network of generators and large battery banks that can protect the network for hours or days of commercial power outages. to diagnose failures or degradation. [edit] Monitoring and Diagnostic Equipment Networks.blogspot. More sophisticated and expensive installations will have spare elements that can automatically replace a failed unit. may have a variety of temporarily or permanently connected performance meaasurement and diagnostic equipment. and for a wide variety of different purposes. [edit] Providing Electrical Power Individual network components may have surge protectors . Failures can be made transparent to user computers with techniques such as the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP).[edit] Ancillary equipment used by networks To keep a network operating. v4. depending on their criticality and the skill set available among the operators. as specified in RFC 3768. usually record the amount of traffic and errors experienced on their interfaces. network elements may have uninterruptible power supplies (UPS). Diagnostic equipment. The basis reasons why computers are networked are . the problem has been diagnosed. and to circumvent problems.[5] Beyond the surge protector. Surge protectors attempt to regulate the voltage supplied to an electric device by either blocking or shorting to ground voltage above a safe threshold. may be nothing more complicated than a spare piece of equipment. for example. to isolate failures. networks may have a wide-ranging amount of ancillary equipment.com/2007/02/networking-fundamentals-v40.an appliance designed to protect electrical devices from voltage spikes.

Small networks are often called Local Area Networks [LAN]. A LAN is a network allowing easy access to other computers or peripherals. rather than print it out.be/cit_courseware/networks/default. These computers can be linked together using a wide variety of different cabling types.ulb. exchange mail. then feed it into the fax machine. rather. schedule meetings. each user could access all the information they require.htm. printers. printers. dial the number etc. • • • • • physically limited ( less than 2km) high bandwidth (greater than 1mbps) inexpensive cable media (coax or twisted pair) data and hardware sharing between users owned by the user http://physinfo. Imagine the benefits of a user being able to directly fax the Word document they are working on. As long as all user computers are connected via a network. send faxes and print documents all from any point of the network. It would not be necessary for users to transfer files via electronic mail or floppy disk.• • • to share resources (files. modems. BASIC NETWORK CONCEPTS Networks are an interconnection of computers. fax machines) to share application software (MS Office) increase productivity (make it easier to share data amongst users) Take for example a typical office scenario where a number of users in a small business require access to common information. The basis reasons why computers are networked are • • • to share resources (files.ac. fax machines) to share application software (MS Office) increase productivity (make it easier to share data amongst users) . and for a wide variety of different purposes. they can share their files. modems. thus leading to less wasted time and hence greater productivity. The typical characteristics of a LAN are.

dial the number etc. they can share their files. A LAN is a network allowing easy access to other computers or peripherals. For an explanation about various bus types. EISA. rather than print it out. • • • • • physically limited (< 2km) high bandwidth (> 1mbps) inexpensive cable media (coax or twisted pair) data and hardware sharing between users owned by the user BASIC NETWORK COMPONENTS There are a number of components which are used to build networks. thus leading to less wasted time and hence greater productivity. then feed it into the fax machine. This is a discussion on some of the elements which make up a network [LAN]. PCMCIA]. click here. providing the connection to the network.Take for example a typical office scenario where a number of users in a small business require access to common information. MCA. PCI. The typical characteristics of a LAN are. . Imagine the benefits of a user being able to directly fax the Word document they are working on. send faxes and print documents all from any point of the network. Small networks are often called Local Area Networks [LAN]. As long as all user computers are connected via a network. It would not be necessary for users to transfer files via electronic mail or floppy disk. Adapter cards come from many different manufacturers. An understanding of these is essential in order to support networks. each user could access all the information they require. and support a wide variety of cable media and bus types [ISA. schedule meetings. rather. Network Adapter Cards A network adapter card plugs into the workstation. exchange mail.

New cards are software configurable. A PCMCIA adapter card. Other cards are PNP [plug and Play]. each card is identified by a twelve digit hexadecimal number. simplifying installation. the computer detects the new network card. which automatically configure their resources when installed in the computer. With an operating system like Windows 95. the data you send to that computer is prefixed with the number of the card you are sending the data to. This number uniquely identifies the computer. This allows intermediate devices in the network to decide in which direction the data should go. looks like. assigns the correct resources to it. in order to transport the data to its correct destination. . When talking to another computer. and then installs the networking software required for connection to the network. For Ethernet or 10BaseT cards. auto-detection of new hardware makes network connections simple and quick. All the user need do is assign the network details like computer name. suitable for connecting to a portable laptop computer to a network. On power-up. These network card numbers are used in the Medium Access [MAC] Layer to identify the destination for the data. A typical adapter card looks like. using a software program to configure the resources used by the card.

