THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS

OF JESUS

“Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.” John 14:6

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Table of Contents
THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS OF JESUS ........................................................................................................................................... i Table of Contents................................................................................................................................................................. ii History of Salvation in the Old Testament: Preparing the Way for Christ................................................... 1 Genesis ................................................................................................................................................................................ 1 Exodus ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Leviticus............................................................................................................................................................................ 11 Numbers ........................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Deuteronomy.................................................................................................................................................................. 15 Joshua ................................................................................................................................................................................ 17 Judges................................................................................................................................................................................. 19 Ruth .................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 1 Samuel ........................................................................................................................................................................... 21 2 Samuel ........................................................................................................................................................................... 23 1 Kings ............................................................................................................................................................................... 25 2 Kings ............................................................................................................................................................................... 28 1 Chronicles..................................................................................................................................................................... 30 2 Chronicles..................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Ezra ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Nehemiah ......................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Esther................................................................................................................................................................................. 40 Job ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 Psalms................................................................................................................................................................................ 45 Proverbs ........................................................................................................................................................................... 60 Ecclesiastes...................................................................................................................................................................... 64 Song of Solomon ............................................................................................................................................................ 65 Isaiah .................................................................................................................................................................................. 66 Jeremiah............................................................................................................................................................................ 74 Lamentations .................................................................................................................................................................. 80 Ezekiel ............................................................................................................................................................................... 81 Daniel ................................................................................................................................................................................. 86 Hosea.................................................................................................................................................................................. 89 Joel ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 90 Amos................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Obadiah ............................................................................................................................................................................. 92 Jonah .................................................................................................................................................................................. 92 Micah .................................................................................................................................................................................. 93 Nahum ............................................................................................................................................................................... 94 Habakkuk ......................................................................................................................................................................... 94 Zephaniah ........................................................................................................................................................................ 95 Haggai ................................................................................................................................................................................ 95 Zechariah .......................................................................................................................................................................... 95 Malachi .............................................................................................................................................................................. 97 Course Overview ............................................................................................................................................................... 98 Timeline of the Life of Jesus (2nd) ........................................................................................................................... 98 Historical Background (1st) ...................................................................................................................................... 98 Harmony of the Gospels ............................................................................................................................................. 98 The Life and teachings of Jesus (Birth to transfiguration) .......................................................................... 98 Reading the Gospels ......................................................................................................................................................... 98

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Genre .................................................................................................................................................................................. 98 Perspectives .................................................................................................................................................................... 99 Distinctive of Matthew................................................................................................................................................ 99 Distinctive of Mark .................................................................................................................................................... 100 Distinctives of Luke................................................................................................................................................... 101 Distinctive of John ..................................................................................................................................................... 103 Distinctives of Acts .................................................................................................................................................... 104 The Four Gospels ............................................................................................................................................................ 105 Timeline of the Life of Jesus................................................................................................................................... 105 Summary of Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................................. 107 Summary of Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................................................. 107 Summary of Chapter 3 ............................................................................................................................................. 108 Matthew.................................................................................................................................................................................. 110 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 110 Author and Title ......................................................................................................................................................... 110 Date.................................................................................................................................................................................. 110 Theme ............................................................................................................................................................................. 110 Key Themes .................................................................................................................................................................. 110 Purpose, Occasion, and Background .................................................................................................................. 111 History of Salvation Summary – Matthew & the Kingdom of God......................................................... 112 The Setting of Matthew ........................................................................................................................................... 120 Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................ 120 Chapter 1 – Genealogy of Jesus ................................................................................................................................. 123 The Genealogy of Jesus ............................................................................................................................................ 124 Chapter 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 126 Chapter 3 – Anointing | Baptism of Christ ........................................................................................................... 129 Chapter 4 – Temptations of Christ .......................................................................................................................... 131 Chapter 5 – Law of the Kingdom of God ............................................................................................................... 138 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 139 Chapter 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 183 Chapter 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Chapter 8 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 203 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 203 Chapter 9 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 207 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 207 Chapter 10 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 212 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 212 Chapter 11 – Prophet’s of God Rejected ............................................................................................................... 216 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 216 Chapter 12 – The Blind, Dumb Demoniac ............................................................................................................ 222 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 222 Chapter 13 – Parables on the Kingdom................................................................................................................. 228 Chapter 14 – Feeding of the Five thousand ......................................................................................................... 247 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 247 Chapter 15 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 252 Chapter 16 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 256 Chapter 17 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 259 Chapter 18 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 262 Child Training .............................................................................................................................................................. 262 Chapter 19 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 267
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Chapter 20 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 270 Chapter 21 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 275 The Lord’s Vineyard (33-44) ................................................................................................................................ 279 Chapter 22 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 285 Chapter 23 – Warning to the Scribes and Pharisees........................................................................................ 291 Position of the Scribes and Pharisees (1-12) ................................................................................................. 291 Condition of the Scribes and Pharisees (13-31) ........................................................................................... 293 Solution, Warning, and Final Judgment (32-39) ........................................................................................... 294 Chapter 24 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 296 Chapter 25 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 305 Chapter 26 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 312 Chapter 27 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 321 Chapter 28 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 326 Mark - Jesus Christ as a Servant ................................................................................................................................... 327 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 327 Author and Title ......................................................................................................................................................... 327 Date and Location ...................................................................................................................................................... 327 Theme ............................................................................................................................................................................. 327 Key Themes .................................................................................................................................................................. 328 Purpose, Occasion, and Background .................................................................................................................. 328 Distinctive Features .................................................................................................................................................. 328 History of Salvation Summary.............................................................................................................................. 328 Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................ 328 Chapter 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 330 John prepares the way through Baptism (1-8).............................................................................................. 330 Baptism & Temptation of Jesus in the wilderness (9-13) ......................................................................... 331 Call of Peter, Andrew, James and John (14-20) ............................................................................................. 332 Christ's authority over all diseases and demons (21-34) ......................................................................... 332 Healing of the leper and Christ's fame spreads abroad (35-45) ............................................................ 333 Chapter 2 – Healing of Man with Palsy.................................................................................................................. 336 Healing of the man sick with palsy (1-12)....................................................................................................... 336 The call and feast of Levi Matthew (13-17) .................................................................................................... 338 The question on fasting (18-22) .......................................................................................................................... 339 Plucking corn on the Sabbath (23-28) .............................................................................................................. 339 Chapter 3 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 340 Healing of the withered hand on the Sabbath (1-6) .................................................................................... 340 Multitude from seven regions gathers at the sea of Capernaum (7-12) ............................................. 340 Ordination of the twelve disciples (13-19) ..................................................................................................... 340 Who are my brethren? & Warning against the sin of blasphemy (20-35) ......................................... 341 Chapter 4 – Disciples in the Storm .......................................................................................................................... 342 Parable of the four grounds (1-23) .................................................................................................................... 342 Parables of the full corn in the ear and the mustard seed (24-34) ....................................................... 343 Let us pass over to the other side (35-41) ...................................................................................................... 343 Chapter 5 - Demoniacs of the Gadarenes | Women with Issue of Blood ................................................. 347 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 347 Christ casts out legion into the swine (1-20) ................................................................................................. 347 Resurrection of Jairus daughter and the Issue of Blood (21-43) ........................................................... 350 Chapter 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 356 Is this the carpenters Son? (1-6) ......................................................................................................................... 356 Disciples receive power over sicknesses and demons (7-13)................................................................. 356
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Herod kills John the Baptist (14-29).................................................................................................................. 356 Feeding the 5,000 (30-44) ..................................................................................................................................... 357 Christ’s walks on water and heals in Gennsaret (45-56) .......................................................................... 358 Chapter 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 360 Commandents of God vs. Tradition of men (1-23) ...................................................................................... 360 Demon casts out of Syrophenecian woman (24-30) ................................................................................... 361 Ephatha (Blind and deaf man healed) (31-37).............................................................................................. 361 Chapter 8 – Blind Man near Bethsaida .................................................................................................................. 363 Feeding of the 4,000 (1-9)...................................................................................................................................... 363 Pharisees seek a sign (10-13) ............................................................................................................................... 363 Beware of the leaven of Herod and Pharisees (14-21) .............................................................................. 363 Healing of the blind man with saliva (22-26) ................................................................................................ 364 Who am I? (Confession of Peter) (27-38) ........................................................................................................ 366 Chapter 9 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 368 The coming Kingdom of God (Transfiguration of Christ) (1-13) ........................................................... 368 Cast out through Fasting and Prayer (14-29) ................................................................................................ 368 Who is the greatest? (30-37) ................................................................................................................................ 369 How to enter the kingdom of God (38-50) ...................................................................................................... 370 Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................... 370 Chapter 10 – Conditions of the Kingdom of God ............................................................................................... 371 Is it lawful to put away your wife? (1-12) ....................................................................................................... 371 Little children and the kingdom of God (13-16) ........................................................................................... 371 Rich young ruler (kingdom of God) (17-31)................................................................................................... 372 Let us sit on your right and left hand (32-45) ............................................................................................... 375 Blind Bartimaeus (Son of David) (46-52) ........................................................................................................ 375 Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................... 376 Chapter 11 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 377 Christ’s entry into Jerusalem (1-11) .................................................................................................................. 377 Curse of the fig tree (12-14) .................................................................................................................................. 377 Cleansing the temple (15-18) ............................................................................................................................... 378 Curse fig tree and have faith in God (19-26) .................................................................................................. 378 By what authority do you do these things? (27-33).................................................................................... 378 Chapter 12 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 380 Parable of the vineyard and the heir (1-12) ................................................................................................... 380 Render unto Caesar (Question by Pharisees and Herodians) (13-17) ................................................ 380 Question on marriage and resurrection (Sadducee's) (18-27) .............................................................. 381 Question on first commandment (Scribe) (28-34) ...................................................................................... 381 Son of David, Beware of scribes, Two mites (35-45) .................................................................................. 382 Chapter 13 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 383 Not one stone left for the temple (1-4) ............................................................................................................. 383 Signs of Christ's coming (5-13) ............................................................................................................................ 383 Abomination of Desolation (14-23) ................................................................................................................... 384 Time frame, manner, and purpose of Coming (24-31) .............................................................................. 384 Warning to watch and be ready for Coming (32-37) .................................................................................. 385 Chapter 14 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 386 Chapter 15 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 391 Chapter 16 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 394 Mary, Mary, and Salome tell Peter the Christ is risen (1-8) ..................................................................... 394 Disciples don't believe Mary and the two disciples (9-13) ...................................................................... 395 Gospel commission to believe and cast out demons (14-20) .................................................................. 397
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Luke - Humanity of Jesus Christ ................................................................................................................................... 398 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 398 Author............................................................................................................................................................................. 398 Date.................................................................................................................................................................................. 398 Theme ............................................................................................................................................................................. 399 Key Themes .................................................................................................................................................................. 399 Purpose, Occasion, and Background .................................................................................................................. 400 Location ......................................................................................................................................................................... 401 Distinctive Features .................................................................................................................................................. 401 History of Salvation Summary.............................................................................................................................. 401 Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................ 401 Chapter 1 - Gabriel's glad tidings of the birth of John & Jesus ..................................................................... 404 Ordered declaration of things believed among us (1-4) ........................................................................... 407 Gabriel sent to tell Zacharias that Elisabeth will have a son, John (5-25) .......................................... 408 Gabriel sent to tell Mary she will have a son, Jesus (26-38) .................................................................... 411 Elisabeth gives birth to John (57-66) ................................................................................................................ 412 Zachariah's prophecy concerning Jesus & John (67-80) ........................................................................... 413 Chapter 2 - Jesus' birth & visit to Jerusalem ....................................................................................................... 414 Jesus born in Bethlehem during the days of taxing (1-7) ......................................................................... 414 Angels and Shepard's tell good tidings of His birth to many (8-20)..................................................... 415 Jesus circumcised and seen by Simeon and Anna (21-39) ....................................................................... 418 Jesus' growth and visit to Jerusalem (39-52) ................................................................................................. 420 Chapter 3 - Jesus' Baptism & Genealogy ............................................................................................................... 424 John preaches the baptism of repentance | Ministry of John Baptist (1-20) .................................... 424 Jesus' baptism (21-23)............................................................................................................................................. 425 The biological genealogy of Jesus (23-38)....................................................................................................... 426 Chapter 4 - Jesus' temptation and ministry in Galilee .................................................................................... 428 The 3 temptations of Jesus (1-13) ...................................................................................................................... 428 Jesus returns to Galilee & Nazareth (14-30) .................................................................................................. 429 Jesus in Capernaum and departure to the rest of Galilee (31-44) ......................................................... 431 Chapter 5 - Jesus came to call sinners to repentance (Jesus' ministry) ................................................... 433 The call of Peter, James, and John by Gennesaret (1-11) .......................................................................... 433 Jesus heals the leper and His fame goes abroad (12-16) .......................................................................... 437 Jesus heals the man with palsy before Pharisees (17-26) ........................................................................ 437 Call and feast of Levi-Matthew & Parable of new wine and old bottles (27-39) ............................. 437 Chapter 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 439 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 439 Disciples of Jesus eat corn on the Sabbath (1-5)........................................................................................... 439 Jesus heals on the Sabbath (Withered hand) (6-12) ................................................................................... 440 Jesus chooses 12 disciples (13-16)..................................................................................................................... 440 Sermon on the mount (Blessings, woes, parable) (17-49) ....................................................................... 442 Chapter 7 – The Centurion | Jesus a Prophet of God........................................................................................ 445 Centurion's faith (1-10) .......................................................................................................................................... 445 Resurrection of widow's son in Nain (11-17) ................................................................................................ 447 John questions Jesus (John more than a prophet) (18-35) ...................................................................... 448 Simon's feast (Mary Magdalene's faith) (36-50) .......................................................................................... 449 Chapter 8 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 450 Parable of the sower (1-21) .................................................................................................................................. 450 Jesus rebukes the sea and the legions of devils (22-40)............................................................................ 451 Jesus heals the issue of blood and raises Jairus' daughter (41-56)....................................................... 452
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Chapter 9 - The Kingdom of God?............................................................................................................................ 454 Jesus sends 12 disciples to preach the kingdom of God (1-10) .............................................................. 455 Feeding the 5,000 (11-17) ..................................................................................................................................... 455 Jesus asks Peter who He is (Jesus explains His kingdom) (18-27) ....................................................... 456 Jesus is transfigured (28-36) ................................................................................................................................ 456 Casting out of devil/Jesus to be delivered up/Who is the greatest? (37-50) ................................... 457 Jesus goes to Jerusalem (through Samaria, others want to follow) (51-62) ..................................... 457 Chapter 10 – ..................................................................................................................................................................... 460 Jesus sends out 70 disciples (1-24) .................................................................................................................... 460 How to inherit eternal life (Good Samaritan) (25-37) ............................................................................... 461 Mary and Martha receive Jesus (38-42) ........................................................................................................... 466 Chapter 11 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 470 Pray that God's kingdom comes (Unity) (1-13) ............................................................................................ 470 Satan’s kingdom is divided (14-28) ................................................................................................................... 475 Sign of Jonas the Prophet & Judgment (29-36) ............................................................................................. 476 Woes to Pharisees, Scribes, and Lawyers (37-54) ....................................................................................... 476 Chapter 12 - Jesus as the Judge! ............................................................................................................................... 478 Who Jesus will confess before the angels (1-12) .......................................................................................... 478 Jesus as judge or divider (warning against coveting) (13-21)................................................................ 479 Father's pleasure to give the kingdom (22-40)............................................................................................. 481 Faithful and evil servant (portions divided) (41-53) ................................................................................. 482 Judge among yourselves what is right (54-59) ............................................................................................. 483 Chapter 13 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 484 Repent or perish (Pilate mingled blood-fig tree) (1-10) ........................................................................... 484 Woman healed who had infirmity 18 years (On Sabbath) (10-17) ...................................................... 486 Kingdom of God (Mustard Seed, Leaven, Strait gate) (18-30) ................................................................ 486 Jerusalem left desolate (31-35) ........................................................................................................................... 487 Chapter 14 – Jesus' Great Supper ............................................................................................................................ 488 Jesus heals man with dropsy on the Sabbath (1-6) ..................................................................................... 488 Parable of where to sit at the wedding feast (7-11) .................................................................................... 488 Who to invite to a supper (12-14) ...................................................................................................................... 488 The great supper (15-24) ....................................................................................................................................... 489 Who is worthy to be Christ disciple (25-35) .................................................................................................. 490 Chapter 15 – 3 Parables of the lost ......................................................................................................................... 492 Parable of one lost sheep (1-7) ............................................................................................................................ 493 Parable of the one lost coin (8-10) ..................................................................................................................... 494 Parable of the prodigal son (11-32) ................................................................................................................... 496 Chapter 16 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 500 Parable of the unjust steward (1-13) ................................................................................................................ 500 The law will not fail (14-18).................................................................................................................................. 504 Parable of the Rich man and Lazarus (19-31) ............................................................................................... 504 Chapter 17 – Salvation through faith not sight | Redemption through obedience ............................. 508 Woe to whom offences come (1-4)..................................................................................................................... 508 Increase our faith (5-10) ........................................................................................................................................ 508 Cleansing of the 10 lepers (Faith is increased by obeying) (11-19) ..................................................... 509 Signs of His return (20-37) .................................................................................................................................... 511 Chapter 18 – Prayer & Faith? .................................................................................................................................... 513 Pray continually (regarding your adversaries) (1-8) ................................................................................. 513 Prayer of justification (Pharisee and the Publican, be humble) (9-17) .............................................. 516 How to inherit eternal life (18-30) ..................................................................................................................... 519
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Blind man asks for mercy (35-43) ...................................................................................................................... 520 Chapter 19 – Conditions of being a part of God’s house ................................................................................ 524 Story of Zacchaeus (a child of Abraham) (1-10) ........................................................................................... 524 Parable of the Nobleman receiving a kingdom (occupy till I come) (11-27) .................................... 526 Jesus' entry into Jerusalem (28-44) ................................................................................................................... 527 Jesus cleanses the temple the second time (45-48) .................................................................................... 528 Chapter 20 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 529 Pharisees ask what authority (parable of vineyard given to others) (1-19) .................................... 529 Spies question Tribute to Caesar (19-26)........................................................................................................ 530 Sadducees question resurrection and marriage (27-39) .......................................................................... 530 How is Christ David's Son, and beware of scribes (40-47)....................................................................... 531 Chapter 21 - The Second Coming of Jesus ............................................................................................................ 532 Applications ................................................................................................................................................................. 532 Widow with the two mites (1-4) ......................................................................................................................... 532 Persecution & Betrayal of God's people (5-19) ............................................................................................. 532 Days of Vengeance on Jerusalem (20-24) ........................................................................................................ 534 The Second Coming (signs and seasons) (25-33) ........................................................................................ 534 Preparation to be ready for the Second Coming (34-38) .......................................................................... 535 Chapter 22 - Betrayal and Denial of the Son of Man ........................................................................................ 536 Judas makes a covenant to betray Jesus (1-6) ............................................................................................... 537 The Passover supper & who is the greatest (7-30) ..................................................................................... 537 Peter pledges not to deny Christ (31-38) ........................................................................................................ 538 Gethsemane (39-53)................................................................................................................................................. 538 Trial of Jesus and the denial of Peter (54-71) ................................................................................................ 539 Chapter 23 - Jesus before Pilate and Herod ........................................................................................................ 541 Jesus before Pilate the first time (1-7) .............................................................................................................. 541 Jesus before Herod (8-12) ...................................................................................................................................... 542 Jesus before Pilate the second time (13-26)................................................................................................... 542 Jesus goes to Calvary (27-34) ............................................................................................................................... 543 Death and burial of Jesus (35-56) ....................................................................................................................... 544 Chapter 24 - The Resurrection of Jesus................................................................................................................. 548 Mary and others tell disciples Jesus has risen (1-12) ................................................................................. 548 Walk to Emmaus (13-35) ....................................................................................................................................... 548 Jesus in the upper room with His disciples (36-49) .................................................................................... 552 Jesus returns to heaven (50-53) .......................................................................................................................... 552 John........................................................................................................................................................................................... 553 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 553 Author and Title ......................................................................................................................................................... 553 Date and Place of Writing ....................................................................................................................................... 554 Theme ............................................................................................................................................................................. 554 Purpose, Occasion, and Background .................................................................................................................. 554 Key Themes .................................................................................................................................................................. 554 Distinctive Features .................................................................................................................................................. 555 History of Salvation Summary.............................................................................................................................. 555 Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................ 556 Chapter 1 – Identity of the Prophet of God .......................................................................................................... 557 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 557 The Word, Life and Light (1-5)............................................................................................................................. 557 John the Baptist to bear witness (6-36) ........................................................................................................... 559 John's two disciples abide with Jesus (37-42) ............................................................................................... 562
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The calling of Philip (43-45) ................................................................................................................................. 563 Nathanael (46-51) ..................................................................................................................................................... 563 Chapter 2 – The Miracle at Cana | Cleansing of the Temple ......................................................................... 564 Jesus’ first miracle – the marriage at Cana (1-11)........................................................................................ 564 Jesus, His mother, brethren and disciples go down to Capernaum (12-13) ..................................... 567 The beginning of Jesus’ ministry (14-17) ........................................................................................................ 567 The Jews asks for a sign and Jesus speaks of the temple of His body (18-22) ................................. 568 Jesus knows what is in man (23-25).................................................................................................................. 569 Chapter 3 – Nicodemus | Ministry of John (Conditions of Salvation-In reach) .................................... 570 Jesus’ interview with Nicodemus (1-21).......................................................................................................... 570 Jesus and His disciples go into the land of Judea and baptize (22) ....................................................... 577 John the Baptist is baptizing in Aenon (23-24) ............................................................................................. 577 John testifies of Jesus again – He must increase, I must decrease (25-36) ........................................ 577 Chapter 4 – Women at the Well | the Nobleman (Message to the Gentiles-Outreach)...................... 579 Jesus departs because of the issue of baptism between Himself and John (1-3) ............................ 579 Jesus and the Samaritan woman (4-30) ........................................................................................................... 579 The meat of Jesus – to do the will of the Father and to finish His work (31-38) ............................. 583 Jesus abides two days with the Samaritans and many more believe (39-42) .................................. 584 Jesus’ second miracle in Galilee – He heals the son of a noble man by speaking (43-54) ........... 585 Chapter 5 – Healing at Bethesda .............................................................................................................................. 588 Jesus heals the cripple man at Bethesda (1-9) .............................................................................................. 588 The cripple man knows not who healed him so he cannot tell the Jews (10-13) ........................... 590 The Jews find out it is Jesus and seek to persecute and slay Him for healing on the Sabbath (1416) .................................................................................................................................................................................... 591 Jews seek to kill Jesus more because He calls God His Father (17-18) ............................................... 591 Jesus explains His relationship between Himself and the Father (19-47)......................................... 591 Chapter 6 – The True Bread ....................................................................................................................................... 594 Reading .......................................................................................................................................................................... 594 Jesus feeds the multitude and they testify that He is a prophet (1-14)............................................... 594 Jesus walks on the sea and brings the disciples boat over to Capernaum (15-21) ........................ 595 Jesus exhorts the multitude to labour for the meat that does not perish (22-29) ......................... 595 Jesus introduces Himself as the bread of life, the living bread (30-52) .............................................. 596 Jesus exhorts them to eat his flesh and drink his blood (53-65) ........................................................... 597 Separation of true and false disciples (66-71) .............................................................................................. 598 Chapter 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 600 Chapter 8 – Women taken in Adultery .................................................................................................................. 604 Chapter 9 – The Man Born Blind .............................................................................................................................. 611 Chapter 10 – The true Shepard ................................................................................................................................ 617 Chapter 11 – The Ressurection and the Life ....................................................................................................... 624 Chapter 12 - ...................................................................................................................................................................... 627 Chapter 13 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 633 Chapter 14 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 638 Chapter 15 – The true Vine ........................................................................................................................................ 641 Chapter 16 – Coming of the Comforter ................................................................................................................. 644 Chapter 17 – Prayer of Unity ..................................................................................................................................... 646 Chapter 18 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 648 Chapter 19 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 652 Chapter 20 - Resurrection of Jesus ......................................................................................................................... 655 Chapter 21 – Peter at the Sea of Tiberias ............................................................................................................. 657

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History of Salvation in the Old Testament: Preparing the Way for Christ
(The notes in this feature are identified by single verses only, for easy cross-reference with the main study notes on Bible-text pages. However, many of these notes apply to more than just the one verse by which they are identified. Directions for the reader to “see note on” another verse refer only to notes within this feature, not to the main study notes on Bible-text pages.)

Genesis
After God creates a world of fruitfulness and blessing, Adam's fall disrupts the harmony. God purposes to renew fruitfulness and blessing through the offspring of the woman (3:15). Christ is the ultimate offspring (Gal. 3:16) who brings climactic victory (Heb. 2:14–15). Genesis traces the beginning of a line of godly offspring, through Seth, Enoch, Noah, and then God's choice of Abraham and his offspring (Gen. 12:2–3, 7; 13:14–17; 15:4–5; 17:1–14; 18:18; 22:16–18; 26:2–5; 28:13–15). 1:1 God's act of creation is the foundation for the entire biblical history. A considerable number of passages refer back to creation (e.g., Psalms 8; 104; 148; John 1:1–3; 1 Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:15–17; Heb. 1:2; 11:3; 1 John 1:5–7). All the rest of the Bible depends indirectly on it. 1:3 God speaks, and it is done. The centrality of the word of God in the acts of creation anticipates the deeper truth given in John 1:1, that the second person of the Trinity is the Word. 1:3 God created physical light. The Bible also says that God is light in a moral and spiritual sense (1 John 1:5). By God's design, the physical aspects of creation can serve as vehicles for developing themes about God and his salvation. Jesus is “the light of the world” (John 8:12). 1:26 The divine Son is “the image of the invisible God” (Col. 1:15). Man was created in a way that reflects the imaging relation among the Persons of the Trinity. The redemption of man from the fall and sin includes re-creation (2 Cor. 5:17), his being “created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness,” in the image of Christ (Eph. 4:24). 1:28 God created a permanent order of creation. But he also intended a development in which man would play a central role. Because Adam failed and fell into sin, Christ came as the last Adam to achieve dominion (see 1 Cor. 15:22, 45–49; Eph. 1:21–22). 1:31 Sin is a later intrusion into an originally good creation. It is not inherent in the world, and so it can be completely removed when God achieves his purposes in the consummation (Rev. 22:3–5). 2:2 God rested from his works of creation. But he continues to work in providence and (after sin enters) in redemption. See John 5:17. As human beings we look forward to entering into God's rest (Heb. 4:4, 9–11). 2:3 Man imitates the pattern of God's work and rest in the sabbath cycle of days (Ex. 20:8–11) and years (Leviticus 25). 2:7 God has life in himself and imparts life to his creatures. The impartation of physical life anticipates the impartation of spiritual life (John 1:4; see 1 Cor. 15:45). Life is in the Son (John 5:21, 26; 1 John 5:12) and comes to us through the Spirit (John 3:5).

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2:8 The garden of Eden and paradise reminds us of what we have lost (Joel 2:3) but also of what will yet be renewed in the world to come (Isa. 51:3; Rev. 22:1–3). 2:9 After the fall, the tree of life was barred to man (3:24). But God promises fruitfulness to those who know him (Ps. 1:3) and to those who obtain wisdom (Prov. 3:18). Eternal life is obtained in Christ (John 5:24), and free access to the tree of life reappears in the consummation (Rev. 22:2). 2:24 Divorce is a deviation from God's design in creation (Matt. 19:4). The marriage relationship anticipates the relation of Christ to the church (Eph. 5:22–33). See Overview of the Bible, concerning Christ as the last Adam. 3:1 Later Scripture indicates that Satan worked through the serpent (Isa. 27:1; Rev. 12:9). He was defeated by Christ's work on the cross (Heb. 2:14–15), and will be utterly destroyed in the events leading to the consummation (Rev. 20:7–10). 3:4 Throughout history Satan is engaged in deceiving (2 Thess. 2:9–12; Rev. 12:9) and casting doubt on the word of God. When tempted by Satan, Christ rejected his lies (Matt. 4:1–11). In spite of Satan's attacks, the word of God will stand forever (Ps. 119:89; Matt. 24:35). 3:8 God appears and judges Adam and Eve, anticipating the final day of judgment in Christ (John 5:22). Because of the sacrificial work of Christ, judgment can be tempered with mercy on those who belong to Christ. 3:15 The offspring of the woman who inflicts decisive defeat on the serpent is Christ (Heb. 2:14). But earlier in time, within the OT, there are partial defeats through people who prefigure Christ and foreshadow the final conflict. 3:24 When Christ opens the way to eternal life, the barring of the way to life is removed (John 14:6; Heb. 10:19–22; Rev. 22:2). 4:26 The line of Seth appears to be a more godly line, corresponding to the promise of the offspring of the woman (3:15), while Cain and his descendants correspond more to the offspring of the serpent. The line of Seth ultimately leads to Christ (Luke 3:38). 5:5 Death is a repeated, grim occurrence, reminding us of the reality of the curse (2:17; 3:19) and the need for God in mercy to provide a final remedy for death through Christ (John 11:25–26; Rev. 1:18; 21:4). 5:24 Enoch's walk with God makes him an early example of faith (Heb. 11:5–6), and his being taken by God without dying anticipates the eternal resurrection life that Christ gives (Rom. 8:11). 6:9 For Noah's faith, see Heb. 11:7. Noah by his righteousness saved not only himself but his family, prefiguring the righteousness of Christ by which Christ saved his spiritual family. 6:18 God promises in a covenant (see Overview of the Bible) to save Noah, prefiguring the new covenant in Christ by which we receive eternal salvation (1 Cor. 11:25; Heb. 10:15–18). 7:23 The flood brought a whole world to an end (2 Pet. 2:5; 3:6). It prefigures the final judgment, which ends the present heavens and earth and brings a new world (Rev. 21:1). God preserves those
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who belong to Christ, the final Noah. 8:13 The emerging of a new world prefigures the creation of the new heaven and the new earth (Rev. 21:1–4; see 2 Pet. 3:5–7). 9:7 God repeats the command given to man in 1:28. Noah is a new head or representative for humanity, prefiguring Christ, who will be the final head of the new humanity (1 Cor. 15:45–48). All those descending from Noah are privileged for his sake. 9:11 In a covenant God guarantees to all mankind blessings that come through Noah. He shows mercy, based on sacrifice (8:21), pointing forward ultimately to the mercy that comes through the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 10:12). 10:32 All the nations of the world are encompassed in the plan of God. He chooses Abram alone (12:1–3), but eventually “all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him” (18:18; see 12:3; Rev. 5:9). 11:4 Babel, and later Babylon (Revelation 17–18), is the quintessential worldly city, where man tries to exalt himself to the position of a god. It contrasts with the holy city of God's people, whose name is made great not through their prideful self-exaltation but by the power of God (Gen. 12:2; Rev. 21:2). 12:1 God will give Abram a great name, in contrast to the self-exalting desire in Babel (11:4). The choice of Abram narrows down the line of the offspring of the woman (3:15) to Abram's offspring. Ultimately, Abraham is great as a progenitor of Christ (Rom. 9:5). 12:2 God's promise is reiterated and expanded as time passes (13:14–17; 15:4–5; 17:1–14; 18:18; 22:16–18; 26:2–5; 28:13–15; 35:10–12). 12:3 The inclusion of all the families of the earth anticipates the spread of the gospel and salvation in Christ to the ends of the earth (Matt. 28:18–20; Acts 1:8; Gal. 3:8). 12:7 God's promise has a short-range fulfillment when the nation of Israel conquers Canaan under Joshua (Josh. 21:43; see 1 Kings 4:21). Ultimately the offspring narrows down to Christ (Gal. 3:16), whose dominion extends not only over the land of Canaan but over all the world (Matt. 28:18). The land of Canaan prefigures the eternal inheritance of the world in Christ (Heb. 4:1–11; 11:10, 13– 16). In Christ believers are the offspring of Abraham (Gal. 3:7, 29). 13:15 God confirms and expands his promise to Abram (see notes on 12:1; 12:2; and 12:7). 14:18 Melchizedek, a priest and king, prefigures Christ's priesthood (Heb. 7:1–8:6). 15:6 Abram's trust in God is the model for Christians' trust in God's promises in Christ (Gal. 3:6–9). Righteousness is “counted” or reckoned, not on the basis of our achievement, but because in faith we look to God who supplies righteousness in Christ (Rom. 4:5–9; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:6). 15:17 The flame, symbolizing God, passes between the pieces, symbolizing that God himself will bear the penalty if the promise is broken. Ultimately, Christ bears the penalty for our disobedience.

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16:10 Because of the line of chosen offspring, leading to Christ (Gal. 3:16), some blessings overflow and extend even to collateral descendants like Ishmael. 16:13 Hagar perceives that the Lord has spoken to her, which implies that “the angel of the Lord” is divine. Some think that this is a pre-incarnate appearance of Christ. Christ is the final, divine messenger of the covenant (Mal. 3:1) who is anticipated in this scene. 17:4 The multiplication of the nation of Israel represents the proximate fulfillment of God's promise (Ex. 1:7). Those who place their trust in Christ, the offspring of Abraham (Gal. 3:16), now become sons of Abraham (Gal. 3:6–9), so that ultimately all the multitude of the saved (Rev. 5:9) have Abraham as father (Rom. 4:17–18). 17:10 Circumcision symbolizes the covenant relation to God, which demands holiness. It is fulfilled in Christ's purification of believers (Col. 2:11). 18:2 Two of the “men” turn out to be angels (19:1), while the third is the Lord (18:22). The appearance of God in human form anticipates the incarnation of the Son (John 1:1–18). 18:10 The miraculous birth of a son according to the power of God's word anticipates later instances where God's word overcomes a “dead” womb and brings new life: 25:21; 30:22; 1 Sam. 1:20; Isa. 54:1. The pattern culminates in the virgin birth of Christ (Luke 1:35), and has relevance for understanding God's sovereignty in election (Rom. 9:8–9). 18:24 Abraham's limited intercession fails to spare Sodom. Christ's perfect intercession always succeeds (Heb. 7:23–25). 19:16 Though Lot is a mixed character who makes compromises, God saves him and his family, prefiguring his mercy in eternal salvation (2 Pet. 2:7–9). 19:24 The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah prefigures eternal judgment (2 Pet. 2:6, 9–10; Rev. 14:10–11). 20:6 Even though Abraham misuses her, God in mercy preserves Sarah, who embodies the line of holy offspring leading to Christ. 21:2 The miraculous birth of Isaac, the special offspring of promise, prefigures the coming birth of Christ, in accordance with all the promises of God. 21:4 Circumcision represents purification and holiness, anticipating the purity of Christ (Luke 2:21; 3:22; Col. 2:11; see Gen. 17:10). 21:10 The distinction between the miraculous son of promise and the son from human planning prefigures the distinction between the church and natural descendants of Abraham (Gal. 4:30). 22:3 Abraham demonstrates the reality of his faith in action, serving as a model for how our good works demonstrate our faith (James 2:18–24). 22:8 Isaac comes near to being sacrificed, but God provides a substitute. Ultimately God will sacrifice his only Son, who dies in our place (Gal. 3:13, 16). The ram prefigures the sacrifice of
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Christ. 22:16 Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son leads to great blessing to his offspring. God's sacrifice of his only Son leads to even greater blessings to Christ's spiritual offspring (Rom. 5:8–11; Heb. 6:13–14). 23:19 Abraham takes care about Sarah's burial, expressing thereby his faith in God's promise that he will possess the land. The fact that the land is not theirs during Sarah's or Abraham's earthly life points forward to the resurrection of the dead (Heb. 11:13–16). 24:4 The marriage of Isaac is important, because he is the offspring of promise through whose offspring the world will be blessed. The special provision of a wife for Isaac prefigures God's offspring of promise, Christ, receiving a bride, the church (Rev. 19:7). 25:23 Jacob the chosen one and Esau the one not chosen prefigure the age-long struggle between the chosen people and their adversaries (Mal. 1:2–3; Rom. 9:10–13). The principle applies in the OT to Israel and in the NT to the church. 26:28 Abimelech's respect for Isaac prefigures the salvation of the nations through Abraham's offspring in Christ (18:18). 27:35 God carries out his sovereign purpose of confirming Jacob as the chosen line of the offspring of Abraham (12:7; 25:23), in spite of Isaac's intent to bless Esau and in spite of the sinfulness in Jacob's deceit. 28:12 The opening of access to heaven anticipates Christ, who opens access permanently (John 1:51; Heb. 10:19–20). 29:25 Even in the midst of trickery God sovereignly works to give Jacob wives, through whom he will fulfill the promise to multiply Abraham's offspring (15:5). 30:1 In the midst of sordid competition between Leah and Rachel, God sovereignly fulfills the first stage of his promise to multiply Abraham's offspring (12:2; 15:5; 17:5; 26:4; 28:14). 31:24 God protects Jacob, fulfilling his earlier promise (28:13–15) and protecting the line of chosen offspring leading to Christ (Gal. 3:16). 32:24 God appears in human form, anticipating the incarnation of Christ. 33:4 God delivers Jacob and his family from a feared attack by Esau, fulfilling his promise to Jacob and his offspring (28:14–15) and protecting the offspring leading to Christ. 34:9 Though Simeon and Levi are later criticized for their deceit and violence (49:5–7), God uses them in preserving the line of holy offspring from intermarriage (see Deut. 7:3), thus protecting the line until the coming of Christ the final offspring (Gal. 3:16). 35:10 God confirms earlier promises to Abraham and his offspring (see note on 12:2).

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36:1 The record of collateral, rejected offspring (25:23) is given before continuing with the record of the line leading to Christ (Gal. 3:16). 37:7 Prophetic dreams concerning God's plan for the offspring of promise foreshadow the final prophetic unveiling of God's purposes through Christ. 37:20 Joseph, who is to be the key deliverer of God's people, has a scrape with death, and is finally glorified (41:41), foreshadowing the suffering and glorification of Christ the final deliverer. 38:29 In spite of unrighteous sexual behavior by several males, God brings about his own purpose of continuing the offspring leading to Christ (Matt. 1:3). 39:9 Joseph, in contrast to Adam and Eve, firmly rejected temptation, anticipating Christ's rejection of temptation (Matt. 4:1–11; 16:23). 40:23 The trials of Joseph, testing his faith, anticipate the trials that come to Christ as man (Matt. 4:1–11), and that come to disciples of Christ (Acts 14:22; 1 Thess. 3:4). 41:36 Through prophetic gifts given by God, Joseph is able to save from famine not only Jacob and his family, but Egypt. He foreshadows Christ, whose prophetic teaching and suffering bring eternal salvation both to Jews and to Gentiles. (See 18:18.) 42:9 God works according to his plan, which was already revealed in Joseph's dreams (37:5–9). God cares for the line of offspring leading to Christ (3:15; Gal. 3:16). 43:9 Judah offers himself as a substitute, prefiguring the substitution of Christ the offspring of Judah. 44:33 See note on 43:9. 44:29 Salvation through Joseph includes not only rescue from famine, but a change of heart in the brothers, compared to their earlier envy and violence toward Joseph. The change prefigures the change of heart that Christ works through the Spirit (John 3:3–8). 45:15 Reconciliation springs from forgiveness, prefiguring God's reconciliation and forgiveness in Christ. 46:4 God delivers the entire family from famine and promises permanent care, anticipating both the exodus from Egypt (Exodus 1–14) and the subsequent generations leading to Christ. 47:6 Through Joseph's deliverance abundant blessings come to his family, prefiguring the blessings of deliverance in Christ. 48:5 The transformation of one tribe (Joseph) into two further illustrates the fruitfulness of blessing to the line of offspring that God has chosen and blessed. 49:10 At this early point God already reveals that through Judah will come a line of kings, leading finally to Christ the great, eternal king (Matt. 1:1–16).

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50:20 God uses even evil to work out his good purposes, foreshadowing the time when he will bring the supreme good, namely, eternal salvation, out of the wicked actions of the men who condemned and crucified Jesus (Acts 2:23; 4:25–28). 50:24 God's promises stand firm through generations (12:7; 15:13–14). His faithfulness is expressed climactically in Christ (2 Cor. 1:20).

Exodus
Through Moses God redeems his people from slavery in Egypt, prefiguring Christ's eternal redemption of his people from slavery to sin. 1:7 The multiplication of the people fulfills God's promise to multiply Abraham's descendants (Gen. 15:5) and to bless the world through them (Gen. 18:18), specifically through Christ (Gal. 3:8). 1:13 Bitter suffering precedes release, symbolizing that suffering under sin precedes the deliverance from sin in Christ. 2:10 Moses, the special agent for God's deliverance, has his life preserved, anticipating the rescue of baby Jesus from Herod's murders (Matt. 2:13). 2:15 God brings deliverance through his power and in his way, through the weakness of the cross, not through merely human impulses for justice (1 Cor. 1:25). 3:5 The overwhelming holiness of the presence of God anticipates the presence of God in Christ's incarnation. 3:12 The commissioning of Moses by God's word and God's power prefigures the commissioning of Christ for his work (Matt. 3:17). 3:14 The name “I am” anticipates the “I am” sayings of Jesus (see John 8:58), which show his deity. 4:13 Moses' reluctance points forward ultimately to the need for a divine deliverer, Jesus Christ. 5:2 Pharaoh's refusal to recognize the true God prefigures the resistance of people to Christ's claims, even though miracles supported his claims. 6:8 The mention of the patriarchs (see Gen. 12:7) shows the faithfulness of God and the continuity of his purposes over time. This faithfulness comes to ultimate fruition with the sending of the Son. 7:17 The plagues on Egypt foreshadow the plagues preceding the second coming (Rev. 11:6). 9:16 God uses even those who resist his will, prefiguring his use of Herod and Pilate (Acts 2:23). 10:4 The locusts prefigure the judgments associated with the day of the Lord (Joel 1–2; Rev. 9:1– 11). 11:5 The plague of death reminds us that the wages of sin is death (Rom. 6:23). Only through the

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death of God's Son are we delivered. 12:6 Deliverance through the blood of a lamb prefigures the coming of the Lamb of God to obtain final salvation through his death (John 1:29). 12:46 Because Jesus is the fulfillment of the Passover lamb (1 Cor. 5:7), it is fitting that none of Jesus' bones were broken (John 19:36). 13:3 We now look back to the final Passover in which Christ brought eternal salvation from sin (1 Cor. 5:7), and we remember it in the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 11:23–26). 14:19 God's special presence in the cloud prefigures his presence in Christ, who is our protection and refuge against all the attacks of Satan. 14:22 The people go down symbolically into death and come up alive, prefiguring the reception of resurrection life through Christ (see Rom. 6:4; 1 Cor. 10:2). 15:2 Praise for God's salvation anticipates the songs of praise for Christ's final work of salvation (Rev. 5:9–14; 15:3). 15:17 The conquest of Canaan prefigures the entrance into the final sanctuary of God's presence, mediated by Christ (Heb. 10:19–20; Rev. 21:22). 16:4 Manna prefigures Christ the bread of heaven, who gives eternal life (John 6:31–35). 16:18 The sufficiency of the manna prefigures the sufficiency of Christ to meet every need of his people (Phil. 4:19). 17:6 God providing water after striking the rock prefigures Christ, who is stricken to provide the water of eternal life (John 4:14; 19:34). 18:18 The limitations of Moses prefigure the need for Christ, the divine judge, and Christ's appointment of shepherds under him (elders) to carry out his will (1 Pet. 5:1–4). 19:6 The privileges of Israel prefigure the higher privileges of the NT church (1 Pet. 2:9–10), won through Christ's redemption (Heb. 10:10). 19:12 The threat of death illustrates the impossibility of sinful people approaching a holy God. The impossibility is overcome only through the sacrifice and mediation of Christ (Heb. 10:19–20). 20:2 Christians now obey God's commandments because he has brought us out of sin and death (Rom. 13:9; Col. 1:13; Rev. 1:5–6). 20:11 The celebration of the Sabbath looks back to creation (see notes on Gen. 2:2 and 2:3), back to redemption from Egyptian slavery (Deut. 5:15), and forward to final rest through faith in Christ (Heb. 4:1–11). 20:13 The Ten Commandments are deepened through Jesus' teaching (Matt. 5:17–48) and fulfilled

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in Jesus' perfect righteousness (Heb. 4:15; 5:9). 21:2 The ordinances concerning slavery anticipate our being freed from slavery to sin and becoming slaves to Christ (Rom. 6:20–22; 1 Cor. 7:22). 21:12 The principles of retribution and restitution, though they hedge in sin and give partial remedies, do not bring a perfect kingdom, but look forward to the perfection of the kingdom of Christ (Isa. 9:6–7; Matt. 5:38–48). 23:1 The truthfulness of God, coming to its climax in Christ, is to be reflected in truthfulness displayed to fellow human beings, and the compassion and justice of God is to be reflected in treatment of fellow humans. 24:8 Consecration through blood prefigures consecration through the blood of Christ (Heb. 9:18– 26). 24:11 Fellowship with God prefigures our seeing God in the face of Jesus Christ (John 14:9). Christians enjoy fellowship with God in Christ, who is the food of eternal life (John 6:53–58), symbolized in the Lord's Supper and consummated in the final feast (Rev. 19:9; 22:4). 25:8 The making of a dwelling place anticipates Solomon's temple (1 Kings 6) and prefigures God's dwelling with humanity in Christ (Matt. 1:23; John 2:19–21; Rev. 21:22), in the church (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:19–22), in the individual Christian (1 Cor. 6:19), and in the consummation (Rev. 21:3, 22– 27). The actual construction of the tabernacle is described in Exodus 36–39. 25:22 God's meeting with and speaking to his people prefigures his intimacy and communion with believers in Christ (John 15:4). 25:30 Bread expressing fellowship with God prefigures Jesus feeding us as the bread of life (John 6:35, 52–58). 25:37 The provision of light in the presence of God prefigures Jesus as the light of the world (John 1:4–9; 3:19–21; 8:12; 9:5). 25:40 The tabernacle is a shadow or copy of the heavenly, final dwelling of God, as indicated in Heb. 8:5. The symbolism in the tabernacle therefore consistently prefigures Christ and the church (see note on Ex. 25:8). 26:33 The curtain bars access to all except the specially qualified high priest (Leviticus 16), prefiguring that only Christ can open the way to God (Heb. 9:7–14; 10:20). 27:1 Access to God is only through sacrifice on the altar (Lev. 4:10), prefiguring the necessity of the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 9:12–14). 27:9 The hangings of the court erect one more barrier to approaching God, thereby emphasizing his holiness. See note on 26:33. 28:2 The external holiness and beauty of the priest prefigures the perfect holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:6).
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29:1 The priests, being sinful, need atoning sacrifice for themselves, contrasting with the perfection of Christ's priesthood (Heb. 7:26–28). 30:1 Burning incense represents intercessory prayer (Rev. 5:8), prefiguring Christ's intercession (Heb. 7:25). 30:16 Atonement money prefigures Christ's buying us at the price of his own blood (1 Pet. 1:18– 19). 30:20 Washing prefigures cleansing from sin in Christ (Zech. 13:1; 1 Cor. 6:11). 31:3 The giving of the Spirit prefigures Christ's building the church through the Spirit (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 14:12; Eph. 2:20–22). The building of the church is based on Christ's resurrection through the Spirit (John 2:19–21; Rom. 8:11). See note on 1 Kings 7:14. 32:12 Moses' intercession prefigures the intercessory prayers of Christ (Heb. 7:25). 32:32 Moses offers himself as a substitute, prefiguring Christ's substitutionary death (Heb. 10:10). 33:19 God as sovereign works his will in election (Rom. 9:15). 33:22 Moses as sinful must be shielded from the full weight of God's holiness, prefiguring Christ's shielding us from the wrath of God (Rom. 5:9–11). 34:9 God's mercy prefigures the mercy given in Christ (Rom. 4:8). 35:21 The willingness of the people prefigures the willingness of Christ's self-giving sacrifice (John 10:18), and then the willingness that he works in us to be used by God (Rom. 12:1; 2 Cor. 8:9–15; 9:7, 13–15). 36:10 The construction exactly according to God's design (26:1–6; see 39:42) prefigures the construction of the church according to God's design (Eph. 4:11–16) and the construction of the new world (Rev. 21:2). 37:1 The construction matches 25:10–22. See note on 25:22. 37:10 The construction matches 25:23–30. See note on 25:30. 37:17 The construction matches 25:31–39. See note on 25:37. 37:25 The construction matches 30:1–10. See note on 30:1. 38:1 The construction matches 27:1–8. See note on 27:1. 38:8 The construction matches 30:17–21. See note on 30:20. 38:9 The construction matches 27:9–19. See note on 27:9.

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39:1 The garments match 28:1–43. See note on 28:2. 40:34 See the parallel in 1 Kings 8:10–11. The filling of the tent with God's glory prefigures the fullness of the Spirit in Christ (Matt. 3:16–17; John 1:14; 3:34–35) and in the church (Acts 2:3–4; 1 Cor. 3:16).

Leviticus
The requirement of holiness points to the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26–28). The sacrifices prefigure the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 10:1–10). 1:9 The offering of the whole sacrifice to God prefigures Christ's giving of his whole self (Heb. 10:5– 10). The whole sacrifice ascends in smoke, prefiguring the ascension of Christ (Heb. 9:24). 2:1 The offering of the fruitfulness of the land prefigures the honor given to God through the fruitfulness of Christ (John 13:31–32; 1 Cor. 15:23). 3:1 Most of the peace offering is eaten by the worshiper (7:15–16), signifying fellowship with and blessing from God. It is fulfilled in Christ's reconciliation and giving himself as food (John 6:52–57; Rom. 5:9–11). 4:2 The promise of forgiveness is fulfilled in Christ's giving himself as a sacrifice for sin (Rom. 8:3; Heb. 10:1–10). 4:12 The position outside the camp prefigures Christ's crucifixion outside Jerusalem (Heb. 13:11– 14). 5:1 Sins of falsehood and sins against holiness are forgiven in anticipation of Christ's work in holiness (Heb. 9:23–26; 10:11–20). 6:13 The continuation of the altar fire indicates the insufficiency of repeated sacrifices (Heb. 10:1– 4), in contrast to the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice (Heb. 10:10) and intercession (Heb. 7:25). 7:20 Fellowship with God and with the things of God requires holiness, prefiguring the holiness of Christ purifying us (Heb. 10:10; 12:14). 8:1 For the instructions for consecration, see Exodus 29. 8:30 Consecration through oil and blood prefigures purification from sin through the Spirit and the blood of Christ (Heb. 9:19–26; 1 Pet. 1:2). 9:24 God's acceptance of the offering prefigures his acceptance of the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 9:13– 14). 10:2 The rejection of human inventions prefigures the fact that Christ is the only way to God (John 14:6; Acts 4:12). 11:45 Separation from uncleanness symbolizes separation from sin in order to be intimate with

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God. It prefigures Christ's work bringing holiness (Heb. 7:26; 10:10). 12:7 Human birth is contaminated with sin ever since Adam. The remedy is in new birth (John 3:3– 8) through Christ (Rom. 5:15–21). 14:2 Cleansing prefigures Christ's work of cleansing from sin (Luke 5:12–14; Heb. 9:9–14). 15:1 Disorders of the body symbolize the disorder of sin, to be cleansed by Christ (Heb. 9:9–14). 16:16 Symbolical atonement prefigures Christ's final atonement (Heb. 9:7–14). 17:11 The blood symbolizing life prefigures the blood of Christ, whose poured-out life brings atonement for sin (Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:12–14, 18–26). 17:14 In the superior blessing of the new covenant we partake of the blood of Christ as the source of spiritual life (John 6:53–56). 18:3 Separation from pagan practices is part of holiness with God, prefiguring the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26) and his people (2 Cor. 6:14–18). 18:5 Ultimately, the holiness of God requires perfect obedience, which is found in Christ (2 Cor. 5:21). Sinful man cannot keep the law (Rom. 10:5; Gal. 3:12–14). 19:2 Loyalty to God requires a life of holiness (1 Pet. 1:15–22). 19:18 The love commandment finds fulfillment in Christ and in those who are his (Matt. 22:39; Rom. 13:9; Gal. 5:14; James 2:8; 1 John 3:11–18; 4:7–21). 20:2 Sin has consequences in curse and death, prefiguring both the death of Christ as sin-bearer (1 Pet. 2:24) and eternal death in hell (Rev. 20:14–15). 21:1 Holiness requires separation from death, which symbolizes sin. The priests prefigure the priesthood of Christ (Heb. 7:26–28) and of his redeemed people (1 Pet. 2:5, 9; Rev. 1:6; 5:10). 22:3 Sin, symbolized by uncleanness, disqualifies us from heavenly things and must be cleansed by Christ (Heb. 9:8–13). 23:5 See Deut. 16:1–8. The Passover prefigures the Last Supper and Christ's death (Matt. 26:19, 26– 28; 1 Cor. 5:7). 23:16 See Deut. 16:9–12. This is the feast of “Pentecost,” fulfilled in Acts when the firstfruits from the nations are gathered into the church (Acts 2:1–11). 23:28 The day of atonement, an annual day described in chapter 16, prefigures the once-for-all atonement of Christ (Heb. 9:7–14; 10:3–5). 24:2 Continual light prefigures Jesus as the light of the world (John 1:4–9; 3:19–21; 8:12; 9:5).

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24:8 Continual bread prefigures Jesus as the bread of life (John 6:35, 48–51). 25:4 The rest given to the land prefigures the final rest given in the consummation (Heb. 4:9–11; Rev. 21:1–22:5). See notes on Gen. 2:2 and 2:3. 26:14 Sin leads to a curse, anticipating Christ's sin-bearing (Gal. 3:13–14), and sin ultimately leads to hell (Rev. 20:14–15). 27:10 The permanence of holiness prefigures the permanence of redemption (John 10:28–29) and of the new world (Rev. 22:5).

Numbers
The journey through the wilderness prefigures the Christian journey through this world to the new world (1 Cor. 10:1–11; Heb. 4:3–10). 1:3 Readiness for war prefigures spiritual war (Eph. 6:13). 2:17 The people of God are to be organized with God at the center (Eph. 4:4–6). 3:12 The Levites as a holy substitute prefigure Christ as priest, representative, and substitute (Heb. 7:23–28). 4:15 The penalty of death for approaching God's holiness indicates the need for perfect mediation through Christ (Heb. 9:23–26). 5:20 The need for faithfulness in marriage prefigures the faithfulness of the church to Christ (2 Cor. 11:2–4; Eph. 5:25–27). 6:5 The special holiness of the Nazirite prefigures the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26). 7:5 Holy service prefigures the service of Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:2) and his people (Rom. 12:1–2). 8:16 Christ substitutes for us and represents us before God (Heb. 7:23–28). 9:10 Being clean for the Passover prefigures moral purity in the church (1 Cor. 5:7–8). 10:2 Summoning prefigures God's instruction to the church (Eph. 4:1; 1 Thess. 4:1–3). 11:17 The distribution of the Spirit foreshadows the wider distribution at Pentecost (11:29; Joel 2:28; Acts 2:4, 16–18). 12:8 Rejection of Moses prefigures the seriousness of rejecting Christ's unique prophetic ministry (John 3:32–36; 5:23). 13:31 The unbelief of Israel contrasts both with the faithfulness of Christ (Matt. 4:1–10) and the faith of Christians (Heb. 3:7–4:3).

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14:35 Death indicates judgment on unbelief (Heb. 3:16–19). 15:30 Cutting off prefigures apostasy from Christ (Heb. 10:26–31). 16:2 Rebellion prefigures false teaching in the church (Jude 10–13). 17:5 The choice of Aaron alone prefigures Christ as the one way (John 14:6). 18:5 The priests turn away wrath, prefiguring Christ's propitiation (Rom. 3:23–25). 19:9 Purification prefigures the purification of Christ's work (Heb. 9:13–14). 20:24 The failures in the priests point to the need for the greater priesthood of Christ (Heb. 7:23– 25). 21:9 Looking at the serpent prefigures faith in Christ who is lifted up (John 3:14–16). 22:12 God overrules all plots against his purposes (Acts 2:23; Eph. 1:11–12). 24:17 Partial fulfillments in David's and Solomon's rule anticipate Christ's rule over his enemies (1 Cor. 15:24–27; Eph. 1:20–22). 25:3 Idolatry leads to chastisement and death (1 Cor. 10:20; Rev. 14:9–11). 27:4 Inheritance of the land anticipates eternal inheritance of the new world (Heb. 11:13–16). 28:3 Repeated, scheduled offerings anticipate one final offering by Christ (Heb. 10:1–10). 30:3 The authority of a man anticipates the authority of Christ over the church (Eph. 5:21–24). 31:16 The war prefigures holy war against sin (Eph. 6:11; 1 Pet. 2:11). 32:17 The 2 1/2 tribes receive their inheritance in Josh. 13:8–33. The tribes' commitment to the whole nation prefigures cooperative work in the church (1 Corinthians 12). 33:2 The names of the locations record God's faithfulness to his promise to bring his people to the land (Gen. 12:7; Ex. 6:4), prefiguring his faithfulness to believers in Christ (2 Cor. 1:20). 34:13 The inheritance is distributed in Joshua 14–19. The allotment of this land prefigures allotment to each of Christ's people of an eternal inheritance (Eph. 1:11; Col. 1:12). 35:11 See Joshua 20. Deliverance from death prefigures Christ becoming a refuge from death for his people (John 8:51; Heb. 2:14; 6:18). 36:2 See note on 27:4.

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Deuteronomy
The righteousness and wisdom of the law of God prefigure the righteousness of Christ, which is given to his people. The anticipation of entering the Promised Land prefigures Christians' hope for the new heaven and the new earth (Rev. 21:1–22:5). 1:32 The people's unbelief (see Numbers 14) contrasts with faith for entering God's rest (Heb. 3:7– 4:11). 2:24 God, not human strength, gives victory (3:22), prefiguring victory in Christ (Heb. 2:14–15). 3:12 Moses recalls Numbers 32; see note on Num. 32:17. 3:26 The insufficiency of Moses contrasts with the sufficiency of Christ, who has entered the eternal inheritance on our behalf (Heb. 9:23–26; 10:19–22). 4:6 Israel by obeying would have been a light to the nations. Christ in his obedience is the light that Israel failed to be (Isa. 42:6; John 1:4–9). 5:2 The covenant at Horeb (Sinai) anticipates the new covenant, where obedience will spring from the heart (Heb. 8:8–13), because of Christ's purification (Heb. 10:14). 6:5 Love for God is the greatest commandment (Matt. 22:37–38). One's relation to God himself is central to life, and true love for God and reconciliation to God are possible only in Christ (John 14:6; Rom. 5:1–10). 6:14 Holiness before God avoids compromise with evil, prefiguring the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26) and his people (1 Pet. 1:15–16; 2:11). 8:18 Gratitude rather than pride characterizes the people of God (1 Cor. 1:28–31; 2 Cor. 9:15). 9:19 Moses' intercession prefigures Christ's intercession (Heb. 7:23–25). 10:16 Circumcision of the heart comes from renewal through the Spirit of Christ (Rom. 8:9–13; Col. 2:11; Heb. 8:8–13). 11:9 Obedience is the basis for life, prefiguring Christ's resurrection life as the reward for his obedience (Phil. 2:8–11). 12:5 Access to God at a single location (Jerusalem, 1 Kings 8:16; Ps. 122:4) prefigures access through Christ alone (John 14:6). 13:2 False prophets prefigure the danger of false teachings drawing people away from serving God through Christ (2 Pet. 2:1). 14:2 Refraining from unclean foods symbolizes separation from sin (2 Cor. 6:17). 15:2 Release of debtors anticipates the great release from sin through Christ (Luke 4:18–19).

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16:1 The great feasts (see Leviticus 23) prefigure the celebration of Christ's deliverance (1 Cor. 5:7). 17:7 The purging of evil prefigures the purging of evil from the church (1 Cor. 5:13) and from the consummation (Rev. 21:8). 17:15 Kings prefigure the righteousness of Christ the perfect king (Isa. 9:6–7; Matt. 27:37; Rev. 19:16). 18:18 Prophets anticipate Christ, the final prophet (Acts 3:22–26). 19:4 The provision for justice prefigures the justice of Christ's rule (Isa. 9:6–7). 20:4 God fights in anticipation of Christ's fight against evil during his earthly life (Matt. 12:28–29), in his death (Heb. 2:14–15), and in his second coming (Rev. 19:15–21). 21:9 Provisions for purity and justice anticipate final purification and justice in Christ (Heb. 9:23– 28). 21:23 The curse anticipates Christ bearing the curse of God on our behalf when he is crucified (“hanged on a tree”) (Gal. 3:13). 22:22 Provisions for sexual purity anticipate the purity of the church as Christ's bride (Eph. 5:25– 27; Rev. 19:7–8). 23:9 God's presence in the camp for war (20:4) requires holiness, prefiguring holy war in Christ (Rev. 19:14–16). 24:1 Provisions for divorce are due to hardness of heart and are inferior to God's design (Matt. 19:3–9), which is to be fulfilled in Christ (Eph. 5:22–33). 25:4 Provision for the ox is an illustration of a larger principle of provision for labor in the church (1 Cor. 9:9–11; 1 Tim. 5:18). 25:5 Provision for a continuing name and inheritance prefigures God's promise and provision for our name (Rev. 2:17) and our inheritance (Eph. 1:13–14; 1 Pet. 1:4–5). It also prefigures Christ, who as younger “brother” to Adam raises up spiritually alive children (Heb. 2:13). 26:8 Thanksgiving for redemption prefigures Christian thanksgiving for redemption in Christ (Heb. 13:15–16). 27:26 All are subject to the curse, and can escape only through Christ's taking the curse on himself (Gal. 3:10–14). 28:1 Eternal blessings of salvation come in Christ (Gal. 3:14), who removed the curse we deserved (Gal. 3:13). 29:4 Renewal of the heart is to come in Christ (Rom. 11:8; Heb. 8:8–13).

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30:12 Christ brings power to obey God from the heart (Rom. 10:6–8). 31:26 God makes provision for the preservation of the law for future generations, including us (Rom. 15:4; 1 Cor. 10:11). 32:5 Israel's rebellion contrasts with the faithfulness that is to characterize God's children (Phil. 2:15). 32:6 God's care for Israel prefigures his care for Christ's people (Rom. 8:15–17). 32:21 The apostasy of Israel anticipates the rejection of the gospel (Rom. 10:19). 34:10 The uniqueness of Moses anticipates the uniqueness of Christ (Acts 3:22–26).

Joshua
The conquest through Joshua prefigures Christ conquering his enemies, both Satan (Heb. 2:14–15) and rebellious human beings. The conquest takes place both through the gospel (Matt. 28:18–20) and in the destruction at the second coming (Rev. 19:11–21). 1:6 Joshua's role prefigures Jesus empowering his disciples (Matt. 28:18–20; Acts 1:8). 2:9 Rahab in her faith anticipates the salvation of Gentiles through faith (Gal. 3:6–9; Heb. 11:31; James 2:25). 3:11 God's presence brings the people through the waters of death into the land, prefiguring Christ leading us to eternal life (John 11:25–26). 4:6 Memorials of God's faithfulness look forward to the message of Christ's salvation. 5:14 The divine commander anticipates Christ, who is the commander in climactic spiritual war (Matt. 28:18; Heb. 2:14–15; Rev. 17:14; 19:11–21). 6:2 The fall of Jericho prefigures the fall of Babylon and the end of the world (Rev. 18:2). 7:11 Israel's suffering because of unholiness prefigures the need for holiness in the church (1 Cor. 5:1–13). 8:32 A permanent record and a recital of the covenant fulfill the instructions given under Moses (Deut. 27:2–8). Intimacy with God through the covenant looks forward to the new covenant in Christ (Heb. 8:8–13). 9:3 Though Israel fails in not consulting the Lord (9:14), the result prefigures the time when through the gospel people from many nations will come to recognize the God of Israel (Luke 24:47; Acts 1:8; Rev. 5:9–10). 10:14 The great display of God's power on behalf of his people prefigures the power of Christ's resurrection and God's commitment to save those who belong to Christ (Eph. 1:19–23).

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11:23 The whole conquest takes place according to the plan and promise of God (Deuteronomy 7, etc.), illustrating God's commitment to Israel in love and anticipating his commitment to believers in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14). 12:1 The list of defeated kings prefigures the triumph of Christ over all nations (Eph. 1:22; Rev. 5:9–10; 19:11–21; 20:8–9). 13:8 Inheritance takes place according to plan (Numbers 32), prefiguring God's faithfulness with respect to the eternal inheritance in the new heaven and the new earth (Eph. 1:11, 14; 2:18; 1 Pet. 1:4; 2 Pet. 3:13). 14:2 See Numbers 32–35, especially 32:33; 33:54; 34:17; 35:2. Inheritance takes place according to the plan of God, anticipating eternal inheritance. 14:6 See Num. 14:6–8. Caleb is a special example showing that inheritance comes to those who have faith in God and his promises. He prefigures eternal inheritance by faith (Rom. 4:13–16; Gal. 3:7, 18). 15:1 Detailed specification of boundaries underlines for future generations their participation in the promise. It prefigures the detailed care and provision that God makes for each of us, anticipating the full inheritance in the new heaven and the new earth (1 Pet. 1:4; 2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1). 16:1 Each of the tribes is provided for (Num. 33:54), and with it each of the members of the tribes, prefiguring God's provision for each follower of Christ (John 10:3, 14; see also John 6:35). 18:4 The situation is reminiscent of the spying of the land in Numbers 13. But this time the result is more favorable, prefiguring the even greater blessings that God has in store through the new covenant (Heb. 8:8–13). 19:1 See note on 15:1. 20:1 The selection of cities of refuge fulfills the instructions through Moses (Num. 35:9–29; Deut. 19:1–13). It makes provision for refuge from death, prefiguring the coming of Christ as final refuge and solution to death (Heb. 2:14–15; Rev. 1:18). 21:2 The distribution of the Levites among the tribes fulfills Gen. 49:7 and Num. 35:1–8, and provides all the tribes with people to teach the law (Lev. 10:11; Mal. 2:4–9). Their teaching prefigures the knowledge of God from the heart in the new covenant (Heb. 8:8–13). 22:26 The altar confirming participation in God's promises prefigures the Holy Spirit sealing participation in Christ (2 Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13). 23:6 The call to loyalty to the Mosaic covenant prefigures the call to faith in Christ (Matt. 28:18–20; Heb. 3:12–14). 24:15 God must be served with exclusive loyalty (Deut. 5:7), prefiguring the exclusivity of commitment to Christ as the one way of salvation (Matt. 6:24; 10:34–39; John 14:6; Acts 4:12; 1 Cor. 10:21–22).
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Judges
The judges save Israel, thus prefiguring Christ. But the judges have flaws and failures, and Israel repeatedly slips back into idolatry (2:19), spiraling downward to chaos. They need a king (21:25), and not only a king but a perfect king, the Messiah (Isa. 9:6–7). 1:2 The leading role of Judah anticipates the rise of kings from the line of Judah (Gen. 49:10), beginning with King David and culminating in Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:1–16). 2:18 God raises judges to save the people, prefiguring the sending of Christ (Matt. 1:21). But the judges' help is only temporary (Judg. 2:19). 3:20 The surprise prefigures the surprising character of salvation in Christ, which seems to the world to be weakness (1 Cor. 1:25). 4:9 The glory goes ultimately to God, not to human strength or courage, prefiguring the divine glory through human weakness in the cross of Christ (1 Cor. 1:25). 5:4 God's power and glory at Seir (Deut. 33:2) prefigure his present and future triumphs (Rev. 19:6). 6:15 God again chooses to save Israel through a weak and timid person (cf. 4:9), prefiguring the triumph of divine glory through human weakness in Christ (1 Cor. 1:25; 2 Cor. 13:4). 7:3 God reduces the number of troops, prefiguring his work of eternal salvation through a single person, Jesus Christ. 8:16 Those who despise the work of God through a small number prefigure those who despise the work of God in Christ (1 Cor. 1:18–31). 9:56 The horrors due to Abimelech give evidence for the need for a king, thus looking forward to the coming of David and his descendants, above all Jesus Christ the son of David and final king. 10:6 Disobedience and idolatry further multiply (see 2:19), giving further evidence for the need of permanent salvation through the coming line of King David. 11:2 Jephthah is a flawed judge because of his ancestry, because of his appointment by the elders rather than a direct call from God, and because of his foolish vow. He makes evident the need for permanent salvation through the coming line of King David. 12:4 The fighting among the Israelites shows the need for a king in the coming line of David who will bring unity to the people. 13:5 Samson is to be a Nazirite (see Numbers 6) and especially holy. He shows great promise as a savior of Israel prefiguring Christ. 13:8 The “man of God,” “the angel of the Lord” (v. 15) is God himself (v. 22), anticipating the incarnation of Christ.

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14:3 Israel is told not to intermarry with the Canaanites (Deut. 7:3). In Samson's case the Lord uses it for good (Judg. 14:4), but it ultimately becomes Samson's downfall (ch. 16), indicating the need for a perfect savior to deliver people from their spiritual “marriage” to idolatry. 15:14 Samson triumphs after being delivered as a captive over to the enemies, prefiguring Christ's victory after being delivered to his enemies. 16:30 Samson, though sinful, delivers Israel through his death, prefiguring Christ the sinless one delivering his people. 17:2 Sin is compounded, in stealing, making an idol, partly backing down from a vow (v. 4), and making a false priesthood (v. 5). This shows further descent into sinfulness and the need for the coming king in the line of David. 18:19 The multiplication of sin shows the need for salvation through the coming king in the line of David. 19:30 Gibeah has become like Sodom (Genesis 19), showing the depths of sin and the need for salvation. 20:14 Division and war, rather than unity in righteousness, show the need for salvation through the coming king in the line of David. 21:10 The tribe of Benjamin is saved from utter annihilation, but only through further disunity, slaughter, and disorder. The disaster shows the need for permanent salvation through the king.

Ruth
The line of offspring leading to Christ goes through Judah to Boaz to David (4:18–22; Matt. 1:5–6). Boaz the redeemer (Ruth 2:20), prefiguring Christ, enables Naomi's disgrace to be removed and Ruth, a foreigner, to be included in God's people (prefiguring the inclusion of the Gentiles, Gal. 3:7– 9, 14–18, 29). 1:16 Ruth expresses faith in the God of Israel, as well as love for Naomi, anticipating the role of faith when Christ comes to bring salvation. 1:20 Naomi's transition from bitterness to blessedness prefigures the participation of God's people in Christ's death and resurrection (Phil. 3:10). 2:20 The kindness and protection of Boaz, the kinsman-redeemer, prefigure the work of Christ the redeemer. 3:9 Christ spreads his protection over the church, his bride (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25–27). 4:11 The blessing of fruitfulness has a near fulfillment in the birth of Obed (v. 13), but points ultimately to Christ and his fruitfulness (Heb. 2:10).

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1 Samuel
David, the king after God's heart (16:7; Acts 13:22), prefigures Christ, in contrast to Saul, who is the kind of king that the people want (1 Sam. 8:5, 19–20). Saul's persecution of David prefigures worldly people's persecution of Christ and of Christ's people. 1:11 By his power to bring life out of barrenness God raises up Samuel as his representative, prefiguring the virgin birth of Christ (Matt. 1:25). 2:7 The raising of the downtrodden that Hannah experiences prefigures the reversal in Christ (Luke 1:48–53). 3:19 Samuel's calling at an early age prefigures the intimacy with God that Christ as the Son enjoys with the Father from all eternity. 4:11 The capture of the ark, which symbolizes God himself, and the death of the priests is a kind of “humiliation” of God's name, prefiguring the humiliation of Christ in his crucifixion. But it all takes place in accordance with God's sovereign purpose (2:34–35; Acts 2:23; 4:25–28). 5:4 God executes judgment on Dagon, prefiguring the judgment in Christ against all idols and idol worship (Rev. 2:20). 6:12 By miraculous power God delivers the ark, the symbol of his name, prefiguring the miraculous deliverance of Christ from death. 7:8 Samuel acts as a faithful judge (v. 15; cf. Judg. 13:5), prophet (1 Sam. 3:19–20), and priest (7:8– 9), prefiguring the work of Christ as king, prophet, and priest (Heb. 1:1–3). 8:5 A king like the nations contrasts with God's kingship (v. 7). God intends Israel to have a king (Deut. 17:14–20), but the people's desires and the kings themselves fall short. Saul's failure contrasts with David's success. But eventually David too fails (2 Samuel 11). The failure of merely human kings points to the need for the perfect king, Christ, who will be divine and human (Isa. 9:6– 7). 8:7 The people's rejection of God's ways prefigures the rejection of Christ (Acts 3:13–15; 7:51–53). 9:16 God indicates his sovereignty over the appointment of kings, prefiguring the appointment of Christ as king over all (Ps. 2:6; Eph. 1:20–22; Phil. 2:9–11). 10:1 The oil prefigures the coming of the Holy Spirit to empower. Saul's later failures show that he is only a shadow of the greater anointing that comes to David (16:13) and climactically to Christ (Luke 4:18; John 3:34), and then to those who belong to Christ (2 Cor. 1:21–22). 11:15 Saul is initially successful, receiving the benefits of God's favor. This temporary favor contrasts with the lasting favor on David and his offspring, supremely on Christ (Matt. 3:17). 12:14 As the king goes, so go the people. Their failures show the need for the coming of Christ the perfect king, who is able to change the hearts of his people.

