PHYSIOLOGY OF HYDROTHERAPY

“When

he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay.” John 9:6

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Table of Contents
Physiology of Hydrotherapy Table of Contents History of Hydrotherapy Physiological Basis of Hydrotherapy Treatments Treatment Expectations Hydro in the Bible Why use water? Lab activity God’s use of Hydrotherapy Van’t Hoff’s Law Lab activity Signs of illness Lab activity Review Physical Properties of H20 Lab activity Spirit of Prophecy on Hydrotherapy Points to Remember Hydrotherapy Treatment Procedures Contrast Baths Hot Foot Bath Heating Compress Hot Blanket Pack Wet Sheet Packs Fomentations General Revulsive to Chest or Abdomen Temperature Range Lab activity Body Temperature Control Treatment Points to Observe Blood and its circulation What is in the Blood? How to improve your blood Lab activity Fevers Infectious Fevers Hydrotherapy & Malaria Charcoal and Herbal Poultices Charcoal Green Leaf Poultice The Use of Charcoal as a Remedy Dehydration & Rehydration i ii 1 2 4 5 5 6 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 12 15 16 16 17 19 22 23 28 31 34 34 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 37 40 41 41 46 47 54

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History of Hydrotherapy
Jer 31:3 The LORD hath appeared of old unto me, [saying], Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn thee. Te 242 An Effective Entering Wedge.--I have been informed by my guide that not only should those who believe the truth practice health reform but they should also teach it diligently to others; for it will be an agency through which the truth can be presented to the attention of unbelievers. They will reason that if we have such sound ideas in regard to health and temperance, there must be something in our religious belief that is worth investigation. If we backslide in health reform we shall lose much of our influence with the outside world. 7BC 938 Water wisely applied, is a most powerful remedy…Natural means, used in accordance with God’s will, bring about supernatural results.

Of all the home treatments, hydrotherapy is the oldest, the most popular and the most useful. Like all of the true remedies, hydrotherapy requires more skill, effort, and patience than do many other forms of therapy. The skill required is not so great that all can, with diligence and patience, master it. The rewards of healing under God's special blessing is very great from hydrotherapy. DEFINITION – The definition of hydrotherapy given in the World Book Encyclopedia copyright 1948 is: Hydrotherapy is a method of treating disease by using water at different temperatures and in different ways. The water may be swallowed, or injected into body cavities, or applied to the outside of the body by baths or pads. Where does Hydrotherapy come from? Hydro – water; therapy – treatment {LOOK UP} – The History of Hydrotherapy  Egypt  Greece  Roman use of water  George Washington BEFORE SIN God Man AFTER SIN Men Ideas Ungodly people Drug, Sx, Chemo, Rad, Meds God Law Gods people Natural Laws; Hydrotherapy

Water treatment is like gravity. It’s a law that cannot be broken. The history of hydrotherapy probably goes as far back as human history. A form of self-prescribed and self-administered hydrotherapy that most small boys on hot days have experienced is a plunge or a swim in cold water. The invigorating effect of cold water is well known. The ancient Romans built and used

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public bath houses for therapeutic purposes. The encyclopedia mentioned famous locations in Europe where hydrotherapy was used such as Marienbad, Carlsbad, Ems, Vichy, and Bath. The famous hydrotherapy places that the encyclopedia said people visited in the United States included Mount Clemens and Battle Creek, Michigan; Hot Springs, Ark.; Hot Springs, Va.; Colorado Springs, Colo.; Seratoga Springs, N.Y.; French Lick and West Baden, Ind. Doctors Calvin and Agatha Thrash, in their book Home Remedies copyright 1981, mention in their chapter on the history of hydrotherapy that for years hydrotherapy has been a respected method of treatment in the United States. It was recognized that the Brand Bath (spraying and sponging with cold water accompanied by vigorous rubbing) was considered very useful in the treatment of typoid fever in 1927. It was recognized as "powerfully stimulating to the nervous system, fortifying the patient to conquer the infection." It was felt that the benefits accrued through the circulatory system, the immune mechanisms and the neuromuscular system. What history tells us is that hydrotherapy is an ancient and popular therapeutic modality.

Physiological Basis of Hydrotherapy Treatments
Water has a number of unique physical properties that makes it especially well suited to be a therapeutic agent. Water has the greatest specific heat of any common substance. That means that it takes more energy to change the temperature of water than that of any other common substance. This means that water can store more energy in itself than other common substances. Yet at one and the same time water is a good conductor of heat energy. This means that anything put in water will be powerfully influenced with respect to temperature because water is such a good conductor of heat energy. Water will conduct heat 27 times more effectively than air. Water shares a property with air, in that it completely envelops and surrounds intimately anything immersed in it. Water is completely compatible with the human body, in fact the human body contains about 75% water. This means that the human body cannot be allergic or be irritated by water and that the heat conduction properties of the body and water are similar because the body contains such a high percentage of water. Finally water is the universal solvent. Just about anything will dissolve in water. This means that water is just about the most powerful cleaning agent we have. And in spite of all these special qualities of water it is probably the most easily available and therefore the cheapest commodity known to mankind still today. In summary: the three most important properties of water from a treatment standpoint are: 1. Water is non-irritating, non-allergic, and totally compatible with human physiology both inside and outside of the body. 2. Water is heat conducting and at the same time greatly heat storing in capacity so that it is the ideal agent for manipulating body temperature. 3. Water is totally conformable to the body surfaces. This means that it makes an intimate interface with whatever it comes in contact, which greatly facilitates its ability to affect the temperature the object it contacts. 4. Water is inexpensive in spite of all its marvellous properties. The affect on the human body depends upon how water is administered. Basically there are two different routes of administration: internally and externally on the body surface. Today, we usually only think of hydrotherapy in terms of external body surface administration of water. The internal

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administration of water we usually today think of in terms of general health principles e.g. drinking 6 - 8 glasses of water a day or we think of internal administration of water solutions as hydration therapy rather than hydrotherapy even though water is being used. Such re-hydration therapies are: enemas or subcutaneous or body cavity (e.g. periotenal) infusions or intravenous rehydration which is the most commonly used today. This restricted use of the term hydrotherapy is a recent trend. Specialization has influenced our thinking. However the use of water as a true remedy includes both internal and external use of water. However in our present setting we will confine our discussion and consideration of external forms of hydrotherapy only. How water affects the body when applied to the body surface: 1. Water is absorbed to some degree directly through the skin. When minute amounts of the substance applied to the skin are desired, then skin application is one way of getting substances into the body. However for large volume requirements e.g. for body fluid rehydration needs, skin absorption is of limited value because such small amounts of fluid is absorbed directly through the skin. Certainly this is a useful way of limiting the loss of water through the skin. Loss of water through the skin is through perspiration, commonly known as sweating. When the body is immersed in water, fluid loss by sweating is stopped and a small amount of fluid is absorbed while none is lost through the skin. Body fluid loss by sweat is very variable and depends upon body activity and temperature. Sweating is one of the main temperature regulatory mechanisms that the body has. The common figure used for fluid requirements of the body for an average sized person at rest is three quarts of fluid needed a day. Some of this fluid is taken in food, but most of the daily fluid requirements should be taken in the form of water. 2. Water maximally affects the temperature of the body because of its high specific heat and heat conductivity properites. Because of the body's homeostasis mechanisms, the whole body physiology is affected through the temperature affect of water. 3. Water profoundly affects the nervous system of the body. This is due to two factors. First of all the largest organ of the body is the skin. It is to the skin that hydrotherapy is applied. The skin is not only a vast organ in size, but is richly supplied by nerve endings which means that the central nervous system receives an overwhelming sensory input with the application of hydrotherapy. 4. Water affects the mood of the person. This is unavoidable given the size and intensity of the sensory input the individual gets through hydrotherapy. 5. Blood flow is profoundly affected, locally and reflexly throughout the body. With the application of heat, the blood vessels and capillaries dilate and blood is brought to the body part. When cold is applied to the skin, the vessels constrict and blood is dispelled from the body part. The affect of alternate hot and cold is that of an efficient local blood pump. Wastes are removed from the body part and new blood and nutrients are brought in by the blood. In addition cold has the effect of multiplying the number of white blood cells which are responsible for fighting infection. 6. Water thus has a major affect of many body systems, depending upon where and how the water is applied. 7. Water has a profound affect on the local skin to which the water is applied. This is in addition to and entirely separate from
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any water that is absorbed through the local skin. These affects of water on the body surface can be summarized under three headings: 1. Local affects e.g. hydration, cleansing on the local skin. 2. Reflex effects - mediated by the nervous and circulatory systems 3. Mood or attitude affects on the person's psyche - stimulating, relaxing, soothing, feeling of wellbeing etc. Water has these varied affects in three different ways dependent upon water's physical properties: 1. Temperature/ heat conducting properties 2. Solvent / cleansing properties 3. Mind affecting properties mediated by water's fluid characteristics interfacing with the body's largest and very generously innervated organ - the skin. Thus it can be seen that it would take a lot of time and thought to detail all the specific and different ways and physiological pathways through which hydrotherapy works. Suffice it to note that hydrotherapy is using a very powerful medium, water, that has a very instant and powerful affect on body physiology. God has given us knowledge in the use of hydrotherapy that can be used to be a great blessing to the sick and suffering. May we pray for grace and energy to use the knowledge God gives us to His glory and honor.

Treatment Expectations
1. Rest and Relaxation. Because it takes time to receive (and give) a hydrotherapy treatment, rest and relaxation is a potential benefit from the treatment. If the patient relaxes and enjoys the treatment, rest, enjoyment, and relaxtion can be a rational expectation from the treatment. 2. Anti-inflammatory effects can certainly be expected. Hot and cold treatments are probably the most powerful anti-inflammatory treatments with essentially no side-effects, known to mankind. While the anti-inflammatory effects are certain, it takes other true remedies working in concert with hot and cold treatments to effect a cure for the inflammed body part, for example, tendonitis or bursitis. An unrefined, whole plant diet and general exercise such as walking, swimming, or cycline are needed to act in concert with the hot and cold to effect a permanent cure of the inflammation. 3. Anti-infectious effects of the hot and cold hydrotherapy treatments are dependent upon the body's immune system being potentiated. Mental attitude such as trust in Divine power, nutrition, rest, general exercise, internal use of water, sunlight, fresh air, cleanliness are all important in potentiating the immune system. Hydrotherapy is a very broad subject that can only be introduced in this presentation. The skillful use of water as a treatment modality is an extremely potent and useful, ancient home remedy. The physical properties of water and the fact that 75-80% of body content is water contribute to the reason for water treatments being so effective. Hydrotherapy works especially well in concert with the other true remedies such as sunlight, fresh air, hygiene, temperance, unrefined diet, rest, exercise, and trust in Divine power.

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Hydro in the Bible
OT Nahaam – He was not healed the way he was expecting. He would have done something big and mighty. But he wouldn’t have done some thing that is simple. It took faith and humility. Blind men

NT

Why use water?
CD 75 The principles of health reform are found in the word of God.. 2SM 290 An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Neh 13:2 Because they met not the children of Israel with bread and with water, but hired Balaam against them, that he should curse them: howbeit our God turned the curse into a blessing.

The idea of natural methods is not meant to be for cure it was is for prevention Water is non-toxic 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Availability – 2/3 of the earth is water Change of State – Water, Ice, Steam Solvent – It can dissolves other substances Thermic Impression – The reaction of the skin when in contact with water. Water has density/mass – to stimulate the skin Specific heat capacity – can store it Specific heat conductivity – can give it off very quickly
Isa 50:4 The Lord GOD hath given me the tongue of the learned, that I should know how to speak a word in season to [him that is] weary: he wakeneth morning by morning, he wakeneth mine ear to hear as the learned.”