Some cards may only use one (a port location(s)). read responses. This is because the cards are configured by the user (using either jumpers or a software program). So what are the resources used by peripheral cards? Essentially. IRQ2 to IRQ15 appear on the ISA bus. The I/O port address is used by the PC to communicate with the peripheral card (issue commands. Direct Memory Request Line The DMA request line is used to transfer data between the peripheral card and the computers memory at high speed. This causes intermittent or immediate non-operation of the computer system. at which time the machine will crash. Buffer Memory Address Some peripheral cards prefer to use memory space rather than an I/O port address to transfer data to the processor. The major problem arises with cards for the ISA bus (found in the majority of AT type computers and clones). 3. except when the user is logged into the network and then tries to use the serial port. others may require all four.Peripheral cards associated with EISA and MCA are normally self configuring. 2. The FOUR resources are 1. Resources Used By Peripheral Cards We have already mentioned that resources used by ISA peripheral cards must not be shared (two cards cannot use the same). ISA peripherals cannot share the same interrupt request line. DMA channel 0 cannot be used. Care must be taken to ensure this space is not being used for other purposes (like shadow RAM. the port numbers used by peripheral cards range from 200h to 3FFh. . Users make mistakes. This space is also sometimes used by a remote boot Eprom. which is used for diskless workstations which download the operating system from the server at boot time. 4. as it is reserved for system use. and perform data transfer). This memory space occupied by the peripheral card appears in the main system memory RAM area available to the processor (usually between C0000h to EFFFFh). VBGA BIOS). For instance. and IRQ2 in AT/2386/486 computers should not be used (there are others which must also not be used). EMS for windows. a networking card that is allocated the same resources as a serial communications program may function perfectly. Interrupt Request Line The interrupt request line is used by the card to signal the processor that the card requires the processors attention. and often configure cards so that they conflict with other cards already present in this system. Input/Output Port Address In the PC. there are FOUR resources which are user configurable for peripheral cards.

and stored either in the executable file. The resources used by the card are either set by jumpers (or slide switches). It is obviously important for the configuration settings in the software driver to match those configured on the peripheral card.cfg). It is therefore handy to know what the resources are which are used by common peripheral devices. making the services provided by the card available to the user. This is done by a configuration utility. the cards retain their configuration when the power is turned off. The software driver provides the follow functions • • • • initialization routine interrupt service routine procedures to transmit and receive data procedures for status. The following tables identify these. New cards can also be configured using a software program. The software driver is normally configured to match the resource settings of the card. Where cards are software configurable. rather than by manually setting jumpers on the card. or a separate file (like .ini or .So How Do Peripheral Cards Work? Peripheral cards require a software driver to function. This software driver provides the interface between the card and the operating system. configuration and control The basic operation looks something like. Common I/O Port Addresses Port Address 200-207h 210-217h 220h 278-27Fh Peripheral Game I/O Adaptor XT Expansion Unit SoundBlaster LPT2 . • • • • • card receives data card generates interrupt by asserting interrupt request line processor responds to interrupt request and jumps to service routine service routine instructs processor to read data from port location interrupt service routine releases processor to continue previous work The major problem is assigning values of these resources which are already being used by either the system or another peripheral card.

Network Floppy Disk LPT1 Co-Processor AT Disk Controller Common Memory Addresses Address A0000-BFFFFh B0000-B7FFFh B8000-BFFFFh C8000-CFFFFh F4000-FFFFFh F8000-FFFFFh Peripheral EGA/VGA Monochrome CGA XT Disk AT ROM BIOS PC/XT ROM BIOS Common DMA Lines DMA Line Peripheral . Bus mouse.2E8-2EFh 2F8-2FFh 300-30Fh 320-32F 330h 378-37Fh 3A0-3A9h 3B0-3BFh 3E8-3EFh 3F0-3F7h 3F8-3FFh COM4 COM2 Color Video Adaptor XT Hard Disk SoundBlaster MIDI LPT1 IBM Synchronous Adaptor Monochrome Video COM3 Floppy Disk COM1 Common Interrupts IRQ Line 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 14 Peripheral EGA/VGA COM2 COM1 LPT2.

serial communications and printing) to see if they still work. It might also mean adding the driver name to the config.me file (and read it).cfg). Do not touch the components or edge connector.ini or . 4. Configure the driver software If the driver software needs to be configured (specify which resources the card is using). this will help to minimize damage to the system or peripheral card. Identify where these are located on the card. This might involve running an INSTALL program. By following standardized procedures. Test card (run diagnostics where provided) If the card was provided with diagnostic software. 10. and reduce the possibility of incorrect installation. Handle the card by the edges. Test the machine Test some of the other software packages on the system (like networking. Observe electrostatic protection in handling the card Use a wrist strap and ground yourself properly before handling the card. 8.sys). Use electrostatic bags or an electrostatic mat. 7. 2. Determine the resources used by the computer Use the previous tables to determine the interrupts.sys file (DEVICE=xxxxx. run that now to test the card and driver. These must be the same as the hardware jumpers used by the card. Read the install manual Check the disk for a read. 1. this indicates a probable conflict of resources. Determine resources to be used by the card Allocate resources to the card which do not conflict with existing hardware. Load the software driver If the card was provided with a software driver. Read the manual and take note of the jumper switches used by the card. it will ask for configuration details. when installing the software. In Windows 95 or NT. Observe electrostatic precautions. Often. Insert the card Remove the system base unit cover and insert the card into a spare peripheral bus slot. 3. 5. memory and port addresses used by the current hardware in the computer. or copying the drivers to the hard disk. Configure the card jumpers Set the jumpers on the card 6. If they don't. This is a good way to test if the installation was done correctly.0 1 2 Memory Circuitry Spare Floppy Drive Installing A Peripheral Card This section discusses basic techniques for installing peripheral cards. . install the software driver. 9. run the diagnostic program to check for interrupt and resource conflicts (MSD or WINMSD). this information might be stored in a separate file (.