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13:12 Saul knew that sacrifice was supposed to be offered only by the priests (Num. 18:7). Saul's sins lead to his replacement by David (1 Sam. 13:14; 16:7), prefiguring the need for Christ the perfect king. 14:6 The Lord saved Israel through Jonathan that day (v. 23). Ultimate salvation comes through one man, Christ Jesus (1 Tim. 2:5). 15:22 Sinners replace real obedience with outward tokens (see Mic. 6:6–8). Full obedience from the heart is found in Christ (Heb. 10:5–10). 16:7 The choice of David contrasts with people's looking on outward appearance (10:23–24). The contrast prefigures people's rejection of Christ's humiliation and suffering (Isa. 53:3; 1 Cor. 1:18– 31). 17:47 God's working national deliverance through David prefigures international salvation through Christ, who defeats Satan (Heb. 2:14–15). 18:3 Despite Saul's antagonism, Saul's son Jonathan and daughter Michal go over to David's side. David prefigures the spiritual attraction of Jesus Christ, who is the final David (Matt. 4:18–22; 8:9– 13). 19:10 Saul's repeated persecution of David in his innocence prefigures the repeated persecution of Christ (John 8:44–47). 20:33 The conflict with Jonathan prefigures the conflict within households over loyalty to Christ (Matt. 10:34–39). 21:5 The exception made for David as God's anointed prefigures the role of Christ, God's anointed, in relation to the law (Matt. 12:3–4, 8). 22:16 As Saul continues to pursue David, Saul's sins multiply, prefiguring the progressive enslavement to sin on the part of those who refuse to come to Christ. 23:2 Directions from God repeatedly help David to choose a path forward, prefiguring the direction from God through Christ to the road to eternal life (Matt. 7:24–27; John 5:24). 24:6 David respects Saul's position as God's anointed king, unlike Pilate, who failed to recognize Jesus' position as God's anointed King (John 19:10). 24:17 David shows mercy to Saul, prefiguring the mercy of Christ even toward those who have opposed him (1 Tim. 1:13–16). 25:24 Abigail offers herself as a guilt-bearer for her worthless husband, prefiguring the gracious guilt-bearing of Christ (1 Pet. 2:23–25). 25:29 Vengeance belongs to the Lord (Rom. 12:19). In recalling this, David prefigures Christ's willingness to leave vengeance in God's hands (1 Pet. 2:23).

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26:9 See the note on 24:6. 27:1 Though David loses heart, God continues to protect David in fulfillment of his purpose to make David king (16:1). God's faithfulness even to an imperfect man magnifies his faithfulness in the case of Christ, the perfect king. 28:7 By consulting a medium, Saul makes a further step into wickedness, further contrasting his life with the righteousness of David, and the climactic righteousness of the Messiah. 29:11 God continues faithfulness to David by removing him from involvement in the death of Saul and Jonathan (31:2) and enabling him to return to Ziklag in time to rescue the wives and children (30:1–31). See note on 27:1. 30:6 David through the strength of God acts as deliverer, prefiguring Christ the deliverer of captives (Luke 4:18–19). 31:6 God fulfills his word against Saul (28:19), showing that sin in a ruler brings suffering and death not only on himself but on others under his care. The failure of Saul shows the need for a perfect ruler in the line of David (Isa. 9:6–7).

2 Samuel
David as a model king brings blessing to the nation until he falls into sin with Bathsheba (ch. 11). Though he repents, the remainder of his reign is flawed, pointing to the need for the coming of Christ the perfect messianic king. 1:23 David mentions nothing of Saul's failures and sins, prefiguring the grace and forgiveness of Christ. 2:10 Judah and Israel are eventually united under David and Solomon (5:1–5; 1 Kings 4:20), but division reappears under Rehoboam and his successors (1 Kings 11:11–13; 12:16–24). The strife points to the need for permanent union, which will be achieved only through Christ the king. 3:37 David's graciousness and respect for Abner, in contrast to Joab's vengeance, display the qualities of a godly king, prefiguring the graciousness of Christ. 4:11 David's respect for Ish-bosheth, like his respect for Abner, shows the desire for reconciliation and forgiveness, prefiguring Christ's reconciliation. 5:2 David unites Israel and Judah under one head, fulfilling God's prophetic purpose (1 Sam. 16:1) and prefiguring the greater unity of God's people to be accomplished in Christ (1 Corinthians 12; Eph. 4:1–16). 6:7 Only the Levites were to carry the ark, touching only its poles (Ex. 25:14; Num. 4:15). God in his holiness destroys sinners who approach him unauthorized, but his presence can also bring blessing (2 Sam. 6:12). The tension is resolved only when the way to approach God is opened through Christ's work of purification (Heb. 10:19–22).

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7:12 God's covenant with David has a proximate fulfillment with Solomon (1 Kings 1:46; 8:15–21). But Solomon fails (1 Kings 11:1–10). God preserves the line of offspring (1 Kings 11:12, 36; 15:4; 2 Kings 8:19) until Christ the everlasting king comes (Matt. 1:1–16). 7:14 God promises David that he will be a father to Solomon. As God's son, Solomon prefigures Christ the eternal Son (Heb. 1:5). 8:15 David as model king subdues enemies and brings justice, prefiguring the work of Christ the king (Isa. 9:6–7). 9:1 David's graciousness toward the house of Saul fulfills his earlier promise to Saul (1 Sam. 24:21– 22) and Jonathan (1 Sam. 20:15–17), and it prefigures the graciousness of Christ the king. 10:2 Willingly or unwillingly Ammon comes to acknowledge David's rule, prefiguring the willing or unwilling submission of all nations to Christ's rule (Psalm 2). 11:4 David later repents (12:13). But David and his house and his rule over the whole nation suffer various consequences for the rest of his life. The devastation from one sin points to the need for Christ the perfect, sinless king (Isa. 42:1–4). 12:13 God is gracious to forgive, ultimately for the sake of Christ (1 John 1:9). But sin still brings consequences (2 Sam. 12:10–12, 14). See note on 11:4. 13:22 The sin of Amnon, in its similarity to David's sin (11:4), begins a series of devastating consequences for David's house (12:10–12), including not only Absalom's actions but David's neglect of discipline and justice toward Amnon and Absalom. See note on 11:4. 14:1 David's love for Absalom prefigures Christ's love for sinners. But David falls short of Christ by neglecting justice: murder deserves death (Num. 35:31–34). 15:1 Absalom's betrayal of his father prefigures Judas's betrayal of Jesus (John 13:18), and more broadly the treachery of all who rebel against God the Father and Christ. 15:30 David's sorrow prefigures the sorrow of Christ as he leaves Jerusalem and prays in Gethsemane (Matt. 26:30, 36–46). 16:12 David leaves vengeance to God, prefiguring the patience of Christ before his enemies (1 Pet. 2:23). 16:22 Absalom's sordid behavior fulfills God's prophecy in 12:11–12, further illustrating the devastation of sin and the need for a perfect redeemer king. 17:5 Through Hushai and other circumstances, God shows mercy to David and answers David's need expressed in 15:31–37. The turning back of the effects of sin, and David's rescue from death, look forward to final redemption in Christ. 18:33 David's grief, though flawed (19:2, 5–7), prefigures the willingness of the Son of God to die in place of sinners (Rom. 5:8).

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19:22 Forgiveness under the reestablished kingship prefigures forgiveness for former rebels under Christ's kingship (1 Tim. 1:12–16). 20:1 Divisiveness continues to rear its head after Absalom's death, partly because of David's preference for Judah in 19:11–15, leading to the anger in 19:43. The kingdom continues to suffer indirect consequences from David's sin with Bathsheba, underlining the need for Christ the perfect king. See note on 11:4. 20:10 Though David is reconciled to Amasa (v. 4), Joab kills him, probably because of his role in Absalom's rebellion (17:25). See note on 20:1. 21:3 Atonement and blessing are needed, but David's solution (v. 6) does not give ultimate satisfaction (Deut. 24:16). Full resolution of justice requires Christ the divine king with infinite wisdom, and the coming of resurrection from the dead (Rev. 20:11–15). 22:1 This song is included in the Psalter in Psalm 18, indicating that it is to be sung by the people of God as well as David. See note on 1 Chron. 15:16. 22:50 The spread of praise among the nations anticipates the spread of the gospel (Acts 1:8; Rom. 15:9). 22:51 God's salvation for David prefigures his salvation through Christ the king. 23:8 The list of mighty men prefigures the might in the army of God under Christ the king (Rev. 19:11–14). 24:1 Out of the need for atonement comes the designation of the site for the temple of Solomon (1 Chron. 21:28–22:1), which prefigures Christ as the final temple where atonement is accomplished (John 2:19–21). See note on 1 Chron. 22:1. 24:17 The suffering of the sheep for the sin of their king is reversed when Christ suffers for the sins of the sheep (John 10:15). Christ's suffering answers David's request that God's hand would be against “my father's house,” the line leading to Christ.

1 Kings
The reign of Solomon fulfills the first stage of God's promise to David to establish the kingdom of his offspring (2 Sam. 7:12). Solomon in some ways is a model king, prefiguring Christ. But his decline into sin (1 Kings 11), the sins of his offspring, the division and strife between Israel and Judah, and the continual problems with false worship indicate the need for a perfect king and an everlasting kingdom (Isa. 9:6–7) surpassing the entire period of the monarchy. Many passages in 1 Kings have parallels in 2 Chronicles. 1:13 David's purpose prefigures the purpose of God to establish Christ as king, when many prefer alternatives (Psalm 2; Acts 13:33). 2:6 Solomon's wisdom is tested in dealing with unfinished business from the reign of David. Solomon's wisdom prefigures the wisdom of Christ (Matt. 12:42; Col. 2:3). The combination of

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mercy and justice characterizes David and Solomon in anticipation of Christ. 3:9 See note on 2:6. God promises wisdom in 3:12, and fulfillment is seen in 3:28 and 4:29–34. 4:1 The blessings of order, peace, justice, and prosperity in Solomon's reign prefigure the blessings of Christ's reign. 4:34 The attraction of Solomon's wisdom prefigures all nations hearing the wisdom of Christ (Acts 1:8). 5:5 Solomon's building of the temple fulfills God's promise in 2 Sam. 7:13 (cf. 1 Chron. 17:12) and prefigures the building of an everlasting temple. Christ's resurrection body is an everlasting temple (John 2:19–22), and then Christ builds the church as a temple (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 3:16). 5:8 The aid in building from Hiram, a Gentile, prefigures the inclusion of the Gentiles in the building of the church as a temple (Eph. 2:19–22). 6:2 The temple is like the tabernacle of Moses (Exodus 25–27; see note on Ex. 25:8), but it is larger and more magnificent, symbolizing an expansion and a further stage in God's purpose to dwell with his people. Still further development takes place with Ezekiel's vision of a new temple (Ezekiel 40– 43), with the church (Eph. 2:19–22), and with the new Jerusalem in the consummation (Rev. 21:3, 10–22:5). 7:14 See note on 5:8. Hiram's God-given wisdom is like that of Bezalel and Oholiab, who supervised the construction of the tabernacle (Ex. 31:1–6). It prefigures the wisdom of Christ and of his servants in the building of the church (Eph. 2:19–22). 7:23 The sea greatly enlarges the basin for washing that was in the tabernacle (Ex. 30:17–21). See note on Ex. 30:20. 7:27 The stands with their basins (v. 38) represent small, mobile versions of the sea (vv. 23–26), further underlining the abundance of water (see note on v. 23). The multiplication of water, compared with the single basin for washing in Ex. 30:17–21, anticipates the even greater abundance when the water provided by God becomes a river of life (Ezek. 47:1–12; John 4:10–14; 19:34; Rev. 22:1–2). 8:11 See Ex. 40:34–35. The glory of the Lord later departs, because of the apostasy of the people (Ezekiel 10). The coming of God's presence prefigures the fullness of the Spirit in Christ (Matt. 3:16–17; John 3:34–35; 1:14) and within the church (Acts 2:3–4; 1 Cor. 3:16). 8:24 The promise to David is in 2 Sam. 7:13. The temple anticipates the greater fulfillment in the dwelling of God with man through Christ. See notes on 1 Kings 5:5 and 6:2. 8:30 The key role of the temple in prayer prefigures the role of Christ, through whose name we have access to God (John 14:13–14; Heb. 10:19–22). 9:8 The desolation comes to pass in 2 Kings 25:9–11, indicating the need for true obedience and a greater temple that is to come in Christ (John 2:19–21).

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10:1 The queen of Sheba's coming to hear wisdom, mentioned also in Matt. 12:42, prefigures the coming of the nations to Christ (Acts 1:8; Col. 2:3). 11:2 Solomon's disobedience leads to disastrous judgment (vv. 9–11), anticipating the judgments on later idolatries among God's people. Solomon's failure indicates the need for Christ the perfect king in the line of David (Matt. 1:1–16). 12:15 God's prophecy in 11:29–39 begins to be fulfilled, and God's people split into two kingdoms. Both Rehoboam's failure and the resulting disunity and strife among God's people show the need for Christ the perfect king as the unifier of his people (1 Corinthians 12; Eph. 4:1–6). 13:2 A striking prophecy, fulfilled in 2 Kings 23:15–17, shows the power of God's word even in the midst of sin, corruption of worship, and chaos. The power of the prophetic word prefigures the power of Christ, the final prophet (Acts 3:22–26; Heb. 1:1–2). 13:34 See the description of Jeroboam's sin in 12:26–33. Judgment for sin is prophesied in 14:9–12, and falls in 14:17–18, 15:29–30. Jeroboam's sin continues with his successors (15:34; 16:2, 7, 19, 26; 22:53; 2 Kings 3:3; 10:29, 31; 13:2, 11; 14:24; 15:9, 18, 24, 28), ultimately leading to the exile of the northern kingdom (2 Kings 17:21–23). The judgments on false worship show the need for true worship, prefiguring Christ as the one way to God (John 14:6). 14:10 See note on 13:34. The power of God's word is seen when the judgment falls in 14:17–18 and 15:29–30. 14:22 Just as in the northern kingdom (v. 9), false worship in the southern kingdom eventually leads to exile (2 Kings 23:26–27; 25:1–21; see note on 1 Kings 13:34). 15:4 In spite of sin God is faithful to the promise to David (2 Sam. 7:5–17), and maintains the line of David (1 Kings 11:12, 32, 34, 36; 2 Kings 8:19; 19:34) down through a list of kings of Judah leading to Christ (Matt. 1:1–16). 15:18 In contrast to the kings of Israel (vv. 26, 34), Asa is a good king (v. 11), prefiguring the righteousness of Christ his descendant. Yet in this case he fails to rely on God (see 2 Chron. 16:7– 12), underlining the need for perfect righteousness in the king. 15:29–30 The killing fulfills the prophecy in 14:9–11 (see note on 13:34). The wiping out of the king's line of descent contrasts with God's faithfulness in maintaining the line of David leading to Christ (see note on 15:4). 16:3 See 15:29–30. Judgments on the northern kingdom show the consistency of God's word and his holiness (see note on 13:34). 17:1 The power of the prophetic word prefigures the power of Christ's word (Heb. 1:1–3). 17:14 The miraculous supply of food through the power of God's word prefigures the power of Christ to multiply bread (Matt. 14:13–21; Mark 8:1–9) and to himself be the bread of heaven (John 6:26–51). 17:21 Impartation of life prefigures Christ's resurrection of Jairus's daughter (Matt. 9:18–25), his
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resurrection of Lazarus (John 11:38–44), his own resurrection (John 10:18), and his role as “the resurrection and the life” (John 11:25–26) who gives spiritual life to us in anticipation of the resurrection of the body (John 5:28–29). 18:39 Miraculous power anticipates the resurrection of Christ, which displays the power of God and draws the nations to acknowledge him (John 12:32). 19:2 Jezebel's opposition undermines Elijah's previous work, seeming to lead to failure (v. 4). But God's purpose through his prophetic word stands (vv. 12, 15–18), prefiguring the victory when Christ fulfills prophecy. 19:16 See v. 19. Elijah is not the end, but one of a succession of prophets leading to Christ, the final prophet (Heb. 1:1–2). 19:18 The 7,000 illustrate the concept of a remnant, to be fulfilled by the Jews who believe in Christ (Rom. 11:3–10; see note on Isa. 6:13). 20:28 God's desire to magnify his glory enables Ahab to defeat Ben-hadad twice (see vv. 19–21). The victory in battle prefigures the final victory of Christ and his army (Rev. 19:11–21). 20:42 Ahab's failure contrasts with the complete elimination of enemies in the final battle led by Christ (Rev. 19:11–21). 21:19 The prophecy is fulfilled in 2 Kings 9:25–26, 36–37; 10:10–11, 17, showing the power of God's word in judgment. This power prefigures the power of Christ's word (Heb. 1:1–2; 4:12–13; Rev. 19:15, 21). 22:19 The superiority of God to all earthly thrones is shown when Micaiah's prophecy (vv. 23, 28) is fulfilled (vv. 34–36). The power of God and of his word anticipates the power shown in the resurrection of Christ (Eph. 1:20–22) and in the spread of the gospel, which confounds worldly authorities (1 Cor. 2:6–9).

2 Kings
Following the history in 1 Kings, Israel and Judah continue to decline through their false worship and disobedience, leading to exile (2 Kings 17; 25). Some good kings (notably Hezekiah and Josiah, chs. 18–20; 22:1–23:30) prefigure the need for Christ the perfect king, while Elisha prefigures the need for Christ the final prophet (Heb. 1:1–3). Many passages in 2 Kings have parallels in 2 Chronicles. 1:4 The prophecy is fulfilled in v. 17. The triumph of God's word over all opposition prefigures the triumph of Christ and of the gospel. 2:11 Elijah's ascent prefigures the triumph of Christ over death and his ascension (Luke 24:51; Acts 1:9). 2:14 The dividing of the waters, reminiscent of Moses at the Red Sea (Ex. 14:21–22), Joshua at the Jordan (Josh. 3:7–17), and Elijah at the Jordan (2 Kings 2:8), confirms that Elisha has received the

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prophetic succession from Elijah (v. 9). The power over the waters (which are a symbol of death and chaos) prefigures the resurrection of Christ. 3:17 The provision of water, like the provision under Moses (Ex. 17:6; 20:8–11), prefigures Christ as the giver of the water of eternal life (John 4:10, 13–14; Rev. 22:1). 4:34 The giving of life, like the instance with Elijah (1 Kings 17:17–24), prefigures the resurrection of Christ and the life he gives to us through union with him (Rom. 6:4, 8–11; 8:10–11; Col. 3:1–4). 5:14 Cleansing from leprosy (Leviticus 14) prefigures cleansing from sin through the power of Christ (Luke 5:12–14). The inclusion of Naaman, a Syrian, prefigures the inclusion of the Gentiles in God's salvation (Luke 24:47). 6:17 The vision of God's angelic army indicates dimensions of spiritual warfare. It anticipates the spiritual war with the coming of Christ (Matt. 12:28–29; Luke 10:18–19; John 12:31; Rev. 19:11– 21). 7:1 The provision of food in spite of unbelief (see Ex. 16:1–21) prefigures Christ giving himself as the bread of heaven (John 6:35, 47–51). 8:15 Hazael's fulfillment of earlier prophetic words (1 Kings 19:15; 2 Kings 8:10) shows the power of God's word in judgment. (See 10:32.) This power anticipates the power of Christ's words (John 12:48; Heb. 1:1–2; 4:12–13; Rev. 1:16). 9:25 This fulfillment of earlier prophecy (1 Kings 19:16–17; 21:19–24) emphasizes the power of God's word in bringing judgment. See notes on 1 Kings 21:19 and 2 Kings 8:15. 10:10 Jehu fulfills God's prophetic words of judgment against Ahab's house and wipes out the worship of Baal introduced by Jezebel (1 Kings 16:31–33), showing God's power in judgment and anticipating the day of judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). See note on 1 Kings 21:19. 11:2 The rescue of Joash prefigures the rescue of Jesus from Herod (Matt. 2:13–15). God preserves the line of David for the sake of his promise (2 Sam. 7:16) and to carry out his purpose of salvation through the work of Christ (Rev. 12:4–5). 12:9 The attention to the temple prefigures the importance of building the church (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 14:12; Eph. 2:20–22). 13:23 God's compassion even toward a sinful people prefigures his compassion in Christ toward sinners (Matt. 9:13; Luke 5:32). 14:10 A single act of pride from Amaziah brings disaster on the people, indicating the need for Christ as the perfect, humble king (Zech. 9:9). 15:9 See note on 1 Kings 13:34. The northern kingdom goes downhill toward eventual exile in 2 Kings 17:6–23. The degeneration points to the need for perfect kingship and redemption from the heart, both of which await the coming of Christ. 16:3 Under Ahaz the southern kingdom also suffers serious spiritual degeneration, pointing to the
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need for perfect kingship in Christ. 17:7 The exile is God's judgment on sin (see note on 1 Kings 13:34), prefiguring the judgment on sin that Christ bore as a substitute (1 Pet. 2:21–24) and the final judgment at the consummation (Rev. 20:11–15). 18:5 Hezekiah as a faithful king prefigures the faithfulness and righteousness of Christ (Isa. 9:6–7; 42:1–4) and its fruits in the lives of Christ's people. See the parallel passages in 2 Chronicles 32 and Isaiah 36–38. 18:30 Rabshakeh symbolizes the voice of Satan, who deceives and attacks the faith of God's people (Gen. 3:4–5; Matt. 4:1–10; Eph. 6:16; Rev. 12:9). 19:22 God vindicates his name against all slanders, prefiguring the vindication of his name in the resurrection of Christ (John 12:28). 20:5 God mercifully hears prayer, anticipating his mercy in Christ, through whom he hears our prayers (John 14:13–14; 15:16; 16:26–27). 21:8 Manasseh directly affronts God's command and his holiness, which leads to a prophecy of judgment (vv. 12–15) and illustrates the pattern of rebellion leading to exile (24:2–4). By contrast, Manasseh's evil points to the need for Christ as the perfect king. 22:2 Josiah as a righteous king prefigures Christ. 22:13 Words of prophecy, not only from Elijah and Elisha but from Moses (Deut. 11:26–28), show that God judges in accordance with his purpose and his righteousness. This righteousness is supremely manifested in Christ, both when in his innocence he bears sin (2 Cor. 5:21) and when he comes to judge the world (Acts 17:31). 22:20 See 23:30. Because of his righteousness and humility, Josiah receives a blessing. But unlike Christ (Gal. 3:13–14), he is unable to reverse the impending curse and punishment that will come to his people (see 2 Kings 23:26–27). 24:2 See notes on 21:8 and 22:13. 25:9 God's righteous judgment falls because of accumulated sins (23:26–27; 24:2–4). The judgment also destroys God's own house, prefiguring the judgment that will fall on Christ, whose body is the temple (John 2:19–21; Gal. 3:13–14). 25:27 The provision for the king of Judah, in the line of David, indicates that God still remembers his promise to David (2 Sam. 7:16) and anticipates the eventual coming of Jesus the Messiah through the line of Jehoiachin (also called Jeconiah, 1 Chron. 3:16; Matt. 1:11–12).

1 Chronicles
David as the righteous leader and king prefigures Christ the king, not only in his rule over the people of God but in his role in preparing to build the temple. First Chronicles looks back on the

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faithfulness of God to his people in the entire period from Adam (1:1) to David (3:1) and even beyond (3:10–24; 9:1–34), indicating the steadfastness of God's purpose in preparing for the coming of the Messiah as the offspring of Adam (1:1; Gen. 3:15; Luke 3:38), offspring of Abraham (1 Chron. 1:28; Gal. 3:16), and offspring of David (1 Chron. 3:1; 17:11, 14; Luke 3:23–38; Acts 13:23). 1:1 God promises victory over Satan by the offspring of the woman (Gen. 3:15) and of Abraham (Gen. 17:7; see notes on Gen. 3:15 and 12:1). The line of chosen offspring goes from Adam through Seth and Noah (1 Chron. 1:4) to Abraham (vv. 27–28), Isaac (v. 34), and Israel (v. 34; 2:1), earlier called Jacob (Gen. 32:27–28). It will culminate in Christ (Matt. 1:1–16; Gal. 3:16). 2:1 The line of chosen offspring goes from Israel to David and includes the blessing of multiplication of offspring in the form of the 12 tribes (see Gen. 13:16; 15:5). See note on 1 Chron. 1:1. 3:1 The line of the Messiah comes through King David (2 Sam. 7:16; Matt. 1:1, 6; see note on 1 Chron. 1:1). 3:10 Solomon and his offspring are a stage in the fulfillment of the promise to David for his offspring (2 Sam. 7:16). The offspring ultimately lead to Christ (Matt. 1:1–16; see note on 1 Chron. 1:1). 4:1 After recording the Messianic line of David, which will lead to Christ (see note on 3:10), Chronicles gives the record for Judah, the tribe of David. The recording of individual names and families underlines their inclusion in the promise to Abraham concerning blessing, land, and fellowship with God (Gen. 17:4–8). It prefigures the blessing (Gal. 3:14), land (Rom. 4:13; Heb. 11:16; 12:22; Rev. 21:1), and fellowship with God (Rom. 5:1; Gal. 3:26–29) that come from union with Christ the greater David. God has enrolled our names in his book of life (Rev. 13:8; 17:8; 20:15; see John 10:3, 14; Eph. 1:4). 5:1 The record of Reuben, Gad (v. 11), and Manasseh (v. 23) indicates their continued inclusion among God's people as offspring of Abraham and Israel (2:1–2). It answers doubts that might arise because of the location of their land east of the Jordan (Numbers 32; Josh. 13:8–32; 22:24–29). The reassurance prefigures the guarantee give to Christians (2 Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13–14). See note on 1 Chron. 4:1. 6:49 The special list for Aaron the priest and for the tribe of Levi, which indicates some of their priestly privileges before God, prefigures the priestly privileges given to Christians through Christ the final high priest (Heb. 7:23–8:2; 10:19–22). 7:1 Other tribes descending from Israel (2:1–2) are briefly listed. See note on 4:1. 8:33 Special focus is given to Saul, because he was king of Israel (10:14; 1 Sam. 10:1). But he was superseded by David (1 Sam. 16:1, 12; 2 Sam. 7:15; 1 Chron. 10:13–14; 17:13), whose line of kings leads forward to Christ the king (Matt. 1:6–16). 9:2 The enrollment of names of returned exiles indicates God's continued faithfulness to the offspring of Israel. It prefigures God's enrollment and faithfulness to those who belong to Christ the Israelite (Gal. 3:14, 16, 28–29; see note on 1 Chron. 4:1).

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10:14 The movement of kingship to David is the beginning of the line of kingly offspring leading to Christ (17:11, 14; Matt. 1:6–16). 11:3 David is established as king in fulfillment of God's purpose (v. 2), prefiguring the establishment of Christ the son of David as the final king (Ps. 2:6–12; Acts 13:33; Eph. 1:20–22). 12:23 The unification of God's people under David, and their strength for war, prefigures the unification and spiritual strength under Christ the king (Eph. 4:1–16; 6:10–20). 13:10 See note on 2 Sam. 6:7. When the Levites take the appropriate role (Ex. 25:14; Num. 4:15; 1 Chron. 15:2, 13–15), the ark is brought up safely (1 Chron. 15:26). 13:12 The supreme holiness of God and his reaction to the approach of sinners, produces fear. The resolution comes through Christ's propitiation, which permanently answers God's wrath (Rom. 3:20–26; 5:1). 14:15 God fights with David against Israel's enemies, prefiguring Christ defeating Satan and his hosts (Matt. 12:28–29; Luke 10:18–19; John 12:31; Rev. 19:11–21; 20:7–10). 15:2 Unlike Uzzah (13:10), the Levites bring up the ark safely, because they are following God's instructions (Ex. 25:14; Num. 4:15). The importance of following God's way prefigures the one way to God opened through Christ (John 14:6; Heb. 10:19–22). 15:16 David and the singers are involved in writing and singing many of the Psalms (see 1 Chron. 16:8–36 and parallels in the Psalms: Ps. 96:1–13; 105:1–15; 106:47–48). They prefigure the role of Christ in leading his people in singing praise to God for climactic salvation (Heb. 2:12; 13:15; Rev. 19:6–8). 16:4 See note on 15:16. 16:8 See Ps. 105:1–15. Songs of praise are to be sung repeatedly, not only to give praise to God, but to remind people of his excellence and to anticipate the surpassing display of his excellence when Christ comes. See note on 1 Chron. 15:16. 16:23 See Ps. 96:1–13 and note on 1 Chron. 16:8. 16:35 See Ps. 106:47–48 and note on 1 Chron. 16:8. 17:4 To underline the importance of Davidic kingship as leading to Christ, Chronicles records the all-important covenant with David given in 2 Sam. 7:5–16. See note on 2 Sam. 7:12. 17:16 David's marveling over God's grace prefigures the marveling over the grace that has come in Christ (John 1:16; Eph. 2:7–9). 18:6 The subduing of Israel's enemies prefigures Christ winning victory over Satan and his hosts (see note on 14:15). 18:14 The coming of justice prefigures the justice of the Messiah (Isa. 9:6–7; 42:1–4; 2 Cor. 5:10;

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Rev. 20:11–15). 19:2 See note on 2 Sam. 10:2. 20:1 Chronicles, unlike the parallel in 2 Sam. 11, omits mention of David's sin with Bathsheba, which more effectively highlights ways in which David's kingship points positively forward to the triumphs of Christ as final king. 20:8 David's victory over Goliath in 1 Samuel 17 is one of a series of victories that destroy terrifying enemies of God's people. The victories prefigure the victory of Christ and his people (Matt. 12:28– 29; Luke 10:18–19; John 12:31; Rev. 2:7, 11, 17, 26; 12:11; 19:11–21; 20:7–10). 21:7 See note on 2 Sam. 24:1. 21:17 See note on 2 Sam. 24:17. 22:1 The selection of the site for Solomon's temple takes place according to God's word through Gad the prophet (21:18). Once the temple is built, it will be the exclusive place for atonement and approach to God (Deuteronomy 12), prefiguring Christ as the final one who brings atonement and opens the way to God (John 14:6; Heb. 10:19–22). 22:9 Solomon prefigures Christ as prince of peace, who opens the way to peace with God (Rom. 5:1–10). 23:26 See Num. 4:5–15. God inspires David to make a change in the duties of the Levites, corresponding to the change in the house of God. The service of the Levites prefigures the service of Christ as high priest to God (Heb. 7:23–8:6) and subordinately the service of Christians (Rom. 12:1; Eph. 4:1–16; Heb. 13:15). 24:7 The priests are a special group within the tribe of Levi, chosen to minister in the sanctuary (Numbers 18). The priesthood prefigures Christ the great high priest (Heb. 7:23–8:6). The duties rotate to the different divisions (see Luke 1:5, 8), indicating that no one priest is permanent, until the coming of Christ the everlasting priest (Heb. 7:23–24). 25:1 See note on 15:16. The attention to arrangements for singing prefigures the ordering of the church's worship through the power of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12; Eph. 2:22; 5:18–21). 26:1 The gatekeepers protect access to the presence of God in the temple (Num. 18:7, 22), prefiguring the one way of access to God through Christ (John 10:7; 14:6). Church discipline, exercised under the authority of Christ (1 Cor. 5:4–5), warns the unrepentant of their danger. 26:20 The care for God's gifts prefigures the guarantee of the inheritance of eternal life in Christ (1 Pet. 1:4–5) and the advice to lay up treasure in heaven (Matt. 6:19–34; see 2 Cor. 9:6–15). Money given for the needs of God's people is to be carefully handled (2 Cor. 8:20–21). 27:1 Arrangements for the military prefigure the spiritual war fought under Christ's command (Eph. 6:10–20; see note on 1 Chron. 14:15). 28:6 See the promise to David in 17:11–14, now being fulfilled. See note on 2 Sam. 7:12.
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28:19 The temple is built in accordance with God's instructions, just as the tabernacle was (see note on Ex. 36:10). 28:20 The empowering of God is essential, prefiguring the centrality of God's power in building the church, the new temple (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22). 28:21 The previous arrangements of various divisions of the Levites and the people (chs. 23–27) have all been for the purpose of aiding in the service of the house of God. They prefigure God's planning for the building of the church as temple (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22) and the new Jerusalem as final temple (Rev. 21:22–27). 29:6 The generous offering is like that for the tabernacle (Ex. 35:4–36:7). It prefigures the generosity of Christ (see note on Ex. 35:21). 29:18 Wholehearted commitment comes ultimately with the perfection of Christ (Heb. 10:7–10) and the change of the heart that he works in us in the new covenant (Heb. 10:16–17).

2 Chronicles
Solomon as a wise king and temple builder prefigures Christ the king and temple builder. After Solomon the line of Davidic kings continues, leading forward to Christ the great descendant of David (Matt. 1:6–16). But many of the later kings go astray from God, and they and the people suffer for it, showing the need for Christ as the perfect king. Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29–32) and Josiah (chs. 34–35) as righteous kings prefigure Christ. Second Chronicles has parallels in 1–2 Kings but focuses on the southern kingdom (Judah) and the line of David, and it shows focused concern for the temple and its worship, anticipating the fulfillment of temple and worship with the coming of Christ (John 2:19–21; 4:20–26; Eph. 2:20–22; Rev. 21:22–22:5). 1:10 See note on 1 Kings 3:9. Wisdom is needed to build the temple (1 Chron. 29:1; 2 Chron. 2:6, 12). 2:3 See note on 1 Kings 5:8. 2:13 See note on 1 Kings 7:14. 3:1 See note on 1 Kings 6:2. The location for the temple was appointed in 1 Chron. 22:1 (see note on 1 Chron. 22:1). 4:1 The altar is twice as large as the one for the tabernacle (Ex. 27:1–8), indicating the more abundant provision for atonement. See note on Ex. 27:1. 4:7 There are ten lampstands instead of the one in the tabernacle (Ex. 25:31–39), indicating the more abundant provision of light. See notes on Ex. 25:37 and 1 Kings 6:2. 5:14 See note on 1 Kings 8:11. 6:6 The selection of Jerusalem fulfills the plan given through Moses in Deuteronomy 12. It prefigures the appointment of Christ as the one way of salvation (John 14:6; Heb. 5:5–10).

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6:15 See note on 1 Kings 8:24. 6:21 See note on 1 Kings 8:30. 7:1 The miraculous approval by God is like what happens with Elijah in 1 Kings 18:39 (see note). 7:2 The glory of the Lord signifies the magnificence of his presence, prefiguring Christ's presence. See 5:14 and note on 1 Kings 8:11. 7:20 See note on 1 Kings 9:8. 8:5 Solomon takes care to provide security against foreign enemies, performing one of the important duties of ancient kings and prefiguring the spiritual security given through Christ the king (John 10:28–29; see Rev. 21:24–27; 22:3). 8:14 David's instructions are found in 1 Chronicles 23–27. See the note on 1 Chron. 28:21. 9:1 See note on 1 Kings 10:1. 9:22 Solomon's riches and wisdom prefigure the riches and wisdom of Christ the king (Eph. 1:18; Col. 2:3; 1 Cor. 1:30). 10:15 See note on 1 Kings 12:15. 11:14 The Levites were distributed among the tribes (Joshua 20–21; see note on Josh. 21:2). But Jeroboam's false worship (see 1 Kings 12:25–13:5) forces them and others who follow God to join Judah. The conflict over worship prefigures the conflict over the exclusive claims of Christ (see note on 1 Kings 13:34). 12:6 Rebellion against the Lord leads to disaster, but repentance brings relief. The pattern anticipates God's final judgment on rebellion (Rev. 20:11–15) and relief through repentance and faith in Christ (John 5:24; Rev. 20:15). 13:9 For Jeroboam's promotion of false worship, see 1 Kings 12:25–33 and note on 1 Kings 13:34. The blessing on true worshipers prefigures the blessing on worship in spirit and truth that Christ brings (John 4:20–24). 14:7 Blessings come from following God's way, prefiguring the blessings through Christ the final way (John 14:6; Eph. 1:3–14). 15:8 Asa continues to work for true worship according to the law (Ex. 27:1–8; Deut. 11:28; 12:1), prefiguring Christ's establishment of true worship (Matt. 21:12–16; John 4:20–24). 16:9 God's judgment takes place within history, as well as at the consummation (Rev. 20:11–15). Judgment comes climactically when Christ as a substitute takes judgment on himself, and then in his resurrection receives the reward for his blamelessness (Phil. 2:10–11). See note on 1 Kings 15:18.

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17:5 See note on 14:7. 18:18 See note on 1 Kings 22:19. 19:7 Mosaic instructions for judgeship are in Ex. 23:8; Deut. 16:18–20. Promoting justice is one of the duties of the king, prefiguring the justice of Christ the king (Isa. 9:6–7; 42:1–4). 20:22 God honors those who trust in him, anticipating the giving of honor to Christ in his resurrection (Phil. 2:10–11) and the blessing to Christians who trust in Christ (Galatians 3). 21:7 The line of David is nearly, but not quite, wiped out, prefiguring the attack by Herod (Matt. 2:13–18) and God's faithfulness to Christ the offspring of David. See note on 1 Kings 15:4. 22:11 See note on 2 Kings 11:2. 23:11 The establishment of the true king, in spite of all opposition, prefigures the establishment of Christ as king (Ps. 2:7–12; Acts 13:33). 24:4 See note on 2 Kings 12:9. 24:20 See note on 12:6. 25:16 Prophetic warning gives opportunity for repentance, but Amaziah hardens himself instead. Amaziah's failure points to the need for a perfect king (Matt. 21:5). The call to repentance prefigures the call to repentance and faith in the NT. See note on 2 Chron. 12:6. 25:19 See note on 2 Kings 14:10. 26:16 Uzziah's sin and its consequences point to the need for a perfect king (Matt. 21:5). 27:6 See note on 14:7. 28:3 See note on 2 Kings 16:3. 28:15 The unusual kindness shows God's mercy (v. 9) and anticipates the love that Jesus embodies (Matt. 8:14–17; Luke 7:21–22; 1 John 3:16; 4:7–12), that he teaches (Luke 10:25–37), and that he creates in his followers (John 13:34–35; 1 John 4:17–21). 29:8 Judgments against false worship (predicted in Deut. 11:28) are reversed by Hezekiah, prefiguring Christ the king coming to remove the curse on sin (Gal. 3:13–14). 30:9 The theme of mercy and repentance looks forward to God's mercy in Christ to those who repent and turn to him (Luke 18:13). See notes on 2 Chron. 12:6 and 25:16. 30:19 The desire of the heart is of greater importance than mere external conformity (1 Sam. 15:22; Hos. 6:6; Mic. 6:6–8; Matt. 9:13; 25:25–28), anticipating the centrality of renewal of the heart in Christ's work (Heb. 8:10).

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30:26 The contrast between Hezekiah and the past shows the difference that a good leader can make, prefiguring the climactic renewal with the coming of Christ (Heb. 8:8–12). 31:2 Hezekiah restores the temple service as specified by Moses (Numbers 18) and David (1 Chronicles 23–26). His obedience prefigures Christ's obedience and the obedience of those who follow Christ (Eph. 4:1–16). See note on 2 Kings 18:5. 32:8 Trusting the Lord to fight prefigures trust in Christ as the victor against the kingdom of evil (Col. 1:13; 2:15; Heb. 2:14–15). 32:15 See note on 2 Kings 18:30. 32:17 See note on 2 Kings 19:22. 33:7 See note on 2 Kings 21:8. 33:12 See note on 12:6. 34:2 Josiah as a righteous king prefigures Christ. 34:21 See note on 2 Kings 22:13. 35:1 The keeping of the Passover is another high point in serving God (see note on 30:26). 35:4 See note on 31:2. 36:16 God shows his righteous judgment against sin, prefiguring the even greater manifestations of righteousness in the death and resurrection of Christ and in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). See notes on 2 Chron. 12:6; 16:9; and 2 Kings 25:9. 36:21 The judgment confirms God's faithfulness to his word, anticipating his faithfulness in Christ. It also gives the land rest in accordance with Leviticus 25, prefiguring final rest (see note on Lev. 25:4). 36:23 Cyrus's proclamation, prophesied in Isa. 44:28 and recorded in Ezra 1:1–4, shows that God has not forgotten his people (Rom. 11:1). His continued faithfulness and repeated acts of mercy and salvation look forward to the coming of Christ as the climax of faithfulness and mercy.

Ezra
The restoration and rebuilding after the exile, in fulfillment of prophecy (1:1), prefigure Christ's salvation (Col. 1:13) and the building of the church (Matt. 16:18; Eph. 2:20–22). They also look forward to the consummation of salvation in the new heaven and new earth (Rev. 21:1). 1:1 God's raising of Cyrus prefigures his raising of Christ, who in the gospel sends out the proclamation to build the new people of God (Isa. 44:28–45:1). 1:5 It is God who empowers the restoration in the people as well as in Cyrus, prefiguring the

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empowering of his people through the Spirit (Acts 1:8; 2:1–4; Rom. 8:10–11). 2:1 The detailed record of people shows God's knowledge of individuals and families, symbolizing his detailed knowledge of those chosen for salvation (Eph. 1:4; Rev. 13:8; 17:8; see note on 1 Chron. 4:1). 3:2 Restoration of true worship of God is central to the restoration as a whole. Sacrificial worship prefigures the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 10:1–10). 3:10 Temple building, analogous to what Solomon did (2 Chronicles 3), prefigures Christ's body as a temple (John 2:19–21), the church as a temple (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22), and the new Jerusalem as a temple (Rev. 21:9–22:5). See Haggai and Zechariah for prophecy relating to the restoration. 3:11 The singing, using the refrain of 1 Chron. 16:34 and Psalm 136, follows the pattern in 1 Chronicles 25 and looks forward to the praise offered by Christ (Heb. 2:12) and his people (Heb. 13:15). 4:1 The adversaries, incited ultimately by Satan, symbolize opposition to God's purposes for his people and prefigure opposition to Christ and his people (Matt. 4:1–11; Rev. 12:3–4, 7–17). 5:1 Directives both from prophets and from Cyrus (1:1–4) have a key role in the restoration, prefiguring the role of God's word in building the church (Eph. 2:20–22; 4:6–16). 6:6 God reverses the plans of the opponents and uses Darius to favor the restoration, prefiguring God's work in blessing the church (Rom. 8:28; Acts 4:29–31; 8:4). 7:27 Through Ezra and Artaxerxes, God shows his providential blessing on the restoration, prefiguring his willingness to supply our needs (2 Cor. 9:6–12). 8:31 God provides protection, prefiguring his protection to those in Christ (John 10:27–29). 9:1 Intermarriage was forbidden in Deut. 7:3–4 because it led to idolatry (see Ezra 9:11–14). Separation prefigures the need for uncompromising allegiance to Christ (Matt. 10:34–39; Luke 14:26–33; 2 Cor. 6:14–7:1). 10:2 See note on 2 Chron. 12:6. 10:3 Families are put away for the sake of holiness, to eliminate compromise with idolatry (Deut. 7:3–4; see note on Ezra 9:1). The superior power of Christ's holiness is such that, in the NT, a Christian may remain in an unbelieving family with the hope that others may come to know Christ (1 Cor. 7:12–16).

Nehemiah
The restoration and rebuilding after the exile prefigure Christ's salvation (Col. 1:13) and the building of the church (Matt. 16:18; Eph. 2:20–22).

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1:11 Nehemiah's intercession for the people prefigures Christ's intercession for us before God the Father (Heb. 7:25). 2:18 Rebuilding Jerusalem prefigures building the church (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 14:4–5, 12; Gal. 4:26; Eph. 2:20–22). 3:1 God records the names of the builders, indicating his knowledge of each contribution. The division of labor prefigures the cooperation in the body of Christ (Rom. 12:3–8; 1 Corinthians 12; Eph. 4:1–16). 4:1 Opposition to building prefigures opposition to the church and to Christians (John 15:18–20). 5:7 God's law through Moses forbids exacting interest from a fellow Israelite (Ex. 22:25; Lev. 25:36). The help to the poor anticipates the church's helping the poor (Acts 2:44–45; 4:32–37; 2 Cor. 9:6–15) on the basis of God's generosity in Christ (2 Cor. 8:9; 9:15). 6:2 Opposition includes deceit as well as mocking and threats (see note on 4:1). This deceit manifests the deceitfulness of Satan the great enemy (John 8:44; 2 Thess. 2:9–10; Rev. 12:9; 20:3). 7:6 See note on Ezra 2:1. 8:3 Instruction from God's Word plays a key role in building up the people of God. It prefigures the role of Christ as the Word of God (John 1:1; Rev. 19:13), the role of the gospel (Rom. 1:16–17; 1 Thess. 2:13; 1 Pet. 1:23), and the role of Scripture (1 Tim. 3:13; 2 Tim. 3:16–17; see Psalm 119). 9:8 God's faithfulness is displayed in fulfilling the promise to Abraham (Gen. 12:1–3, 7; 13:14–17; 15:4, 13–21; 17:1–14). His faithfulness to his promises is supremely manifested in Christ (2 Cor. 1:20–22), who has brought everlasting blessings to God's people (Eph. 1:3–14). 9:38 The names indicate the personal commitment of individuals and families, prefiguring personal commitment to Christ (Acts 2:38–41; see note on Ezra 2:1). 10:29 Obedience to the law anticipates the obligation of disciples of Christ to follow him in everything (Matt. 10:37–39; Luke 14:25–33; John 14:15, 23). Christ alone is perfectly obedient to God (Heb. 4:15). 11:1 Jerusalem has a key role as the holy city. In the NT all of God's people are citizens in the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26–28; Phil. 3:20; Heb. 12:22–24). 11:4 The list of names and numbers indicates God's knowledge of the details of individuals and families. See note on Ezra 2:1. 12:27 The Levites' role in singing was established in 1 Chronicles 25. The celebration anticipates the celebration and praise to God for the resurrection of Christ (Eph. 5:19–20; Heb. 13:15) and for the consummation (Rev. 19:1–8). 13:3 See note on Ezra 9:1.

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13:15 The people promised to keep the Sabbath in 10:31. The Sabbath is a sign of the covenant with God (Ex. 20:8–11; 31:12–17), celebrating creation (Ex. 20:11) and redemption (Deut. 5:15). It points forward to Christ, who is Creator (Col. 1:15–16) and Redeemer (Col. 1:18–20), and who has prepared our place of rest (John 14:2–3). See notes on Gen. 2:2 and 2:3. 13:23 See note on Ezra 9:1.

Esther
God providentially brings deliverance to his people through Esther, prefiguring final deliverance through Christ. 1:12 The rejection of Vashti is one step in God's providential acts to deliver the Jews (see note on 2:15). It introduces the key theme of rejection and selection, by which God prepares the way for salvation. 2:15 God causes Esther the Jew to be chosen, which will later play a key role in delivering the Jews. Esther in her beauty prefigures the church as the bride of Christ (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:26–27; Rev. 19:7–8; see note on Est. 1:12). 2:22 God's hand of providence leads to key action from Mordecai, which will later prove important (6:2). God's providential control illustrates his continual care for his people (John 10:27–29; Rom. 8:28; Eph. 1:22). 3:1 The conflict between Mordecai and Haman is explained 1 Sam. 15:2–3, 32–33. Haman is an Agagite, an Amalekite, an opponent of Israel and a descendant of the people whom Saul should have wiped out. 3:6 Haman exemplifies all who oppose God's people, and especially Satan (see Rev. 12:10–12). 4:16 Esther is willing to sacrifice her own life, prefiguring the willingness of Christ to die for us (Rom. 5:6–11). 5:2 The king's favor toward Esther prefigures the favor resting on Christ as the obedient son of God who redeems us (Matt. 3:17; 2 Pet. 1:17). It is the turning point in the story, prefiguring the resurrection as the turning point in redemption. 5:11 Pride goes before destruction (Prov. 16:18). Haman typifies the false confidence of those belonging to the kingdom of Satan. 6:1 A number of seemingly “chance” events show God's providential control and his power to act secretly on behalf of his people (see note on 2:22). 7:10 Fitting retribution comes as Haman receives what he would have done to Mordecai (Obad. 15). The retribution prefigures the justice of God's final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and the elimination of the enemies of God's people (Rev. 20:7–10; 21:8, 27). 8:8 The effects of victory now extend to all the Jews, prefiguring the extending of Christ's victory to

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those who are his (Rom. 8:10–11; 1 Cor. 15:54–57; Col. 3:1–4). 9:1 The reversal anticipates the reversal of positions with Christ's coming (Luke 1:48–53; 14:11; 18:14) and the justice of God's final judgment (see note on Est. 7:10). 10:3 The blessings to the Jews through Esther and Mordecai prefigure the blessings that come to us through Christ (Eph. 1:3–14; see note on Est. 8:8).

Job
Job's suffering and relief prefigure the suffering and glory of Christ. 1:1 Job, though not sinlessly perfect, is upright, prefiguring the righteousness of Christ (Heb. 4:16). 1:11 Satan is an accuser of God's people (Rev. 12:10). Redemption in Christ includes giving a final answer to Satan's accusations, both by justifying the ungodly (Rom. 4:5) and by making the ungodly into godly people (Rom. 6:4, 15–19; Rev. 19:8; 21:27). 1:21 Job trusts God even though he does not know about Satan's accusation. He exemplifies all who walk by faith and not by sight (2 Cor. 5:7). Christ as man trusted in God perfectly (Heb. 2:13; 5:7– 10). 2:6 God uses even the works of Satan for his own glory and for the sanctification of his people. God forbids Satan to take Job's life. But when Christ comes, he is allowed to die at the hands of sinful men (Acts 2:23). It is the supreme act of trust and of vindication of the name of God, as well as victory over Satan (John 12:31). 3:3 Intense suffering negates all the meaning of life, underlining the fact that both suffering and death are horrible effects from the fall (Gen. 3:19). An answer comes only with the meaningful sufferings of Christ (Phil. 3:10) and his resurrection from the dead, which is the beginning of the end to all suffering (Rev. 21:4). 4:7 Eliphaz speaks as if God's protection to the righteous were a universal rule. But the mystery of the death of Christ the innocent one shows the superficiality of his reasoning. 4:15 Eliphaz does not realize that he may have seen an evil spirit who, like Satan, accuses God's people (see note on 1:11). 4:17 Yes, a man can be pure, as is demonstrated by the purity of Christ. Moreover, Christ gives his righteousness to his people through justification (Rom. 5:1; 2 Cor. 5:21). 5:13 God catches the wise with the foolishness of the cross, according to 1 Cor. 3:19. Ironically, Eliphaz, who claims to be wise, is himself caught in his speeches (Job 42:7), because he does not know the wisdom of the cross, and its meaning for the suffering of the innocent. 5:18 The statement parallels Hos. 6:1. Eliphaz correctly describes God's discipline to sinful people. But he does not see that God may discipline the innocent for more mysterious purposes (Job 1:12; 2 Cor. 5:21; see note on Job 4:7).

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6:15 Job's misery is increased by his friends. It anticipates Christ's betrayal by Judas (John 13:18) and abandonment by the disciples (Matt. 26:31). 7:17 Note similarities with Ps. 8:4 and Heb. 2:6. God has set his heart on man and brought suffering with a view to redemption in Christ, but Job cannot see the full picture yet. 8:3 God is just, but his justice is deeper than straightforward rewards and punishments in this life. The issue of justice points forward to the achievement of justice in the work of Christ (Rom. 3:23– 26) and in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). 9:2 See note on 4:17. 9:14 Job sees the need for an intercessor, anticipating the intercession of Christ (Heb. 7:25). 9:24 The frustration over injustices finds resolution only in the future, with the coming of final salvation (Rev. 20:11–22:5). In the meantime, the righteous may suffer and the wicked prosper, anticipating the human injustice in the crucifixion of Christ. 9:30 Isaiah 1:18 gives hope that God will himself makes us white as snow, which he accomplishes in Christ (Rom. 8:1). 9:33 Christ is both God and man, and will stand in between (1 Tim. 2:5–6; see note on Job 9:14). 10:4 Doubts about whether God sympathizes with man are resolved with Christ's manifestation of sympathy (Heb. 4:15). 10:11 God's creation of Job shows care and intimacy (see Ps. 139:13–16), anticipating the love displayed in the incarnation of Christ (John 1:14). 11:17 The life of the righteous will end in bright day (Prov. 4:18), ultimately the day of consummation (Rev. 21:23–22:5). But Zophar underestimates the complexity. The mysteries of God's providence lead to consummation only through the sufferings of Christ (1 Pet. 2:21–25) and his people (Phil. 2:10–11). 12:3 Job's anguish is increased by what he knows concerning God's wisdom and power, because it seems inconsistent with his sufferings. God's wisdom and power are climactically manifested in the suffering of Christ (1 Cor. 1:18–25). 13:3 See note on 9:14. 13:15 Job's continued hope anticipates Christ's trust even to the point of death (Matt. 26:38–39). 14:14 Job sees that resurrection is needed to solve the mystery of suffering. He thereby anticipates the resurrection of Christ (Rom. 4:25) and of Christ's people (John 5:24–25, 29; 1 Thess. 4:13–18). 14:17 Job anticipates forgiveness, which has now been accomplished in Christ (Rom. 4:7–8; 8:1). 15:9 See note on 12:3.

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15:14 See note on 4:17. 16:11 Job's abandonment prefigures the abandonment of Christ (Matt. 20:18–19). 16:17 See the parallel in the sufferings of Christ in Isa. 53:9. 16:19 Job anticipates the intercession of Christ, who pleads our cause (Rom. 8:34). 16:21 See note on 9:14. 17:6 The despising of Job anticipates the despising of Christ (Ps. 69:11; Isa. 50:6; Matt. 27:30). 18:21 God will judge the wicked (Rev. 20:11–15). But justice is delayed for the sake of salvation (Ps. 73:3; 2 Pet. 3:9). 19:7 See the parallel in Hab. 1:2–4. Faith is necessary in waiting for the justice of Christ. 19:19 Job's abandonment by friends anticipates the abandonment of Christ on the cross (Ps. 55:13; John 13:18). 19:25 Job anticipates both the vindication of Christ's justification (Rom. 4:25) and the open manifestation of righteousness at the last judgment (2 Cor. 5:10; Rev. 20:11–15). 19:26 Seeing God takes place through seeing Christ, both now (John 14:9) and in the consummation (Rev. 22:4). See note on Ex. 33:22. 20:29 See note on 18:21. 21:7 A similar struggle is found in Ps. 73:3. See notes on Job 18:21 and 19:7. 22:8 False accusations imitate those of Satan (1:11; 2:5) and anticipate the false accusations against Christ (Matt. 26:59–60; 27:13; Luke 23:10, 14) and against his people (Rev. 12:10). 23:7 Job's desire for God and for acquittal anticipates the justification that is found in Christ (Rom. 4:25–5:1; 8:1). 24:12 See Ps. 50:21 and note on Job 9:24. 25:4 See note on 4:17. 26:13 God's victory over the serpent anticipates the final victory over Satan through Christ (John 12:31; Rev. 20:7–10). Job knows that God's ways are mysterious, but he continues to hope. 27:5 Job's holding fast to the right anticipates Christ's steadfastness toward God and our privilege of holding fast to his righteousness (2 Cor. 5:21). 28:12 Job cannot fathom God's ways, but wisdom is found ultimately in Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:3).

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28:27 Wisdom was with God even in creation, as in Prov. 8:22–31. The association of wisdom with creation anticipates the revelation that Christ (the wisdom of God) was with God in the beginning and was mediator of creation (John 1:1–3; Col. 1:15–17). 28:28 See Prov. 1:7. 29:3 Job's time of blessing anticipated the blessings that come through Christ (John 8:12). 30:10 See note on 17:6. 30:20 The unanswered cries anticipate the abandonment of Christ on the cross (Ps. 22:1–2; Matt. 27:46). 31:1 Job's commitment to God anticipates the integrity of Christ (Heb. 4:15). 32:12 God has put in us a desire for wisdom and understanding that will be satisfied only in Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:3; see notes on Job 28:12 and 28:27). 33:23 The desire for a mediator anticipates the exclusive mediation of Christ (1 Tim. 2:5–6; see notes on Job 9:14 and 9:33). 34:11 God's reward or punishment according to justice is a regular theme (e.g., Ps. 62:12; Prov. 24:12; Rev. 2:23; 20:12–13). But final payment awaits the working out of justice and mercy in Christ (see notes on Job 8:3 and 11:17). God's justice does not endorse a superficial conclusion about Job's situation. 35:2 See notes on 34:11 and 8:3. 37:5 The wisdom of God is inaccessible, except through Christ (Col. 2:3; 1 Cor. 1:30; see note on Job 28:12). 37:24 The danger of man-centered wisdom is real (as in Prov. 3:7; Rom. 11:25; 12:16) and holds people back from humbly seeking God and his wisdom in Christ (1 Cor. 1:18–31). 38:4 See note on 28:27. 38:17 Only God has power over death, anticipating the victory of Christ over death (Heb. 2:14–15; Rev. 1:18). 39:9 Both wisdom and power belong to God but not to man (see note on 12:3). 40:8 Man has a God-given sense of justice, but it is inadequate in the face of the depths of God. The depths of God's justice and mercy and wisdom are to be revealed in Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; see notes on Job 12:3 and 28:12). 40:14 Job confronts not only the issue of wisdom and justice, but salvation. Salvation ultimately is worked out in Christ (1 Cor. 1:30).

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41:1 God has power even over the most untamable creature, and ultimately even over Satan, who is named Leviathan (Isa. 27:1). Christ's victory over Satan (John 12:31) will ultimately answer all the human frustrations of suffering and injustice (Rev. 21:4). 42:3 Job finds satisfaction in knowing God and his wisdom. Final satisfaction is to be found in Christ (John 16:33; 17:3; Col. 2:3; Rev. 21:4). 42:10 Job's vindication after his sufferings anticipates the vindication of Christ after his sufferings.

Psalms
By expressing the emotional heights and depths in human response to God, the Psalms provide a permanent treasure for God's people to use to express their needs and their praises, both corporately and individually. Christ as representative man experienced our human condition, yet without sin, and so the Psalms become his prayers to God (see esp. Heb. 2:12; cf. Matt. 27:46 with Ps. 22:1). The Psalms are thus to be seen as his words, and through our union with him they become ours. 1:1 God's commitment to bless the righteous is supremely shown when he blesses Christ, the perfectly righteous man, by raising him from the dead and enthroning him (Phil. 2:10–11). 2:1 The rebellion of the peoples anticipates the rebellion against the message of Christ (Acts 4:25– 27). 2:6 God uses David and other Israelite kings to protect his people against enemies. These kings prefigure Christ, who is enthroned after his resurrection (Acts 13:33) and now rules on behalf of his people (Eph. 1:20–22). 2:8 Christ rules over all nations (Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:21). 2:12 Salvation or damnation depends on one's relation to the Son (John 3:36). 3:1 Protection from earthly enemies prefigures protection from the ultimate evils of Satan, sin, and death (Heb. 2:14–15). God the Father delivered Christ from his enemies in his resurrection (Acts 3:13–15), and that is the basis for our deliverance (Rom. 4:25). 3:5 Being preserved through the night anticipates the hope of resurrection after the “sleep” of death (13:3; 1 Thess. 4:13–18). 4:7 The joy of knowing God anticipates the joy and peace that Christ promises (John 15:11; 16:33). 5:4 Sinners cannot stand before God's holiness. Christ's perfection allows us to come into God's presence and for our prayers for deliverance to be heard (Heb. 10:19–22). 5:9 See Rom. 3:13 and note on Ps. 14:1. 5:12 See note on 1:1.

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6:2 Sufferings of God's people ultimately turn out to be analogous, on a lesser level, to the sufferings of Christ (Ps. 22:14; Phil. 3:10). 7:8 God's justice gives hope for vindication when we are in the right. But in the matter of eternal salvation, no one is in the right except Christ alone, and in him we take refuge (Rom. 3:23–26). 8:2 Praise from infants anticipates children's praise of Christ (Matt. 21:16). 8:5 God gave Adam a distinguished role (Gen. 1:28–30). But because of the disobedience of Adam and his posterity (Rom. 5:12–21), it is Christ who fulfills the role and receives glory and honor in his resurrection and ascension (Heb. 2:5–9). 8:6 Dominion is finally achieved through Christ's reign (1 Cor. 15:25–28; Eph. 1:22; Heb. 2:5–9). 9:13 Deliverance from death anticipates the resurrection of Christ, and through him the resurrection of his people (1 Cor. 15:42–49; Col. 3:1–4). 10:1 The lack of immediate answers from God frustrates our desire for justice. This frustration finds its climax in the death of Christ, which from a human point of view was supremely unjust (Luke 23:14–16). But God answers in the resurrection (Acts 3:13–16), and therefore we hope for further answers, culminating in the consummation (Rev. 21:4). 10:7 The treachery of man contrasts with the righteousness to be found in Christ alone (Rom. 3:14– 26; see note on Ps. 14:1). 11:4 The Lord's holiness and power, which are supremely revealed in Christ, guarantee an answer to the distress of his people. 12:6 In the midst of lies from man, God's word is supremely true, anticipating the truthfulness of Christ (John 14:6), who is able to deliver us from lies (John 8:44–47). 13:1 See note on 10:1. 13:3 See note on 3:1. 13:5 Salvation includes both the deliverance of Christ himself from death in his resurrection (Heb. 5:7) and the deliverance of believers through Christ (Col. 1:13). 14:1 In ultimate terms, none is righteous except Christ, through whom we may be part of the generation of the righteous (Rom. 3:10–12). 15:2 Fellowship with God in his holiness ultimately requires perfection, which we receive through the mediation of Christ the final high priest (Heb. 10:19–22). 16:8 God's mercies to David look forward to the climactic answer when Christ does not remain in the grave but is raised (Acts 2:25–33). 17:2 See note on 7:8.

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17:7 Christ above all others waited for God to deliver him from his adversaries (Matt. 26:53; 27:43; 1 Pet. 2:23). 17:15 Awaking may mean awaking from sleep, but it looks forward ultimately to the new life of the resurrection and seeing God face to face (Rev. 22:4; see note on Ps. 3:5). 18:1 David's song from 1 Samuel 22 has been included in the book of Psalms, indicating its relevance to the people of God as a whole. 18:4 See note on 9:13. 18:17 Christ's resurrection is the ultimate case of deliverance from enemies. 18:20 See note on 7:8. 18:34 God gives the king effectiveness in war for the sake of defending his people from their enemies in other nations. OT war prefigures Christ's conquest of all enemies (Matt. 28:18–20; Eph. 1:20–22; Rev. 19:11–21). 18:49 See note on 2 Sam. 22:50. 18:50 Victory to David's offspring ultimately points to the victory of Christ in his resurrection (Rom. 6:8–10). 19:1 Revelation of God through nature leaves man with no excuse (Rom. 1:18–23). 19:7 The close relation between God's instruction through creation (vv. 1–6) and through his law (vv. 7–14) anticipates the role of Christ as mediator in creation and redemption (Col. 1:15–20). 20:6 The key to salvation to all the people is salvation to the anointed king. Christ's deliverance in his resurrection is the foundation for our salvation (1 Cor. 15:17–22). 21:4 The blessing of long life to the king in the line of David anticipates the blessing of eternal resurrection life that Christ possesses as he sits at the right hand of God (John 11:25; Rev. 1:18). 21:8 See note on 18:34. 22:1 The suffering and abandonment of the psalmist prefigure the suffering of Christ (Matt. 27:46). 22:8 The bystanders mock Christ's trust (Matt. 27:43). 22:18 The soldiers around the cross divide Christ's garments (Matt. 27:35 and John 19:23–24). 22:22 Public praise prefigures Christ praising God to his people for the salvation that God has accomplished in him (Heb. 2:12). 22:27 The Abrahamic promise of salvation to all nations (Gen. 12:3) will be fulfilled as the message of Christ's resurrection spreads (Matt. 28:18–20; Luke 24:47; Gal. 3:14).

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23:1 Jesus is the good shepherd (John 10:11–18, 27–29) who embodies God's care for his people. 23:4 See note on 9:13. 23:6 Dwelling in the presence of God is fulfilled for Christ personally in his ascension (John 16:10; Acts 1:9–11) and for believers in the consummation (Rev. 22:4). 24:4 See note on 15:2. 24:7 Heaven is opened to receive Christ in his ascension (Luke 24:51; Heb. 9:24). 25:2 See note on 3:1. 25:4 Christ perfectly followed the path of the Lord (John 5:36; 14:31). Through Christ and his instruction and through the teaching of the Spirit of Christ believers learn to be disciples and follow his path (John 14:6; 16:13). 26:1 The ultimate vindication takes place in Christ (1 Tim. 3:16), who perfectly trusted in the Lord without wavering. In him his people find vindication (Rom. 4:25). 26:12 See note on 22:22. 27:1 Christ is the light of the world (John 8:12). 27:4 Enjoyment of fellowship with God in his presence anticipates the joy of knowing God through Christ (John 15:11; 16:24; 17:3; Rev. 22:4). Christ opens the way into the heavenly sanctuary (Heb. 10:19–22). 27:11 See note on 25:4. 28:8 Salvation to God's people and salvation to the anointed king go together. Both are fulfilled in Christ the anointed One (Luke 4:18). 29:3 God's word is powerful to save and to destroy, anticipating the power of Christ the Word (John 1:1) and the power of the gospel (Rom. 1:16; 2 Cor. 2:15–17). 30:2 God's healing from physical sickness anticipates rescue from death (v. 3) and eternal salvation through the resurrection of Christ (John 5:24; 11:25). 31:5 Trust in God for deliverance anticipates Christ's trust as he dies (Luke 23:46). 32:1 Forgiveness of sins anticipates the sacrifice of Christ as the ultimate basis for forgiveness (Rom. 4:7–8). 33:6 God's power and wisdom displayed in creation and in providence encourage praise and encourage hope in his salvation. Instances of temporal salvation look forward to eternal salvation in Christ (see 33:22; Matt. 1:21; Luke 2:30).

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34:8 Experiencing God's goodness anticipates the experience of goodness in Christ (1 Pet. 2:3). 34:12 Christians now imitate Christ the Righteous One (Acts 3:14) in walking in the way of righteousness (1 Pet. 3:10–12). 34:20 The OT deliverances of the righteous prefigure the deliverance of Christ (John 19:36). 35:3 Small acts of salvation prefigure the climactic salvation in Christ—that Christ is raised from the dead and that through him we are rescued from sin and Satan (Col. 1:13–14). 35:4 See note on 3:1. 35:18 See note on 22:22. 35:19 Hatred for the righteous prefigures hatred against Christ (John 15:25). 36:1 See Rom. 3:18 and note on Ps. 14:1. 36:8 Joy in God's presence anticipates the joy that Christ gives (John 15:11), which is to be fulfilled in the consummation (Rev. 19:6–9). 36:11 See note on 3:1. 37:9 In the consummation ultimate blessing will come to God's people and ultimate overthrow to his enemies (Rev. 20:11–21:8). The first stage of this goal occurs in Christ's resurrection, where he as our representative inherits the earth (Matt. 28:18) and triumphs over his enemies (Col. 2:15). 38:1 Deliverance from God's wrath comes ultimately through Christ (John 3:36; Rom. 5:1). 38:4 See note on 32:1. 39:4 The threat of death hangs over all human existence and finds relief ultimately only through the resurrection of Christ (1 Cor. 15:12–26, 35–58). 40:7 The psalmist's eagerness to serve God prefigures the perfection of Christ's willingness and the perfection of his sacrifice (Heb. 10:5–10). 40:9 See note on 22:22. 41:9 The treachery against the psalmist prefigures Judas's treachery against Christ (John 13:18). 41:12 The eternal enjoyment of God's presence anticipates the resurrection of Christ (Heb. 9:24). 42:7 The waters of suffering threaten death (see Jonah 2:3). Such suffering according to God's will anticipates the suffering and death of Christ, and the hope for deliverance anticipates his resurrection. 43:1 See note on 26:1.

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43:3 Coming into the presence of God prefigures Christ as our representative coming into heaven (Heb. 9:12). 44:22 Victory based on Christ's resurrection sustains God's people in the midst of oppression (Rom. 8:36). 45:6 The kings in the line of David prefigure the reign of God the king through the reign of the divine Son (Heb. 1:8–9). 45:11 The marriage of the Davidic king prefigures the marriage of Christ to the church (Eph. 5:25– 27). 46:5 The dwelling of God with his people anticipates his coming to dwell with us in Christ (John 1:14; 2:19–21; Eph. 2:20–22). 47:9 The promise of God's subduing the nations is fulfilled in Christ (Matt. 28:18–20; Luke 24:47; Eph. 1:20–22; Rev. 5:9–10). 48:1 Jerusalem as the holy city prefigures the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26; Heb. 12:22–24; Rev. 21:2, 9–10), both as a present reality in Christ and as a future hope. 49:7 Reliance on God is the only solution to death. Such reliance anticipates faith in Christ's resurrection (Rom. 10:9) and the hope for our future resurrection (1 Cor. 15:42–57; 1 Thess. 4:13– 18). 50:4 God acts to judge, both in preliminary ways and climactically in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). 50:15 True reliance on God is fulfilled both in Christ's trust in God (see note on 31:5) and in our faith in Christ (Rom. 10:9). 51:1 See note on 32:1. 51:7 Hyssop alludes to cleansing ceremonies (Lev. 14:4; Num. 19:18) that point forward to the final cleansing from sin through the work of Christ (Heb. 9:19–28). 52:5 See note on 3:1. 52:8 Enjoyment of the house of God in the OT prefigures eternal enjoyment of the presence of God in Christ, both in this life (John 15:11–16) and in the consummation (Rev. 22:2–4). 53:1 This psalm is very similar to Psalm 14. See note on 14:1. 54:1 The role of the name of God in salvation anticipates the fact that salvation is in the name of Christ alone (Acts 4:12). 54:4 God's upholding of life prefigures the giving of eternal life in the resurrection of Christ (1 Cor. 15:42–57; Col. 3:1–4).

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54:5 See note on 3:1. 55:3 See note on 3:1. 55:13 The treachery of friends anticipates Judas's betrayal of Christ (John 13:18). 56:1 See note on 3:1. 56:3 The psalmist's trust in God anticipates both Christ's trust in the Father during his earthly life (Heb. 2:13; see note on Ps. 31:5) and Christians' trust in Christ (Acts 16:31). 56:13 Deliverance from death anticipates the resurrection (see note on 9:13). 57:2 God's acts of salvation work out his plan and purpose from all eternity (Eph. 1:3–4, 11). 57:9 The spread of the message of salvation among the nations anticipates the spread of the gospel message (Luke 24:47; see note on Ps. 22:27). 58:2 Distress over injustice will be satisfied when God brings righteous judgment (58:11). The longing for justice anticipates the justice accomplished in the resurrection of Christ (Rom. 4:25) and in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–21:8). See note on Ps. 10:1. 59:1 See note on 3:1. 59:8 As in 2:4, God will triumph over the rebellious nations through his anointed, the Messiah (2:6– 7; Acts 13:33). 60:12 Earthly foes prefigure the ultimate foes of sin, death and Satan, which are subdued by Christ (1 Cor. 15:25–28; Eph. 1:20–22; Heb. 2:14–15; see note on Ps. 3:1). 61:7 Blessing to the king is a key to the salvation of God's people as a whole. The king in the line of David anticipates Christ the king (Matt. 1:1–16). 62:1 Salvation comes from God, not man, anticipating the fact that Christ who brings salvation is God incarnate (John 1:14; 10:30). 63:2 True satisfaction is to be found in God alone, anticipating the satisfaction and blessing in Christ (John 15:11; Eph. 1:3–14; Rev. 22:3–5). 63:11 See note on 61:7. 64:2 Wickedness can be all the more dangerous when it is secret and deceitful. The deceit anticipates Satan's deceitfulness (Rev. 12:9). See note on Ps. 3:1. 65:4 Salvation means enjoying the presence of God. It is accomplished through Christ, the unique one whom God chooses to come near as our representative (Luke 9:35; Heb. 10:19–22) and through whom we can come near and be blessed (Eph. 1:3–14).