Requirements for Mid-Term Paper  History  Water Properties  What diseases can we use water for?  Water temp  How the water affects the skin and the circulatory system  Bibliography The earth is 75% water. The body is 75% water as it comes from earth. 1C Merc 0C 1C Water 0C

Every 1C you drop water in temp it gives of 30C Merc 1/30C of temp every 1C Water has a great capacity to hold heat.
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Lab activity
 Russian steam bath The use of water in the treatment of disease is as old as the practice of medicine. Records of the writings of Hippocrates indicate its use as early as 450 BC. It was used extensively in the Roman baths. Interest in hydrotherapy waned during the dark ages. It is interesting to know that in 1747 John Wesley had written a booklet entitled Primitive Physick in which he discoursed on the use of water in treatment for many diseases. Vincent Priessnitz (1799-1851) is known as the father of hydrotherapy. When he was a young man, he received a serious injury from a farm animal. Being given no hope of recovery by the physicians, he decided to use hydrotherapy on himself, as he had previously used on farm animals. He made a rapid recovery. Although uneducated, he established a hydrotherapy institute in Austria. Many came to learn of his methods. Wilhem Winternitz (1835-1917) of Vienna had the first scientific understanding of water. During the mid 1850’s a number of water-cure institutes were established in this country. One of these was established in New Jersey by Dr. Thatcher Trall. He was also the editor of a popular magazine entitled “The Water Cure Journal”. This magazine did much to educate the lay people regarding the cause of disease and the preference of simple measures to drugs. Dr. James Jackson conducted another of these institutes. He took over and made famous a water cure establishment located at Danville, NY. After twenty years of practicing as a physician, he wrote: “In my entire practice I have never given a dose of medicine…I have use in the treatment of my patients the following—air, food, water, sunlight, dress, exercise, sleep, rest, social influences, and mental and moral forces.” How to Treat the Sick without Medicine p25, 26 (Fowler and Wells, NY, 1868). Ellen White received a vision on health reform on June 6, 1863, in Ostego, MI. In 1865 James White became a patient at Dr. Jackson’s place in Danville, NY. He was accompanied by his wife. They received benefits from their treatments during their three-month stay. In 1866 Adventists opened their first health facility (The Western Health Reform Institute). In 1876 Dr. J.H. Kellogg, at the age of 24, became superintendent of the institute. The name was soon changed to “Battle Creek Medical and Surgical Sanitarium” and was defined as a place where people “learn to stay well.” It rapidly became world famous. Dr. Kellogg wrote many books such as Rational Hydrotherapy. Soon after the turn of the century, an Adventist medical college was established at Loma Linda, CA. Dr. George Abbot was the first president. He wrote a number of books on hydrotherapy, some of which are still available. His books are easier to follow than Kellogg’s. Some of our notes will be from his material. In 1919 the great flu epidemic killed an estimated 25 million people. Those who received hydrotherapy and judicious nursing were the ones who survived that ordeal.

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About 1920 Simon Baruch (another pioneer hydrotherapist) wrote: “Of all the remedial agents in use since the dawn of medicine, water is the only one that has survived all the vicissitudes of doctrinal changes because its rise or fall was always contemporaneous with the rise and fall of intelligence among medical men.” Physical Medicine, 1941 by Krussen. Today we have only a few small conditioning or lifestyle centers that practice hydrotherapy. Hospitals do use some hydrotherapy (ice bags, whirlpools). Our modern hospitals do not practice hydrotherapy as in previous days. You are privileged to be among the few who will learn the art and science of hydrotherapy. Will you learn it well?

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God’s use of Hydrotherapy
Hydro: Water + Therapy: Treatment = Hydrotherapy is the use of water internally or externally in any of its three forms—solid, liquid, or vapor—in the treatment of disease or injury.
COL 331 But Christ has given us no assurance that to attain perfection of character is an easy matter. A noble, all-round character is not inherited. It does not come to us by accident. A noble character is earned by individual effort through the merits and grace of Christ. God gives the talents, the powers of the mind; we form the character. It is formed by hard, stern battles with self. Conflict after conflict must be waged against hereditary tendencies. We shall have to criticize ourselves closely, and allow not one unfavorable trait to remain uncorrected.

GODS PLAN The laws the control the body are Thermal, Mechanical, Chemical. Increases heat > raises, sweat, circulation, heart rate Decrease heat > reduce sweat, reduce circulation, reduce heart rate This is the pump action Function of the skin 1. Barrier 2. Regulate heat or temperature The three effects of hydrotherapy  Thermal  Mechanical  Chemical Losing water  Sweat  Breathing  Urine / Stool  Speech We can lose up to 2 ½ liters of water a day.

Van’t Hoff’s Law
Increase temp will increases the chemical reaction, therefore the way to you kill a virus is to speed it up, not by slowing it down, therefore we need to increase heat, using steam.

Lab activity
 Hot Foot Baths  Cold Compress  Fomentations Chronic – Long term, arthritis (Heat) Acute – twisting the ankle (Ice)

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S - Swollen H - Heat R - Red P – Pain Write the experience of the Hot Foot Bath
CE 16 Health is a great treasure. It is the richest possession mortals can have. Wealth, honor, or learning is dearly purchased, if it be at the loss of the vigor of health. None of these attainments can secure happiness if health is wanting. It is a terrible sin to abuse the health God has given us. Every abuse of health enfeebles for life, and makes us losers, even if we gain any amount of education.

Signs of illness
Check for signs, without the patient’s knowledge because sometimes if they know that you are looking, they may tend to exaggerate. Things to check;        Gums Teeth Mouth Skin Apatite Sleepless Temperature

Bad breath comes from the stomach – Check the digestion and the intestines. 5000 – WBC – Health Person P Tx 10,000 – WBC 40-50 K – WBC – After resting for 30 mins p95-99 – Test is on these pages.
Phil 2:3-5 [3] [Let] nothing [be done] through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves.[4] Look not every man on his own things, but every man also on the things of others. [5] Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus:

Lab activity
Hot foot bath and wet Sheet Pack
COL 69 Christ is waiting with longing desire for the manifestation of Himself in His church. When the character of Christ shall be perfectly reproduced in His people, then He will come to claim them as His own. MH 409 Like our Saviour, we are in this world to do service for God. We are here to become like God in character, and by a life of service to reveal Him to the world. In order to be co-workers with God, in order to become like Him and to reveal His character, we must know Him aright. We must know Him as He reveals Himself. RH, April 3, 1900 par. 1 impulse to help and bless others springs constantly from within; when the sunshine of heaven fills the heart, and is expressed in the countenance. There is no such thing as a

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loveless Christian. It is not possible for the heart in which Christ abides to be destitute of love. The heart that is cold and stern is not catching the bright, softening beams of the Sun of Righteousness.

Review
Acute - Ice Chronic – Hot water S - Swelling H - Heat R - Redness P - Pain

Physical Properties of H20
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Abundance and Ability Change of State Solubility Thermo impression Water density and mass Capacity Conductivity

To help someone when using ice we need to remember the follow steps; R - Rest I - Ice C - Compression E - Elevation

Lab activity
Heating compressing p29 Water is such a valuable therapeutic agent because of nine remarkable properties: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Nearly always available, abundant, and cheap Great power for absorbing and releasing heat Solvent properties, water being the one universal solvent Easy to Apply Non-irritating (even internally) Proper Density for Buoyancy Water gives up heat rapidly, yet it doesn’t cool too rapidly Proper Viscosity (fluidity) Exists in three states at useful temperatures

Hydrotherapy and the body: The body is very sensitive to changes in temperature. Hydrotherapy may be used to: 1. Move blood from one area of the body to another (ex. Hot Foot Bath) 2. Relieve congestion 3. Increase circulation (generally and to specific areas)
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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Stimulate the immune system (white blood cells multiply and become more active) Raise the body temperature Help release heat from the body in case of fever Help remove toxins from the body (sweating) Promote relaxation and rest Reduce pain Open airways Promote rapid healing of tissues

PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HOT AND COLD WATER TREATMENTS HEAT Increases blood flow Increases the inflammatory response Increases edema production Increases hemorrhage Decreases muscle pain and spasm Decreases stiffness in arthritis COLD Decreases blood flow Decreases the inflammatory response Decreases edema production Decreases hemorrhage Decreases muscle pain and spasm Increases stiffness in arthritis

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Spirit of Prophecy on Hydrotherapy
MH 237 There are many ways in which water can be applied to relieve pain and check disease. All should become intelligent in its use in simple home treatments.

Who should know how to give hydrotherapy treatments?
MH 146 All gospel workers should know how to give the simple treatments that do so much to relieve pain and remove disease. MH 237 In health and in sickness, pure water is one of heaven's choicest blessings. Its proper use promotes health. It is the beverage which God provided to quench the thirst of animals and man. Drunk freely, it helps to supply the necessities of the system and assists nature to resist disease. The external application of water is one of the easiest and most satisfactory ways of regulating the circulation of the blood. A cold or cool bath is an excellent tonic. Warm baths open the pores and thus aid in the elimination of impurities. Both warm and neutral baths soothe the nerves and equalize the circulation.

But many have never learned by experience the beneficial effects of the proper use of water, and they are afraid of it. Water treatments are not appreciated as they should be, and to apply them skillfully requires work that many are unwilling to perform. But none should feel excused for ignorance or indifference on this subject. There are many ways in which water can be applied to relieve pain and check disease. All should become intelligent in its use in simple home treatments. Mothers, especially, should know how to care for their families in both health and sickness.”
7MR 378 Many suffering from fever have died as the result of the drugs administered. They might have been alive today had they been given water treatment by those competent to administer it.” MM 227 Our people should become intelligent in the treatment of sickness without the aid of poisonous drugs. . . Water treatments, wisely and skillfully given, may be the means of saving many lives. Let diligent study be united with careful treatments. Let prayers of faith be offered by the bedside of the sick. Let the sick be encouraged to claim the promises of God for themselves.”

Does daily use of hydrotherapy promote good health?
CG 108-109 Most persons would receive benefit from a cool or tepid bath every day, morning or evening. Instead of increasing the liability to take cold, a bath, properly taken, fortifies against cold because it improves the circulation; the blood is brought to the surface, and a more easy and regular flow is obtained. The mind and the body are alike invigorated. The muscles become more flexible; the intellect is made brighter. The bath is a soother of the nerves. Bathing helps the bowels, the stomach, and the liver, giving health and energy to each, and it promotes digestion.

Does God bless the use of hydrotherapy treatments?
9T 164 When in faith the human agent does all he can to combat disease, using the simple methods of treatment that God has provided, his efforts will be blessed of God.

Order and Regularity Essential
1T 604 I had for four weeks suffered much with my lungs, and it was with difficulty that I spoke to the people. Sabbath evening a fomentation was applied over my throat and lungs; but the head cap was forgotten, and the difficulty of the lungs was driven to the brain.

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MM 212 Everything connected with the Sanitarium should be neat and orderly. Neatness and order will often have more influence than mere words. In the bathroom everything should be so arranged as to make a favorable impression upon those who visit the institution. 1 Cor 14:40 Let all things be done decently and in order. PP 376 God is a God of order. Everything connected with heaven is in perfect order; subjection and thorough discipline mark the movements of the angelic host. Success can only attend order and harmonious action. God requires order and system in His work now on less than in the days of Israel. All who are working for Him are to labor intelligently, not in a careless, haphazard manner. He would have His work done with faith and exactness, that He may place the seal of His approval upon it.

For further study: 2 Selected Messages pages 279-308 & 2 Kings 5:1-14.
MM 57 Our people should become intelligent in the treatment of sickness without the aid of poisonous drugs. Many should seek to obtain the education that will enable them to combat disease in its various forms by the most simple methods. Thousands have gone down to the grave because of the use of poisonous drugs, who might have been restored to health by simple methods of treatment. Water treatments, wisely and skillfully given, may be the means of saving many lives. Let diligent study be united with careful treatments. Let prayers of faith be offered by the bedside of the sick. Let the sick be encouraged to claim the promises of God for themselves.--MS. 15, 1911. MM 308 It would be well to secure a place as a home for our mission workers outside of the city. It is of great importance that they have the advantages of pure water, free from all contamination. For this reason, it is often well to consider the advantages of locations among the hills. And there should be some land, where fruit and vegetables might be raised for the benefit of the workers. Let it be a mission in as healthful a place as possible, and let there be connected with it a small sanitarium. A place in the city should also be secured where simple treatments might be administered. MH 237 In health and in sickness, pure water is one of heaven's choicest blessings. Its proper use promotes health. It is the beverage which God provided to quench the thirst of animals and man. Drunk freely, it helps to supply the necessities of the system and assists nature to resist disease. The external application of water is one of the easiest and most satisfactory ways of regulating the circulation of the blood. A cold or cool bath is an excellent tonic. Warm baths open the pores and thus aid in the elimination of impurities. Both warm and neutral baths soothe the nerves and equalize the circulation. MH 237But many have never learned by experience the beneficial effects of the proper use of water, and they are afraid of it. Water treatments are not appreciated as they should be, and to apply them skillfully requires work that many are unwilling to perform. But none should feel excused for ignorance or indifference on this subject. There are many ways in which water can be applied to relieve pain and check disease. All should become intelligent in its use in simple home treatments. Mothers, especially, should know how to care for their families in both health and sickness. 2SM 288 The Lord has taught us that great efficacy for healing lies in a proper use of water. These treatments should be given skillfully. We have been instructed that in our treatment of the sick we should discard the use of drugs. There are simple herbs that can be used for the recovery of the sick, whose effect upon the system is very different from that of those drugs that poison the blood and endanger life.--Manuscript 73, 1908 (Manuscript entitled "Counsels Repeated"). 2SM 289 Your question is, . . . "In urgent cases, should we call in a worldly physician, because the sanitarium doctors are all so busy that they have no time to devote to outside practice?"...If the