Summary of Installing Network Cards in Servers and Workstations • • • • • • ISA cards are a problem check what resources are already being used do not share resources between two cards interrupts can only be shared on EISA and MCA cards run the diagnostics software after installation if the computer hangs. Outlet A=4pair 100ohm UTP. It includes the • • • the wall outlet the horizontal cable cables used to interconnect components [cross-connects or patch cables] in the telecommunications closet (TC) Some general features of the horizontal wiring scheme are • • • • • • uses star topology limit of 90 meters (295') from TC to wall outlet limit of 3 meters (10') to connect from wall outlet to PC patch cords and cross-connect leads are limited to 6 meters (20') minimum of two outlets per user (phone+data) standardized media. remove one board at a time until the problem disappears Brief Guide to BUILDING WIRING The following is a very brief overview of the components that make up the wiring standards for commercial buildings. The objectives of such standards is to • • • define a generic voice and data wiring system that is multi-purpose and multivendor help minimize cost of administration simplify network maintenance and changes A building wiring system covers a number of different elements • • horizontal wiring backbone wiring Horizontal Wiring The horizontal wiring extends from the wall outlet to the system center (telecommunications closet). Outlet B=same or 2 pair 150ohm STP .

The advantages of bridges are • • • • • • increase the number of attached workstations and network segments since bridges buffer frames. The bridge builds up a table which identifies the segment to which the device is located on. The size of this table is important.Backbone Wiring The backbone wiring system interconnects telecommunication closets. Some general features are • • • • • star topology maximum of two hierarchical levels interconnections between any two TC must not go through more than 3 cross connects use of recognized media adherence to distance limitations BRIDGES Bridges interconnect Ethernet segments. the outside world). The IEEE 802. Most bridges today support filtering and forwarding. it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols since bridges work at the MAC layer. equipment rooms and entrance facilities (i.. This internal table is then used to determine which segment incoming frames should be forwarded to. giving rise to broadcast storms on the network .e. and the shortest path is not always taken bridges pass on broadcasts. they are transparent to higher level protocols by subdividing the LAN into smaller segments. Packets are passed onto other network segments based on the MAC layer. During initialization. as well as Spanning Tree Algorithm.1D specification is the standard for bridges. data may be sent over redundant paths. Each time the bridge is presented with a frame. This causes delays in complex networks. overall reliability is increased and the network becomes easier to maintain used for non routable protocols like NETBEUI which must be bridged [see also here] help localize network traffic by only forwarding data onto other segments as required (unlike repeaters) The disadvantages of bridges are • • • • • the buffering of frames introduces network delays bridges may overload during periods of high traffic bridges which combine different MAC protocols require the frames to be modified before transmission onto the new segment. the source address is stored. especially if the network has a large number of workstations/servers. the bridge learns about the network and the routes.

The diagram below shows two separate network segments connected via a bridge. Summary of Bridge features • • • operate at the MAC layer (layer 2 of the OSI model) can reduce traffic on other segments broadcasts are forwarded to every segment . where the majority of access occurs outside of the local segment. Bridges do not offer performance improvements when used in diverse or scattered workgroups. each operating more or less independent of each other. Bridges are ideally used in environments where there a number of well defined workgroups.1 D) make all routing decisions. the best place to locate that server is on the same segment as the workstations. The bridge is said to be transparent (invisible) to the workstations. The bridge will automatically initialize itself and configure its own routing information after it has been enabled. with occasional access to servers outside of their localized workgroup or network segment. A bridge works at the MAC Layer by looking at the destination address and forwarding the frame to the appropriate segment upon which the destination computer resides. if workstations on network segment A needed access to a server. Note that each segment must have a unique network address number in order for the bridge to be able to forward packets from one segment to the other. Ideally. and avoids the delay incurred by the bridge. IEEE 802.Transparent bridges (also known as spanning tree. as this minimizes traffic on the other segment.

thus there is no contention to worry about like in Ethernet. . Traffic on the bus is controlled using the CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) protocol. hub concentrators are being very popular. Passive hubs are simple splitters or combiners that group workstations into a single segment.• • • • • • • • most allow remote access and configuration often SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) enabled loops can be used (redundant paths) if using spanning tree algorithm small delays introduced fault tolerant by isolating fault segments and reconfiguring paths in the event of failure not efficient with complex networks redundant paths to other networks are not used (would be useful if the major path being used was overloaded) shortest path is not always chosen by spanning tree algorithm HUBS There are many types of hubs. In standard Ethernet. and all stations share the available bandwidth. These are very sophisticated and offer significant features which make them radically different from the older hubs which were available during the 1980's. whereas active hubs include a repeater function and are thus capable of supporting many more connections. SNMP management is also a common feature. with the advent of 10BaseT. These 10BaseT hubs provide each client with exclusive access to the full bandwidth. so that unwanted packets (or packets which contain errors) are discarded. which runs at 10Mbps and is for the exclusive use of that workstation. unlike bus networks where the bandwidth is shared. 10BaseT Hubs dedicate the entire bandwidth to each port (workstation). These 10BaseT hubs also include buffering of packets and filtering. The workstations attach to the hub using UTP. which are logically combined using a single backplane. Nowadays. which often runs at a much higher data rate than that of the ports. The hub provides a number of ports. Each workstation plugs into a separate port. all stations are connected to the same network segment in bus configuration.