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65:9 The prosperity of the land, which is a blessing to its people, anticipates the prosperity of the consummation (Rev. 22:1–5). 66:6 God's salvation in the exodus produces hope for further acts of salvation, culminating in salvation in Christ (Col. 1:13). 67:2 Salvation is to be made known among the nations, anticipating the spread of the gospel to the nations (Luke 24:47). 68:1 God's arising against his enemies anticipates the resurrection of Christ as a triumph over demonic enemies (Col. 2:15; Heb. 2:14–15). 68:18 God's ascending to reign anticipates Christ's resurrection and ascension, through which his enemies are subdued and his people delivered (Eph. 4:8–16). 68:26 Praise is the appropriate response to God's salvation (Eph. 5:19–20; Heb. 13:15; see note on Ps. 22:22). 69:2 See note on 42:7. 69:9 The zeal of the psalmist prefigures the zeal of Christ for the honor of God's name and God's house (John 2:17; Rom. 15:3). 69:21 The mercilessness of enemies prefigures the action of the enemies of Christ when he is on the cross (Matt. 27:48). 69:22 The desire for judgment on God's enemies finds fulfillment in Rom. 11:9–10. 69:25 Retribution for the wicked has an notable fulfillment in the fate of Judas (Acts 1:20). 70:4 Praise and admiration for God's salvation anticipates the praise for the salvation in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14; 5:19–20). 71:6 The psalmist's trust in God prefigures Christ's trust in the Father (22:8–9) and is also a model for our trust in Christ (see note on 56:3). 71:11 The enemies prefigure Christ's enemies, who imagine that they have won when Christ is on the cross. 71:14 See notes on 22:22 and 68:26. 72:1 The king in the line of David has a key role in bringing justice. Justice is climactically achieved through Christ the king (Matt. 1:1–16; Rom. 3:24–26; 4:25). 72:8 Dominion for the Davidic king is fulfilled in the universal reign of Christ (Isa. 9:6–7; 1 Cor. 15:24–28; Eph. 1:20–21). 72:19 The filling of the earth with God's glory will be fulfilled in the consummation (Rev. 21:22–

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27). 73:3 See note on 10:1. 73:17 In the presence of God in the sanctuary one finds an answer to frustration. His presence anticipates God's presence in Christ (John 1:14; 2:19–21; 14:9–10). 74:3 The destruction of the sanctuary, the place of God's presence, prefigures the destruction of Christ in death. But God answers and fulfills his promises in Christ's resurrection (2 Cor. 1:20). In union with Christ we participate in his death and resurrection (2 Cor. 4:7–15; Phil. 3:10–11). 74:10 See note on 10:1. 74:13 God's dividing the sea in the exodus symbolizes his power over chaos and his power to deliver his people from death. His victory in the exodus anticipates Christ's victory over death and Satan (Heb. 2:14–15). 75:7 God's providential control of rulers and his preliminary judgments within history give us hope for climactic judgment. And the climactic judgment began when God lifted up Christ from death to the highest position (1 Cor. 15:20–28; Phil. 2:10–11). 75:8 See note on 3:1. 76:3 The establishment of peace in God's dwelling place prefigures the peace that Christ brings (John 16:33), first in reconciling us to God (Rom. 5:1–10), but also in reconciliation with one another (Matt. 18:15–20; 1 Corinthians 12). 76:9 See note on 50:4. 77:11 Remembrance of God's past acts of salvation, like the exodus (v. 19), strengthen the hope for present and future salvation. Now we look back on the climactic salvation in the death and resurrection of Christ (Acts 2:29–41; Rom. 4:25). 78:2 The expounding of the deeper meaning of God's past acts of salvation anticipates the role of Christ in expounding the meaning of God's ways (Matt. 13:34–35). 78:4 See note on 77:11. 78:17 The rebellious hearts in Israel are ultimately overcome only through the renewal in the heart that takes place in the new covenant in Christ (Heb. 8:8–13). 78:72 The rebellion in Israel points to the need for a shepherd-king who will guide them. David is a preliminary fulfillment (v. 70) pointing forward to Christ as the final shepherd (Ezek. 34:23–24; John 10:11, 14). 79:1 See note on 74:3. 79:9 Ultimate salvation and the glorification of God's name come through Christ (John 13:31–32;

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17:1–5). 80:1 Christ is the true shepherd (John 10:11, 14). 80:17 The “son of man,” the key representative for the people of God, is ultimately Christ (Matt. 26:64; see note on Ps. 61:7). 81:1 Praise is the appropriate response to God's salvation (see note on 68:26). 81:13 See note on 78:17. 82:2 The failure of judges to bring justice points to the need for God's ultimate judgment. He has brought justice in Christ (Rom. 4:25) and will bring ultimate judgment in the consummation (Rev. 20:11–21:8). 82:6 Judges reflecting God's authority (Rom. 13:1) foreshadow Christ, who is the exact image of God (Heb. 1:3) and is God himself (John 10:34–36). 83:1 See note on 10:1. 83:9 The destruction of Israel's enemies prefigures the destruction of the ultimate enemies—sin, death, and Satan (Heb. 2:14–15; Rev. 21:4; see note on Ps. 3:1). 84:1 God's dwelling place in the OT prefigures Christ as the dwelling place of God (John 1:14; 2:19– 21), the church as dwelling place through the Spirit (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22), and the new Jerusalem as final dwelling place (Rev. 21:2–3, 21:22–22:5). See notes on Ps. 23:6 and 27:4. 85:4 The forgiveness of Israel in the OT anticipates the permanent forgiveness in Christ (Col. 1:13– 14). 86:2 See note on 35:3. 86:9 The coming of the nations to worship is fulfilled in Christ (Luke 24:47; see note on Ps. 57:9). 86:11 See note on 25:4. 87:4 The incorporation of other nations into the holy city is fulfilled as the nations come to Christ (Luke 24:47; Rev. 5:9–10; 21:24–26). 88:3 The miseries of the psalmist prefigure the sufferings of Christ (Luke 24:26–27; see note on Ps. 22:1). 89:4 The promise concerning offspring is ultimately fulfilled in Christ (Matt. 1:1–16). But victory is preceded by suffering, abandonment, and apparent failure of the promise, all anticipating the sufferings of Christ. 89:48 In the resurrection of Christ is the ultimate answer to death (1 Cor. 15:50–57; Heb. 2:14–15).

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90:3 See note on 89:48. 90:17 Despite the reality of death, Christ's resurrection guarantees victory and demonstrates that work has eternal meaning (1 Cor. 15:58). 91:1 God is our ultimate dwelling place and protection, prefiguring Christ as dwelling place and protection (John 1:14; 10:27–30). 92:1 See note on 68:26. 92:13 Fruitfulness is found in the presence of God (see 1:3). Fruitfulness prefigures the fruitfulness of Christ (Isa. 53:10) and of his people (John 15:1–16). 93:1 See note on 11:4. 93:4 The Lord's power is greater than the threat of overwhelming waters. The power over waters threatening death prefigures the power in Christ's resurrection (Eph. 1:19–22; see note on Ps. 42:7). 94:2 See notes on 50:4 and 58:2. 94:3 See note on 10:1. 94:11 The limitations of human thinking contrast with the wisdom of God, which is to be found in Christ (1 Cor. 3:20; Col. 2:3). 94:15 Final justice, accomplished in Christ, will have benefits for all who are his (1 Cor. 15:42–49). 95:1 See note on 68:26. 95:8 Israel's rebellion (Numbers 14; Deut. 32:5) serves as a negative example for all time (Heb. 4:7–12). Faith in God, culminating in faith in Christ, is the proper response to God (Heb. 4:2). 96:1 See note on 68:26. 96:3 The declaration to the nations anticipates the spread of the gospel (Luke 24:47; Acts 1:8; see note on Ps. 22:27). 97:2 See note on 7:8. 97:8 God's people can rejoice in judgment, ultimately because Christ has taken away the negative judgment against their sins and they may receive blessing in him (2 Cor. 5:21). 98:1 See Psalm 96 and note on 68:26. 98:7 Ultimate salvation in Christ includes blessing to all nations (see note on 22:27) and renewal of the world itself (2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1).

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99:3 See note on 11:4. 99:4 The experience of the benefits of justice make us long for ultimate justice, which is to be found in Christ and his justification (Rom. 3:23–26; 4:25–5:1). Justice includes both the vindication of God's people and the removal of enemies. The ultimate enemies are sin, death, and Satan (see note on Ps. 3:1). 100:4 Entering the presence of God has been made possible through Christ who opened the way (John 14:6; Heb. 10:19–22). 101:5 The zeal of the Davidic king to remove wickedness prefigures the power of Christ in triumphing over all evil and making people new (John 13:10; Eph. 4:20–24). 102:3 See note on 6:2. 102:15 See note on 22:27. 102:16 God appears in his glory climactically in Christ (John 1:14; 13:31–32; 17:1–5). 102:26 Through Christ the abiding character of God benefits us (Heb. 1:10–12). 103:4 Earlier redemptions look forward to the climactic redemption in Christ. 104:2 God's people are to praise God for his works of creation and providence, seeing in them displays of God's power and goodness. His power and goodness and blessing are supremely manifested in Christ (John 1:14; Eph. 1:3–14). 105:5 The faithfulness of God in past generations encourages Israel to respond in faithfulness. Christians look back not only on God's acts of salvation in the OT, but on the climactic salvation in Christ, which gives the ultimate basis for our trust. 106:6 The unfaithfulness of Israel in response to God is answered by Christ's obedience, and then by the obedience of God's people who follow Christ (John 14:15; Eph. 2:10). 107:2 God's acts of redemption in the OT prefigure final redemption in Christ (Col. 1:13–14). 108:6 See note on 35:3. 108:7 God is committed to subduing his enemies, and this commitment is fulfilled climactically in Christ, both in his resurrection (Heb. 2:14–15) and in his second coming (Rev. 19:11–21). 109:8 Judas is a chief example of the enemies whom God judges (Acts 1:20; see note on Ps. 69:25). 109:31 Christ, having been himself saved from death in his resurrection, is able to save us from death (John 11:25; Heb. 2:14–15; Rev. 1:18). 110:1 The Messiah is superior even to David and exercises universal rule (Matt. 22:44–45; Acts 2:34–36; 1 Cor. 15:25–28; Eph. 1:22; Heb. 1:13).

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110:4 The Messiah has an eternal priesthood superior to Aaron's (Heb. 5:6; 7:21–8:2). 111:1 See note on 22:22. 111:9 Final redemption and final fulfillment of God's covenant is accomplished in Christ (2 Cor. 1:20; Heb. 7:25; 8:6–13). 112:1 Christ is the supremely righteous man (Acts 3:14), and in him we too receive the reward for righteousness (Eph. 1:3–14). See note on Ps. 1:1. 112:9 The principle of generosity continues in the NT (2 Cor. 9:9). 113:7 Attentiveness to the needy is supremely manifested in Christ (Luke 1:48–55; 6:20). 114:3 The crossing of the Red Sea (Exodus 14–15) and of the Jordan River (Joshua 3) are acts of salvation and symbolic triumphs over death that anticipate the triumph of Christ (John 10:18; 11:25; Rev. 1:18; 21:4). 115:1 God is supremely glorified and his faithfulness manifested in Christ's work (John 13:31–32; 17:1–5). 116:3 See notes on 9:13 and 13:5. 116:13 See note on 68:26. 116:15 God continues to care for his saints even after death, hinting at the hope for the resurrection (John 11:25; 1 Thess. 4:13–18). 117:1 All nations will come to praise God as a result of his salvation in Christ (Rom. 15:11), fulfilling the promise to Abraham (Gen. 12:3; see note on Ps. 22:27). 118:5 See note on 35:3. 118:6 God has expressed his commitment in Christ, giving us all the more reason to trust him (Heb. 13:6). 118:22 The Lord's exaltation of the one rejected by man is fulfilled in the exaltation of Christ (Matt. 21:42; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11–12; Eph. 2:20–22; 1 Pet. 2:4–7). 118:26 Israel ought to recognize Jesus as one who brings the salvation of God (Matt. 23:39). 119:1 People with renewed hearts delight to obey God and learn from his word, which guides them. Christ was perfectly obedient to God (Heb. 10:7–10), and through his Spirit we are transformed into his image (Rom. 8:9–17; 2 Cor. 3:18) and become obedient servants of God. Delight in God's word anticipates delight in Christ, who is the Word of God (John 1:1). 119:11 Having God's word in the heart anticipates the new covenant (Heb. 8:10–13; 10:16–18).

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120:1 See note on 35:3. 120:2 Deliverance from deceit anticipates the purity of God's word and God's work of deliverance from Satanic deceit through Christ (Rev. 12:9; see note on Ps. 64:2). 121:2 Salvation comes from God alone, anticipating the fact that Christ is the divine Savior. 122:1 Joy in experiencing the presence of God in his house anticipates the joy of the presence of God in Christ (John 1:14; 15:11; see note on Ps. 27:4). 122:6 Jerusalem as the city of God prefigures the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26–28; Heb. 12:22–24) of which we are citizens (Phil. 3:20). Christ has given peace to his people (John 16:33; Eph. 4:3; Col. 3:15). 123:2 Mercy is received ultimately through Christ (Eph. 2:4; see note on Ps. 121:2). 124:4 See note on 42:7. 125:1 Trust in the Lord anticipates trust in Christ (Acts 16:31), who has supremely manifested God's faithfulness. 126:1 Relief from misfortune prefigures the great salvation in Christ (John 16:20–22). 127:1 The necessity of the Lord's power for temporal achievements anticipates the necessity for God, and him alone, to accomplish eternal salvation through Christ (John 15:4–5; Acts 4:12). 128:1 See note on 112:1. 128:2 Temporal blessings prefigure the eternal blessings in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14; Rev. 21:1–4). 129:1 See note on 6:2. 129:5 See note on 60:12. 130:4 Forgiveness is ultimately accomplished in Christ (Col. 1:13–14; see note on Ps. 32:1). 131:1 The psalmist's humble trust anticipates the humble trust of Christ in the Father (Matt. 11:29; Heb. 5:7–10) and the trust that Christians are to have in Christ (Acts 16:31). 132:12 The promise to David culminates in Christ the offspring of David (Matt. 1:1–16), who is both king in the line of David and priest in God's heavenly dwelling (Ps. 110:2, 4; Heb. 8:1–2). 133:1 Unity among God's people is produced in Christ and in his Spirit (Eph. 4:1–6). 134:1 Praise of God looks forward to the praises offered by Christ (Heb. 2:12), the praises of God's NT people (Eph. 5:19–20; Heb. 13:15), and the praises of the consummation (Rev. 19:1–10). 135:4 God's acts of grace and salvation to his people in the OT anticipate the climactic salvation

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accomplished in Christ (Luke 2:30–32; Acts 4:12). 136:4 God's works of creation, providence, and merciful deliverance show the steadfast love that has now been climactically revealed through salvation in Christ (John 1:14). 137:6 Devastation to God's holy city makes people long for future blessing and destruction to God's enemies. God's ultimate answer is found in salvation in Christ and in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11– 21:8). Jerusalem prefigures the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26–27; Heb. 12:22–24). 138:3 See note on 35:3. 138:4 See note on 22:27. 138:6 Mercy to the lowly comes in Christ (Luke 1:48–55). 139:1 Detailed knowledge and care for the psalmist anticipates God's care for us (John 10:14–16). 140:1 Deliverance from enemies prefigures Christ's deliverance from his enemies, both human and demonic (Matt. 26:46; Col. 2:15); it also prefigures our deliverance in Christ from sin, death, and Satan (Heb. 2:14–15). 140:3 See Rom. 3:13 and note on Ps. 14:1. 141:3 The need for wise speech, in prayer as well as in other circumstances, anticipates the purity of Christ's speech (John 8:43–47) and the purity that we receive from Christ (John 17:17–19). Our prayers are heard because of him (John 14:13–14; 1 John 5:14–15). 142:4 See notes on 6:2 and 22:1. 142:6 Deliverance from persecutors anticipates the deliverance of Christ from his persecutors, after he was brought low in his crucifixion and death. 143:2 Perfect righteousness is found only in Christ, who provides righteousness for those who are his (2 Cor. 5:21; see notes on Ps. 7:8 and 14:1). 144:1 See note on 18:34. 144:10 Deliverance for David prefigures final deliverance given to Christ the offspring of David. See notes on 2:6 and 18:50. 145:1 See note on 68:26. 145:8 The Lord's grace and mercy is climactically poured out in the salvation in Christ (Rom. 8:32). 146:3 Mere man cannot save, pointing to the need for Christ to be God as well as man (John 1:14). 147:5 God's greatness and goodness, in both providence and redemption, motivates praise and trust. God's goodness has now been supremely manifested in Christ (Rom. 8:32).

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148:3 The created world declares the character of its maker (19:1–6), anticipating the final, even more glorious praise in the consummation (Rev. 21:1–4). The creation reflects the glory of the Son, who is mediator of creation (John 1:1–3; Col. 1:15–17). 149:4 See note on 68:26. 149:7 At Christ's second coming rebellious nations will be subdued (Rev. 19:11–21). In the meantime, gracious subduing comes through the power of the gospel (Matt. 28:18–20). 150:2 See note on 68:26. Praise, not a cry of distress, has the final position in the Psalms, anticipating the victory of Christ (Eph. 4:8) and the final abolition of suffering (Rev. 21:4).

Proverbs
Wisdom ultimately comes from God and his instruction, which anticipates the fact that Christ is the wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:3) and that in him and his instruction we find the way of life and righteousness (John 14:6, 23–24). Through the Spirit we may walk in the right way (Gal. 5:16–26). 1:1 Solomon's wisdom prefigures the wisdom of his greater descendant, Jesus Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; see note on 1 Kings 2:6). 1:7 Wisdom is to be sought from God, anticipating that we seek wisdom from Christ, the incarnate God (John 1:14; Col. 2:3). 1:8 Listening to parents is one aspect of honoring them, which is an abiding principle (Ex. 20:12; Eph. 6:1–3). Within the church we are now to have specifically Christian instruction of children (Eph. 6:4). The archetype for this obedient listening is found in the relation of the Son of God to the Father (John 8:28–29). 1:18 The principle of just retribution is broad (Obad. 15) and is to be fulfilled ultimately in the consummation (Rev. 20:12–14). 1:19 Sin leads to death (Rom. 6:23), but in Christ there is life (John 14:6; 1 John 5:12). 1:20 The call of wisdom prefigures the call of the gospel, which contains the wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:18–25; 2:6–10). 2:4 The diligent seeking for wisdom prefigures the need to seek the kingdom of God (Matt. 13:44). 2:13 The path of righteousness is ultimately that of Jesus Christ, the perfectly Righteous One (John 14:6). All other ways lead to destruction (Matt. 7:13–14; Acts 4:12). 2:16 Wisdom involves the avoidance both of literal adultery and of the spiritual adultery of idolatry (Ex. 34:16; Hos. 1:2; 2:1–5; 3:1–3; 2 Cor. 11:3). 2:21 Temporal blessings prefigure the blessings of eternal salvation (Eph. 1:3–14). 3:2 Length of days prefigures eternal life that comes through fellowship with Christ, who is the

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wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:30). 3:5 Trust in the Lord anticipates trust in Christ, who is the Lord's salvation (Acts 16:31). 3:11 Christians as sons of God receive the Lord's discipline (Heb. 12:5–6). 3:18 The possession of the tree of life anticipates the final inheritance in the consummation (Rev. 2:7; 22:1–2). 3:34 The call for humility anticipates the role of humility in the NT (Matt. 11:29; James 4:6; 1 Pet. 5:5). 4:13 Instruction for the path of life anticipates the instruction of Christ, who is the way and the truth and the life (John 14:6). 5:3 See note on 2:16. 5:5 Ultimately Christ delivers us from death (John 11:25–26), and as one aspect of deliverance he gives wisdom and integrity of heart (1 Cor. 1:30). 6:6 Diligent work now has as its deepest motivation the hope of final satisfaction in Christ (1 Cor. 15:58). 6:24 See note on 2:16. 7:21 Smooth, deceitful talk is linked ultimately to the deceit of Satan (John 8:44–47; Rev. 12:9). 8:1 See note on 1:20. 8:22 The eternality of wisdom with God anticipates the eternality of the second person of the Trinity, who is the Word of God and who mediated creation (John 1:1–3). 8:35 Life is obtained ultimately from Christ, who is the life (John 14:6) and the wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:30). 9:2 The invitation to feasting anticipates the spiritual food of Christ (John 6:52–58) and the future marriage supper of the Lamb (Rev. 19:9). 9:18 See note on 1:19. 10:1 On Solomon, see notes on 1:1 and 1 Kings 2:6. 10:2 Blessings on the righteous anticipate the blessings on Christ, the perfectly righteous man, and the blessings that come to those in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14). 10:12 Wisdom transforms relations with others, anticipating the NT transformation through love (John 13:34–35; 1 John 3:16–18; 4:7–21).

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10:21 The blessing to others anticipates the blessing of gracious words in the church (Eph. 4:14– 16; Col. 3:16; 4:6). 11:2 The value of humility anticipates the humility of Christ (Matt. 11:29) and of his people (Luke 14:11; Eph. 4:2; see note on Prov. 3:34). 11:3 See note on 2:13. 11:4 Temporary avoidance of death prefigures the promise of eternal life, based on the righteousness of Christ (John 5:24; Rom. 4:25; see note on Prov. 2:13). 12:18 The blessing of wise words anticipates the blessings of the words of Christ (John 6:63) and of his followers (Eph. 4:29; Col. 4:6). 13:4 See note on 6:6. 13:14 Christ the supremely wise One has the words of eternal life (John 6:68–69). 13:24 Christians are to train their children in Christ (Eph. 6:1–4; see note on Prov. 1:8). 14:2 True trust in Christ manifests itself in obedience (Gal. 5:13–26; James 2:14–26). 15:1 Gentle words anticipate the gentleness of Christ (Matt. 11:29). Gentleness is also to characterize his people (Gal. 5:23; Eph. 4:2, 25–29). 16:3 Only through union with Christ can we bear fruit (John 15:1–11). 16:12 The duty of kings to bring justice anticipates Christ, who is the great king and the one who brings perfect justice (Rom. 3:26; Rev. 19:11). 17:3 The Lord's discernment is perfect (Heb. 4:12–13), implying the need for purification (Heb. 9:9–14). 18:3 Temporal judgments on wickedness prefigure final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15), underlining the need for repentance. 19:1 We must be discerning about real value and seek first the kingdom of God (Matt. 6:33). 19:5 See note on 18:3. 19:11 Readiness to forgive anticipates the forgiveness of Christ (Col. 1:14) and the practice of forgiving among his people (Col. 3:13; James 1:19). 20:8 Authorities have an obligation to punish evildoing (Deut. 16:18–20; Rom. 13:1–4). In this they anticipate the final judgment of God (Rev. 20:11–15). 20:22 Vengeance belongs to God (Rom. 12:17–21). Christ himself waited patiently for vindication (1 Pet. 2:21–23).

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21:3 See 1 Sam. 15:22–23 and Mic. 6:6–8. The requirement for real obedience, and ultimately for perfect obedience, is fulfilled in Christ (Heb. 10:5–10). 22:4 See note on 2:21. 23:4 Counsel against lust for money anticipates Jesus' counsel about true riches (Luke 12:22–40; 16:10–13; Eph. 5:5). 23:13 See note on 13:24. 23:19 The way of righteousness is found ultimately in Christ (John 14:6). See note on Prov. 1:8. 23:30 The warning against drunkenness is repeated in the NT, and it is complemented by a positive command to be filled with the Spirit (Eph. 5:18). 24:3 Human use of wisdom imitates God's use of wisdom (8:22–31) and anticipates Christ, who is the wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:30) and who builds the church (Matt. 16:18). 24:19 See note on Ps. 10:1. 24:30 See note on 6:6. 25:7 The principle of humility is further developed in Christ's teaching and example (Luke 14:7– 11). 25:11 See notes on 12:18 and 15:1. 25:21 The principle of doing good to enemies is further developed in Christ's example and his teaching (Matt. 5:43–48; Rom. 12:20–21). 26:3 The answer to folly and its disasters is found in seeking the wisdom of Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:3). 26:11 It is folly to turn back from following Christ (2 Pet. 2:22). 26:13 See note on 6:6. 26:20 The answer to words of strife is found in Christ's peace and his empowering of his people to be at peace with one another (Col. 3:13–15). 27:3 See note on 26:20. 27:11 See note on 13:24. 28:1 The boldness of the righteous anticipates the boldness of followers of Christ (2 Cor. 3:12; Phil. 1:28–30). 28:2 See note on 16:12.

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28:9 God desires righteousness and obedience, which are fulfilled in Christ (2 Cor. 5:21; see note on Prov. 21:3). 29:2 See note on 16:12. 29:25 Trust in the Lord anticipates trust in Christ (see 3:5). 30:4 The inaccessibility of wisdom to man points to the need for Christ, who comes down from heaven (John 3:12–15; 6:33, 50–51). 31:3 See note on 2:16. 31:10 The excellent wife prefigures the excellence of the church, the bride of Christ (Eph. 5:25–27; Rev. 19:7–8).

Ecclesiastes
The meaninglessness, frustrations, and injustices of life “under the sun” call out for a solution from God. Christ through his suffering and resurrection provides the first installment (1 Cor. 15:22–23) of meaning, fulfillment, and new life (John 10:10), to be enjoyed fully in the consummation (Rev. 21:1–4). 1:14 The crumbling of human works makes life pointless, unless there is relief in God. Knocking down false ambitions creates a longing for the relief that will come in Christ (Matt. 11:28–30). 2:10 The fading pleasures in this life contrast with the eternal pleasures in God's presence (Ps. 16:11; John 15:11; Rev. 21:4). 2:14 Wisdom in this world contrasts with the wisdom in Christ that will last forever (1 Cor. 1:30). 2:16 What is needed is a remedy for death, and this remedy comes through Christ (1 Cor. 15:54– 58). 3:11 Now in the light of revelation we can know that God's purpose is to unite all things in Christ (1 Cor. 2:9–10; Eph. 1:10). 3:12 Man need not understand everything but can live a life of joy as a servant of Christ (John 15:11), trusting that God's plans are good (Rom. 8:28). 3:17 God will execute final judgment (Rev. 20:11–21:8). But in the meantime we must endure much injustice (John 16:33). 3:20 See note on 2:16. 4:1 See note on 3:17. 4:9 The virtue of cooperation anticipates the mutual help in the body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12).

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5:8 See note on 3:17. 5:10 The fleeting character of riches implies that we should invest in God's kingdom (Matt. 6:33; Luke 12:22–34). 7:2 See notes on 2:10 and 2:16. 7:15 See note on 3:17. 7:18 In the midst of much confusion and frustration about outward circumstances, we must hold fast to God. God brings ultimate salvation from vanity in Christ (Rev. 21:1–4). 8:14 See note on 3:17. 8:15 See note on 3:12. 9:5 See note on 2:16. 9:7 See note on 3:12. 9:16 The seeking for wisdom ultimately culminates in Christ, who is the wisdom of God (Matt. 12:42; 1 Cor. 1:30). 10:17 Good rulers make a notable difference in the character of a nation. The final, perfect ruler is Christ himself, who brings the kingdom of God and everlasting righteousness (Matt. 12:28; Rev. 21:1–4). 11:1 Work done for Christ will be rewarded (Col. 3:22–25). 12:1 See note on 1:14. 12:7 Reckoning with death leads to abandoning a focus on selfish achievement and pleasure and seeking God (see note on 2:16). 12:14 Reckoning with the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–21:8) changes the orientation of life. We are to follow Christ who delivers us from condemnation (Rom. 8:1) and death (John 11:25–26) and gives meaning to work in fellowship with him (1 Cor. 15:58).

Song of Solomon
The Song of Solomon depicts marital love. But after the fall merely human love is always short of God's ideal, and so we look for God's remedy in the perfect love of Christ (Eph. 5:22–33; 1 John 3:16; 4:9–10). The connection with Solomon (Song 1:1; 3:7, 9, 11; 8:11) invites us to think especially of the marriage of the king in the line of David (Ps. 45:10–15), and the kings point forward to Christ the great king, who has the church as his bride (Rev. 19:7–9, 21:9). 1:1 The marriage of the Davidic king points forward to Christ (Ps. 45:10–15; cf. Ps. 45:6–7 with Heb. 1:8–9).

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1:2 Perfect love has been demonstrated in Christ (1 John 4:9–10). 1:4 Longing for intimacy prefigures the longing for intimacy with the love of Christ (1 John 4:7–21). 1:15 The beauty of the lovers anticipates the beauty of Christ and his bride (Eph. 5:26–27; Rev. 19:7–8). 2:3 Delight in love prefigures the joy in Christ (John 15:11). 2:16 The possession of the loved one prefigures the possession of Christ and the church. 3:1 See note on 1:4. 3:11 The wedding of Solomon prefigures the wedding of the Messiah (Ps. 45:10–15). 4:1 See note on 1:15. 4:13 Edenic abundance in the “garden” anticipates the abundance and satisfaction and fulfillment of the final consummation (Rev. 22:1–5). 5:1 Satisfaction with the loved one contrasts with God's dissatisfaction with the disobedience and disloyalty of Israel (Isa. 5:1–4), who was supposed to be married to the Lord (Ezek. 16:8–15). The remedy is found in Christ's salvation (Eph. 5:25–27). 5:8 See note on 1:4. 5:10 See note on 1:15. 6:9 The focus on the beloved anticipates the uniqueness of God's love for the church. 7:1 See note on 1:15. 7:6 Delight in the loved one prefigures Christ's delight in the church (Eph. 5:26–27; Rev. 19:8). 8:6 The abiding character of commitment in love prefigures the abiding character of the new covenant (John 10:27–29; Phil. 1:6; Heb. 8:8–13).

Isaiah
Isaiah prophesies exile because of Israel's unfaithfulness. But then God will bring Israel back from exile; this restoration prefigures the climactic salvation in Christ. Christ as Messiah and “servant” of the Lord will cleanse his people from sin, fill them with glory, and extend blessing to the nations. Christ fulfills prophecy in both his first coming and his second coming. 1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 15–20 and 2 Chronicles 26–32. 1:4 The failures of Israel precipitate the exile, and indicate the need for the messianic servant of the Lord, who will faithfully obey the Lord (42:1–4; 49:1–12).

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1:9 The Lord preserves a few, a remnant for Israel. The theme of the remnant is fulfilled in Christ, who is the ultimate remnant of one, and then the remnant is expanded to include Christ's people (see Rom. 11:5 and note on Isa. 6:13). 1:18 Ultimate cleansing comes through Christ's sacrifice (Heb. 10:1–10). 2:2 Christ himself is the ultimate “house” or dwelling place of God (John 1:14; 2:19–21). Through him the church becomes a temple (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22), and through Christ's exaltation the nations are drawn to him (Luke 24:47; John 12:32). 2:6 See note on 1:4. 2:11 The humbling of human pride takes place in Christ (Matt. 20:25–28; Luke 1:48–53; 1 Cor. 1:31). 3:2 The lack of adequate leaders shows the need for the Messiah as the final, perfect leader (9:6–7). 4:4 Cleansing looks forward to the forgiveness and purification in Christ (Col. 1:13–14; Heb. 10:10– 14). 5:7 The lack of fruit from Israel contrasts with the fruitfulness of Christ and those in him (John 15:1–6; see also Matt. 21:33–44). 6:1 Isaiah's vision of the glory of God anticipates the glory of God in Christ (John 1:14; 12:41; Rev. 4:2–10). 6:9 The resistance of Israel to Isaiah's message anticipates resistance to the gospel (Matt. 13:11–17; Acts 28:24–28; Rom. 11:7–8). 6:13 The holy seed, the remnant, are those in Israel who remain faithful to God. Ultimately none is completely faithful except Christ, who is the final remnant (11:1; Gal. 3:16; see note on Isa. 1:9). 7:14 The prophecy concerning Immanuel (see also Gen. 3:15) is fulfilled in Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:20– 23). It is related to the larger OT theme in which God brings new life and offspring to barren women (see note on Gen. 18:10). 8:13 Treating the Lord as holy culminates in the holiness of Christ (Acts 2:27) and our obligation to holiness (1 Pet. 1:15–16; 3:15). 8:14 The nation of Israel being offended by the Lord Almighty prefigures their rejection of Christ (Matt. 21:43–44; Rom. 9:31–33; 1 Pet. 2:6–8). 9:1 Jesus brings light by preaching in Galilee (Matt. 4:12–17). He is the light of the world (John 1:5, 8–9; 8:12; 9:5). 9:6 The Messiah is both human (from the line of David) and divine (see John 1:14; Col. 2:9). 9:7 The Messiah establishes his rule in justice (Rom. 3:26; Eph. 1:20–22) and peace (John 16:33).

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10:22 In NT times, the remnant consists of those who believe in Christ (Rom. 11:1–10; see note on Isa. 1:9). 11:1 The Messiah is from the line of Jesse, the father of David (1 Sam. 16:1). He is filled with the Spirit (Matt. 3:16; Luke 4:18), with wisdom (Col. 2:3), and with justice (Rev. 19:11). 11:10 Christ draws the nations to himself (John 12:32; Rom. 15:12; see note on Isa. 2:2). 12:1 The song of praise for God's salvation anticipates the praise for God's salvation in Christ (Eph. 5:19–20; Heb. 2:12; 13:15; Rev. 19:1–8). 13:6 The day of the Lord is a day of judgment. Judgments within history, such as the judgment of the exile of Israel, anticipate the final judgment (1 Thess. 5:2–11; 2 Pet. 3:10–13; Rev. 20:11–21:8). Because of Christ's salvation, the day is a day for which Christians hope (Titus 2:13). 13:9 All sinners will be swept away in the ultimate judgment. We must take refuge in Christ (2 Cor. 5:21). 13:10 The darkening is a symbol of judgment, prefiguring judgment at the crucifixion (Matt. 27:45) and at the second coming (Matt. 24:29; Rev. 6:12–13; see Rev. 8:12). 14:4 The fall of Babylon to the Medes and Persians (Dan. 5:28) prefigures the final fall of Babylon the Great (Rev. 17:15–19:3) and the defeat of Satan (Luke 10:15; Rev. 12:7–9; 20:10), as well as looking back on the fall of Babel (Gen. 11:1–9). 15:1 Moab, one of the traditional enemies of Israel (Num. 22:1–6), is defeated, prefiguring final judgment on God's enemies (Rev. 20:11–15) and fulfilling Num. 21:29. 16:5 Despite her record of enmity, Moab (like other hostile nations) can find refuge in the Messiah. Christ's mercy extends to all nations (Acts 1:8; Rev. 5:9–10). 17:6 See note on 1:9. 17:7 God the Maker is seen in Christ (John 14:9) and will be seen face to face by the pure in heart (Matt. 5:8; Rev. 22:4). 18:7 The coming of the nations takes place as Christ draws them (Matt. 28:18–20; John 12:32; Acts 1:8; see note on Isa. 2:2). 19:18 Egypt, traditionally an enemy to God's people, will come to submit to God. Christ calls the nations to himself (Acts 2:10; see notes on Isa. 2:2 and 18:7). 20:6 The failure of human hopes highlights the need to hope in God through the way that he has provided in Christ (Ps. 146:3–4; John 14:6). 21:9 The fall of Babylon prefigures the defeat of all evil and the victory of Christ over evil (Col. 2:15; Rev. 14:8; 18:2; see note on Isa. 14:4).

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22:11 A basic temptation is to trust in man rather than in God (Acts 4:12; 16:31; see note on Isa. 20:6). 22:13 Abandonment of hope would be appropriate only if God did not provide salvation in Christ (1 Cor. 15:19, 32). 22:22 Kingly authority in the right hands provides security. But even Eliakim (v. 20) is ultimately not up to the task (v. 25). Only the Messiah in the line of David can bear the full weight of responsibility that will bring final salvation (Matt. 1:21; see Rev. 3:7). 23:9 After destroying human pride, the Lord brings about blessing and glory to himself (v. 18). The reversal of human ambitions takes place preeminently in the death and resurrection of Christ (Phil. 2:6–11; see note on Isa. 2:11). 24:6 In fulfillment of the curse from the fall of Adam, all the earth will ultimately be judged (2 Pet. 3:10; Rev. 20:11–15). But through the work of Christ blessing comes to the godly (Isa. 24:15; Rev. 21:3–4). 25:8 God's overwhelming victory, resulting in blessing, will come at the consummation (1 Cor. 15:54; Rev. 7:17; 21:4). 26:4 Trusting in God anticipates trusting in Christ, who has accomplished climactic salvation (Phil. 4:7). 26:5 See notes on 2:11 and 23:9. 26:19 The hope for reversal of death is fulfilled in Christ's resurrection (John 11:25–26; 1 Cor. 15:46–57; Eph. 5:14). 27:1 Satan will be completely defeated (John 12:31; Rev. 20:10). 27:6 Fruitfulness is found ultimately in Christ (John 15:1–17). 28:1 See note on 2:11. 28:11 The foreign tongue is analogous to speaking in tongues in the NT (1 Cor. 14:21). 28:16 Christ is the stone, both providing a foundation to those who trust in him (Eph. 2:20–22; 1 Cor. 3:11; 1 Pet. 2:4) and becoming a cause of stumbling to those who reject him (Matt. 21:42–44; Rom. 9:31–33; 1 Pet. 2:6–8; see Ps. 118:22). 29:10 Spiritual hardness comes to part of Israel in Rom. 11:7–8 (see note on Isa. 6:9). 29:13 The stubbornness and disobedience of God's people comes to a climax with the opposition to and rejection of Jesus (Matt. 15:8–9; see Col. 2:22). 29:14 Human wisdom is confounded by the gospel (1 Cor. 1:18–25).

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29:18 Jesus' healing of the blind and the deaf symbolizes the giving of spiritual light (John 9:39– 41). 30:2 See note on 22:11. 30:20 Christ is the ultimate teacher who instructs us in the way of the Lord (Matt. 23:10) through the Spirit (John 16:12–15). 31:1 See note on 22:11. 31:5 The protection of Jerusalem prefigures God's protection of his people in Christ (John 10:27– 29; see Isa. 40:11). 32:3 See note on 29:18. 32:15 The blessings of salvation in Christ come in two stages, in his first coming (Acts 1:8; Eph. 1:3– 14) and his second coming (Rev. 21:1–22:5). 33:6 See note on 32:15. 33:14 Only perfect righteousness will remedy sin. Such righteousness is found in Christ (Rom. 3:21–26; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 10:1–14; see Heb. 12:29). 34:2 God's judgment against sin and evil anticipates the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15; see notes on Isa. 13:6; 13:9; and 15:1). 34:4 The skies disappear at the second coming (Rev. 6:13–14; 20:11). 35:3 The call for strengthening occurs in responding to God's NT discipline (Heb. 12:12). 35:5 Christ gives sight and hearing, symbolizing the giving of spiritual sight and hearing (Luke 7:20–22; Acts 26:18; see note on Isa. 29:18). 35:10 The return to Palestine in the restoration prefigures the coming to heavenly Jerusalem and the presence of God in heaven (Heb. 10:19–23; 12:22–24; Rev. 21:4). 36:1 The threat from Assyria anticipates the later threat from Babylon (39:6), which in turn illustrates all the attacks of Satan on God's people. God answers with redemption that prefigures redemption in Christ. See the parallels in 2 Kings 18:13–20:19 and 2 Chronicles 32. 36:15 See note on 2 Kings 18:30. 37:1 God is our refuge in time of distress (Ps. 46:1). We now look to Christ for salvation (Acts 4:12). 37:23 See note on 2 Kings 19:22. 38:5 See note on 2 Kings 20:5.

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38:10 The ultimate remedy for death is found in the resurrection of Christ (see note on 26:19). 39:6 God's judgment of exile, which comes on account of sin (2 Kings 23:26–27; 2 Chron. 36:15– 16), prefigures final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). But through Christ we may escape condemnation (Rom. 8:1). 40:1 Comfort to Jerusalem prefigures the comfort that is found in Christ (2 Cor. 1:3–7). 40:3 John the Baptist uses these words to announce the coming of the Lord (Matt. 3:3; John 1:23) in the person of Christ (John 10:30; 14:9). 40:5 The glory of the Lord is revealed in Christ (Luke 2:32; John 1:14; 13:31–32; 17:1–5). 40:6 The fading of human life contrasts with eternal salvation in Christ (1 Pet. 1:24–25; see James 1:10–11). 40:11 Jesus is the good shepherd (John 10:11, 14). 41:17 God's mercy to the poor is manifest in Christ (Luke 4:18–19; 7:22). 42:1 The servant, the Messianic king (9:6–7), rules with justice and mercy (Matt. 12:17–21; see Matt. 3:17). 42:6 Christ the light of the world (John 8:12; 9:5) brings light to the nations (John 12:32; Acts 26:18, 23), fulfilling the promise to Abraham of blessing to the nations (see note on Gen. 12:3). 43:25 Forgiveness is found ultimately in Christ (Mark 2:7; Col. 1:14; Heb. 10:1–18). 44:3 See note on 32:15. 44:28 The restoration under Cyrus (Ezra 1) prefigures the eternal salvation in Christ in the heavenly Jerusalem (Heb. 12:22–24). 45:1 Cyrus as anointed by God prefigures the Messiah and his salvation (Luke 4:18–19). 45:23 The submission of the nations is accomplished in Christ (Phil. 2:10–11; Rev. 15:4). 46:1 The worthlessness of idols is expressive of the principle that only Christ, the one way of salvation that God has established (John 14:6; Acts 4:12), is worthy of trust. 47:3 The oppressor of God's people will be judged (see note on 14:4). 47:8 See Rev. 18:7 and note on Isa. 14:4. 48:20 Rescue from Babylon prefigures rescue from sin and death (Col. 1:13–14; Rev. 18:4). 49:2 The word of God is like a sharp sword (Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12; Rev. 1:16; 2:12, 16; 19:15).

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49:6 See Acts 13:47 and 26:23, and note on Isa. 42:6. 49:8 Now, subsequent to Christ's resurrection, is the time of salvation (2 Cor. 6:2). 49:10 Protection and blessing ultimately come through the Lamb (Rev. 7:16–17). 50:6 The Messianic servant undergoes suffering and humiliation for the sake of accomplishing salvation (Matt. 27:26–31). 51:10 God's redemption in the exodus is analogous to his redemption of his people from Babylonian exile, and both look forward to his climactic redemption in Christ. 51:11 See note on 35:10. 51:17 Wrath is followed by exaltation, prefiguring the movement from the wrath of Christ's crucifixion to the exaltation of his resurrection and ascension. On the cup of wrath, see note on Jer. 25:15. 52:7 The gospel is the good news of salvation (Rom. 10:15). 52:10 The inclusion of the nations fulfills the promise to Abraham concerning blessing to all nations (Gen. 12:3; Luke 2:30–31; see note on Isa. 42:6). 52:11 The Israelites' departure from pagan Babylon prefigures the departure of believers from the contamination of the world (2 Cor. 6:14–7:1). 52:13 Exaltation of the servant, the Messiah, follows his suffering (v. 14; 53:3–9; see note on 51:17). 52:15 Many who have not heard of Christ will be awed (v. 14) by his suffering sacrifice. Paul spreads the message to those who have not heard (Rom. 15:14–21). 53:1 The message of salvation in Christ often meets an unbelieving response (John 12:37–43; Rom. 10:16). 53:5 The messianic servant undergoes substitutionary suffering (Rom. 4:25; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:24–25). 53:9 Christ was put to death between two robbers (Matt. 27:38) and buried in the tomb of a rich man, Joseph of Arimathea (Matt. 27:57–60). 53:11 Christ's death and resurrection results in our justification (Rom. 3:23–26; 4:25; 5:19). 54:1 The return of Jerusalem's inhabitants from exile prefigures the multiplication of children of the promise (Rom. 9:8) who will return to God through Christ (Gal. 4:27). 54:7 See note on 51:17.

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54:10 The new covenant results in permanent peace with God (Rom. 5:1) and is secure forever (Heb. 9:12). 55:2 God's offer of food is fulfilled in Christ, who is the food and drink of eternal life (John 6:52–58). 56:7 The extension of salvation to the nations takes place in Christ (Matt. 21:13; Acts 1:8; Rev. 5:9). 57:3 See notes on 1:4; 12:6; and 34:2. 57:19 God gives the invitation of salvation to all, anticipating the spread of the gospel (Acts 2:39; Eph. 2:17). 58:1 See note on 1:4. 58:2 Israel's hypocrisy anticipates the hypocrisy and externalism that Christ will confront (Matt. 15:1–10). 59:2 See note on 1:4. 59:7 Paul uses these words (Rom. 3:15–17) to show that Jews and Gentiles alike are guilty of sin. See note on Ps. 14:1. 59:17 God's battle anticipates (1) the coming of righteousness and salvation at Christ's first coming (Rom. 3:23–26), (2) Christians' battle against evil (Eph. 6:10–20; 1 Thess. 5:8), and (3) the war at Christ's second coming (Rev. 19:11–21). 59:20 The Redeemer is Christ, who saves both Jews and Gentiles (Rom. 11:25–32). 60:1 God's glory is seen in Christ (John 1:14). 60:3 Nations come to Christ through the gospel (Luke 24:47; John 1:32; Acts 1:8; Rev. 21:24–25; see notes on Isa. 2:2 and 11:10). 60:6 The wise men, representing the nations, bring gold and frankincense and myrrh (Matt. 2:11). 60:19 God is the sole light in the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:22–24). 61:1 Christ applies these words to himself and his work of salvation (Luke 4:18). 61:10 The church as Christ's bride is given beautiful clothing (Rev. 19:8; see Eph. 5:25–27). 62:1 Righteousness and salvation come in Christ (see note on 9:7). 62:4 God's restoration of Israel prefigures Christ as husband to the church (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25– 27; Rev. 19:7–9). 63:3 The execution of punishment anticipates final punishment (Rev. 14:20; 19:15).

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63:4 See notes on 13:6 and 13:9. 63:12 Past acts of salvation foreshadow the great future salvation (see note on 51:10). 64:1 God comes from heaven both at the first and second coming of Christ (John 6:33, 38, 50; Rev. 19:11). 64:11 See note on 51:17. 65:1 The resistance and rebellion of Israel fits into the plan of God to extend salvation to all nations (Rom. 10:20–21; 11:11–32). 65:9 See note on 1:9. 65:17 Ultimate blessing to God's people comes in the consummation (2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1). The new creation has come in its beginnings already in Christ (2 Cor. 5:17). 66:1 The inadequacy of a house of stone indicates by contrast the fact that God's purpose to dwell with man is fulfilled in Christ (Matt. 1:23; John 1:14; 2:19–21; Acts 7:48–50; 17:24). 66:8 The restoration of inhabitants to Jerusalem prefigures the multiplication of children of God in the church, the heavenly Jerusalem (Isa. 54:1; Gal. 4:26–27). 66:18 On the gathering of the nations, see notes on 2:2 and 11:10. 66:24 The picture of unending judgment anticipates the NT teaching about Gehenna, the lake of fire (Mark 9:48; Rev. 20:15; 21:8).

Jeremiah
Jeremiah's prophetic indictment of Israel is largely rejected, prefiguring the rejection of Christ's prophetic message to Israel (Luke 11:49–51). God's judgment on Israel for apostasy prefigures the judgment that Christ bears as substitute for the apostasy of mankind (1 John 2:2). It also prefigures final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). Restoration from exile prefigures final restoration to God through Christ (Heb. 10:19–22). 1:2 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 22–25 and 2 Chron. 34:1–36:20. 1:5 God's care from the womb prefigures the Father's relation to the Son in the incarnation (Luke 1:35) and also the calling of the apostle Paul (Gal. 1:15). 1:8 God delivers Paul from plots at Corinth (Acts 18:9–11) and elsewhere. 1:9 The firmness of the prophet amid opposition prefigures the firmness of Christ's teaching amid opposition. 1:16 God's judgment on evil and apostasy (see 2 Chron. 36:15–16) anticipates the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). Christ in the crucifixion bears judgment for our apostasy (1 Pet. 2:24; 1 John 2:2).

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2:2 In forsaking the Lord, Israel is like an adulteress. Her unfaithfulness contrasts with the faithfulness and purity that will be worked out in the church (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25–27; Rev. 19:7– 8). 2:11 The folly of apostasy prefigures the folly of rejecting Christ, who opens the way of salvation (John 14:6; Acts 4:12). 2:13 Living water is found in Christ (John 4:10–14). 2:21 See Isa. 5:1–4. 3:1 See note on 2:2 and the connection with Deut. 24:1–4. 3:10 The pretense in Judah illustrates the hypocrisy that can infect religion (Matt. 23:13–36; see note on Isa. 58:2). 3:13 Forgiveness comes to those who acknowledge guilt, but not to those who continue to think they are righteous (Luke 18:9–14). 3:17 The gathering to Jerusalem anticipates the NT gathering to heavenly Jerusalem (Heb. 12:22– 24) and the future gathering to the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:24–26). 4:4 Circumcision of the heart comes in Christ (Col. 2:11; Heb. 8:8–13). 5:1 The lack of a righteous man is finally remedied in Christ (Acts 3:14). 5:9 See note on 1:16. 5:14 See note on 1:9. 6:1 See note on 1:16. 6:14 True peace with God can come only through the definitive overcoming of sin in Christ (John 16:33; Rom. 5:1). 7:11 Israel's hypocrisy anticipates the hypocrisy and corrupt worship that Christ confronts (Matt. 21:13). 7:14 The destruction of the temple anticipates the later destruction of Herod's temple that Christ predicts (Matt. 24:2). 8:3 The remedy for death and for sin that leads to death is the resurrection of Christ (1 Cor. 15:42– 57). 8:11 See note on 6:14. 9:1 Apostasy is a deep grief both to Jeremiah and to Christ, the final prophet (Luke 19:41–44).

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9:23–24 The principle of boasting in God alone is fulfilled in 1 Cor. 1:29–31 (see 2 Cor. 10:17). 10:5 Only God, not idols, offers salvation. The uniqueness of God and his way anticipates the unique role of Christ as the way to God (John 14:6; Heb. 10:19–22; see note on Isa. 46:1). 11:8 Through Moses God predicts that disasters and exile will result from disobedience (Deuteronomy 28). 11:19 The hostility to Jeremiah prefigures the hostility to Christ as prophet (Isa. 53:7; Matt. 27:1; Luke 6:11). 12:7 God forsakes his house and his people on account of their sin. This anticipates later judgments on sin, including the forsaking of Christ when he is the sin-bearer (Matt. 27:46). 13:9 The pride of God's people contrasts with the need for people who truly serve him. The need is answered in the new covenant (31:31–34) in Christ (Heb. 8:8–13; 10:15–25). 14:3 Drought fulfills the curse in Deut. 28:22 that must come when Israel forsakes the Lord. It contrasts with the blessing of living water in Christ (John 4:14; 6:35). 14:14 The conflict between true and false prophets anticipates the conflict between Jesus and his opponents, and between true and false teaching in the church (2 Pet. 2:1–3). 15:2 Judgments fulfill the prophetic curses in Deut. 28:15–68 (see Rev. 6:8). God's wrath against sin anticipates the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15; see note on Jer. 1:16). 15:10 Jeremiah as a rejected prophet prefigures the rejection of Christ's prophetic ministry (Luke 11:49–51). 16:15 Restoration, prophesied in Deut. 30:1–5, prefigures final salvation in Christ (Isa. 40:1–11). 17:8 The blessing promised to the righteous man (Ps. 1:3) is fulfilled in Christ the perfectly righteous man (Acts 3:14) and in those who are righteous in him (2 Cor. 5:21). 18:6 God's power as creator can bring salvation even to the wayward (Rom. 9:20–24; Eph. 2:4–10). 18:11 The call to repent anticipates the call to repent from John the Baptist (Matt. 3:2) and in gospel proclamation (Luke 24:47; Acts 2:38). 19:3 See note on 1:16. 19:9 The specific horror of eating human flesh was prophesied in Deut. 28:53–55. Horror upon horror shows the results of the degradation of sin, and prefigures the final judgment (Rev. 20:11– 15; see note on Jer. 1:16). 20:2 Opposition to Jeremiah the prophet prefigures opposition to Christ the final prophet (Luke 11:49–51). Those who oppose Christ will experience judgment (Rev. 20:11–15).

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21:8 Even in the midst of the greatest disaster God in mercy holds open a way of escape. The escape prefigures the escape from sin, death, and destruction through the salvation in Christ (John 11:25– 26; 14:6). 22:3 The demand for justice from the king fails to be answered. The answer finally comes in Christ the king (Isa. 9:6–7; Rev. 19:11). 23:1 The false shepherds contrast with Jesus the true shepherd (John 10:11, 14). 23:5 The “Branch,” alluding to Isa. 11:1, is the Messiah in the line of David (see Zech. 6:12; John 15:1–17). 23:8 The restoration, which is parallel to the exodus (Ex. 12:33–38), prefigures rescue from sin and the kingdom of Satan (Col. 1:13–14). 23:16 See note on 14:14. 24:5 The exiles are the remnant to whom God gives favor, illustrating the remnant theme (see notes on 1 Kings 19:18; Isa. 1:9; and 6:13). 24:7 The renewal of the heart, already prophesied in Deut. 30:6, is further explained in the promise of the new covenant (Jer. 31:31–34; Heb. 8:8–13; 10:15–25). 25:11 Daniel relies on the prophecy of 70 years when he prays for restoration (Dan. 9:2). The 70 years are years of sabbath rest for the land (2 Chron. 36:21). The restoration looks forward to final rest in the consummation (Heb. 4:9–10). 25:15 The cup of wrath prefigures the wrath of God in final judgment (Rev. 14:10; 16:1, 19). Christ on the cross drank the cup of wrath as our substitute (Matt. 26:39, 42). 26:6 See note on 7:14. 26:8 The desire for death illustrates a pattern of opposing the prophets, a pattern that culminates in the death of Christ (Matt. 21:33–41; Luke 11:49–51; see note on Jer. 20:2). 27:9 See note on 14:14. 27:11 To those who listen the service to Babylon becomes a judgment tempered with mercy, prefiguring the mercy in Christ (Heb. 12:5–11; see note on Jer. 21:8). 28:9 Peace with God does not come without first dealing with the issue of sin. The answer is to be found in Christ (Col. 1:13–14; see note on Jer. 6:14). 28:15 See note on 14:14. 29:8 See note on 14:14. 29:10 See note on 25:11.

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29:13 See notes on 24:7 and 31:31. 29:14 Restoration from exile prefigures the reconciliation with God by which we may be gathered into the presence of God in heaven (Rom. 5:1–10; Gal. 4:26–28; Heb. 10:19–22; 12:22–24; see notes on Jer. 3:17 and 16:15). 30:18 The rebuilding of cities prefigures the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal. 4:26–28; Heb. 12:22–24; Rev. 21:9–14). 31:1 The promise, “I will be . . . God, and they shall be my people,” is a repeated refrain in Jeremiah (11:4; 24:7; 30:22; 31:33; 32:38). It builds on the promise to Abraham (Gen. 17:7) and to Israel through Moses (Ex. 19:5–6). It is fulfilled in the new covenant in Christ (Jer. 31:33; Heb. 8:10; see note on Jer. 31:31). 31:15 Past devastations to Israel anticipate the devastation when Herod kills the children (Matt. 2:16–18). 31:31 The new covenant is fulfilled in the covenant that Christ makes at the Last Supper (Matt. 26:28; 1 Cor. 11:25; 2 Cor. 3:6; Heb. 8:8–13; 10:15–25) and includes Gentiles as well as Jews through union with Christ (Gal. 3:9, 14, 27–29). 32:20 A long history of God's demonstrations of faithfulness is linked to his faithfulness in Jeremiah's time and in the climactic salvation in Christ (Rom. 3:3–4). 32:40 See notes on 24:7 and 31:31. 33:8 Forgiveness is foreshadowed in the restoration from exile, but it is fully accomplished in Christ (Col. 1:13–14). 33:15 See note on 23:5. 34:11 The faithlessness of the people concerning the law in Ex. 21:2 and Deut. 15:12 contrasts with the faithfulness of Christ, who brings full and permanent liberty from sin (Luke 4:18–19). 35:10 The obedience of the Rechabites contrasts with the disobedience of Israel and prefigures the obedience of the Christ the Son to his Father (John 8:29). 36:2 The triumph of the word of God over opposition prefigures Christ (John 1:10–11) and his triumph over opposition. 37:18 The innocent suffering of Jeremiah prefigures the innocent suffering of Christ (Matt. 27:24). 37:19 See note on 14:14. 38:6 Jeremiah's brush with death prefigures Christ's being put to death (see notes on 11:19 and 15:10). 38:17 See note on 21:8.

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39:1 The prophecies of disaster from Jeremiah and from other prophets (2 Chron. 36:15–16; Jer. 25:4–11) now come to pass, confirming the faithfulness of God in judgment. Judgments in history prefigure the final judgment (see note on 1:16). 39:18 See note on 21:8. 40:4 God shows mercy to Jeremiah and to those who are left, anticipating the mercy he will show in Christ (Rom. 6:23). 41:14 God shows mercy to the captives, anticipating the mercy he will show in Christ (Rom. 6:23; Col. 1:13–14). 42:6 After all of the rebellion in previous times, the people finally resolve to obey the Lord. But then they prefer their own judgment (43:1–7). Their stubbornness shows the need for renewal of the heart that will come in Christ (31:31–34; see notes on 4:4 and 31:31). 44:16 The persistence in rebellion shows the justice of God's judgment but also the need for a radical renewal of heart, promised in the new covenant (see note on 31:31). 45:5 Even the righteous suffer as a result of the sins of the people. The righteous suffering prefigures the suffering of Christ as the sin-bearer (2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:22–24). 46:2 God as judge of the whole world executes judgment on the nations as well as on his own people, prefiguring final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15; see note on Jer. 1:16). 46:10 See note on Isa. 13:6. 47:1 The destruction of the Philistines, one of the long-time enemies of Israel, prefigures final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15; see note on Jer. 1:16; cf. the note on Isa. 15:1). 48:7 Chemosh, the patron god of Moab, is shown to be worthless. Destruction of false hopes and the punishment for idolatry looks forward both to the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and to the gospel as a call to worship God in truth (John 4:23; 14:6). 48:47 See note on Isa. 16:5. 49:2 Deliverance for God's people includes judgment on their oppressors. Judgments within history look forward to final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). Sin, Satan, and death, as ultimate oppressors, have already been defeated in Christ (Heb. 2:14–15; see note on Jer. 1:16). 49:9 Some verses about Edom are similar to Obadiah (Obad. 5). 49:12 See note on 25:15. 50:1 See note on Isa. 14:4. 50:8 The command to flee prefigures the command to flee the final Babylon, the city of sin (Rev. 18:4).

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50:20 Forgiveness of sins is found ultimately in Christ (Col. 1:14; Heb. 10:1–14). On the remnant, see note on Isa. 6:13. 51:9 Judgment on Babylon prefigures final judgment against God's enemies (Rev. 18:5; see note on Jer. 1:16). 51:11 Judgment through the Medes is predicted also in Isa. 13:17 and comes to pass in Dan. 5:31. 52:1 See the parallel in 2 Kings 24:18–25:21. 52:3 See note on 2 Chron. 36:16. 52:7 Jeremiah's earlier prophecies about destruction (e.g., 7:14; 34:2–4) are here fulfilled, underlining the faithfulness of God and the power of his word. The words of judgment foreshadow Christ's prophecies about the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24:2; Luke 19:43–44) and the prophecies of final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). See note on 2 Chron. 36:21. 52:13 See note on 2 Kings 25:9. 52:31 See note on 2 Kings 25:27.

Lamentations
The lament over Jerusalem anticipates Christ's lamenting over the future fall of Jerusalem (Luke 19:41–44). In both cases, Jerusalem suffers for her own sins. But suffering for sin finds a remedy when Christ suffers as a substitute for the sins of his people (2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:22–24). 1:5 God shows his justice in judging the sins of Jerusalem. He prefigures the manifestation of justice in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and in the work of Christ. 2:14 On false prophets, see note on Jer. 14:14. 2:17 God's fulfillment of prophecy underlines his faithfulness and the power of his word. His faithfulness is supremely manifested in the suffering and vindication of Christ (see note on Ps. 105:5). 3:14 The sufferings of the prophet prefigure the sufferings of Christ (Matt. 27:27–31, 39–44). 3:26 Even in the midst of disaster and pain there is final hope for the salvation of the Lord. This hope has come to fruition in the salvation that Christ has accomplished (Matt. 1:21), and we now wait for its consummation (Rom. 8:18–25). 4:11 The pouring out of God's wrath on Jerusalem prefigures the wrath poured out on Christ as sinbearer (Gal. 3:13), the wrath on Jerusalem in its second destruction (Luke 21:22–24), and the wrath in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). 5:21 Restoration is promised to Jerusalem after 70 years of exile (Jer. 25:11–12; 29:10–14). The restoration prefigures final salvation in Christ (Col. 1:13–14; see note on Jer. 29:14).

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Ezekiel
God judges Israel's apostasy through the exile. Israel suffers for her own sin, and in so doing anticipates God's final judgment against sin (Rev. 20:11–15). But the suffering also anticipates the suffering of Christ for the sins of others. The subsequent blessing in restoration prefigures the blessings of eternal salvation in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14). 1:26 God appears in human form, anticipating the incarnation of Christ and his glory (John 1:14; Rev. 1:12–16). 2:3 The resistance to Ezekiel as a prophet prefigures the resistance to Christ as final prophet (Luke 11:49–51; see note on Jer. 1:9). 2:8 The picture of eating, symbolizing an appropriation of the words of God, anticipates Rev. 10:9– 11. 3:8 See note on Jer. 1:9. 3:12 The empowering by the Spirit prefigures the role of the Spirit in Christ's prophetic ministry (Luke 4:18), and then his empowering of gospel proclamation (Acts 1:8). 3:17 Ezekiel has a responsibility for faithfulness analogous to the responsibility in gospel proclamation (2 Cor. 2:14–17; 3:5; 4:2). 4:4 Ezekiel's identification with the punishment of the people prefigures Christ's bearing the sins of his people (2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:22–24). 5:1 The prophet's own body becomes a symbol for the sinful people. It prefigures Christ's identification with the sins of his people (2 Cor. 5:21). 5:2 The casting off of much of the hair leaves a remnant, anticipating the remnant in the NT (Rom. 9:27; 11:5; see note on Isa. 6:13). 5:8 Judgment against sin prefigures the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). 5:13 Knowing that “I am the Lord”—an important theme in Ezekiel—anticipates the deeper knowledge of God given in Christ (John 14:9; 17:1–5). 6:4 God's judgment makes plain the worthlessness of idols. God destroys false hopes to make plain that Christ is the one, God-ordained way of salvation (John 14:6; Acts 4:12; see notes on Isa. 46:1; Jer. 48:7). 7:2 See note on 5:8. 8:2 See note on 1:26. 8:3 God judges idolatry, making plain that the true God alone is the source of salvation (see note on 6:4).

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9:4 Mercy comes to those who follow God's ways, prefiguring the mercy in Christ. The mark prefigures the seal of the Holy Spirit and of the name of God, guaranteeing our salvation (2 Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13; Rev. 7:2–8; 14:1–3). 9:8 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13. 10:18 The departure of God's presence from the temple is one aspect of judgment. It contrasts with the dwelling of God in the temple, which prefigures the coming of God to dwell with us in Christ (Matt. 1:23). 11:13 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13. 11:19 The promise of a new heart, reiterated in 36:25, is connected to the new covenant that will come in Christ (Jer. 31:31–34; Heb. 8:8–13; 10:16–18; see note on Jer. 31:31). 12:11 On the exile as judgment, see note on Isa. 39:6. 13:2 The false prophets prefigure Christ's opponents and false teachers in the church (2 Pet. 2:1–3; see note on Jer. 14:14). 13:10 The religious leaders opposing Jesus are like whitewashed tombs (Matt. 23:27). On false peace, see note on Jer. 6:14. 14:3 God does not reveal himself to the rebellious. The lack of understanding anticipates the lack of understanding of Jesus' teaching (Matt. 13:10–17). 14:6 On repentance, see note on Jer. 18:11. 14:9 The deception that falls on the rebellious anticipates the deception on those who refuse the truth of the gospel (2 Thess. 2:10–12). 15:2 Israel is a vine without fruit. See note on Isa. 5:7. 16:8 The faithlessness of Israel contrasts with the faithfulness of the bride of Christ (Eph. 5:25–27; Rev. 19:7–8). The church also is tempted to go astray from her covenant with Christ (2 Cor. 11:2–3). See note on Jer. 2:2. 17:13 The penalty for breaking a covenant with a human king shows by analogy the seriousness of breaking the covenant with God (Heb. 10:29–31). 17:22 After destruction comes a new beginning, symbolizing the kingdom of Christ and its growth to fill the nations (see Isa. 11:1). 18:4 God will execute justice. The judgments within history look forward to the final judgment, when perfect justice will come (Rev. 20:11–21:8). 18:9 The granting of life to the righteous in the short run prefigures the granting of eternal life. The gift of eternal life comes only through perfect righteousness, the righteousness of Jesus Christ (Rom.

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3:23–26; 6:23). 19:9 On the exile as judgment, see note on Isa. 39:6. 20:3 See note on 14:3. 20:8 The repeated rebellion of Israel calls for judgment. God must also be faithful to his name in rescuing them. Judgment and mercy are finally both achieved in Christ (Rom. 3:25–26). 20:11 See note on Lev. 18:5. 21:31 Fire and wrath anticipate the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). The sword (Ezek. 21:28) anticipates the sword of Christ in final judgment (Rev. 19:15; see Heb. 4:12–13). 22:15 On the exile, see note on Isa. 39:6. 22:20 The melting process prefigures the coming of the Messiah as refiner (Mal. 3:3). 22:30 No man is adequate to the task of redemption except Jesus Christ (1 Tim. 2:5–6). 23:3 See note on 16:8. 23:22 Any lover other than the true God will be found to be treacherous, resulting in judgment. The failure of other gods points to the one way of salvation through the true God (John 14:6; Acts 4:12). 23:32 On the cup of wrath, see note on Jer. 25:15. 24:8 The coming of God's wrath prefigures his wrath in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). 24:21 The destruction of the temple destroys false pride and confidence. By contrast it points to confidence in God alone for salvation (John 2:19–21; Acts 4:12). 25:2 God's judgment against Israel's traditional enemies prefigures future judgments against enemies, including the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). 26:4 The completeness of destruction indicates God's zeal to remove evil completely. His zeal is manifested both in the death of Christ and in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). 27:9 The fall of Tyre with its riches prefigures the fall of Babylon the prostitute (Rev. 18:19). 28:13 The fall of Tyre is reminiscent of the fall of Adam (Gen. 3:1–19), and some think it is also reminiscent of the fall of Satan. The proud beauty of Tyre also prefigures the beauty of Babylon (Rev. 17:4), in contrast with the true beauty of the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:18–21). 29:3 Egypt, another traditional enemy of God and God's people, is judged by God, prefiguring the last judgment. By depicting Egypt as a dragon, Ezekiel makes the connection between her and the defeat of Satan the dragon (Rev. 12:3–17).

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29:13 God shows mercy to Egypt, in analogy with the mercy shown to Israel in bringing them back from exile. This mercy anticipates the mercy in Christ (Rom. 5:6–11). 30:3 On the day of the Lord, see note on Isa. 13:6. 31:14 Human pride is put down (see note on Isa. 2:11), anticipating the humbling of pride through salvation in Christ (1 Cor. 1:26–31). 32:2 On Egypt as a dragon, see note on 29:3. 32:7 The darkening of light prefigures the darkening at the second coming of Christ (Matt. 24:29– 31; Rev. 6:12–13). 32:21 An answer to the powerlessness and humiliation of death is found only in Christ and his resurrection (John 11:25–26; 1 Cor. 15:42–58). 33:2 On the watchman, see note on 3:17. 33:11 The invitation to repent anticipates the gospel invitation (2 Pet. 3:9; Acts 2:38–41). 33:16 See note on 18:9. 33:17 See note on 18:4. 33:31 Hypocrisy among the people anticipates the hypocrisy that Christ confronts (Matt. 23:13–36; see Jer. 7:11). 34:2 The false shepherds in Israel contrast with God, who is the true shepherd through Christ (vv. 11–31; Isa. 40:11; Luke 15:1–7; John 10:11, 14). 34:23 God is shepherd in connection with David, prefiguring the fact that Christ is both God and man, and that as man he is the king in the line of David (Matt. 1:1–16). 35:5 See note on 25:2. 35:6 The principle of retribution manifests God's justice and anticipates the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15; see note on Prov. 1:18). 36:10 The return from exile prefigures God's climactic redemption from sin through Christ (Col. 1:13–14; see note on Isa. 39:6). 36:22 The Lord vindicates his name in Christ when he shows holiness and justice in punishing sins and mercy in saving the sinner (Rom. 3:23–26). 36:25 Cleansing from sins is accomplished in Christ (Col. 1:14; Heb. 9:23–28). 36:27 The promise of the Holy Spirit is fulfilled at Pentecost (Acts 2:1–21) and in the giving of the Spirit to those who believe in Christ (Rom. 8:9–17).

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37:5 The vision of new life through the Spirit has a partial fulfillment in the return from exile (37:12). It prefigures the giving of resurrection life through the Spirit of Christ (John 11:25–26; Rom. 8:9–17; Col. 3:1–4). 37:24 See note on 34:23. 38:2 Gog and Magog attack, pointing to the final war between God and his enemies in Rev. 20:8–10. 38:22 Fire comes from heaven in Rev. 20:9. 39:17 The sacrificial feast is depicted in Rev. 19:17–21. 39:29 On the pouring out of the Spirit, see notes on 36:27 and 37:5. 40:2 The vision of a new temple builds on the earlier passages about the tabernacle of Moses (Exodus 25–40) and the temple of Solomon (1 Kings 5–8). Ezekiel's temple is even more glorious, pointing forward to several realities: (1) the glory in which God dwells with man in Christ (John 1:14); (2) Christ's body that is the temple (John 2:19–21); (3) the church as a temple (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22; 1 Pet. 2:5); (4) the body of the individual believer (1 Cor. 6:19); and (5) the heavenly Jerusalem (Rev. 21:9–22:5). 40:6 The gateways give access to the presence of God from all four directions. This access prefigures the access to God through Christ, an access extending to all nations (Heb. 10:19–22; Rev. 21:12–13, 24–26). 40:38 The burnt offering, described in Lev. 1:1–17; 6:8–13, prefigures the sacrifice of Christ (Eph. 5:2; Heb. 10:5–10; and note on Lev. 1:9). God gives the vision to Israel (Ezek. 43:10–11) using the symbolism belonging to the Mosaic covenant, but all the symbolism finds its culmination and fulfillment in Christ (Heb. 8:8–13). 40:45 The priesthood descending from Aaron is described in Leviticus 9–10; 21–22; Numbers 3–4; 8; 17–18; and other passages. This priesthood is a shadow and a symbol, to be fulfilled in the eternal priesthood of Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:6). 41:2 The spaciousness prefigures free access to God through Christ (see notes on 40:2 and 40:6). 42:13 The eating of the holy food prefigures spiritual food in Christ (John 6:53–58; see note on Ezek. 40:45). 43:3 The coming of the glory of the Lord, as described in chapter 1, indicates the blessing of his presence, giving a remedy for God's departure in chapter 10. The presence of God comes to the church as a temple through the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:2–4; 1 Cor. 3:16). 43:18 On the burnt offering, see note on 40:38. 44:4 See note on 43:3. 44:15 The holiness required to serve God prefigures the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:6; 9:11–28;

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see note on Ezek. 40:45). 45:1 The expansion of holy area prefigures the holiness of the church, which is an international community (Rev. 5:9–10), and the holiness of the new heaven and the new earth (Rev. 21:1–22:5). 45:4 On the priests, see note on 40:45. 45:7 The princes as leaders of Israel belong to the symbolism of the Mosaic order that God uses in this vision (see notes on 40:2 and 40:38). They point forward to the leaders in the church (Eph. 4:11; 1 Pet. 5:1–5) and in the new heaven and new earth. Christ is the supreme Lord over all (Eph. 1:19–23). Fulfillment in Christ transforms the nature of worship and so displaces the forms of worship belonging to the shadows of the Mosaic order (Heb. 8:1–9:14). 45:18 Permanent purification has now been accomplished through the offering of Jesus Christ once and for all (Heb. 10:1–14). 45:21 Christ is our Passover lamb (1 Cor. 5:7; see notes on Ezek. 40:38 and 40:45). 46:2 On the prince and the priests, see notes on 40:45 and 45:7. 47:1 Refreshing water from the presence of God (see Ps. 46:4) prefigures the living water that Christ offers through the Spirit (John 4:10, 13–14; 6:35; 7:37–39; Rev. 22:1–2). 47:12 The trees prefigure the tree of life as a symbol of abundant blessing from God (Rev. 22:2). 47:13 The inheritance of the land with its boundaries picks up the theme from Numbers 34, Joshua 14–19, and other passages. The land prefigures the new heaven and the new earth (Heb. 11:13–16; Rev. 21:1). 47:22 The inclusion of foreigners prefigures the inclusion of the Gentiles in the blessing of the gospel and the inheritance from Abraham (Gal. 3:9, 14, 26–29; 4:28–31). 48:1 See note on 47:13. 48:21 God dwells consummately in the midst of his people in Rev. 21:1–22:5. See notes on Ezek. 40:2 and 40:38. 48:31 The gates are found in Rev. 21:12–13 (see notes on Ezek. 40:2 and 40:6).

Daniel
Daniel and his friends exemplify the conflict between the kingdom of God and the kingdoms of this world, a conflict that will come to its climax in Christ, in both his first coming and his second coming. 1:5 Daniel and his friends resist the temptation to assimilate to the idolatrous culture in which they are immersed. Christ was in this world but did not yield to temptation (Matt. 4:1–11; Heb. 4:15), and we are called to follow in his steps (John 17:14–19; 1 Pet. 2:21).