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physicians are so busy that they cannot treat the sick outside of the institution, would it not be wiser for all to educate themselves in the use of simple remedies, than to venture to use drugs that are given a long name to hide their real qualities. Why need anyone be ignorant of God's remedies-hot-water fomentations and cold and hot compresses. It is important to become familiar with the benefit of dieting in case of sickness. All should understand what to do {for} themselves. They may call upon someone who understands nursing, but everyone should have an intelligent knowledge of the house he lives in. All should understand what to do in case of sickness. WM 326 Before there were any sanitariums among us, my husband and I began work in medical missionary lines. We would bring to our house cases that had been given up by the physicians to die. When we knew not what to do for them we would pray to God most earnestly, and He always sent His blessing. He is the mighty Healer, and He worked with us. We never had time or opportunity to take a medical course, but we had success as we moved out in the fear of God and sought Him for wisdom at every step. This gave us courage in the Lord. Thus we combined prayer and labor. We used the simple water treatments, and then tried to fasten the eyes of the patients on the Great Healer. We told them what He could do for them. If we can inspire the patients with hope, this is greatly to their advantage. We want all that have any part to act in our sanitariums to have a firm grasp on the power of the Infinite. We believe in Him and in the power of His word. When we do our best for the recovery of the sick, we may then look for Him to be with us, that we may see of His salvation. We put too little confidence in the power of the hand that rules the world.--Manuscript 49, 1908. You want to know how to use the common methods, the simple remedies of water. It is a simple power. {SW, January 23, 1902 par. 17} 3MR 365 The light which has been given me in reference to several critical cases has been represented to me as a sick child I had in charge, and in every case the directions given were, Do not apply ice to the head, but cool water; but apply hot fomentations to the bowels, stomach, and liver. This will quell the fever much sooner even than cold. The reaction after the cold applications raises the fever, in the place of killing it. This direction has been given me again and again. In some cases, the ice applications may be warrantable, but in most cases they are not advisable. If the invalid has any vitality, the system will send the blood to where the cold is, and very often the system has no power for this taxation. Some cases may endure this kind of treatment, but I greatly fear for Brother ----, if it is continued. Use hot water. In nine cases out of ten it will do a more successful work than the cold ice would do.--Letter 112a, 1897. LLM 178 Several times I have been instructed that much of the elaborate, costly machinery used in giving treatments, did not help in the work as much as is supposed. With it we do not get so good results as with the simple appliances we used in our earlier experiences. The application of water in the various simple ways is a great blessing. PC 2 The Lord has taught us that great efficacy for healing lies in a proper use of water. These treatments should be given skillfully. We have been instructed that in our treatment of the sick we should discard the use of drugs. There are simple herbs that can be used for the recovery of the sick, whose effect upon the system is very different from that of those drugs that poison the blood and endanger life…The number of our lady physicians should be increased. Care should be taken that lady nurses have the care of lady patients, and gentleman nurses of gentleman patients…I would say to our physicians, Never allow your patients to think that in the human being is power to heal the sick. You are to depend much more than you have done on the co-operation of the Great Physician in the work of healing disease. Your faith is to lay hold upon the efficacy of Christ to make effectual the effort put forth for the recovery of the sick. {PC 2.5}

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Points to Remember
GENERAL:  Have prayer with the patient.  Keep the treatment room warm and free from drafts.  Give the patient water to drink during the treatment.  Cold towels and washcloths should not be “soppy” wet. Water dripping over ears and down the body can be uncomfortable and also may lead to chilling.  The wetter a towel or washcloth is left after wringing from ice water, the colder it feels.  Be careful not to burn the patient. If the patient says the fomentation, water, or steam is too hot, add more protection, cool the water, lower the steam, etc. Each person is different and has a different heat tolerance.  Be especially careful with thin or aged persons and children. They can generally take less heat.  Be careful not to spread infections. Wash your hands before and after treatments. Wear a mask if you or the patient are contagious.  Do not apply fomentations where there is danger of hemorrhage or suspected malignancy.  If a treatment is not skillfully given the patient’s condition can be worsened.  Clean equipment with bleach or another disinfectant after each treatment. THE PATIENT:  The patient should be rested before a treatment. If he has just had exercise, let him rest long enough to reach his resting heart rate for at least ten minutes before his treatment.  Avoid giving hydrotherapy immediately after the patient has eaten a meal.  Insist that the patient rest after the treatment. POSSIBLE PROBLEMS DURING TREATMENT:  The patient cannot warm up enough or sweat: Give warm water to drink, apply more covers, place a fomentation between the buttocks and hot foot bath.  Hyperventilation occurs when the patient is losing too much carbon dioxide by breathing too rapidly or too deeply. He may feel light headed and experience numbness and tingling in his extremities. Have him breath into a paper bag until the tingling disappears.  Dizziness, faintness, or weakness can be caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure or blood sugar. Take the pulse and the blood pressure. If the blood pressure is 80/60 or below, discontinue heat applications, elevate the legs, and give a salty broth to drink.  When giving a treatment to a patient with diarrhea, be sure he has adequate electrolyte (sodium, potassium) and water replacement.

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Hydrotherapy Treatment Procedures
Contrast Baths
The contrast bath consists of immersing a body part alternately in hot and cold water. (The hot and cold water may be applied with wash cloths to body areas that cannot be easily immersed in water.) This treatment may be combined with the application of a poultice or a heating compress. The blood vessels expand or dilate with heat and contract with cold— increasing the circulation or blood flow to the treated body part. The increased blood flow [1] enhances the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the body cells and [2] hastens removal of the cell’s waste products. The result is increased cell metabolism and more rapid healing of the treated body part. Treatment Indications  Localized infections  Muscle or joint injuries  Arthritis  Headaches (contrast bath to the extremities)  Edema (swelling of a body part due to fluid retention)  Blood vessel disease of the veins or arteries to the legs and feet Treatment Precautions  Do not use very hot or very cold water in cases of loss of feeling (numbness) or blood vessel disease of the legs and feet. (Example: Diabetics)  Be careful not to spread infection; disinfect equipment after treating an open sore or wound.  Avoid treating any area where there is a tendency to bleed or hemorrhage.  Malignancies.  If the treatment is to be followed by massage to the body part, end the treatment with the hot water bath. Equipment Needed  Two large basins for the hot and cold water  Tea kettle or pitcher of hot water  Towel  Sheet or light blanket  Another basin of cold water and 2 washcloths for a cold compress to the head Treatment Procedure 1. Preparation for treatment   Have the room warm and all equipment assembled. Explain the procedure; assist the patient in preparation for treatment.

2. Treatment   Encourage confidence in the divine remedies by beginning each treatment with prayer. Begin with the hot water bath. Start with milder heat; increase the heat as tolerated. After 3 to 4 minutes—or the specified time— transfer to the cold water bath for 1/2 to 1 minute.

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  

During the treatment, keep the hot and cold baths at the desired temperature by adding hot or cold water as needed. Place a cold compress to the head if sweating occurs. Make 5 to 7 changes per treatment. Treat 1 to 4 times per day.

3. Completion of Treatment    After the last change, thoroughly dry the treated body part. If sweating occurs, dry the entire body; remove damp clothing, and dress in clean dry garments. Rest for 30 to 60 minutes after each treatment.

Specific Treatment Recommendations 1. Localized Infections, Muscle and Joint Injuries     Treat acute muscle and joint injuries with ice or cold packs, rest, and elevation of the affected body part for the first 12 to 24 hours. Begin the contrast bath treatment with water as hot as can be tolerated. Alternate from hot to cold water 5 to 7 times. End with the cold water bath. Repeat the above treatment 2 to 4 times per day.

2. Arthritis    Begin the treatment with warm water (3 to 5 minutes); then change to cool water for 1 minute. Gradually increase the hot water temperature and reduce the cold water temperature as tolerated. Alternate from hot to cold water 5 to 7 times. End with the hot water bath. Repeat the above treatment 1 to 2 times per day.

3. Decreased Circulation (Blood Flow) to the Extremities     Treat with mild heat for 3 minutes and cool water (no ice) for one minute. Test the hot water with your elbow to be certain that it is not too hot. Alternate from hot to cold water 5 to 7 times. End with the hot water bath. Repeat the above treatment 1 to 2 times per day.

Hot Foot Bath
The hot foot bath consists of placing the feet in hot water deep enough to completely cover the ankles. It may be used alone or combined with another treatment such as fomentations or the heating compress. This treatment can be used for a variety of ailments, from headaches to stomachaches. The hot foot bath affects the circulation of the entire body. Heat expands or dilates the blood vessels of the feet, which moves the blood from other body parts to the feet. The increased blood flow to the feet relieves congestion of the blood in the brain, lungs, and abdominal organs. Treatment Indications

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     

Prevent or shorten colds, chest congestion, flu or coughs Headaches and stopping nosebleeds Pelvic cramps or prostate disorders Diminish pain anywhere in the body from toothache to backache Relieve fatigue and nervous tension Warm the body in preparation for massage or some other treatment

Treatment Precautions  Use only mild heat in diabetics and others with loss of feeling (numbness) or decreased blood flow to the legs and feet.  When adding hot water, keep your hand between the hot water and the patient’s feet to avoid burning them. Equipment Needed  Foot tub—a large bucket or deep dishpan         Basin of cold water—use ice if available—for the cold compress to the head Tea kettle or pitcher of hot water Pitcher of cold water Washcloths (for the cold compress to the head)—2 Large towels—1 or 2 Blanket and a sheet Large piece of plastic to put under the foot tub (to keep bed or floor dry) Glass of water and a drinking straw

Treatment Procedure 1. Preparation for treatment      This treatment may be given with the patient sitting on a chair or lying on a flat surface. Have the room warm, free of cold drafts, and all equipment assembled. Explain the procedure to the patient, and assist the patient in preparation for treatment. This treatment will be described with the patient sitting on a chair. Place a blanket over the chair, and cover the blanket with a sheet. Put a piece of plastic under the feet, and cover the plastic with a dry towel.
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Prepare the foot bath with enough warm water to cover the ankles.

2. Treatment        Begin each treatment with the most important element—prayer. Test the water with your elbow to determine the comfort level. Put your hands under the patient’s feet and carefully immerse them in the warm water bath. Completely wrap the patient and the foot tub in the sheet and blanket. Leave the head and neck exposed. When sweating occurs, put cold compresses on the head and neck. Drink water freely throughout the treatment to replace the water lost in sweating. Periodically add hot water to the foot bath to maintain heat. Place your hand between the hot water being poured and the patient’s feet (to avoid burning the feet).

3. Completion of treatment       Lift the feet out of the hot water and point the toes upward. Quickly pour cold water over the feet. Remove the tub and place the feet on the dry towel. Thoroughly dry the feet and toes. Put on warm socks or slippers to avoid chilling. If sweating occurs, briskly rub the skin with a cold washcloth, and then dry the skin with a towel. Remove damp garments and replace them with clean, dry clothing. The patient must rest for approximately one hour after each treatment. If further sweating occurs during rest, take a lukewarm bath or shower to finish the treatment.

Heating Compress
The use of a heating compress involves the application of a cold, wet cloth— covered by a dry cloth—to a body part, which heats up the treated area. The compress consists of two parts: [1] a wet inner cotton flannel cloth or other loosely woven material of one or two thicknesses and [2] a dry outer wool cloth or other tightly woven material. The cold, wet inner cloth is applied directly to the skin surface. The dry outer cloth is then applied directly on top of the inner cloth. The outer cloth must be snuggly applied, and it must completely cover the inner cloth in order to exclude the air and heat up the compress. As the compress warms up, the heat causes the blood vessels in the skin to expand or dilate. The increased blood flow to the skin surface relieves congestion—the accumulation of blood—in the tissues below the surface of the treated part. Treatment Indications The heating compress may be used for the following conditions: Throat Tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, earache Joints Pain and inflammation of arthritis, rheumatic fever, trauma

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Chest Abdomen

Congestion or coughs from colds or flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, croup, whooping cough, asthma Constipation, hepatitis, inflammation of the small or large bowel, nausea of pregnancy, colic, difficulty sleeping, nervous conditions. The same indications as the hot foot bath.