it does not contend with other workstations for access.Ports can also be buffered. • • • • • each port has exclusive access to its bandwidth (no CSMA/CD) hubs may be cascaded to add additional ports SNMP managed hubs offer good management tools and statistics utilize existing cabling and other network components becoming a low cost solution Virtual Networking In virtual networking. Workstations outside that domain are unable to see any packets (including broadcasts) that belong to the secure domain. hubs can be stacked or cascaded (using master/slave configurations) together. Hub options also include an SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) agent. this is a better option for adding more workstations than the use of a repeater. this has enormous implications for developing secure networks. workgroups can be created on demand. And. The use of switch technology makes this possible. allowing informed decisions to be made concerning the state of the network. having the entire bandwidth available for it's exclusive use. In addition. Any traffic generated by these workstations can be sent to any other workstation in that domain. Obviously. This allows the use of network management software to remotely administer and configure the hub. The ports on a hub all appear as one Ethernet segment. In summary. to add more ports per segment. Users can be located anywhere on the network. Users can belong to more than one virtual domain. the network components (switches) are configured to recognize a number of defined workstations (by MAC address) as belonging to their own domain. Using software management. Detailed statistics related to port usage and bandwidth are often available. . because each workstation has it's own port. like email and www server. the advantages for these newer 10BaseT hubs are. thereby administration is centralized and security is maintained. Multiple virtual workgroups can exist. to allow packets to be held in case the hub or port is busy. As hubs do not count as repeaters.

the workstation computer checks the destination address contained in the message to see if it matches it's own. The choice of topology is dependent upon • • • • type and number of equipment being used planned applications and rate of data transfers required response times cost There are FOUR major competing topologies • • • • Bus Ring Star FDDI Most networking software support all topologies. generally implemented using coaxial cable during the 1980's The bus cable carries the transmitted message along the cable. Ring Topology • • • • • • workstations connect to the ring faulty workstations can be bypassed more cabling required than bus the connectors used tend to cause a lot of problems commonly used to implement token ring at 4 and 16mbps four wire. Bus Topology • • • • • • all workstations connect to the same cable segment commonly used for implementing Ethernet at 10mbps the cable is terminated at each end wiring is normally done point to point a faulty cable or workstation will take the entire LAN down two wire.NETWORK TOPOLOGY Topology refers to the way in which the network of computers is connected. the workstation does nothing more. Each topology is suited to specific tasks and has its own advantages and disadvantages. generally STP or UTP . If the address does not match. As the message arrives at each workstation.

Star Topology • • • all wiring is done from a central point (the server or hub) has the greatest cable lengths of any topology (and thus uses the most amount of cable) generally STP or UTP. four wire Star Topology: Summary Advantages Disadvantages .

class A which attach directly to dual rings. . a maximum of 1000 connections (500 nodes) and a total distance of 200 kilometers end to end. FDDI Station Types There are two main types of stations. FDDI supports a sustained transfer rate of about 80Mbps.Easy to add new workstations Centralized control Centralized network/hub monitoring Hub failure cripples all workstations connected to that hub Hubs are slighty more expensive than thin-Ethernet FDDI Topology • • • • 100mbps normally implemented over fiber optic (fast-Ethernet. The primary ring is used for data transmission. There is a maximum distance of 2 kilometers between active nodes. The rings consist of point to point wiring between nodes which repeat the data as it is received. the secondary is used for data transmission or to back up the primary ring in the event of a link or station failure. UTP) dual redundancy built in by use of primary and secondary ring automatic bypassing and isolation of faulty nodes Fiber Distributed Data Interface FDDI is based on two counter rotating 100-Mbit/sec token-passing rings. or class B which attach to a station acting as a concentrator.

to make an appointment for Saturday's soccer match. The idea of networking is probably as old as telecommunications itself. to forward the message. Same like this when any client has logged out then server remove this name from the arraylist and send this updated arraylist to every client. Understand and get the chat server application by following steps : Features and Limitations of the Application Some features of the application are as follows : This application is used for sending messages from one client to all clients. If any client wants to join the chatting then he runs the client application on client side.A concentrator is a specialized workstation that attaches to the ring and has multiple ports that allow attachment of other devices in a physical star configuration. . Nowadays. After hitting the login button it shows the next frame that Client Frame and it consist one textfield for writing the message and one send button for sending it. http://viewzoft.asp?textfield=networking&Subm it=Search Chat server is a standlone application that is made up the combination of two-application.com/projecttopics/databasesearchresults. I/O Streams and threading also. enters the login name and hits the login button and starts the chatting with every client.java file on the system that we want to make client. we have come a long way from the primitive pursuits and devices of our forebears. For making this application we are using some core java features like swing. Of course. client sends the user name to server and server store it in the arraylist and sends this arraylist to all clients. when drums may have been used to transmit messages between individuals. fiber optics. Same like this. microwaves. In this we are maintaining the list of user names (client name) also. server takes a message from the sender client and sends it to all clients. collection. but leave out the wires. Suppose caveman A wants to invite caveman B over for a game of hurling rocks at each other. as well as the soccer part. This frame has one more button that is Logout button for terminating the chat. What are A's options? He could 1) walk over to B's place. And two list boxes. In this.java file at any system on the network that we want to make server and for client we have to run MyClient.java. Consider people living in the Stone Age. we will deal with the means and ways by which this is accomplished. but they live too far apart for B to hear A banging his drum. These may be cascaded. In this application we have one server and any number of clients (which are to be communicated with each other). 2) get a bigger drum. server application (which runs on server side) and client application (which runs on client side). who lives halfway between them. we have computers talk to each other over vast assemblages of wires. If any client joins the chatting system then the message “User_Name has Logged in” comes on the message list box of every client window. if any client exit from the chatting then the message “User_Name has Logged Out” comes on the message list box of every client window. one is for showing the all messages and another list box is use to show the all user names. To start chatting you must be connected with the server after that your message can broadcast to each and every client. For running whole client operation we can run the Login. networking. After creating the connection with server.[1] In the following description. This application is using for chatting in LAN. or 3) ask C. For creating the Client side application firstly creates the login frame it consist one textfield and the login button. For making a server we have to run the MyServer. and the like. The last option is called networking.