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1:17 Daniel is like Joseph (Gen. 40:8; 41:39) and prefigures the wisdom of Christ (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:3). 2:11 God by answering Daniel shows that he is the true God, and anticipates the time when God's dwelling will be in the flesh (John 1:14). 2:24 Daniel also saves the lives of others, prefiguring Christ who saves us (Heb. 2:14–15). 2:44 In the days of the fourth kingdom, the Roman Empire, the kingdom of God is established through Christ (Matt. 3:2), especially through his resurrection (Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:19–23). 3:6 The forcing of false worship anticipates the situation with the beast (Rev. 13:12–15) and the persecution against the church (Acts 8:1–3). 3:18 The willingness to die for the faith anticipates Christ's willingness to die (John 10:17–18) and the willingness of Christians to be martyrs (Acts 7:55–60; Rev. 6:9; 12:11). 3:25 The one like “a son of the gods” is the preincarnate Christ (cf. Rev. 1:12–16). Christ identifies with the persecution of the Jews and in his power protects them. 3:29 The resurrection-like deliverance from death results in the spread of the message about the true God. The message prefigures the message of the gospel announcing the resurrection of Christ. 4:9 Daniel's wisdom and ability to interpret dreams is like that of Joseph (Gen. 41:38). Daniel serves to mediate divine wisdom to Nebuchadnezzar, and so prefigures the unique mediation of Christ, who is the wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:3). 4:30 Nebuchadnezzar is humbled by God's judgment. The putting down of human pride anticipates the putting down of pride when God brings salvation in Christ (1 Cor. 1:26–31; see Dan. 4:37). 5:4 The judgment on idolatry anticipates the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and demonstrates the sovereignty of God. 5:11 See note on 4:9. 5:20 See note on 4:30. 6:7 See note on 3:6. 6:23 The resurrection-like deliverance of Daniel prefigures the resurrection of Christ. 6:26 The message concerning the true God is spread, prefiguring the spread of the gospel, which announces the resurrection of Christ (see note on 3:29). 7:3 The four beasts are four kingdoms (v. 17), corresponding to the four kingdoms of 2:36–40. Features of the four beasts are combined in the beast of Rev. 13:1–8, which represents a final opponent of God's people.

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7:9 Features of this appearance of God reappear in Christ (Rev. 1:12–16), who is God in the flesh (John 1:14). 7:13 Jesus is the Son of Man (Matt. 24:30; 26:64). 7:14 The dominion of Christ is associated with his resurrection and ascension (Matt. 28:18; Acts 2:33–35; Eph. 1:20–22) and continues until the consummation (Rev. 22:1). 7:21 The war against the saints is described in Rev. 11:7; 13:7–10. 7:25 The period of “a time, times, and half a time” (also in 12:7) is echoed in the half week in 9:27 and is the time of persecution of the church in Rev. 11:2, 3, 11; 12:6, 14. See also Dan. 8:14 and 12:11, 12 for possible further echoes. 8:10 The little horn, Antiochus Epiphanes, persecuted the faithful Jews and profaned the temple (168 b.c.; see 8:23). He prefigures the man of lawlessness, the final Antichrist, the great opponent of God's people (2 Thess. 2:3–4, 7–12; Rev. 12:4). 9:2 See 2 Chron. 36:21; Jer. 25:11–12; and 29:10. 9:9 Definitive forgiveness comes only in Christ (Rom. 4:6–8; Col. 1:14). 9:24 Atonement comes in Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:6; 10:1–14). Everlasting righteousness comes both with Christ the perfectly Righteous Savior (Acts 3:14) and with the righteousness that he gives to his people in justification (Rom. 3:23–26; 2 Cor. 5:21). 10:6 The glorious appearance, reflecting the glory of God, prefigures the glory of Christ in Rev. 1:12–16. 10:12 Daniel's intercession for Israel prefigures the intercession of Christ the great high priest (Heb. 7:25). 10:13 The angelic war prefigures the spiritual war in Revelation (Rev. 12:7–9). 11:2 Tumults and wars on earth continue until the end (Matt. 24:6–7; Rev. 6:2–4) and remind us of spiritual war, part of which is invisible (Rev. 12:7–9). In the midst of tumult, Christ alone provides true peace (John 16:33; cf. Phil. 4:6–7; 1 Thess. 3:4). 11:31 See note on 8:10. 11:35 The refining process looks forward to God's refining of the church (Rom. 5:3–5; Heb. 12:3– 11; 1 Pet. 1:6–7). 11:36 The king is either the man of lawlessness of 2 Thess. 2:3–4 or a foreshadowing of him. 12:1 The book is identified as the book of life of the Lamb that was slain (Eph. 1:4; Rev. 13:8; 17:8), guaranteeing the salvation of those who belong to Christ.

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12:2 Life and final judgment are controlled by the power of Christ (John 5:27–29). 12:3 The brightness looks forward to the brightness in the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:22–27; 22:5).

Hosea
The unfaithfulness of Israel calls for a permanent remedy, which will come in the faithfulness of Christ to the Father and the faithfulness that Christ then works through the Spirit in his people. God's love for Israel foreshadows Christ's love for the church (Eph. 5:25–27). 1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 15–20 and 2 Chronicles 26–32. 1:2 Israel's spiritual adultery, indicated also in Jeremiah (see note on Jer. 2:2), is a shocking rebellion that must lead to judgment on God's part (Hos. 1:4). Yet God will eventually bring a remedy in Christ (1:10; Rom. 9:26). Christ prepares the church as a faithful bride (Eph. 5:25–27). 1:10 In faithfulness to the promise to Abraham (Gen. 13:16; 22:17) God will remember Israel. The remembrance takes surprising form in that it includes Gentiles (Rom. 9:25–26) as well as Jews (Rom. 11:25–32). 2:3 God in justice brings judgment on unfaithfulness. His justice is climactically manifested in Christ, through whom we escape condemnation (Rom. 3:23–26; 8:1), and is manifested in the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–21:8). 2:14 Punishment and restoration for Israel prefigure the punishment and resurrection of Christ, the true Israel (Rom. 4:25). 2:23 See note on 1:10. 3:1 God's love for the wayward prefigures his love for sinners in Christ (Rom. 5:6–11). 4:5 On false prophets, see note on Jer. 14:14. 4:10 False gods are not able to satisfy. Their failure shows the folly of false worship and points by contrast to the one true God, and ultimately to his way of salvation in Christ (John 14:6). 5:4 The lack of knowledge of God points by contrast to true knowledge, which is to be found ultimately in Christ (John 14:7; 17:3). 5:14 See note on 2:3. 6:2 The invitation to come to the Lord prefigures the invitation of the gospel (Acts 16:31; 17:30– 31). The granting of life on the third day prefigures the resurrection of Christ as the source of life to his people (Col. 3:1–4). 6:3 God is known truly in Christ (Matt. 11:27; John 14:6; 17:3). 6:6 Jesus teaches the centrality of steadfast love (Matt. 9:13; 12:7).

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7:5 The king and princes participate in sin with the people, pointing to the need for a faithful king. Christ is the faithful king in the line of David (Matt. 1:1–16). 8:13 God in his justice punishes. Since the people have broken his covenant, he reverses the deliverance from Egypt that was an aspect of covenantal redemption. A greater redemption is needed, which is to be found in Christ (Matt. 2:15; Heb. 8:8–13). 9:10 Israel's present apostasy repeats the old apostasy at Baal-peor (Num. 25:1–5), pointing to the need for a permanent remedy and a permanent change of heart, which will come in Christ (Heb. 8:8–13). 10:6 See note on 4:10. 10:8 Fear of God's wrath prefigures the fearful character of the final judgment (Luke 23:30; Rev. 6:16). 10:12 Full righteousness comes in Christ (Rom. 3:23–26; 8:1–4). 11:1 Israel, labeled God's “son” in Ex. 4:22 (see Deut. 8:5), came out of Egypt in the exodus (Exodus 14). The movement of Israel prefigures the movement of Christ (Matt. 2:15), who is the faithful Son (Matt. 3:17), whereas Israel as son repeatedly failed (Hos. 11:2). 11:11 On the restoration from exile, see note on Isa. 35:10. 12:2 God's punishments are the product of his justice, prefiguring the justice of final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). Such demonstrations of justice make plain the need for pardon through the propitiation of Christ (1 John 2:1–2). 13:14 The threat of death as punishment for sin (Rom. 6:23) is finally answered through the resurrection of Christ (John 11:25–26; 1 Cor. 15:55–57; Heb. 2:14–15). 14:1 The command to repent anticipates the command to repent in the gospel (Acts 2:38). 14:5 The promise of blessing prefigures the blessings of salvation in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14; see note on Isa. 27:6).

Joel
The day of the Lord, the day of God's coming (see note on Isa. 13:6), brings judgment on sin but also may include blessing. Both aspects are fulfilled in both the first coming and the second coming of Christ. 1:4 God sent a locust plague on the Egyptians during the time of Moses (Ex. 10:1–20). But the plague in Joel's day comes on God's own people because of their sins (see Deut. 28:38). It shows the desperate need for forgiveness in Christ and prefigures the locust plague preceding the judgment of the second coming (Rev. 9:1–11). 1:13 See note on 2:12.

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1:15 The day of the Lord, the day when God appears, is a day of judgment (see note on Isa. 13:6). 2:12 The call to repent anticipates the gospel call to repent (Acts 2:38). 2:18 Christ welcomes repentant sinners (Luke 5:32; 15:7). 2:28 The climactic blessing is the pouring out of the Spirit, accomplished at Pentecost (Acts 2:16– 21). 2:32 NT preaching invites listeners to be saved by the name of Christ (Acts 2:38–41; Rom. 10:13; see Acts 4:12). 3:13 At the second coming God executes judgment (Rev. 14:14–20). 3:15 The light is darkened at the second coming as part of God's judgment (Matt. 24:29–31; Rev. 6:12; see Rev. 8:12). The darkening at the crucifixion also indicates judgment (Matt. 27:45). 3:17 The holiness of Jerusalem is perfected in the consummation (Rev. 21:27).

Amos
God comes to Israel with both judgment for sin and promises of restoration. The judgment and restoration anticipate the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ, as well as the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). The demand for righteousness is fulfilled in the righteousness of Christ (Rom. 8:1–4). 1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 14:23–15:7. 1:2 The power of God's word in judgment anticipates the power of Christ's word, both in his first coming and in his second coming (John 12:48–50; Rev. 19:15, 21). 1:3 Damascus, the capital of Syria, is judged, prefiguring final judgment on God's enemies (Rev. 20:11–15). On the display of God's justice in judgment, see notes on Lam. 1:5 and Ezek. 18:4. 2:4 God does not overlook the sins of his own people, but calls them to account just as he did the other nations (1:3–2:3). He shows his impartiality (Rom. 2:11–16). All are subject to curse for their disobedience, and escape is found only in Christ (Gal. 3:13–14; Rom. 3:9–31). 3:2 Those with greater privileges are liable to greater punishment (Luke 12:48). The principle is shown in the guilt that comes to those Jews who reject Christ (Matt. 11:20–24; John 15:22–25). 3:8 See note on 1:2. 3:10 The demand for righteousness is an integral part of God's law. Righteousness is to be fulfilled in the righteousness of Christ (Rom. 1:17; 2 Cor. 5:21) and in his followers (Rom. 8:1–4). 3:12 On the remnant, see note on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13. 4:6 Stubbornness, like the stubbornness of Pharaoh in the exodus, increases guilt. Stubbornness

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characterizes Israel's history, and comes to a climax in the rejection of Christ (Acts 7:51–53; see note on Isa. 29:13). The judgments on Israel were prophesied in Deut. 28:15–68. 5:18 People hoped that the day of the Lord would mean judgment against Israel's enemies. But it involves judgment on sinners universally, including Israel. See notes on 2:4; Isa. 13:6; and 13:9. 5:27 The exile of the northern kingdom to lands beyond Damascus and then the southern kingdom to Babylon prefigures final judgment. 6:1 Pride and self-confidence are judged by God, anticipating the judgment against human pride in the gospel (1 Cor. 1:26–31). 7:3 The Lord in mercy does not simply destroy, but refines his people. His mercy anticipates the mercy to be manifested in Christ (Matt. 9:27). 8:9 The darkening is a symbol of judgment, prefiguring the judgment at the crucifixion (Matt. 27:45) and at the second coming (Matt. 24:29–31; Rev. 6:12; see Joel 3:15 and Rev. 8:12). 9:1 The lack of escape prefigures the universality of the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). 9:8 On the remnant, see 3:12 and notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13. 9:11 The house of David is raised up when Christ is raised. 9:12 When Christ is raised, the nations (Gentiles) become included in God's blessings, in fulfillment of the promise to Abraham (Gen. 12:3).

Obadiah
The judgment against Edom, a traditional enemy of Israel, contributes to the blessing of God's people. The judgment and vindication prefigure the vindication of Christ and the judgments against his enemies, both in his first coming and in his second coming. 3 God judges human pride, anticipating the gospel's judgment on pride (1 Cor. 1:26–31). 10 Those who attack God's people will ultimately be destroyed in the last judgment (Rev. 20:11– 15). 15 On the day of the Lord, see note on Isa. 13:6. On the principle of just retribution, see note on Prov. 1:18.

Jonah
Jonah's rescue from death prefigures the resurrection of Christ (Matt. 12:39–40). The repentance of the Ninevites prefigures the repentance of Gentiles who respond to the gospel (Matt. 28:18–20; Luke 24:47). 1:15 The saving of mariners through the sacrifice of Jonah prefigures the salvation of all nations
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through the death of Christ (1 John 2:2). 1:17 Jonah is under the sea, symbolizing the realm of death. His state prefigures the death of Christ (Matt. 12:40). 2:6 Jonah's rescue from death prefigures the resurrection of Christ from the dead (Matt. 12:40). 3:5 Gentiles repent in response to the preaching of Jonah, who figuratively has been raised from the “death” of the belly of the fish. Gentiles repent in response to the preaching of the resurrection of Christ (Matt. 28:18–20). 3:10 The repentance of Gentiles contrasts with the repeated lack of repentance on the part of Israel (Matt. 12:41; 21:43). 4:11 God's mercy is shown abundantly in the gospel and in the salvation of Gentiles who deserve nothing (Rom. 9:30–31; 11:30).

Micah
God pronounces judgment on Israel, prefiguring final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and the judgment that fell on Christ (Gal. 3:13). He promises blessing through the Messiah, anticipating the blessings of salvation in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14). 1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 16–20 and 2 Chronicles 27–32. 1:5 God in justice cannot overlook the sins of his people. Punishment prefigures the punishment of the last judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and the substitutionary punishment that Christ bore for his people (1 Pet. 2:24). 2:3 On the judgment of human pride, see notes on Isa. 2:11; Ezek. 31:14; and Amos 6:1. 2:12 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13. 3:5 On false prophets, see note on Jer. 14:14. 3:12 On the destruction of the holy city, see note on Ps. 74:3. 4:1 The exaltation of the name of God is accomplished in Christ (see note on Isa. 2:2). 5:2 The Messiah is to be born in Bethlehem (Matt. 2:1–6). 5:8 On the remnant, see 2:12 and notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13. 6:2 Israel does not escape judgment for her sins. This judgment prefigures the justice and thoroughness of final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). 6:8 Sacrifices cannot replace the need for justice and kindness. The focus on real righteousness anticipates Jesus' teaching (Matt. 5:23–24; 9:13; 15:10–20) and is fulfilled in Jesus' own

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righteousness (Acts 3:14; Rom. 8:1–4). 7:6 The family treachery in Israel anticipates the family treachery from resistance to Christ (Matt. 10:35–36). 7:18 Pardon is accomplished in Christ (Rom. 3:23–26; 1 John 2:2). On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13.

Nahum
Judgment on Nineveh, a traditional enemy of God's people, prefigures final judgment and final release from oppression (Rev. 20:11–21:8). 1:15 The good news of deliverance from the oppression of Nineveh prefigures the good news of eternal deliverance from sin and death in the gospel (Isa. 52:7; Mark 1:1; Rom. 1:1). 2:3 The attack and destruction of Nineveh prefigures God's war through Christ against his ultimate enemies (Matt. 12:29; Luke 10:17–19; John 12:31; Rev. 19:11–21; 20:7–10). 3:4 Nineveh's punishment prefigures the punishment for the idolatrous seduction of Babylon the prostitute (Rev. 17:1–6; 18:1–3).

Habakkuk
God's use of a wicked nation to accomplish his righteousness foreshadows the use of wicked opponents to accomplish his purpose in the crucifixion of Christ. 1:4 The perversion of justice in the triumph of the wicked prefigures the temporary triumph of the wicked in the crucifixion of Christ. 1:5 The unbelievability of God's use of a wicked people, the Chaldeans, prefigures the unbelievability of the way in which the injustice of the crucifixion of Christ is used by God for salvation. 1:13 In the crucifixion of Christ the wicked leaders swallowed up Christ the righteous one. 2:4 The righteous person trusts in God; he believes that God's promises are true and that he will bring to pass his righteous purposes. This trust anticipates trust in Christ (Rom. 1:17; Gal. 3:11; Heb. 10:37–38), in whom the promises of God are fulfilled (2 Cor. 1:20). 2:8 On the principle of just retribution, see note on Prov. 1:18. 2:16 On the cup of God's wrath, see note on Jer. 25:15. 3:13 God appears to bring salvation to his people and to the anointed king. Salvation comes when God appears in Christ (John 1:14; 14:9), when Christ the anointed king is saved from death in his resurrection, and when his people are saved through Christ.

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Zephaniah
Judgments on evil people anticipate the final judgment (Rev. 20:11–15) and indicate the necessity of Christ's work and sin-bearing in order to save us from judgment (see note on Isa. 13:9). 1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in 2 Kings 22–23 and 2 Chronicles 34–35. 1:2 God in his holiness is zealous to eliminate all evil. His commitment anticipates the final judgment and renewal of the consummation (2 Pet. 3:10–13; Rev. 21:1). 1:7 On the day of the Lord, see note on Isa. 13:6. 2:3 The call for humility prefigures the gospel call to repent and turn to the Lord (Acts 2:38), and the call to avoid the coming wrath (Acts 17:30–31). 2:9 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13. 2:10 On the punishment of pride, see note on Ezek. 31:14. 3:15 The removal of judgments and curse comes with Christ (Rom. 8:1; Gal. 3:13–14). Christ is the Lord in our midst (Matt. 1:23; John 1:14) and now indwells the church through the Spirit (John 14:20; Rom. 8:9–10).

Haggai
The rebuilding of the temple prefigures the building of NT temples: the church (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22) and the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:9–22:5). 1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in Ezra 5–6 (see Ezra 5:1 and 6:14). 1:2 The house of the Lord symbolizes his presence and looks forward to Christ as temple (John 1:14; 2:19–21), the church as temple (1 Cor. 3:16; Eph. 2:20–22), and the dwelling of God in the new Jerusalem (Rev. 21:3; 21:22–22:5). 1:13 The promise to be with the people anticipates God being with his people in Christ (Matt. 1:23, “Immanuel”) and through the Spirit of Christ (Rom. 8:9–10; 1 Cor. 3:16). 2:4 Our work is not in vain in the Lord (1 Cor. 15:58; Phil. 2:12–13). 2:6 God shakes the old order, showing that we should put our hope in his unshakable kingdom in Christ (Heb. 12:26–28). 2:7 The ultimate glory of God is found in Jesus Christ (John 1:14; Rev. 21:22–23).

Zechariah
The rebuilding in the time of the restoration from exile prefigures the eternal salvation that comes

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in Christ. 1:1 God gives the prophecies during the time covered in Ezra 5–6 (see Ezra 5:1 and 6:14). 1:3 The call to return prefigures the gospel call to repent and come to God (Acts 2:38; 17:30–31). 1:16 Mercy on Jerusalem prefigures the mercy on sinners in Christ (Luke 5:32). 2:5 The glory of God is manifest in Jesus Christ (John 1:14; 17:1–5; Rev. 21:22–27). 2:11 On the coming of the nations, see notes on Isa. 2:2; 11:10; and 42:6. 3:4 The removal of iniquity symbolizes justification in Christ (Rom. 3:23–26; 5:1). 3:8 The Branch is the Messiah (based on Isa. 11:1). 4:6 The Spirit of Christ gives a permanent supply of power and light (John 16:13–15; Rom. 8:9–13). 5:3 We can escape the curse for wrongdoing through Christ, who bore the curse for us (Gal. 3:13– 14). 6:12 On the Branch, see notes on 3:8 and Isa. 11:1. 6:13 Christ builds the temple, the church (Matt. 16:18; 1 Cor. 3:10–16). 7:9 The central importance of righteousness, rather than sacrifice, appears in 1 Sam. 15:22–23, Amos 5:21–27; Mic. 6:7–8, and Matt. 9:13, and underlines the superiority of the righteousness of Christ over all animal sacrifices (Heb. 10:1–14). 8:3 On God's dwelling, see note on Hag. 1:2. 8:11 On the remnant, see notes on Isa. 1:9 and 6:13. 8:22 On the coming of the nations, see notes on Isa. 2:2 and 11:10. 9:9 Jesus the king comes to Jerusalem on a donkey (Matt. 21:1–9). 10:9 The restoration from exile prefigures final salvation and life in Christ (John 6:35; 14:6). 11:10 Faithlessness leads to annulling the covenant, indicating the need for a new covenant (Heb. 8:8–13). 11:12 Thirty pieces of silver is the payoff connected with repudiating the Lord as true shepherd. It anticipates the payoff for Judas (Matt. 26:15; 27:9–10). 12:10 Repentance involves looking on the crucified Messiah (John 3:14–15; 19:37). 13:1 Cleansing from sin comes in Christ (1 John 2:1–2).

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13:7 The disciples are scattered at the time when Christ the shepherd is crucified (Matt. 26:31). 14:8 The living waters are found in Christ (John 4:10; Rev. 22:1; see note on Ezek. 47:1. 14:20 Holiness is found in Christ (Acts 2:27; Heb. 7:26) and in the new Jerusalem that he establishes (Rev. 21:22–22:5).

Malachi
Disobedience and compromise are eliminated with the coming of Christ and his purification. 1:2 God's sovereign love for Jacob prefigures the sovereignty of his love for the elect (Rom. 9:1–29). 1:7 The danger of despising God continues in the church at the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 10:21). 2:8 The corruption of the covenant shows the need for a new covenant (Heb. 8:8–13) and a perfect priest (Heb. 7:11–8:6). 3:1 John the Baptist is the messenger preparing the way for Christ, who is the Lord, the messenger of the covenant (Matt. 11:10–11). 3:7 On the call to repentance, see note on Jer. 18:11. 4:1 On the day of the Lord, see note on Isa. 13:6. 4:6 John the Baptist prepares hearts for the coming of the Lord in the person of Christ (Luke 1:17).

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Course Overview
Timeline of the Life of Jesus (2nd)
I will show the complete timeline from His birth to resurrection

Historical Background (1st)
This will cover the history of the Jewish dispersion and differences between the Hellenist Jews (Jews of the West) and Jews of the East. It will also cover the different translations of the scriptures and which one influenced them during the time of Christ. DA 2-3 “Chosen People” & “The Fullness of Time.” All my information supplements this chapter

Harmony of the Gospels
I will cover from Christ’s Birth to His transfiguration. Showing the chronology of events, and how they relate to each other in the gospels.

The Life and teachings of Jesus (Birth to transfiguration)
This will focus on the theme of each Gospel; portions of scripture covering L&T1, Matt 1-18, Mark 19, Lk 1-9:50; 11:14-32; 13:18-21, Jn 1-7:1. Jesus’ parables, Jesus’ sermons, Jesus’ questions, Jesus’ miracles.

Reading the Gospels
The Gospels and were designed to be read as full accounts, each in their own right, even as they seek to tell about Jesus and his followers. The main obstacle in the Gospels continues into Acts: many in Israel have rejected a message and promise originally intended for them. A key to understanding these accounts is to trace the negative reaction and what it teaches about how people respond to God, and how God still moves to draw people to himself.

Genre
The Gospels have a genre parallel in the ancient world that was called the bios. This was ancient biography. Rather than focusing on physical description and tracing psychological thinking and personal development like modern biographies, a bios highlighted the key events that surrounded a person and his teaching. That is very much what the Gospels do. The key characters are Jesus and God, as Jesus carries out the plan of the Father. Acts belongs to a different kind of genre. It is a legitimization document: its goal is to explain and legitimate the early church and its roots. This was necessary because in the ancient world what counted in religion was its age and time-tested quality. Since Christianity was new, it needed to explain how it could be new and still be of merit. The answer was that, although the form of Christianity was new, the faith itself was old, rooted in promises and commitments made to Israel. In fact, the new movement did not seek to make itself into a new entity but was moved in a new direction only when official Judaism rejected it and expelled it from the synagogue, with the result that (in accord with God's plan, as Acts clarifies) the gospel was taken to the Gentiles also. Acts tells this story as it presents how the promise of God expanded as far as Rome. Though the Gospels are historical writings, they are not always presented in a strict chronology, since some of their scenes are organized topically. For example, Mark 2:1–3:6 reports five controversies in a row that Matthew spreads out over chapters 8–12.
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Perspectives
Even though the Gospels each offer varying accounts, they all share the view that Jesus is the promised Messiah, uniquely related to God to bring his promise and salvation. Three of the Gospels (called the Synoptics because they overlap at many places) tell the story of Jesus “from the earth up,” gradually depicting how one can see his unique relationship to the Father. Mark starts with John the Baptist, while Matthew and Luke start with Jesus' unique birth. John, however, tells the story very much “from heaven down.” He starts with the preincarnate Word becoming flesh. His presentation of Jesus as Son of God is more direct and explicit. The Synoptics allow the reader to gradually see this idea, much in the manner people come to realize gradually who Jesus is. This difference in how the story unfolds does not represent a conflicting account of Jesus, but simply a distinct perspective on how to highlight who he is and what he has done. Acts chronicles the expansion of Jesus' newly formed community from Jerusalem to Rome. Here God and Jesus are the key figures, directing the action through the Spirit, with the key human figures being Peter, Stephen, Philip, and Paul. Acts is not a defense of Paul, as many argue, but is a defense of what Paul's ministry to the Gentiles represents: the realization of God's promise to reconcile all people groups to himself and to one another through Jesus.

Distinctive of Matthew
Matthew's major concerns include Jesus' relationship to Israel and explaining Israel's rejection of him. Those who were Christians did not seek a break with Judaism but had separated from Judaism because the nation rejected the completion of the divine and scriptural promise Jesus brought and offered. However, that rejection did not stop the arrival of the promise; it raised the stakes of discipleship and led to the creation of a new entity, the church. The message was not limited to Israel but included the whole world. Five discourse units consisting of six discourses (long sections of teaching by Jesus) are the backbone of the book (chs. 5–7; 10; 13; 18; 24–25 [eschatological discourse followed by a parables section]). As with all the Gospels, there is an interaction and interchange between Jesus' word and deeds. Jesus' actions support what he preaches. Jesus' death was an act of the divine plan that led to his vindication and mission. Disciples are those who come to Jesus in personal relationship and trust, seeking forgiveness and the righteousness that God so graciously offers. A brief listing of major Matthean themes shows the variety of his interests. (Italics identify the key themes, which in some cases overlap with other Gospels and in other cases are unique.) Matthew's Christology presents a royal, messianic understanding of Jesus, who as Son of God comes to be seen as the revealer of God's will and the bearer of divine authority. As the promised King of the Jews, Jesus heals, teaches the real meaning of the OT in all its dimensions, calls for a practical righteousness, inaugurates the kingdom, and teaches about the mystery elements of God's promise. Matthew associates all of this with a program he calls the kingdom of heaven. This kingdom is both present and yet to come (12:28; 13:1–52; 24:1–25:46). Jesus proclaims its hope throughout the nation to the lost sheep of Israel. He calls on them to repent, challenges their current practices, expresses his authority over sin and the Sabbath, and calls them to read the law with mercy. Most of Israel rejects the message, but the mystery is that the promise comes despite that rejection. One day that kingdom will encompass the entire world (cf. the parables of ch. 13). At the consummation, the authority of Jesus in that kingdom will be evident to all in a judgment rendered on the entire creation (chs. 24–25). Thus, for Matthew the kingdom program, eschatology, and salvation history are all bound together.

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He was a publican (tax collector): Matt 9:9, 10:3. They bought their position in the government which meant to betray their people and working for the oppressive Roman government. He’s another name is Levi: Mark 2:14, Luke 5:27. He was a disciple: he was among those who were classed as the worst people, as chief of sinners. Yet, Jesus chose Matthew. One day Jesus came and “he saith unto him, Follow me.” Matt 9:9. As the writer of this book, all he said was, “and he(Matthew) arose, and followed him.” Jesus picked disciples from the people that we consider the worst. He was a Jew. His audience is Jews: begins Christ’s genealogy with Abraham, father of Israel. He is trying to show that Jesus fulfilled the prophecies which point to the Messiah: As it was written by the prophet Jeremiah, Zechariah, Isaiah…He’s trying to say, “Look, everything that Jesus did, this points exactly to what the prophets of old said.

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Distinctive of Mark
Mark is generally regarded today as the first Gospel to have been written, although a minority of scholars regard Matthew as first. Thus, Mark's outline of Jesus' ministry has become the basic structure through which his life has been traced, even though sections of it are probably given in topical rather than chronological arrangement (e.g., the conflicts of chs. 2–3). The first major section of this Gospel (1:16–8:26) cycles through a consistent structure in each of its three parts. There is a story about disciples at the start (1:16–20; 3:13–19; 6:7–13) and a note about rejection or a summary at the end (3:7–12; 6:1–6; 8:22–26). The turning point of the Gospel is the confession in 8:27–31 that Jesus is the Christ. Half of the Gospel treats the movement toward the final week of Jesus' ministry, while a full quarter of it is on the last week alone. For Mark, the events of the final week are central to the story. The key themes are also evident in how the account proceeds. It begins with a note that what is being told is the gospel. Though to a lesser degree than Matthew or Luke, Mark also traces the kingdom of God as a theme. For Mark, it has elements that indicate its initial presence, while the bulk of the emphasis is that it will come in fullness one day in the future. The mystery of the kingdom is that it starts out small but will accomplish all that God has called it to be. It will grow into a full harvest. Mark is more a Gospel of action than of teaching. Things happen immediately, one of Mark's favorite expressions. Mark has only two discourses, the parables of the kingdom (4:1–33) and the eschatological discourse (13:1–37). Miracles abound. Mark has 20 miracle accounts. Combined with healing summaries, these units comprise a third of the Gospel and are nearly one-half of the first 10 chapters. These pictures of Jesus' authority are important to Mark, as he presents Jesus as one who teaches with authority. The authority underscores that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (1:1; 8:29; 15:39). Mark's Christology presents Jesus as this promised figure. His claims of authority over sin, human relationships, and practices tied to purity, Sabbath, and temple get him into trouble with the Jewish leaders, who early on determine they must stop him. This conflict raised by Jesus' claims is also a central feature of the Gospel. However, Jesus' authority is not one of raw power. In terms of proportion, Mark highlights Jesus as the suffering Son of Man and suffering Servant more than the other Gospels. His mission is to come and give his life as a ransom for many (10:45). The importance of understanding the suffering role
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probably explains the commands for silence given to those, including demons, who confess Jesus as Messiah (1:44; 5:43; 9:9). Without an appreciation of his suffering, Jesus' messianic calling is not understood. It is here that the pastoral demands of discipleship appear as well (10:35–45; cf. 8:31– 38; 9:33–37). Mark is like Matthew here. After the suffering come glory and vindication. The same Son of Man will return one day to render judgment, as the eschatological discourse reveals (ch. 13). The need for discipleship and really listening to Jesus is clear as Mark notes without hesitation the failures of the disciples. Their instincts will not take them in the right direction. Instead, they must trust in God and his ways. In addition, Mark notes the emotions of Jesus and the disciples more than any of the other Gospels.         He was also a contemporary: Mark appears in Acts, and some of Paul’s writings. He was not a disciple He got the information by talking with Peter He has information which no other gospel writer has It was his grandma’s house where the Last Supper was held at. The man in chapter 14 who ran away naked must be Mark: all the disciples were gone including Peter, so there’s no way Peter would know about this and tell Mark. His account is very short We believe that it was the first gospel written: about 32 years after Jesus died – 65 AD. Why would it take so long for them to write it? They were busy evangelizing, until Mark was moved by the Holy Spirit to sit down and write this book. Mark comes from a devote Christian family. Christians gathered for prayer in her mother Mary’s house. He’s sername is John. (Acts 12:12) Mary is Barnabas sister. Mark is nephew of Barnabas. (Col 4:10) Paul and Barnabas took John Mark with them in their mission trip. (Acts 12:25). John served as minister in the trip. (Acts 13:5) After severe trials, John left Paul and returned home (Acts 13:13) Barnabas wanted to take John again in another mission trip and Paul fiercely opposed remembering his unfaithfulness in the previous trip. There was a great contention and Paul not wanting to take John went separate way. Acts 15:37-39 Worked with Peter and considered as son by Peter (1Pet 5:13) Mark was ministering to Paul when he was in the prison. (Col 4:10) Paul calls Mark “my fellowlabourer.” (Philemon 23-24) Paul states that Mark is profitable to him for the ministry. (2Tim 4:11)

Distinctives of Luke
The third Gospel is the longest. It has a mix of teaching, miracles, and parables. Luke gives more
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parables than any other Gospel. Whereas Matthew presents teaching in discourse blocks, Luke scatters his teaching throughout his Gospel, usually in smaller units. Many key discourses happen in meal scenes (7:36–50; 11:37–52; 14:1–24; 22:1–38; 24:36–49). Key themes center on God's plan. Things “must be” (Gk. dei) in Luke (2:49; 4:43; 9:22; 24:7, 26, 44– 47). God has designed a plan to reach and deliver the poor, the oppressed, and those caught in Satan's oppressive grip (4:16–18; 11:14–23). The plan reflects a promise and fulfillment structure, where key figures express scriptural realization of the plan (7:28; 16:16). The opening infancy section does this through the use of hymns decorated in scriptural language, underscoring the note of joy that works through the Gospel. Things also happen with an immediacy, as many texts speak of what is happening “today” (2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 19:9; 22:34; 23:43). The gospel marches forward, as is indicated by the geographic progression in the story from Galilee to Jerusalem (9:52–19:44). Jesus appears as the Messiah-Servant-Lord. The basic category is messianic (1:31–35; 3:21–22; 4:16–30; 9:18–20), but as the story proceeds it is clear that this role is one of great authority that can be summarized by the image of the judging Son of Man or by the concept of Lord (5:24; 20:41– 44; 21:27; 22:69). All of these connections reflect what Scripture has said about the plan. Jesus also functions as a prophet like Moses, a leader-deliverer-prophet who is to be heard (4:20–30; 9:35). Jesus' miracles provide evidence for the inaugurated presence of the kingdom. Ultimately the kingdom brings with its deliverance the defeat of Satan (11:14–23; 17:20–21). Yet there also is a future to that kingdom, which will see Jesus return to reign over both Israel and the nations, visibly expressing the sovereignty he now claims (ch. 21). Thus Jesus' deliverance looks to the realization of covenantal promises made to Abraham, David, and the nation (1:45–54). The national leadership is steadfast in its rejection of the message. Nevertheless, the plan proceeds. Israel will experience judgment for her unfaithfulness (19:41–44; 21:20–24). Her city will be destroyed as a picture of what final judgment is like and as an assurance that God's program is taking place. Efforts to call Israel to faithfulness continue despite her refusal to embrace God's care and Promised One. In the meantime, Jesus forms a new community (called “the Way” in the book of Acts). This community is made up of those who turn to embrace Jesus' message and follow in faith. Acts is really the second half of Luke's story, telling how God led the gospel into the heart of the Roman Empire, despite stiff opposition, through the boldness of exemplary witnesses drawing on God's Spirit.      He got the information from other disciples who were around, and from other things that were written. Luke 1:2, 3: EGW’s writing. He wrote for Theophilus: “Theo” means “God”; “Philus” means “friend.” So Theophilus means “the friend of God.” This book is for friends of God—you and I. He was a Gentile, a Greek He was trying to reach the Gentile mind: Begins his genealogy from Adam; Tries to anchor the life of Jesus into secular history (Luke 3:1). He’s trying to correlate what Jesus was doing on earth, with what was going on in the world at that time. If it weren’t Luke, we would have difficult determining exactly when Jesus was baptized.

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Distinctive of John
The fourth Gospel's account emphasizes Jesus as the Sent One from God, who acts in unity with the Father. John highlights Jesus' uniqueness from the declaration of the incarnation, through a narration of seven signs, to the use of multiple discourse-dialogues. This Gospel's explicit portrayal of Jesus gives it its literary power. John's themes focus on Christology. Unlike the Synoptics, he speaks little of the kingdom. Rather, it is eternal life that is the key theme to express what the Synoptics call the kingdom promise. The emphasis in the term “eternal life” is not only the duration of the life (eternal) but also its quality (i.e., real, unending life). Thus, to know the Father and Jesus Christ whom the Father sent is eternal life (17:3). This life is available now (5:24–26). Along with the opportunity is also the prospect of judgment for those who refuse it (3:16–21, 36). The promise is brought by the Word/Logos sent from God in the form of human flesh. The “I Am” sayings convey various ways in which Jesus represents the way of God. Each image (light of the world, the resurrection and the life, the good shepherd, the bread of life, the vine) specifies some central role that belongs to Jesus. As Son, Jesus only does that which the Father shows him. It is the unity with the Father in mission that John highlights. Jesus is the hoped-for Messiah, as well as the Son of Man who ascends and descends between earth and heaven. In this role, he will judge (5:27), be lifted up (3:14), and serve in mediating salvation (3:13; 6:27). Even when Jesus is seen as a prophet, it is as a leader-prophet like Moses (6:14; 7:40). Seven signs dominate the first two-thirds of the Gospel. The response to them covers the range from rejection (12:37–39) to openness (9:25). Interestingly, unlike the Synoptics, there is no casting out of demons in John. He focuses on acts of healing, restoration, and provision. What these signs especially highlight is Jesus' superiority to Jewish institutions (1:17; 2:19–21; 7:37–39; 9:38; 10:1– 18). Most of the miracles take place in a setting of Jewish celebrations and underscore how Jesus provides what the feasts celebrate. At the end of the Gospel, blessing comes to those who have faith without the need for such signs (20:29). Jesus is seen as the revelator of God. He makes the Father and his way known, functioning as light (1:14–18). Jesus' death shows the love of the Father for his own people and is an example to disciples of how they should love (13:1, 11–17). Jesus' death also serves to gather God's people together (10:1–18) and is a means by which the Son and Father are glorified as life is made available though him (3:14–16). Also of great importance to John is the Spirit, also called the Helper (Gk. paraklētos; see John 14:16– 18, 26; 15:26; 16:7–14; 20:22), the one Jesus sends after his death, a point Acts also highlights. This encourager-enabler leads the disciples into the truth, empowers them for ministry and mission, and convicts the world of sin, righteousness, and judgment (John 14:25–31; 16:8–11). He is the one who sustains life (4:8–10; 7:37–39).    He was a disciple: the beloved He wrote 5 books – John, 1,2,3 John and Revelation He wrote the book of John after he wrote the book of Revelation: If the Lord’s day was Sunday, in the book of John he would have recorded something. He never, ever mentioned Sunday as sacred day, but always referred to the Sabbath.

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John is not part of the synoptic gospels: “syn” means “together”; “optic” means “eye.” “Synoptic” means “to see together.” Matthew, Mark and Luke almost have the same content – they are called the Synoptic gospel. But John is unique. Purpose of John’s gospel (20:31) is to prove that Jesus is divine & to experience salvation: he is the clearest on the issue of conversion and salvation. It’s experiential.

Distinctives of Acts
Acts teaches that the new community is rooted in old promises. It does this by telling how God directed the inclusion of Gentiles and took the message from Jerusalem to Rome. The central figures in the book are Peter (chs. 1–5; 10–12); evangelists from the Hellenistic believing community, such as Stephen and Philip (chs. 6–8); and Paul (chs. 9; 13–28). Discourses are important to the book, whether they be missionary speeches to call people to belief or defense speeches where the Christian mission is explained. In the end, the book makes it clear how an originally Jewish movement came to include Gentiles. The gospel can go to all the world because (1) Jesus is Lord and (2) God directed that the gospel go into all the world. The book ends on a note of triumph as the gospel comes to Rome, even though believers suffered in terms of injustice and physical persecution in an effort to get the gospel there.

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The Four Gospels
There are 4 gospel accounts because they all emphasize different characteristics of Jesus just like the sanctuary. Because sin took place, and because Jesus came to this earth, something happened that would never have happened. What was it? God is doing something for us that is greater that would not have happened had we not sinned. He brought us back and brought us higher through the plan of salvation. Luke gives us an account on the life of John the Baptist that you will not find anywhere else in the Bible. Luke 1: John 1:15 Mark 1:1-3 Why did they all begin with introducing John the Baptist? Because before there is ever a coming of Jesus Christ, there will always be one announcing His coming, to prepare the way for Him.
DA 101 In preparing the way for Christ's first advent, he was a representative of those who are to prepare a people for our Lord's second coming.

His life parallel’s with the lives of the SDA’s. He was predicted by prophecy, he was a reformer in diet, he was a reformer in dress, and he has a message of the Sanctuary. The gospels are not to cover every aspects of Jesus’ life.
Jn 21:25 And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. Amen.

These writers are trying to help us each see a different aspects of Jesus. But most importantly, to point us to Him as the source of salvation. There are 4 gospel accounts because they all emphasize different characteristics of Jesus just like the sanctuary:     Matthew: King Mark: Servant Luke: Humanity John: Divinity Lion Cow Man Eagle

Timeline of the Life of Jesus
This is my own personal edited timeline. I have chosen random events to give an overall timeline. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Birth of Jesus Angels & Shepherds Visit of Magi (Pic Ava) (Matt 2) Flight of Jesus to Egypt (Matt 2) First Passover visit at the age of 12 The Baptism of Jesus (Matt 3, Mark 4, Luke 4)

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7. The temptation of Jesus (Matt 4, Mark 4, Luke 4) 8. First Passover, A.D. 28 – Second Passover A.D. 29 a. Nicodemus (Pic Ava) (John 3) b. Samaritan Woman (John 4) c. Nobleman’s Son d. John Imprisoned 9. Second Passover, A.D. 29 – Third Passover A.D. 30 a. Call by the sea b. Plucking Grain on the Sabbath (Matt 12) c. Sermon on the mount (Matt 5-8) d. Sermon by the sea (Matt 13) i. The tares ii. The Sower and 4 different grounds e. Death of John the Baptist (Matt 14) 10. Third Passover A.D. 30 – Fourth Passover A.D. 31 a. Feeding the 5,000 b. Jesus walks on the Lake (Peter sinks) c. Feeding the 4,000 d. The Blind man near Bethsaida e. The transfiguration (Matt 17) f. The Adulteress (John 8) g. Mission of the Seventy h. The good Samaritan (Luke 10) i. Lost Sheep (Luke 15) j. Lost Coin (Luke 15) k. Prodigal Son (Luke 15) l. The Raising of Lazarus (John 11) m. The ten lepers n. The rich young ruler (Matt 18) o. Betrayal Plot 11. Passion Week (Fourth Passover A.D. 31) a. Triumphal Entry (Matt 21-Monday) b. Second Cleansing of the temple c. Mt. Olives (Signs of Christ Return) (Tuesday) d. The Lord’s Supper (Thursday) e. Gethsemane (Friday) f. Judas confession and suicide (Friday) g. First trial before Pilate (Friday) h. Hearing before Herod Antipas (Friday) i. Second trial before Pilate j. The crucifixion (6th Hour-12:00pm) k. The Burial l. Resurrection 12. Resurrection to Ascension (Spring, A.D. 31) a. Walk to Emmaus b. First appearance in the upper room c. Appearance on a mountain in Galilee d. The Ascension

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Summary of Chapter 1
Because we sinned… Because sin took place, and because Jesus came to this earth, something happened that would never have happened. What was it? God is doing something for us that is greater that would not have happened had we not sinned. He brought us back and brought us higher through the plan of salvation. Let’s say you wrecked a Honda and take it to the body shop, and now they bring you out a Mercedes Benz. It wasn’t restored exactly the same as before, it’s actually better now. God actually is doing something for us that is greater than what would have happened had we not sinned. It shows you the extent of the work of redemption. God didn’t just brought us back, but He brought us back and higher.
DA 25 By His life and His death, Christ has achieved even more than recovery from the ruin wrought through sin. It was Satan's purpose to bring about an eternal separation between God and man; but in Christ we become more closely united to God than if we had never fallen. In taking our nature, the Saviour has bound Himself to humanity by a tie that is never to be broken. Through the eternal ages He is linked with us.

We can now more closely united to God, because God became a man. This is the theme of this whole book called, “Desire of Ages”—Jesus becoming a man, and how through becoming a man, He is going to restore the image of God in us, and He’s going to brings us to become something we’ve never been before, perfectly united with Christ and He is going to be our elder brother. We will become closer to God than if we’ve never sinned. Our world as a lesson book
DA 19 Our little world is the lesson book of the universe. God's wonderful purpose of grace, the myste ry of redeeming love, is the theme into which "angels desire to look," and it will be their study throughout endless ages.

Others are watching us even as we speak right now. They’re watching our planet to see the resolution of the issue in the Great Controversy.

Summary of Chapter 2
Chapter 2, what was God’s purpose for the nation of Israel? They were to be the examples for the whole earth for what God wanted to do His people.
DA 27 But the Israelites fixed their hopes upon worldly greatness.

Your theology can be right, but if your philosophy is wrong, your theology will end up being wrong too. Israelites had the truth, they understood what was right. But the problem was that all the truth they had was eclipsed by the idea of worldly greatness. Because of that, they started to go wrong.
DA 27 It was in vain that God sent them warning by His prophets. In vain they suffered the chastisement of heathen oppression. Every reformation was followed by deeper apostasy.

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Because they had their hopes fixed upon worldly greatness, all these reformations were followed by deeper apostasy. Listen, young people, here you are studying to be a missionary. This school is not to train you for success in the business world, nor political world. We are training you for service. But there may be a philosophy in your mind, “I want to be somebody great. I want to be famous!” If you are still seeking for a worldly greatness, you may come out of school with the greatest truth, but you will always be striving to exalt self. In that sense, ultimately with that kind of philosophy, God can’t bless you, and you will continue to go down and down until the thought changes and even your theology will end up being wrong too. Listen, young people, as you learn the truth and gain experiences, you may caught up in the mood of “I’m somebody now.” When a small group of people ask you to come and speak for them you wonder if you should even go there. In other words, you are saying, “I’m too good for them!”
DA 30 At the time of the birth of Christ the nation was chafing under the rule of her foreign masters, and racked with internal strife. The Jews had been permitted to maintain the form of a separate government; but nothing could disguise the fact that they were under the Roman yoke, or reconcile them to the restriction of their power.

The Romans did control Palestine and Judea, but they still allowed a puppet government to exist. So there were certain things they did allow and they didn’t. That sets the stage for the closing scenes of Christ. What was taking place right then was a fulfillment of the prophecy. Jacob, before he died, prophecied:
Gen 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

After Jesus died, Israel lost all their privileges and Jerusalem was destroyed.
DA30 Hatred of the Romans, and national and spiritual pride, led the Jews still to adhere rigorously to their forms of worship…They had studied the prophecies, but without spiritual insight.

With that wrong mentality, desire of human worldly greatness, these people have gotten themselves to the point where they were so far down and ruled by someone else, and having limited powers.

Summary of Chapter 3
DA 32 When the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son." Providence had directed the movements of nations, and the tide of human impulse and influence, until the world was ripe for the coming of the Deliverer. The nations were united under one government. One language was widely spoken, and was everywhere recognized as the language of literature. From all lands the Jews of the dispersion gathered to Jerusalem to the annual feasts. As these returned to the places of their sojourn, they could spread throughout the world the tidings of the Messiah's coming.

This parallels the time right before Christ’s second coming. One government: You can freely go any part of the world. In 1888, there was no country where missionary couldn’t go. God sent the message to carry throughout the whole world. If that message had been taken, SOP tells us that in two years Jesus would have come. Though the whole world wasn’t under one

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government, the message of the gospel could go anywhere. In these days, you can go almost any country you want. One language: English is widely used in our globe. Jews returning to different parts of the world: Communication Internet, Radio, satellite, TV. The world right now is very similar to the conditions that existed in the first coming of Jesus.
DA 32 At this time the systems of heathenism were losing their hold upon the people. Men were weary of pageant and fable. They longed for a religion that could satisfy the heart. While the light of truth seemed to have departed from among men, there were souls who were looking for light, and who were filled with perplexity and sorrow. They were thirsting for a knowledge of the living God, for some assurance of a life beyond the grave.

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Matthew
Introduction
Matthew GK 3156 = “gift of Jehovah”

Author and Title
Since none of the four Gospels includes the names of their authors in the original manuscripts, they are all technically anonymous. This is not surprising, since the authors likely compiled their Gospel accounts for members of their own churches, to whom they were already well known. However, historical documents from early church history provide significant insight into the Gospels' authorship. The earliest traditions of the church are unanimous in attributing the first Gospel to Matthew, the former tax collector who followed Jesus and became one of his 12 disciples. The earliest and most important of these traditions comes from the second century in the writings of Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor (c. a.d. 135), and Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons in Gaul (c. 175). Because these early church leaders had either direct or indirect contact with the apostolic community, they would have been very familiar with the Gospels' origins. Moreover, no competing traditions now exist (if they ever did) attributing Matthew's Gospel to any other author. If Matthew did not write the book, it is hard to see why the false ascription would bear the name of a relatively obscure apostle when more well-known and popular figures could have been chosen (e.g., Philip, Thomas, or James). When Jesus called him, Matthew was sitting in the tax collector's booth (9:9), collecting taxes for Herod Antipas, and this may have been along a commercial trading route about 4 miles (6.4 km) from Capernaum. However, since the narrative surrounding Matthew's call is set in Capernaum (9:1, 7, 10; cf. 4:13), the tax booth may have been on the Sea of Galilee at Capernaum, since Herod also taxed fishermen. At his calling in the first Gospel he is referred to as “Matthew” (9:9), while Mark's and Luke's Gospels describe him as “Levi the son of Alphaeus” (Mark 2:14) and “Levi” (Luke 5:27). The reason for the variation in names has elicited much discussion, but most scholars believe that the tax collector had two names, Matthew Levi, which he either possessed from birth or took on following his conversion. His occupation as a tax collector implies that he had training in scribal techniques and was thus able to write, while his identity as a Galilean Jewish Christian suggests his ability to interpret the words and actions of Jesus in light of OT messianic expectations.

Date
The precise date of the writing of Matthew's Gospel is not known. Some people argue for a date earlier than the destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70, since Jesus alludes to this event in 24:1–28.

Theme
This is the story of Jesus of Nazareth, recorded by the apostle Matthew as a compelling witness that Jesus is the long-anticipated Messiah, who brought the kingdom of God to earth and is the prophesied fulfillment of God's promise of true peace and deliverance for both Jew and Gentile.

Key Themes
1. Portrait of Jesus. Jesus is the true Messiah, Immanuel (God incarnate with his people), Son of God, King of Israel, and Lord of the church. 1:1, 23; 2:2; 14:33; 16:16;

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2. The bridge between Old and New Testaments. Jesus fulfills the hopes and promises of the OT through his messianic genealogy, fulfillment of OT prophecies, and fulfillment of the OT law. These bridging qualities may have been one reason Matthew was chosen to begin the NT canon. Another possible reason is that many in the early church thought that Matthew was the first Gospel written, and another is that it was personally written by an apostle, in contrast to Mark and Luke. 3. Salvation-historical “particularism” and “universalism.” Matthew's Gospel traces God's continuing work of salvation within Israel (“particularism”) and extends this saving work to all the peoples of the earth (“universalism”), through the person and work of Christ. 4. The new community of faith. The early church included both Jewish and Gentile Christians. Matthew's Gospel would have encouraged them to transcend ethnic and cultural barriers to find unity in service to Jesus the Messiah as members of his universal church. 5. The church is built and maintained by Jesus' continuing presence. God's saving work in the present age is carried out chiefly by and through the church, which Jesus continues to build and inhabit. Anyone who responds to Jesus' call—whether Jew or Gentile, male or female, rich or poor, slave or free—is brought into the fellowship of his church to enjoy him and participate in the community of his kingdom. 6. A “great commission” for evangelism and mission. Jesus' command to “make disciples of all nations” is found only in Matthew and has motivated countless believers to reach out to the lost with the good news of the gospel. As Jesus made disciples in his earthly ministry, he commissions his church to follow his example. 7. Jesus' five discourses recorded in Matthew can be viewed as a manual on discipleship. The presentation of five of Jesus' major discourses, addressed at least in part to his disciples, forms the most comprehensive collection of Jesus' instructional ministry found anywhere in Scripture. They paint a holistic picture of life lived in obedience to Christ, and the church has used them to instruct disciples through the ages.

18:20; 21:5– 9 1:1–17, 22– 23; 2:4–5, 15, 17, 23; 5:17– 20

10:5–6; 28:19

11:28; 16:18– 19; 28:19 16:18; 18:15– 20; 22:10; 28:20

28:19

chs. 5–7; 10; 13; 18–20; 24–25

Purpose, Occasion, and Background
Matthew crafted his account to demonstrate Jesus' messianic identity, his inheritance of the Davidic kingship over Israel, and his fulfillment of the promise made to his ancestor Abraham (Matt. 1:1) to be a blessing to all the nations (Gen. 12:1–3). Thus in large part Matthew's Gospel is an evangelistic tool aimed at his fellow Jews, persuading them to recognize Jesus as their long-awaited Messiah. At the same time, the Gospel reveals clearly to Gentiles that salvation through Jesus the Messiah is available to all nations. For Jewish Christians, Matthew's Gospel provides encouragement to stand steadfast amid opposition from their own countrymen, as well as Gentile pagans, secure in the knowledge of their citizenship in God's kingdom. Against the backdrop of such opposition to Jesus' message, Matthew establishes the identity of Christ's church as the true people of God, who now find their unity in service to Jesus despite previous racial, class, and religious barriers. His Gospel provides necessary instruction for all future disciples, Jew and Gentile, who form a new community centered upon devotion and obedience to
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Jesus the Messiah amid significant opposition. Many scholars have suggested that the prominent church in Antioch of Syria, whose members included both Jewish and Gentile Christians (cf. Acts 11:19–26; 13:1–3), was the intended audience of Matthew's Gospel. They point to the Gospel's influence on Ignatius, an early bishop of Antioch. At the same time, Matthew's message spoke to all of the fledgling churches of his day, and the Gospel appears to have circulated rapidly and widely.

History of Salvation Summary – Matthew & the Kingdom of God
Jesus comes as the messianic King in the line of David to fulfill the OT, especially its promises of everlasting salvation. The ultimate fulfillment comes with his crucifixion and resurrection. This section covers topical studies from the book of Matthew Second Coming
Matt 10:23 But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come.

First mention of the Second Coming
Matt 16:27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.

He comes to reward according to our works. This verse shows by implication the investigative judgment
Matt 13:40-43 [40] As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world. [41] The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; [42] And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. [43]Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.

Shows when He comes and what the rewards are. Note: V.41 Calls it the kingdom of Christ; V.43 calls it the kingdom of the Father (Study).
Matt 19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

We will judge Israel after His coming. Note: Then the kingdom of Glory will come. See Ps 102:16
Matt 8:11 And I say unto you, That many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven.

Abraham, Isaac, Jacob all sitting together with many in the kingdom of heaven..= Note: If you connect this with chapter 19:28 they will be judging.
Luke 22:30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Shows that we will sit down and eat and drink together.

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Matt 26:29 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom. Shows that we will be drinking grape juice together Note: Christ calls it His Father’s kingdom; Mark 14:25 Christ calls it the Kingdom of God, therefore God is the Father; Luke 22:18 He says He won’t drink until the Kingdom of God shall come. That means the kingdom of the Father. 1 Corin 15:24-28 [24] Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. [25] For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. [26] The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. [27] For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted which did put all things under him. [28] And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all. This must be the best passage showing the transition between the kingdom of Christ and kingdom of God Matt 23:39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. There will be a special resurrection at the Second Coming. Note: this could also apply to after the Millennium. Matt 26:64 Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. Caiaphus will be among the special resurrection of the wicked.

Kingdom of God & Christ
Matt 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.

(Relationship of Father and Son), Before you can completely understand the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Christ, you must understand the relationship that exists between God (the Father) and the Son (Jesus). They are equal in the sense of both are God. But when it comes to the roles that they each have in relationship to their created beings they are different. They have these roles so that the created beings can understand and comprehend who God is to them. Now after the fall of man, they take different roles in the plan of salvation, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit all work together for the salvation of man. You also must understand their roles in the light of the great controversy Satan has accused the Father and the Son and therefore God reveals certain details to help us understand how God has met the accusations of Satan. “All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth” – When we read this verse a natural questions should come to mind. What? Does this mean Jesus didn’t have all power in heaven and earth before? It also shows that the Father is Supreme Sovereign. If He gives all power to His Son, it means that the Father has all power.
Matt 11:27 All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and [he] to whomsoever the Son will reveal [him].

“All things are delivered unto me of my Father” – This shows that everything the Son has in His

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possession comes from the Father. He receives everything from the Father. Note: It also shows their relationship. The Son reveals the Father
Jn 3:35 The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand. Jn 13:3 Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God. Jn 14:28 I go unto the Father: for my Father is greater than I.

This is not speaking in reference to Divinity in the sense of the Father being a greater God. But the Son as a man willing places Himself in subjection to His Father as an example of how you and I are suppose to place ourselves in subjection to Christ. Christ says…
Jn 14:31 …as the Father gave me commandment, even so I do.

This shows that as a man in fallen nature Jesus obeyed. Again we now it is not talking about divinity because Jesus says
Jn 10:30 I and [my] Father are one… Phil 2:6 Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God:

Both of these verses show that Jesus is equal with God! Therefore, when Christ says the Father is greater or all power is given to me, it is in reference to their roles in the government of God. All government must have order and a supreme head. And others must fulfill other roles for the government to operate efficiently and this is what I see.
1 Corin 15:27 For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under [him, it is] manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.

Again, this re-emphasizes the fact that the Father is greater than the Son in reference to the government of God. So when Matthew says ‘All power is given’ what does it mean? When did it happen? From Matt 28 we can see that it happened after His resurrection. This power refers to all ecclesiastical and political power. Both being given at His resurrection and both power being wielded in different ways. Did the Son have this power before? I would have to say yes, but He had that power in His divine form. Was the Son a King before? Yes, but a co-ruler. Was He revealed as a King? (In heaven I am not sure, but at some point after the creation of this earth He was) Note: There is much that is revealed to us about the Kingdom of God and Christ after 31 A.D. before that we have glimpses, but it is not as clear. More study is needed
Is 6:1-4 I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up. Jn 12:41 These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him.

It was Christ on the throne, as a king, but again it was the throne of the Father.
Phil 2:6-7 [6] Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: [7] But m:ade himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men.

Christ was equal with God. That means that He was God. But the bible says He ‘made himself of no

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reputation’. That means that He clothed His divinity with humanity, hiding His glory which would have made it manifest that He was God. Previously He was in the “form of God” now in the “form of a servant”. So when you look at Him He just looked like an ordinary man.
Phil 2:8 And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.

Note: ‘found’ Gk 2147 “2 to find by enquiry, thought, examination, scrutiny, observation, to find out by practice and experience. 2A to see, learn, discover, understand. 2B to be found i.e. to be seen, be present. 2C to be discovered, recognised, detected, to show one’s self out, of one’s character or state as found out by others (men, God, or both)1 ”
Phil 2:9 Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name:

“Wherefore” – meaning because He went from being in the form of God to the form of a servant and being obedient unto death. “hath highly exalted him” – exalting the Son in the ‘form of a servant….in the likeness of men’. So He is exalting the Son as a Man. And the name Jesus is above all names.
Phil 2:10 That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of [things] in heaven, and [things] in earth, and [things] under the earth; Phil 2:11 And [that] every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ [is] Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Now all of heaven and earth acknowledge Him as Lord in Human form. (He was Lord before in Divine form Is 6:1-4) Now He is Lord as Jesus a man, but also Christ, God. This further explains Matt 28:18 “All power is given unto me (as God in human form) in heaven and earth” every knee in heaven and earth shall bow. Political power “to the glory of God the Father” – This is the great controversy theme. When we all acknowledge Christ as Lord. This vindicates the Father who has exalted Him. He was not being arbitrary towards Satan. He exalted His Son because His Son was God.
Eph 1:20-21 [20] Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set [him] at his own right hand in the heavenly [places] [21] Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:”

This is clear that Jesus will be exalted over all power and dominion and every name that is named. But because He will sit on the right hand of God. It means that Christ is above everything except for the Father. He is equal with the Father. The Father is above all things and the Son is above all things, but the Father is above Christ. In this world and the world to come.
Eph 1:22 And hath put all [things] under his feet, and gave him [to be] the head over all [things] to the church.

Notice He is the head over all things to the church. That is complete ecclesiastical power. Note: The papacy desires to be over all things to the church. This shows he is the antichrist.
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Eph 1:23 Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.

This shows that the church also will be above all things. But Christ will be above the church. The hierarchy will be. The Father, The Son, The Church, and all principalities and powers, etc. Extra
Col 1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all [things] he might have the preeminence.

This explains the same concept. The Son has preeminence over everything except the Father. Note: All these passages show Jesus being exalted and having preeminence after the resurrection
Eph 5:23-24 [23] …Christ is the head of the church… [24] the church is subject unto Christ.

This means that the church is not subject to anything else. They are above everything except for Christ and the Father. And Christ is above everything except the Father. This is further proven by…
1 Corin 15:28 And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.

“And when all things shall be subdued unto him”
Ps 18:39 For thou hast girded me with strength unto the battle: thou hast subdued under me those that rose up against me.

This describes the battle that takes place at the end of the millennium. It gives a time frame to when all things will be subdued to Christ.
Rev 20:7-9 [7] And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom [is] as the sand of the sea. And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them. Ps 18:47 [It is] God that avengeth me, and subdueth the people under me. He delivereth me from mine enemies: yea, thou liftest me up above those that rise up against me… Great deliverance givet h he to his king; and showeth mercy to his anointed, to David, and to his seed for evermore (His seed is Christ)

“then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him”
1 Corin 11:3 …the head of Christ is God.

Note: Same as 1 Corin 3:23 “Christ is God’s”
Phil 3:20-21 [20] For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: [21] Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself

And because the Father subdued all things under Christ. He is able to change our bodies and give us immortality. The Father put all enemies under His feet. And according to that power that was given Christ by the Father He gives us immortality. This verse can also be understood as according the

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working of the Father Christ is able to subdue all things to Himself. The Father said sit on my right hand until I make thy enemies thy footstool. So the Father makes His enemies His footstool. The last enemy is death. Now Christ can exercise power to destroy death.
1 Corin 15:24-28 [24] Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. [25] For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. [26] The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. [27] For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted which did put all things under him. [28] And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.

These verses give the most comprehensive understanding of the Kingdom of God and Christ. The theme of 1 Corin 15 is the resurrection. It also includes the second coming and the kingdoms of God and Christ. This is because they are all related. The citizens of the kingdom are those who died in Christ. Therefore Christ must return and resurrect them and then finally Christ and His people will be a part of the Father’s kingdom (Still in study)
1 Corin 15:24 Then [cometh] the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.

“End” – End of the plan of Salvation; or most likely the end of the reign of Christ. (this is hard to understand because other passages say that Christ kingdom will last forever. Therefore it has to be one of two main ideas. 1.) Forever means duration or a set amount of time in the same sense of Samuel being given to the Lord forever as a child, or David’s kingdom lasting forever. If I maintain this position it would mean Christ kingdom of glory would last from the close of probation until the end of the millennium. 2.) Forever means eternally and even though the kingdom will be given to the Father Christ reigns jointly with His Father. From this verse we can see Christ was given all rule, authority, and power from the Father as related to Christ’s Kingdom. Paul gives the end picture right here. Then he will explain what leads up to this event.
1 Corin 15:25 For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.

“reign” – This word explains all rule, authority and power. Note: Matt 28:18 Christ said all power is given unto me in Heaven and in Earth. Once all enemies are subdued under his feet He no longer will reign or have all rule, authority and power. The question is when did He begin to reign? Notice the OT passages that teach about the reign of Christ
Ps 2:6 Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.

It sounds like present tense, but when did the Father set His king upon His holy hill? Note: This verse makes it clear also that the Father was the sole King over His own Kingdom
Ps 2:7 I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou [art] my Son; this day have I begotten thee.

Decree: Means commandment or law; this verse shows future tense. When will the Father sent His king of His holy hill? When He declares thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Note: This verse implies several things. First this doesn’t necessary mean that the Son wasn’t a king prior to this even, but that He wasn’t a King as the begotten Son of God. When was Christ begotten? At his resurrection

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Acts 13:33 God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; as it is also written in the second psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. Ps 2:8 Ask of me, and I shall give [thee] the heathen [for] thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth [for] thy possession.

“shall give” shows future tense again. So in the future the Father will give the whole earth for His possession (or kingdom).
Ps 2:9 Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.”

Future tense again. Another promise
Ps 110:1 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

Now when did this take place? This could not be prior to Him coming to this earth. The enemies of Christ were cast from heaven. This took place at His resurrection. Summary: At His resurrection the Father set on His holy hill. At His resurrection He was begotten as a Son of God in human form. At His resurrection He was made a High Priest after the order of Melchizedeck to rule as king and priest.
Heb 10:12 But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God; From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool.

This makes it crystal clear that it was after His death and resurrection. That means that Christ has been expecting, waiting, for the Father to make His enemies His footstool. The Father will accomplish this through the work of Christ in the Holy Place and Most Holy Place.
Acts 2:32-36 [32] This Jesus hath God raised up…[33] Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted…[34] For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, [35] Until I make thy foes thy footstool. [36] Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ

“Lord” – Master or King “Christ” – Anointed Priest This began in 31 A.D. At this time Christ is ruling in the midst of His enemies Ps 110:2, but He is sharing the throne of His Father as a King in Human form. When Jesus went to heaven in 31 A.D. He was called the King of glory. Why? Not just king of heaven, but it was in anticipation that His kingdom would be established (Luke 22:29).
Ps 24:3 Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD? or who shall stand in his holy place?

This is the same hill of Ps 2 that the Father says He will set His king on His holy hill.
Ps 24:4 He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn deceitfully.

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Christ has clean hands, a pure heart was not proud and did not swear deceitfully.
Ps 24:7 Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in.

This is in anticipation that His kingdom of glory would be established. So the kingdom of grace prepares the way for the kingdom of glory. “enemies” – This is a long study. The heathen or kings of this earth are his enemies, sin, death, the grave, etc (study out later).
1 Corin 15:26, 55 [26] The last enemy [that] shall be destroyed [is] death. [55] O death, where [is] thy sting? O grave, where [is] thy victory? Hos 13:5 I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction: repentance shall be hid from mine eyes.

“ransom…power of the grave” – 1st Resurrection “grave…thy destruction” – After the millennium. Note: Grave is also likened to a prison. Who has the keys? The ward of the prison. Who has the keys to hell and death? Jesus Rev 1. When is death destroyed?
Rev 20:14 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death 1 Corin 15:27 For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under [him, it is] manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.

Kingdom of God & Christ (We receive a Kingdom like Christ)
Matt 19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. We judge in the kingdom of Christ Luke 22:29 And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me;

Christ appoints us a kingdom as the Father appointed Him a kingdom
Matt 25:34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:

Inherit kingdom from the foundation of the world
Luke 12:32 Fear not, little flock; for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.

Fathers pleasure to give us a kingdom (Margin: see the references to the OT)
Jam 2:5 Hearken, my beloved brethren, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to them that love him?

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Heirs of the kingdom

Note: Jam 1:12 says we receive a crown of life
Ps 103:19 The LORD hath prepared his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all. The Lord prepared His throne Note: Ps 102:19 the throne is in the sanctuary. Ps 11:4 the Lord’s throne is in heaven. Matt 24:47 Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods. We will be made rulers of Christ’s goods Ps 45:6 Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre. Throne of God is forever. This goes with Heb 1:8-9 Ps 93:2 Throne of old…

The Setting of Matthew
The events in the book of Matthew take place almost entirely within the vicinity of Palestine, an area extending roughly from Caesarea Philippi in the north to Beersheba in the south. During this time it was ruled by the Roman Empire. The opening chapters describe events surrounding Jesus' birth in Judea, where Herod had been appointed king by the Romans. The closing chapters end with Jesus' death, resurrection, and ascension during the rule of Pontius Pilate and the tetrarchs Antipas and Philip.

Outline
1. The Arrival in History of Jesus the Messiah (1:1–2:23)

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a. The genealogy of Jesus the Messiah (1:1–17) b. The angelic announcement of the conception of Jesus the Messiah (1:18–25) c. Magi report the star-sign of the birth of “the King of the Jews” (2:1–12) d. OT prophecies are fulfilled in Jesus the Messiah (2:13–23) John the Baptist Prepares for the Appearance of the Messianic Kingdom (3:1–17) Jesus the Messiah Begins to Advance the Messianic Kingdom (4:1–25) a. Temptations of the Messiah (4:1–11) b. Jesus the Messiah begins his Galilean ministry (4:12–25) The Authoritative Message of the Messiah: Kingdom Life for His Disciples (5:1–7:29) (First Discourse) a. Setting, Beatitudes, and witness of the kingdom of heaven (5:1–16) b. The messianic kingdom in relation to the law (5:17–48) c. The development of kingdom life in the real world (6:1–7:12) d. Warning! With Jesus or against him? (7:13–29) The Authoritative Power of the Messiah: Kingdom Power Demonstrated (8:1–9:38) a. Healings, discipleship, and overpowering Satan's strongholds (8:1–9:8) b. Unexpected discipleship, miracles, and workers (9:9–38) The Authoritative Mission of the Messiah's Messengers (10:1–42) (Second Discourse)

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a. Commissioning and instructions for the short-term mission to Israel (10:1–15) b. Instructions for the long-term mission to the world (10:16–23) c. Characteristics of missionary disciples (10:24–42) Opposition to the Messiah Emerges (11:1–12:50) a. Jesus, John the Baptist, and ministry in Galilee (11:1–30) b. Confrontations with the Pharisees (12:1–45) c. Jesus' disciples are his true family (12:46–50) Mysteries of the Messianic Kingdom Revealed in Parables (13:1–53) (Third Discourse) a. The opening of the Parabolic Discourse (13:1–23) b. Further parables told to the crowds (13:24–35) c. Explanations and parables told to the disciples (13:36–53) The Identity of the Messiah Revealed (13:54–16:20) a. Prophet(s) without honor (13:54–14:12) b. Compassionate healer and supplier for Israel (14:13–21) c. The Son of God worshiped (14:22–36) d. Teacher of the Word of God and compassionate healer (15:1–39) e. Peter confesses Jesus as the Christ, the Son of the living God (16:1–20) The Suffering of the Messiah Revealed (16:21–17:27) a. The suffering sacrifice (16:21–28) b. The beloved, transfigured Son (17:1–13) c. Sons of the kingdom (17:14–27) The Community of the Messiah Revealed (18:1–20:34) (Fourth Discourse) a. Characteristics of life in the kingdom community (18:1–35) b. Valuing the kingdom community (19:1–20:34) The Messiah Asserts His Authority over Jerusalem (21:1–23:39) a. The triumphal entry into Jerusalem: Jesus' authority as Messiah (21:1–11) b. The temple actions: Jesus' pronouncement on the temple establishment (21:12–17) c. Cursing the fig tree: Jesus' judgment of the nation (21:18–22) d. Controversies in the temple court over Jesus' authority (21:23–22:46) e. Warnings against the teachers of the law and the Pharisees (23:1–12) f. Woes of judgment against the teachers of the law and the Pharisees (23:13–36) g. Lament over Jerusalem (23:37–39) The Delay, Return, and Judgment of Messiah (24:1–25:46) (Fifth [Olivet] Discourse) a. The beginning of birth pains (24:1–14) b. “Great tribulation” and the coming of the Son of Man (24:15–31) c. The nearness and time of Jesus' coming (24:32–41) d. Parabolic exhortations to watch and be prepared for the coming of the Son of Man (24:42–25:30) e. Judgment at the end (25:31–46) The Crucified Messiah (26:1–27:66) a. Plot, anointing, and betrayal to the religious leaders (26:1–16) b. The Passover and the Lord's Supper (26:17–35) c. Gethsemane: Jesus' agonizing prayers (26:36–46) d. Jesus arrested (26:47–56) e. The Jewish trial of Jesus (26:57–27:10) f. The Roman trial of Jesus (27:11–26) g. Jesus the Messiah crucified (27:27–44) h. The death of Jesus the Messiah (27:45–50) i. Testimonies, women followers, and burial (27:51–66) The Resurrection and Commission of the Messiah (28:1–20)
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a. An empty tomb and the risen Jesus (28:1–10) b. The conspiracy to deny the truth of Jesus' resurrection (28:11–15) c. The risen Jesus' Great Commission (28:16–20)

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Chapter 1 – Genealogy of Jesus
Matt 1:1 The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

“Generation” – GMK 1078 = Genesis; translates as “generation” once, “natural” once, and “nature” once.
Matt 1:17 So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations.

The word means a succession or series of persons from the same stock.
Matt 24:34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.