Feet

Treatment Precautions   Do not use the cold, wet compress if the patient is not vigorous enough to warm it up; use a dry or medicated compress instead. Do not make the compress so tight that it is uncomfortable or that it interferes with the circulation or blood flow to the treated body part.

Equipment Needed    An inner cloth wide enough to completely cover the treated area and long enough to wrap completely around the body part An outer cloth wider than the inner cloth by 1/2 inch (1 to 2 centimeters) on each side Safety pins to hold the outer part of the compress in place

Treatment Procedure 1. Preparation for treatment   Have the room warm and free of cold drafts. The patient must be warm before applying the heating compress. (Give a hot foot bath, if needed, to warm the body.) Explain to the patient that the compress will be cold at first, but that it will warm up in a short time.

2. Treatment  Remember to ask the Lord’s blessing for this simple treatment.

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 Immerse the inner cloth in cold water; squeeze out all excess water.  Quickly apply the cold, wet inner cloth to the body part being treated. Immediately cover the inner cloth with the dry outer cloth. Pin the outer cloth securely in place. Check the wet, inner cloth after 30 minutes to be sure that it is warming up.   The cold, wet inner cloth may be replaced with a dry or medicated cloth. Make a medicated compress by applying a liniment or medicated salve underneath the dry inner cloth.

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Leave the compress in place for several hours or overnight. If the compress is left on overnight, it will be dry by morning.

3. Completion of treatment  In the morning, remove the compress and briskly rub the treated area with a cold washcloth.  Dry the area thoroughly. Keep the patient warm and comfortable.

Alternative Treatment Procedures Throat Joints Chest Abdomen The cold, wet inner cloth may be replaced with a charcoal poultice. For earache, apply the heating compress up close to the ears. Half of a steamed warm onion wrapped in a loosely woven cloth may be placed directly over the ear. The cold, wet inner cloth may be replaced with a charcoal poultice or a poultice of grated raw potato or cabbage. See the illustration on page 43 for the method of applying the heating compress to the chest. The cold, wet inner cloth may be replaced with a raw grated or steamed onion poultice. Place the dry outer cloth on the bed. Lay the cold, wet inner cloth on top of the dry outer cloth. Have the patient lie on top of the compress with its lower edge below the patient’s hipbones. Wrap the compress snuggly over the abdomen. The inner cloth may be replaced with a charcoal poultice. Before going to bed, put on a pair of thin, wet cotton socks. Cover them completely with a pair of dry wool socks. The feet must be warm before applying this treatment!

Feet

Heating Compress for the Chest

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1. Wrap the chest with a cool, moist flannel cloth. A sleeveless cotton undershirt may also be used. 2. Completely cover the moist compress with a dry wool or tightly woven cloth. Avoid air spaces by pinning the outer cloth securely in place. 3. Apply a heating compress to the throat. 4. Cover the entire chest and arms with a snug, long-sleeved sweater.

Hot Blanket Pack
A hot blanket pack is an application of moist heat to the whole body by means of one hot damp blanket wrapped around the body and other dry blankets wrapped over this one. Treatment Indications  Any disease in which vasodilatation and sweating are desirable  Analgesic effect  Derivative – drawing blood or lymph from a particular part of the body by increasing the blood or lymph flow in another. Treatment Precautions  People who are very weak and feeble Equipment Needed      Two or more large, fairly heavy blankets (the one to be½cottonsteamed½wooland.preferablyIf should be unavailable use cotton). One sheet Four fomentations or hot water bottles if available One basin of ice water (ice bag to heart if needed) Two towels

Treatment Procedure

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1. Preparation for Treatment       Have the room warm and free of cold drafts. Have all equipment assembled. Cover the bed with a large piece of plastic. Place a sheet over the plastic covering. Explain the treatment procedure in a quiet, pleasant manner. Assist the patient to disrobe and prepare for treatment. Fan-fold one blanket, well sprinkled with water, put in fomentation tank and steam for 15-20 minutes. (Fold to center lengthwise, then to center crosswise). Place on blanket (dry) preferably wool on treatment table. Remove hot blanket from fomentation tank and open on treatment table—over the dry blanket, just enough to allow for patient’s body.

2. Treatment          Pray! As soon as able, have patient recline on the wet blanket, wrap around snugly then do the same with the dry blanket. (Place towel around throat so blanket will not irritate. May use ice bag over heart if needed.) Fomentations or hot water bottles may be placed along the sides of the patient if available. More blankets may be placed on patient. Apply cold compress to head and renew as needed. Continue pack for 20-30 minutes. Finish with cooling measure (CMF or Contrast shower). Allow rest period. Care should be taken before moving the patient as dizziness may occur.

Wet Sheet Packs
Purpose and effects 1. To regulate body temperature 2. To reduce fever 3. To bring the body to a sweat 4. To quiet nervous system 5. To relieve internal congestion Benefits 1. 20 min. to bring down fever 2. 1hr or till person awakens—to calm nerves
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3. 2 hr. –for fever treatment effect. Treatment 1. Lay plastic on bed 2. Lay full blanket 3. (Dip in cold water and wring out) Lay evenly over blanket 4. Have person undress fully in bathroom 5. Have towel covering the front 6. Have them always face you 7. Have them lay on back on the wet sheet 3-4 inches from top of sheet 8. Have them put their arms above their head 9. Hold sheet up and slide towel out 10. Wrap sheet under arms and tuck on opposite side and tuck around closest leg 11. Make sure there aren’t air pockets 12. Have them put their arms down 13. Bring other side of sheet over and tuck around them and around the other leg 14. Bring the rt. Side of blanket over and fold and tuck on the other side of body 15. Do the same with lt. side of blanket 16. Cover with extra blankets as needed. 17. Never leave the person unattended 18. When the treatment is over loosen the blanket and sheet and then leave so they can dress. Treatment Indications  Regulation of heating and cooling in the body to control body temperature.  To cool a heated (feverish) body.  To heat the body to produce sweating.  Relaxes the nervous system.  Relieves internal congestion. Treatment Precautions (4th stage only – see below)  Diabetic patients (especially if the hot foot bath is used.)    People with severe colds or influenza. Feeble persons. Skin Eruptions.

Equipment Needed  Two blankets     One sheet One hand towel One bath towel Pail of water at 60-70 oF

Treatment Procedure

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1. Preparation for Treatment     Have the room warm and free of cold drafts. Have all equipment assembled. Cover the bed with a large piece of plastic. Place a sheet over the plastic covering. Explain the treatment procedure in a quiet, pleasant manner. Assist the patient to disrobe and prepare for treatment. Make sure that feet and body are warm beginning treatment. (By HFB or fomentation.)

2. Treatment             Key Points   May give hot foot bath while preparing for treatment Have edge of blanket on far side hang farther down than near edge. Cover lower third of pillow Pray, pray, pray!!! Place one blanket on treatment table. Have upper edge about 8 inches from head of table. Wring sheet from cold water and spread on blanket. Have patient lie on wet sheet. With patient’s arms raised, wrap sheet around body, tuck in under opposite side. Wrap sheet around leg of the same side. Lower arms, wrap opposite side of sheet over body and tuck in. Draw narrower edge of blanket over body and tuck in. Then wrap wider edge around in similar manner. Double the foot end under the feet. Place a Turkish towel around the neck. Cover with another blanket. Place HFB or fomentation to feet if necessary.

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     

Wring as dry as possible. Place upper edge of sheet a little below upper edge of blanket Shoulders 3 or 4 inches below upper edge of sheet Wrap snugly enough to come in contact with skin in all places Fold sheet over shoulders and neck, to exclude air See that the wet sheet is well covered with the dry blanket in all places To exclude air and protect skin from contact with blanket

Note: According to the degree of warming the pack undergoes, it passes through four stages: 1. Cooling or Evaporating 2. Neutral 3. Heating 4. Sweating. It is often desirable to prolong the effect of one stage. This may be done as follows: 1st stage—Cooling Before the sheet has been warmed to body temperature (5-12 minutes) the blanket may be folded back and cold water sprinkled on the sheet over the patient. The patient may be fanned to hasten evaporation and more water sprinkled on. Effects: A powerful antipyretic. 2nd stage—Neutral Begins when the temperature of the pack reaches or slightly exceeds that of the skin (about 94 oF). May be prolonged by removing some of the dry coverings after the warming up has well begun. To conclude, uncover one part at a time, dry thoroughly and cover with a warmed sheet. Effects: Marked sedative effect, induces relaxation and sleep. Useful for insomnia, mania, convulsions, restlessness, nervous exhaustion, nervous indigestion, and hypopepsia. 3rd stage—Heating This stage begins when the skin temperature rises slightly and ends with the beginning of general perspiration. Tonic and heating effects may be prolonged by applying cold water to the head and neck continuously to check excessive sweating. For tonic effects the pack should continue about 20 minutes. Effects: Mild tonic and derivative effects. 4th stage—Sweating or Eliminative

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Sweating may be increased by additional coverings, hot water bottles or fomentations placed within the folds of the dry blanket, drinking of hot water or lemonade. Cold compresses on head should not be very cold or renewed too frequently. Effects: A very valuable eliminative and spoliative measure. Useful for alcoholism, nicotine poisoning, selected cases of chronic nephritis, and gout; transient fevers in infants and children; bronchitis; common colds; influenza; jaundice measles and scarlet fever (to help develop the eruption). Hot Evaporating Sheet The hot evaporating sheet is used in cases in which there are signs of decreased heat elimination. There may be cold skin, goose flesh and shivering, and elevated temperature. It is especially valuable in cases in which the patient is nervous, and dreads the contact with cold water. Treatment Procedure 1. Preparation for Treatment     Have the room warm and free of cold drafts. Have all equipment assembled. Cover the bed with a large piece of plastic. Place a sheet over the plastic covering. Explain the treatment procedure in a quiet, pleasant manner. Assist the patient to disrobe and prepare for treatment. Make sure that feet and body are warm beginning treatment. (By HFB or fomentation.)

2. Treatment        Remember to grasp the hand of the Almighty by prayer! The sheet is wrung from hot water, 110-140 oF (55-60 oC). Plastic or rubber gloves should be used. The patient is wrapped in the sheet the same way as the wet sheet pack. Repeat steps 1 and 2 in five to eight minutes or as soon as chilly sensations are felt. Gentle friction may be applied as the sheet is cooled. Evaporation may be stimulated by fanning if desired. Steps 1-5 may be kept up for an hour or two until the fever is lowered several degrees.

Additional Comments The purpose of the treatment is to obtain the combined effects of heat and cold. The impression of heat which lasts for a few seconds at the beginning produces an atonic thermic reaction,

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diminishing heat production, and preparing the way for the largest benefit to be derived from the cold impression which quickly follows as the sheet is cooled by rapid evaporation.

Fomentations
A fomentation is the application of a hot, wet cloth or towel to a body part. Fomentations are highly effective; they can be used to treat a variety of diseases. Each hot application is usually followed by a brief, cold application to the treated body part. (The cold may be omitted when treating pleurisy, kidney stones, and painful menstruation.) Fomentations benefit the body in the following ways:  Increase the circulation of the germ-fighting white blood cells  Help remove body wastes through the skin by increased sweating  Relieve pain in the nerves, muscles, joints, and internal organs  Reduce congestion of the internal organs by increasing blood flow to the skin surface Treatment Indications  Chest congestion in colds or flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, and pleurisy      To heal and to improve the function of the internal organs Painful nerves (neuralgia) Painful muscles and joints (back injuries, arthritis) Difficulty sleeping and nervousness (use prolonged, mild heat to the spine) To warm a body part in preparation for massage

Treatment Precautions      Be careful not to burn a patient who is unconscious, paralyzed, edematous (swollen tissues due to fluid retention), diabetic or otherwise has loss of feeling (numbness) and decreased blood flow to the legs and feet. Body areas where the bone lies close to the skin surface may need extra padding to prevent burning. Avoid chilling—change fomentations quickly; keep the body covered. Be careful not to spread infection; clean the equipment thoroughly. Do not apply fomentations if there is bleeding or hemorrhage.