but rather of the highly formalized code of behavior observed when heads of state meet. Just a few short years ago. The demand for a High-Speed Network Infrastructure has been growing at an alarming rate. We will focus on TCP/IP most heavily because it is the most popular protocol suite in use on both Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs). We define a network as a collection of hosts that are able to communicate with each other. However. End-user applications and files are growing in size and number. you shouldn't think of written protocols here. 4 Mbps (Million bits per second) Token Ring and 10 Mbps Ethernet shared networks were the norm. Now they can’t keep up with the growing demands from end-users. for instance. Token Ring uses a . often by relying on the services of a number of dedicated hosts that relay data between the participants. Communication is impossible without some sort of language or code. please see What is a LAN? One of the early types of networking topologies was Token Ring. but is still useful in a variety of situations. Documentation for these cards is generally available in the /usr/src/linux /Documentation/networking/ directory of the Linux kernel source. the protocols used in computer networks are nothing but very strict rules for the exchange of messages between two or more hosts. The IPX protocol is used most commonly in the Novell NetWare environment and we'll describe how to use it to connect your Linux machine into a Novell network. The arguments passed to the loadable modules will be different and some drivers may not support more than one card. Each of these protocols are networking protocols and are used to carry data between host computers.We will describe three types of networks in this guide. one can also think of X terminals or intelligent printers as hosts. but just about everything else is the same. such as the Internet. Other Network Types Most other network types are configured similarly to Ethernet. This is an introduction to networking terminology and network infrastructure. In a very similar fashion. Small agglomerations of hosts are also called sites. these languages are collectively referred to as protocols. It is less common today. We will also take a look at UUCP and IPX. UUCP was once commonly used to transport news and mail messages over dialup telephone connections. We'll discuss how they are used and introduce you to their underlying principles. Hosts are often computers. In computer networks. Network Introduction Data Networking continues to evolve. but need not be. For an introduction to Local Area Networks (LANs).

Originally. FDDI uses a token passing access method and is usually configured in a ring topology.000 meters over Multi-mode cable. FDDI provides data transport at 100Mbps. FDDI networks required fiber-optic cable. and the distance limitation is 100 meters. (To learn more about ring topologies. Because each station can send a packet at any time. called 10BASE-T. Ethernet can support both bus and star topologies. Fast Ethernet is 10 times faster than 10 Base-T. from one station to another in a ring topology. The packet continues to travel around the ring until it returns to the sending station. 100BASE-T consists of twisted-pair cabling similar to 10Base-T except the cables have to be of a higher quality to transmit the data reliably. 10 Gigabit Ethernet will primarily be used for backbone applications. When the packet passes by the station it is addressed to. Gigabit Ethernet can use either Category 5 twisted-pair cable or fiberoptic cable to transmit the signals. Originally. called a token. a segment of network that links several individual LANs together in building or campus environments. FDDI is used primarily as a backbone. The newest version of Ethernet is called Gigabit Ethernet and it can transmit data at 1000Mbps. In token passing. 100Base-FX is Fast Ethernet that runs over fiber-optic cabling. Two of the common types of Fast Ethernet are 100Base-T and 100Base-FX. Another popular network technology is Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). (To learn more about bus and star topologies. which makes use of a central hub or switch through which all information is passed. Soon. collisions between packets are prevented by assuring that only one station can transmit at any given time. which travels in one direction around the ring. This is accomplished by passing a special packet. but now twisted-pair cables (similar to telephone wires) are more common. but today they can accommodate twisted-pair cable as well. All stations on the network are connected to the hub or switch and can "sense" packets as they are sent across the wire. it is copied.token passing access method. please see What is a LAN?) The most popular is the star topology. it can transmit a packet. One of the most common types of networks is Ethernet. These are common and are corrected . 10 Gigabit Ethernet will be available. It will only use fiber-optic cables. Fiberoptic cable is still preferred in many FDDI networks because it can be used over much greater distances than twisted-pair cable. One version of Ethernet. Another version. collisions between packets do occur. Fiber-optic cables are used for higher speeds and greater distances than copper wires are capable of providing. consists of twisted-pair cables and can transmit data at 10Mbps (10 million bits per second). please see What is a LAN?) When a station gets the token. The fiber-optic cable extends the distance to 2. which removes it and sends the token on to the next station on the ring. Ethernet cables were coaxial (similar to cable TV wires).