“This generation” = the persons then living contemporary with Christ. The Hebrews seem to have reckoned time by the generation. In the time of Abraham a generation was an hundred years, thus: Gen. 15:16, “In the fourth generation” = in four hundred years (comp. verse 13 and Ex. 12:40). In Deut. 1:35 and 2:14 a generation is a period of thirty-eight years
Isa 53:8 Who shall declare his generation?

His manner of life who shall declare? or rather = His race, posterity, shall be so numerous that no one shall be able to declare it. 2 Conclusion = Generation represents the lineage of Christ as well as those living contemporary with Christ. It may also allude to the spiritual descendants of Christ. (More study)
Matt 3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Matt 11:16-17 [16] But whereunto shall I liken this generation? It is like unto children sitting in the markets, and calling unto their fellows, [17] And saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented Matt 12:34 O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? Matt 12:39 But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign Matt 12:41 The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas [is] here. Matt 12:42 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon [is] here. Matt 12:45 Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last [state] of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall

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it be also unto this wicked generation. Matt 16:4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas Matt 17:17 Then Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him hither to me Matt 23:33 [Ye] serpents, [ye] generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell? Matt 23:35-36 [35] That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. Matt 24:34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled 1:1 The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

The Genealogy of Jesus
Matthew 1   Luke 3  This is the genealogy of Mary Jesus was the partaker of the law of heredity – He came like as we were.
1:2 Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren; 1:3 And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram; 1:4 And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon; 1:5 And Salmon begat Booz of Rachab; and Booz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse; 1:6 And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of Urias; 1:7 And Solomon begat Roboam; and Roboam begat Abia; and Abia begat Asa; 1:8 And Asa begat Josaphat; and Josaphat begat Joram; and Joram begat Ozias; 1:9 And Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ezekias; 1:10 And Ezekias begat Manasses; and Manasses begat Amon; and Amon begat Josias; 1:11 And Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon: 1:12 And after they were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; and Salathiel begat Zorobabel; 1:13 And Zorobabel begat Abiud; and Abiud begat Eliakim; and Eliakim begat Azor;

He was a Jew and was trying to prove that Jesus was the Messiah of the Genealogy only goes up to Abraham This is the genealogy of Joseph

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1:14 And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud; 1:15 And Eliud begat Eleazar; and Eleazar begat Matthan; and Matthan begat Jacob; 1:16 And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. 1:17 So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations. 1:18 ¶ Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. 1:19 Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a publick example, was minded to put her away privily. 1:20 But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. 1:21 And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins. 1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, 1:23 Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. 1:24 Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife: 1:25 And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS.

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Chapter 2
2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem,

The Life of Jesus
Matt 2:1-2 [1] Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, [2] Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. Matt 2:15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.

Hosea 11:1 is the text quoted but in Hosea it is referring to the children of Israel. The similarities is after they were baptized, one went into wilderness for 40 years and Jesus went into 40 days into wilderness. Jesus was the one that Hosea was referring to. Israel is a type of Jesus.
Luke 2:4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judæa, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:)

It was prophesized that Jesus was to be born in Bethlehem. The reason why Joseph went back to Bethlehem because everyone was to be taxed.
Luke 2:25-32, 36-38, 40 [25] And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Ghost was upon him. [26] And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ. [27] And he came by the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law, [28] Then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said, [29] Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word: [30] For mine eyes have seen thy salvation, [31] Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; [32] A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel. [36] And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser: she was of a great age, and had lived with an husband seven years from her virginity; [37] And she was a widow of about fourscore and four years, which departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day. [38] And she coming in that instant gave thanks likewise unto the Lord, and spake of him to all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem. [40] And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him.

Simeon was indicating to the parents that God had given to them the Messiah. This is important because EGW mentioned that Mary wandered sometimes if Jesus was the Messiah or not – but she always remember the words that had been spoken to her.
DA 73 He expected much; therefore He attempted much. DA 74 Yet Jesus shunned display. During all the years of His stay in Nazareth, He made no exhibition of His miraculous power. He sought no high position and assumed no titles. His quiet and simple life, and even the silence of the Scriptures concerning His early years, teach an important lesson. The more quiet and simple the life of the child,--the more free from artificial excitement, and the more in harmony with nature,--the more favorable is it to physical and mental vigor and to spiritual strength. DA 83 If Joseph and Mary had stayed their minds upon God by meditation and prayer, they would have realized the sacredness of their trust, and would not have lost sight of Jesus. By one day's

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neglect they lost the Saviour; but it cost them three days of anxious search to find Him.

How do we know that John the Baptist ministered for 6 months?
Luke 1:36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.

We can see here that Jesus and John the Baptist were cousins, we know that they were six months apart.
Luke 3:1-2 [1] Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judæa, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, [2] Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.

John the Baptist was in the wilderness until the time came. The word of God came to him in the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar
2:2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. 2:3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 2:4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born. 2:5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet, 2:6 And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel. 2:7 Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared. 2:8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also. 2:9 When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. 2:10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. 2:11 ¶ And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh. 2:12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way. 2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. 2:14 When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt:

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2:15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son. 2:16 ¶ Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men. 2:17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, 2:18 In Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not. 2:19 ¶ But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, 2:20 Saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: for they are dead which sought the young child's life. 2:21 And he arose, and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel. 2:22 But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee: 2:23 And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.

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Chapter 3 – Anointing | Baptism of Christ
3:1 In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judaea, 3:2 And saying, Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 3:3 For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. 3:4 And the same John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey. 3:5 Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan, 3:6 And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins. 3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

Two generations in the book of Matthew: The generation of Christ and the generation of vipers, Another word for viper is serpent. The generation of serpents.
Gen 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed

Here in Matthew we see the descendents of the woman and the descendents of the serpent. Both are the descendents of Abraham, but through Christ the descendents are not limited to the blood line. (PO Note: Perhaps the Pharisees and Sadducees came from the tribe of Dan.)
Gen 49:17 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.

The Pharisees and Sadducees were used by Satan
Rev 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world…

Satan deceived the land of Palestine through the Pharisees and Sadducees. The Jews were suppose to be the remnant. Matt 22, but they were deceived.
3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3:8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance: 3:9 And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. 3:10 And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. 3:11 I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire:

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“he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire” – This was fulfilled on the Day of Pentecost. John describes four phases of Christ’s work.  His baptism  “baptize with…fire” – Resurrection  “gather wheat into the garner” – Second coming. This also lays the foundation for Matt 13, the wheat and the tares  “burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire” – third coming. Note that this verse describes the doctrine of Hell’s fire. It says ‘burn up’ meaning it will not longer be. It will be consumed. It does not say burn forever with unquenchable fire.
3:12 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. 3:13 Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him. 3:14 But John forbad him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me? 3:15 And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he suffered him. 3:16 And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him: 3:17 And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

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Chapter 4 – Temptations of Christ
4:1 Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil. 4 :2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungred.

How long had Jesus been fasting for before the devil came and tempted Him? 40 days. How did he feel after he had been fasting that long? He was hungry. How would you feel if you hadn’t eaten for a long time?
4:3 And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.

The Temptation of Jesus – Why did the Spirit drive Him into the wilderness?
DA 114 He went to the wilderness to be alone, to contemplate His mission and work. By fasting and prayer He was to brace Himself for the bloodstained path He must travel. But Satan knew that the Saviour had gone into the wilderness, and he thought this the best time to approach Him – Mark 1:12-13 [12] And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness. [13] And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.

It is covered very quickly. In Luke 4 and in Matthew 4. The First temptation
Matt 4:2-3 [2] And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungred. [3] And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.

Satan came to Jesus as if he was a messenger from Heaven
DA 118 There came to the Saviour, as if in answer to His prayers, one in the guise of an angel from heaven. He claimed to have a commission from God to declare that Christ's fast was at an end. Though he appears as an angel of light, these first words betray his character. "If Thou be the Son of God."

There is no evidence in the scriptures that this happened. What was the first temptation that the devil tempted Jesus on? It was on appetite. Do you think that this would have been something difficult for Jesus? Of course. Remember, how long had he been fasting?
Matt 4:3-4 [3] And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. [4] But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.

Was there anything wrong with turning stones into bread? Why would that have been “bad” for Jesus to do? 1 Cor. 15:22 – Christ had to pick up where Adam failed. Gen. 3:1-6 – where was it that Adam and Eve failed? It was first upon the point of appetite. So Jesus had to first overcome on

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appetite because He had to pick up where humanity fell. For Jesus to use His power to turn the stone into bread would be to use His own power for selfish purposes. That was not the reason why He came. He HAD to overcome on this point. Ever since the fall of man, the greatest weakness has always been on the point of appetite. Many sins can be lead back to the sin of intemperance.
1 Cor 15:22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. Gen 3:1-6 [1] Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? [2] And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: [3] But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. [4] And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: [5] For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. [6] And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.

What did the phrase “If thou be the Son of God” insinuate? “If Thou be the Son of God” – Answer: It insinuated distrust in God and asking for proof that He was the Son of God. The “if” showed that if Jesus had listened to Satan, it would have proved that He didn’t believe that voice that He had heard when Jesus was baptized when God the Father said form heaven “This is my beloved Son” (Matt. 3:17). Satan was insinuating that Jesus may not be the Son of God – it was because of the way that he looked:
DA 118 Weak and emaciated from hunger, worn and haggard with mental agony, "His visage was so marred more than any man, and His form more than the sons of men." Isa. 52:14. Now was Satan's opportunity. Now he supposed that he could overcome Christ. DA 119 When Satan and the Son of God first met in conflict, Christ was the commander of the heavenly hosts; and Satan, the leader of revolt in heaven, was cast out. Now their condition is apparently reversed, and Satan makes the most of his supposed advantage. One of the most powerful of the angels, he says, has been banished from heaven. The appearance of Jesus indicates that He is that fallen angel, forsaken by God, and deserted by man. A divine being would be able to sustain his claim by working a miracle; "if Thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread." Such an act of creative power, urges the tempter, would be conclusive evidence of divinity. It would bring the controversy to an end.

The first temptation deals with doubt. Not only was it to do with appetite, but it was to also prove that He was the Son of God.
1 John 2:16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world.

All the sin that is in the world: 1. Lust of the flesh 2. Lust of the eyes 3. Pride of life
DA 120 It was in the time of greatest weakness that Christ was assailed by the fiercest temptations.

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Satan tries to cause us to sin at our weakest point. Jesus overcame by saying – “It is written”. Jesus showed us how we can overcome by quoting the Bible.
DA 121 Perhaps it appears that obedience to some plain requirement of God will cut off his means of support. Satan would make him believe that he must sacrifice his conscientious convictions.

It is so easy to think that God will not supply our needs if we follow Him 100% of the time.
DA 122 Of all the lessons to be learned from our Lord's first great temptation none is more important than that bearing upon the control of the appetites and passions. In all ages, temptations appealing to the physical nature have been most effectual in corrupting and degrading mankind. Through intemperance, Satan works to destroy the mental and moral powers that God gave to man as a priceless endowment. Matt 4:6 And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

Satan didn’t cast Him down but asked Him to cast Himself down. What is the difference between the first and second temptation? The first was to show His power. The second was to show if God was really with Him or not. Satan can never force us to sin. It is always our own choice.
4:4 But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. 4:5 Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple,

The Second Temptation – What was the second temptation that the devil tempted Jesus on?
Matt 4:5-6 [5] Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple, [6] And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

Stimulate discussion by asking why the devil asked Jesus to jump off? What does that represent? Surely there was something bad behind the devil asking Jesus to do that or else he wouldn’t have tried to tempt him. This temptation represented presumption. How did this temptation represent presumption? The devil quoted scripture but we shouldn’t quote scripture for our own benefit. The devil tried to get Jesus to take action on a scripture that the devil quoted. What was different about this temptation as compared to the other two that Satan presented? The devil quoted scripture. Compare the scripture that Satan quoted to what is actually written in the Bible. What is the difference between the two and discuss the importance of what was omitted. What important lessons can we learn from this?
Psa 91:11-12 [11] For he shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways. [12] They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.

He left out “to keep thee in all thy ways” which meant all the ways of God’s choosing. Why was it so important? Because it omitted the need to follow the way of God. What important lesson can we learn from this? If we read scripture, we must make sure we don’t misquote it otherwise we may act presumptuously on something that God didn’t promise. That is why it is so important to know
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how to study the Bible properly. Eve misquoted God in the beginning and she believed a lie because of that (Gen. 3:3). Obedience to the word of God safe guards us from Satan. This is true faith. Faith in the word of God brings forth fruit in obedience. Whereas, presumption claims the promise to excuse transgression.
Matt 4:5-6 [5] Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple, [6] And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. Con 47 But Satan was not willing to cease his efforts until he had tried every means to obtain victory over the world's Redeemer. He knew that with himself all was at stake, whether he or Christ should be victor in the contest. And in order to awe Christ with his superior strength he carried Him to Jerusalem and set Him on a pinnacle of the Temple, and continued to beset Him with temptations.

Satan quotes from Psalms 91 but leaves out “to keep thee in all thy ways” – in God’s way. God only gives us protection when we are obedient to His ways. Angels do not attend the theatres with us. So can we expect God’s protection over us if we attend theatres? Just like driving. If we pray for protection on the road and then speed, that is presumption. God does also expect us to obey the speed limit on the roads. Needlessly showing that God is with us, the love of display that would lead to presumption, would not accomplish anything. Satan was trying to tell Jesus to show that God was with Him. Jesus quoted from Deut 6:16
Ex 17:2, 7 [2] Wherefore the people did chide with Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink. And Moses said unto them, Why chide ye with me? wherefore do ye tempt the LORD? [7] And he called the name of the place Massah, and Meribah, because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they tempted the LORD, saying, Is the LORD among us, or not?

Jesus quoted the text in the right context because they were asking if God was with them or not. We need to claim the promises that are relevant for that situation.
4:6 And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. 4:7 Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 4:8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;

What was the third temptation that the devil tempted Jesus on? He was trying to tempt Jesus to take the easy way out. He was trying to tempt Jesus with power, and a path less sacrificing to get the whole world back. He was trying to get Jesus to worship him – something that he had been trying to do from the very beginning before he was thrown out of heaven
Matt 4:8-9 [8] Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; [9] And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.

How did this temptation differ from the other two? What lesson can we learn from its difference? Satan came outright in trying to get Jesus to disobey the commandments of God. Every time we resist temptation, it comes out stronger and more bold in its demands to go against God’s

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commandments What is our only safeguard when Satan comes to tempt us? How did Jesus respond each time? We must learn to use the words “It is written.” How does this become practical for us to apply today? We need to make sure we don’t misquote the Bible, otherwise we deceive ourselves thinking that God had said that when He didn’t and hence we believe a lie. We should learn to memorize scripture. Jesus didn’t have the Bible with Him on the mount of temptation. He had it memorized and could say “It is written.” The Bible is our safe guard against temptation. If we want victory in life, we need to behold the Bible so much that we can say “It is written.” Suggest to them to maybe memorize a book of the Bible together. Start with something small – Philemon or Jude.
4:9 And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. 4:10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. 4:11 Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him. 4:12 Now when Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, he departed into Galilee; 4:13 And leaving Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast, in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim: 4:14 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, 4:15 The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles; 4:16 The people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up. 4:17 From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 4:18 And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.

Fishers of Men – Aim = A purpose or intention toward which one's efforts are directed. Motto = A maxim adopted as a guide to one's conduct.Class Aim = To render Efficient service as Fishers of men; Motto = Together with God Calling of the fisher men
Matt 4:18-22 [18] ¶ And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. [19] And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. [20] And they straightway left their nets, and followed him. [21] And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. [22] And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him.

I will make you fishers of men (Why did He choose them?). App: You must be called, you can’t make yourself a fisher men. Note: Fish symbolize men; Net symbolizes the tool necessary to gather the men.

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Ezek 22:23, 26, 30 [23] ¶ And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, [26] Her priests have violated my law, and have profaned mine holy things: they have put no difference between the holy and profane, neither have they shewed difference between the unclean and the clean, and have hid their eyes from my sabbaths, and I am profaned among them. [30] And I sought for a man among them, that should make up the hedge, and stand in the gap before me for the land, that I should not destroy it: but I found none.

Called to stand in the gap. Note: Ps 106:23 – Moses stood in gap to prevent destruction of God’s people.
Jud 3:9, 15 [9] And when the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised up a deliverer to the children of Israel, who delivered them, even Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother. [15] But when the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised them up a deliverer, Ehud the son of Gera, a Benjamite, a man lefthanded: and by him the children of Israel sent a present unto Eglon the king of Moab. Jud 4:3-4 [3] And the children of Israel cried unto the LORD: for he had nine hundred chariots of iron; and twenty years he mightily oppressed the children of Israel. [4] ¶ And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that time.

Called as an answer to praying saints. Training of the fisher men. 3 ½ years of training, Note: DA 30 “He ordained twelve”; 25 “The Call by the sea.” After 3 ½ years you have a Judas and a Peter; Betrayer and one unconverted. Commission of the fisher men
Matt 13:47-50 [47] ¶ Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind: [48] Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away. [49] So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just, [50] And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

Commissioned to gather men for the judgment PA: 1844-after millennium (Par Rev 14 3 angels, second coming, winepress after the millennium). Note: Parables many times are prophetic in nature: Matt 22 Wedding Feast (Invest Judgment); Matt 21 Husbandman (crucifixion, destruction of Jerusalem); Matt 25 10 Virgins (Millerite Advent Movement, Midnight cry) . Appeal/Con
Matt 4:19 …Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men…

EGW Quotes
Passed by wise men DA 249-250 “But He passed by the wise men of His time, because they were so self-confident that they could not sympathize with suffering humanity, and become colaborers with the Man of Nazareth. In their bigotry they scorned to be taught by Christ…. Jesus chose unlearne d fishermen because they had not been schooled in the traditions and erroneous customs of their time. They were men of native ability, and they were humble and teachable,--men whom He could educate for His work.”

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Priests appointed by Rome – DA 30 The Romans claimed the right of appointing and removing the high priest, and the office was often secured by fraud, bribery, and even murder. Thus the priesthood became more and more corrupt. Disciples training -- DA 250 When the disciples came forth from the Saviour's training, they were no longer ignorant and uncultured. They had become like Him in mind and character, and men took knowledge of them that they had been with Jesus. Most import work given -- Jesus had called His disciples that He might send them forth as His witnesses, to declare to the world what they had seen and heard of Him. Their office was the most important to which human beings had ever been called, and was second only to that of Christ Himself. They were to be workers together with God for the saving of the world. DA 291 4:19 And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. 4:20 And they straightway left their nets, and followed him. 4:21 And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. 4:22 And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him. 4:23 And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people. 4:24 And his fame went throughout all Syria: and they brought unto him all sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and those which were possessed with devils, and those which were lunatick, and those that had the palsy; and he healed them. 4:25 And there followed him great multitudes of people from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and from Judaea, and from beyond Jordan.

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Chapter 5 – Law of the Kingdom of God
The Beatitudes can be summed up simply has how to enter into the Kingdom of heaven. Jesus concludes His sermon saying Matt 7:21 “Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.” If you are a partaker of the kingdom of grace, you will also be a part of the kingdom of glory. How do you enter into heaven? By fulfilling or keeping the law and the prophets. The rest of Matthew builds upon this sermon. The principles constantly unfold while at the same time maintaining its overall theme of Jesus being the King, the Messiah, the seed of David. Why did Jesus preach the sermon on the mount? People were looking to this man to set up this kingdom.
DA 299 In the Sermon on the Mount He sought to undo the work that had been wrought by false education, and to give His hearers a right conception of His kingdom and of His own character. –

Jesus was addressing a people that wanted an earthly kingdom. Jesus also deals with the law of God. Verses 1 to 12 I believe that some how these verses lay the foundation for the sermon on the mount & the rest of Matthew. Matt 5:5 …blessed are the meek… Chapter 6 explains how to be meek; humble acts of devotion in alms, praying, and fasting. Matt 5:6 Blessed [are] they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.
Matt 5:20 except your righteousness shall exceed [the righteousness] of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. Matt 6:33 But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you.

Matt 5:7 Blessed [are] the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.
Matt 7:12 Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets. Matt 9:13 But go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. Matt 9:27 And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed him, crying, and saying, Thou Son of David, have mercy on us. Matt 12:7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless. Matt 15:22 And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou Son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil. Matt 17:15 Lord, have mercy on my son: for he is lunatick, and sore vexed: for ofttimes he falleth

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into the fire, and oft into the water. Matt 20:30-31 [30] And, behold, two blind men sitting by the way side, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David. [31] And the multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace: but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David. Matt 23:23 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.

Matt 5:8 Blessed [are] the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
Matt 5:28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. Matt 6:21 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. Matt 11:29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.

Matt 5:9 Blessed [are] the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.
Matt 5:44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you. (See 5:38-45)

Reading
 The Sermon on the mount
5:1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him:

The disciples were the closest to Him. The beatitudes are steps in conversion.
5:2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying, 5:3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Blessed means “happy.” So it is happy are they who are poor in spirit meaning in humility Jesus was showing something far different than what they were expecting. There are 2 kinds of poverty. Relative poverty, which is us relative to Bill Gates is poor then there is teal poverty. We are talking about people who are lacking – they are “poor in spirit.” These people will inherit the kingdom. “blessed are the poor in spirit” –The meaning of the word “Blessed” means happy or extremely blessed. According to the Bible how can we be happy?
Deut 11:26-28 [26] ¶ Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse; [27] A blessing, if ye obey the commandments of the LORD your God, which I command you this day: [28] And a curse, if ye will not obey the commandments of the LORD your God, but turn aside out of the way which I command you this day, to go after other gods, which ye have not known. Prov 29:18 Where there is no vision, the people perish: but he that keepeth the law, happy is he.

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We can be happy if we obey the commandments of God. Many people feel miserable when they think about keeping the commandments of God, but we are going to find that in the Bible true happiness comes from following God’s words and God’s commandments. According to the first beatitude, what is the condition of the people in this world today? The condition of the people in this world today is that they are poor.
Rev 3:17 Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked:

But not just that. They are poor but they don’t realize it. What does it mean to be poor in spirit?
Is 66:2 For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.

To be poor in spirit means to be contrite in spirit. What is the meaning of contrite? Get people to go around and discuss. Meaning from the strongs concordance – feeling regret and sorrow for one’s sins or offences; penitent. But remember, you cannot feel sorry for your sins or offences if you don’t know what you’ve done. That is why the first step in being poor in spirit is to recognize that you are poor in spirit. We are told that being poor in spirit is bad. But what is the purpose of the Holy Spirit?
Ezek 36:26-27 [26] A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. [27And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.

The Holy Spirit is there to help us to walk in God’s statutes (commandments) and to do them. So how can we have the spirit?
John 3:3, 5 [3] Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he can not see the kingdom of God. [5] Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he can not enter into the kingdom of God.

We need to be born of the water and also of the spirit. A lot of people are poor in spirit because they are not born of the spirit. What happens when a person is born again?
1 John 3:9 Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God.

When a person is born again, it means that they do not sin anymore. The fact a person sins shows that we are poor in spirit. What is the role of the Holy Spirit other than to help us to obey the commandments?
John 16:7-8 [7] Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. [8] And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:

Spirit reproves us
John 16:13 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come.

Spirit is to guide us
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How will the Spirit reprove and guide us?
Eph 6:17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God:

The word of God is like a sword which is called the Sword of the spirit
Heb 4:12 For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.

It will reprove us because it knows our thoughts and goes against the sin that we like to do. It discerns our thoughts and intents. It knows our motives and reproves the evil thoughts that we have.
Ps 119:105 Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.

The word of God is like a lamp to guide our feet to show us the way that we ought to walk. Basically, the Holy Spirit works through the Bible. So how can we be born of the Spirit today that we may have victory over sin?
1 Pet 1:22, 23 [22] Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently: [23] Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever.

We must be born of the word of God which is really the same as being born of the spirit since the Holy Spirit works through the Bible.
Psa 119:9-11 [9] Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way? by taking heed thereto according to thy word. [10] With my whole heart have I sought thee: O let me not wander from thy commandments. [11]Thy word have I hid in mine heart, that I might not sin against thee.

We need to hide the word of God in our hearts today
John 1:29 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.

How to have our sins taken away? We need to behold the Lamb
John 5:39 Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.

How do we behold the lamb? We have to behold the scriptures because it tells us about Jesus
Acts 5:32 And we are his witnesses of these things; and so is also the Holy Ghost, whom God hath given to them that obey him.

We must obey. How is all this applicable to us today? We must first realize that we are sinners. Solution – we must be born again of the Spirit, born of the Bible and learn to hide it in our heart. But not just that. We must learn to apply the things that we learn in the Bible as the Holy Spirit is only given to those that obey. May God give us true insight to our own wretchedness today and give us
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the strength to apply the things that we have learnt in beholding the Bible. Maybe we should pray that God would give us a love for His word.
5:4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.

“mourn” – sorrow for sin. If we compare ourselves to God, then we really realize our unrighteousness. There are two types of mourning in the Bible. What are they?
1 Thes 4:13-18 [13] But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope. [14] For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. [15] For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep. [16] For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: [17] Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. [18] Wherefore comfort one another with these words.

Sorrow for trials and bereavement.
Psa 38:18 For I will declare mine iniquity; I will be sorry for my sin.

Being sorry for sin. Matt. 11:28 says that we are heavy laden. But what does this heavy burden represent?
Heb 12:1 Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us,

We are heavy laden with sin. We are not going to go to Jesus until we realize that we are heavy laden with sin. See how important the first step is in recognizing your need as a sinner? What happens when we go to Jesus? What does He do?
Acts 5:31 Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.

Jesus actually gives us repentance and forgiveness. Repentance is not something that actually takes place within ourselves, Jesus actually gives us that repentant heart. How do we get repentance from Jesus?
Rom 2:4 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?

We repent when we understand God’s goodness.
Rom 5:6-8 [6] For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. [7] For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even

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dare to die. [8] But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.

We will repent when we understand what Christ did for us on the cross and His great love. The most ungrateful people are those that do not realize the sacrifice the others have made on their behalf. In your own words, describe what the meaning of repentance is? It means to change one’s mind and purpose as a result of after knowledge. That means when we come to comprehend that we are sinners and when we understand the great love of Christ in dying for our sins, then that will lead us to repentance which Christ gives us. How do we come to a knowledge that we are sinners?
Rom 3:20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

It is through the law that we understand that we are sinners.
Jas 1:23-25 [23] For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural face in a glass: [24] For he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he was. [25] But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed.

It is continually looking into the law that we understand that we are sinners and that we never forget what God has saved us from. Example – what does it mean to look continually? After every time you wash your face, you always look up into the mirror to check to see if your face is still dirty or not. Everyday, we must look into that mirror (not to be vain) but to check to see if we are clean or not.
1 John 1:9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.

We are cleansed when we come and confess our sins. Note that we will not confess unless we realize that we have done something wrong. But confession is our part.
John 15:3 Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you.

We can be clean through hearing the word being spoken to us.
Eph 5:26 That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word,

We are cleansed by the word.
Psa 119:9-11 [9] Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way? by taking heed thereto according to thy word. [10] With my whole heart have I sought thee: O let me not wander from thy commandments. [11] Thy word have I hid in mine heart, that I might not sin against thee.

We not only need to hear the word but we need to pay heed to it. And some people will never have victory over sin until they memorize scripture and hide it in their heart. There are two types of

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sorrow for sin in the Bible. What is the differences between the two?
2 Cor 7:10-11 [10] For godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation not to be repented of: but the sorrow of the world worketh death. [11] For behold this selfsame thing, that ye sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge! In all things ye have approved yourselves to be clear in this matter.

Sorrow of the world is just being sorry because you were caught. Godly sorrow is true repentance, making sure that you are clear in the very matter of what was done. How do we know if a person has truly repented or not?
Prov 28:13 He that covereth his sins shall not prosper: but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall have mercy.

The person will prove through their actions that they are a different person. They will forsake their old acts. This proves that their confession is genuine. Give an example of a person who keeps saying sorry but yet keeps doing the same act over and over again. Do you think they are really sorry? True repentance and confession is a U-turn. The promise of mourning is that we will be comforted. What is the purpose of this comfort that God gives us?
2 Cor 1:3-5 [3] Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort; [4] Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God. [5] For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ. Is 40:1-2 [1] Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God. [2] Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned: for she hath received of the LORD'S hand double for all her sins.

The purpose of this comfort is so that we will comfort others who are going through the same trials as us and may be even committing the same sins we committed in the past.This will help us to not be so critical when a person falls into the same sin as us, because we remember how we were like that in the past. A quote you can use if it is all Adventists or just say it is your favorite author:
MCP 431 Helping Others Helps Oneself.--Many are in obscurity. They have lost their bearings. They know not what course to pursue. Let the perplexed ones search out others who are in perplexity and speak to them words of hope and encouragement. When they begin to do this work, the light of heaven will reveal to them the path that they should follow. By their words of consolation to the afflicted they themselves will be consoled. By helping others, they themselves will be helped out of their difficulties. Joy takes the place of sadness and gloom. The heart, filled with the Spirit of God, glows with warmth toward every fellow being. Every such a one is no longer in darkness; for his "darkness" is "as the noon day. 5:5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.

“blessed are the meek” – When we are meek, we are really happy. When you don’t have to prove that you are best and are just content with where you are, then you don’t have stress. When you don’t have pride, then you are happy. We must first realize that we are heavy laden with sin. This is one of the key ingredients that will help to keep us meek. Or else we would become proud thinking that we don’t need help from Christ. Because the wages of sin is death, how meek do you think someone would be who is waiting for a death sentence?

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We must also yoke ourselves together with Christ and learn of Him. What does it mean to be yoked together with Christ? What does the word “yoke” mean? Explain how when two oxen are yoked together. They have to walk the same path. It is usually a younger oxen with an older oxen. The younger provides the strength and the older provides the guidance. This is how the younger oxen learns, by being yoked up and learns through experience. When we are yoked with Christ, it means that we will walk the same path that He walks, and we will follow the same way that we went. How do we learn of Christ in His school that we may be His followers?
1 Pet 2:21 For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps:

In the school of Christ we learn through suffering, not just through books. It’s easy to talk religion, but to live it is another story.
Matt 16:24 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.

Before we can follow Jesus, we must deny ourselves and take up the cross.
Gal 2:20 I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.

We must crucify ourselves so that Christ can live through us. We must expect to suffer when we follow Christ, because that is what He went through. What type of suffering is this relating to? What type of suffering did Jesus have to go through? This is not relating to physical suffering. It was the suffering that we go through in the mind. Yes Jesus went through physical suffering, but other type of suffering did He go through? He had the power to destroy all the sinners, He had the power to retaliate and show others that He was God, but on the cross the greatest suffering He went through, apart of dying from a broken heart, was to withhold Himself from showing His divinity. Just like us when we have the power to retaliate, the greatest suffering is to withhold yourself from showing that you can beat them or be better than them, etc.According to Matt. 5:5 the meek shall inherit the earth. But in Ps. 37:9-11, who are those that will inherit the earth?
Psa 37:9-11 [9] For evildoers shall be cut off: but those that wait upon the LORD, they shall inherit the earth. [10] For yet a little while, and the wicked shall not be: yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it shall not be. [11] But the meek shall inherit the earth; and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace.

They that wait upon the Lord = the meek. Both these groups shall inherit the earth. What does it mean to wait upon the Lord?
Prov 20:22 Say not thou, I will recompense evil; but wait on the LORD, and he shall save thee.

To wait upon the Lord means that we will wait for His salvation and will not recompense evil for evil.

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Rom 12:19 Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

Waiting on the Lord means to overcome evil with good because we realize that vengeance is God’s, not ours. To wait upon the Lord means that we need to be patient:
Rev 14:12 Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

There will be a group of people called saints that have patience. How do we develop patience?
Jas 1:2-3 [2] My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations; [3] Knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh patience.

We develop patience through trials. You have to suffer even more when you have to love your enemy. It isn’t easy. The suffering is inside… willing to be humble and kind and loving and gentle to the one that hates you or that hurt you. What is meek also equivalent to according to the Bible?
Ps 25:9-13 [9] The meek will he guide in judgment: and the meek will he teach his way. [10] All the paths of the LORD are mercy and truth unto such as keep his covenant and his testimonies. [11] For thy name's sake, O LORD, pardon mine iniquity; for it is great. [12] What man is he that feareth the LORD? him shall he teach in the way that he shall choose. 13His soul shall dwell at ease; and his seed shall inherit the earth.

The meek He shall teach His way and he that fears God shall also He teach His way. So being meek means to fear God. Because the meek will inherit the earth, so also will those that fear God. How does fearing God relate to being meek?
Ex 20:20 And Moses said unto the people, Fear not: for God is come to prove you, and that his fear may be before your faces, that ye sin not.

Fearing God means that we don’t sin.
Deut 6:2 That thou mightest fear the LORD thy God, to keep all his statutes and his commandments, which I command thee, thou, and thy son, and thy son's son, all the days of thy life; and that thy days may be prolonged. Eccl 12:13, 14 [13] ¶ Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man. [14] For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil.

Fearing God means that we keep the commandments meaning that we don’t sin because sin is the transgression of the law (1 John 3:4).
Ps 149:4 For the LORD taketh pleasure in his people: he will beautify the meek with salvation.

The meek will receive salvation. Salvation means victory. We will be given victory over what? Over sin. Therefore, if we want the promise of inheriting the earth to come true, then we must learn to have victory over sin.
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In the context of what we studied, how is it that we may inherit the earth? TEACHERS, basically this is to recap the whole lesson. If we realize our condition of being a sinner, being heavy laden. If we learn to be patient through trials and suffering – not recompensing evil for evil. If we have victory over sin. Somehow, we can never have victory over sin or be perfect if we are not patient.
5:6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.

“Blessed [are] they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness” – Each drink of the living water will make the drinker want to drink more. What is the definition of righteousness?
Rom 3:10-12 [10] As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: [11] There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. [12] They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one.

It means to seek after God and to do good. Who is unrighteous?
1 John 5:17 All unrighteousness is sin: and there is a sin not unto death.

All unrighteousness is sin.
Rom 3:23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;

All have sinned. Therefore, everyone is unrighteous. There is not one person here on this earth that is righteous. Who then is righteous?
1 John 2:1 My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:

Jesus Christ is righteous. According to what we have studied so far, if we are hungering and thirsting after righteousness, what does that mean? What are we really hungering and thirsting after? It means that we are hungering and thirsting after Jesus Christ because He is righteous. When does one literally feel hungry or thirsty? When your stomach is empty or when your fluids in your body is low. So it is when we are to hunger and thirst for Christ. We must feel that we are empty inside or else we won’t be hungry or thirsty for Him. Many feel like they are ok, so they don’t hunger and thirst after Him. That is why the first step is so important, to realize we are sinners, or else we will never feel like we need Christ. Because when we realize we are sinners, we realize that we are empty and nothing without Christ. Of course we must never just continue to bash ourselves over the head saying we are sinners, but at least we must ever keep this before us, or else we will come to this point one day thinking that we don’t need Christ anymore. So there is a fine balance between the two.

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What does it mean to hunger and thirst after Christ?
John 6:35 And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.

To eat of Christ, to eat the bread. To go to Him and believe on Him. So we must eat of the living bread, the Bible (Matt. 4:4).
John 6:53-57

To eat Jesus’ flesh and drink His blood. Really it means to abide in Christ and He in us (verse 56) and also to live by Christ (verse 57).What does it mean to abide in Christ?
John 15:4-10

To abide in Christ means to have His words abide in us (verse 7). How can we have His words abide in us? By keeping his commandments (verse 10).
1 John 2:3-6

To abide in Christ means to walk as He walked. How did He walk? He kept the commandments. And so contextually speaking, how do we know if we are in Him or not, by keeping His word, which is referring to the commandments. So if we want to abide in Christ, we need to keep His words in us, we need to keep His commandments. What do we understand about the commandments according to the Bible and how is this applicable to us?
Psa 119:172

All the commandments are righteousness. So if we are hungering and thirsting after righteousness, we are really hungering and thirsting after Christ, we are abiding in Him. And if we are abiding in Him, it’s because we are keeping the commandments, which are righteousness. Therefore, we should be hungering and thirsting after the commandments of God which is righteousness. How can we abide in Christ that we may keep His commandments? John 14:15 If we love Him we will keep His commandments. Rom 13:10 Love is the fulfilling of the law. We will abide in Christ because we love Him. Where does this love come from?
1 John 4:19

We will only love Him when we realize the love that He first showed us.

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How did He show His love to us?
John 3:16

The love of God was demonstrated at the cross.
Luke 7:47

To him that was forgiven much shall also love much. But when we don’t realize that we are heavy laden and burdened with sin, we won’t feel that we need forgiveness. And as a result, we won’t love much. That is why the first step is so important. In the context of what we have studied today, how can we be filled today? If we want to be full, then we must hunger and thirst after righteousness. Righteousness = Jesus Christ. Righteousness = commandments. To hunger and thirst after Christ means to abide in Christ = keeping His commandments. And we will keep His commandments if we love Him, and we will love Him when we realize how much He has forgiven us. And we will seek and remember His forgiveness when realize that we are heavy laden with sin. THIS IS A NATURAL PROGRESSION. EMPHASIZE THAT. AND ALSO REMIND THEM THAT THIS IS THE STEPS TO HAPPINESS (Blessed means to be happy) End with this text: Prov. 29:18 – happy is he that keepeth the law.
5:7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

One of the things that we are told about a condition for our forgiveness, is that we would be willing to forgive others. The ones that love us the most, hurt us the most. They are the hardest to forgive. In order to obtain mercy, what must we do?
Matt 6:12

If we want mercy, we must show mercy, we must be merciful. If we want to follow the Lord’s prayer, we must pray that our debts be forgiven only as we forgive others. In your own words, what is the definition of mercy? Mercy – to have compassion (by word or deed, specially by divine grace)s, have pity on. What is mercy connected to?
Luke 6:36

We are to be merciful as our Father in heaven is merciful.
Matt 5:48

A parallel verse, we are to love as Jesus loved. So really, the Bible’s definition of merciful is to love as Jesus loved. We will never show the same mercy upon others if we don’t love like Jesus. According to the Bible, what is another word for mercy?
Gen 19:19

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Heb 4:16

Grace = Mercy How is God’s mercy or grace displayed?
Eph 1:7 Riches of his grace is needed for forgiveness of sins. Exo 34:7 Mercy needed for forgiveness of iniquity. Psa 86:5

Mercy of God is to forgive. God’s mercy is mostly connected with forgiveness. If we want to have the same mercy as Jesus, we must have the same love. What was that love?
John 3:16 ….for God so loved the world that He gave….

Somehow forgiveness is tied in with something that we must give. God gave His Son for the sins of the world. This also was His ultimate act of love. How did God love? He had to forgive.
Rom 5:8 ….while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us…

Dying for the ones that hate us is really much harder than we think it is. Also, forgiving someone that really deserves punishment or death is also much harder than we think it is. But that is God’s love. To forgive your enemies and those that deserve the punishment that they are getting. BUT keep in mind, it required us to give up something. How do we get this love of God, that we may also forgive and be merciful like our Father?
Luke 7:36-47

Those that are forgiven much will love much. Those that are forgiven little love little. So those that are unmerciful and unforgiving, it is because they have forgotten how much Christ has forgiven them. If they remember that, their love would flow out to others just like God’s love flowed out to us.
Matt 18:21-35

Similar story to show that God has forgiven us so much, that we ought to forgive others, whose debt to us is so little compared to our debt to God the Father.
Rom 3:23 …all have sinned… Rom 6:23

There are no degrees of sin. We have all sinned. We all deserve death. The problem is that many think they are worthy of eternal life because their sins are not as bad as others. We should not

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compare a sinner to a sinner. We should all compare ourselves to Jesus, and then we will realize how far short we have really fallen. What is God’s ultimate act of mercy towards us?
Heb 8:12

God’s ultimate act of mercy is to not remember our sins anymore.
Is 43:25

Not remembering our sins is to blot them out. A Christian has no right to hold grudges. When we forgive someone, we should not even remember it. We should act as if they never did it. God will not bring our sins back to remembrance in heaven if we ever get there. What is our part to play that God may blot out our sins?
Heb 10:16-17

We must allow Him to write the law in our hearts and our minds. We must remember His commandments.
Deut 7:9

Keeps His covenant and mercy to them that love Him and keep His commandments.
Rev 14:5, 12

These people are without fault and they also keep the commandments of God. Let us not be fooled that there is not part for us to play in the plan of salvation. In order for God to blot out our sins, we need to remember His commandments and also show that same mercy to others as well. Love is not enough, we must also show it (John 14:15).
5:8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.

“Pure in heart” right now:
DA 302 The merciful shall find mercy, and the pure in heart shall see God. Every impure thought defiles the soul, impairs the moral sense, and tends to obliterate the impressions of the Holy Spirit. It dims the spiritual vision, so that men cannot behold God.

Spiritual things are spiritually discerned. We will not be able to see God in the scriptures. “Pure in heart” when Jesus comes we can actually see God. According to the Bible what is pure?
Ps 19:8

The statutes and commandments are pure.

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Psa 12:6 Prov 30:5

The words of the Lord are pure. So basically, it is referring to the Bible as the one that is pure. What are we to put in our heart?
Psa 40:8

The law is to go into the heart.
Psa 119:11

The word of God is to go into the heart so that we don’t sin. So we see that the word of God and the law of God (basically the Bible) have a lot to do with having a pure heart. What are we to be pure from?
1 Tim 5:22 To be pure means to be pure from sin. Prov 20:9

To be pure (or have a clean heart) means you are pure from sin. So when the Bible says blessed are the pure in heart, it means that these people are pure or free from sin. Contextually speaking: We cannot be free from sin if we don’t realize we are sinners (blessed are they that are poor in spirit). We cannot be free from sin if we don’t mourn for our sins (repentance). We cannot be free from sin if we don’t hunger and thirst after righteousness (seeking after the Bible and the law). According to the previous beatitudes, how can we have a pure heart?
Matt 5:3-7

Poor in spirit – to realize our need of Jesus. Mourn – to mourn and be sorry for our sins. Meek – to yoke ourselves up with Christ and follow where He goes. Hunger and thirst after righteousness – hungering and thirsting after Jesus and the Bible. Merciful – forgiving and giving grace because we are forgiven and have the love of Jesus in us. What is our part to play that we may have a pure heart? We saw earlier that we need to hide the word of God in our hearts (Ps. 119:11).
Eph 5:26

Use the word to clean our hearts and minds. Phil 4:8 We need to train our mind to dwell on more eternal things and not let the mind wander. We need to learn to use our imagination to reflect on pure and holy things.

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1 Pet 1:22 Psa 119:9

Not only do we have to study the word of God and think/dwell on eternal things, but we also have to obey what the Bible says if we want to have a pure heart. How can we obey?
Rom 6:12-13

We must learn to yield ourselves to God. What does that word “yield” mean? It means to surrender. We must learn to surrender ourselves by God by placing our will in His hands. Then the result will be found in the next verse.
Phil 2:13

God will work in us to will and do of His good pleasure. How do we know if our heart is pure or not?
Prov 20:11 We will be known by our works whether they are pure or not. Prov 21:8

What does the Bible warn about those that are striving to be pure? What must we be careful of?
Prov 30:12

There is a generation of people that think they are pure. We must be careful when striving to be pure that we don’t think that we are pure when we really aren’t. The litmus test is our works. There are those that say and think they are pure, but their very works deny their profession. What are they called? Hypocrites. We must remember though that we are not saved by works. Our works only show what type of person we are.
Prov 16:2

We, in our own eyes, may think that we are pure. But we need to allow the Lord to judge us on that. How does He do that? But using His word as the standard. So we must compare our lives to God’s standard – the Bible. What does the Bible call those people that think they are pure but really aren’t?
Rev 3:17

They don’t know that they are wretched, miserable, poor, blind and naked. The Bible calls them Laodicean. They think they are alright when they really aren’t. Why? Because they haven’t compared their lives to the standard of God’s word. Who will see God when He comes again?
Rev 1:7

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Everyone will see him. What will be the difference between those that have pure heart and those that have filthy heart when God comes again?
Rev 6:14-16

The wicked will run and try and hide from Him and ask the mountains and rocks to fall on them.
Isa 25:9

They will rejoice to see Him for they have been waiting for Him. One group will run away from Him, and the other will run towards Him. What is this group of people called that are able to see God?
1 John 3:2, 3

They are called the sons of God. Keep in mind that a son resembles the Father in some way. Do people see God’s character or resemblance in you today? How can we be a son of God today?
John 1:12

We have to believe and also receive Him. If you believe in Him and receive Him today, you are called the son of God. It’s that simple, believe in Him.
Gen 15:6

It says that Abraham believed God and it was counted to Him for righteousness. Many of us don’t believe. We say we believe, but our acts show the opposite. Let us begin to really live like a child of God today. Believe that we have a pure heart and start living like God has cleansed us from our sins. Believe that we are holy and that we don’t participate in the sins of the world anymore. Believe! Believe on Him and He will save you!
5:9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.

The carnal heart is enmity of God. But if we make peace, we shall be called the children of God. In your own words, what does the word peacemaker mean? Let them share and then try and confirm their answer from the Strong’s Concordance. To reconcile between two parties. From the Strong’s Concordance: It means to pacify, to appease. To pacify means to soothe or calm. It has much to do with trying to quieting people who are upset, excited or disturbed. Appease means that you have given into someone’s demands or made concessions in order to please them (eg. She said she would visit her mother just to please her). Before we can become peacemakers, what must take place first?
Rom 5:1

We need to be justified by faith first. We need to make peace between God and us (the sinner) first. We need to realize this peace so that we can show it to others. How are we justified?

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Rom 5:9

We are justified by the blood of Jesus.
Job 25:4

Justify = clean
Jer 33:8

Clean = pardon
Num 14:19

Pardon = forgiveness
1 John 1:9

In order for us to be forgiven we need to confess our sins. Jesus dying on the cross for us was not enough to clean us. We need to want to be clean in order for His blood to justify us. So we are justified by two things: By the blood of Jesus. By confessing our sins. How can we become a peacemaker?
1 John 3:2-3

Those that are peacemakers are the children of God. Notice that the sons (children) of God are also pure, meaning they are pure in heart. Therefore, the beatitudes give us a logical progression in how we may be able to become peacemakers. Remember, the beatitudes are steps. NOTE: Go through it quickly just to refresh it with them. Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Realizing your need of Jesus. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Being sorry for your sins – repentance. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Following after Jesus to learn of Him (Matt. 11:28). Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. Seeking after Jesus and the Bible. Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Forgiving and giving grace because we are forgiven and have the love of Jesus in us. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Having the law written in our hearts and our works showing our pureness so that we will see Jesus face to face when He comes again for a second time. What else does the Bible talk about in how we can become peacemakers?
Psa 119:165

Great peace have they which love thy law. If we love the law of the Lord, it will give us peace and nothing shall offend us.
Prov 3:1-2

Forget not the law, but let the heart keep the commandments. This is going to be important for a future question.
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What are the characteristics of a peacemaker or a child of God?
Rom 12:18-21

Living peaceably with all men. How? It first comes with a knowledge that vengeance (vindication) belongs to the Lord, not us. If we think we have the right to take revenge on those that have hurt us then we have forgotten then words of the Lord. Be nice to those that hurt you. This is called the perfect revenge. This is a peacemaker.
Matt 5:43-48

To be a peacemaker that we may be called children of God is to love your enemies.
1 John 3:10 Isa 32:17

They do righteousness. Their outward acts show that they are a child of God.
Phil 2:14-15

They are blameless and harmless. How? They do all things without murmuring and disputing (debate). Note: Remember that these characteristics are all important because these are needed to lead a soul to Christ. Sin separates us from Christ. If we are a peacemaker, it is because we are in peace with God. We have confessed our sins. And so we need to help others make peace with God as well. Help them to renounce their sins and yield their lives to God. Why is it so important for us to learn the lesson of being peacemakers?
Matt 24:9

There is coming a time where people will persecute us because of the name of Jesus. It becomes so important to understand what we believe now and have the law written in our hearts, because in the future when people will persecute us for following the Lord at least we will know what we believe. And we are not believing it because of anyone but because we love Him.
Matt 5:11-12

Same concept brought out about being persecuted in the future. If we aren’t willing to stand up for the Lord now in times of peace, we will definitely not want to be peaceable with those who will persecute us in the future. It is going to be in our retaliation, how we react, that will show whether we are children of God or not. Have you been through trying circumstances in life that you can see now that the Lord is trying to teach you to be a peacemaker or to be more long suffering? This is an open-ended question for discussion. Summary: Remember that God allows calculated trials to test our faith and patience that He may prepare us for the future struggles ahead.
John 1:12-13

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5:10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

When you are trying to do what is right and are persecuted, then we have the promise that we will have the kingdom of Heaven. What is the difference between this blessing and all the others before it? This is the one beatitude that we don’t have a choice over. People are persecuting us. That is not a choice. It involves another party. But we have a choice to mourn, to hunger and thirst, to be a peacemaker. All the others involve choice except this one. However, we do have one choice in the midst of this, whether we want to be happy or not. According to the verses that we read, why are we persecuted? We are persecuted for righteousness sake. Note: There are some that are persecuted for their own foolishness sake, for their own actions or words and they deserved to receive that persecution, because of their own sins. But this is referring to those who are righteous, not unrighteous. What does the word righteousness mean? Discuss. The word righteousness simply means “right doing.” So therefore, in these verses it is describing the fact that we are being persecuted because of doing what is right. Have you ever been persecuted or punished for doing the right thing? Teachers, please make sure they share. And think of examples to share of your own experience. Note: the beatitudes are basically steps on how we may be righteous. What is righteousness according to the Bible?
Psa 119:172

Law is righteous
Rom 7:12

The law is holy, just and good. So righteousness is being holy and being just and being good. This is a transcript of God’s character. So really, being righteous means to reflect God’s character.
2 Tim 3:12

Being righteous means to live Godly lives. How do we know? Because living Godly life means you will be persecuted, and living righteous life means to you will be persecuted also. Therefore, righteousness = living Godly life. Who will persecute those that live Godly lives in 2 Tim. 3:12?
2 Tim 3:1-5

This is describing those that have a form of Godliness by deny the very power thereof. They are Christian’s, and claim to be Christian’s but live the very opposite to what a Christian should be. Those sorts of people you need to be afraid of the most. They will be the greatest persecutors of the righteous in the last days, not the heathen’s, but those Christian’s in the church who are unconverted.
Gal 4:29

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They haven’t died to self. They still have a carnal mind and haven’t been born again and are not . These will be the greatest persecutors. Why will those mentioned in 2 Tim. 3:12 be the greatest persecutors?
John 15:20-21, 25

Because they didn’t really know who Jesus was. It is possible to go to church every week and still don’t know who Jesus is.
John 3:19-20

They love darkness rather than light. And so when a truly righteous person comes along, they hate him because by his life their own evil deeds are reproved.
Rev 3:17

They don’t even realize they are sinners. They haven’t even taken the first step in the beatitudes in realizing that you need Jesus because you are a sinner. This Laodicean condition is very dangerous. Remember, they are not cold or hot. They are lukewarm. They are in the church but don’t have the power of the true Christian. We have much to fear from within. Why will they be the greatest persecutors? They will look at those who really are living righteous and Godly lives and will start to ridicule them saying they are too strait laced, or too legalistic, or get angry at them because they know their own lives aren’t like those who are righteous. What examples are we given in the Bible about those that will be persecuted for righteousness sake?
1 John 3:11-13

Why did Cain kill Abel? Because his works were more righteous. Recap the Cain and Abel story. Teacher’s please read up on Gen. 4:3-8. Notice, Cain was a professed worshipper of the true God, but yet it was he that slew his own brother. And this is what will happen in the last days as well. According to what we have studied so far, why is there so little persecution in the world today? Because there are little or few righteous people in the world. There is little godliness in this world. How should we react to this persecution?
Matt 5:11-12

We should rejoice. Notice that they are even saying evil things against you. That means they are lying about what you are doing and who you are. And how should we respond? REJOICE!
Rom 12:14, 18-21

We need to bless them that persecute us. We must remind ourselves that vengeance belongs to God, not us.
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Matt 27:12-14

When Jesus was accused of evil deeds, He didn’t answer even a word. How often we try to vindicate ourselves in what we do but speaking. But the way that Jesus handled it was by remaining quiet. Are going through you persecution? Learn to be silent. Remember that God will avenge, we don’t need to do it here on this earth. What must we remind ourselves of in these times that we live?
Rev 12:17

It is the great dragon who is Satan (Rev. 12:9) that really wants to destroy those that are righteous, who follow God and His commandments.
Matt 5:12

We must remind ourselves that our reward is in heaven. RECAPPING LESSONS LEARNT: Learning to be quiet in the face of persecution. You may be going through persecution in the home with family, learn to be quiet and not retaliate. Remembering that vengeance is God’s, not ours. Remembering that our reward is in heaven, not on this earth.
5:11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 5:12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. Luke 6:23

It tells us to leap for joy. When studying John the Baptist, the greatest gift that he has bestowed upon man: Fellowship of Christ and His suffering, Jesus knew that John the Baptist could endure it.
5:13 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.

“Salt” – It is a preserving agent for food. Spiritual Application: Salt makes you thirsty – thirsty for the living water. So a well ordered family can make someone thirsty. But how can we be salt here? If we have true joy, love, happiness, patience, etc, people will want that. It melts ice. Spiritual Application: As Christians, we are the ones that should be breaking through the prejudice, anger, hatred, etc. Salt that has no flavour, is useless. We can only obtain our savor by studying God’s Word. In order to have this potency, is to study the Word of God. They used salt in the older times for remedies:
Eze 16:4

It seems that when the baby was born, they would put the baby in salt. According to Matt. 5:13, what was salt to be used for? It was to be used as a flavouring, as a savour. What was being a savour also connected to in the Bible?
Gen 8:20, 21

Noah made a sacrifice and it came up as a sweet savour.

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Exo 29:25

Sweet savour is connected with burnt offering.
Num 15:13

Sweet savour connected to offering made by fire. Ezra 6:10 Sweet savour is connected to sacrifices again. If you look up the word “savour” in the Bible, you find that it is connected a lot with sacrifices and offerings. What was salt used for in the Bible?
Lev 2:13

Salt was to be put with all the offerings and sacrifices. So we see here that salt is connected with sacrifice, and salt gives savour which is also connected with sacrifices. What does the Bible call us to be?
Rom 12:1

We are called to be living sacrifices. The word “living sacrifice” seems like an oxymoron. Living means to be alive, but sacrifice seems like we are to die. How can we be a living sacrifice? How can we be alive and dead at the same time?
Rom 6:3-11

We are to be dead to sin. Baptism is a symbol of that death to sin. But we aren’t to remain dead, but we are to rise in newness of life. That is why Jesus’ resurrection was so important. Verse 10 – we are to live unto God. That means, our life is going to be lived in such a way that will glorify God, but we must die first. Many Christians are not dead to self and sin yet. They are professing to live a life of a Christian, but sin still reigns in their lives.
Rom 12:2

To be a living sacrifice in this text means to be NOT conformed to this world. By being not conformed to the world means that we are not like the world. We don’t enjoy the same things as the world does, we don’t do the same things they do. Our pleasures and enjoyments are found in other things. NOTE: Oxymoron means two words which means the opposite but cannot be put in the same phrase. Eg. Cruel kindness, make haste slowly, deafening silence. How do we know if we have the experience of being salt of the earth?
Mark 9:49-50

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If we have salt in ourselves, we will have peace with one another. That means we will be peacemakers. That means we will have the experience in the beatitudes of being a peacemaker, which means we will have gone through the steps of the beatitudes. How can we have peace with one another?
Rom 12:18-21

It means that we won’t retaliate to other people’s unkindness and their actions of being unjust. We will overcome their wicked actions with kindness. It doesn’t mean people won’t hate us. Christ had peace with everyone but people still crucified him. But we must in our minds have peace with them. How else do we know if we have the experience of being salt of the earth? Col 4:6 By our speech people will know whether we are of God or not. Our speech will be seasoned with grace. Our words will heal and not destroy. How was Jesus salt of the earth when he was on the earth? And how can we follow His example?
Eph 5:2

Christ became a sweetsmelling savour by being a sacrifice for us. And in the similar manner, we are to walk in the same way as He did. We are to walk in love. Our actions are to show to others of His love towards us. We are to be a sacrifice for others.
John 15:13

Our greatest way of being salt of the earth is to lay down our lives for our friends. That is to walk in His love. How else can walk in His love that we may give a sweet savour to others?
1 John 3:16-18

To love in deed. Helping our brother in need. Our works don’t get us into heaven, but it is by our works that it will show whether we are salt with savour or salt that is good for nothing. What type of salt are you today? How does your life stand with Christ and others? Is it salt that has a good flavour? Or are you salt that just looks like salt but has not flavour? Are you just a Christian by name or are you really a true Christian which by word and deed shows the love of Christ to others?
5:14 Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.

What is the relationship between “ye” and the “city.” Zion is God’s people. There are many references that show that Zion is a symbol of God’s people. How can we become lights of the world?
2 Cor 4:6

In the same way that Jesus shines light we are to shine the light. But before we can even shine light, we must have that light shining in our heart first because we have no light in our hearts of our own self. What was the condition of our heart before God shone light into it?
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Gen 1:1-2

The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep. “Without form” means a desolation, worthless, empty place, confusion, waste, wilderness. “Void” means an undistinguishable ruin, emptiness. “Dark” means misery, destruction, death, ignorance, sorrow, wickedness. This sounds like the earth that we live in today. Why? Because this is the condition of many of our hearts before God shines light into it. How did God shine light into our hearts?
Gen 1:3

God spoke and the light was created. So in the same way that God spoke light into the dark earth, He spoke that light into our hearts. So how can He shine light into our hearts? We must hear Him speak and as a result, the light will be created. What does light represent in the Bible?
1 John 1:1, 4

Light represents the Word who was Jesus (John 1:14 – only say this text if necessary).
John 8:12

Jesus is the light of the world.
Psa 119:105

Light represents the Word of God.
2 Cor 4:4

Light represents the gospel. So we must hear about the Bible which speaks about gospel of Jesus Christ. This is the light that must shine into our hearts to fix the problems of darkness and void and without form. According to what we have studied so far, how can we be a light of the world? We must learn to behold Jesus who IS the light of the world. And by beholding we will become changed. So we need to study the Bible which tells us about Him. We also need to share this same light. How do we share the word of God? Preaching. Bible study, and Evangelism. How else can we be lights of the world? What else does light represent in the Bible?
2 Cor 4:6

Light of the knowledge of the glory of God. Therefore, light = glory. What does glory represent?
Exo 33:18, 19

It represents character. It is by our character. Why does the Bible state in Matthew 5:14 that a city that is set on a hill cannot be hid? How does that relate to our previous question?
Matt 5:14

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Just as a city that is on a hill can be easily seen from a distance, so our characters are also seen from a distance. People will naturally know us for who we really are eventually. We may be able to hide it for a time because they don’t know us, but soon enough our true character will come out. So if we want to naturally shine Jesus’ character, we must behold the Bible that we may be changed into the same likeness. What is the emphasis of Matthew 5:15? Why do you think Jesus gave this illustration? What was His point?
Matt 5:15

Naturally people do not light a candle and then hide it. The purpose of the candle is to give light. And so naturally they would want to set it in a place where the most light could be given – on a candlestick. Jesus is trying to emphasize more His point about a city being set on a hill and not being able to hide. As a Christian comes in contact with Christ and his/her life begins to change, they cannot help but shine the light of Christ. It is not something that is forced. It is natural. It we are lights of the world, we will naturally shine the character and love of Christ to this world. We cannot
force ourselves to be lights. It is something that will come naturally.

What does a candlestick represent in the Bible and what application can we draw from that?
Rev 1:20

A candlestick represents the church. Application: God’s appointed way of shining the Bible and His character to the world has always been through the church. Not just an individual, but also as a corporate body are we to shine into this dark world. According to Matt. 5:16, what does the light represent and what important application can we draw from this?
Matt 5:16

Light represents our works.
Phil 2:14-15

What type of works? – doing all things without murmuring or disputing. No complaining or fighting. Not only are we to shine the character of Jesus and preach, but we are to show through our works, our actions, that we are the children of the light. Many people think that all we need to do is have faith and believe. But our works will tell a lot as to what sort of person we truly are and whether we have the character of Jesus or not. According to Matt. 5:16, what should be the result of shining our lights?
Matt 5:16

People should give glory back to God. Glory represents character – we studied it earlier in the lesson. So naturally, when people see our good works, they should naturally shine the character of God to others as well. End with these questions: Stop and think about the people around you. Are they more blessed and drawn towards God when they hang around you? Or do you bring out the worst in them? What is your influence like? Are you shining the light of Christ and helping them reflect the character of Christ? Or are you shining darkness and making them worse? Let us be lights in this world today.
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5:15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.

There is one thing that could hinder your life from shining – a bushel. The term “bushel” is just a measuring instrument. It is used in connection with agricultural harvest so it can be used as a symbol of prosperity. Prosperity can cause people to forget about God.
Luke 8:16

What does a vessel represent? – a person
2 Cor 4, Matt 25

How can a person keep your light from shining? Looking at the faults of others or looking at man. People’s faults sometimes keep us from doing our own Christian duty. We can not let our light shine sometimes because we see the good qualities in others. We believe that there is someone else who can do it. But we must just do our thing. What does a bed represent? Laziness
Prov 6:9

“Light” is a symbol good works. The way we prepare for the coming of Jesus is by good works. But what is the source of the light? It was the oil and that is a symbol of the Holy Spirit (Zach 4, Gal 4). The source of all good works is from the Holy Spirit. But do not let the legalistic idea come in. None of our good works will merit us any favor with God. We cannot be saved with our works, but we cannot be saved without them either. In true salvation, we are doing these good works because of the Holy Spirit within us.
5:16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven. 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.

It is indicated that the word “fulfill” is the opposite to destroy. Some say that because Jesus fulfilled the law, they don’t have to obey it anymore. But the opposite to fulfill is destroy, so indicating that it was not taken away. Fulfill meant to exalt, to uphold.
Mat 5:17-20 [17] Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. [18] For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. [19] Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. [20] For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.

The rest of His sermon is an explanation on how He will not ‘destroy the law, or the prophets’ but ‘fulfill’ them. This is also a fulfillment of Is 42:21 how Christ will magnify the law and make it honorable. The law refers to the law of Moses, but keep it mind that law of Moses includes the 10 commandments. The law of God can be split into two parts. The first 4 commandments describing our love to God and the last 6 describing our love to our brothers and sisters. Of the last 6 Jesus

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points out two. Someone these two commandments are at the root of hatred toward each other, and these two commandments will keep many out of the kingdom of God. When Jesus mentions “think not,” what does this tell us about the mindset of the hearers and what they were thinking? There were some there that were thinking that the law and the prophets had been done away with at the cross. When Jesus mentions the law and the prophets, what or who is He referring to?
Matt 11:12-13

If all the law and prophets prophesied until John the Baptist, then it must be referring to things written before that – talking about the Old Testament.
John 1:45

Philip was talking about the Old Testament because he mentioned Moses who is found in the Old Testament. So when Jesus talks about the law and the prophets, He is referring to the Old Testament. How did Jesus fulfil the law and the prophets?
Matt 1:21-23

He fulfilled it by being born. Matt 2:23 He fulfilled it by living in Nazareth.
Matt 8:17

He fulfilled it by healing people.
Matt 13:34-35

He fulfilled it by speaking in parables.
Matt 27:35

He fulfilled it when they parted His garments and cast lots at the cross.
Luke 24:44

Jesus fulfilled all the prophecies of the law and the prophets (the Old Testament) in His life. According to Matthew 5:18, when will everything be fulfilled? Everything will be fulfilled when heaven and earth passes away. When will heaven and earth pass away?
2 Pet 3:10

Heaven and earth will pass away at the day of the Lord as it will come as a thief in the night.
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When is the day of the Lord that He will come as a thief?
Isa 13:9

The day of the Lord is when He shall lay the land desolate and destroy the sinners out of it.
Joel 2:31

The sun shall turn into darkness and the moon into blood just before the day of the Lord.
Rev 6:12-14

The sun is turned into darkness and the moon into blood when the heaven is rolled together as a scroll and every mountain and island is moved out of their places.
Luke 12:39-40

When Jesus comes as a thief, it is referring to His second coming. When will the heaven and the earth totally pass away?
Rev 21:1-2

The old heaven and earth will totally pass away when God recreates a new heaven and earth. This will be at the third coming. So the second coming is only a partial fulfillment of the heaven’s and earth passing away. What is easier to pass – heaven and earth? Or one jot or tittle from the law? What important application can we draw from this?
Matt 5:18 Luke 16:17

Heaven and earth will pass before even a jot or tittle fails from the law. We have already seen when heaven and earth will pass – at the second and third coming. Therefore, the law and the prophets will remain until then. App: This is strong evidence to show that the Ten Commandments given in the Old Testament are still valid today. Many people say that Jesus nailed the commandments to the cross when He died, but we can see from this that that is not true. What was the law and prophets referring to again? The Old Testament. Therefore, the Old Testament will still be valid to us at least until the second and third coming of Jesus. Many people say that the Old Testament is not relevant or valid to us anymore. But that is not what Jesus said. He said that not even one jot (an iota) or tittle (the least particle of an Hebrew letter) will pass before heaven or earth does which just shows us that today the Old Testament is still relevant and that Jesus didn’t do away with it when He came. When He said He fulfilled it, He was saying that He fulfilled the prophecies of it, but not that He was doing away with the Old Testament. What is our role in Christ’s fulfillment of the law today?
Gal 5:14

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All the law is fulfilled in one word – love your neighbor as yourself.
Rom 3:31

We establish the law through faith in Christ.
John 14:15

If we love Him we will keep the law/commandments. What is more important? They both are important. You cannot love without expression of keeping the law, and it is impossible to keep God’s law if we don’t love Him.
5:18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

As long as we are here on earth, the law will still exist because the earth is still in existence.
5:19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

“do and teach them” – Jesus said about the Pharisees, do as they say, but not as they do. Jesus is commending them to do and teach them.
5:20 For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.

The Pharisees only had a form of outward appearance. Not true righteousness. According to Matt. 5:19, when are we called the least in the kingdom of heaven? When we break one of the least commandments and teaching others to do so as well. That means when we break one commandment that we think is so small or so irrelevant we are called the least. Teachers – take everyone back to the 10 commandments and ask them which one they consider to be the least. Lying is pretty small in some people’s eyes. Taking God’s name in vain is very little in people’s eyes. When we break one, what does the Bible say that we have done? How is that applicable to us today?
James 2:10

When we break one, we have broken them all. Sometimes we like to compare our sins to others. And just because we lied but haven’t committed murder or adultery, we think we are better than them. But in the eyes of God, we are just as great a sinner as the person that killed someone or that committed adultery. When will we be considered great in the kingdom of heaven? We will be considered great in the kingdom of heaven when we do and teach them. We aren’t considered great based upon how much money we give to the church. We are considered great in the eyes of heaven when we learn to do and teach the commandments of God.

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What is so important about the order that Jesus listed about first doing and then teaching the commandments? Discuss. It is easy to teach and tell others to keep the commandments. But Jesus wanted us to do them first and then teach them. If we only teach them and not do them, what are these people called? Hypocrites. Why did Jesus have to talk about the law and the prophets before He mentioned the commandments? What important application can we learn from that?
Matt 5:17-18

Jesus had to talk about the law and the prophets because He had to establish that the Old Testament was still valid even though He is fulfilling the prophecies of it. The reason He has to establish that is because when you take away the Old Testament, you have to take away the 10 commandments. So Jesus was establishing the Old Testament because that was the foundation which the 10 commandments was to stand upon. Today many people are doing away with the Old Testament saying that it is not relevant or it is old fashioned, and as a result they are doing away with the 10 commandments. What is the condition upon how we can enter the kingdom of heaven? Matt 5:20 Our righteousness must exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees. What is the righteousness of the scribes and the Pharisees?
Matt 23:1-7

They say and don’t do. They like to be praised by men for their works – meaning, when they do good deeds they make sure others see them so they can be praised.
Mark 7:5-9

They honor God with their lips but their heart is far from Him. They hold tradition above the commandments of God.
Luke 15:2

The fact that the Pharisees and scribes pointed out that Jesus ate with sinners means that they never ate with them. So they only ate with those that they thought were righteous. What does the Bible define as righteousness that will allow us to enter the kingdom of heaven?
Matt 3:2

We must repent.
Matt 7:21

We must do the will of the Father.
Matt 18:3

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We must be converted.
John 3:5

We must be born of the water and of the spirit.
Matt 5:3, 10

We must go through the steps of the beatitudes. So if we want to enter the kingdom of heaven, we must have all of these characteristics. If we want to be righteous we must repent, do the will of the Father, be converted, be born of the water and of the spirit. The beatitudes simply outline the steps in how we can be righteous. What else is righteousness connected to?
Ps 119:172

Righteousness is connected to the commandments. How can we fulfill this righteousness in our lives today that it may exceed the righteousness of the Pharisees?
Rom 13:10

Love will fulfill the law.
Gal 5:14

The law is fulfilled in this word – Love. The one main thing that was lacking in the scribes and Pharisees was a love for God and a love for others. Because they lacked this, they lacked the very thing needed to be a righteous person. Do you have love in your hearts today for God and for others?
5:21 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

This is the sixth commandment.
Ex 20:13

Verses 22-26 are an explanation and expansion of the sixth commandment. What does Jesus put on the same level as killing someone?
Matt 5:21-22

Hating your brother without a cause. Both have the same consequences – they shall be in danger of judgment.
1 John 3:15

Whoever hates his brother is a murderer. So if we hate our brother, we are a murderer. What is the

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difference between hating someone and killing someone? Is there a difference? Why does the Bible put it on the same level? Discuss. The difference between someone who hates and someone who murders is that the person who hates lacks opportunity or is too scared to perform the act. There is no difference between the two. One just lacks the opportunity. But the heart is the same. The Bible puts it on the same level because Jesus is not dealing with just our acts, He is dealing with the root of the problem – our heart. If you hate someone, who do you belong to?
John 8:44

You are a child of the devil if you are a murderer because he was a murderer from the beginning. What else is put on the same level as murdering and hating your brother? Why do you think they are categorized together?
Matt 5:22

Calling your brother Raca (which means worthless or vain fellow) or a fool is categorized in the category with hating your brother. In some respects, calling your brother a fool is much worse, because the consequence is worse – being in danger of hell fire. Leading question for the second part: Why is hating your brother, calling your brother Raca (worthless) or calling him a fool all put together on the same level? It affects our perception of how we view our brother or sister. Makes us to think bad of them. And no one is worthless or a fool in the eyes of God. And God doesn’t hate anyone in His heart either. God is trying to deal with our heart, how we think and view others. According to Matt. 5:23-24, who should do the reconciling? Compare this to how we operate today in this world. The person that should do the reconciling is the one that realizes that his brother has something against him. Today in this world, when someone has a problem with us, we don’t usually approach him. Because it is not our problem so we usually wait for them to approach us. But that is not the way a Christian should deal with those that hate us or have something against us. What does the Bible define as reconciliation?
Eph 2:16

To be in one body again, to unify or unite.
Col 1:20-21

To make peace between two parties, to not be aliens or enemies anymore. How were we enemies of Christ or separated from Him?
Jam 4:4

We were enemies of Christ because we are friends with the world.
Isa 59:1-2

We were separated from Christ by our sins.

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How did Christ show us an example of this reconciliation? And why did He do what He did?
Rom 5:7-10

We are hesitant to even die for a righteous man, never mind a sinner. Christ showed us this example of reconciliation by dying for us while we were yet sinners, while we were enemies of Him. So who had the problem? We did. We were sinners. We hated Him. We crucified Him. Who reconciled? Christ did. Why did He do what He did? Because He loved us. According to what we have studied, if our neighbour hates us, how far should we go to be reconciled to them?
1 John 3:13-16

We ought to lay down our lives for those that hate us as well. Are you willing to die for your enemy? How can we practically apply dying for our enemies today that we may truly be reconciled to those that hate us?
1 John 3:17-18 Rom 12:19-21

When we see them hungry, feed then. When we see them thirsty, give them drink. This is how we may be reconciled back to them, but sacrificing for them even though they hate us. We think this is easy, but it isn’t. Why? Because it’s not so much dealing with just actions but our motives and our heart. When Jesus said at the beginning, “Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time,” was He really teaching anything new?
Lev 19:17-18

Do not hate your brother in your heart, but love your neighbour as yourself. No, He wasn’t teaching anything new. He was just reiterating what was taught in the past. It’s just that many people had forgotten about the wickedness of their own heart. How can our righteousness exceed the righteousness of the Pharisees based upon the study that we have learnt today? Discuss. The Pharisees kept the letter of the law but not the spirit of the law, which is love. Many of us don’t outwardly kill people, but in our hearts we do. Also, in order for our righteousness to exceed that of the Pharisees, we need to learn to love those that hate us and be reconciled back to them by dying for them. Loving the unlovable. So when we keep the law of God we need to keep it from our hearts which will be automatically be expressed in our words and actions. So in this teaching, Jesus was dealing with both sides of the coin: Those that hate without any good reason or holding grudges. And those that are hated by others and how we should deal with them in reconciliation.
5:22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

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“angry with his brother without a cause” this shows that the sixth commandment condemns us being angry with each other, and it is the first time Christ introduces the topic of ‘the judgment’ and mentions ‘hell fire’. “whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment” – There is a time to be angry. Mistreatment and genocide. Can we be angry without violating His principles? Yes. We can be jealous for His cause. “Raca” and “fool” are derogatory expressions.
5:23 Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee;

Verses 23 and 24 teach reconciliation; once you reconcile you are in harmony with the sixth commandment
5:24 Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.