Equipment Needed  Large pot of boiling water or a canning kettle  Large bucket (if a foot bath is included in the treatment)  Basin of cold water—use ice if available—for the cold compress to the head  Tea kettle or pitcher of hot water  Pitcher for ice water  Large piece of plastic (to keep bed dry)

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      

Pillow Blankets—1 large or 2 small Sheets—1 large or 2 small Large, dry towels—4 Washcloths (for the cooling compress to the head)—2 Fomentations (may use large towels)—2 or 3 Fomentation covers (a piece of thick blanket or a large, dry towel)—2 Glass of water and a drinking straw

Fomentation Preparation -- Boiling Water Method 1. Fill a large, covered pot or canning kettle with water. Heat the water until it boils. 2. Fold a towel lengthwise twice. Hold the towel at both ends and twist it tightly. 3. Immerse the twisted towel in boiling hot water. Hold the ends of the towel out of the water. 4. Lift the hot towel out of the water and stretch the ends of the towel apart to squeeze out all excess water. 5. Quickly drop one end of the towel to untwist it, and fold the towel widthwise twice. 6. Place the folded towel on top of a fomentation cover. Wrap the fomentation cover around the hot towel. 7. Roll up the fomentation (to conserve heat), and carry it to the patient. Steaming Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Place a metal rack in a large covered pot or canning kettle. Pour hot water into the container. Keep the water level just below the metal rack. Take 3 large towels and fold each one widthwise twice. Wet each folded towel, roll it up, and squeeze out all excess water. Remove the first towel from the canning kettle with tongs or protective gloves. 6. Quickly unroll the heated towel on the center of a fomentation cover. Wrap the fomentation cover around the hot towel. 7. Roll up the fomentation (to conserve heat), and carry it to the patient.

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8. Place the rolled, wet towels on top of the rack above the boiling water. Heat the towels for approximately 30 minutes with the lid on the pot. Treatment Procedure 1. Preparation for treatment  Have the room warm and free of cold drafts.  Have all equipment assembled. Cover the bed with a large piece of plastic. Place a sheet over the plastic covering.  Explain the treatment procedure in a quiet, pleasant manner. Assist the patient to disrobe and prepare for treatment.  To place a fomentation under the spine, put the hot fomentation lengthwise on the bed. Cover the fomentation with a dry towel and have the patient lie on it.  Prepare a hot foot bath with enough warm water to completely cover the ankles, and place a dry towel under the foot bath. Make sure the water is not too hot by testing it with the elbow.  Then carefully place the patient’s feet in the water.  Completely cover the patient and the foot bath with a sheet and blanket. Leave the head and neck exposed. 2. Treatment  Always remember that prayer invites the Great Physician’s participation.  Place a dry towel on top of the body part being treated before putting the heated fomentation on the patient. Then cover the fomentation with another dry towel.  If the fomentation becomes too hot, lift it off the skin, and put another dry towel under the fomentation.   Leave the fomentation in place for the specified length of time or until the fomentation cools. Remove the cooled fomentation and briskly rub the heated area with a cold washcloth for approximately one minute. Thoroughly dry the treated area before applying the next fomentation. Remember to keep the patient completely covered at all times during the treatment.  Place a second fomentation on the treated area and repeat the proceeding steps until the treatment is completed. A treatment consists of 3 to 5 fomentation applications. As soon as the patient begins to sweat, put cool washcloths to the head and neck.. During the treatment, have the patient drink water frequently to replace fluid lost from sweating.

Keep the feet warm by periodically adding hot water to the foot bath.

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Place your hand between the hot water being poured and the patient’s feet (to avoid burning the feet).

3. Completion of treatment After removing the last fomentation, briskly rub the treated area with a cold washcloth and then dry it.  Lift the feet out of the hot water, and point the toes upward. Quickly pour cold water over the feet.  Remove the foot bath and place the feet on the dry towel. Thoroughly dry the feet and toes. Put warm socks or slippers on the feet to avoid chilling.    Remove sweat from the remainder of the body by briskly rubbing the skin with a cold washcloth and drying it thoroughly. Replace damp clothing with clean, dry garments. Have the patient rest in bed for approximately one hour. A lukewarm bath or shower may be necessary if further sweating occurs during rest. 

General Revulsive to Chest or Abdomen
With Cold Mitten Friction (CMF) The general revulsive is a general hydrotherapy treatment given to cause both stimulative and sedative effects. It stimulates muscular, glandular and metabolic activities of internal organs, and blood vessels. This treatment helps the body by:  Increasing circulation, diaphoresis, heat production, and bactericidal antibody production.  It may increase the white blood cell count to four times the normal amount.     It increases cellular oxidation and elimination of bacteria toxins, and the rate of enzymatic activity which increases the ability of the white blood cells to fight disease. Equalizes circulation throughout the body, thus relieving congestion of internal organs. Heightens nerve and muscular sensibility. Shifts pH (increasing acidity) of mucus membrane secretions, enabling lysozymes to

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kill more bacteria. Treatment Indications  The general hydrotherapy is indicated in the toning up of general systems and circulation, nervous conditions (depression, insomnia, anxiety, exhaustion, etc.), preparation for massage, to make, for expectoration more productive, some abdominal conditions (pancreatitis, hepatitis) to relieve post-op pain and help prevent complication, and to relieve fatigue and increase kidney output, and general respiratory conditions (chest cold, flu, bronchitis).

Treatment Precautions       Severe vascular disease and obstructive circulatory disturbances, heart and vascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension. Some malignant diseases Unconsciousness Appendicitis Bleeding Ulcers Anesthetic States (loss of sensation including temp.)

Equipment Needed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Table and mattress Pillow and pillow slip Sheet Blanket Hot foot bath Basin of hot water Eight or more bath towels Two wash cloths Hand towel Pitcher of hot water Four fomentations Eight fomentation covers

Treatment Procedure 1. Preparation for treatment      Have the room warm and free of cold drafts. Have all equipment assembled. Cover the bed with a large piece of plastic. Place a sheet over the plastic covering. Explain the treatment procedure in a quiet, pleasant manner. Assist the patient to disrobe and prepare for treatment. To place a fomentation under the spine, put the hot fomentation lengthwise on the bed. Cover the fomentation with a dry towel and have the patient lie on it. Prepare a foot bath with enough warm water to completely cover the ankles, and place a dry towel under the foot bath. Make sure the water is not too hot by testing it

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  2.

with the elbow. Then carefully place the patient’s feet in the water. Completely cover the patient and the foot bath with a sheet and blanket. Leave the head and neck exposed.

Treatment  Always remember that prayer invites the Great Physician’s participation.  Place fomentation on bed parallel to spine with top edge reaching to the top of patient’s cervical spine. Not on the head. Cover with two bath towels and another towel doubled under coccyx since it usually needs more protection.  Place towel under hot footbath that is filled with about three inches of 102 oF water.   Have patient lay down on fomentation and place feet in hot foot tub. Hold sheet as patient lies down to preserve modesty. Cover with blanket quickly. Tuck around patient to avoid any air currents. Place two bath towels on chest (or abdomen—per doctor’s order) and then fomentation. Tuck in snugly around lungs at side (if Upper Respiratory Infection) or tuck around neck (if throat is sore) and leave for three minutes. While waiting, add hot water from pitcher to HFB, tucking covers behind HFB before pouring to avoid drafts. Have patient leave feet in water, placing one foot on top of the other and moving them to one side as you pour and mix the water. Keep adding hot water until patient says it is as hot as he/she can take. (Moving the patient to one side and mixing the water, are measures to prevent burning the patient’s feet.) Also while waiting, add cold compress (wash cloth wrung from ice-water) to forehead. You may apply another one to the anterior neck if desired. Squeeze out friction mitten or hand towel from ice water. Remove the fomentation and dry towel quickly, replacing with wet towel so as to promote modesty and begin friction immediately. Continue for 30s. Time yourself. Repeat steps 4-7 two more times. Each time changing cold compress to forehead and/or neck. Add more hot water to HFB. At the end of the last fomentation time, remove fomentation and set it aside. Pack blanket and sheet back up around the neck and shoulders. Cold mitten friction the arm farthest from you. Dry, replace under the cover. CMF abdomen. Make sure the chest remains covered. Dry and cover the abdomen. CMF the chest. Dry and cover. Pour cold water over feet, remove bucket, dry and cover. Prepare cold towel to CMF legs and thighs. Tuck sheet around patient’s thigh for modesty. CMF leg and thigh. Dry and be very gentle between toes. Cover leg and thigh. Repeat same to other leg. Lastly, CMF the patient’s back. If patient chills easily, be especially careful to dry well; cover adequately and guard against drafts at all times during treatment. Some may need extra blankets or a fomentation roll up under their thighs. If they have perspired after equilibrating, make sure to dry them again before returning to their room. (To prevent chilling or risk of patient developing a URI.) Offer them a glass of water. Patient should rest 20-30 minutes after treatment in their room or hydrotherapy booth.

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Jer 30:15 Why criest thou for thine affliction? thy sorrow [is] incurable for the multitude of thine iniquity: [because] thy sins were increased, I have done these things unto thee.

Temperature Range
Hot – 100-104  Short 3-10 mins  Long 30-1 hr Cold – 33-70  Short 10-15 secs  Long 2-5 mins Homeostatic – The state of equilibrium of the internal environment of the body. Sickness – is the unbalance of Homeostasis
MH 127 Disease is an effort of nature to free the system from conditions that result from a violation of the laws of health.

1. In case of sickness, the cause should be ascertained. 2. Unhealthful conditions should be changed, wrong habits corrected. 3. Then nature is to be assisted in her effort to expel impurities and to re-establish right conditions in the system.

Lab activity
Ice Massage – 15 minutes  Cold  Burn  Tingle  Numbness We use this for inflammation
Ps 139:14 I am fearfully [and] wonderfully made… CG 342 Students should not be permitted to take so many studies that they will have no time for physical training. The health cannot be preserved unless some portion of each day is given to muscular exertion in the open air. Stated hours should be devoted to manual labor of some kind, anything that will call into action all parts of the body. Equalize the taxation of the mental and the physical powers, and the mind of the student will be refreshed. If he is diseased, physical exercise will often help the system to recover its normal condition. When students leave college, they should have better health and a better understanding of the laws of life than when they enter it. The health should be as sacredly guarded as the character.

Body Temperature Control
Different organs have different temperatures. The temperature of the liver can be 40.6C while the tongue is 37C. The temperature is based on the muscle action.

Treatment Points to Observe
1. The Room

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o Neat o Proper warmth o Free of drafts o No bright light in patients eyes o Protect furniture, rugs, and bedding from getting damp o Leave in same condition (or better) as when you started 2. The treatment o Think and plan ahead of how to proceed smoothly o Assemble all necessary articles before starting o Stay within easy calling distance from the patient o Don’t be too talkative o Observe the effects of the treatment o Make your changes quickly don’t take to long o Pick up as you work o Be economical of time and linen 3. The Patient o Explain procedures and communicate throughout treatment o Must be warm before starting o No unnecessary exposure (only part under immediate treatment) o Should be comfortable at all times o Keep patient warm o Keep patient cool o Dry thoroughly (feet, between toes, under arms, etc) o Treatment reaction should be complete o Allow for post treatment rest
PP 378 God brought the Israelites from Egypt, that He might establish them in the land of Canaan, a pure, holy, and happy people. In the accomplishment of this object He subjected them to a course of discipline, both for their own good and for the good of their posterity. Had they been willing to deny appetite, in obedience to His wise restrictions, feebleness and disease would have been unknown among them. Their descendants would have possessed both physical and mental strength. They would have had clear perceptions of truth and duty, keen discrimination, and sound judgment. But their unwillingness to submit to the restrictions and requirements of God, prevented them, to a great extent, from reaching the high standard which He desired them to attain, and from receiving the blessings which He was ready to bestow upon them.

Blood and its circulation
Lev 17:11 For the life of the flesh [is] in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it [is] the blood [that] maketh an atonement for the soul. Lev 17:14 For [it is] the life of all flesh; the blood of it [is] for the life thereof: therefore I said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the life of all flesh [is] the blood thereof: whosoever eateth it shall be cut off.

We need to understand that Blood has to be health to heal, you can move it all you want around the body, but unless you help the blood to be healthy its not going to do much.

What is in the Blood?
The blood – the vital fluid that provides us with life through the proper transportation and protection, two of the body’s most important function.

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Blood is made up for four main elements;  Platelets  RBC - Erythrocytes  WBC - Leukocyte  Plasma – 55% water There are three tissues that don’t get blood flow to them;  Tendon (Light blue)  Ligament (Dark blue)  Cartilage (Red) Example of the knee

How to improve your blood
CD 104 The influence of pure, fresh air is to cause the blood to circulate healthfully through the system. It refreshes the body, and tends to render it strong and healthy, while at the same time its influence is decidedly felt upon the mind, imparting a degree of composure and serenity. It excites the appetite, and renders the digestion of food more perfect, and induces sound and sweet sleep. CD 105 You have eaten too largely, and of a poor quality of food, which could not be converted into good blood.