For example. They contain user ports into which each station's cable is connected. All of these hubs can be linked together to broaden the network. . as the term implies. enabled. other more complex devices are used. Routers . it can switch packets between them as needed.instantaneously. an Ethernet bridge connects two physical Ethernet cables and forwards from one cable to the other exactly those packets that are not local. a single unit with a fixed number of ports. Hubs (also referred to as repeaters or concentrators) are a very important part of the networking process. • • • Bridge . but like the stackable hubs they can be managed as a single unit. They differ from IP Gateways or IP Routers because they use physical addresses instead of IP addresses. There are three different types of hubs: • • • A stand-alone hub is. FDDI or Token Ring segment. Switches . Stand-alone hubs usually include some method of linking them to other stand-alone hubs. In effect. The chassis links the modules together with an internal backplane and handles the management of individual modules.device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets among them. Many hubs are called intelligent. simplicity and low cost has won the war of the LAN.devices with multiple ports. each of which can support an entire Ethernet. When they are linked together. Bridges differ from repeaters because bridges store and forward complete packets while repeaters forward electrical signals. This means that a router must be able to recognize all of the different Network Layer Protocols that may be used on the networks it is linking together. which make use of structured wiring to connect stations on a LAN.use Network Layer Protocol Information within each packet to route it from one LAN to another. Usually. usually joined by short lengths of cable. Ethernet networks are replacing Token Ring and FDDI networks daily. In order to create an internetwork (linking LANs together). monitored. Many sites are migrating their legacy networks to Ethernet. bridges operate at the physical network level. they can be managed as a single unit. which means that each of the ports on the hub can be configured. A stackable hub looks and acts like a stand-alone hub except that several of them can be stacked together. Ethernet with its speed. Modular hubs consist of a chassis and the modules that go into the chassis. With a different segment connected to each of the ports. or manageable. A modular hub consists of modules that each act like a stand-alone hub. Hubs are wiring concentrators. and disabled by a network operator from a hub management console.

Physical addresses. Some use Gigabit links to interconnect them and to uplink them to backbone switches. Layer 3 switching (The Network Layer) and all of its related terms (e. Comparable to an unmanaged hub. power user or workgroup. along with Layer 2 switching and many high level protocols. It proficiently manages network traffic by reducing media sharing. be it a server. Most hardware devices are permanently assigned this number during the manufacturing process. while at the same time facilitating the migration to faster networks. Backbone Switch or Core Switch: Usually support Layer 3 switching. There are many different types of Switches. Unmanaged switches are inexpensive. but they usually aren’t very smart—that is. Switching increases network performance. Chassis Switch. adds and changes. they don’t look at the data packet very closely to learn anything more about where it’s headed. is based on the switch concept. Layer 3 switching attempts to reduce the performance bottlenecks associated with traditional routers. some common examples are: • • • • Unmanaged switch: These switches come in many port varieties. also known as link-layer.g. Switches operating at Layer 2 are very fast because they’re just sorting physical addresses. hardware. Anywhere from 4 to 24 ports. Switching technology is increasing the efficiency and speed of networks. It sends information directly from the port of origin to only its destination port. IP switching. traffic is contained to the segment for which it is destined. Switching directs network traffic in a very efficient manner.) was introduced as the router-killer. Layer 2 switches (The Data-Link Layer) operate using physical network addresses. enhances flexibility and eases moves. except provide management of the unit. The Chassis have blades similar to high-end routers. routing switches. It allows a stack of switches to only use one IP address for management. multilayer switching.a switch acts like a very fast multi-port bridge because packets are filtered based on the destination address. or MAC-layer addresses. identify individual devices. This technology is making current systems more powerful. Switches are starting to replace hubs and routers in many installations. A new network technology. but lack features for management. except they have the speed of a switch. Switching establishes a direct line of communication between two ports and maintains multiple simultaneous links between various ports. So you can mix and match different interfaces for connecting different types of networks together. Stackable switch: Usually has a proprietary cable to interconnect them together. Sometimes provide Gigabit ports to uplink to larger backbone switches. Workgroup switch: Similar to unmanaged switch. etc. Layer 3 switches use network or IP addresses that identify . called Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).

They read network addresses more closely than Layer 2 switches—they identify network locations as well as the physical device. they may not be as fast if their algorithms. Layer 4 (The Transport Layer) of the OSI Model coordinates communications between systems. creating a broadcast domain. Full-duplex does not require collision detection. a location in a computer’s memory. When a single LAN station is connected to a switched port it may operate in fullduplex mode. Second. Layer 4 switches make packet-forwarding decisions based not only on the MAC address and IP address. Layer 4 switches are capable of identifying which application protocols (HTTP. Stations physically attach to this bus through a hub. they both must stop transmission and try again later. Every station is capable of receiving all transmissions from all stations. This security feature is often reinforced with traffic filtering and forwarding features. Hubs vs. In an Ethernet environment.locations on the network. or even a different packet of data traveling through a network. (Hubs between a workgroup and a switch will not run full-duplex. if two nodes begin speaking at the same time.or industry-specific protocols can be confined to only authorized switched ports or users. and Ethernet LAN will not transfer any other information until that packet reaches its endpoint. once a packet is sent from a node. This means stations cannot send and receive data simultaneously. but also on the application to which a packet belongs. there is a suspension of MAC protocols. Nodes on an Ethernet network transmit information following a simple rule: they listen before speaking. and therefore no collisions will be encountered. SMTP. Though this manages packet collisions. First. and processor don’t support high speeds. with different forwarding rules for low-priority packets such as generic HTTP-based Internet traffic. it increases transmission time in two ways. you can assign a high priority to packets belonging to vital in-house applications such as Smartstream. FTP. Full-duplex switching enables traffic to be sent and received simultaneously. repeater or concentrator. This is what slows up networks. and so forth) are included with each packet. But although they’re smarter. because the hub is governed by collision detection requirements. and they use this information to hand off the packet to the appropriate higher-layer software. fabric. The workgroup . only one node on the segment is allowed to transmit at any time due to the CSMA/CD protocol (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection). Switches Traditional Ethernet LANs run at 10Mbps over a common bus-type design. Layer 4 switches also provide an effective wire-speed security shield for your network because any company. Countless hours have been lost waiting for a LAN to free up. Switches operating at Layer 3 are smarter than Layer 2 devices and incorporate routing functions to actively calculate the best way to send a packet to its destination. but only in a half-duplex mode. Because Layer 4 devices enable you to establish priorities for network traffic based on application. A location can be a LAN workstation. A single device resides on that port. the information collides.