We are being taught to reconcile with our brother even though they have some occasion against us. If we know that, we HAVE to go to them and ask them.
5:25 Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.

Verses 25 and 26 provide practical guidance on how to deal with someone who is angry with you and avoid prison. Many will go to prison because they will not agree with their ‘adversary’ and adversary brings accusations. And if you are guilty and don’t admit it, then you go before a ‘judge’ and the judge sees that the accusations are correct and you go to the officer and then to prison.
5:26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. 5:27 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: Mat 5:27-32 [27] Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: [28] But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. [29] And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. [30] And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. [31] It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement: [32] But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.

This is the seventh commandment. Verses 28-32 are an expansion of the seventh commandment. These verses are about not committing adultery through: Divorce or lust. When does a thought become a sin? When you cherish the thought and it turns into something more. When you choose to think about it again and again and again. Spiritual Application: Adultery is the unholy union between the two parties. Love not the world
John 2:15

It is literal when it says to “pluck it out” – your eye? Could you have one eye and still lust? – Of
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course. You can still do wrong actions. What do the eye and the hand represent? The eyes is connected to our thoughts and the hand is connected to actions, If you are having trouble with thoughts and actions, then what should we do? Whatever the root of the temptation might be – get rid of it. There is only one Bible reason for divorce. It is for adultery – when one party has been unfaithful. How about abuse? It is not a grounds for divorce according to the Bible. What does Jesus equate committing adultery to?
Matt 5:27-28

Jesus equates committing adultery to a man lusting after a woman in his own heart. What is the difference between lusting and a passing thought or look? A passing thought or look is something that you pass by and your eyes behold, and if it is evil you cast your eyes away from it (ie. All those horrible bill board that you may pass in your car, or advertisements that appear on TV). To lust means to set your heart upon it, to long for, to covet or desire. Is there a difference between actually committing adultery and lusting after a woman? Discuss. There really is no difference other than one had the action and the other didn’t. But for the person that was lusting after that woman, if he had the opportunity, he would have. This is exactly the same as the killing and hating your brother (Matt. 5:21-24). One lacked the opportunity for it to come to pass, or they were too scared to put it into action. What is Jesus really trying to address here about adultery?
Jer 17:9

The heart is deceitful and desperately wicked.
Matt 12:34

Out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaks. Jesus is trying to address the issues of the heart, the fountain and root of all the problems of our actions. If our heart was right, our actions would be right too.
Prov 23:7

As we think in our heart, so are we. Our thoughts ultimately lead us to sin. Many people think that just because they don’t commit adultery or kill they are fine. But they don’t realize that they are the same condition as those that do commit such acts. What is Jesus’ solution to our sinning ways of our eyes and hands?
Matt 5:29-30

If we can’t stop sinning with our eyes of hands Jesus says we should pluck it out or cut it off. Why does Jesus mention about the eyes and hands?
Matt 6:22-23

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The light of the body is the eye. It is our eyes that dictate to a great degree how our body reacts. And it is also our eyes that give light or darkness to our minds, which is the very thing that controls our bodies. Jesus mentions eyes, because it is the very thing that will affect our mind and ultimate our actions.
Psa 26:10

Our hands are full of mischief.
Prov 6:17

Our hands shed innocent blood. Our hands represent our filthy actions. Actions that lead us to sin. What did Jesus really mean when he said to pluck out our eyes and cut off our hands? Are we to do that today literally?
Rom 6:6, 11-13, 19

What happens to a body part after it is cut off? It dies. Therefore Jesus was talking about spiritually killing the old man. The body part that causes you to sin is part of the old man. It must be destroyed. What are the two key action words that we read in the Bible text other than killing? Reckon and yield. We must learn to surrender our will to God. Our eyes and our hands are necessary parts of our bodies. Because we are all sinners, if we did that, all of us would be disabled today. So Jesus isn’t meaning that in a literal sense. But our hands and our eyes represent in a way those things that are very necessary to us in our lives. Eg. If our computer leads us to sin, then we should throw that away or put it in a inconvenient place in the house so that you don’t sin. If there are certain things in our lives that lead us to sin, that maybe are almost essential, then we should learn to do without. Eg. If taking the train leads us to sin, then we should drive the car even though it is more expensive. What is more important? Saving the money on train ticket or your eternal salvation. TEACHERS ask this question – are there things in your life that cause you to sin that you know you should throw away or get rid of? Maybe it is expensive – big screen TV? Etc… Jesus wants us to weigh up everything on this earth in the light of heaven. He doesn’t want us to put things of this earth over things in heaven. Sometimes it is almost like cutting off our hands or plucking out our eyes because it is a big sacrifice to us. How often should we cut off our sinful body parts?
1 Cor 15:31

We should die daily. Everyday in our devotional life we should ask God to kill our sinful body parts. Therefore, it is NOT when the temptation comes, but on a daily basis before we start the day, we must acknowledge our sinful body parts and ask God to help us reckon and yield because we know that Satan will surely bring the temptation. Even though we are not married or do not lust after a woman, how else are we adulterers according to the Bible?
Jas 4:4

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By being a friend of the world, through looking and lusting and touching the things of the world. Instead of looking at the things of the world, what should we behold?
John 1:29 ….behold the Lamb. Heb 12:2 …looking unto Jesus. 2 Cor 3:18 …by beholding Jesus we will be changed into the same likeness.

SUMMARY – things we should do daily: Cut off our body parts by reckoning ourselves dead and yielding through surrender. Behold and look unto Christ.
5:28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5:29 And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.

This verse is especially related to adultery. If your right eye offend you by looking on a woman to lust after her being a married man is adultery. If you are single it is fornication. Verse 29-30 gives the solution. Pluck it out. Jesus give problem, then solution. “whole body should be cast into hell” this shows two reasons why people will go to hell.
5:30 And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. 5:31 It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement: 5:32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery. 5:33 Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths:

What did Jesus mean when He said “thou shalt not forswear thyself?” What does the word forswear mean? God does not make your keep your oaths because He saved you out of something. He does not work like that. This is an expansion of the third commandment. One way to take the name of the Lord God in vain is by swearing in His name
Ex 20:7 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Lev 19:12 And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I [am] the LORD.

We should make promises to each other and leave the Lord’s name, dwelling place, His creation, out of it. Otherwise it would lead to evil. Verses 34-37 expand this thought. This is the text that Jesus was referring to and He was talking about swearing falsely, or taking an oath falsely. That was equivalent to profaning the name of God. Forswear in the concordance means to commit perjury which means to give a false testimony or false witness.

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What did Moses teach about swearing or taking an oath? Was it OK to swear?
Num 30:2 Deut 6:13 Deut 10:20

Moses taught the Israelites that it was OK to swear by God’s name. How is this different to what Moses was teaching the Israelites and what Jesus was dealing with? Moses was teaching the Israelites to tell the truth under oath. However, Jesus was dealing with the issue of lying under oath – making promises that they did not keep. This is already taking place in the Old Testament:
Isa 48:1

They swear by the name of God but not in the truth or in righteousness. Moreover, He is dealing with people that swear by God or objects that they are telling the truth when they are not. Was Jesus trying to destroy oath taking altogether, or is there still room for the judicial oath?
Matt 26:63-64

If Jesus was condemning the judicial oath, He would have reproved the high priest for making such a statement instead of giving him an answer. So there is still room for the judicial oath in which God is solemnly called to witness that what is said is truth and only the truth. What did Jesus mean that our communication should be yea, yea; nay, nay?
Jas 5:12

Let your yea be yea, and your nay be nay. Our communication should be clear and precise and we should mean what we say and not halt between two opinions. Many people say yes but they really mean no or vice versa. They don’t mean what they say.
2 Cor 1:17-18

Our word toward you was not yea and nay. The ministering to the unbelievers, Paul told them that his communication was just as he said it. He didn’t mix a yea with a nay. He didn’t mix truth with error. He didn’t say yes and then no. It was clear and precise. What does the Bible say about how we should communicate with our speech?
Col 4:6

Our speech should always be with grace and seasoned with salt
Matt 5:13

How can we be salts of the earth? By what we say. Our communication can be a great blessing to people and it can also be a great curse to people. RELFECTION QUESTION: Does your speech always show that you are serving the true God? Can people tell that you are a Christian just by the way you speak?

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Eph 4:29

Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth Nothing vile or profane should come out of our mouths. God desires that we should use our speech to edify others and minister grace to those that hear us. When Jesus talks about our communication, what is He really addressing?
Matt 12:34

Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks. What we say is just a fruit of the condition of our heart. So once again Jesus is dealing with the heart issue. He is trying to tell us that it is not just in outward forms and a mere keeping of the commandments that we should obey, but that we should obey from the heart. What has Jesus been addressing in the previous passages after the beatitudes and what is the common theme that runs through them all?
Matt 5:17-20

The law
Matt 5:21-26

The law – thou shalt not kill and being angry at your brother (a heart issue)
Matt 5:27-32

The law – thou shalt not commit adultery in the heart
Matt 5:33-37

The law – thou shalt not lie and our communication which stems back into out heart. The common theme that runs through it all is the law and how Jesus is trying to deal with our hearts. The spirituality of the law. The people such as the Pharisees could keep the law in an outward form, but they lacked the true spirit of keeping the law. What does Jesus desire to do with the law today?
Heb 10:16

Jesus desires to write the law in our hearts today that the keeping of the law will not just be an outward form but that we will truly keep it form the heart.
Psa 40:8

When we have the law in our heart, we will delight in it. We will be happy in obeying it. Today are you keeping the law because it is in your heart, or are you keeping the law out of obligation or tradition? Jesus desires us to be happy. You can be happy today as well if you have the law within your heart.
5:34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: 5:35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. 5:36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black.

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5:37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.

In our dealings with people, we should make it very simple. A “yes” or a “no”
5:38 Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:

Verses 39-42 expand on this verse. It is an expansion of the law of Moses. In our modern day language, what does it mean to give an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth? It means to exact justice on people for what they’ve done to you. To give back to them exactly what they did to you. Equality in justice. When Moses gave this law, in what context was he giving it for?
Lev 24:17-22

Moses was giving the law to establish order and laws for the country so that no matter who entered, stranger or citizen, all were to abide by the law of that land. It was civil law. Specifically Lev. 24:22 says that any person, even a stranger was to abide by such laws. So this is the laws of the land/country. What offences are these texts in Leviticus applied to specifically? Was Jesus dealing with the same issues that were mentioned there? The offences that were mentioned in Leviticus were referring to such that killed a person or that permanently destroyed a person’s goods or that caused a blemish on the person. Jesus was dealing with something totally different. He was dealing with someone that slapped them on the cheek, or took their coat, or told them to run a mile. According to Jesus’ comments, how do you think the people were applying it in their day? They were using the civil law that Moses instituted to exact revenge on every petty thing that people did to them. If they were hit on the cheek, they would retaliate and hit back on the cheek. If they had their coat taken away, they would try to retaliate by taking away their enemies coat. Instead of exacting justice on our enemies and those that deserve it, what does Jesus advise that we should do? Jesus’ advice is to go beyond what they ask. Go the extra mile. If they slap you on one side, instead of retaliating give them your other cheek. If they take your coat, give them your cloak also. If they ask you to run a mile, run two. What is the pattern that you can find according to the severity of the actions done?
Matt 5:39 …smite… Matt 5:40 …sue… Matt 5:41 …compel… Matt 5:42 ….ask…

It is going from most severe to simply asking. What is the pattern that you can find in how we should respond in our actions?
Matt 5:39 …turn….

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Matt 5:40 …let… Matt 5:41 …Go… Matt 5:42 …Give…

It is going from a simple action such as turning, to having to invoke a deep response as to whether we will give or not. If you try to summarize these verbs of our responses how would you categorize them? They would be categorized at selflessness and submission. If we wanted to protect ourselves we would do the opposite. Compare the severity of the action done to a person to the response that we should give to that action. What important lesson can you learn from that?
Matt 5:39 …smite…turn… Matt 5:40 …sue…let… Matt 5:41 ….compel…go…. Matt 5:42 …ask…give…

Which is the most severe action? Smite (That is without a doubt). Which is the hardest to do in response? Turn or give? I would say give. Yes when someone smites you it is hard to turn. But on an individual basis it is easy to turn. But it’s even harder to give not knowing whether you will get it back or not. It requires a pro-active approach to give, but it almost seems like turning is very passive. So the more the severe the action done, the less proactive we should be in responding. Yet when someone asks, we should give. The important lesson that we can learn from that is, if we don’t learn to give first when someone asks, we will never be able to turn when someone smite’s us. Turning is easier than giving, yet smiting is more severe than asking. We need to learn the lesson of benevolence first. So how do we not resist evil today when we are treated unfairly?
1 Pet 2:23

When he was reviled, Jesus didn’t retaliate. But He committed himself to him that judgeth righteously. What does it mean that we commit ourselves to him that judges righteously? When we commit ourselves, the word commit means to surrender, to yield, to intrust ourselves to that person. But we must understand who we are committing ourselves to. The Bible didn’t mention Jesus or God or Saviour. It is to the person that judges righteously, or that judges fairly. Was Jesus really teaching anything new? What did the Old Testament say about how we should treat those that hurt us? Prov 20:22 Don’t recompense evil for evil. Prov 24:29

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Don’t say you will do to him as he has done to you.
Prov 25:21-22

If your enemy is hungry give him bread to eat.
Rom 12:18-21

A repeat of Prov. 25 but it tells us that vengeance is God, He will repay, we do not need to avenge for ourselves. Basically, do not treat them as they have treated you. Jesus wasn’t teaching anything new. Have there been people in your life that have treated you unfairly? How have you responded? Have you committed yourself to God knowing that He will judge righteously? Or have you retaliated thinking that God will not avenge? Let us commit ourselves to God today that we may use our submission and spirit of non-retaliation to reveal the character of Christ to them and to win them over to the Saviour.
5:39 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5:40 And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also. 5:41 And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain. 5:42 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away. 5:43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.

What do you have to do in order to earn God’s love? God’s love is unconditional. In order to be perfect, we need to have this love that is described. BE YE THEREFORE PERFECT Read Matt. 5:43-48 and answer the following questions. According to this passage, what qualifies us to be called the children of our Father in heaven? When we love our enemies. Blessing them that curse us. Doing good to those that hate us. Praying for those that despitefully use us and persecute us. If God expects those qualities of His children, what does it imply about the Father?
1 John 3:2 When we see God, we shall be like Him, we shall see Him as He is. God doesn’t demand something of us or expect something from us that He Himself hasn’t first done. So if God expects us to love our enemies, He must have demonstrated it somewhere first.

How did God demonstrate His love towards enemies?
Rom 5:6-8

God sent His Son to die for the ungodly, for sinners. We already find it difficult to die for a righteous person, how much more difficult would it be to die for your enemy? Someone that hates you?
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Luke 23:34

While Jesus was on the cross, He prayed for those that reviled Him and persecuted Him. Why does Jesus bring in the illustration of how God sends the sunshine and the rain? What characteristic is He trying to imply about God? Jesus is trying to emphasize the fact that Jesus is not impartial to anyone. He doesn’t favor a righteous person more than an unrighteous person. Both wicked and evil He gives the blessings of rain and sunshine. So we should not be impartial to anyone either. What does James say about being partial and favoring one person over another?
Jas 2:1-4, 9

James is saying that if we are partial, we are committing sin. Why does Jesus use the publicans as an example? Who was listening to this sermon and how did they regard publicans?
Matt 4:25

Basically it was all the Jewish people, including the Pharisees and scribes. How did the Jews regard the publicans?
Luke 15:1-2

They classified them in the same category as the sinners.
Luke 19:2, 5-7

They out rightly called Zacchaeus a publican and a sinner. So not just in the same category but they called them sinners.
Matt 18:17

They were considered Heathen’s. People that didn’t believe in God. So why does Jesus use the publican’s as an example? Basically He’s saying that if we treat those around us nice that treat us nice, we are no better than a sinner and a heathen person. Even the worldly person knows how to do that. We are no better than them if we do that. Therefore, when Matthew tells us to be perfect, contextually what does that mean? Discuss. To be perfect means to be perfect in love. But not just to love those that love you, but to love your enemies and those that hate you and curse you. Why is love so important? Why does Jesus emphasize this so strongly at the end of this portion of His sermon?
Rom 13:10

Love is the fulfilling of the law. If we love Jesus, all that He talked about in Matthew 5, going beyond the mere letter of the law, will be easily fulfilled. We will exceed the righteousness of the Pharisees.

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Why? Because they did it as a mere form, not form the heart.
1 Cor 13:1-3, 13

Paul makes it clear that love is the most important of everything. And in everything we do, if our motivation is not because we love then our motivation is wrong. We may do the right things, but some of us do good things to be praised by others, or to come across in a certain way when we really aren’t. What is your motivation for doing good works? To be praise of men? Because if you don’t learn to love your enemy, your love for God is not totally complete. As the saying goes, you love God as much as the person you love the least. And if you don’t love that person, you hate them. And in Matthew it says that if we hate our brother or are angry at them without a cause, we have committed murder (Matt. 5:22). What has Jesus really been trying to deal with in this portion of His sermon so far?
Matt 5:17

At the beginning He told that He did not come to destroy the law and the prophets. And in the rest of the sermon He addresses the law and how they have been obeying it wrongfully. They didn’t kill, but they hated their brother. They didn’t outwardly commit adultery, but they lusted after women in their hearts. Jesus was dealing with heart issues.
Matt 22:36-40

Jesus was dealing with the law – loving God and loving your neighbour. It’s all about love. How do we get this love according to everything that we have studied in Matthew 5? We need to go through the steps of the beatitudes at the very beginning. Because it ends with telling us to rejoice when we are persecuted. They are steps to happiness. But they are also steps to teach us how to truly love God and love our neighbour.
5:44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; 5:45 That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust. 5:46 For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same? 5:47 And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so? 5:48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.

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Chapter 6
6:1 Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven.

What does alms mean? (Check the middle of your Bible). Alms = righteousness. From STRONGS; compassionateness, that is, (as exercised towards the poor) beneficence, or (concretely) a benefaction: - alms (-deeds). Basically alms = good works. Which particular group of people was Jesus particularly referring to as hypocrites? Who do they represent today according to Mark 7?
Matt 6:2 Matt 23:13-15 Mark 7:5-6

Christ is referring to the Scribes and Pharisees. From Mark 7:5-6, they particularly represent those who worship with their mouths but not with their hearts, which is far from God. Application: What does it mean to honor God with our lips and not our hearts? Ask the group for examples. One example = come to church on Sabbath to worship, but in our hearts be thinking about the sports results or talking with our friends about the latest fashion, etc. With the above definition of a hypocrite in mind, contrast what it means to be a hypocrite vs Christ’s true follower in doing alms?
Matt 6:1-4

Hypocrite: will try to do their alms (good works) in public. True follower of Christ: does alms in secret. Application: What does it mean to do alms in secret? Are we talking about hiding our good works? What is the difference between the intentions of good works in Matt 5:16 and Matt 6:2? What is Jesus emphasizing when he asks us to do alms in secret?
Matt 5:16 Matt 6:2

Matt 5:16 tells us to do our good works for the glory of God, but in Matt 6:2, Jesus is saying the Pharisees or hypocrites are doing good works for their own glory. What is Jesus emphasizing? Doing alms in secret = doing things for God’s glory. In the context of doing alms, what does it mean to give glory to God?
Matt 6:4

What does it mean to do things for God’s glory? To seek HIS reward and recognition, and NOT man’s. CONCLUSION: Jesus is pointing to the MOTIVE in our hearts. Who do we really want recognition from, man OR God? What is usually our motive for good works? (ask group). Our own
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glory. So that is why we tend to do things so that everyone can see. Eg. We get so hung up because we didn’t get an opportunity to go up on the pulpit and be recognized for our “alms”, and that we have to settle for the little things behind the scenes. According to this passage, only hypocrites will get upset if they are left with the “invisible” jobs. Why are they upset? Because their motive was wrong in the first place. What did the hypocrites do during Jesus’ time with their prayers?
Matt 6:5, 7

1. Love to pray in public. 2. Vain repetition. What does vain repetition mean? Eg. Heathen prayers (Buddhist, Hindu) generally repeat the same words over and over again. They are also very monotone. We have to careful that our prayers are not the same. Why? Because our God is a living God, an intelligent God. Example: Just like talking to a friend, can you imagine using his name over and over again, or repeating the same phrase to them. They will think you are insulting their intelligence. What was the problem with the public prayers of the Pharisees in Jesus’ time?
Luke 18:10-13

The Pharisee was more interested in self praise and self glory. Can you imagine shouting these words from the corners of the streets? CONCLUSION: When we use vain repetition, or self praise to God in public, or repeat private things in public, we are not giving glory to God, but to man. Was Jesus discounting public prayer?
Acts 1:14-15 Acts 4:31-32

No. The disciples continued to pray together in public. Acts 1:14-15 says there were 120 people. If public prayer was not ordained by Christ, the Holy Spirit would not have been poured out. What is the difference? There is a place for secret prayer and a place for public prayer. However, the Pharisees were using public prayer as an occasion for self praise and self glory. What does praying to the Father in secret imply? Who needs to be involved?
Matt 6:6

It simply means there is no one else around. Therefore, Jesus is saying there is no need for a human mediator between God and man. All prayer whether secret or public is to be directly to God the Father and does not need to go through anybody else. That means we need only confess our sins to God, NOT man. Some religions ask us to confess our sins to priests or holy men. Contrast what a hypocrite and a true follower does in respect to fasting? What does it mean to fast in secret?
Matt 6:16-18

Hypocrite – puts on sad countenance and disfigured face. What does this mean? Show how painful
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and torturous it is when fasting. True follower – anoint thine head and wash thy face, appear not unto men to fast. What does this mean? You can’t tell when a true follower is fasting. He should be just as cheerful and not complaining about being hungry. What does it mean to anoint thine head and wash they face? Basically to look fresh, healthy, strengthened. Not go out of the way to look weak, weary and hungry. What is the phrase that is being constantly repeated in regards to alms, prayer and fasting? What was Christ emphasizing?
Matt 6:4, 6, 18

Do good works, prayer and fasting in secret, because the Father seeth in secret and shall reward openly. What does it mean to do things in secret? Our motive should always be to look for God’s glory and not our own. Therefore, we should not need to seek public recognition for these 3 actions (good works, prayers, fasting). Bottom line, God is interested in our attitude and motives for service. This will come out in how we do good works, how we pray and how we fast. These are indicative of the condition of our heart and its desires. Remember, in God’s time, He will reward us openly.
6:2 Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward. 6:3 But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth:

When we do something good, naturally people want to receive acknowledgement. We should do our works in humility.
6:4 That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly. 6:5 And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.

When you pray out loud, it helps your mind not to wander. Vain repetitions make a prayer or song have no meaning sometimes.
6:6 But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. 6:7 But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking. 6:8 Be not ye therefore like unto them: for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him. 6:9 After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.

This prayer highlights that we must live day by day. We must ask for strength day by day. God works with us one day at a time.

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Which person of the Godhead should we address when we start our prayers? We should address the Father, and not Jesus or the Holy Spirit. It is God the Father that answers our prayers, but it is Jesus that pleads on our behalf. Just as we understand our parents love towards us, Jesus also wanted us to know that when we pray, we pray to a Father, someone who cares deeply for us. Not as one that approaches a King or a God or a Creator that we must kneel and beg. When we call God our Father, what does that imply in our relation to Jesus and also to each other?
Heb 2:11

We are all brothers and sisters, including Christ. We are all members of one family and so we pray for our neighbours as we pray for ourselves. What is the first thing that Jesus instructs us to pray for? How would that change our perspective in this life by praying that? He asks us to pray for the coming of His kingdom. That would change our perspective in a way that by saying that it makes us personally responsible for the fulfillment of those words. That we would go throughout the day to hasten His kingdom. What is the one way that the Lord’s prayer suggests that we can hasten the coming of His kingdom? The way to hasten His kingdom to come is that His will be done on earth as it is in Heaven. If the will of God is done in earth as in Heaven, then there will be no difference between heaven and earth. Then Jesus can come again! What is the will of God?
1 Thes 4:3

The will of God is our sanctification, to live a holy life, to be separate from the world. Therefore, one way that we can hasten the coming of His kingdom is simply living a holy life here on this earth so that we are ready for Him to come again. Why is it important for us to ask God to give us our daily bread? How does that change our perspective on our own lives? By asking God to give us our daily bread we are recognizing that it is God that puts the food on our tables and fills our stomachs with food. By praying this we are giving thanks to the Lord for feeding us. This will help us not to become self sufficient thinking that we are the ones that provided. What is the important spiritual application behind asking for the daily bread?
Matt 4:4

We must have the daily bread from heaven, the word of God, which is tied in with doing the will of God in earth as in heaven. Spending time in the word of God will also stir up in our hearts the need to hasten His kingdom to come. To what extent should we be asking that the Lord forgive us? How many of us really ask the Lord for forgiveness in this way? That He forgives us as much as we forgive others. Maybe we are scared to pray such a prayer because we know that we have not forgiven our brother or sister out

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there. Is there anyone you know that you need to forgive today? Why does Jesus make forgiving others a condition for Him to forgive our sins?
Luke 7:47

It will help us to understand and appreciate the mercy and love of God in forgiving our sins and as a result, love and mercy should spring up from within us. It is easy for a sinless God to forgive our sins, but how much easier should it be for us, who are sinners, to forgive those that have done just as much wrong as we have. Forgiveness breeds love. And those that don’t forgive others show that they don’t love them much because they forgot their past sins and how they have been forgiven. May God help us to be merciful to our brother’s and sisters today. Contextually speaking, why do we end saying “Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory?”
Matt 6:13 Jude 24, 25

We must recognize that the power comes from God and is available to us now and forever to keep us from falling, to keep us from temptation and to deliver us from evil. How should we end our prayers and why is it important to end this way?
John 14:13-14 John 15:16 Acts 4:12

We must learn to ask in the name of Jesus, and not simply end with the words Amen. Why? Because it is through this name that we are saved, and it is through Jesus Christ that we are able to present our petitions before our Heavenly Father. Overall, what was the main emphasis that Jesus was trying to bring out about prayer at the end? He recapped in verse 14 and 15 a very important point that He mentioned in the prayer itself, and that was forgiveness. That we are to recognize that God would only forgive our sins as much as we forgave others. If there was anything that He wanted His disciples to remember about the prayer it was about forgiving each other. That was the very last thing that Jesus prayer for when He was hanging on the cross, for forgiveness of His enemies.
6:10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. 6:11 Give us this day our daily bread. 6:12 And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. 6:13 And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen. 6:14 For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you:

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6:15 But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.

We cannot be forgiven unless we forgive others.
6:16 Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward. 6:17 But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face; 6:18 That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly. 6:19 Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal:

These three things described cover everything single thing on earth. Moth, rust, and thieves. What is the comparison that Jesus makes between verse 19 and verse 20? One is earthly, the other is heavenly. One is temporary, the other is eternal. What does the Bible say about those that lay up treasures for themselves on earth?
Jas 5:1-4

They will howl and weep for the miseries that will come upon them. These are the people that have garments that are moth eaten, their treasures are rusted and thieves have broken in and stolen their possessions. What day is that referring to when the rich men will weep and howl?
Ezek 30:1-3

People will howl at the coming of the day of the Lord.
Zeph 1:14-15

The day of the Lord is compared to the day of wrath. When is that?
Rev 6:12-17

The day of wrath is equated to the second coming of the Lord. So those that lay up treasures for themselves will not be ready at the second coming. How can we lay up for ourselves treasures in heaven? What is the first step that Jesus gave?
Matt 6:21

Our hearts need to be fixed on the treasures of heaven first. How can we fix our hearts on the treasures of heaven?
Matt 6:22-23 Prov 23:26

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What our eyes behold will also change our mind, our heart. So the first step to fixing our heart on heaven is to fix our eyes on heaven. Our eyes need to behold light. What eyes is this referring to and what does the light represent?
2 Cor 5:7

We walk by faith, not by sight. So this is referring to the eye of faith.
Psa 119:105

The light represents the word.
Rom 10:17

Faith is built upon the word of God. So our first step is to build our faith upon the word of God. What is the next step that Jesus gave to lay for ourselves treasures in heaven?
Matt 6:25-32

To take no thought for our life, what we shall eat, drink or wear. What are these categorized as according to the previous verses? The treasures of earth. When we start to worry so much about our own life, food, drink and clothes we tend to lose sight of heavenly things. We get into the rat race. Does that mean it doesn’t matter what we eat or drink or wear at all? That we shouldn’t even think about our next meal? No, but we are to commit our lives to God and allow Him to lead us each day. The words “Take no thought” mean “not to be anxious.” Some of us worry so much about our temporal things that we work so hard to secure our treasures here and forget about heaven. Note: This is not approving laziness, not having to work for our food and raiment. But we are not to be anxious and stressed out about our temporal things. What is the final step that Jesus gave that we may lay up treasures in heaven?
Matt 6:33

We should seek first the kingdom of Heaven and his righteousness and then all the other things will be added to us. How does it work together? Because as we study the Bible, it will instill in us principles of hard work, and we will not be lazy. It will instill in us principles of honesty and integrity which we can show to the world as we work for our daily bread. How can we seek for the kingdom of God and His righteousness?
John 5:39 Jer 29:13

We need to search the scriptures, and if we diligently search, we will find Him, if we search with all of our hearts.

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What is the fruits of a person that is seeking after the kingdom of God and His righteousness?
Matt 5:20

Their righteousness exceeds the righteousness of the Pharisees. How can we exceed that? By not hating our brother in our heart. By not committing adultery in our heart. Loving our enemies. Then will we know that our focus is on heaven and His righteousness.
Rom 14:17

When we seek after the kingdom of God, we experience joy and peace and righteousness.
6:20 But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal: 6:21 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. 6:22 The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.

Body represent the church. If the eye is single and not double minded, it will be full of light and truth. But if the eye is evil, then the people will be full of darkness – there is a great deal that rests on the leadership of the church.
6:23 But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness! 6:24 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. 6:25 Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment? 6:26 Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they? 6:27 Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature? 6:28 And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: 6:29 And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 6:30 Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith? 6:31 Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed?

The things listed are the basic necessities of life. We are admonished to seek ye first the kingdom of God, otherwise we are just like Gentiles.
6:32 (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need

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of all these things. 6:33 But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. 6:34 Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

Each day has its own problems.

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Chapter 7
7:1 Judge not, that ye be not judged.

Is there a time when we are called to judge? Yes – judge righteous judgment. What we are dealing with is that there is a type of judgment which stems from self-righteousness. In what context does Jesus say that we should judge, or not judge, others?
Luke 6:37-38

We should judge others the same as we wished to be judged. Same as condemning others and also forgiving others and also giving to others. We should treat others the way we wish to be treated. Does that mean we should do away with the Judicial law? What does the Bible mean about not judging?
Jas 4:11

When we speak evil of one another, the Bible says that we are also judging each other. When people tend to speak evil behind each others backs, that is judging their motive or character. Unless the fruit is there for proof, we should not be judging one another’s motives if we don’t know what they are doing.
1 Cor 6:3

We ought to judge those things that pertain to this life.
Exo 18:13

Moses was a judge for the people to settle disputes between each other. And later on in that chapter he also set people over each other as well. What is the difference between a mote and a beam? And who is the one that has the mote and who is the one that has the beam? A mote is a straw or a twig. A beam is a stick of timber. The one that is being judged has the mote, and the one that has the beam is the one that jus judging (the hypocrite). What does the Bible say is the condition of a person who has a beam in their eye?
Luke 6:39

The person who has a beam in their eye is called a blind man by Jesus. What is a blind man according to the Bible?
2 Pet 1:9

A blind man is a person who has forgotten that they were purged of their past sins. According to what we have studied so far, why is it that we pronounce such harsh judgment

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upon others and are so ready to condemn others for their sins? Because we forget that we have been purged of our past sins and forget the mercy of God in our lives, and as a result we become harsh and exacting of other people’s sins which we once did. What is the definition of a hypocrite according to Matt. 7:5? They try to cast out the mote from their brother’s eye before they cast out the beam from their own. Basically, it’s the pot calling the kettle black. Why does the hypocrite judge people and try to cast out the mote from their brother’s eye? Teachers note that this is a different perspective from a blind person. The blind person forgot their past sins. But the hypocrite is different. This is showing another aspect of why others are so harsh and exacting.
Luke 6:31

Because they have a bigger mote in their own eyes, it’s a beam. But they have forgotten that they have that in their eyes. They perceive not!
Rom 2:1

They judge because they do the same thing. So often when people are critical and judgmental, it’s because the sin in their own lives is much bigger than the actual sin that they are seeing in other people’s eyes. So the very thing that they are doing, they become harsh on others. How does the Bible advise that we should act when we find a person in sin?
Gal 6:1

We should seek to restore that person to God in meekness. Meekness meaning with in humbleness and sincerity, without condemning or judging them. The Bible also says that we should consider ourselves too incase we are tempted. How can we consider ourselves? How can we make that practical? It may not always be appropriate for a person to help another individual. Example, a married man consoling a single lady. That is dangerous and tempting to both parties. We should consider how we help each other if that may cause us to stumble or not in the long run.
1 Cor 10:12

We should take heed, incase we think we shall stand we will fall. How about if we are being condemned or judged? How should we act?
1 Pet 2:23

We should commit ourselves to God incase we react in such a way which will prove us right but yet destroy the character of God in us. For example, sometimes when we know we are right and being judged unfairly, we tend to come out with a vengeful spirit or a angry spirit which is not of Christ. Christ was treated unfairly, but He didn’t revile against those that reviled against Him, even though they found no fault in Him. And He didn’t threaten them – He didn’t say “You just wait till I get out of this and you will be in trouble.” He didn’t look for an opportunity to exact revenge upon them.
7:2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be

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measured to you again. 7:3 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?

It is talking about a level of care and compassion for someone.
MB 128 Not until you feel that you could sacrifice your own self-dignity, and even lay down your life in order to save an erring brother, have you cast the beam out of your own eye so that you are prepared to help your brother. 7:4 Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? 7:5 Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye. 7:6 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.

Both of these animals are unclean which can be applied to the Gentiles. There are some that you can’t preach the gospel to them as we know it because it may turn them off from it. Emphasizing the need to read the Bible or proving that the Bible is trustworthy. What is the condition that Jesus specifies if we want to receive or find or have something opened to us?
Luke 6:37-38

We must ask, seek or knock. How should we ask that it may receive?
Matt 21:22

We should ask in prayer and also believe. Does that mean that if we pray and really believe that we will get a BMW that God will give it?
John 14:13

We should ask in the name of Jesus that the Father may be glorified and not for the glory of ourselves, otherwise that becomes a selfish prayer. Example – praying for a wife – you must ask yourselves questions like why do you want a wife? Just so you won’t be lonely? Or just to fulfill your lusts? Or so that you may look good in public? Sometimes we may pray selfishly. What are the conditions for asking?
John 15:7

We have to abide in Christ and His words abide in us, then whatever we ask it will be done unto us. It is important for Christ’s words to abide in us and us in Him that we may know His will. Maybe that is why our prayers are not answered sometimes, because we aren’t abiding in Christ.

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Psa 66:18

If we regard iniquity in our heart the Lord will not hear. We must make sure that we confess and forsake our sins (Prov. 28:13) that the prayers we pray may ascend up before God. However, bear in mind that when we ask for forgiveness, the Lord will hear us because we cannot cleanse ourselves (1 John 1:9). So do not wait for yourself to be clean before you come to the Lord – that will never happen. It is by His grace that we are made clean. By asking, what does that imply about that person’s mindset? Why is that so important? Further add to the question by asking “What brings a person to ask for help? Or when does a person ask?” For example, when would you ask your parents for money? Or when do you ask your friends for help in some homework? The asking implies that we realize our necessity, that we need something or need help because we cannot do it alone. This is so important because it will keep us humble not self sufficient, to help us realize that God will be our help and our strength in time of need. Those that never ask for help will never receive help because they think they can do it all alone. What should we seek after that we may find?
Luke 12:29-31

We shouldn’t seek after temporal things like food or water. We should seek first the kingdom and all those things shall be added to us. It’s almost as if Jesus gave us a step of assurance how we can be guaranteed our bread and water. We should seek after the kingdom of God. How should we seek that we may find?
Jer 29:13

We are promised that we will find if we seek with all of our heart. That means it must not be a halfhearted searching. Many people do not receive blessings even though they do the same things as those that do sometimes because their heart really isn’t in it. Example – a doctor may be happy and content ministering to patients, but yet another doctor may be very dissatisfied because his heart is not in that job. What does mean with all of our heart? That we put all of our efforts into what we do. What is the assurance that Jesus gives to us that our asking, seeking or knocking will be answered?
Matt 7:8-11

First Jesus puts a triple emphasis that God is able to do all things and will answer if we ask, seek or knock. Secondly, he gives an analogy of how a father would give bread to his son instead of a stone or a fish instead of a serpent. And HOW MUCH MORE will our Heavenly Father would give us so much more. The question is “HOW MUCH MORE?” Contrasting God the Father to our earthly Father.
Isa 49:14-16

A woman may forget her suckling child but God has given us the assurance that He will not forget us. He will answer us when we ask, seek and knock.

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What is that good thing that Jesus promised that He would give us if we ask?
Luke 11:13

The Holy Spirit is compared to a good thing which Jesus promised He would give if we ask. What should be out attitude so that we can receive the Holy Spirit? We need to ask, seek, and knock. This involves our faculties: Ask = lifting our voice in prayer for the Holy Spirit. Seeking = searching the Scriptures, how do we do this by using our eyes. Knocking = involves the sense of touch, involving doing, action. In order to knock we must walk to a door and knock. All our being, voice, eyes, and our actions/hand should show that we are earnestly desiring the good gift of the Holy Spirit. It's not a haphazard request to God. Why is it so important, or good, that we ask for the Holy Spirit?
John 14:26

The Holy Spirit will teach us all things.
John 16:13

The Holy Spirit will guide us into all truth.
1 Pet 1:2

The Holy Spirit is the one that sanctifies us and enables us to live a holy life. Apart from asking, what are the conditions for receiving the Holy Spirit?
Acts 5:32

The Holy Spirit is given to those that obey. It is not enough just to ask, presuming that we will receive the Holy Spirit. We must learn to obey those things that God has outlined in the Bible which is one of the conditions to receiving Him.
7:7 Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you:

One of the greatest promises in the Bible.
7:8 For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. 7:9 Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone? 7:10 Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent? 7:11 If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in heaven give good things to them that ask him?

“how much more” – The gift that He desires to give to us is the Holy Spirit.

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Luke 11:13

Why is the Holy Spirit such a great gift? Because the fruit of the Spirit is all these other things. Without the Holy Spirit, we could never be convicted of sin.
7:12 Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets.

It is the most famous verse in the Gentile world – it is called the golden rule. So the idea is that we should treat others as we want to be treated. What we do to others will always return back to us.
7:13 Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat:

The platform of truth is like a path coming narrower. We start of with broad topics and then zoom into more specific topics. There will always be very few people who want to do right. The road to destruction is wide and easy. What is the original meaning of the word “strait” in the Bible? In the concordance it means “narrow.” Strait does not mean straight as in a straight line, but narrow or difficult. More than just being exhorted to enter the strait gate, what are we advised to do?
Luke 13:24

We are exhorted to STRIVE to enter in at the strait gate. That word strive means to struggle, or fight, or contend. According to the Bible, what does it mean to strive, or fight or contend?
Rom 15:30 We can strive by praying. Jude 1:3 We should fight for the faith. Heb 12:4

By striving to enter in the strait gate, we need to strive against sin. According to Matt. 7:15, what will stop us from striving to enter into the strait gate?
Matt 7:15

False prophets will stop us from striving to enter into the strait gate. How may we know who is a false prophet?
Matt 7:16-20

We may know who is a false prophets by the fruits that they bear. What are the fruits that will

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show who is and who is not a false prophet?
Matt 12:33-34

The words that they speak will show what their heart is like. We may hide for a while who we really are, but just by how we speak it will reveal the deep thoughts and intents of the heart.
Gal 5:19-23

The fruits of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, etc. In our character it will be revealed what sort of person we are. How we live our life it will show if we are a false prophet or not.
Prov 11:30

The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life and that fruit is shown in winning souls. A true prophet will win many souls to God. But a false prophet does not win any to the kingdom of God. A person is known by the company that they keep. It will be easy to determine a false prophet to look at the people that he/she has ministered to, to see what type of character they are because they are most likely reflecting the type of person that he is. According to Matt. 7:21-23, what should we do if we want to strive to enter into the strait gate?
Matt 7:21-23

We must do the will of God. Notice that doing the will of God is not the same as performing miracles, or praying or preaching or casting out devils. Doing the will of God is opposite of trying to work our way into heaven. What does it mean to do the will of God?
1 Thes 4:3

To do the will of God means that we are to be sanctified. What does the word sanctification mean? It means to be set apart for a holy use. To be made holy. How can we be sanctified?
John 17:17

We are sanctified by the word of God. So according to what we have studied so far, how else can we strive to enter into the strait gate? We must be sure not to follow false prophets. We will know them by their fruits. But if we want to detect false prophets and their false teachings what should we study? THE BIBLE! And by studying the Bible we are? SANCTIFIED! APPLICATION QUESTION: Have you studied your Bible today? Are you doing the will of God and striving to enter into the strait gate by studying the Word? How can we help and encourage each other today to strive to enter into the strait gate? Discuss? Encourage them to share with each other some thoughts on this question. Suggest things like: Pick and partner not of your own family and share with each other during the week your

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devotions on what we read in the Bible. Prayer group chain, praying for each other over the phone.
7:14 Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it.

“few there be that find it” – we have to look, we have to search for it.
7:15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.

An index to the heart is mostly what you can see outside. This is one of the tests of a true prophet. What are the results of their work? Their fruits? What can we learn about conversion here with the context of good and bad fruits? It is talking about false prophets but can also talk about people. The issue here is the heart because a good branch can easily be grafted on.
7:16 Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? 7:17 Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. 7:18 A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. 7:19 Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. 7:20 Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them. 7:21 Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. 7:22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? 7:23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.

Not all Christians will enter into Heaven. Miracles are not a test that a person is right with God. “iniquity” in verse 23 means lawlessness.
7:24 Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock:

What is the difference between the wise man and the foolish man in this short parable? The wise man hears and does Jesus’ sayings but the foolish man hears but doesn’t do it. The wise man builds his house upon the rock and the foolish man builds his house upon the sand. What does the rock represent that we are to build our foundation upon?
Luke 6:48

We are to build our foundation upon the rock.
2 Sam 22:47

The Lord God is our rock.
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1 Cor 3:11

Which God is that, it is Jesus Christ who is our foundation. What elements beat against the house to try to make it to fall?
Matt 7:25

The elements that beast against the house was the rain, the flood and the winds. What did these elements try to do to the house that was built upon the rock?
Luke 6:48

It tried to shake the house but could not. What does the shaking represent?
Isa 13:13

The shaking represents the time when God will arise to shake the heavens and the earth.
2 Thes 2:2

The shaking represents those who will be shaken in mind and troubled with the things that are taking place upon the earth. What is the purpose of the shaking?
Heb 12:26-27

To shake everything that can be shaken so that those things which remain are those which were founded upon the rock.
Neh 5:13

To shake every man which does not do according to the promise (the word) of the Lord. It is a testing time which God allows every person to go through to test what sort of foundation they were building upon. It is the elements that cause the shaking. So what does the rain, the floods and the winds represent?
Deut 32:2

Doctrine will fall as rain. So it is the doctrine of God that will cause a shaking to test what foundation we have been building upon. How does that cause a shaking? Because when people hear the pure truth, some will not accept it because it goes against what they are doing. That is exactly what happened with the scribe and Pharisees when they heard Jesus speaking? That is why they plotted to kill Him. The floods

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Isa 59:19

The flood represents your enemies, those that hate you and persecute you.
Psa 69:1-4

The flood represents those that hate you without a cause. They will come to persecute you as David was persecuted by Saul in the wilderness. So the flood represents persecution. But what does the Bible tell us to do in times of persecution?
Matt 5:11, 12

The winds:
Eph 4:14

The winds represents the winds of doctrines, of the false doctrines, that will lead men astray and deceive them. So it is the straight testimony of truth, persecution or false doctrines that will cause people to be shaken in the last days. The foolish man built his house upon the sand. What does the sand represent and what does it mean to build on sand?
Gen 32:12

The sand represented the people that could not be counted. Sand represents people. So to build upon sand means to build upon people and not the word of God. How do we build upon people today?
Matt 15:9, 6

We listen more to the preacher than to the Word. We obey the commandments of man rather than the commandments of God. What is the commandments of men? Verse 6 – men’s traditions. More than just Jesus Christ, what is that foundation that we must build upon today that will stand forever?
Isa 40:8

The word of the Lord will stand forever.
Matt 24:35

Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away. It is the word of the Lord (the Bible) that we must learn to build our sure foundation.
7:25 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock.

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7:26 And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: 7:27 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it.

Both had a house. They both heard Him. A rock represents Christ in the Bible
1 Cor 10:4

What does a house represent? The house represents a church or God’s people
Heb 3:6

Rain represents doctrine.
Deut 32:2

Wind represents winds of doctrine.
Eph 4:14

The sand represents a multitude of people.
Joshua 11:4

Floods represents ungodly men –
Ps 18:4

In the Bible, Babylon also has a great fall. So what is the structure of the Sermon on the Mount. Conversion, true obedience, then Jesus makes an appeal – not only to hear but also do.
7:28 And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people were astonished at his doctrine: 7:29 For he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.

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Chapter 8
Reading
   Desire of Ages – Chapter 27 – Thou Canst Make Me Clean Desire of Ages – Chapter The Centurion Desire of Ages – Chapter Peace be still

8:1 When he was come down from the mountain, great multitudes followed him. 8:2 And, behold, there came a leper and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.

Leprosy in the Bible is a symbol of sin. Leprosy was contagious. Leprosy would often cause death likewise, sin will ultimately will produce death.
DA 263 Some try to prevent him from approaching Jesus, but in vain.

Many that want to approach Jesus, Satan makes it very hard for them to make it able. Satan makes it hard for them to come to Jesus for repentance.
DA 263 Pressing to Jesus, he casts himself at His feet with the cry, "Lord, if Thou wilt, Thou canst make me clean." Jesus replied, "I will; be thou made clean," and laid His hand upon him. – 8:3 And Jesus put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will; be thou clean. And immediately his leprosy was cleansed.

As soon as the leper asked, he was healed straight away. When we pray, is it always answered straight away?
DA 266 In some instances of healing, Jesus did not at once grant the blessing sought. But in the case of leprosy, no sooner was the appeal made than it was granted. When we pray for earthly blessings, the answer to our prayer may be delayed, or God may give us something other than we ask, but not so when we ask for deliverance from sin. It is His will to cleanse us from sin, to make us His children, and to enable us to live a holy life.

Whenever we pray for deliverance from sin, God answers that prayer right away.
8:4 And Jesus saith unto him, See thou tell no man; but go thy way, shew thyself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.

Why did He tell him to tell no one? Too many lepers would come – if He was known as a leper healer, then no one else would come because it was contagious.
DA 264 Notwithstanding the caution of Jesus, the man made no further effort to conceal the fact of his cure. It would indeed have been impossible to conceal it, but the leper published the matter abroad. Conceiving that it was only the modesty of Jesus which laid this restriction upon him, he went about proclaiming the power of this Great Healer. He did not understand that every such manifestation made the priests and elders more determined to destroy Jesus.

There is a danger to adding more to what Jesus actually said.
DA 267 Yet it was not physical restoration he desired so much as relief from the burden of sin. If he

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could see Jesus, and receive the assurance of forgiveness and peace with Heaven, he would be content to live or die, according to God's will.

When people sin, the guilt of sin can cause you to go insane. The results of many physical illnesses is the guilt of sin that rests heavy on a persons mind.
8:5 And when Jesus was entered into Capernaum, there came unto him a centurion, beseeching him, 8:6 And saying, Lord, my servant lieth at home sick of the palsy, grievously tormented. 8:7 And Jesus saith unto him, I will come and heal him. 8:8 The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof: but speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed.

Faith always manifests itself in works. Love is the same as righteousness.
Luke 7:4

In that instance they were seeking for righteousness by works. True Faith is paired with true humility.
He who stood beside the sorrowing mother at the gate of Nain, watches with every mourning one beside the bier. He is touched with sympathy for our grief. His heart, that loved and pitied, is a heart of unchangeable tenderness. His word, that called the dead to life, is no less efficacious now than when spoken to the young man of Nain. He says, "All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth." Matt. 28:18. That power is not diminished by the lapse of years, nor exhausted by the ceaseless activity of His overflowing grace. To all who believe on Him He is still a living Savior. 8:9 For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it. 8:10 When Jesus heard it, he marvelled, and said to them that followed, Verily I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel. 8:11 And I say unto you, That many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. 8:12 But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 8:13 And Jesus said unto the centurion, Go thy way; and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee. And his servant was healed in the selfsame hour. 8:14 And when Jesus was come into Peter's house, he saw his wife's mother laid, and sick of a fever. 8:15 And he touched her hand, and the fever left her: and she arose, and ministered unto them. 8:16 When the even was come, they brought unto him many that were possessed with devils: and he cast out the spirits with his word, and healed all that were sick: 8:17 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, Himself took our infirmities, and bare our sicknesses.

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8:18 Now when Jesus saw great multitudes about him, he gave commandment to depart unto the other side. 8:19 And a certain scribe came, and said unto him, Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest. 8:20 And Jesus saith unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head. 8:21 And another of his disciples said unto him, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father. 8:22 But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead. 8:23 And when he was entered into a ship, his disciples followed him. DA 334 The sun had set, and the blackness of night settled down upon the stormy sea. The waves, lashed into fury by the howling winds, dashed fiercely over the disciples' boat, and threatened to engulf it. Those hardy fishermen had spent their lives upon the lake, and had guided their craft safely through many a storm; but now their strength and skill availed nothing. They were helpless in the grasp of the tempest, and hope failed them as they saw that their boat was filling.

All their past experiences were helpless. They were at this point where they knew they could not help themselves.
8:24 And, behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was covered with the waves: but he was asleep.

Jesus never feared – He was asleep.
Rev 21:8

Those who are fearful are those that will be lost. God hath not given us a spirit of fear, but of love and a sound mind. Fear is not from God.
8:25 And his disciples came to him, and awoke him, saying, Lord, save us: we perish. 8:26 And he saith unto them, Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith? Then he arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea; and there was a great calm. DA 335 Never did a soul utter that cry unheeded. As the disciples grasp their oars to make a last effort, Jesus rises. He stands in the midst of His disciples, while the tempest rages, the waves break over them, and the lightning illuminates His countenance. He lifts His hand, so often employed in deeds of mercy, and says to the angry sea, "Peace, be still." 8:27 But the men marvelled, saying, What manner of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey him!

The same power that He possesses as Creator, He possesses here on the sea.
8:28 And when he was come to the other side into the country of the Gergesenes, there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by that way. 8:29 And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?

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8:30 And there was a good way off from them an herd of many swine feeding. 8:31 So the devils besought him, saying, If thou cast us out, suffer us to go away into the herd of swine. 8:32 And he said unto them, Go. And when they were come out, they went into the herd of swine: and, behold, the whole herd of swine ran violently down a steep place into the sea, and perished in the waters. 8:33 And they that kept them fled, and went their ways into the city, and told every thing, and what was befallen to the possessed of the devils. 8:34 And, behold, the whole city came out to meet Jesus: and when they saw him, they besought him that he would depart out of their coasts.

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Chapter 9
Chapter 9 is unique in that it shows Christ authority as King to forgive sins. He is a religious spiritual king. This means that His kingdom consists of those whose sins He has forgiven. There were many examples of Christ healing before in the book of Matthew, but this is the first time it mentions healing in relationship to Him forgiving sins. That is Matthew’s main point. Chapter 9 can be connected with Matthew 1:21 “and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.” This chapter shows how He will save His people from their sins, and the latter chapters show Him dying on the cross

Reading
  Desire of Ages – Chapter 28 – Levi-Matthew Desire of Ages – Chapter The Touch of Faith

9:1 And he entered into a ship, and passed over, and came into his own city.

“into a ship, and passed over” – this shows that Jesus was separated from this city by water. There was a separation between Him and the people in Capernaum.
9:2 And, behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed: and Jesus seeing their faith said unto the sick of the palsy; Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee.

“they brought to him a man sick of the palsy” – This shows the attitude of the men who were in Capernaum. They were waiting, longing, and anticipating the day when Jesus would be in close proximity to them so they could bring the man. This shows the attitude of the man who had palsy. The man had to first trust Christ. He did this by faith. Before this Jesus was out of their reach. Where is He? In another city? Where is He? On the Mt. of Olives. But once He came to their city they could reach Him. But what Jesus did was made Himself available. He came near to where they were to incite within their heart the desire to come to Him. He says “Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden”. Two things took place, Jesus came near to them, and then the men had to make the effort to then come to Him. App: the first thing we need to do is long to see Jesus. We need to anticipate Him. Coming, but before we can go to Him we must first know where He is. The men found Him in the city of Capernaum in a home. Where is He now? In another home, His heavenly home. And that Home has two compartments, the holy place, and the most holy place. Where is He? In the MHP. But before they were separated by a body of water, and Jesus made the effort to come. We may feel like we are separated by a great body of water, something keeping us from Him, but He will part that obstacle so He can come near to you. “Jesus seeing their faith” – After we find Him, we realize where He is we must exercise faith. When we exercise faith Jesus sees it. That means recognizing where He is should cause us to have faith. They had faith all along, but now that faith was revealed to all. The faith of the men was also instrumental in the healing of this man. When there are others who are sick, we need to go get them and bring them to Jesus, and this will help them to have greater faith to receive healing.
9:3 And, behold, certain of the scribes said within themselves, This man blasphemeth.

The scribe missed the whole point. He should have been paying attention to the attitude of the three
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men. Jesus was trying to help the scribe exercise faith. But He said Jesus committed blasphemy. Application: We do the same thing. Instead of being happy that people exercise faith for healing, and learning a lesson in faith. We murmur about the people who perform the healing. I understand there are many ways of practicing the healing art and God only approves one. But that doesn’t mean that God only heals based on your understanding of healing. You should have paid attention to the lesson God was trying to teach instead of criticizing.
9:4 And Jesus knowing their thoughts said, Wherefore think ye evil in your hearts?

The scribe needed to be forgiven. But his sin was hid from everyone else’s eyes.
9:5 For whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and walk?

Arise and walk is synonymous with thy sins be forgiven thee. That means every time Christ healed it was the same as Him forgiving sin. But there was a condition they had to have faith in Him.
9:6 But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (then saith he to the sick of the palsy,) Arise, take up thy bed, and go unto thine house.

“ye may know” – especially the leaders, the scribes, not just the multitudes. Jesus was trying to forgive them. When the man trusted Christ, exercised faith, they exercised His will by choosing to obey the power was given for Him to arise and walk. There was a co-operation.
9:7 And he arose, and departed to his house. 9:8 But when the multitudes saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God, which had given such power unto men.

We glorify God by acknowledging His power to forgive sins on this earth because He came as the Messiah, the King! Jesus as King has power to forgive.
9:9 And as Jesus passed forth from thence, he saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him.

To types of arising in chapter 9. Having faith, and arising to have your sins forgiven and arising to follow Jesus. That means Jesus wants to give our sins so that we can follow Him What was Matthew like? dishonest and greedy He was a tax collector and a Jew. Often times, publicans were

DA 273 To Matthew in his wealth, and to Andrew and Peter in their poverty, the same test was brought; the same consecration was made by each. At the moment of success, when the nets were filled with fish, and the impulses of the old life were strongest, Jesus asked the disciples at the sea to leave all for the work of the gospel. So every soul is tested as to whether the desire for temporal good or for fellowship with Christ is strongest.

When success comes, it is then that Christ calls you. You have to choose between worldly success and a life of sacrifice.
9:10 And it came to pass, as Jesus sat at meat in the house, behold, many publicans and sinners came and sat down with him and his disciples.

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First time the people are referred to as sinners. Your mind should go back to Matt 1:21
9:11 And when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto his disciples, Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners? DA 273 The calling of Matthew to be one of Christ's disciples excited great indignation. For a religious teacher to choose a publican as one of his immediate attendants was an offense against the religious, social, and national customs. By appealing to the prejudices of the people the Pharisees hoped to turn the current of popular feeling against Jesus.

Sometimes it is the despised of the community that are the most earnest. To know!!
DA 280 Man must be emptied of self before he can be, in the fullest sense, a believer in Jesus. When self is renounced, then the Lord can make man a new creature. New bottles can contain the new wine. The love of Christ will animate the believer with new life. In him who looks unto the Author and Finisher of our faith the character of Christ will be manifest.

Wine represents Christ’s Words. If a heart is unconverted and the Words touch the heart, without the change of heart, it may harden it more. We need a new heart first.
9:12 But when Jesus heard that, he said unto them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick.

“sick” – from the previous verses it means that they had sins that were not forgiven. But in order to be forgiven they needed faith. So who are the whole? Those whose sins are forgiven.
9:13 But go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

“righteous” = Whole - those who are whole and there sins are forgiven “Sinners” = Sick – Jesus wants to forgive their sins Note: This also shows that Jesus calls or draws us. He drew the three men in the previous verses. “I will have mercy” what is the mercy of God? Forgiven our sins. Note: Mercy seat in the sanctuary is where forgiveness is complete. The Pharisees and Scribes should have been merciful to the publicans and sinners. But they were more concerned about the ceremonial law, when this is what the ceremonial law taught. Jesus said “Blessed [are] the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.” Matt 5:7 What is that mercy? Forgiveness of sin. Therefore, the scribes and Pharisees were not eligible to have their sins forgiven. And the act of being merciful is an alms deed, or deed of good work. That should remind you of Matt 6.
9:14 Then came to him the disciples of John, saying, Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but thy disciples fast not? 9:15 And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? but the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast. 9:16 No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto an old garment, for that which is put in to fill it up taketh from the garment, and the rent is made worse.

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9:17 Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and the bottles perish: but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved. 9:18 While he spake these things unto them, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, My daughter is even now dead: but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live. 9:19 And Jesus arose, and followed him, and so did his disciples. 9:20 And, behold, a woman, which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him, and touched the hem of his garment:

Why is the hem significant? It represented obedience. Power comes to us when we are willing to be obedient to God.
Mark 5:26

This particular woman, she basically spent all her money, and at the end of this, she came to Jesus. Many people are like that – when we have lost all hope, then we go to Jesus.
Mark 5:31-34

Why did Jesus have to ask who touched Him? She had to acknowledge that it was her who touched Him.
DA 347After healing the woman, Jesus desired her to acknowledge the blessing she had received. The gifts which the gospel offers are not to be secured by stealth or enjoyed in secret. So the Lord calls upon us for confession of His goodness. "Ye are My witnesses, saith the Lord, that I am God." Isa. 43:12. – DA 347 Our confession of His faithfulness is Heaven's chosen agency for revealing Christ to the world. We are to acknowledge His grace as made known through the holy men of old; but that which will be most effectual is the testimony of our own experience. – DA 348 It is for our own benefit to keep every gift of God fresh in our memory. Thus faith is strengthened to claim and to receive more and more. There is greater encouragement for us in the least blessing we ourselves receive from God than in all the accounts we can read of the faith and experience of others. The soul that responds to the grace of God shall be like a watered garden. His health shall spring forth speedily; his light shall rise in obscurity, and the glory of the Lord shall be seen upon him. Let us then remember the loving-kindness of the Lord, and the multitude of His tender mercies. 9:21 For she said within herself, If I may but touch his garment, I shall be whole. 9:22 But Jesus turned him about, and when he saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good comfort; thy faith hath made thee whole. And the woman was made whole from that hour. 9:23 And when Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise, 9:24 He said unto them, Give place: for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed him to scorn. 9:25 But when the people were put forth, he went in, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose. 9:26 And the fame hereof went abroad into all that land.

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9:27 And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed him, crying, and saying, Thou Son of David, have mercy on us. 9:28 And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, Lord. 9:29 Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you. 9:30 And their eyes were opened; and Jesus straitly charged them, saying, See that no man know it. 9:31 But they, when they were departed, spread abroad his fame in all that country. 9:32 As they went out, behold, they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil. 9:33 And when the devil was cast out, the dumb spake: and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel. 9:34 But the Pharisees said, He casteth out devils through the prince of the devils. 9:35 And Jesus went about all the cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every sickness and every disease among the people. 9:36 But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion on them, because they fainted, and were scattered abroad, as sheep having no shepherd. 9:37 Then saith he unto his disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few; 9:38 Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers into his harvest.

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Chapter 10
Reading
 Desire of Ages – Chapter The First Evangelists
10:1 And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease. 10:2 Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; 10:3 Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; 10:4 Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 10:5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: 10:6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

Why did Jesus choose this first method of working with the Jews? Jesus also knew that if He were to win the Jews, the strength of that would help the gospel to go to the whole world. The 70 weeks was fast coming to a close.
10:7 And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand.

The kingdom of God was here.
10:8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils: freely ye have received, freely give. 10:9 Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses, 10:10 Nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves: for the workman is worthy of his meat.

What does this indicate? It indicated that Paul had a trade. What is the principle about gospel work? When people give you food, money, etc, we deserve it because we are working full time in the ministry.
10:11 And into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter, enquire who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye go thence. 10:12 And when ye come into an house, salute it. 10:13 And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you.

By song and prayer, you can bless the house. By your testimony, etc. That is how we are to bless them.
10:14 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house or

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city, shake off the dust of your feet. 10:15 Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for that city. 10:16 Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.

Where do have any mention of the serpent in the Bible? Garden of Eden. Jesus did not say be as deceptive as serpent. Why harmless as doves? They do not have any defense. It’s only defense is to climb higher and higher and higher.
10:17 But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the councils, and they will scourge you in their synagogues;

We should never trust man. Cursed is he that trusteth in the arm of flesh.
10:18 And ye shall be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them and the Gentiles. 10:19 But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak. 10:20 For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.

Parallel passage is found in Mark 13:11. That passage indicates that there will be the gift of prophecy – it is God speaking through men.
DA 349 He had set before them the truths of Scripture in contrast with tradition. Thus He had strengthened their confidence in God's word, and in a great measure had set them free from their fear of the rabbis and their bondage to tradition. DA 350 None were sent forth alone, but brother was associated with brother, friend with friend. –

When God sends out people, He sends out people together.
DA 351 If they had now preached the gospel to the Gentiles or the Samaritans, they would have lost their influence with the Jews. By exciting the prejudice of the Pharisees they would have involved themselves in controversy which would have discouraged them at the outset of their labors. Even the apostles were slow to understand that the gospel was to be carried to all nations.

We must start with the church and deal with avoiding controversy.
DA 350 During His ministry Jesus devoted more time to healing the sick than to preaching.

Health will open doors which preaching cannot open.
10:21 And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the child: and the children shall rise up against their parents, and cause them to be put to death. 10:22 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved.

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10:23 But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come. 10:24 The disciple is not above his master, nor the servant above his lord. 10:25 It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master, and the servant as his lord. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much more shall they call them of his household? 10:26 Fear them not therefore: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; and hid, that shall not be known. 10:27 What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon the housetops. 10:28 And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.

Jesus told us that we shouldn’t fear man.
10:29 Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. 10:30 But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 10:31 Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows. 10:32 Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven. 10:33 But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven. 10:34 Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword.

“sword” – it represents the Word of God. The message that we bear has to do the cutting, not our attitude or character.
10:35 For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in law. 10:36 And a man's foes shall be they of his own household. 10:37 He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me.

Jesus at His death, made sure His mother was taken care of. As long as the law is concerned, we should obey our parents, but when it makes us at variance with the law, then we must obey Jesus.
10:38 And he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after me, is not worthy of me. 10:39 He that findeth his life shall lose it: and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it. 10:40 He that receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me. 10:41 He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet's reward; and he that

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receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man's reward. 10:42 And whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a cup of cold water only in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose his reward.

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Chapter 11 – Prophet’s of God Rejected
Reading
  Imprisonment of John the Baptist Desire of Ages – Chapter The Invitation

11:1 And it came to pass, when Jesus had made an end of commanding his twelve disciples, he departed thence to teach and to preach in their cities. 11:2 Now when John had heard in the prison the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples, DA 214 For a time Herod feebly sought to break the chain of lust that bound him; but Herodias fastened him the more firmly in her toils, and found revenge upon the Baptist by inducing Herod to cast him into prison.

The hold that a woman can have on a man
DA 215 These questions were not without effect. Doubts which otherwise would never have arisen were suggested to John. Satan rejoiced to hear the words of these disciples, and to see how they bruised the soul of the Lord's messenger. Oh, how often those who think themselves the friends of a good man, and who are eager to show their fidelity to him, prove to be his most dangerous enemies! How often, instead of strengthening his faith, their words depress and dishearten!

John was alone. Sometimes the closeness of a friend can prove to be a downfall.
DA 216 There were hours when the whisperings of demons tortured his spirit, and the shadow of a terrible fear crept over him…For the success of this mission his whole life had been sacrificed. Had it been in vain?

The devil cannot force us to sin, but can induce thoughts which could lead to sin. Satan could possibly have said to John “have you made a mistake?” Things to tempt him to doubt Jesus.The parallel passage of Matt 11:2-11 is Luke 7:18-28. Where was John the Baptist during this encounter? In prison.Who had imprisoned him? Why?
Mark 6:17-18

Herod. John had rebuked Herod for marrying his brother’s wife. What question did John the Baptist ask Jesus through his disciples? He asked if Jesus was the one, meaning the Messiah. How do we know? Matt 3:3 – John knew he was the forerunner for the Lord, the Messiah. What had been confirmed in John the Baptist heart earlier?
John 1:29-34

John the Baptist testifies that he bore witness to baptism of Christ and was convinced that He was the Son of God. He calls Jesus the Lamb that takes away the sin of the world, that is the Messiah. Was John the Baptist really doubting Christ? What was he really trying to ask Jesus?
Mark 1:15

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Remember, John the Baptist was now in prison. He was hearing all the works that Jesus was doing. He now heard that Jesus was preaching that now is the Kingdom of God at hand. If you were in prison, and you heard that Christ was about to set up His Kingdom, what would you think if you were John the Baptist? Answer – why didn’t Jesus overthrow the Romans? More importantly, why didn’t Jesus save John the Baptist if He was setting up His kingdom now? Was Jesus really the Messiah? Therefore, when John the Baptist asked Jesus if “we look for another”, he wasn’t doubting Jesus, but he was asking WHY? Why don’t you come to save me out of my persecution. How does John the Baptist represent us? What personal application can we draw? John the Baptist represents us when we feel like Christ has abandoned us. John the Baptist was expecting a miracle from Christ for himself. Why hadn’t Christ overthrown Herod or the Romans and saved His servant? PERSONAL APPLICATION QUESTION – don’t we often feel like this? Have you had such an experience where you are being persecuted and you ask Christ, should I look for another? Not that you are doubting Christ’s divinity, but you wonder whether he really cares about what you are going through. (Ask for personal testimony)
11:3 And said unto him, Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another? 11:4 Jesus answered and said unto them, Go and shew John again those things which ye do hear and see:

Jesus didn’t prove to them that He was the Messiah. He let the disciple watch Him as He began to comfort and heal. That was the testimony that they were to bear back to John What does Jesus ask John’s disciples to do? What application can we learn from this? Hear and see. Basically, Jesus trusted that whatever John’s disciples saw Christ do, it would encourage John the Baptist. Application: In our own Christian experience, its important for us to hear and see. Hear what? Rom 10:17 – Faith comes by hearing, hearing by the word of God. So its important for us to hear God’s voice through His word. This will build faith. See what? John 14:6-9 – Once hear God’s word, its important for us to see Jesus. By seeing Christ, we see the Father. Spiritual Application: This is also the problem of the Laodicean church – Rev 3:18. They are counseled to buy eyesalve, because they are blind. What will help them see? 1 Sam 9:9 – prophets were/are called seers. Therefore the writings of the prophets are to help God’s people see. What were John’s disciples to tell him that they had seen?
Matt 11:5

Blind can see, lame can walk, lepers cleansed, deaf hear, dead raised, gospel preached to poor. How was this a comfort to John the Baptist? The words reminded John of the prophecies of Isaiah regarding Christ. Luke 4:18 Jesus said that the Spirit of the Lord was upon Him and His mission was to those things that John was hearing. This is a quotation from Isa 61:1

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Isa 61:1

The word anointed. What does it mean? Messiah. Isa 42:6-8 Verse 6 especially tells John that Jesus was to be a light to the Gentiles too. Summary: Jesus gave John more insight into His mission, that as the Messiah, He was there as the anointed one, to heal the blind, lame, lepers, deaf, dead, and bring light to the Gentiles. What was Jesus gentle rebuke to John?
Matt 11:6

Blessed is he who shall not be offended in me. John the Baptist had felt he was unfairly treated, because Christ had not helped to release him. Jesus gently rebuked him for his doubts and asked him to have faith and accept his situation. What did Jesus call John the Baptist after his disciples had left? Why?
Luke 7:27-28.

The greatest of all prophets. Why? Because he prepared the way for Christ. Application – How can we be greater than John the Baptist? Preparing the way for Christ’s second coming. We too, as Seventh-day Adventists, are a type of John the Baptist. What type of character and appearance did John have according to Jesus? How does it apply to us?
Luke 7:24-25

“Not to be a reed blown in the wind” = not blown around by every wind of doctrine (Eph 4:14)
Luke 7:25

“Not clothed in soft raiment” – not dressed like kings and queens. Application – How does this apply to us who are a type of John the Baptist? In these last days, as we preach the coming of Christ, we also should not be easily persuaded by every wind of doctrine, nor should we portray ourselves as wealthy. John the Baptist lived a simple lifestyle and dressed simply, not according to the fashions of his time. How did Jesus prove His Messiahship to John's disciples? What important lesson can we learn from that? Jesus didn't use His sermon or testimony. He used His works of healing. Important Lesson: The greatest evidence that we are bearing a message from Christ is not in what we preach, but in what we do. It is through the fruits of our labor that people will see whether we are from God or not. Conclusion: Sometimes we are in discouragement because we only have partial understand of God's
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will. Like John, he knew about the ministry of Jesus in righteousness yet John was hoping for the earthly kingdom like others during his time. His misunderstanding of Jesus' spiritual kingdom made him doubt the Messiahship of Jesus in the time of trials. Therefore in order for us to go through trials in life, we need to understand God's word as whole and not partially.
11:5 The blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them. 11:6 And blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended in me.

This was the message to John. The rest was the testimony. Jesus was telling John not to be offended in Jesus. Many people run well at the start, but fall right at the end. John made one mistake at the end, he doubted Jesus.
DA 218 The Saviour's words, "Blessed is he, whosoever shall find none occasion of stumbling in Me," were a gentle reproof to John. It was not lost upon him. Understanding more clearly now the nature of Christ's mission, he yielded himself to God for life or for death, as should best serve the interests of the cause he loved.

As soon as John heard, he realized that he should live for the Lord. He was content at where he was.
11:7 And as they departed, Jesus began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken with the wind?

Jesus was not saying that John was a reed shaken in the wind, or else people would not have gone out into the wilderness to see him. Pharisees who were swayed by the demands of other people – that is what EGW says of a reed shaken in the wind. God does not like two camps, He likes only one. There is only one truth – not multiple versions of them. If you have an adherence to one truth, you will find that it will attract people – if you are known for believing one thing.
11:8 But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings' houses. 11:9 But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet.

People didn’t go out to see his clothing or anything of that sort, but because that he was a prophet. He was preaching the truth. People wanted to hear him because he was so singular – he was peculiar. If you are different, that is interesting. Why was he more than a prophet? Because he saw Jesus. There were 3 people that were called more than a prophet Moses, John the Baptist, and Ellen G White. If John was more than a prophet to prepare the way for the first coming, what sort of people should be preparing the way for the Lord
11:10 For this is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. 11:11 Verily I say unto you, Among them that are born of women there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist: notwithstanding he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. 11:12 And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force.

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From the time John the Baptist started preaching until now, the kingdom of Heaven suffereth violence “if ye will receive it” – This primary application if before the second coming. The problem of their day, they wanted to see the leaders move to whatever they wanted. They called Jesus a “winebibber” because he associated himself with the publicans and sinners. But that didn’t deter Him.
Matt 14:1-2

Herod was scared that it was John the Baptist resurrected. When you have done nothing wrong, you have nothing to fear. You only have fear only when you have some guilt in you, when you have done something wrong.
Matt 14:3-10

We find this similar situation in Daniel. The king didn’t want to enforce it. But it was forced upon by the temptation of the daughter in request of the mother. This brings us to Rev 17. But the mother doesn’t tempt the father. So in application: The state doesn’t want to enforce it, but the children of the mother of Harlots enforces it – the image to the beast (apostate Protestantism) on the wish of the papacy. We see here that the king was also drunk with wine. Wine representing false doctrines.
11:13 For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. 11:14 And if ye will receive it, this is Elias, which was for to come. 11:15 He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. 11:16 But whereunto shall I liken this generation? It is like unto children sitting in the markets, and calling unto their fellows, 11:17 And saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented. 11:18 For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, He hath a devil. 11:19 The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her children. 11:20 Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they repented not: 11:21 Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works, which were done in you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. 11:22 But I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment, than for you. 11:23 And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell: for if the mighty works, which have been done in thee, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. 11:24 But I say unto you, That it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment,

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than for thee. 11:25 At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. 11:26 Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in thy sight. 11:27 All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him. 11:28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Psa 38:4

The burden that we are bearing is the burden of sin and that burden is on our shoulders
DA 330 The yoke that binds to service is the law of God.