Lab activity
Sitz Bath

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Fevers
A. Common Causes—Pathological Causes        Bacterial and viral diseases Brain tumors and cancers Dehydration Injuries Heat stroke Increased thyroid activity Toxin

B. Common Causes—Physiological   Extreme physical exertion Fever therapy

C. Mechanisms of Fever made Simple 1. Toxins secreted by toxic bacteria, inflamed tissues, or degenerating tissues cause the “setting” of the hypothalamus thermostat to rise. These toxins are called “pyrogens”. They cause fever. 2. Chills: Pyrogens cause the setting of the thermostat to change from the normal level (98.6 oF) to a higher level (for example, 103 oF). When this happens, all the heatpromoting mechanisms for increasing body temperature operate at full force, such as vasoconstriction, increased metabolism, and shivering. This continues until the body temperature reaches the thermostat set level. The temperature remains high until the cause is removed. When this happens, the person’s skin become warm and he begins to sweat. This is known as the “crisis”. The temperature then drops. D. Value of Fever Many bacteria and viral germs do not survive well at high temperatures. Fever enables the white cells to move faster, capture the germs quicker, and destroy them more efficient

Infectious Fevers
Nearly all infectious fevers are due to poisons produced by the growth of bacteria or viruses. Body temperature is raised in order to destroy these poisons (toxins). Fever, therefore, is not detrimental but beneficial unless it becomes excessively high, lasts too long, or the patient’s cardiovascular system is too weak to tolerate it. Fever may be due to over production or heat or decreased heat elimination. A. Signs and Symptoms of Fever 1. Nervous disturbances (malaise, headache, backache, insomnia, delirium) 2. Chill or chilliness 3. Hot, dry skin or cold, clammy skin
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4. Increased heart rate 5. Excessive thirst 6. Loss of appetite, foul breath, coated tongue 7. Possible constipation or diarrhea 8. Scanty, highly colored and concentrated urine B. Signs and Symptoms of Heat Production 1. Full and rapid pulse 2. Face flushed 3. Skin—hot and dry C. Signs and Symptoms of Decreased Heat Elimination 1. Cold skin (dry or moist and clammy) 2. Cyanosis 3. Goose flesh 4. Chilly sensations 5. Shivering D. Fevers and their Treatment In general, moderately prolonged cold applications should be used in cases in which the skin is hot and dry. Hot applications should be used when the skin is cold, cyanotic, or clammy. These hot applications should be continued until this condition is overcome. Signs Condition Objective Treatment Group A Full pulse, flushed face and hot, dry skin Great increase in heat production Abstract heat by a moderately long contact with cold Long, cold application, but maintain reaction Group B Cold skin—wet or dry, cyanosis, goose flesh, shivering Decided decrease in heat elimination Warm the skin. Combat internal congestion Hot applications until blood is brought back to skin, then cold with friction. Hot mitten friction.

1. Cold applications useful in fever a. Graduated bath with friction b. c. d. e. Tepid or cool bath Evaporating wet sheet pack Cold sponging Cold to head and neck
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f. Ice bag or cold compress to heart g. Cool rectal irrigation or enema h. Cool water drink i. Cool air in the sickroom

2. Hot applications useful in fever or preparatory to cold treatments a. Hot blanket pack b. A very short hot bath c. Repeated hot sponges d. e. f. g. Hot evaporating sheet Fomentations to abdomen Fomentation to spine Hot water drinking

h. Cold mitten friction (reaction stimulates a hot application) 3. General principles Derivation is depletion secured by the withdrawing of blood from an organ or a part of the body by increasing the amount of blood in some other part. These effects may be termed “push” and “pull” effects. The hot application draws the blood away, constituting the “pull” effect. The cold drives the blood away, constituting the “push” effect. In respiratory infections the combined treatment of a hot footbath with fomentations to the chest and cold mitten friction given once or twice a day gives excellent results. The first should be given as early in the disease as possible. Later treatments should not aim at sweating, but should be brief and vigorous to restore derivation and restore blood vessel tone. Predisposing Causes of Fever 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Bad ventilation Improper clothing Damp surroundings Exhaustion Lack of cleanliness Lack of water Lack of exercise in open air Improper diet—meat eating, overeating, rich spicy foods, etc.

Taken from the book Healthful Living by Mrs. Ellen G. White.

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Hydrotherapy & Malaria
By David Paulson, M.D. Taken from the General Conference Bulletin, 1907 Naturally quinine was considered just as indispensable in Malaria as morphine was following certain surgical operations. We soon had an abundant opportunity to put our principles in regard to quinine to a practical test. It happened to be a malarial summer in Michigan. During the summer something like fifty cases came to us in all ages and in all stages of the disease. Dr. Kress and I, who could not consistently reconcile the prevailing routine quinine program with some of the truths we had studied, determined we would discover for ourselves what God would help us to do in malarial cases without quinine. One member of our class was an enthusiastic advocate of quinine. It was mutually agreed that as the patients came in, one was to be assigned to this physician, the next one to Dr. Kress and myself, so alternating. As he was also a microscopic expert, having taken special training in blood work, every case, not only his own, but ours, was carefully checked up by himself by laboratory work, so there was no chance for guesswork. We carefully took the temperature every 15 minutes. As soon as there began to be the least rise of temperature, that was a notification to us that the chill was approaching. We at once put the patient into a hot blanket pack, which brought on profound perspiration, and thereby if we had hit it right, we would invariably prevent the chill. The patient would perspire for a time; we would take them out carefully, provided it was the alternate day variety, we gave tonic treatments (hot and cold). The following day we again instituted the temperature-taking program. We invariably found that the rise of temperature was much delayed, showing that we were gaining the ascendancy. We would then go through the same program. Frequently we did not have to do this the third time; the work had been done, and in a week or ten days the patient was fully restored to health. Sometimes we would miss hitting it just right for several days, so there would be a delay. After history comparison of the two clinics: Blanket Pack Patients Not one with serious complications mentality; Quinine Patients Some with deafness—irreparable; Impaired others with numerous minor complications

One day an old feeble broken down man came in so loaded with malaria that it seemed he was on the brink of the grave. According to the rotation he belonged to the quinine list. The Doctor, after sizing up the situation, said he did not dare to undertake his case, so he was turned over to our list. I will never forget when Dr. Kress and I earnestly told the Lord that His principles were on the test, and pleaded with Him to vindicate what He had said. We then took hold of the case. Within a week the man was restored to health. Praise the Lord.

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Charcoal and Herbal Poultices
Charcoal
Charcoal or charred wood is formed when wood is heated in the absence of air. Charcoal has the unique ability to adsorb or remove poisonous gases, drugs, toxic chemicals, infectious bacteria, and viruses. A good quality of charcoal can be made from coconut shells and any wood such as eucalyptus, willow, pine, and oak. Charcoal can be easily made at home. Cut the wood to a uniform size and remove the bark. Stack the wood tightly together in a hole in the ground and start a fire. After the wood begins to burn, cover it with earth or a piece of tin. (If tin is used, pile earth on top of the tin.) Leave a small vent or opening for admitting limited amounts of air in order to maintain a slow burning process over several days. After the burning process is completed, leave the charcoal inside the covered hole until it cools, as heated charcoal will burst into flames when exposed to the air. For medicinal use, break the charcoal into coarse pieces. Sterilize the charcoal by heating it in a clay pot or in an oven for 20 to 30 minutes. Grind the sterilized pieces into fine powder; store in a dry, tight container. The Charcoal Advantage  It is simple to make and to use.  It is inexpensive and easily available.  It is harmless but highly effective. Methods of Use: Oral Charcoal has no toxic effects. Use charcoal as much as needed and as often as it is needed. Carefully stir 1 to 2 large spoonfuls (tablespoons) of charcoal powder into a small amount of water; fill the glass with additional water. Charcoal is best taken between meals. If food is the cause of the ailment, take charcoal whenever it is needed. Poultice Charcoal powder can be mixed with water and used as a poultice. Directions for preparing a charcoal poultice are as follows: 1. Mix the charcoal powder into a little water until the mixture has the consistency of a paste. 2. Ground flaxseed or cornstarch may be added to the charcoal mixture to keep the poultice from becoming too dry. Mix 1 to 3 large spoonfuls of charcoal powder with 3 large spoonfuls of ground flaxseed or 2 large spoonfuls of cornstarch to a cup of boiling water. 3. Spread the charcoal paste on one half of a cloth or paper towel. Fold the other half of the cloth or paper towel over the charcoal paste. 4. Place the poultice on top of the affected skin area. Cover the entire poultice with a piece of plastic to keep it from drying out. Caution: It is best not to put the charcoal powder directly on the skin if the skin is cut or broken. Sometimes charcoal can give a tattooing effect if the skin is broken.  The plastic cover keeps the poultice from becoming too dry.
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The edges of the poultice may be folded or taped to keep it in place.

COMMON USES OF CHARCOAL 1. Poisoning or Drug Overdose • • Charcoal is the best treatment for poisoning or drug overdose. Induce vomiting unless petroleum products (gasoline, kerosene), alkali (lye), or strong

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acids have been swallowed. In these cases do not induce vomiting. Neutralize acids with baking soda in water. Neutralize caustics with vinegar in water. Stir in 1 to 2 large spoonfuls of charcoal in a small amount of water and swallow quickly. (See table below for specific information.) Estimated Amount of Poison or Drug Taken 1 Small spoonful 1 to 2 tablets 1 to 2 capsules Amount of Charcoal if No Food Has Been Eaten Within 2 Hours 1-2 large spoons of charcoal stirred into a glass with a little water Rinse out the glass and drink the rest of the charcoal 1 large spoonful 3 to 5 tablets 2 to 5 capsules Drink 2 more glasses of water 3-4 large spoons of charcoal stirred into a glass with a little water Rinse out the glass and drink the rest of the charcoal Unknown Drink 2 more glasses of water 1-5 large spoons of charcoal stirred into a glass with a little water Rinse out the glass and drink the rest of the charcoal Drink 2 more glasses of water 2. Diarrhea        Charcoal is one of the most effective treatments for diarrhea. Treat severe diarrhea in an adult by adding 2 large, heaping spoonfuls of powdered charcoal to a glass of water. Drink one glass of charcoal water plus one glass of plain water 4 times per day. Drink one more glass of charcoal water followed by one glass of water for each additional, watery stool. For a child, use one half of the adult dose of charcoal. Watch for signs of dehydration—especially in babies and young children—thirst, dry mouth, scant dark yellow urine, loss of skin elasticity, and a sunken soft spot on top of the infant’s head. Prevent dehydration by giving lots of liquids to drink such as clean water, a vegetable broth, or boiled rice water. Give fluids in small sips every 5 minutes—even if vomiting occurs— until there is a Amount of Charcoal if Food Has Been Eaten Within 2 Hours 4-10 large spoons of charcoal stirred into a glass with a little water Rinse out the glass and drink the rest of the charcoal Drink 2 more glasses of water 6-15 large spoons of charcoal stirred into a glass with a little water Rinse out the glass and drink the rest of the charcoal Drink 2 more glasses of water 5-15 large spoons of charcoal stirred into a glass with a little water Rinse out the glass and drink the rest of the charcoal Drink 2 more glasses of water

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normal output of urine. 3. Nausea and vomiting  Take 1 to 2 large spoonful’s in ½ glass of water each time vomiting occurs. (For a child use ½ the adult dose.) If the charcoal is vomited, give another dose immediately.  Always follow the dose of charcoal with a full glass of water. 4. Intestinal gas or bloating  Take 1 to 2 large spoonful’s of charcoal in 1/2 glass of water as needed to control symptoms.

5. Eye and ear infections  Infections of the eyes and ears can be treated with a charcoal poultice. Put the poultice over the infected eye or ear, and leave it in place for at least 4 hours or overnight. Applying heat to the poultice increases its effectiveness.

6. Skin and joint infections  Infections of the skin and the joints can be treated with a charcoal poultice. Leave the poultice on for several hours or overnight.

7. Bee stings and spider bites  For single bee stings and inflamed mosquito, ant, or chigger bites, apply a charcoal poultice directly over the affected area. Directions for treating multiple bee stings and venomous spider, scorpion, or insect bites are as follows: o Immediately wash the area of the bite or sting thoroughly with soap and water. o Submerge the bitten area in cool charcoal water for 30 minutes to one hour. o Prepare the cool charcoal bath with 1/2 cup of charcoal in 8 liters (2 gallons) of water. o After soaking in cool charcoal water, apply a charcoal poultice. (See page 26 for bee sting and spider bite treatment.)