It is actually a collection of multiple networks. Types of Wireless Networks WLANS: Wireless Local Area Networks . A virtual LAN. and the client would be able to take advantage of this service in a convenient location. An Ethernet VLAN can be established through software. Also a switch can operate in full-duplex mode. cafeterias. A switched virtual LAN is a broadcast domain connecting a group of LANs at wire speed. The switch is capable of 2400Mbps or 2. Traffic between virtual LANs is filtered. determined by administrative controls.8 Gbps. but it is not. appears to be one large network. Ethernet switches have evolved from creating VLANs based on port assignment. allowing a network administrator to group a number of switch ports into a high bandwidth. this is beneficial to both the provider and the client. away from the office or home. Wireless networking can prove to be very useful in public places – libraries. A switch can control and regulate traffic of a number of networks (creating a virtual LAN). They can now create VLANs based on MAC addressing and network addressing. low-latency switched workgroup. but it cannot connect a user on one VLAN with a user on another. The provider would offer the service for a charge – probably on a pay per use system.connected to the hub is unswitched Ethernet). guest houses. or VLAN. The bottom line is a 24 port 100Mbps hub is only capable of sharing the full 100Mbps with all 24-ports. From a financial point of view. logically they are separate. This enables VLANs to be divided into closed logical user groups. Virtual LANs (VLANs) When something is virtual it appears to be real. so it has a theoretical throughput of 4800Mbps or 4. VLANs function on a bridge architecture. secured and managed by a router at the software level. While at the same time a 24-port 100Mbps Switch has 24 individual 100Mbps ports. separate from the virtual LAN switching logic. each virtual LAN gets a unique network number. While these networks are physically connected.16Mbps for each port. hotels. A router is required for that kind of connection. A drawback of wireless Internet is that the QoS (Quality of Service) is not guaranteed and if there is any interference with the link then the connection may be dropped. The protocol of each can be different. called subnets. switching and transmitting data by media access control (MAC) source and destination addresses. and schools are all places where one might find wireless access to the Internet. For network management identification purposes.4 Gigabits per second. which averages out to 4.

Numerous businesses and Web sites have promoted "peer to peer" technology as the future of Internet networking. WMANS: Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks This technology allows the connection of multiple networks in a metropolitan area such as different buildings in a city.htm Introduction to Peer to Peer (P2P) Networks and Software Systems P2P networking has generated tremendous interest worldwide among both Internet surfers and computer networking professionals. However. P2P file sharing software has also created much controversy over legality and "fair use. given that they do not need access to network resources. such as cities or countries. Although they have actually existed for many years. experts disagree on various details of P2P and precisely how it will evolve in the future. P2P technologies promise to radically change the future of networking." In general. Webopedia defines P2P as "A type of network in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. These types of systems are referred to as 2G (2nd Generation) systems. via multiple satellite systems or antenna sites looked after by an ISP. P2P software systems like Kazaa and Napster rank amongst the most popular software applications ever. IR requires a direct line of site and the range is less. WPANS: Wireless Personal Area Networks The two current technologies for wireless personal area networks are Infra Red (IR) and Bluetooth (IEEE 802.WLANS allow users in a local area. to form a network or gain access to the internet. WWANS: Wireless Wide Area Networks These types of networks can be maintained over large areas.com/od/p2ppeertopeer/a/p2pintroduction. Below is a table indicating the range that wireless data networks can handle: Metres 0-10 0-100 0-10000 Network Personal Area Network Local Area Network Wide Area Network http://compnetworking. These will allow the connectivity of personal devices within an area of about 30 feet.15).about. such as a university campus or library. A temporary network can be formed by a small number of users without the need of an access point. which can be an alternative or backup to laying copper or fibre cabling. . Traditional Peer to Peer Networks The P2P acronym technically stands for peer to peer.