If we take Christ’s yoke upon us, we will go with Christ.
Ps 40:8

Doing God’s will and having His law written in our hearts is one and the same thing.
11:29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.

When we learn from the school of Christ, we are to learn meekness and humility and then we shall find rest for our souls. Principles of true recreation:
DA 361 The rest which Christ and His disciples took was not self-indulgent rest. The time they spent in retirement was not devoted to pleasure seeking. They talked together regarding the work of God, and the possibility of bringing greater efficiency to the work. 11:30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

The Christian is called to sacrifice.

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Chapter 12 – The Blind, Dumb Demoniac
Reading
  Desire of Ages – Chapter Come Rest a While Desire of Ages – Chapter Who Are My Brethren?

12:1 At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat. 12:2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day. 12:3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him; 12:4 How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests? 12:5 Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless? 12:6 But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple. 12:7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless. 12:8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day. 12:9 And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue: 12:10 And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him. 12:11 And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out? 12:12 How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days. 12:13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the other. 12:14 Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against him, how they might destroy him. 12:15 But when Jesus knew it, he withdrew himself from thence: and great multitudes followed him, and he healed them all; 12:16 And charged them that they should not make him known: 12:17 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, 12:18 Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; my beloved, in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgment to the Gentiles.

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12:19 He shall not strive, nor cry; neither shall any man hear his voice in the streets. 12:20 A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send forth judgment unto victory. 12:21 And in his name shall the Gentiles trust. 12:22 Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb: and he healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb both spake and saw.

Who was healed? One possessed with a devil, blind and dumb.
12:23 And all the people were amazed, and said, Is not this the son of David? 12:24 But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils.

Contrast the different reactions from the audience?
Matt 12:23-24

The common people were amazed and convicted enough to call Jesus the son of David. What did it mean for the Jews to call Jesus the son of David?
John 7:42

Christ, the Messiah was to come from the seed of David. The Pharisees (the leaders) accused Jesus of casting out demons by Beelzebub. NOTE: it was the common people in their simplicity who believed that Jesus was the Messiah. Those who knew the prophecies condemned him.
12:25 And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand: 12:26 And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand? 12:27 And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges.

How does Jesus discredit their thoughts?
Matt 12:25-27

It does not make sense for Satan to use his own name to cast himself out. He may use God’s name in mockery, but he certainly will not use his own name to do it. If Jesus casts out devils in Beelzebub, then how about their children, other Jews? They were willing to accept it from other Jews, but not Jesus. “They shall be your judges” – the common people who recognized Jesus as son of David were a rebuke and judgment against the Pharisees. They should greater faith.
12:28 But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you.

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What is another name for the Spirit of God? Why do you think He is given this name?
Luke 11:20

Finger of God. Why? Because He acts as our conscience. Pointing out our sins so that we may repent (like woman caught in adultery). Also in this case, casting out devils.
12:29 Or else how can one enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the strong man? and then he will spoil his house. 12:30 He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth abroad.

What will be the actions of those for Jesus vs those against? For Jesus = gathers with Christ, meaning participates in the gospel commission. Against Jesus = scattereth abroad. Those who do not participate in the gospel work will eventually participate in pushing others away from Christ. What sin cannot be forgiven? What is this related to in this encounter? Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit = speaking against the Holy Spirit. It is related to saying Christ, the Son of God was of Satan, even though the Pharisees felt the conviction of the Holy Spirit (how do we know? The common people were convicted that Jesus was the Son of David). Application: How can we commit the unpardonable sin? One way is to ignore the voice of the Holy Spirit when He is convicting us of sin and we are convinced. Another way is to ignore the prompting of the Holy Spirit and accuse the servants of God of being from Beelzebub, or constantly put down God’s servants, Eg. Continual putting down Ellen White and her writings can lead us to committing the unpardonable sin if we have been convicted that they are true.
12:31 Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. 12:32 And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come. 12:33 Either make the tree good, and his fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by his fruit.

How can we tell those who are for Christ vs. those against? By their fruit. What is fruit being related to?
Matt 12:34-37

The words from our mouth, which according to v34 come from the heart. How important is our tongue? Please explain what the verses are trying to say.
Jam 3:3-6

The tongue is compared to a helm of a ship that controls its direction (v4). It has the ability to defile the whole body just by what it says (v6).
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Application: Our tongue, the words we speak, help to steer the direction of our heart. If we speak a lot of vulgar words, our heart will naturally gravitate towards vulgar things. If we are sarcastic with our words, our heart will naturally criticize people all the time. Many times we think our heart governs our tongue, but it seems from James 3, that our tongue can influence our heart too. Are your words pure?
12:34 O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. 12:35 A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things: and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things. 12:36 But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. 12:37 For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned. 12:38 Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from thee.

What do the Pharisees then ask Jesus to do? Show a sign. They wanted a miracle. What story does this remind you of? Remember the nobleman who was also looking for outward proof.
12:39 But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas: 12:40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 12:41 The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here.

What was the sign of Jonah? Compare this with Christ’s signs?
Matt 12:39-42

Jesus rebukes the Pharisees for being an evil and adulterous generation. Compare Jonah vs Christ. Sign of Jonah = his preaching. This is what lead to the Ninevites repentance and conversion. What was Christ’s sign to the Jews throughout his life? Healing the sick, casting out devils, preaching. And yet what did the Jews do? They crucified Jesus. Conclusion: As a result, the Ninevites and the queen of the south will condemn the Jews because they simply believed on the servant of the Lord’s words. BUT the Jews were sent someone far greater – The Son of God. And even with signs, wonders and preaching they would not believe.
12:42 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here.

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12:43 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none. 12:44 Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished. 12:45 Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation.

How do we prevent our house from being empty so that it will not be in a worse state than before?
Matt 12:43-45 Luke 11:24-28

Blessed are they that hear the word and keep it. We must keep the word. What does it mean to “keep” the Word?
James 1:22-27

To keep the word = To be a doer of the word. What does it mean to be a doer of the word? 1. Bridle the tongue. Why? We have already read in James 3. 2. Visit the fatherless and widows. Why? Because true love for God is manifested in love for others and this translates into acts of love. Fatherless and the widows are the 2 most challenging groups to care for. They need the most love. A doer of the word puts his belief into action. 3. Keep himself unspotted from the world. Why is this compared with filling our house? Because after conversion, God expects us to fill our house with new habits. What kind of habits? Habits of good works listed in James 1:22-26. This will prevent the demons from coming back. What kind of demons? Demons of our past wicked lives – addiction of any kind – drugs, partying, alcohol, bad music, pornography. All these are overcome by believing in Christ and then asking for His help to fill our lives with good habits, which are good works stated in the Bible. This will keep us busy for the Lord and stop us from missing the ‘old’ life we have been saved from.
12:46 While he yet talked to the people, behold, his mother and his brethren stood without, desiring to speak with him. 12:47 Then one said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to speak with thee.

His brothers heard of this, and also of the charge brought by the Pharisees that He cast out devils through the power of Satan. They felt keenly the reproach that came upon them through their relation to Jesus. They knew what a tumult His words and works created, and were not only alarmed at His bold statements, but indignant at His denunciation of the scribes and Pharisees. They decided that He must be persuaded or constrained to cease this manner of labor, and they induced Mary to unite with them, thinking that through His love for her they might prevail upon Him to be more prudent.

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It seems that Jesus’ brothers were older than Him. So this could be Joseph’s second marriage.
Matt 12:31

Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost is rejecting the promptings of the Holy Spirit unto repentance.
Matt 12:36

It’s very easy to say something you didn’t mean, but you start believing it anyways.
12:48 But he answered and said unto him that told him, Who is my mother? and who are my brethren? 12:49 And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren! 12:50 For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother.

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Chapter 13 – Parables on the Kingdom
13:1 The same day went Jesus out of the house, and sat by the sea side. 13:2 And great multitudes were gathered together unto him, so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the whole multitude stood on the shore.

As Jesus was sitting in the ship He saw all types of people: lawyers, doctors, partisans, merchants, politicians, carpenters, farmers, tax collectors, fathers, mothers, etc. And He isn’t moved by the external display. As He looks at this vast multitude of people He has one question in mind. “How do they receive my words?” How do they respond to the Word of God? And because He is more than just a man and has the ability to read hearts, He separates the multitude into four categories. Four different types of hearts
Matt 13:2 …great multitudes…whole multitude.

Matt 13:3-9 – Multitude divided into 4 grounds: Wayside, stony, thorny, and good ground. App: Every time the word of God goes forth there are four categories. Each of us is in one of these categories. We want to believe I am a good ground hearer, but we would be naïve to believe that.
Matt 13:10-11, 13, 15 …mysteries of the kingdom…

This parable describes the mysterious working of God upon different types of hearts, and how come they receive or reject the truth. In other words, I am speaking this parable to them because of the condition of their hearts. And Jesus is warning them. Prophetic in nature
Matt 13:13-14 ...in them is fulfilled the prophecy…

Who are them? The multitudes. “prophecy” – The parable is prophetic in nature. At that time the multitude was fulfilling prophecy. App: Many times we talk about what is about to take place in the future, but do you know we are fulfilling prophecy now! The way you respond to the Word of God every time you hear it determines how prophecy is being fulfilled.
Acts 13:26-27 …they have fulfilled [them] in condemning [him]…

Note: Parable also represents the condition of the church just prior to the Second Coming of Jesus. Which Prophecy?
Isa 6:8-11

Prophesy until the land be desolate Isa 6:9 …hear ye indeed… [margin without ceasing] they are continually hearing. How long?

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Isa 6:11

Until the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon. (type of world). App: keep telling them, maybe someone will listen. How long does God have. To keep sending people to tell us get your home right, etc. Conclusion/Appeal
Matt 13:16

Blessing two (show one today)
Mark 4:12

Perceive, understand, convert, sins forgiven. Blessing is that your sins will be forgiven. There are conditions: Seeing, hearing, conversion, forgiveness of sins. Must meet the conditions to have the full blessing. Tell me, how do you respond to the Word of God? He that hath ears to hear let him hear. Part 2: The farmer in this parable is planting field run crops. He is not planting raised bed crops. There are a few differences with each. Field run crops are grown outdoors in soil that is not heavily modified. While raised bed crops are grown in soils that are heavily modified. Those crops have the advantage of receiving all the necessary nutrients in the soil. They have the right minerals, vitamins, better moisture, pest control and climate control. Not so with the field run crops. They have seasonal vagaries; they are susceptible to pests, climate, and weeds. And in this parable each ground has an antagonist. The wayside is overcome by pests, the stony ground is overcome by climate, and the thorny ground is over come by weeds. Only one survives. Every ground has an antagonist (Represents those in the church)
Matt 13:3-9

Main objective is to bring forth fruit. Every stage in the development is stifled, except for the good ground. Wayside germinates and is snatched; Stony ground spring up, has not root and withers away; Thorny ground germinates, has root, and right when it is about to bring forth fruit it is choked. Good ground endures all three and brings forth fruit.
Matt 13:19

Wayside & Wicked One
Luke 8:5

Human agencies and supernatural agencies are used to take away the Word. (people trying to force truth, parents criticizing, friends coming and distracting from the message). The person gets discouraged and is devoured up.
Matt 13:20-21

Stony place & the Sun. This person is very impulsive. This person doesn’t allow the fowls to discourage him. But when persecution comes they can’t handle it

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Matt 13:21 …not root… Col 2:6-7 Rooted and built p in him, and stablished in the faith.

They live by feelings instead of faith.
Matt 13:22

Seed in the Thorns. This person are able to dodge the fowls, don’t distract me, don’t take away the Word from me. I don’t care if you persecute me for what I believe.
Mark 4:7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. Luke 8:7 …the thorns sprang up with it.

Both the crop and the thorns are growing together.
1 Pet 1:23 Being born again...seed…word of God.

Is this the same seed as the parable of the sower? Yes
1 Pet 2:1-2

Milk = doctrines, they can explain with accuracy.
1 Pet 2:3

Gracious. How? V.1 All have to do with the heart. Thorny ground hearers have experienced the grace of God. But they are not cultivating that grace. These are the weeds!
Matt 13:23

Seed bears fruit 30, 60, 100. They all endure the fowls, sun, and weeds.
Luke 8:15 …heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience”

Who does this refer to?
Rev 14:12 Here is the patience…

It is speaking about the 144,000. They endured the previous condition of each ground.
Mark 4:29 But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come.

When does this take place?
Rev 14:15 Thrust in thy sickle, and reap: for the time is come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe.

Conclusion

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Jas 5:7 Behold, the husbandman waiteth precious fruit of the earth”

Appeal: Is this your condition, maybe you are a wayside, stony, or thorny ground hearer, but God says I am waiting on you. His arms outstretched come to me. I will give you the early rain. That is the working of grace in the heart and life. It is power to bear forth fruit, and then He’ll give the latter rain so you will be complete.
COL 33 By the parable of the sower, Christ illustrates the things of the kingdom of heaven, and the work of the great Husbandman for His people. Like a sower in the field, He came to scatter the heavenly grain of truth. And His parable teaching itself was the seed with which the most precious truths of His grace were sown. Because of its simplicity the parable of the sower has not been valued as it should be. From the natural seed cast into the soil, Christ desires to lead our minds to the gospel seed, the sowing of which results in bringing man back to his loyalty to God. He who gave the parable of the tiny seed is the Sovereign of heaven, and the same laws that govern earthly seed sowing govern the sowing of the seeds of truth.

Part 3: Jesus presented the parable as a warning to those who were listening because He knew what would take place in the future. Represents the condition of the church prior to the Second Coming
Luke 8:5

Wayside “trodden down” by who?
Lk 21:20, 24 …Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the gentiles…

If you continue to be a wayside hearer you will perish when Jerusalem is destroyed. For us that represents the end of the world.
Matt 13:20-21 …stony places…offended… Matt 24:10

Many in the church will be offended. They are stony ground hearers. They are over come by false Christ’s and false prophets because they rely on their feelings and emotions instead of faith. And persecution causes them to fall away.
Matt 13:22 …thorns…care of this world… Lk 21:34 …hearts…cares of this life…

Thorny ground hearer overtaken by the day of the Lord. Rom 13:12-14 …day is at hand…put on the armour of light”
1 Thes 5:4-8 …day should overtake you..breastplate of faith and love…

Note: Thorny ground hearers started out well, they escaped the fowls, endured persecution, and then they got weary, they fell asleep because His coming seemed so far away. They got weighed down with the cares of this life, they got drunk, they lost the armor, and made provision for the flesh.
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Matt 13:23 …good ground…beareth fruit…. Eph 5:9 …fruit of the Spirit [is] in all goodness and righteousness…

Picture of the Second Coming. What is He reaping? Fruit (144,000 called first fruits) Majority will not go to heaven. PA: I realized I have been on all three grounds. 75% that I would not make it. Same with the church because this shows their condition before the Second Coming. The majority won’t make it.
Matt 7:13-14, 20-21

Many take the road to destruction, Few find road to life. Con/Appeal. Sounds I want to hear
Isa 11:8 And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den. Zech 8:4-5 …streets of Jerusalem..boys and girls playing… EW 19 Mount Zion was just before us, and on the mount was a glorious temple, and about it were seven other mountains, on which grew roses and lilies. And I saw the little ones climb, or, if they chose, use their little wings and fly, to the top of the mountains and pluck the never-fading flowers. Is 30:26 Moon as bright as the sun, sun sevenfold brighter.

See God face to face. God is waiting on us. We can only have this if we are ready. Do you want this experience.
13:3 And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow;

EGW: says if you understand this parable, it will help you understand all other parables. Why?
Luke 8:11 Matt 13:19

When we study parables, we have to first define the symbols that are being used. In Matthew it is assumed that the seed is the Word of God. Why a seed though? Inside of a seed is life. The seed has to die and has to find the right conditions.
1 Thes 2:13

The Word of God has power. It has self fulfilling power.
Matt 13:22

This plant being described does not die. It springs up but just does not bear fruit. What is fruit in the Bible?

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Gal 5:22 Fruit of the Spirit Prov 11:30-31

Parallel for the righteous is wise. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. So a righteous man is a wise man. Winning souls is a fruit of the righteous. The primary reason of this parable is about winning souls.
Matt 13:8 13:4 And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way side, and the fowls came and devoured them up: 13:5 Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth: 13:6 And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away. 13:7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them: 13:8 But other fell into good ground, and brought forth fruit, some an hundredfold, some sixtyfold, some thirtyfold. 13:9 Who hath ears to hear, let him hear. 13:10 And the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables?

Why did Jesus speak in parables?
Matt 13:11-15

To reveal the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. Because they did not understand spiritual things. To keep the truth from the enemy only those that had spiritual discernment could understand
13:11 He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given. 13:12 For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath. 13:13 Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand. 13:14 And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive: 13:15 For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them. 13:16 But blessed are your eyes, for they see: and your ears, for they hear.

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13:17 For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them. 13:18 Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower. 13:19 When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. This is he which received seed by the way side.

Who does the sower represent?
Matt 13:37

The Son of Man What does the ground and seed represent?
Matthew 13:19 Luke 8:11

“Ground” – heart “Seed” – The Word of the God What is the common characteristic in all the groups of people? They all hear the Word of God What does the four different grounds represent, give Bible texts? Sown by the wayside
Matt 13:19

Hears the word of God. Understands it not. Then Satan (the wicked one) comes by takes the words out of their hearts. Sown on the stony place
Matt 13:20, 21 Luke 8:13

Hears the word, receives it joyfully. Has no root. Believe for a while and when temptation comes they fall away. Sown on thorny ground
Matt 13:22

Luke 8:14 Hears the word. Thorns choking seed = Cares of this world, deceitfulness of riches, and pleasures of this life choke the Word. Becomes unfruitful, brings no fruit. Sown on good ground
Matt 13:23 Luke 8:15

Hears the word. Understands it. In an honest and good heart hear the word and keep it. Bares and produces much fruit with patience. According to Scripture what does it mean when someone hears the Word of God?

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Rom 10:17

They all have faith. Who else in the bible has faith and what lesson can we learn for that?
Jas 2:19, 20

The devils and believe and tremble. It is not enough to have faith, we must have faith that works. Good ground contains manure, what does that mean if we want to have good ground?
Phil 3:8

Count ourselves as dung will be good ground for the Word of God to produce fruit in our lives. According to the parable how can we bring forth fruit? Hear, understand—have faith. Produce works. We must have a faith that works. What does it mean to have a root experience?
Eph 3:17 Col 2:6-7

Root is in a dark place, no light, all by itself – means that our root experience needs to be personal, nobody around, our own private devotion lives is important for us being rooted in Christ. We are to be rooted and grounded in love. We are to be rooted in Christ and established in the faith Summarize: There are 4 groups of people. One that hears the truth but doesn’t understand it and losses interest and no fruit produced. Another group receives the truth but has no deep root so when trials come they fall out of the faith. Another group receives the truth but the cares and pleasures of the world take priority in the life and the people becomes unfruitful in the truth. The last group has a honest and good heart when he hears and understand the truth, that he keeps the truth and produces much fruit Which group are you? In order for us to produce fruit we must: Have a faith that works, its not enough to believe; we are to understand, believe and keep the words we hear. He are to count ourselves as nothing. We must have a personal experience with Jesus (root experience). We are to be grounded in Christ, in His love.
13:20 But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it; 13:21 Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended. 13:22 He also that received seed among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful. 13:23 But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty.

Sower and Wheat & Tares (Must go together). Sower covers from the gospel seed up to 2nd Coming. Wheat and tares covers from gospel seed to end of the millennium. Wheat and tares defines what type of seed was used in previous parable. Wheat and tares focuses on the good ground and moves forward.

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Wheat, Tares, and Servants
Matt 13:24-26 …good ground…forth fruit…

Explains good ground in previous parable. Wheat seed is what the previous farmer wanted to produce
Matt 13:27-30

Focus on the attitude of the Servants. Servants = Front line workers. Wheat & Tares = church members. Wheat & Tares
Matt 13:38 …children of the kingdom…children of the wicked one”

Children of the kingdom V.43 “righteous” (no iniquity, don’t offend).
Eph 1:4,7 Holy and without blame, live by Grace. Rom 8:14 Led by the Spirit.

Children of the wicked one (devil) V.41 do iniquity and offend. 1 John 3:9-12 Seed remain in. Love their brother. Note: Tares have all the characteristics of the previous 3 grounds. Wicked one. Where did he get his children? Wayside. All things that offend? Stony ground. Children of wicked one have problem with lusts. Thorny ground. Con/Appeal:
1 Jn 3:10 …loveth not his brother… 13:24 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field: 13:25 But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way.

1. What do these represent? (give Bible text) o o o o o Sower = son of man (V37) Enemy = devil (V39) Good seed = children of the kingdom (V38)  Seed = Word of God (Luke 8:11) Tares = children of the wicked one (V38) Field = this world (V38)  Specifically in the world where the Christian are. The church.

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o o o

Harvest = the end of this world (V40) Reapers = Angels (V39) Christ sought to turn their thoughts from the hope of an earthly kingdom to heavenly kingdom.

2. Why is the kingdom of heaven likened to a man that sows good seed?

3. What does the Bible say about the children of the kingdom Vs the children of the wicked one? o o Children of the kingdom   o o Converted (Mat 18:3) I John 3:8-24 Children of the wicked one

4. When will the tares appear, and what makes the difference? The tares will not be recognized until wheat has sprung up and brought forth fruit That means the tares will grow together with the wheat and it will look just like the wheat before the wheat has brought forth fruit

5. What do “blade was sprung up”, and “brought forth fruit” mean, and what do they represent? o o o “Blade was sprung up” means it is growing (Mark 4:26-28) After the seed is sown, there is a growing time taking place before its fruits appear. When we receive the word of God in our heart, we start growing spiritually. And there may not be fruits right away, but there will come a point, when every individual will bring forth his fruits. After we have received the Word of God. We shall produce fruits in 2 ways:   o o o o Fruit of the spirit (Gal 5:22) One who is winning souls (Pro 11:30)

o

6. What did the servants ask, and what did they want to do? They asked why there were tares. Because they knew that only the good seed were sown, but there were tares among the wheat in the field. The servants wanted to pluck the tares out. Because both wheat and tares’ roots are intertwined together. If the tare is plucked up, the root of the wheat will be injured If one of our family members committed a sin and God plucked him out of the church right away, what will happen to our faith? It will shake. Right? God will not judge His church right away because He gives us time and opportunity to change.  Examples: God did not destroy Satan right away (optional)

7. Why can’t the tares be plucked, and how can it apply to us?

8. When is the separation of wheat and tares taking place, and what does it represent?

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o o

In the harvest = end of the world In the end of the world, wheat and tares, righteous and wicked, will be separated. The righteous will be gathered and those that do iniquity will be burned in the fire(V 39-43)  Hell fire is not taking place right now.

9. Based upon the answer in question 8, what should we be expecting in our church today and what should we do? o Since the separation will not take place until the 2nd coming of Jesus or the close of probation for God’s church, then we will have 2 groups of Christians in our church, wheat and tares. Humanly speaking, there is no way that we can tell who is the wheat and who are the tares outwardly in our church. And it is really not our job to try to find out who is the wheat and who are the tares, because we can’t read people’s thoughts or hearts. Therefore we can’t judge people outwardly There are people who you will never know what they will become when they are converted.  Example: one the preacher used to have different colors of hair and tattoos all over, but after conversion, he is a great preacher (optional)  So if we see someone who doesn’t look like wheat to us, what we can do is to pray for him.

o

o

10. How does this parable relate to the parable of sower? o o The parable of the sower reveals the 4 conditions of the hearts.  Way side, stony ground, thorny place, and good ground. Out of these 4 conditions of the heart, they can be divided into 2 groups. First, the seed of the word of God will grow in their hearts and bring forth fruits. Second, the seed of the word of God will grow and die with no fruits or it will not grow at all. When the wheat grows, we will see fruit (V26) If we know that we are not wheat, does that mean we are hopeless? No   if any man [be] in Christ, [he is] a new creature (II Cor 5:17) Christ alone can help us to have a complete character transformation. And he alone can help us to be fruitful.

11. How do I know if I am wheat? And what should I do if I am a tare? o o

13:26 But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. 13:27 So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares? 13:28 He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? 13:29 But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. 13:30 Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers,

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Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn. 13:31 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field:

What is the common lesson that Jesus is trying to illustrate in all these parables? He is trying to illustrate the kingdom of Heaven What must we first understand?
Matt 6:33

We must first seek the kingdom of God What is the kingdom of heaven?
Luke 17:20-21

Kingdom of God is in you
Rom 14:17

Kingdom of God is righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost. How can we receive the Kingdom of Heaven?
Matt 12:28 Luke 8:1-2 Luke 10:9

We must have devils cast out of us Healing
Matt 21:43 Gal 5:22-25

Fruits of the spirit How can we share the Kingdom of Heaven?
Matt 10:7-8 13:32 Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.

What are the details brought out in the parable of the mustard seed? Least of all seeds, when grown is the greatest among herbs, becomes a tree and birds of the air
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come and lodge in it What does a seed represent?
Luke 8:11

Word of God What does a tree represent?
Psa 1:3, 6

Righteous man What application can we draw from this and how does this help us to understand more the kingdom of heaven? The growth of a Christian is brought out. It begins with faith through studying the word of God (Rom 10:17). It begins in a humble manner in the soil where no one can see it. Greatness/success is not measured by the stature of a man but his faith and dependence on God. Only then will God exalt man.
13:33 Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.

What is leaven?
Matt 16:6-12 Luke 12:1 1 Cor 5:6-8

Is this leaven in the parable representative of good or bad things? GOOD How does it apply to those that are preparing for the kingdom of Heaven? Leaven cannot be seen and so growth in God takes place in the heart. Illustrate it being opposite to what was read in question 11 – that is the principles of heaven – opposite to hypocrisy. Ask them what is opposite to hypocrisy. What is the common illustration of the mustard seed and leaven? They both are hidden. One in the earth, the other in the bread.
Matt 13:33

Leaven in the Bible is a symbol of sin. But here leaven represents something spiritual.
1 Thes 2:13

So the leaven in the parable represents God’s word. Leaven in reality is a form of bacteria. When it goes inside of something it eats the sugar and then produces carbon dioxide to make it rise. It was his in three measures of meal .

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1 Thes 5:23

This represents a person, physical, mental, and spiritual.
13:34 All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not unto them:

Jesus and Parables
Why did Jesus use parables?
Matt 13:34

Eg. “The kingdom of Heaven is like…” Jesus always came down to their level to help them understand. Helps them bridge from the unknown to the known.

The Parables
1. Define the symbols first.
13:35 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world. 13:36 Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field. 13:37 He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; 13:38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one; 13:39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. 13:40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world.

When do the tares spring up? After the wheat has brought forth fruit. When Jesus taught parables, they were full of meaning. When you study a parable never pass over anything as unimportant. Everything that He gave was significant.
Matt 13:24-29

There are 2 groups, the man that sowed the seed and the servant. Define the symbols: COL 70 (Chapter called “Tares”) What does the field represent in the Bible?
Matt 13:37-38

It represents the world. In this world, where is God’s people to grow in the church
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work of salvation of men; and this work is accomplished through the church. True, the Holy Spirit has gone out into all the world; everywhere it is moving upon the hearts of men; but it is in the church that we are to grow and ripen for the garner of God.

When will the church be purified? At the harvest at the second coming. So in the church, do we expect there to be tares? Of course! Always until the end of time. Why does God say we should not uproot the tares? None of us are given the work of uprooting the tares. We can’t tell on the surface. Only God knows. Tares and wheat look the same. Growing side by side, the roots will be intertwined. If He does it any sooner, He would lose a lot more than just the tares. Hell fire is at the end of the millennium – verse 40. This clearly states that the destruction of the wicked are at the end of the world. Eg: Laborer Union in bound to be burn. This parable is always used in Hell Fire evangelistic sermons.
13:41 The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; 13:42 And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. 13:43 Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear. 13:44 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field.

What does the treasure represent: Treasure—the gospel
Prov 2:2-4 1 Cor 1:18-21 Rom 1:16 Col 2:3

Wisdom and knowledge What is wisdom and knowledge compared to as?
Eccl 7:11, 12 John 14:6

Life – eternal life. Jesus What does the field represent, that we may find Jesus and have eternal life?
John 5:39

The scriptures How can we get this wisdom?

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1 Cor 1:30 Col 1:27

We have to be in Christ How can we have Christ in us?
Gal 2:20

Where do we find the treasure in the field, where do we find the gospel?
John 5:39

In the Scriptures. Therefore the field = the Scriptures. How can we practically “sell all that we have”?
Phil 3:7, 8

Counting everything loss
Mark 10:21

Rich young ruler. Take up the cross. Follow Christ. What was this man’s heart in? Make application,
Matt 6:21

In the treasure, in the gospel it was on Christ. Main point of the Hidden treasure: Teaches us the value of the heavenly treasure (the gospel) and the effort that should be made to secure it What is the major difference between these 2 stories? Similarities: Something is being bought and in both cases, that which is being bought is obscure. Both are talking about the kingdom of Heaven. Everything is sold. Difference: Second man – he seeks for goodly pearls. First man – he stumbled across it by accident. Pearls were the single most valuable item in Jesus’ day. Today we can’t put our finger on what is the most valuable thing in the world. But everyone is seekers. Everyone has different things which are valuable to them. A pearl in the Bible represents Jesus – it is the pinnacle of perfection. The pearl is the only type of precious thing which you don’t have to modify, to cut to make it better.
13:45 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls:

From the previous parable what does the Pearl represent? Pearl—Jesus Christ (Col. 2:3). What does the merchant man represent. The class of people who were sincerely desiring truth. Why did Christ use the parable of the hidden treasure and pearl? What are their similarities/differences? Both are to teach us the value of the truth and how precious Christ is. Also how much effort we are to put in to securing this treasure/Christ. Similarities/Differences: One man was going through a field one day and came across the treasure, while the other parable the man was actually seeking for goodly pearls and he found one of great price. Represent two groups of people that find Christ/truth, one came across the truth by searching the other was just plowing and came across by accident. Main

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point of the Pearl: We are to giving everything that we have to receive the Pearl/Christ. However this parable also shows Christ (merchantman) seeking His lost inheritance, that pearl of price was lost humanity, which Christ came to seek. What does the Bible regard as a great price?
1 Pet 3:4

Meek and quiet spirit How can we get this pearl of great price?
Matt 11:28-29

We must go to Jesus What is the difference between the man with the treasure and the man with the pearl? The man with the treasure – he wasn’t looking for it, he stumbled upon it. The man with the pearl – he was seeking for that pearl. What is the similarity between the two? Both sold all that they had for what they found How can we sell all that we have and what does it mean?
Mark 10:28-30 Mark 8:34-37

To deny ourselves and give up everything for the cause of Christ How often do we need to apply this principle and why? How is it applicable to us today?
Luke 9:23

This parable can have dual application. The merchant can be us or Jesus. Jesus came from afar looking for goodly pearls. What did Jesus sell in order to save man? He veiled divinity with humanity. The merchant was searching for a goodly pearl.
1 Pet 3:4 …a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price.

How pearl is form. A piece of sand that irritate in the oyster, then it will form pearl from that irritating piece. Why is the pearl as described as being of a great price? In heaven, it says that the gates are of one pearl (Rev 21:21). Only those that have overcome sin in this life and formed the character of Christ, only they will get into heaven.
13:46 Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it. 13:47 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind:

What does the fish represent? People. Jesus said I will make you fishers of men. What is the

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gathering at the end of time? What is the net? The net is the gospel that will gather the people at the end of time. Why is the time up? Because every fish has been caught in the net. All the gospel has been preached and every fish has made a decision. That does not mean that everybody will be saved. How to become a good fish? If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature.
2 Cor 5:17

What does the following represent: Casting of the net—is the preaching of the gospel.What does the net represent?What does this parable teach us about who are in church?There will be good and bad in the church . This reminds us of the parable of the wheat and tares.The wicked with only be destroyed after the judgment Main point of the Net: That the gospel will be preached and both good and evil will be in the church Who uses a net? Fishermen What does a fisherman represent?
Matt 4:18-20

Disciples of Christ. What does a disciple of Christ use to fish for men?
Mark 1:15 Mark 16:15-16, 20 13:48 Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away. 13:49 So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just, 13:50 And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. 13:51 Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord. 13:52 Then said he unto them, Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.

There is a householder, a house with treasures. Luke 15, 16 has concurrent parables.
13:53 And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence. 13:54 And when he was come into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, insomuch that they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works? 13:55 Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas? 13:56 And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things? 13:57 And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.

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13:58 And he did not many mighty works there because of their unbelief.

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Chapter 14 – Feeding of the Five thousand
Reading
Desire of Ages – Chapter Give Ye Them to Eat.
14:1 At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus, 14:2 And said unto his servants, This is John the Baptist; he is risen from the dead; and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him. 14:3 For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife. 14:4 For John said unto him, It is not lawful for thee to have her. 14:5 And when he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a prophet. 14:6 But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased Herod. 14:7 Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask. 14:8 And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger. 14:9 And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded it to be given her. 14:10 And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison. 14:11 And his head was brought in a charger, and given to the damsel: and she brought it to her mother. 14:12 And his disciples came, and took up the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus. 14:13 When Jesus heard of it, he departed thence by ship into a desert place apart: and when the people had heard thereof, they followed him on foot out of the cities.

Where did Jesus retreat with his disciples? By ship to a desert place to rest a while. This means that Jesus and His disciples were tired from their labors and wanted some relaxation time. What happened when the people heard Jesus had gone?
John 6:2

Because they had seen the miracles Jesus had performed and probably others wanted His help. How did Jesus react when He saw the people? Why? How can we have compassion on others?
Mark 6:34

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He had compassion on the people. Why? Because the people looked like sheep without a shepherd. How can we have compassion on others? Learn to see others as Christ saw them – sheep without a shepherd. They also decided to follow.
14:14 And Jesus went forth, and saw a great multitude, and was moved with compassion toward them, and he healed their sick.

How did Jesus show compassion? What can we learn from this? Jesus showed his compassion through the following things.
Matt 14:14

He healed the sick.
Mark 6:34

He taught them many things.
Luke 9:11

He spake unto them of the kingdom of God, and healed them that had need of healing. Application: We can show Christian compassion to others by: 1. Teaching and preaching the kingdom of God. 2. Healing the sick NOTE: these are the 2 most important lines of gospel work that Christ did without fail wherever He went. These 2 are the most effective methods that we can share Christ with others.
14:15 And when it was evening, his disciples came to him, saying, This is a desert place, and the time is now past; send the multitude away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves victuals.

What did the disciples ask Jesus to do at the end of the day? Why? Can you relate? They asked Jesus to let the people go. Why? The disciples were probably tired from the day’s work, irritated that the people had taken away their private time, hungry themselves. They just did not want to entertain people. Can you relate? Do you sometimes feel this way? Especially after your day of work (which isn’t even maybe gospel work?) – too tired to feed the sheep?
14:16 But Jesus said unto them, They need not depart; give ye them to eat.

What was Jesus response to the disciples? He asked the disciples to feed the crowd. The sequence of the order of the bread and how it reached the people: It went from: Jesus, to the Disciples, then to the People. Christ will continue to supply as you are providing the bread to others.
14:17 And they say unto him, We have here but five loaves, and two fishes.

How did the disciples react? What evidence had Christ given them to react otherwise?
John 6:5-9

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They doubted their ability to feed everyone. NOTE: their description of the meal – “small fishes”. They were saying to Jesus, look how little resources we have. How are we going to feed everyone? Reason to react this way: They did not have enough resources. Christ’s evidence to react otherwise: Remember, what had Jesus been doing all day? Healing the sick. Weren’t these miracles? How could the disciples have witnessed such an occurrence all around them, and yet doubt the resources and ability to fulfill Christ’s command to them. Application – How does this apply to us? Sometimes we feel that as long as we have helped the sick or taught Bible studies, this should be enough – like the disciples we say let the people find their own food, haven’t we helped them enough? God’s people are sometimes much better at giving spiritual food, but lack the compassion and love necessary to provide physically for others.
14:18 He said, Bring them hither to me. 14:19 And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the grass, and took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake, and gave the loaves to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude. 14:20 And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the fragments that remained twelve baskets full.

What did Jesus do next? What can we learn from the order in which Christ distributed the food?
Matt 14:18-20

1. Jesus asked the disciples to bring the loaves and fishes to Him. o Application – if you feel that you have too little resources to help others, bring them to Christ and He will provide for you and them. 2. Jesus prayed for the blessing on the food. 3. Jesus broke the bread and fishes and gave it to the disciples, and the disciples gave it to the people. 4. Everyone was filled. Question – what is the order that the bread is distributed? Christ > Disciples > lost sheep. Spiritual Application – what spiritual application can we learn from this? Christ distributes His word through His people, who are then to take it to others. This should be the structure for outreach and evangelism – the apostles / evangelists / pastors are to train the church members – especially those that are newly baptized, the more experienced should work with the less experienced to reach those who have never heard the truth. What does bread represent? And what are we to do with the bread according to this story?
John 6:35

Jesus = Bread of Life.

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Matt 4:4

Bread = Word of God. Therefore, Jesus, the Bread of Life is found in God’s word. What is His promise? If we go to Him, we will never hunger or thirst. If you have received from Christ, the living Bread today, what are we to do with Him? Share Him, distribute Him to the crowd so that they may be filled. How many baskets were left over? What was Jesus trying to teach the disciples and us?
Matt 14:20

John 10:10 How many baskets left over? 12. How many disciples were there? 12. So there would have been 1 basket for each disciple. Christ wanted to not only show he could provide for each of the five thousand and the disciples, but that there would be more than enough left over. Application – a life in Christ is a life in abundance. When we follow God’s command, He will not only take care of our needs, but will give us more than we need. Compare and contrast the 3 different groups in this story. Which group might you belong to? 1. The crowd – desiring to be with Jesus, sheep without shepherd. 2. Disciples – helpers of Christ, wanting the people to leave by the evening, tired of helping. 3. Jesus – had compassion on the people, teaching and healing the sick, desiring also to feed them physically. Which group do you belong to? Discuss. Encourage sharing testimony. According to this story, what does it mean when Christ asked Peter (and us) to feed His sheep in John 21:15-17? Feed my sheep. What does this include? 1. Sharing God’s word – spiritual food (Luke 9:11) 2. Healing the sick – health message (Luke 9:11) 3. most important from this study – feeding people physical food. Many times we neglect the work of hospitality.
14:21 And they that had eaten were about five thousand men, beside women and children. 14:22 And straightway Jesus constrained his disciples to get into a ship, and to go before him unto the other side, while he sent the multitudes away. 14:23 And when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a mountain apart to pray: and when the evening was come, he was there alone. 14:24 But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, tossed with waves: for the wind was contrary. 14:25 And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea.

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14:26 And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear. 14:27 But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. 14:28 And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water.

Why didn’t Peter just step out? Peter knew that if Jesus told Him to come, He would make it possible. All of Christ’s biddings are sure. He enables us to do that which He asks. Obedience to the law of God is impossible except only through faith. If we lose our focus on Jesus Christ, we will not be able to walk by faith.
14:29 And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus.

Jesus and Peter walking on the water
Matt 14:22-33

Why did Peter ask Jesus before walking out on the water? Jesus said “Come”. Peter knew that if Jesus said so, it will be done. All Jesus’ biddings are enabling. What made walking on the water possible? The Word of God. Faith does the impossible. If God promises something, then it is possible. Peter was familiar with water (Peter knew how to swim) and knew that it was not possible to walk on water. But when Jesus said Come, he knew it was possible by faith. With the power of God’s Word, we can do it. Carnal heart can’t do it, but God can do it for us. When we take our eyes of Jesus, we lose our faith. The waves went in between. What gets us away from God? Seeing the fault of others (murmuring). By seeing the fault of others, we fall easily. When we do, we started to sink. The prayer that Peter prayed: “Lord, Help me!” God will be more than happy to help you!
14:30 But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. 14:31 And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? 14:32 And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased. 14:33 Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God. 14:34 And when they were gone over, they came into the land of Gennesaret. 14:35 And when the men of that place had knowledge of him, they sent out into all that country round about, and brought unto him all that were diseased; 14:36 And besought him that they might only touch the hem of his garment: and as many as touched were made perfectly whole.

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Chapter 15
15:1 Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem, saying, 15:2 Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread. 15:3 But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition? 15:4 For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and mother: and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death. 15:5 But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me;

Jesus fulfilled His role as a son on the cross. He gave His mother to the care of John (the disciple whom Jesus loved). Our duty to our parents, it doesn’t matter how old you get. Jesus asked John to take care of his mother, this act is an example for us. It doesn’t matter whether they have made mistakes or not, we must honor them as much as we can within the laws of God.
15:6 And honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition. Matt 16:6, 12

The traditions and commandments of men is the doctrines of the Pharisees and Sadducees. It can be related to false doctrines in the Bible. If you add leaven to wine (fresh grape juice), what happens, it becomes alcohol. Wine represents doctrines in the Bible. If the whole world drinks the wine from the whore that makes them drunk (it is fermented). A error that will mix with God’s commandments, the Sunday law.
15:7 Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying, 15:8 This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. 15:9 But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. 15:10 And he called the multitude, and said unto them, Hear, and understand: 15:11 Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man. 15:12 Then came his disciples, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, after they heard this saying? 15:13 But he answered and said, Every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up. 15:14 Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.

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15:15 Then answered Peter and said unto him, Declare unto us this parable. 15:16 And Jesus said, Are ye also yet without understanding? 15:17 Do not ye yet understand, that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth goeth into the belly, and is cast out into the draught? 15:18 But those things which proceed out of the mouth come forth from the heart; and they defile the man. 15:19 For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies: 15:20 These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man. 15:21 Then Jesus went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon. 15:22 And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou Son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.

This woman was not a Jew. And because she was not a Jew, they basically looked down on those that weren’t Jews. Jesus acted towards her that would teach forever a lesson to the disciples about prejudice. How did she know about Jesus? She heard about Him. Her faith began to grow when she heard about Jesus whom healed diseases no one else could cure. People come to Jesus either first or last choice. Jarius’ daughter they came first, they had faith. Woman with an issue of blood she came last. After all hope runs out, then they come to Jesus.
15:23 But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away; for she crieth after us. 15:24 But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 15:25 Then came she and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me.

If Jesus does not answer our prayers, we must plead even more to Jesus. The woman who goes to the Judge, she pleads until the judge does something.
15:26 But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs.

He didn’t answer her to treat her like how the other Jews treat her. He was acting out what He never wanted them to do.
DA 401 The woman urged her case with increased earnestness, bowing at Christ's feet, and crying, "Lord, help me." Jesus, still apparently rejecting her entreaties, according to the unfeeling prejudice of the Jews, answered, "It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs." This was virtually asserting that it was not just to lavish the blessings brought to the favored people of God upon strangers and aliens from Israel. This answer would have utterly discouraged a less earnest seeker. But the woman saw that her opportunity had come. Beneath the apparent refusal of Jesus, she saw a compassion that He could not hide. "Truth, Lord," she answered, "yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table." While the children of the household eat at the father's table, even the dogs are not left unfed. They have a right to the crumbs that fall from the table abundantly supplied. So while there were many blessings given to Israel, was there not also a blessing for her? She was looked upon as a dog, and had she not then a dog's claim to a crumb from His bounty?

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Mark 7:28-29

Because I have believed, therefore have I spoken. This woman believed that Jesus grant her request.
DA 402 This was the only miracle that Jesus wrought while on this journey. It was for the performance of this act that He went to the borders of Tyre and Sidon. He wished to relieve the afflicted woman, and at the same time to leave an example in His work of mercy toward one of a despised people for the benefit of His disciples when He should no longer be with them. He wished to lead them from their Jewish exclusiveness to be interested in working for others besides their own people. DA 403 Caste is hateful to God.

“Caste” class system in India. These two cities were 8 hours apart. Jesus is willing to travel to such distances just to minister to one person. If you’re only friends of the same race, something is wrong.
15:27 And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table.

This woman would not be turned back by anything.
DA 400 But although Jesus did not reply, the woman did not lose faith. As He passed on, as if not hearing her, she followed Him, continuing her supplications. Annoyed by her importunities, the disciples asked Jesus to send her away. They saw that their Master treated her with indifference, and they therefore supposed that the prejudice of the Jews against the Canaanites was pleasing to Him. But it was a pitying Saviour to whom the woman made her plea, and in answer to the request of the disciples, Jesus said, "I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

Other sheep have I that are not of this fold. This statement does not exclude the woman that was pleading.
15:28 Then Jesus answered and said unto her, O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou wilt. And her daughter was made whole from that very hour. 15:29 And Jesus departed from thence, and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee; and went up into a mountain, and sat down there. 15:30 And great multitudes came unto him, having with them those that were lame, blind, dumb, maimed, and many others, and cast them down at Jesus' feet; and he healed them: 15:31 Insomuch that the multitude wondered, when they saw the dumb to speak, the maimed to be whole, the lame to walk, and the blind to see: and they glorified the God of Israel. 15:32 Then Jesus called his disciples unto him, and said, I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue with me now three days, and have nothing to eat: and I will not send them away fasting, lest they faint in the way. 15:33 And his disciples say unto him, Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fill so great a multitude? 15:34 And Jesus saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven, and a few little fishes.

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15:35 And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground. 15:36 And he took the seven loaves and the fishes, and gave thanks, and brake them, and gave to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude. 15:37 And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets full. 15:38 And they that did eat were four thousand men, beside women and children. 15:39 And he sent away the multitude, and took ship, and came into the coasts of Magdala.

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Chapter 16
16:1 The Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and tempting desired him that he would shew them a sign from heaven. 16:2 He answered and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is red. 16:3 And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowring. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times? 16:4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed.

Is this principle true today about the weather? Yes. “Good sunset” – good day tomorrow; red & lowering sunrise = bad weather. Is the sign of Jonas talked anywhere else in the New Testament?
Matt 12:39-40

When did the 3 days and 3 nights begin for Jesus? Was Jesus in the earth 3 nights? “in earth” is not always referring to the grave.
Matt 6:10

Thursday night was the night that Jesus decided He would bear the sins of man. It was from that point on that He would be in the heart of the earth.
16:5 And when his disciples were come to the other side, they had forgotten to take bread. 16:6 Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees. 16:7 And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have taken no bread. 16:8 Which when Jesus perceived, he said unto them, O ye of little faith, why reason ye among yourselves, because ye have brought no bread? 16:9 Do ye not yet understand, neither remember the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many baskets ye took up? 16:10 Neither the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many baskets ye took up? 16:11 How is it that ye do not understand that I spake it not to you concerning bread, that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees? 16:12 Then understood they how that he bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees. 16:13 When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?

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16:14 And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets. 16:15 He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? 16:16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. 16:17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. 16:18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

If a Catholic said that Peter is the first Pope, what would you say? What is the strongest evidence that the rock was not Peter? “Peter” – Petros means small pebble or rolling stone. “Rock” – Petra means a stone. It is always only ever used in regard to Jesus.
1 Cor 10:4

Rock is using the Greek word Petra. So Jesus is going to be the foundation of the church.
Matt 16:23

Sometimes we tell people that they don’t have to do it, it’s extreme. If we lighten the obligation of Jesus upon a person, that is Satan’s job.
16:19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. John 20:21, 23

The disciples that were sent by Jesus would also be sent the same way as the Father sent Jesus onto the earth. Jesus never spoke of His own words but except that the Father gives it to Him.
2 Cor 5:18-21

God has given to us the ministry of reconciling people. We are dealing with the forgiveness of sins. Jesus’ reconciliation was not imputing their trespasses unto them.
16:20 Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ. 16:21 From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day. 16:22 Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not be unto thee.

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16:23 But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men. 16:24 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. 16:25 For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: and whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find it. 16:26 For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? 16:27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works. 16:28 Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom.

Did Jesus have an earthy human nature? Yes It is not natural for any person to want to suffer and to choose rejection, pain, etc. We must deny ourselves. The natural heart desires to have the easy way. The old man, unconverted heart. What evidence do we have that Jesus denied Himself? Gethsemane. Not mine will but thine will be done. It’s one thing to do something for someone, but even harder when they do not appreciate it. What does it mean to take up the cross? First is to deny your natural inclination. To give up your desire for evil comfort. One thing we don’t talk about much is the cross. Because it is unpopular. Taking up your cross—simply endure suffering etc. God tests His people; the last 2 tests are money & power. Vs 26, if we have the whole world, and lost eternal life, it is not worthy at all! Can have wealth? Yes, like Abraham and Job. But God will test us. None of the disciples are alive today. So how do we comprehend this statement? Matt 17:1-4

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Chapter 17
Two extreme in ministry: High mountain, never minister to other. Might have great devotion, but never share with others. Being with other, but not really minister to them. We might doing a lot of things, but not really have personal time with Jesus.
17:1 And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart,

“After six days” – so He was transfigured on the seventh day. Moses represents those who were faithful to Jesus but died and were resurrected to Heaven. He can sympathize with Jesus because he had the same experience. Elijah represents those who didn’t see death and were taken to Heaven. He specifically represents the 144,000. Jezebel persecuted Elijah, he went through the difficult times as well. He fell so great, and he asked for forgiveness, and he was taken to heaven after he anointed other 3 workers of God. We have nothing to fear for the future, unless we forget the blessings that God had given us. Peter, James and John were the ones that saw Jesus transfigured. After 6 years the lands should rest and slaves could go free. No matter how you do for the time sequence, we are really close now. Time setting is always wrong. After 6, 7 is rest. We need to be ready at all time.
17:2 And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light. 17:3 And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with him. 17:4 Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias. 17:5 While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him. 17:6 And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. 17:7 And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Arise, and be not afraid. 17:8 And when they had lifted up their eyes, they saw no man, save Jesus only. 17:9 And as they came down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, saying, Tell the vision to no man, until the Son of man be risen again from the dead. 17:10 And his disciples asked him, saying, Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come? 17:11 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things.

Is that a reference to anything that is written before?
Mal 4:5-6 Luke 1:16-17

When we talk about the Elijah message, it is not about the restoration of the home family. It is specifically concerning the children of God back to the Heavenly Father. John the Baptist achieved

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this by causing a great revival in Israel
17:12 But I say unto you, That Elias is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer of them.

Malachi was referring to the great and dreadful day. But Jesus made a secondary application referring to John the Baptist. That is not the primary application though because Elijah will come before the great and dreadful day of the Lord.
17:13 Then the disciples understood that he spake unto them of John the Baptist. 17:14 And when they were come to the multitude, there came to him a certain man, kneeling down to him, and saying, 17:15 Lord, have mercy on my son: for he is lunatick, and sore vexed: for ofttimes he falleth into the fire, and oft into the water.

Satan’s purpose has always been to destroy the image of God in man. Piercing etc..
Mark 9:19-29

Mark 9:21 Why did Jesus ask the question? To make it more visibly the power of God. Mark 9:22 The father doubted – “if you canst do anything”
Mark 9:23

The only thing that can limit the power of God.
Matt 15:38

Our lack of faith is what prevents the power of God from manifesting in our lives.
Matt 17:20 If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed. DA 431 If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed," said Jesus, "ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove." Though the grain of mustard seed is so small, it contains that same mysterious life principle which produces growth in the loftiest tree. When the mustard seed is cast into the ground, the tiny germ lays hold of every element that God has provided for its nutriment, and it speedily develops a sturdy growth. If you have faith like this, you will lay hold upon God's word, and upon all the helpful agencies He has appointed. Thus your faith will strengthen, and will bring to your aid the power of heaven. The obstacles that are piled by Satan across your path, though apparently as insurmountable as the eternal hills, shall disappear before the demand of faith. "Nothing shall be impossible unto you. Luke 17:6

There are 2 obstacles:

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“Mountain” – it is big. It is visible to all. “Tree” – a tree has roots, it is a deeper seated problem. We need a faith like mustard seed to get rid of all the bad habits in our lives.
17:16 And I brought him to thy disciples, and they could not cure him. 17:17 Then Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him hither to me. 17:18 And Jesus rebuked the devil; and he departed out of him: and the child was cured from that very hour. 17:19 Then came the disciples to Jesus apart, and said, Why could not we cast him out? 17:20 And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you. 17:21 Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting.

They had neglected to pray while Jesus was up in the mountain. They had started but they fell asleep.
17:22 And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them, The Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of men: 17:23 And they shall kill him, and the third day he shall be raised again. And they were exceeding sorry. 17:24 And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received tribute money came to Peter, and said, Doth not your master pay tribute?

If Jesus didn’t pay it would show disloyalty. If Jesus paid it, it would show that He was not a rabbi, or a religious leader as it was free for them.
17:25 He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou, Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, or of strangers? 17:26 Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free. 17:27 Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them for me and thee.

Peter was a fisherman so that was not unusual. Jesus was going to pay the tribute but it was not really by Him. The way that Jesus got His money was proof for His divinity. Jesus paid the tribute but also showed evidence of His divinity as well.

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Chapter 18
18:1 At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus, saying, Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?

Who is the greatest? Judas is the one who rouse up the discussion “who is the greatest?” among the disciples. The humble souls that trusted in God will succeed. Why did Jesus need 12 disciples? 12 personality types. For every true, there are counterfeit. Jerusalem has 12 gates. Biblical basis of personality type—12. Jealousy is the cruelest, is bondage. He needs everyone of us, we reflect God in different ways. Each one of us is essential to God. Some are using they talents, some are hiding in the earth. Real greatness
DA 437 Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven." The simplicity, the self-forgetfulness, and the confiding love of a little child are the attributes that Heaven values. These are the characteristics of real greatness. 18:2 And Jesus called a little child unto him, and set him in the midst of them, 18:3 And said, Verily I say unto you, Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.

Who is the greatest? In characteristics of a child is what Jesus considers great: simplicity. selfforgetfulness, and confiding love.
18:4 Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven.

Being born again and converted has to do with a characteristics of a child: Humble themselves as a little child. When working with children, we must always be careful in how we portray the character of Jesus Christ to them.
18:5 And whoso shall receive one such little child in my name receiveth me. 18:6 But whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea.

Child Training
DA 515 As the mother teaches her children to obey her because they love her, she is teaching them the first lessons in the Christian life.

We are to teach them obedience because of love.
DA 515 We should teach them to bring their sins to Jesus, asking His forgiveness, and believing that He pardons and receives them as He received the children when He was personally on earth. DA 515 He did not use one unkind or discourteous expression. DA 516 Parents, in the training of your children, study the lessons that God has given in nature. If you would train a pink, or rose, or lily, how would you do it? Ask the gardener by what process he

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makes every branch and leaf to flourish so beautifully, and to develop in symmetry and loveliness. He will tell you that it was by no rude touch, no violent effort; for this would only break the delicate stems. It was by little attentions, often repeated. He moistened the soil, and protected the growing plants from the fierce blasts and from the scorching sun, and God caused them to flourish and to blossom into loveliness. In dealing with your children, follow the method of the gardener. By gentle touches, by loving ministrations, seek to fashion their characters after the pattern of the character of Christ.

Working with young people, we need repetition.
DA 516 Encourage the expression of love toward God and toward one another. The reason why there are so many hardhearted men and women in the world is that true affection has been regarded as weakness, and has been discouraged and repressed.

Showing appreciation to someone is not wrong.
DA 516 Do not weary them with long prayers and tedious exhortations, but through nature's object lessons teach them obedience to the law of God. DA 517 As you win their confidence in you as followers of Christ, it will be easy to teach them of the great love wherewith He has loved us.

Approach them as one who desires their good, then you win their confidence and then big them follow you.
18:7 Woe unto the world because of offences! for it must needs be that offences come; but woe to that man by whom the offence cometh!

Did Jesus need to die? Yes. But does that mean Judas had to betray Him? No
18:8 Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire. 18:9 And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire.

Jesus was not speaking of literal dismemberment. How do we know that it is figurative? We can still sin with one leg or arm or eye.
DA 439 Any habit or practice that would lead into sin, and bring dishonor upon Christ, would better be put away, whatever the sacrifice. That which dishonors God cannot benefit the soul. The blessing of heaven cannot attend any man in violating the eternal principles of right. And one sin cherished is sufficient to work the degradation of the character, and to mislead others. If the foot or the hand would be cut off, or even the eye would be plucked out, to save the body from death, how much more earnest should we be to put away sin, that brings death to the soul !

Anything that you are holding on to. E.g.: relationship. You never know what God has prepared for you.
18:10 Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, That in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven.

This proves to us that everyone is assigned an angel.

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18:11 For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost. 18:12 How think ye? if a man have an hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray?

This sheep could represent this earth and the ninety nine the other unfallen worlds.
18:13 And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto you, he rejoiceth more of that sheep, than of the ninety and nine which went not astray. 18:14 Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish. 18:15 Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.

Tell him in private. You must pick someone that is not partial to a particular person. Pick someone who is mutual, has clear discernment judgment. You treat them like heathen, gentiles, as you want to win them back.
18:16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 18:17 And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. 18:18 Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 18:19 Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. 18:20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. 18:21 Then came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times? 18:22 Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times: but, Until seventy times seven.

Does Jesus mean that you just forgive them 490 times? No, it just meant to never stop forgiving. Jesus also gave the Jews a time of probation. After 490 years, God’s forbearance to them would close. But it doesn’t mean that you only forgive 490 times. There is a limit to God’s forbearance.
18:23 Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king, which would take account of his servants.

What was the reason why Jesus gave this parable? They thought that there was a limit to forgiving somebody. They didn’t realize that forgiveness was more than just a one off event Who does the king represent?
Matt 18:35

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King = Heavenly Father Psa 78:38 God is full of compassion, forgives, and does destroy us Psa 86:5

God longs to forgive all our debt. He is merciful. God forgives us completely 100% of what we confess
18:24 And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand talents. 18:25 But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. 18:26 The servant therefore fell down, and worshipped him, saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. 18:27 Then the lord of that servant was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and forgave him the debt. 18:28 But the same servant went out, and found one of his fellowservants, which owed him an hundred pence: and he laid hands on him, and took him by the throat, saying, Pay me that thou owest.

How much did the first servant owe as compared to the fellow servant? What was the difference in today’s value? Note: the ratio of 10,000 talents to 100 pence = 1 million to 1 (1 pence = 1 day’s wage). 1 talent = 10,000 pence. Therefore 10,000 talents = 100 million pence. Today’s wage = $100 per day. Therefore 10,000 talents = $10 billion (first servant). 100 pence = $10,000 (fellow servant) What was the attitude of the first servant at the beginning with the king?
Matt 18:26

Humble, Meek, Begging.
18:29 And his fellowservant fell down at his feet, and besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. 18:30 And he would not: but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the debt.

What was the attitude of the first servant with his fellow servant?
Matt 18:28-30

Unforgiving, Unmerciful, Violent. What was the plea of the first servant to the king and the plea of the fellow servant to the first servant? They were exactly the same. When the fellow servant pleaded to the first servant, the first servant should have been reminded of his own words that he spoke to the king and how the
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king responded How should the first servant have reacted to his fellow servant and why should he have reacted that way? He should have had mercy on his fellow servant because the king forgave him What is the important lesson that we must learn as we look at the first servant and how he reacted? We must remember the mercy of God upon us and how much we were forgiven Where is the root of the problem when we see someone who has an unforgiving spirit? They either have never experienced true forgiveness from God, or they have forgotten that God has forgiven them. Where must forgiveness come from?
Matt 18:35

From the heart What does it mean to forgive from the heart? Can we forgive someone NOT from the heart? Discuss. Forgiveness is also emotional, not just a principle. There is emotional healing as well. When people hurt us, it leaves an emotional scar. And that scar can only be healed if we learn to forgive them. Forgiving not from the heart is surface forgiveness. We remember what they did to us and still hold it against them and as a result we act differently towards them. What are the consequences of cherishing an unforgiving spirit?
Matt 6:14-15 Jer 31:34

We will not be forgiven.
18:31 So when his fellowservants saw what was done, they were very sorry, and came and told unto their lord all that was done. 18:32 Then his lord, after that he had called him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt, because thou desiredst me: 18:33 Shouldest not thou also have had compassion on thy fellowservant, even as I had pity on thee? 18:34 And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him. 18:35 So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses.

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Chapter 19
19:1 And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and came into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan; 19:2 And great multitudes followed him; and he healed them there. 19:3 The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? 19:4 And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female, 19:5 And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? 19:6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. 19:7 They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away? 19:8 He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so. 19:9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery. 19:10 His disciples say unto him, If the case of the man be so with his wife, it is not good to marry. 19:11 But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given. 19:12 For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to receive it, let him receive it. 19:13 Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them. 19:14 But Jesus said, Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for of such is the kingdom of heaven. 19:15 And he laid his hands on them, and departed thence. 19:16 And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?

“What shall I do to inherit eternal life?” – There is an idea of works in the statement. Background of the rich young ruler:
DA 520 He was a member of the honored council of the Jews, and Satan was tempting him with flattering prospects of the future.

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He was part of the Sanhedrin council. If he was young and already part of the council, he must have been very bright. This young man, he pretty much had it all. However, in every heart, no matter how great, if Jesus does not reside there, there is always a feeling of emptiness. We know this because he approached Jesus.
19:17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.

He didn’t acknowledge Him to be the Saviour. Jesus replied to test him. To see how this ruler viewed Him. How did Jesus teach people to the way to eternal life? Obedience to the 10 commandments.
19:18 He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,

What was the major problem the with rich young ruler? The love to God in the soul. The commandments hang on two things: Love to God. Love to man. Jesus left out the first four commandments. It would have made him question. The order of the commandments that Jesus mentioned them in. “Thou shalt do no murder” – commandment 6. “Thou shalt not commit adultery” – commandment 7. Etc… He left out commandment number 10. He also left out the first four as well.
19:19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 19:20 The young man saith unto him, All these things have I kept from my youth up: what lack I yet?

He was sincere in his reply:
DA 519 Christ was drawn to this young man. He knew him to be sincere in his assertion, "All these things have I kept from my youth." The Redeemer longed to create in him that discernment which would enable him to see the necessity of heart devotion and Christian goodness. He longed to see in him a humble and contrite heart, conscious of the supreme love to be given to God, and hiding its lack in the perfection of Christ.

We could be sincerely deceived to the state of our righteousness.
19:21 Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me.

Character perfection is possible. If he had sold all that he had, he could have been perfect. It was possible to achieve. Here was the man’s dilemma: He was an honored member of the Sanhedrin council. He was rich. He had ambitious projects. He had to give up everything! But Jesus promised that he would have treasure in Heaven. There are many that are looking for their treasure on earth. He was sorrowful because he wanted both. The conditions are exclusive, you have only have one or the other.
19:22 But when the young man heard that saying, he went away sorrowful: for he had great possessions.

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19:23 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily I say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven. 19:24 And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.

“eye of a needle” – It was a door of one of the cities in Jerusalem. It only allowed the camel to get through without anything on its back. Money is not the root of all evil, it is the love of money. We can only cherish one idol before we lose eternal life.
19:25 When his disciples heard it, they were exceedingly amazed, saying, Who then can be saved? 19:26 But Jesus beheld them, and said unto them, With men this is impossible; but with God all things are possible. 19:27 Then answered Peter and said unto him, Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have therefore? 19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

The heavenly reward is not comparable to the reward on earth. When we give up something, it will mean nothing when given up for the cause of Christ and to follow him. We count it dung.
19:29 And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life. 19:30 But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first.

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Chapter 20
 Blind Bartimaeus (Son of David) (29-34)
20:1 For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard.

Who did Jesus encounter before the telling of this parable?
Matt 19:16 Luke 18:18 Mark 10:17

Jesus encounter with the rich ruler who wanted to follow Him. What was the man’s problem?
Mark 19:21-22

He was covetous. He could not give up everything to follow Jesus. See also Mark 19:18-19 – Jesus purposely does not mention the 10th commandment, which deals with covetousness. What is Peter implying from his question to Jesus? What kind of spirit is he showing?
Matt 19:27

Peter is asking what is in it for him and the other disciples since they have forsaken all to follow Jesus. Peter is showing a pharisaical spirit. Its all about works and reward. But Peter's question, "What shall we have therefore?" had revealed a spirit that uncorrected would unfit the disciples to be messengers for Christ; for it was the spirit of a hireling. While they had been attracted by the love of Jesus, the disciples were not wholly free from Pharisaism. They still worked with the thought of meriting a reward in proportion to their labor. They cherished a spirit of self-exaltation and self-complacency, and made comparisons among themselves. When one of them failed in any particular, the others indulged feelings of superiority. {COL 396.1} What issue do you think Jesus tried to address with the parable that followed? Peter’s spirit.
COL 396 Lest the disciples should lose sight of the principles of the gospel, Christ related to them a parable illustrating the manner in which God deals with His servants, and the spirit in which He desires them to labor for Him.

From previous parables, who is the householder, the laborers and the vineyard? Householder = God. (Isa 5:7) Vineyard = Israel, or spiritual Israel. (Isa 5:7)

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The laborers = fellow laborer in gospel of Christ. (1 Thess 3:2) What does the householder do throughout the day? What are the differences between the laborers and what do they all have in common? He hires laborers throughout the day. Difference: The laborers work for different lengths of time. Common: The laborers are all promised one pence.

What did the laborers receive at the end of the day? The householder gave everyone one pence. What was the attitude of the first laborers when they came to receive their wages? What was their reaction when they received the same amount?
Matt 20:10-12

The first supposed they should receive more because they had been working longer. They murmured against the householder. What was the response of the householder?
Matt 20:13-15

He was fair in what they had agreed upon. It is not for the first laborers to judge if out of the goodness of His heart He decides to reward those who joined at the end with the same reward since all the wages are His to give. What does the householder mean when He says “Is thine eye evil, because I am good”? They looked upon the goodness of the householder / God because He saw fit to give everyone the same reward, and accused God of being unfair (or evil). They were seeing this through their evil eyes. Who do the first laborers represent today? They represent those who feel that because they worked in the vineyard longer should be entitled to a bigger reward or wage. This is why the Pharisees went out of their way to show the public their good deeds. They wanted recognition for their perceive piety. What could the wage represent today? Recognition from others. Bigger roles in ministry. Bigger mansions in heaven. (You can read this passage if all Adventists)
COL 399-400 The first laborers of the parable represent those who, because of their services, claim preference above others. They take up their work in a self-gratulatory spirit, and do not bring into it self-denial and sacrifice. They may have professed to serve God all their lives; they may have been foremost in enduring hardship, privation, and trial, and they therefore think themselves entitled to a large reward. They think more of the reward than of the privilege of being servants of Christ. In their view their labors and sacrifices entitle them to receive honor above others, and because this claim is not recognized, they are offended. Did they bring into their work a loving, trusting spirit, they would continue to be first; but their querulous, complaining disposition is un-Christlike, and proves them to be untrustworthy. It reveals their desire for self-advancement, their distrust of God, and their jealous, grudging spirit toward their brethren. The Lord's goodness and liberality is to them only an occasion of murmuring. Thus they show that there is no connection between their souls and God. They do not

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know the joy of co-operation with the Master Worker...There is nothing more offensive to God than this narrow, self-caring spirit. He cannot work with any who manifest these attributes. They are insensible to the working of His Spirit.

What spirit should we have instead?
1 Cor 6:20

Our life is not ours. It is bought with a price. The penny represents the blood of Jesus that paid for our lives. Therefore whatever we do is in gratitude, not for greater reward.
Jer 9:23-24

Boasting in ourselves has no merit.
Eph 2:8-9

The penny also represents the grace of God by which we are saved, not our works lest any man should boast.
Rom 4:1-5

We work because of our debt to grace, not for reward.
COL 402 The first and the last are to be sharers in the great, eternal reward, and the first should gladly welcome the last. He who grudges the reward to another forgets that he himself is saved by grace alone. The parable of the laborers rebukes all jealousy and suspicion. Love rejoices in the truth and institutes no envious comparisons. He who possesses love compares only the loveliness of Christ and his own imperfect character. This parable is a warning to all laborers, however long their service, however abundant their labors, that without love to their brethren, without humility before God, they are nothing. There is no religion in the enthronement of self. He who makes self-glorification his aim will find himself destitute of that grace which alone can make him efficient in Christ's service. Whenever pride and self-complacency are indulged, the work is marred.

What did Jesus mean when He said the first shall be last and the last shall be first? How does that apply to us today? The first = those that have worked the longest for God. Why were they last? They had the tendency to want more reward for their works, working their way to heaven. The last = were the 11th hour workers. They were happy with whatever they got. How does this apply to us today? Its those that have been working for God the longest and that can count their good works for God, that have the most tendency to try to work their way to heaven – Pharisaism.
20:2 And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard. 20:3 And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace, 20:4 And said unto them; Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way. 20:5 Again he went out about the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise. 20:6 And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, and saith unto them, Why

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stand ye here all the day idle? 20:7 They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard; and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive. 20:8 So when even was come, the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the labourers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first. 20:9 And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny. 20:10 But when the first came, they supposed that they should have received more; and they likewise received every man a penny. 20:11 And when they had received it, they murmured against the goodman of the house, 20:12 Saying, These last have wrought but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden and heat of the day. 20:13 But he answered one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a penny? 20:14 Take that thine is, and go thy way: I will give unto this last, even as unto thee. 20:15 Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good? 20:16 So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen. 20:17 And Jesus going up to Jerusalem took the twelve disciples apart in the way, and said unto them, 20:18 Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death, 20:19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third day he shall rise again. 20:20 Then came to him the mother of Zebedee's children with her sons, worshipping him, and desiring a certain thing of him. 20:21 And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom. 20:22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able. 20:23 And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father. 20:24 And when the ten heard it, they were moved with indignation against the two brethren. 20:25 But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them. 20:26 But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister;

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20:27 And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant: 20:28 Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. 20:29 And as they departed from Jericho, a great multitude followed him. 20:30 And, behold, two blind men sitting by the way side, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David. 20:31 And the multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace: but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David. 20:32 And Jesus stood still, and called them, and said, What will ye that I shall do unto you? 20:33 They say unto him, Lord, that our eyes may be opened. 20:34 So Jesus had compassion on them, and touched their eyes: and immediately their eyes received sight, and they followed him.

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Chapter 21
21:1 And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, unto the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples, 21:2 Saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them unto me. 21:3 And if any man say ought unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need of them; and straightway he will send them. 21:4 All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, 21:5 Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass. 21:6 And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them, 21:7 And brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon. 21:8 And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed them in the way. 21:9 And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest. 21:10 And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this? John 12:17-19

People that were thronged there were the people that Jesus had healed in some way or another.
Luke 19:39-40

It tells us that in the course of time, that a time would come when there would be an event that would draw the people to the crucifixion. Prophecy would have been fulfilled one way or another. Today, if we do not turn people to the event of the coming of Jesus, people out in the world will start to cry out. The stones will cry out. The nature of prophecy, it has to be fulfilled. “who is this?”
DA 578 Adam will tell you, It is the seed of the woman that shall bruise the serpent's head. Ask Abraham, he will tell you, It is "Melchizedek King of Salem," King of Peace. Gen. 14:18. Jacob will tell you, He is Shiloh of the tribe of Judah.Isaiah will tell you, "Immanuel," "Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace." Isa. 7:14; 9:6. Jeremiah will tell you, The Branch of David, "the Lord our Righteousness." Jer. 23:6. Daniel will tell you, He is the Messiah. Hosea will tell you, He is "the Lord God of hosts; the Lord is His memorial." Hosea 12:5. John the Baptist will tell you, He is "the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." John 1:29. The great Jehovah has proclaimed from His throne, "This is My beloved Son." Matt. 3:17. We, His disciples, declare, This is Jesus, the Messiah, the Prince of life, the Redeemer of the world. And the prince of the powers of darkness acknowledges Him, saying, "I know Thee who Thou art, the Holy One of God." Mark 1:24.”

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21:11 And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee. 21:12 And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves, 21:13 And said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves.

What was the reason why Jesus cleansed the temple the second time?
DA 590 He who had Himself given these prophecies now for the last time repeated the warning. In fulfillment of prophecy the people had proclaimed Jesus king of Israel. He had received their homage, and accepted the office of king. In this character He must act. He knew that His efforts to reform a corrupt priesthood would be in vain; nevertheless His work must be done; to an unbelieving people the evidence of His divine mission must be given.

Because they had pronounced Him king, then He had to do the duties of a king.
DA 591 They had felt that it was impossible for their undignified surrender to be repeated. Yet they were now more terrified than before, and in greater haste to obey His command. 21:14 And the blind and the lame came to him in the temple; and he healed them. 21:15 And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the Son of David; they were sore displeased, 21:16 And said unto him, Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus saith unto them, Yea; have ye never read, Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise? 21:17 And he left them, and went out of the city into Bethany; and he lodged there. 21:18 Now in the morning as he returned into the city, he hungered. 21:19 And when he saw a fig tree in the way, he came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves only, and said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. And presently the fig tree withered away.