8. Snake Bites     If pain and swelling occur within 10 minutes of a poisonous snakebite, venom has entered the body. Immediately wash the bite area thoroughly with soap and water. Submerge the bitten area in cool charcoal water for 30 minutes to one hour (1/2 cup of charcoal to 8 liters or 2 gallons of water). Apply a very large charcoal poultice covering almost the entire extremity that has been bitten. Center the poultice directly over the bite. Keep the poultice moist by covering it with plastic. Remove the old poultice and place a new poultice over the snakebite every 10 to 15 minutes until swelling and pain are gone. Take charcoal powder by mouth as well. Take about 2 large spoonful’s in 1/2 glass of

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water every 2 hours for 3 doses, then 1 small spoonful every 4 hours for the next 24 hours. Each charcoal dose should be followed by 2 glasses of water. (See page 26 for snakebite treatment.) 9. Jaundice in the newborn   If the newborn baby is very yellow, give a small spoonful of charcoal stirred in enough water to pass through a nipple every 2 to 3 hours. Place the undressed baby in the sunlight before 10 a.m. or after 3 p.m. (avoid hot, midday sun to prevent burning the skin). Cover the baby’s eyes to protect them from the sun’s rays. Continue treating the infant until the jaundice decreases or disappears.

10. Liver and kidney disease  Give charcoal by mouth to help prevent toxins from accumulating in the body. Apply a large charcoal poultice to the mid-back for kidney disorders and to the abdomen for liver disorders.

11. Toothaches and gum infections  For gum infections, mix charcoal powder with enough water to make a paste. Brush the charcoal paste between the infected gums and the teeth. Leave the charcoal on the gums all night. Rinse the teeth and gums in the morning. For toothaches, spread the charcoal paste on a piece of gauze; roll up the gauze and place it between the cheek or tongue and the infected tooth.

Treatment Schedule for Multiple Bee Stings, Spider, and Snake Bites Multiple Bee Stings Spider Bites Snake Bites Initial Treatment Wash bite area thoroughly Take ½ to 1 hour charcoal bath Apply a charcoal poultice Wash bite area thoroughly Take ½ to 1 hour charcoal bath Apply a charcoal poultice Wash bite area thoroughly ½ to 1 hour charcoal bath Apply a charcoal poultice Drink 2 large spoonfuls of charcoal in a glass of water every 2 hrs. for 6 hrs. Change poultice every 10 – 15 minutes until swelling and pain are gone. Add ice packs if pain and swelling continue Drink 1 small spoonful of charcoal in a glass of water every 4 hours for 24 hours

Continued Treatment Change poultice every 10 minutes for 1 hour Leave poultice on for 8 hours Change poultice every 30 minutes for 8 hours Change poultice every 2 hours for 8 hours Change poultice every 2 -4 hours until healed

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Green Leaf Poultice
This poultice is usually given for slow healing ulcers, bedsores, certain skin diseases and also to relieve swollen and inflamed conditions. Equipment Needed    Green-leaf material and water (comfrey, chickweed, common plantain, or other simple plants often used) Strips of old sheet material for poultice Plastic sack or cover and rubber band or tape for securing

Treatment Procedure       Blend or grind leaf material with water to make a thick paste, if too runny some of the juice may be squeezed out. Dampen a cloth and pour and spread the mixture on it. Fold the cloth over one time and tuck in slightly around edges. Apply to affected skin area and cover with other dry cloths and place a plastic sack or piece of plastic over this material. Secure with rubber band or tape or tie with strips of rag. Leave on overnight or for several hours. (Protect bedding with old sheets or plastic.) On removing poultice, discard it and clean area of skin. Never reuse an old poultice.

Biblical Examples of Poultices (See Isaiah 38:21; 2 Kings 20:7; John 9:1, 6, 7)

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The Use of Charcoal as a Remedy
By Ellen G. White Charcoal poultices for the eye Letter 119, 1896. “My left eye gives me considerable trouble. It has been painfully weak, and the pain in my cheekbone has caused much anxiety. I think I told you that about a year ago I had a fall. I was filling a tin milk-pan with oranges for brother McCann, and when I rose from my stooping position, and attempted to walk, I saw that I was falling face downward into a pile of small, sharp stumps, which had been brought there for fuel. I darted a prayer to heaven, and fell heavily forward. The milk pan struck the stumps with great force, and when I fell, it struck me just beneath the eye. The pan was bent almost double. Brother McCann came and lifted me up. After this I had a very painful time with my whole head. My cheek was swelled large and hard. Ella White was with me at the time, and she pounded up charcoal for me. With this pulverized charcoal and hot water I treated my face for hours, till the soreness and pain was killed. This is one of (the) very best and most effectual remedies for the stomach—anything like malaria—to eat dry or in hot water.” Pulverized, a Most Beneficial Remedy Used with Smartweed Letter 82, 1897. “One of the most beneficial remedies is pulverized charcoal in a bag and used in fomentations. This is a most successful remedy. If wet in smartweed (1tsp to cup), boiled, it is still better. I have ordered this in cases where the sick were suffering great pain and when it has been confided to me by the physician that he thought it was the last before the close of life. Then I suggested the charcoal, and the patient has slept, the turning point came, and recovery was the result. To students, when injured with bruised hands, and suffering with inflammation, I have prescribed this simple remedy with perfect success. The poison of inflammation is overcome, the pain removed, and healing goes on rapidly. The more severe inflammation of the eyes will be relieved by a poultice of charcoal, put in a bag and dipped in hot or cold water as will best suit the case. This works like a charm. I expect you will laugh at this; but if I could give this remedy some outlandish name, that no one knew but myself, it would have greater influence.” Pulverized, Used as Drink and Poultices Letter 112a, 1897. “I feel that the ice used is a mistake. The light which has been given me in reference to several critical cases has been represented to me as a sick child I had in charge, and in every case the directions given were, Do not apply ice to the head but cool water; but apply hot fomentations to the bowels, stomach and liver. This will quell the fever sooner even than cold. The reaction after the cold applications raises the fever, in the place of killing it. This direction has been given me again and again. In some cases, the ice applications may be warrantable, but in most cases they are not advisable. If the invalid has any vitality, the system will send the blood to where the cold is, and very often, the system has not power for this taxation. Bro. ______ has low vitality. Some cases may endure other kind of treatment, but I greatly fear for Bro. ______ if it is continued. Use hot