In a Peer-to-Peer networking configuration. as well as ensuring security across the network. printers.Michael Furdyk What is a Network? A network is simply a group of two or more Personal Computers linked together. .Ultimate Guide to Networking: Part One BY:. and is only practical for workgroups of a dozen or less computers. Protocol specifies a common set of rules and signals the computers on the network use to communicate. because it offers both affordability (around $20-30 for a network card. computers are farther apart and are connected via telephone/communication lines. Each PC in a LAN is able to access shared files and devices anywhere on the LAN. which is usually refered to as Fast Ethernet. For large businesses. and star. The affordable price and added convienence of having a LAN has made it commonplace to see networks in many homes and offices. and computers simply connect with eachother in a workgroup to share files. file sharing. You can check out a figure showing the three common types of network topologies here. This is most commonly found in home configurations. Common topologies are a bus. This makes the sharing of expensive devices. mail (including e-mail). and $80 for an 8-port hub) and decent performance. there is usually an NT Domain Controller. Local-Area Networks Originally. including centrally routed Internet Access. a cost-effective alternative to purchasing a device for every user. prices have rapidly dropped as new technology has developed. This is most commonly found in corporate configurations. 10Base-T is used mostly for home and small office networks. We recommend Ethernet for both home and office networking. ring. If you decide to use Ethernet for your LAN (which we recommend you do). In a client/server network. a 100Base-T solution may be required if there are a large number of PCs connected to the network. How are Networks Categorized? Networks are usually classified using three properties: Topology. or other means of connection. only medium to large-sized businesses could afford the cost of networking hardware. an office or home). but the most common types of networks are Local-Area Networks (LANs). Architecture refers to one of the two major types of network architecture: Peer-to-peer or client/server. What Types of Networks Exist? Many types of networks exist. Topology specifies the geometric arrangement of the network. or 100 Mbps). which all of the computers log on to. such as laser printers or large removable storage drives. or if large amounts of data is frequently transferred. Protocol. radio waves. In a WAN. computers are connected together within a "local" area (for example. In the last decade. there is no server. but some networks may use IBM's Token Ring protocol. and Internet access. Most networks use Ethernet. In a LAN. and Architecture. and printer access. and Wide-Area Networks (WANs). and it is now possible to grab a basic 4-PC 10Base-T home networking kit for under $150. This server can provide various services. you can choose from 10Base-T (10 million bits per second. where network security is essential. or 10 Mbps) or 100Base-T (100 million bits per second.

The hub manages receiving and transmitting data from networked devices. Each port supports a single 10Base-T connection from a PC or peripheral. Standalone hubs usually include some method of linking them to other standalone hubs for network expansion. and Standard Hubs. but is more expensive. you need to make sure your hub can handle network expansion. so we suggest the cheaper UTP. Since you will probably purchase a standard hub. they act like a modular hub. or 12 port hub. If you're using Coaxial cable. which is run directly from each computer to a port on the hub. which allow advanced configuration of Hub properties via a software package. The other two types are coaxial and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP). Standalone Hubs Standalone hubs are single products with a number of ports. Stackable Hubs Stackable hubs work just like standalone hubs. and usually used for home or small office networks. usually by short lengths of cable. . Standard Hubs When thinking about what type of Standard Hub you want to purchase. When they are connected together. Hubs come in many different port configurations. or offices. but realize that your LAN will grow. departments. unlike Twisted Pair. STP cable provides more shielding against outside Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) than UTP. but you will probably need a 4. independent workgroups. a hardware device that all PCs on a network are connected to by cabling. There are both Manageable Hubs. and must be run in a ring configuration. We recommend purchasing a standard hub. We've never had any problems with EMI. Coaxial uses much thicker and more expensive cable. typically with fewer than 12 users per LAN. except that several of them can be "stacked" (connected) together. which are cheaper. making wiring more convienent in most cases. Standalone hubs are usually the least expensive type of hub. depending on the number of PCs you want to connect together. and the one we recommend because of its wide availibility and low price. Ethernet networks require a Hub. we'll discuss the three types of standard hubs next. since the extra features included in Manageable Hubs are not useful for a home or small office network. These hubs are ideal if you want to start with a minimal investment. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) is the most popular type of cabling. because they can be managed as a single unit. you need to find a hub with one Coaxial port and minimal Twisted Pair ports. from PC to PC.There are three different types of cabling for Ethernet networks. Will you be adding many more devices to your network? If so. you need to think about what you will be doing with your network in the near future. 8. and are best suited for small.

A modular hub is purchased as a chassis. Bridges can also be used for this purpose. There are many companies that have LANs at various offices across the world. hubs and hubs. it is not forwarded. and Switches Bridges and routers are devices used for linking different LANs or LAN segments together. it is connected to a different bridge port and forwarded to that port. each of which accepts a communications card.Modular Hubs Modular hubs are popular in networks because they are easily expanded and always have a management option. like coaxial or token ring. Bridges Bridges are simpler and less expensive then routers. like routers. we'll take a look at other types of network hardware. Routers were originally developed to allow connection of remote LANs across a wide area network (WAN). . a Modular hub will probably fit your needs more efficiently. bridges. Filtering is done based on the destination address of the packet. If a packet's destination is a station on the same segment where it originated. and stations connected to a single LAN. Modules supporting different types of network cabling. a user on one LAN can access resources on the other LAN as if they were on the local LAN. If it is destined for a station on another LAN. Courtesy of Bay Networks There are maximums on distances between workstations and hubs. You can exceed these maximums by linking two LAN segments (groups of users/devices) together using a Bridge or Router. Bridges make a simple do/don't decision on which packets to send across two segments they connect. For a medium to large sized company. Routers. Bridges. and switches. or module. can also be purchased. Sample Network Layout With a LAN Switch. Next. and usually has 12 twisted pair ports. or card cage. you will probably want to purchase a standalone or stackable hub. By setting up routers or bridges on two different lans LANs and connecting them together. with multiple card slots. Each module acts like a standalone hub. If you are building a home or small office network.

it can switch packets between LANs as needed. and communicate with each other and share information that allows them to determine the best route through a complex network of many LANs. . each of which can support either a single station or an entire Ethernet or Token Ring LAN. With a different LAN connected to each of the ports.Routers Routers are more complex and more expensive than bridges. A switch has multiple ports. Switches Switches are another type of device used to link several LANs and route packets between them. They use information within each packet to route it from one LAN to another.

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