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water; in nine cases out of ten it will do a more successful work than the cold ice would do… I send you at this time pulverized charcoal. Let him drink the water, after it has stood a while to extract the virtue. This should be cold when used. When used for fomentations over the bowels, the coal should be put into a bag, sewed up, and dipped into hot water. It will serve several times. Have two bags, use one, and then the other.” Benefits of Charcoal 21 Manuscript Releases, p. 290. “One of the most beneficial remedies is pulverized charcoal, placed in a bag and used in fomentations. This is a most successful remedy. If wet in smartweed boiled, it is still better. I have ordered this in cases where the sick were suffering great pain, and when it has been confided to me by the physician that he thought it was the last before the close of life. Then I suggested the charcoal, and the patient slept, the turning point came, and recovery was the result… To students when injured with bruised hands and suffering with inflammation, I have prescribed this simple remedy, with perfect success. The poison of inflammation was overcome, the pain removed, and healing went on rapidly. The most severe inflammation of the eyes will be relieved by a poultice of charcoal, put in a bag, and dipped in hot or cold water, as will best suit the case. This works like a charm.” Used in Treatment of Eyes Letter 37, 1898. “Medical practitioners have experimented on the eyes, and in so doing, have not only forever weakened the strength of the delicate organs, but the injury done has extended to the brain, through the nerves connecting the eye with the brain. I have positively refused to use anything but hot water with a little salt, or pulverized charcoal put in a bag, and dipped in hot or cold water, as is most agreeable. Let there be no meddling with the eye. Use only the most mild applications.” Used in Poultices Letter 72, 1898. “Brother Thompson’s son was one of these. He brought his boy to Cooranbong with a swollen knee. The lad had fallen on a stone, and the knee was seriously injured and much enlarged. The doctors had attended him, but had done him no good, and he was then going about with a crutch. Sara took the case in hand, and worked with him in our own house twice a day. About an hour each day was occupied in giving him treatment. It was a stubborn affair, but for weeks most thorough treatment was given him with hot and cold applications, and pulverized charcoal dipped in hot water and used as a poultice. He is a very bright promising lad and this accident was a great affliction to his parents; but the swelling is now removed, and he is as active and healthy a child as you would wish to look upon. We had this lad sit at our table for three months, and we have our reward in seeing him restored to health. We thank the Lord for this.” Charcoal in place of Medicine Letter 84, 1898. “I have had both Sister Starr and Sister Harlowe with me for three weeks, and no meat or butter has been placed on my table. Nothing to drink except cold water appears on my table. All have decided that it is for their health to use as little liquid food as possible. Both Sisters Starr and Harlowe slept well. I took them out to ride often, over rather rough roads, and both have greatly improved in health. Sister Harlowe was paying twelve shillings a week for room and board
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in the city. I brought her to my country home, and she has lost her headache. We have had her now about two months. I ask her nothing for board. I want her to get well. Sister Harlowe has been an invalid for some time, in consequence of her internal organs fastening to the backbone. She has been proprietor of a large dressmaking establishment. In this business her difficulties developed. Her head suffered because of stomach difficulties and the trouble I have mentioned. She came to the Health Home and took treatment for a while. All her friends, father, mother, brothers and sisters are unbelievers. We thought best to have her come to my home. I dared not place her in with other family, fearing that they would not know how to help her, and would allow her to do too much. Here she rides on horseback and does a little sewing. She is improving in health so much that we have hopes that she will be able to educate a class in school in the science of sewing properly. This is the one who was advised to eat meat and butter. She uses neither. She has plenty of milk and cream from cows which we keep in as healthy a condition as possible. I am raising my own stock. Sister Harlowe has not had any kind of medicine but charcoal soaked in water. She drinks this water, and is doing excellently without meat or butter, tea or coffee.” Charcoal as a Drink and Poultice Letter 92, 1898. “I would advise that the charcoal compress be worn only occasionally. If you should drink charcoal water, it would not do you any harm. The charcoal itself may be a little irritating to a stomach as sensitive as I judge yours is. Use your own judgment, and trust in living faith to God as you work. You must come to the position where you realize that the Lord does not want you to be sick. The Lord would have you well. Make up your mind to be well. Do not eat vegetables but make arrangements to have the best homemade bread and fruit. Do not taste of any bread that is sweetened. You must be careful, and then trust in God, believing that He wants you to be healed. He is the only true, unerring physician in the world. He loves us, and wants us to be well and happy.” Charcoal for Bad Breath Letter 115, 1898. “But Brother _____’s health has been sacrificed to earnest, continuous labor. In his zeal and earnestness he has lost sight of self. He wished to converse with me, but what an offensive breath he had. I tried not to inhale it, but I think I did, for I was taken sick like one poisoned. I talked with him seriously, and told him that he had been doing great injury to himself. I told him that for the last twenty years the Lord had been giving me messages to give to our ministering brethren, and to students who were preparing to give Bible readings and to become canvassers. The Lord would have them take care of themselves as faithful sentinels. I think much of Brother _____, but he has made a mistake in feeling that he must do all the work he could possibly accomplish. At times he would become so weary that he could not eat as he should, and would take food that was wholly unfitted for his wearied condition. He kept late hours, and often did not get to rest before eleven or twelve o’clock at night. This irregularity was seriously felt by his wife. She became nervous, and was losing her health and vitality. I showed him that these habits had been all wrong, that he must call a halt. I told him it was necessary for us to know ourselves. I said, You are now a sick man, and you feel your need of a physician. We are not wise in the knowledge of others, but we know that in our own individual selves there are great deficiencies. The wisest have to learn their lessons by patient experience. You have not treated yourself as you should, but have disregarded the laws of health by your terrible neglect of yourself. Something must be done. That offensive breath must be purified. Get pulverized charcoal, soak it in water, and drink this water freely. Eat no vegetables. Eat fruit, and plain, well-baked bread. Take light exercise, and
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at night wear a charcoal compress over the liver and abdomen. Charcoal Relieves Swelling The Paulson Collection, p. 15. “On Thursday Sister Sara McEnterfer was called to see if she could do anything for Brother Palmer's little son, who is eighteen months old. For several days he has had a painful swelling on the knee, supposed to be from the bite of some poisonous insect. Pulverized charcoal, mixed with flaxseed, was placed upon the swelling, and this poultice gave relief at once. The child had screamed with pain all night, but when this was applied, he slept. Today she has been to see the little one twice. She opened the swelling in two places, and a large amount of yellow matter and blood was discharged freely. The child was relieved of its great suffering. We thank the Lord that we may become intelligent in using the simple things within our reach to alleviate pain, and successfully remove its cause.” Charcoal Destroys Inflammation and Removes Poison Letter 74, 1899. “Sister _____ is nurse and physician for all the region round about. She has been called upon to treat the most difficult cases, and with complete success. We have at times made our house a hospital, where we have taken in the sick and cared for them. I have not time to relate the wonderful cures wrought, not by dosing with drugs but by the application of water. We use charcoal largely, making it into poultices. It destroys the inflammation, and removes the poison. We are teaching the ignorant how to become intelligent and keep well.” Experience with Charcoal Letter 182, 1899. “The God of nature directs the human agent to use the natural remedies now. I might go to any length in this matter, my brother, but I leave it now with a few instances. A brother was taken sick with inflammation of the bowels and bloody dysentery. The man was not a careful health reformer, but indulged his appetite. We were just preparing to leave Texas, where we had been laboring for several months, and we had carriages prepared to take away this brother and his family, and several others who were suffering from malarial fever. My husband and I thought we would stand this expense rather than have the heads of several families die and leave their wives and children unprovided for. Two or three were taken in large spring wagon on spring mattresses. But this man who was suffering from inflammation of the bowels, sent for me to come to him. My husband and I decided that it would not do to move him. Fears were entertained that mortification had set in. Then the thought came to me like a communication from the Lord, to take pulverized charcoal, put water upon it, and give this water to the sick man to drink, putting bandages of the charcoal over the bowels and stomach. We were about one mile from the city of Denison, but the sick man’s son went to a blacksmith’s shop, secured the charcoal, and pulverized it, and then used it according the directions given. The result was that in half an hour there was a change for the better. We had to go on our journey and leave the family behind, but what was our surprise the following day to see their wagon overtake us. The sick man was lying in a bed in the wagon. The blessing of God had worked with the simple means used. I remember still another case. At our first camp meeting here, held at Brighton, a young lady was taken sick on the ground, and remained sick during most of the meeting. She was thought to have typhoid fever, and although many prayers were offered in her behalf, she left the ground sick. Dr. M.G. Kellogg, half brother to J.H. Kellogg, of Battle Creek, was attending her. He came to me one
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morning and said, Sister Price is in great pain. I cannot relieve her. She cannot sleep, and every breath seems as though it would be her last. We prayed for her, and then like a flash of lightning there came to me the thought of the charcoal. “Send to the blacksmith for charcoal, and pulverize it,” I said, “and put poultices of it on her side.” He tried this, and in one hour he came to me, and said, “That prescription was an inspiration from God. Sister Price could not have lived until now if no change had come.” The sick one fell into a restful sleep; the crisis passed; and she began to amend. In a few days she was taken from Brighton to her home in Melbourne, and is alive and well today.” Charcoal and Olive Oil Letter 100, 1903. “I will tell you a little about my experience with charcoal as a remedy. For some forms of indigestion, it is more efficacious than drugs. A little olive oil into which some of this powder has been stirred tends to cleanse and heal. I find it is excellent. Pulverized charcoal from eucalyptus wood, we have used freely in cases of inflammation. During this first camp meeting that we held in Australia, a young woman was taken very sick with the inflammation of the liver and lungs. It was feared that she would die. Dr. M.G. Kellogg, who was attending her, came to me for advice. I suggested that he make a compress of pulverized charcoal, and put it on the sick woman’s side. She had been crying out in her pain, but in about fifteen minutes after the compress was applied she fell into a sweet sleep. When we first went to Cooranbong, the men clearing in the woods would often come in with bruised hands. In these and other cases of inflammation, I advised the trial of a compress of pulverized charcoal. Sometimes the inflammation, which was very high before the compress was applied, would be gone by the next day. Always study and teach the use of the simplest remedies, and the special blessing of the Lord may be expected to follow the use of these means which are within the reach of the common people.” Charcoal as a Healing Agency Letter 75, 1904. “Get from the druggist some pulverized charcoal, and use it freely. Mix it with sweet oil. Thus it can be taken with less difficulty than if mixed with water. I think that you would obtain benefit from the use of charcoal compresses—pulverized charcoal moistened, put into a flannel bag, and placed over the affected part. When my husband was sick, I had recourse to many remedies, and I know the value of charcoal as a healing agency. I have worked for my husband with marked success when his life was in grave peril. I did not want a physician for him; for I knew that I had tact and skill, and that with faith in God I could be his physician.” Charcoal as a Poultice Letter 326, 1906. “I wish to ask you if you have tried the charcoal for Brother _____? I think I wrote you about it some time ago. Take pulverized charcoal, wet it, and put on as a poultice. The charcoal possesses a wonderful power of drawing poison from the system.” Charcoal Brings Relief Letter 158, 1907. “I feel impressed to recommend for your consideration the use of charcoal as a powerful agency for removing poison from the system. I have on several occasions been impressed to suggest the use of charcoal, and it has often brought relief when every other means had failed.
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When we were in Texas, one of our neighbors was taken sick because of imprudence in eating. The organs of excretion failed to act properly, and his system was poisoned. He was in terrible agony. His family sent for me to come and pray for him. Then it was impressed upon my mind to send some one to the blacksmith’s for charcoal, pulverize it, and place it as a poultice over the entire abdomen. This was done, and the effect produced was wonderful. This brother had intended to be one of a party to go with a number of teams through Texas, but because of his illness he was left behind. The next day, however, as we were resting, we looked back, and saw a team crossing the ferry. When it came nearer we saw with it our brother who had been so ill. On several other occasions I have seen the charcoal poultice tried with favorable results.” The Use of Charcoal for Inflammation, Insect Bites, etc. 2 Selected Messages, p. 295. “There are many simple herbs which, if our nurses would learn the value of, they could use in the place of drugs, and find very effective. Many times I have been applied to for advice as to what should be done in cases of sickness or accident, and I have mentioned some of these simple remedies, and they have proved helpful. On one occasion a physician came to me in great distress. He had been called to attend a young woman who was dangerously ill. She had contracted fever while on the campground, and was taken to our school building near Melbourne, Australia. But she became so much worse that it was feared she could not live. The physician, Dr. Merritt Kellogg, came to me and said, ‘Sister White, have you any light for me on this case? If relief cannot be given our sister, she can live but a few hours.’ I replied, ‘Send to a blacksmith's shop, and get some pulverized charcoal; make a poultice of it, and lay it over her stomach and sides.’ The doctor hastened away to follow out my instructions. Soon he returned, saying, ‘Relief came in less than half an hour after the application of the poultices. She is now having the first natural sleep she has had for days.’ I have ordered the same treatment for others who were suffering great pain, and it has brought relief and been the means of saving life. My mother had told me that snake bites and the sting of reptiles and poisonous insects could often be rendered harmless by the use of charcoal poultices. When working on the land at Avondale, Australia, the workmen would often bruise their hands and limbs, and this in many cases resulted in such severe inflammation that the worker would have to leave his work for some time. One came to me one day in this condition, with his hand tied in a sling. He was much troubled over the circumstance; for his help was needed in clearing the land I said to him, ‘Go to the place where you have been burning the timber, and get me some charcoal from the eucalyptus tree, pulverize it, and I will dress your hand.’ This was done, and the next morning he reported that the pain was gone. Soon he was ready to return to his work. I write these things that you may know that the Lord has not left us without the use of simple remedies which, when used, will not leave the system in the weakened condition in which the use of drugs so often leaves it. We need well-trained nurses who can understand how to use the simple remedies that nature provides for restoration to health, and who can teach those who are ignorant of the laws of health how to use these simple but effective cures. He who created men and women has an interest in those who suffer. He has directed in the establishment of our sanitariums and in the building up of schools close to our sanitariums, that they may become efficient mediums in training men and women for the work of ministering to suffering humanity. In the treatment of the sick, poisonous drugs need not be used. Alcohol or
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tobacco in any form must not be recommended, lest some soul be led to imbibe a taste for these evil things.” --Letter 90, 1908 (To J. A. Burden and others at Loma Linda). Good Results with Boils Loma Linda Messages, p. 267. “Elder Haskell has suffered a great deal from boils. He has taken treatment at the Sanitarium several times, but most of his treatment he has taken in his room in our house. Our house has been his sanitarium. He has been afflicted continuously, and has kept to his bed most of the time. Pulverized charcoal poultices have been used with good results. His wife is a good nurse, and she has taken faithful care of him. He has thought several times that he had overcome affliction, and that he would recover rapidly, but as soon as he began to stir around, boils would again appear. His countenance looks clear and wholesome for a man of his age. More Recent Findings “Activated charcoal is an effective combatant of mushroom poisoning. Simple charcoal powder or tablets taken with water will do more good in cases of mushroom poisoning than the established therapeutic will. More than 95%of all fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by the green amanita phalloides, the notorious ‘death angel’.” Life and Health p6, March 1973.

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Dehydration & Rehydration
Two main causes of dehydration are diarrhea and vomiting. Diarrhea is more common and more dangerous in young children. Main Causes of Diarrhea:  Poor Nutrition—this weakens the child and makes diarrhea from other causes worse  Shortage of water and unclean conditions—spreads the germs that cause diarrhea  Viral infections such as “intestinal flu”  Bacteria, amebas, or giardia in the intestinal system can cause dysentery (diarrhea with blood); giardia causes yellow, bad-smelling diarrhea that is frothy but without blood or mucus  Worm infections (most do not cause diarrhea)  Ear infections, tonsillitis, measles, and urinary infections  Cholera—causes “rice water” stools in large quantities. Severe dehydration can occur quickly important to treat with rehydration drink to restore electrolytes  Malaria  Food poisoning—from eating spoiled food  AIDS—long lasting diarrhea is an early sign       Inability to digest milk Difficulty in babies digesting foods new to them Allergies to certain foods Side effects of medicines such as ampicillin or tetracycline Laxatives, purges, certain poisons, and irritating or poisonous plants Eating too much unripe or overripe fruit or heavy, greasy foods

The greatest danger from severe diarrhea is dehydration. The greatest danger from long lasting diarrhea is malnutrition. Treatment: 1. Treat the cause of the diarrhea. 2. Give charcoal water to help control the diarrhea. 3. Prevent or control dehydration—A person with diarrhea must drink a lot of liquids (thin cereal porridge or gruel, juice, herbal teas, soups, or water). If the diarrhea is severe or there are signs of dehydration, give him Rehydration Drink. (If he does not want to drink insist that he take a few swallows every few minutes.) 4. Meet nutritional needs—Give the person food as soon as he will eat; give babies breast milk often and before other drinks. Causes of Vomiting:  Infection  Poisoning from spoiled food  Any sickness with high fever or severe pain  Malaria  Hepatitis

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      

Tonsillitis Earache Meningitis Urinary infection Gallbladder pain Migraine headache Appendicitis or something blocking the gut (seek medical help immediately—vomit may smell like a bowel movement; may have constant pain in the gut; may not be able defecate)

Treatment:  Treat the cause of the vomiting  Give charcoal slurry water  Eat nothing while vomiting is severe  Sip tea made from ginger root to control nausea  Give rehydration drink if needed Signs of Dehydration:  Thirst  Little or no urine; dark yellow urine  Sudden weight loss  Dry mouth  Sunken, tearless eyes  Sagging in of the ‘soft spot’ in infants  Loss of elasticity or stretchiness of the skin (lift the skin between two fingers—if the skin does not fall right back to normal, the child is dehydrated)  Severe dehydration may cause rapid, weak pulse, fast, deep breathing, fever, or fits **When a person has watery diarrhea, or diarrhea and vomiting, do not wait for signs of dehydration Rehydration Drink #1 1 liter clean water ½ level teaspoon salt 8 level teaspoons sugar ½ cup of pure fruit juice, coconut water or mashed ripe banana Rehydration Drink #2 1 liter clean water ½ level teaspoon salt 8 heaping teaspoons powdered cereal Boil for 5-7 minutes to form a liquid gruel Add ½ cup pure fruit juice, coconut water or mashed ripe banana

Give the dehydrated person sips of the Rehydration Drink every 5 minutes, day and night, until he begins to urinate normally. A large person needs 3 or more liters a day. A small child usually needs at least 1 liter a day, or 1 glass for each watery stool. Keep giving the drink often in small sips, even if the person vomits. Not all the drink will be vomited. These drinks provide sodium, glucose, and potassium to balance the electrolytes in the body. This drink is especially important to give in the case of cholera.

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