The fig tree represented the Jewish nation. What was the problem? This tree had leaves but had no fruit. Fig trees, when it has full leaves, it should have figs. Leaves represent outward righteousness. Fig leaves served to cover the sins of Adam and Eve – self-righteousness. Then God covers them with His righteousness. Fruit represents winning souls and the fruit of the spirit.
Matt 23:38

The act of cursing the tree was an act to show what would happen to the Jewish nation.
21:20 And when the disciples saw it, they marvelled, saying, How soon is the fig tree withered away! 21:21 Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, If ye have faith, and doubt not, ye shall not only do this which is done to the fig tree, but also if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be done. 21:22 And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive. 21:23 And when he was come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came unto

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him as he was teaching, and said, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority?

The reason they were trying to trip Him up by His words because they couldn’t trip Him up by His works.
DA 594 With intense interest the multitude awaited the decision. They knew that the priests had professed to accept the ministry of John, and they expected them to acknowledge without a question that he was sent from God. But after conferring secretly together, the priests decided not to commit themselves. Hypocritically professing ignorance, they said, "We cannot tell." "Neither tell I you," said Christ, "by what authority I do these things…Scribes, priests, and rulers were a ll silenced. Baffled and disappointed, they stood with lowering brows, not daring to press further questions upon Christ. By their cowardice and indecision they had in a great measure forfeited the respect of the people, who now stood by, amused to see these proud, self-righteous men defeated.

What is the reason why Jesus gave this parable? It was dealing with the authority of Jesus. It was also dealing with the baptism of John, whether it was from heaven or not What is the reason why the chief priests and elders were not willing to answer Jesus about John’s baptism? They didn’t want to acknowledge that John was heaven sent because Jesus would ask them why they didn’t acknowledge Him. They didn’t want to reject him because many people believed that John was a prophet Why didn’t the chief priests want to acknowledge that John’s baptism was from heaven? What would be the implication if they did acknowledge it?
John 1:29 Matt 3:13-17

They didn’t want to acknowledge because if they accept John, then they must accept his testimony of Jesus that He was the Lamb of God that was to take away the sin of the world. They must also accept the baptism that he did for Jesus and how a voice came from heaven saying that Jesus was the Son of God. Who does the father represent in the parable?
Matt 6:9

Represents God the Father. What does the vineyard represent?
Psa 80:8, 15

This is speaking of Israel
Isa 5:7

The vineyard is Israel. Who is Israel in our day? The church What do we understand about the first son and who he represents by his initial response, “I will not?” He was rebellious. He was living in open transgression. He refused to obey the words of God. What happened with the first son after he said , “I will not?”

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Matt 21:29 Matt 3:1-2

He repented. How is John the Baptist brought into the picture? He preached the message of repentance. So the first son was one of those that heard the message of John the Baptist and repented, which shows that John’s baptism was of heaven What do we understand about the second son by his initial response, “I go, sir,” and the actual outcome of his actions? He said that he was willing to go but his actions proved his words worthless. A lot of people know how to talk but they don’t put their actions where their mouths are. They like to pray, to act big and talk spiritual in front of others, but they do not do put it into actions. They just have theory. Who do the first and second sons represent?
Matt 21:31

First son represents the harlots and publicans. Second son represents the chief priests and elders. What was the father asking the sons to do?
Matt 21:28, 31

Work in the vineyard. Do his will. What is the will of the Father?
Psa 40:8 Heb 10:16

To delight to do his law, which is to keep the commandments because it is written in the heart Practically speaking, how can we have the law written in our hearts and how can we keep it there? Discuss.
Psa 1:2

The way that we can delight in the law and as a result have it written in our hearts is to meditate on it day and night. Generate discussion about how we can keep it there. How do we make it practical? It now governs our actions and decisions. The law cannot be in there and remain if we go to movie theaters and clubs or listen to rock music, etc. Our thoughts are not on God. The law does not remain there What was the basis of the actions of why the first son obeyed and the second son didn’t obey?
Matt 21:32 John 14:15

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The first group repented and believed. The second didn’t believe because they didn’t repent. The reason why they didn’t believe it because they didn’t love God. And that is why they didn’t obey. Obedience it the basis of all our actions. Is belief enough? What else must we have?
Jas 2:19-20

Belief is not enough. We must have works that correspond to our belief. But the basis of our works is built upon our belief. And if we have no works, it shows that there is something wrong with our belief/faith. What is the main lesson that we can learn from this parable? John 13:17 …if ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them Words are of no value unless they are accompanied with appropriate deeds.
21:24 And Jesus answered and said unto them, I also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell me, I in like wise will tell you by what authority I do these things. 21:25 The baptism of John, whence was it? from heaven, or of men? And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say unto us, Why did ye not then believe him? 21:26 But if we shall say, Of men; we fear the people; for all hold John as a prophet. 21:27 And they answered Jesus, and said, We cannot tell. And he said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things. 21:28 But what think ye? A certain man had two sons; and he came to the first, and said, Son, go work to day in my vineyard. 21:29 He answered and said, I will not: but afterward he repented, and went. 21:30 And he came to the second, and said likewise. And he answered and said, I go, sir: and went not. 21:31 Whether of them twain did the will of his father? They say unto him, The first. Jesus saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That the publicans and the harlots go into the kingdom of God before you. 21:32 For John came unto you in the way of righteousness, and ye believed him not: but the publicans and the harlots believed him: and ye, when ye had seen it, repented not afterward, that ye might believe him.

The Lord’s Vineyard (33-44)
21:33 Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country:

What was the context of why this parable was given? Jesus has just addressed the issue of why the chief priests and elders did not believe John the Baptist and why they had rejected Him. Jesus had also just given the parable about the two sons and He had shown how the chief priests and elders were like the second son who said he would go and did not. They didn’t have fruits to show for their profession. He had just showed them through the parable of the two sons the importance of obedience

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Who does this householder represent that built the vineyard and went into a far country? And who does the vineyard represent?
Isa 5:7

The householder represents the Lord, which is God the Father. The greek word actually means master of the house. The vineyard represents the house of Israel. What does the hedging about represent? Hedging about means fence, enclosing barrier or partition
Zech 2:5

The Lord is the wall and the glory is manifested in them.
Exo 33:18-19

Glory is the transcript of God’s character
Rom 7:12

The law is also the transcript of God’s character. Therefore, the law = glory = the wall Why is a winepress built? The owner was obviously expecting good quality grapes to produce good wine. What does the tower represent?
2 Sam 22:3

God in the midst of them. How did the Israelite’s have God in the midst of them? – It was the sanctuary.
21:34 And when the time of the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the husbandmen, that they might receive the fruits of it.

Who do the servants represent that were sent to receive the fruits of the vineyard?
Matt 21:34-36 2 Ki 17:13 Jer 25:4 Amos 3:7

The servants represent the prophets What sort of environment is being described in Matt. 21:33 about the vineyard and how does this apply to Israel?

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Isa 5:2

God who had planted the vineyard gave them every opportunity to develop good fruits. He put a fence around it. He built a tower for it. God had given Israel every opportunity to bear fruit. Note: A winepress is just a trough to hold the wine/fruit that is harvested What do the fruits represent?
Gal 5:22-23 Prov 11:30

The fruits represented the character of God. Also souls won to the kingdom.
21:35 And the husbandmen took his servants, and beat one, and killed another, and stoned another. 21:36 Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they did unto them likewise. 21:37 But last of all he sent unto them his son, saying, They will reverence my son. 21:38 But when the husbandmen saw the son, they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance.

Who does the son represent?
Matt 21:37-38 John 3:16 Heb 1:2

The son represents Jesus What is the reason why the husbandmen killed the son? Link this also to the previous parable. They wanted the inheritance without producing fruit. What kind of inheritance? The promised land – Canaan. They were looking for the wrong inheritance. They wanted the inheritance without the son and the householder. They wanted the inheritance without obedience. What will the winepress be used for at the end?
Rev 14:19, 20, Rev 19:15

Those who failed to produce fruit (God’s character) for the winepress will themselves be used in the winepress. God will tread on the wicked. They shall feel His wrath. What was this parable foreshadowing?
Matt 21:43

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It was foreshadowing the destruction of Jerusalem and the reason why it would be destroyed. Contextually speaking, what is the result of disobedience or faith without works? Lack of fruits. Rejecting the prophets. Crucifying the Son for the inheritance. How? People today are doing the same thing by claiming the inheritance of God without actually believing the need for obedience. End up in the winepress of the wrath of God (Rev. 14:20).
21:39 And they caught him, and cast him out of the vineyard, and slew him. 21:40 When the lord therefore of the vineyard cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen? 21:41 They say unto him, He will miserably destroy those wicked men, and will let out his vineyard unto other husbandmen, which shall render him the fruits in their seasons. 21:42 Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?

Heavenly kingdom of God.
DA 597 In quoting the prophecy of the rejected stone, Christ referred to an actual occurrence in the history of Israel. The incident was connected with the building of the first temple. While it had a special application at the time of Christ's first advent, and should have appealed with special force to the Jews, it has also a lesson for us. When the temple of Solomon was erected, the immense stones for the walls and the foundation were entirely prepared at the quarry; after they were brought to the place of building, not an instrument was to be used upon them; the workmen had only to place them in position. For use in the foundation, one stone of unusual size and peculiar shape had been brought; but the workmen could find no place for it, and would not accept it. It was an annoyance to them as it lay unused in their way. Long it remained a rejected stone. But when the builders came to the laying of the corner, they searched for a long time to find a stone of sufficient size and strength, and of the proper shape, to take that particular place, and bear the great weight which would rest upon it. DA 597 Should they make an unwise choice for this important place, the safety of the entire building would be endangered. They must find a stone capable of resisting the influence of the sun, of frost, and of tempest. Several stones had at different times been chosen, but under the pressure of immense weights they had crumbled to pieces. Others could not bear the test of the sudden atmospheric changes. But at last attention was called to the stone so long rejected. It had been exposed to the air, to sun and storm, without revealing the slightest crack. The builders examined this stone. It had borne every test but one. If it could bear the test of severe pressure, they decided to accept it for the cornerstone. The trial was made. The stone was accepted, brought to its assigned position, and found to be an exact fit.

When the ground freezes the soil will contract. If it contracts, the foundation will move down. When it heats up again, it will move up again. If a stone cannot resist frost, it will crumble to pieces. It teaches us about the ministry of Christ. Christ has so long been rejected, but the stones of man have proved to be insufficient. We are stones that need to be chiseled at and worked at before being placed as part of the temple of Matt 22:23-40 If Jesus answered incorrectly, it would show the folly of believing in a resurrection.
DA 605 Should He agree with them, He would give still further offense to the Pharisees. Should He differ with them, they designed to hold His teaching up to ridicule.

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They wanted to make this doctrine look silly. What is the source of erring? Not knowing the Bible. Therefore Jesus says, “sanctify them through thy truth, thy word is truth.” Jesus brings us something we know about Heaven – there is no more marriage. Your decisions that you make here, affect you for eternity. The person that you decide to marry could decide whether you are saved or lost. Matt 21:31-32
DA 606 God counts the things that are not as though they were. He sees the end from the beginning, and beholds the result of His work as though it were now accomplished… The dead live unto Him.

When He says He is the God of Abraham, He means that he has already been redeemed.
Rom 4:17, 19

God counts those things that are not, as though they were. When God made the transition from Abram to Abraham, he had zero children. God counts those things that aren’t, as though they were. Matt 21:35 What do we know about this lawyer? He discerned in Jesus’ teaching as being truth.
DA 608 The heart of Jesus went out in pity to the honest scribe who had dared to face the frowns of the priests and the threats of the rulers to speak the convictions of his heart …The scribe was near to the kingdom of God, in that he recognized deeds of righteousness as more acceptable to God than burnt offerings and sacrifices. Matt 21:37-38

The first commandment is the greater. You cannot have true love to your neighbour unless you love God supremely first. If you have love, you will be in obedience to everything.
DA 606 The Pharisees had exalted the first four commandments, which point out the duty of man to his Maker, as of far greater consequence than the other six, which define man's duty to his fellow man. As the result, they greatly failed of practical godliness. Jesus had shown the people their great deficiency, and had taught the necessity of good works, declaring that the tree is known by its fruits. For this reason He had been charged with exalting the last six commandments above the first four. Mark 12:32-34

The lawyer saw the truth in what Jesus said, but the one thing he was missing was to recognize Christ as the Saviour. He knew the purpose of the law was for obedience and not all these ceremonial services.
21:43 Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof. 21:44 And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder. 21:45 And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, they perceived that he spake of them.

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21:46 But when they sought to lay hands on him, they feared the multitude, because they took him for a prophet.

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Chapter 22
22:1 And Jesus answered and spake unto them again by parables, and said,

What was the context of why this parable was given? It was still a continuation of what Jesus was saying to the chief priests and elders from the previous chapter. Jesus was still addressing the issue of why the Jewish nation didn’t bring forth any fruits. Who do the king and the son symbolize in this parable?
1 Tim 1:17 King = God the Father Matt 8:29

Son of God = Jesus What does this marriage represent? Who is the son marrying?
Rev 19:7

There will be a marriage supper of the Lamb in the future.
Eph 5:23-25, 32

Christ is marrying His church, it is called a mystery.
Eph 1:9-10

The mystery is how God will unite Heaven and Earth. So this marriage is how God is going to unite Heaven and Earth, Divinity with humanity. The son is marrying the church, those that are faithful to Him. What is the difference between the first call and the second call to the marriage?
Matt 22:3-4

The first call is just a general call which we are not given much detail. The second call is given after the dinner is prepared and the oxen and the fatlings are killed. What does the dinner and the oxen and fatlings being killed represent?
Jer 11:19

The killing of the oxen was the same as the killing of a lamb.
Isa 53:7

Jesus was that Lamb that was killed for us. This dinner represented the death of Christ. Communion.
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Who do the kings servants represent? From the previous study it represents the prophets. These are the texts that were used previously. Only go through them if there are people that missed the previous study (Matt. 21:34-36; 2 Kings 17:13; Jer. 25:4; Amos 3:7). Contextually speaking it represents the disciples before Christ died and also the apostles that gave the gospel message after Christ died. What did the destruction of the city represent?
Matt 22:7

It represented the destruction of Jerusalem in the future. Note: The first part of this study is related to the Jews and then not bearing fruit, which we looked at already in the previous parable. But now we are going to look at the second part which is much more relevant to us. What happened next? Who do the new invitees represent? The invitation was extended to those out in the highways. Those whom an invitation had not previously been given. Application: These represent the gentiles. The gospel was extended to them after the persecution of Stephen. (Acts 8:4) What was wrong with the man in verse 11?
Matt 22:11-12

This man received an invitation, but he chose not to wear a wedding garment. From verse 12 we can see that the king was insulted and angered that someone had dared to enter the wedding feast without a wedding garment. From the king’s response we can see that everyone who had received an invitation would have been told that they need to wear a wedding garment. What does the wedding garment represent? Who is the giver of this garment?
Rev 19:8

It represents the righteousness of the saints.
Eph 5:27

It represents the church as being pure.
Psa 119:172

It represents the church in obedience to the law of God which is righteous.
Rom 13:14

Putting on the garment means to put on Christ. In what way do we put on Christ? We put on His righteousness/character. Christ supplies this garment. The king and his son. Why is it so important for us to wear that wedding garment?
Isa 64:6

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All our righteousness is as filthy rags How can one practically wear that garment?
Gal 3:27

We must be baptized.
Rom 6:4-7

We must die to self and crucify self. Who does that man represent in our world today that came in without a wedding garment? Discuss. He represents those that claim to be Christian and want the benefits offered to the followers of Christ, yet they do not feel the need to have a transformation of character. They feel no need to obey the very thing that will change their characters, the law of God. They have never felt true repentance of sin. They didn’t feel like they needed Christ’s righteousness. They are merely hearers of the word. Why was the man without the wedding garment speechless? How is that applicable to us today? He was speechless because he didn’t have any excuse. At the end of time when we come before God, we are not going to have any excuse as to why we didn’t form characters like Christ. Like the previous parable, Christ has given us all the blessings to us that we may develop Christ-like characters. Opportunities are given us, but it was up to us to make right use of those opportunities. According to this parable, what will we be judged by at the end of time? Whether or not we put on the wedding garment. Whether or not we obeyed the law of God. Whether or not we attained to the character of Christ. How can we be chosen today?
Matt 22:14

Many are called but few are chosen.
2 Thes 2:13

We have been chosen through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth.
1 Pet 1:2

Elect (chosen) by sanctification and obedience.
John 17:17

We are sanctified by the truth. Therefore, we are chosen by whether or not we obey the truth or not.
22:2 The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain king, which made a marriage for his son, 22:3 And sent forth his servants to call them that were bidden to the wedding: and they would not come.

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22:4 Again, he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have prepared my dinner: my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come unto the marriage. 22:5 But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandise: 22:6 And the remnant took his servants, and entreated them spitefully, and slew them. 22:7 But when the king heard thereof, he was wroth: and he sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and burned up their city. 22:8 Then saith he to his servants, The wedding is ready, but they which were bidden were not worthy. 22:9 Go ye therefore into the highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage. 22:10 So those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they found, both bad and good: and the wedding was furnished with guests. 22:11 And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding garment: 22:12 And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he was speechless. 22:13 Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 22:14 For many are called, but few are chosen. 22:15 Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. DA 602 He had rebuked their hypocrisy and presumption, and in doing this He had stated a great principle, a principle that clearly defines the limits of man's duty to the civil government and his duty to God. In many minds a vexed question had been settled. Ever after they held to the right principle. And although many went away dissatisfied, they saw that the principle underlying the question had been clearly set forth, and they marveled at Christ's far-seeing discernment. Christ's reply was no evasion, but a candid answer to the question. Holding in His hand the Roman coin, upon which were stamped the name and image of Caesar, He declared that since they were living under the protection of the Roman power, they should render to that power the support it claimed, so long as this did not conflict with a higher duty. But while peaceably subject to the laws of the land, they should at all times give their first allegiance to God. 22:16 And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. 22:17 Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not? 22:18 But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? 22:19 Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny. 22:20 And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? 22:21 They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things

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which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's. 22:22 When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way. 22:23 The same day came to him the Sadducees, which say that there is no resurrection, and asked him, 22:24 Saying, Master, Moses said, If a man die, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. 22:25 Now there were with us seven brethren: and the first, when he had married a wife, deceased, and, having no issue, left his wife unto his brother: 22:26 Likewise the second also, and the third, unto the seventh. 22:27 And last of all the woman died also. 22:28 Therefore in the resurrection whose wife shall she be of the seven? for they all had her. 22:29 Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God. 22:30 For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven. 22:31 But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, 22:32 I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. 22:33 And when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at his doctrine. 22:34 But when the Pharisees had heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, they were gathered together. 22:35 Then one of them, which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying, 22:36 Master, which is the great commandment in the law? 22:37 Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. 22:38 This is the first and great commandment. 22:39 And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 22:40 On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets. 22:41 While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, 22:42 Saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The Son of David. 22:43 He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, 22:44 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool?

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22:45 If David then call him Lord, how is he his son? 22:46 And no man was able to answer him a word, neither durst any man from that day forth ask him any more questions.

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Chapter 23 – Warning to the Scribes and Pharisees
Jesus was speaking to His followers as well as the multitude (Matthew 23:1) In the last week of His ministry it is important that He speak plainly The people depended on the leadership without studying out what they were taught Jesus removed the mask of those they were following. Chapter Outline    Position of the Scribes and Pharisees (1-12) Condition of the Scribes and Pharisees (13-31) Solution, Warning, and Final Judgment (32-39)

Position of the Scribes and Pharisees (1-12)
23:1 Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples,

Speaking to the disciples and the multitude, all His followers. Necessary for Jesus to speak plainly so the people wouldn’t be following their leaders who were leading them to eternal ruin
23:2 Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat:

Verses 2 to 10 Authority & Power. Observation: Moses Seat, Rabbi, Master, Father, Bid-instruct, Bind burdens. Moses a very prominent individual, a leader of God’s people, used to build sanctuary. (App: NT Pastors) “Seat” – authority and power (Rev 13:2). Jesus recognized these were in power and authority (Master, Rabbi, “Father” – all terms of authority among Jewish people). They believed they had to instruct the people to lead them to understanding salvation
23:3 All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not.

“Observe and do” – In chap. 15:1-10, Jesus exposed the false teachings of the Pharisees. Is this contradiction? As long as they taught things according to the Word or Law of God we have responsibility to follow that truth God can use all avenues to distribute His truth. The more light we have, the more accountable or responsible we are for it. “They say and do not” – Don’t live like them, but observe and do the teaching if it’s in harmony with God’s will. We are to obey and follow the word of God
23:4 For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.

“Bind heavy burdens” – Requiring things to do or keep which God never had told should be kept or followed Sabbath forms and ceremonies
Isa 58:3

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Fasting and afflicting their soul (DOA: 1. Garments; 2. Work; 3. Afflict Soul). Sanctuary language
Isa 58:4-6

“True fast” – let go of heavy burdensPharisees know about sanctuary but miss the heart experience
Isa 58:12

Prophecy of restoring the breach, the Sabbath. Sabbath is one of 10 commandments “Law of God” –Most Holy Place “True fast” – loosing heavy burdens, true Sabbath-keepers
Gal 6:2

Bearing burdens of one another
1 Jn 3:23 Love one another. How to keep the law of Christ? Bearing one another’s burdens and manifest love of God toward each other. This is the experience of the true fast Matt 11:28-30

Heavy laden, burden is light. Jesus example of true fast.
23:5 But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments, 23:6 And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, 23:7 And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi. 23:8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren. Matt 20:25

Gentile exercise Lordship. This should not be among you.
23:9 And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven. 23:10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ. 23:11 But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.

“servant” – Leaders held up Moses in high position. They forgot one thing about Moses.
Num 12:3

Moses was the meekest man. They forgot the humility of Jesus. Also notice that Jesus speaks to them in this way so that they can feel their need of Him once again.
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23:12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.

What does this mean?
Lk 18:12-14

Pharisee is standing up. Publican is bowed down very low—humbling himself “Shall be exalted” – justified “Abase” – condemned
Dan 8:14

“Cleansed” = justified. God is looking for those who are humble like the publican and not proud like Pharisees and Scribes Humility? Are they listening to the prophets? Are they experiencing the love of Christ and manifesting it to others? Do we have righteousness of Jesus Christ? Where do we stand?

Condition of the Scribes and Pharisees (13-31)
23:13 But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in. 23:14 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.

“Long prayer” – Anyone pray long prayers? Jesus not condemning the duration of the prayer but the motivation. A Pharisee’s Prayer
Lk 18:9-11

Believing you are righteous but despising others at the same time
23:15 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.

Do you Scribes and Pharisees win souls? Yes. “Proselyte” – a convert. They even had zeal “compass sea and land.” But they make that soul twofold more a child of hell than themselves. Both children of heaven and hell win souls, but what’s the Difference? Child of hell makes hypocrites like himself. Child of heaven makes sons and daughters of God.
23:16 Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor! 23:17 Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? 23:18 And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty.

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23:19 Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? 23:20 Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon. 23:21 And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein. 23:22 And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon. 23:23 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.

“Weightier matters” – Judgment, Mercy, Faith. Even if our money is helping to bring souls into the kingdom we are lost because we don’t exercise compassion and love for our brother.
23:24 Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel. 23:25 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. 23:26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also.

“Blind” - Church of Laodicea = Pharisaism “Cleanse first the inside” – Fix the heart first and the rest will come, don’t put long dress first, they will still be in their sins
23:27 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 23:28 Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23:29 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, 23:30 And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.

How many of you would’ve killed Isaiah? Put Christ on the cross? Every time we sin we do this. A voice, walk ye in it – you disobey the prophet and thus slay them. Concealed sin – God gives us a warning – exposing it in public – we want to slay them
23:31 Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets.

Solution, Warning, and Final Judgment (32-39)
23:32 Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. 23:33 Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?

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23:34 Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city:

“Prophets” – Given to help change the inside. 95% of Ellen G Whites writings discusses character development. “wise men and scribes” – Send one of your own rank to help you understand where you’re off the path. Will we change? Will we listen?
23:35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. 23:36 Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. 23:37 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! 23:38 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. 23:39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

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Chapter 24
DA 628 In mercy to them He blended the description of the two great crises, leaving the disciples to study out the meaning for themselves.

Jesus was describing the end of the world and the destruction of Jerusalem.
DA 627 As Christ's attention was attracted to the magnificence of the temple, what must have been the unuttered thoughts of that Rejected One! The view before Him was indeed beautiful, but He said with sadness, I see it all. The buildings are indeed wonderful. You point to these walls as apparently indestructible; but listen to My words: The day will come when "there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.

This was literally fulfilled
24:1 And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to shew him the buildings of the temple. 24:2 And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. 24:3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?

The destruction of the temple was equivalent to being the end of the world for them.
24:4 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you. Matt 24:4, 5, 24

Jesus had a lot of emphasis about this issue of deception. Barabbas and Jesus were stood next to each other and people were asked to choose. There was a false and a truth represented. At the end of time the papacy will be the major anti-Christ
24:5 For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.

Read over. As we continue to read these texts we will see how many will be deceived. When we read this text we think that many people shall come in the name of Christ, and many will be deceived because they will believe that they are Christ. But for us that is pretty easy. If someone where to come to us and say they are Christ you will probably have a hard time holding back your laughter. So for good Bible students perhaps that kind of deception will not work. Perhaps it will be more subtle than that. But notice what happens from verse 6 and onward.
24:6 And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.

“And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars” – I contribute this event to false Christs. False Christs are behind wars and rumors of wars. And the Bible says “see that ye be not troubled” – I am sure that many Seventh-day Adventist that lived during World War 1 and World War 2 were tempted to think that the end is here. But the Bible says

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“for all [these things] must come to pass, but the end is not yet” – Side Note: Just connect that to Revelation 17 and you will have something very interesting.
24:7 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.

“For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom” – Right here it shows the condition of the world. It is simply saying that the nations and kingdoms are not united. They are divided. And then the Bible says “and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places” – Take these three words: Famines, pestilences, and earthquakes and we are looking at natural disasters, or you can just simply say disasters. Verse 8 the Bible says after the natural disasters
24:8 All these are the beginning of sorrows. 24:9 Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake.

Read over “Then shall they…of all” – For my what? Verse 9 is very important. Notice what is happening here. Who are they? Who are they? It is based upon the previous texts. They is referring to those who come in the name of Christ and they is referring to the nations. So some how there is mixture between the religious bodies and the political bodies and they are combined together. Perhaps Church & State “Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake” – Shall be hated of how many nations? All nations. For my name's? Sake. Right here we see that all nations are united. They are united to persecute. Before they were divided but now they are united. What took place in the middle? Natural disasters. So then they are being hated for what? One thing is for sure that the nations were divided, and then you have disasters, and some how those disasters bring the nations together as one. Are we seeing something like this today? Yes Are we seeing global warming bringing nations together? Yes Are we seeing terrorism bringing nations together? Yes. So the Bible says they are all united to HATE those who uphold the name of God. Why? If I can read between the lines they are being HATED because all nations are thinking that they are the ones who are causing these natural disasters. Do we see any other place in the Bible that gives us a similar example? Was there a time when the people of God were blamed for natural disasters? Yes, Elijah. Are thou the one who troubles Israel. You are the one that is causing the heavens not to poor out the rain. You are causing this natural disaster, and they wanted to kill him. But it is very interesting the Bible says They are being HATED of all nations. For whose name? My name's sake. The name of God. What is God's name? If we compare this with the book of Revelation since we know that Matt 24 & 25 is a miniature picture of the book of Revelation. The name of God based upon the book of Revelation if you look at chapter 14 you have a picture of the 144,000 and they have the Father's name written in their foreheads. And Jesus said if you have seen me you have seen the Father. And then in Rev 7 you have the 144,000 and they have what in their forehead? The Seal of the Living God. Therefore the Name of God is connected to the Seal of the Living God. And the Seal of the Living God is what? The Sabbath, within the 10 Commandment the Sabbath is the only commandment that has the name of God. So they are being HATED for upholding the Name of God by keeping the 7th Day Sabbath. So
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that HATRED will come from the outside of the church. And it will then come into God's church. Next verse
24:10 And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another. “And then shall many be offended” – Shall many be what? Offended. Who are the many? People

who are in the church. The people who are in the church shall be offended. And shall do what? Betray. Those who are offended. Guess what they are going to do?

“betray one another” – That phrase one another gives us a picture of fellowship. One another. They are together. So within a close group they are HATING each other. HATRED comes from the outside, and then the people inside begin to HATE each other. But who are hating each other? Those who are OFFENDED. And those who are Offended they will BETRAY. And then the Bible says “and shall hate one another” – And while they are HATING one another. Now they are prepared for another deception. Verse 11
24:11 And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.

“shall deceive MANY” – Because when you are HATING each other, you are looking for direction, you are looking for a leader. So then Satan sends false prophets to mislead the people who are hating each other. But my question is. Why are the people in the church so easily offended? And I begin to discover what the Bible has to say about why we so easily get offended. Do you remember the parable that Jesus gave regarding the 4 grounds? The wayside, stony place, thorny place, and the good ground. When you look at that parable the sower is spreading the seed in all 4 places. If I was the farm manager I would fire him because 75% of the seed is going to the wrong place and only 25% is going to the right place. And you ask yourself why is the sower wasting his seed on these places that cannot produce any fruit. Most likely the waste side is right next to the field that is the only way the seeds can go there. No farmer would look at the way side and say this looks good let me put them there. Most likely he is throwing the seed to the good ground, but perhaps the lighter seeds are carried by the wind. And some how they land on the way side. And you ask why is he throwing his seed on the stony places. Perhaps it is located somewhere between the waste side and the field. Why? Because when you work on the farm not only do you harvest potatoes, but you also harvest stones, and what do you do with them? You throw them to the edge of the field. And you ask yourself what are these thistles, where are they growing? Perhaps right next to or close by the stony places because you cannot get to them. They are growing between the stony place and the field. Some people are in the way side. And I will illustrate this: Some people in the church they like to sit way back there. And you know how it is. They like to sit way back there because they do not want to be fully involved in the church. And then some people sit somewhere in-between. Perhaps that is a plain illustration, but it is just to let you know we have 4 conditions of the heart. But I want to concentrate on one ground and that is the stony place. This is what Jesus said
Matt 13:5-6 [5] Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth: [6] And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away.

“sun was up they were scorched” – they were what? Scorched because they had no? Root (they withered away). Let us consider the interpretation that Jesus gave.

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Matt 13:20 But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it;

“But he….heareth the word” –Stop right there. Question: Those who are in the stony places. Are they hearing the word? Are they listening to sermons? Are they studying the Bible? Yes they are. And because of that they should respond with Faith, because the Bible says that Faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God. (Rom 10:17). So they should have faith. So it is very possible that they have some elements of faith. “But he…joy receiveth it” – What is the attitude of those who receive the word in the stony places? JOY. Is that positive or negative? Positive. They get all excited! Did you hear that? That was so powerful! That was soo good! Man that was wonderful! That is exactly what we need to hear. This is what my elder needs to hear, my deacon needs to hear, my family needs to hear, this is what we need to hear. They get all joyful and excited. But based upon the parable of Jesus what was the problem? There was no root. Not that there wasn't literally any root. But it was not deep enough. Next verse
Matt 13:21 Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended.

“Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth” – Yet hath he not what? Root But dureth for a what? While. Tribulation or persecution, next word? Ariseth. In the parable what rises? The Sun rises. Question: Is the Sun for the plant or against the plant? For the plant. Question: Is persecution and tribulation against you or for you? For you. PERSECUTION AND TRIBULATION IS ONLY FOR YOU, IF YOU HAVE THE ROOT (CONNECT WITH JAMES AND 1 PETER) . IF YOU DON'T HAVE THE ROOT IT IS AGAINST YOU!! WITH THE ROOT EITHER YOU WILL WITHER AWAY OR EVEN GROW MORE STRONGER!! These people when they hear the word they get all excited and joyful they have these emotional highs. But they do not know who they are inside. “when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended” – because of the what? Word By and by he is? Offended. Now let me ask you a question. In Matthew 24 when God's church is being persecuted by the nations of the world, and the Bible says people in the church are offended. Tell me from the bible why are they offended? Because they have no root. Question: What is that root?
Eph 3:17 That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love.

“dwell in your hearts by faith” – By what? Faith “rooted and grounded in love” – So tell me from the Bible what is that root? Love. It is so easy to have a sprout, steam, and leaves: dress reform, diet reform, recreation reform, it is so easy to have these beautiful green leaves, devotional life, and educational reform, etc. But it is very possible that it is only a display and there is no root. There is no true love inside. How do we know if we have that love or not? Here is how. A root is something that you don't display. And that you cannot see. It is beneath the earth. No farmer will show off his roots. Come here and look at these roots. He only shows off the fruit. So the ROOT represents who you are when people cannot see you. it represents who you are in the dark cold room. Do you have the Love of God when no one is watching you? Who are you when you are alone? If we have that root. When persecution or tribulation comes to us it will only increase our love to God even more. Just knowing the prophecies of the Bible will not

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prepare us, although it is very important. Just having the reforms will not prepare us although they are very import to protect our faith experience in God. Just because we have true education. True education that is only a form without the power will not prepare us. There must be a heart work. Searching our hearts deeply that we know that we truly love God. And at the end the words of Christ will prove true. If ye love me keep my commandments! May that be our experience today.
24:12 And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold. 24:13 But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved. 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come. 24:15 When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:) 24:16 Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains: 24:17 Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house: 24:18 Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes. 24:19 And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days!

Intro: 4 Case studies on the family (divorce and dysfunctional homes) Warning to the Family
Matt 24:12

Love of many (family) waxes cold
Matt 24:15-19

Woe to the family why?
Matt 24:10 Mk 13:12

Family betrays each other
Lk 21:16, 12

Cause to be put to death, how? Church/State. Mystery of God (Restoring the Family).
Rev 10:6-7 Rev 11:15, 19

Mystery of God complete from 1844

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Eph 1:9-10

Mystery of God (Unity between Heaven and Earth)
Eph 5:31-32

Two become one flesh Mystery of God
PK 678

Every institution restored. Family Counsel
Eph 5:25-29 1 Tm 5:8

Counsel to Husband.
Prov 31:10-11, 16, 26-27, 29-31

Wife needs to be virtuous
Prov 4:3, 14-19

Listen to Father’s instruction. Appeal:
Mal 4:5-6

3rd Elijah will turn hearts of the fathers to the children. The scriptures present the condition of two types of families in the last days. Families that have been restored. Families that are betraying each other and causing them to be put to death. EGW: How you live in the home shows if you are ready for heaven or not. Will you do your part to complete the mystery of God in your home and heed the warning of Christ? Woman
Prov 24:27 Prepare thy work without, and make it fit for thyself in the field; and afterwards build thine house. Prov 14:1 Every wise woman buildeth her house: but the foolish plucketh it down with her hands. Prov 24:3 Through wisdom is an house builded; and by understanding it is established…

EGW Quotes
5T 541 Restrain Children -- The Lord Jesus, on the Mount of Olives, plainly stated that "because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold." He speaks of a class who have fallen from a high state of spirituality.. The false idea entertained by many, that the restraining of children is

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an injury, is ruining thousands upon thousands . Satan will surely take possession of the children if you are not on your guard. Do not encourage their association with the ungodly. Draw them away. Come out from among such yourselves, and show them that you are on the Lord's side. AH 15 Home Is the Heart of All Activity.--Society is composed of families, and is what the heads of families make it. Out of the heart are "the issues of life"; and the heart of the community, of the church, and of the nation is the household. The well-being of society, the success of the church, the prosperity of the nation, depend upon home influences. The elevation or deterioration of the future of society will be determined by the manners and morals of the youth growing up around us. As the youth are educated, and as their characters are molded in their childhood to virtuous habits, selfcontrol, and temperance, so will their influence be upon society. If they are left unenlightened and uncontrolled, and as the result become self-willed, intemperate in appetite and passion, so will be their future influence in molding society. (1) The company which the young now keep, (2) the habits they now form, and (3) the principles they now adopt are the index to the state of society for years to come. PK 678 Every Institution to be Restored -- In the time of the end every divine institution is to be restored. 24:20 But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day: 24:21 For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. 24:22 And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened. 24:23 Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. 24:24 For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. 24:25 Behold, I have told you before. 24:26 Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not. 24:27 For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. 24:28 For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together. 24:29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: 24:30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 24:31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. 24:32 Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh:

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24:33 So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. 24:34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled. 24:35 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. 24:36 But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only. 24:37 But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. 24:38 For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, 24:39 And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. 24:40 Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left. 24:41 Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left. 24:42 Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come. 24:43 But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up. 24:44 Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh. 24:45 Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season?

Which season does the faithful and wise servant give meat in? We have two passages that give us an indication.
Matt 24:12 And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.

This shows us that we are in a part of earth's history where iniquity will continue to abound. It will get worse and worse. But out of the 4 seasons of the earth, which one is the coldest? Winter. So these faithful and wise servants will be giving meat to in inhabitant of the earth during the winter. Extra: Meat in due season meaning. When this part of the season comes, there is a specific type of food that you should be given. This is what we call present truth.
Matt 24:32 Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer [is] nigh…

What is before summer? Spring and Winter. Note: The leaves during spring are like the signs of the times. Investigative judgment happens during winter and spring. During the end of spring you see the leaves growing back. This tells you that summer is around the corner. But what happens during the summer time? The harvest. So at the second coming Christ is coming with a sickle in His hand because He is going to do what? Reap (Rev 14:14) Christ's second coming is likened to the summer. But the question is who is the wise and faithful servant? Those who are giving the 3 angel's messages (but ultimately the 144,000). These messages prepare the harvest.

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Extra: Fear God and give glory. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom Psalms 111:10 They are the wise servants. But there are two harvest (Rev 14:14; 14:15, 19-20) The righteous and the wicked. (The wise servant and the evil servant). The evil servants say Jeremiah 8:20 "The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not saved."
24:46 Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. 24:47 Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods. 24:48 But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; 24:49 And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken; 24:50 The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of, 24:51 And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

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Chapter 25
25:1 Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom.

Matt 25 is a continuation of Christ’s sermon beginning in Matt 24. With this in mind what theme do you think this parable is related to? Matt 25:13 The time of the end, just before Jesus’ second coming. Who were the virgins looking forward to meeting? Who does he represent? The bridegroom. The bridegroom represents God
Isa 62:5

Specifically Jesus
Eph 5:23

The bridegroom is coming for the bride. Who does she represent?
Eph 5:23

The bride = church = God’s people. Christ is coming back for His people What were the intentions of the virgins? Who do the virgins represent?
2 Corin 11:2

They were waiting to meet the bridegroom. They were part of the bridal party. Background: In middle eastern weddings, the bridegroom would come to the bride’s house to receive her and bring her back to the bridegroom’s house for the wedding feast. These virgins represent God’s people at the end, who are part of the bridal party, waiting for Christ’s coming. “chaste” = pure. These are people who profess to have a pure faith, a pure heart. What do the lamps held by the virgins represent?
Psa 119:105

Lamps = word of God. These people professed their faith and purity on the word of God. They kept the word. What do the foolish and wise virgins have in common? What are their differences? Common: Both are virgins, All have lamps, All fell asleep, All are woken up at midnight. Difference: The wise virgins had extra oil in their vessels. What does the oil represent?

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Zech 4:2-4, 12

Zechariah asks what the candlestick and oil represents.
Zech 4:6

The angel answers that it represents the spirit of the Lord = Holy Spirit. When did it become obvious that the foolish virgins were different from the wise?
Matt 25:5-7

After the delay. Whilst both fell asleep, lamps went out. When the midnight cry came. What happens after the midnight cry? What does this represent in the end of time?
Matt 25:6

The coming of the bridegroom = Coming of Christ, that happens at the darkest hour of earth’s history. Because the foolish virgins had no oil, what were they not able to do with their lamps? What does this represent?
Matt 5:16

The foolish virgins were not able to keep their lamps lighted. Light = good works. These foolish virgins were not shining with good works to glorify God. What parable have we studied that teaches us how to shine with good works for God? Parable of talents.
Matt 25:14-30

What happened to the foolish virgins when they tried to enter the wedding feast?
Matt 25:12

He said he did not know them. Who do the wise and foolish virgins represent in context of the end of time?
Matt 25:31-46

The wise virgins = those who shine the light of good works in a sin darkened world. They shine their good works by helping others. From the parable of the 10 virgins, we know that this light is powered by the oil, which represents the Holy Spirit. The foolish virgins = Those who in time of delay lost their faith and failed to allow the Holy Spirit to power their life. It’s only by being baptized by the Spirit as well as of water that we can be saved. Baptism of the spirit shows itself in a converted life that sacrifices self and shines the light of good works. As a result, they show no light = good works, during the time of darkness.

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CONCLUSION: If we are to see Jesus at the end of time, the wise Christians must have that oil, which is the Holy Spirit, which will sanctify us, transforming us so that our light will shine the light from the Sun of righteousness. This will allow Jesus to recognize us when He comes for His bride.
25:2 And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. 25:3 They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them: 25:4 But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 25:5 While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. 25:6 And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. 25:7 Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. 25:8 And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. 25:9 But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. 25:10 And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. 25:11 Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. 25:12 But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. 25:13 Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh. 25:14 For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country, who called his own servants, and delivered unto them his goods.

What was the context of why this parable was given? See chapter before. Note: This parable is a continuation of Jesus message to His disciples in Matt 24. Matt 25 is a continuation of Matt 24. Matt 24 is Jesus’ last instruction to His disciples before His death about the end of the world. Therefore, this parable is given in relation to the time of the end. Who does the man going to a far country symbolize in this parable? Note: Who is mentioned returning later in the parable?
Matt 25:19, 31

Jesus. When did the ‘certain man’ leave to go to a far country?
Acts 1:9

Rephrase question: When did Jesus leave? Jesus left this earth when He ascended into heaven, after His resurrection. Who do the servants represent?
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John 12:26

Servants = followers of Christ. Why is the concept of servants used? What lessons can we learn from this?
1 Cor 6:20

A follower of Christ is not his own. We have been bought with a price. All of Christ’s followers have been bought with a price.
1 Pet 1:18-19

What price? The blood of Christ. His life. The prince of heaven, Heaven’s precious Son was sacrificed.
2 Cor 5:15

Who did Jesus die for? Everyone. That means, that everybody, believers or unbelievers, are the Lord’s property. But in this parable, only those who accept Christ are represented as His servants. What does the man going to a far country do before he leaves? What does this symbolize?
Matt 25:14-15

He leaves his goods with his servants. Goods = talents.
Eph 4:8

Left behind gifts = apostles, pastors, etc.
John 16:7

When Jesus left, He left behind the Comforter, the Holy Spirit. What are the gifts of the Spirit?
1 Cor 12:8-11

Talents represent gifts of the Spirit. How are the talents distributed? What does this mean?
Matt 25:15

According to his several ability. “several” means one’s own. Gifts are given according to man’s ability to use them and handle them. Some servants are more capable to handle larger responsibilities. APPLICATION: Sometimes we are not as talented because God knows our capacity to use them. This does not mean we are not as blessed as others. With more talents come more responsibility. But at the same time, the one with just ONE talent is expected to use the little that he has as well.
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According to the parable, how are talents multiplied? Discuss.
Matt. 25:16

By trading them. By putting them to work. What does it mean to hide your talent? Discuss. To not use them, having them sit idle. To knowingly have it, but intentionally hide it. What was the servant’s excuse for hiding his talent?
Matt 25:24

He had a false perception of who God really was: “hard” – difficult God, harsh, judgmental. “reaping where thou hast not sown and gathering where thou has not strewn” – asking impossible things. The servant believes that he has been given an impossible task. What is the real reason that is pointed out by the Lord to why this servant hid his talent?
Matt 25:26

Lord’s perception = “wicked” and “slothful.” Slothful means indolent, lazy, wanting to avoid activity. He was lazy, not afraid. Being afraid was just an excuse. In the context of this parable, what is an unprofitable servant? Discuss. He had a talent and he heard the command of the Lord but never used it. Application: He was a Christian and was blessed with at least one talent from God but he chose not to use it. What is the end result of the unfaithful servant?
Matt 25:29-30, 41

Cast out into outer darkness, there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. This is symbolic of eternal destruction in verse 41. In the context of this parable, how do faithful servants use their talents?
Matt 25:34-40

To use the talents that God has given us to help those in need. Sometimes the talents that God gives us we use for selfish purposes and not to help or bless others in winning them to the kingdom. What lessons can we learn from what the servants did with the talents and the results?
Luke 16:10 Luke 12:48

It is not the amount of talents that you are given, but what you do with what is given you. If you
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make an effort to use your talents, God will at the very least, reward you by doubling. God does not give small increments. He gives double. God gives in abundance. All of God’s servants are to improve on what they are given. Those who do nothing with their gifts but bury them will end up with even less than what he started out with.
25:15 And unto one he gave five talents, to another two, and to another one; to every man according to his several ability; and straightway took his journey. 25:16 Then he that had received the five talents went and traded with the same, and made them other five talents. 25:17 And likewise he that had received two, he also gained other two. 25:18 But he that had received one went and digged in the earth, and hid his lord's money. 25:19 After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them. 25:20 And so he that had received five talents came and brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: behold, I have gained beside them five talents more. 25:21 His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. 25:22 He also that had received two talents came and said, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me two talents: behold, I have gained two other talents beside them. 25:23 His lord said unto him, Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. 25:24 Then he which had received the one talent came and said, Lord, I knew thee that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strawed: 25:25 And I was afraid, and went and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, there thou hast that is thine. 25:26 His lord answered and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou knewest that I reap where I sowed not, and gather where I have not strawed: 25:27 Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers, and then at my coming I should have received mine own with usury. 25:28 Take therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him which hath ten talents. 25:29 For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath. 25:30 And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 25:31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: 25:32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats:

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25:33 And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 25:34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: 25:35 For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: 25:36 Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. 25:37 Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink? 25:38 When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? 25:39 Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? 25:40 And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. 25:41 Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: 25:42 For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink: 25:43 I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. 25:44 Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? 25:45 Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me. 25:46 And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.

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Chapter 26
 Simon’s feast (6-13)
26:1 And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, 26:2 Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified. 26:3 Then assembled together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas, 26:4 And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty, and kill him. 26:5 But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people. 26:6 Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper,

What do we know about Simon? He was a leper. He was also a Pharisee. He was one of the few who made a public commitment to Christ during His ministry. He had a courage to make a stand for Jesus. He was responsible for leading Mary into sin. What has just happened just prior to this feast? Lazarus was just raised from the dead. The Pharisees wanted to kill Lazarus and Jesus. Judas was considered the most educated amongst all of the disciples.
DA 559 His professed sympathy for the poor deceived them, and his artful insinuation caused them to look distrustfully upon Mary's devotion.

Speaking of Mary:
John 12:1-5

The woman is Mary. Spikenard costed 300 pence.
Matt 20:2

People were paid a penny per day. This gives us an idea of how much this perfume cost. It was equivalent to spending one years salary.
26:7 There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat. 26:8 But when his disciples saw it, they had indignation, saying, To what purpose is this waste?

One person who was instigating this statement was Judas. EGW tells us that he wanted the money to go into the bag so he could use it for himself.
Luke 7:38

This account gives us this idea that she was crying. But it was a custom back then. How was she able to get this ointment out of this alabaster box? In order for that scent to be noticed, the box had to be

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broken. In order for the fragrance of His life to fill this world, His body had to be broken. We also have to fall on the rock and be broken.
26:9 For this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to the poor. 26:10 When Jesus understood it, he said unto them, Why trouble ye the woman? for she hath wrought a good work upon me. 26:11 For ye have the poor always with you; but me ye have not always. 26:12 For in that she hath poured this ointment on my body, she did it for my burial.

What was the purpose for which Mary gave the ointment? It was in favor for Him to ascend to the throne, but He said that it was for His burial.
DA 560 She feared that her sister would reproach her for extravagance. The Master, too, might think her improvident. Without apology or excuse she was about to shrink away, when the voice of her Lord was heard, "Let her alone; why trouble ye her?" He saw that she was embarrassed and distressed. He knew that in this act of service she had expressed her gratitude for the forgiveness of her sins, and He brought relief to her mind. Lifting His voice above the murmur of criticism, He said, "She hath wrought a good work on Me. For ye have the poor with you always, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good: but Me ye have not always. She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand to anoint My body to the burying.”

She was being criticized for an act out of love. The character of Judas:
DA 563 But the look which Jesus cast upon Judas convinced him that the Saviour penetrated his hypocrisy, and read his base, contemptible character. And in commending Mary's action, which had been so severely condemned, Christ had rebuked Judas. Prior to this, the Saviour had never given him a direct rebuke. Now the reproof rankled in his heart. He determined to be revenged. From the supper he went directly to the palace of the high priest, where he found the council assembled, and he offered to betray Jesus into their hands. Luke 7:40-50

Out of these two in the parable, Simon was forgiven more.
DA 566 Simon had led into sin the woman he now despised. She had been deeply wronged by him. By the two debtors of the parable, Simon and the woman were represented. Jesus did not design to teach that different degrees of obligation should be felt by the two persons, for each owed a debt of gratitude that never could be repaid. But Simon felt himself more righteous than Mary, and Jesus desired him to see how great his guilt really was. He would show him that his sin was greater than hers, as much greater as a debt of five hundred pence exceeds a debt of fifty pence. DA 566 And when they had nothing to pay, he frankly forgave them both. Tell Me therefore, which of them will love him most? Simon answered and said, I suppose that he, to whom he forgave most. And He said unto him, Thou hast rightly judged.

If you look back and realize how great a sinner you really were, you sense the gratitude of what God had really done for you.
DA 564 Christ values acts of heartfelt courtesy. When anyone did Him a favor, with heavenly politeness He blessed the actor. He did not refuse the simplest flower plucked by the hand of a child, and offered to Him in love. He accepted the offerings of children, and blessed the givers, inscribing

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their names in the book of life. DA 563 Looking into the future, the Saviour spoke with certainty concerning His gospel. It was to be preached throughout the world. And as far as the gospel extended, Mary's gift would shed its fragrance, and hearts would be blessed through her unstudied act. Kingdoms would rise and fall; the names of monarchs and conquerors would be forgotten; but this woman's deed would be immortalized upon the pages of sacred history. Until time should be no more, that broken alabaster box would tell the story of the abundant love of God for a fallen race. DA 568 Jesus knows the circumstances of every soul. You may say, I am sinful, very sinful. You may be; but the worse you are, the more you need Jesus. He turns no weeping, contrite one away. He does not tell to any all that He might reveal, but He bids every trembling soul take courage. Freely will He pardon all who come to Him for forgiveness and restoration. 26:13 Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her. 26:14 Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, 26:15 And said unto them, What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver.

Thirty pieces of silver was the price of a slave. Avarice and greed brought him to sell his master for 30 pieces of silver. It was just a progression of events starting from stealing money. Then he starts criticizing people for using money unwisely. Ultimately, he sells his Master.
26:16 And from that time he sought opportunity to betray him. 26:17 Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover? 26:18 And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master saith, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy house with my disciples. 26:19 And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them; and they made ready the passover. 26:20 Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve. 26:21 And as they did eat, he said, Verily I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me. 26:22 And they were exceeding sorrowful, and began every one of them to say unto him, Lord, is it I? 26:23 And he answered and said, He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, the same shall betray me. 26:24 The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born. 26:25 Then Judas, which betrayed him, answered and said, Master, is it I? He said unto him, Thou hast said. 26:26 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. 26:27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;

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26:28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. 26:29 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom. 26:30 And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives. 26:31 Then saith Jesus unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad. 26:32 But after I am risen again, I will go before you into Galilee. 26:33 Peter answered and said unto him, Though all men shall be offended because of thee, yet will I never be offended.

How did Peter react when Jesus said that He would be betrayed? What was his mistake?
Matt 26:31-34

He was so sure of himself that he would stay and die with Jesus. Sometimes we can be as sure of our faith and zealousness for Jesus as well. We need to be careful of our confidence in ourselves. We need to learn to distrust ourselves rather than be so confident. MISTAKE 1: Peter’s 1st mistake was to be self confident when he should have put his confidence in Christ. LESSON: Don’t be confident in self. Learn to trust only in Jesus and God’s guidance. What was Peter’s mistake in the garden of Gethsemane?
Matt 26:40

Peter was sleeping rather than praying. MISTAKE 2: Peter did not pray, but fell asleep on Christ instead. LESSON: When we forget to pray, we will inevitably fall asleep in our Christian walk. How did Peter react when a mob came to take Jesus? What was his mistake?
John 18:10-11.

Peter tried to kill one of the members of the mob. In fact, the servant of the high priest. Question: Was Peter just trying to cut off the ear? Do you think he was so good a swordsman as to try to scare everyone away by cutting off an ear? I don’t think so. Most likely he was trying to kill the servant and aim for the neck. However he missed and Jesus rebuked him. MISTAKE 3: Tried to defend Christ with impulsive violence. LESSON: Do not try to defend Christ or God in a moment of impulse and revenge. Christ does not expect us to react in violence for His defense. Christ’s response is meek and lowly. After Jesus was taken away, what did Peter do? What was his mistake?
Luke 22:54

Peter followed afar off. MISTAKE 4: Peter followed Christ from a distance. LESSON: When we follow Jesus afar off, we are destined to deny Him. What should Peter have been doing? Following Jesus closely, by His side.

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Where was Peter as the trial began?
Matt 26:58

Sitting inside the hall to see the trial. What did Peter do after a maid recognized him?
Mark 14:66-68 John 18:17-18

Peter denied Christ the first time. What else did Peter do? Moved out of the hall outside to the porch and further away from Christ. He warmed himself in front of “a fire of coals” with the servants and officers. MISTAKE 5: Denied Christ and moved further away from Him. LESSON: When we deny Christ, we instinctively move further away from Him. Why did Peter warm himself with the servants and officers? He wanted to make himself look like he was one of those people who brought Jesus to the court. MISTAKE 6: Tried to hide himself in the wrong crowd, to disguise his relationship with Christ. LESSON: Once we start to deny Christ and move away from Him, we will next try to hide ourselves in the wrong crowd. How was Peter’s behavior after each time he denied Christ?
Matt 26:70-74

Peter denied Christ stronger and stronger to the point where he was cursing. That is usually the trend when we get used to denying Christ. After a while we not only deny Him, but we do it with cursing and swearing. Who did Peter see right after he denied Jesus?
Luke 22:60-61

Peter saw Jesus. What did Peter hear right after he denied Jesus? Matt 26:74 He heard the cock crewing. QUESTION: When does a cock usually crow? In the morning hours. How did Peter respond to the cock crowing? Matt 26:75 He remembered the words of Jesus and this made him weep bitterly. In summary, what can we learn from Peter’s mistakes leading up to his fall? How do you

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think Christ felt?
Luke 22:31-32

Self confidence, self reliance. Lack of prayer, falling asleep to Christ. Impulsive and violent. Followed Christ from a distance. Denied Christ and moved further away. Tried to hide himself in the wrong crowd. Denial for Christ became worse and worse to the point of cursing and swearing. NOTE: Christ knew Peter was going to fall and had prayed for him already (Luke 22:31-32). Likewise, Christ knows when we will fall and is praying for our conversion. When Christ looked at Peter, his heart must have hurt, but He knew that Peter would make a change. Let us make sure that we don’t continue to make the same mistakes as Peter.
26:34 Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this night, before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. 26:35 Peter said unto him, Though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee. Likewise also said all the disciples. 26:36 Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane, and saith unto the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and pray yonder. 26:37 And he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and very heavy. 26:38 Then saith he unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death: tarry ye here, and watch with me. 26:39 And he went a little further, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt. 26:40 And he cometh unto the disciples, and findeth them asleep, and saith unto Peter, What, could ye not watch with me one hour? 26:41 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. 26:42 He went away again the second time, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done. 26:43 And he came and found them asleep again: for their eyes were heavy. 26:44 And he left them, and went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words. 26:45 Then cometh he to his disciples, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 26:46 Rise, let us be going: behold, he is at hand that doth betray me. 26:47 And while he yet spake, lo, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and elders of the people. 26:48 Now he that betrayed him gave them a sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he: hold him fast.

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26:49 And forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, master; and kissed him. 26:50 And Jesus said unto him, Friend, wherefore art thou come? Then came they, and laid hands on Jesus, and took him. 26:51 And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest's, and smote off his ear. 26:52 Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. 26:53 Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels? 26:54 But how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be? 26:55 In that same hour said Jesus to the multitudes, Are ye come out as against a thief with swords and staves for to take me? I sat daily with you teaching in the temple, and ye laid no hold on me. 26:56 But all this was done, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. Then all the disciples forsook him, and fled. 26:57 And they that had laid hold on Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. 26:58 But Peter followed him afar off unto the high priest's palace, and went in, and sat with the servants, to see the end. 26:59 Now the chief priests, and elders, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death; 26:60 But found none: yea, though many false witnesses came, yet found they none. At the last came two false witnesses, 26:61 And said, This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days. 26:62 And the high priest arose, and said unto him, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee? 26:63 But Jesus held his peace. And the high priest answered and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God. 26:64 Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. 26:65 Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy. 26:66 What think ye? They answered and said, He is guilty of death. 26:67 Then did they spit in his face, and buffeted him; and others smote him with the palms of their hands, 26:68 Saying, Prophesy unto us, thou Christ, Who is he that smote thee?

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26:69 Now Peter sat without in the palace: and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee. 26:70 But he denied before them all, saying, I know not what thou sayest.

It is important to see how Peter’s experience relates to us.
DA 710 In the court a fire had been kindled; for it was the coldest hour of the night, being just before the dawn. A company drew about the fire, and Peter presumptuously took his place with them. He did not wish to be recognized as a disciple of Jesus. By mingling carelessly with the crowd, he hoped to be taken for one of those who had brought Jesus to the hall.

John was in the judgment hall with Jesus. Peter tried to act as one of the crowd.
DA 712 In order to conceal his true feelings, he endeavored to join with the persecutors of Jesus in their untimely jests. But his appearance was unnatural. He was acting a lie, and while seeking to talk unconcernedly he could not restrain expressions of indignation at the abuse heaped upon his Master.” –

Here is the three ways that Peter denied Jesus:
DA 710 "Art not thou also one of this Man's disciples?" Peter was startled and confused; the eyes of the company instantly fastened upon him. He pretended not to understand her; but she was persistent, and said to those around her that this man was with Jesus. Peter felt compelled to answer, and said angrily, "Woman, I know Him not." This was the first denial, and immediately the cock crew. O Peter, so soon ashamed of thy Master! so soon to deny thy Lord!

He was trying to act like one of the wolves.
DA 712 Attention was called to him the second time, and he was again charged with being a follower of Jesus. He now declared with an oath, "I do not know the Man."

Christ’s disciples were known for their honesty and clarity of speech.
DA 712 An hour had passed, when one of the servants of the high priest, being a near kinsman of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked him, "Did not I see thee in the garden with Him?" "Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilean, and thy speech agreeth thereto." At this Peter flew into a rage. The disciples of Jesus were noted for the purity of their language, and in order fully to deceive his questioners, and justify his assumed character, Peter now denied his Master with cursing and swearing.

Peter denied Christ by what he said. Today there are two ways we can deny Christ: Through our actions. And through our words.
DA 712 While the degrading oaths were fresh upon Peter's lips, and the shrill crowing of the cock was still ringing in his ears, the Saviour turned from the frowning judges, and looked full upon His poor disciple. At the same time Peter's eyes were drawn to his Master. In that gentle countenance he read deep pity and sorrow, but there was no anger there.

If Jesus had refused Judas’ kiss, it would have shown us that we could justifiably repel those who betray us. Why did Judas have to kiss Jesus? It was unclear which one Jesus was because all the disciples were healing and teaching and preaching.

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DA 714 Then came the third scene of abuse and mockery, worse even than that received from the ignorant rabble. In the very presence of the priests and rulers, and with their sanction, this took place. Every feeling of sympathy or humanity had gone out of their hearts. If their arguments were weak, and failed to silence His voice, they had other weapons, such as in all ages have been used to silence heretics,--suffering, and violence, and death. DA 715 The angels of God faithfully recorded every insulting look, word, and act against their beloved Commander. One day the base men who scorned and spat upon the calm, pale face of Christ will look upon it in its glory, shining brighter than the sun. 26:71 And when he was gone out into the porch, another maid saw him, and said unto them that were there, This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth. 26:72 And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. 26:73 And after a while came unto him they that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely thou also art one of them; for thy speech bewrayeth thee. 26:74 Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know not the man. And immediately the cock crew. 26:75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he went out, and wept bitterly.

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Chapter 27
27:1 When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: 27:2 And when they had bound him, they led him away, and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor.

What did the priests and elders do and what was their intention? Took counsel against Jesus to put him to death. Bound Jesus and carried him to away to Pilate. Who is Pilate? Governor. What did the priests accuse Jesus of?
Luke 23:2, 5

Perverting the nation. Forbidding to give tribute unto Caesar. Saying that he himself was a king. Stirring up the people What was Pilate’s reply? And what did he do after the priests pressured him more? What can we learn from Pilate’s first mistake?
Luke 23:4-7

Pilate told the priests he found no fault with Jesus. After further pressure, Pilate tried to pass the problem on to Herod. Application: Pilate sent Jesus away even though he found no fault in Him because of the pressure of the people. Sometimes we tend to reject Jesus as well even though we believe but because of peer pressure, we reject Him.
27:3 Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, 27:4 Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that. 27:5 And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself. 27:6 And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood. 27:7 And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to bury strangers in. 27:8 Wherefore that field was called, The field of blood, unto this day. 27:9 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value; 27:10 And gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me. 27:11 And Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest.

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27:12 And when he was accused of the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. 27:13 Then said Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee? 27:14 And he answered him to never a word; insomuch that the governor marvelled greatly.

How did Jesus respond differently to Pilate’s two questions? What is the difference between the two questions? What can we learn from the question Jesus chose to answer?
Matt 27:11-14

In verse 11 Pilate asks Jesus to identify Himself and He responds. In verses 12 to 14 Pilate asks Jesus to respond to accusations and He chooses not to respond. Application: When Jesus was asked concerning His identity, He answered. But when it comes to meeting the accusations, he did not say anything. Question: According to Jesus’ example, when is the right time for us to answer? When we are asked to identify ourselves as Christians. When shouldn’t we answer? When we are being accused falsely. Too often Christians are tempted into fighting back false accusations and feel the need to argue back, but instead, we should follow Christ’s example.
27:15 Now at that feast the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would. 27:16 And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. 27:17 Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ? 27:18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered him.

What does Pilate try to do next in handling Christ? What lesson can we learn from his second mistake?
Matt 27:15-18

Pilate tries to give the Jews a choice because he has no intention of killing Jesus. He tries to save Jesus by offering somebody worse. Rather than making the tough decision, Pilate tries to remain neutral. Application: As Christians we should be prepared to make the tough decisions for Jesus. We need people who can stand up for JESUS. In tough situations, do people know where we stand? Or do we allow the crowd to influence our decisions? Pilate’s mistake = He did not pick a side to stand, he tried to remain neutral.
27:19 When he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.

What does Pilate’s wife tell him? What does she call Jesus? Why do you think she was given a dream? Pilate’s wife warns him to have nothing to do with Jesus’ death because she was warned in a dream. She calls Jesus a just man. God is trying to give Pilate one last chance to do the right thing. Who is Barabbas? Who does he represent? How does this apply to us?
Matt 27:6

A notable prisoner.
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Mark 15:7

A murderer.
John 18:4

A robber. Application: Barabbas represents Lucifer – the rebel, criminal, father of sin and death (murderer), thief (stole God’s people from Him). We have 2 choices in life – choose Jesus OR Lucifer. We also choose Barabbas over Jesus when we choose Lucifer.
27:20 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. 27:21 The governor answered and said unto them, Whether of the twain will ye that I release unto you? They said, Barabbas. 27:22 Pilate saith unto them, What shall I do then with Jesus which is called Christ? They all say unto him, Let him be crucified. 27:23 And the governor said, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified.

How does Pilate make his important decision over Christ in his third mistake?
Matt 27:22-23

Pilate bases his decision on the people. Who do the people represent? The majority. Pilate decides on Christ by yielding to the earthly majority. Application: Never make your decisions for Christ based on the majority, peer pressure is usually always wrong.
27:24 When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it. 27:25 Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. 27:26 Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.

What does Pilate try to do to detach himself from this decision? What was his fourth mistake?
Matt 27:24-26

Pilate washes his hand. The people ask for Christ’s blood to be upon them. Pilate’s fourth mistake = thinking that water can wash away guilt. In summary, what are the mistakes that Pilate made and what important lessons can we learn from them? Sent Jesus away. He did not pick a side to stand on, tried to be neutral. Yielded to

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the earthly majority. Thought that water could wash away guilt. What can we learn for ourselves from this? When Jesus comes to us, don’t send Him away, especially if we find no fault in Him. Give him a chance and ignore the peer pressure. Don’t be neutral in following Jesus. Study His word and obey the convictions of our heart. Don’t yield to the majority (even in church) because they are usually wrong. Don’t think that by remaining impartial we can be innocent.
27:27 Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall, and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers. 27:28 And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe. 27:29 And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews! 27:30 And they spit upon him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head. 27:31 And after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him. 27:32 And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross. 27:33 And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull, 27:34 They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink. 27:35 And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots. 27:36 And sitting down they watched him there; 27:37 And set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. 27:38 Then were there two thieves crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left. 27:39 And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads, 27:40 And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross. 27:41 Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, 27:42 He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him. 27:43 He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: for he said, I am the Son of God. 27:44 The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth. 27:45 Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour. 27:46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

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27:47 Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elias. 27:48 And straightway one of them ran, and took a spunge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink. 27:49 The rest said, Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to save him. 27:50 Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. 27:51 And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; 27:52 And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, 27:53 And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many. 27:54 Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God. 27:55 And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him: 27:56 Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee's children. 27:57 When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus' disciple: 27:58 He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. 27:59 And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 27:60 And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed. 27:61 And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulchre. 27:62 Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, 27:63 Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again. 27:64 Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first. 27:65 Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch: go your way, make it as sure as ye can. 27:66 So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch.

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Chapter 28
28:1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre. 28:2 And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it. 28:3 His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow: 28:4 And for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead men. 28:5 And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. 28:6 He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. 28:7 And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you. 28:8 And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy; and did run to bring his disciples word. 28:9 And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him. 28:10 Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me. 28:11 Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, and shewed unto the chief priests all the things that were done. 28:12 And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers, 28:13 Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept. 28:14 And if this come to the governor's ears, we will persuade him, and secure you. 28:15 So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day. 28:16 Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them. 28:17 And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted. 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

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Mark - Jesus Christ as a Servant
Introduction
Author: John Mark, cousin of Barnabas, translator for Peter. He gives the gospel account of Jesus according to Peter. John was a common Hebrew name and Mark was a common gentile name coming from the Latin Marcus. He was an intimate friend and associate of Peter Acts 12:11-17. Peter addresses him as my son 1 Peter 5:13 1 & 2 Peter should be studied in connection with the gospel of Mark. Note: Memorization Outline      Do we find Mark anywhere else in the Bible? o Acts and Paul’s writings He was also a contemporary but he was not a disciple So how did he get the information to write Mark? o He talked with one of the disciples – Peter o He had information which no other gospel writer has His account is very short We believe that it was the first gospel written o About 32 years after Jesus died – 65 AD o Why would it take so long for them to write it?  They were busy evangelizing, etc.

Author and Title
Widespread evidence from the early church fathers affirms that Peter passed on reports of the words and deeds of Jesus to his attendant and writer, John Mark.Internal evidence also supports the Patristic testimony that Peter stands behind Mark's Gospel. Mark's account is especially vivid when recounting incidents involving Peter. It presents the weaknesses of Peter, as well as the disciples as a whole, and omits praiseworthy or noticeable references to Peter reported in Matthew and Luke. It has also been observed that there exists a certain structural proximity between Peter's Caesarea speech (Acts 10:34–43) and the Gospel of Mark.

Date and Location
The external and internal data most convincingly point to Rome as the place of composition and a date for Mark in the mid- to late-50s a.d..

Theme
The ultimate purpose and theme of Mark is to present and defend Jesus' universal call to discipleship. Mark returns often to this theme, and as the narrative unfolds he categorizes his main audience as either followers or opponents of Jesus. The outline demonstrates that Mark's central effort in presenting and supporting this call is to narrate the identity and teaching of Jesus. This fact implies that discipleship for Mark is essentially a relationship with Jesus, not merely following a certain code of conduct. Fellowship with Jesus marks the heart of the disciple's life, and this fellowship includes trusting him, confessing him, taking note of his conduct, following his teaching, and being shaped by a relationship to him. Discipleship also means being prepared to face the kind of rejection that Jesus faced.

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Key Themes
1. Jesus seeks to correct messianic expectations and misunderstandings. 2. Jesus is man. 3. Jesus is the Son of God. 4. Jesus is the Son of Man with all power and authority. 5. Jesus as the Son of Man must suffer. 6. Jesus is Lord. 7. Jesus calls his followers to imitate him in humble service, self-denial, and suffering. 8. Jesus teaches on the kingdom of God, and implies that God continues to call a people to himself. 1:25, 34, 44; 3:12; 4:10–12; 5:18– 19, 43; 8:30; 9:9 3:5; 4:38; 6:6; 7:34; 8:12, 33; 10:14; 11:12; 14:33–42 1:11; 3:11; 5:7; 8:38; 9:7; 12:6–8; 13:32; 14:36, 61; 15:39 1:16–34; 2:3–12, 23–28; 3:11; 4:35–41; 6:45–52; 7:1–23; 10:1–12 8:31; 10:45; 14:21, 36 2:28; 12:35–37; 14:62 8:34–38; 9:35–37; 10:35–45 ch. 4; cf. 1:15; 9:1; 14:25; 15:43

Purpose, Occasion, and Background
Though Mark wrote from Rome, the Gospel of Mark was composed for the wider church as the record of the apostolic testimony of Peter. Even during the early Patristic period, Gentile Christians were frequently mentioned as the recipients of this Gospel. Mark addresses an audience that is largely unfamiliar with Jewish customs. He intends to familiarize them with those customs, because only then will they understand the coming of Jesus as the culmination of God's work with Israel and the entire world.

Distinctive Features The Setting of Mark
The events in the book of Mark take place almost entirely within the vicinity of Palestine, an area extending roughly from Caesarea Philippi in the north to Beersheba in the south. During this time it was ruled by the Roman Empire. The book opens with Jesus' baptism by John during the rule of Pontius Pilate and the tetrarchs Antipas and Philip, and it closes with Jesus' death and resurrection about three years later.

History of Salvation Summary
Mark tells of Jesus' coming to bring everlasting salvation, as prophesied in the OT, and to triumph over sin and Satan. The ultimate fulfillment comes with his crucifixion and resurrection.

Outline
1. Introduction (1:1–15) 2. Demonstration of Jesus' Authority (1:16–8:26)

a. Jesus' early Galilean ministry (1:16–3:12) b. Jesus' later Galilean ministry (3:13–6:6) i. Calling of the Twelve (3:13–35) ii. Parables (4:1–34) iii. Nature miracle, exorcism, and healing (4:35–5:43)

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iv. Rejection at Nazareth (6:1–6) c. Work beyond Galilee (6:7–8:26) i. Sending of the Twelve (6:7–13) ii. Death of John the Baptist (6:14–56) iii. Teachings on moral defilement (7:1–23) iv. Opening to Gentiles (7:24–30) v. Additional miracles in Decapolis and Bethsaida (7:31–8:26) 3. Testing Jesus' Authority in Suffering (8:27–16:8) a. Journey to Jerusalem (8:27–10:52) i. Peter's confession (8:27–33) ii. Call to discipleship (8:34–9:1) iii. Transfiguration and healing (9:2–29) iv. Instruction on discipleship: putting others first (9:30–50) v. Instruction on discipleship: divorce, wealth, humility (10:1–52) b. Entering and judging Jerusalem (11:1–13:37) i. Triumphal entry to Jerusalem (11:1–11) ii. Jesus' judgment on religious leaders (11:12–12:44) iii. Jesus and the coming judgment (13:1–37) c. Death and resurrection in Jerusalem (14:1–16:8) i. Betrayal (14:1–52) ii. Trial (14:53–15:20) iii. Crucifixion and resurrection (15:21–16:8) iv. [“Longer ending of Mark” (16:9–20; see note)]

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Chapter 1
Chapter Outline      John prepares the way through Baptism (1-8) Baptism & Temptation of Jesus in the wilderness (9-13) Call of Peter, Andrew, James and John (14-20) Christ's authority over all diseases and demons (21-34) o Unclean spirit in Synagogue and Peter's mother in law. Healing of the leper and Christ's fame spreads abroad (35-45)

Summary: Christ's has authority over all manner of sicknesses and diseases. From minor sicknesses such as a fever to severe sicknesses leprosy. And all demons obey His voice. Overview Verses 1:1-2 = It begins with the gospel message being taken to the world by the messenger of God. Chap 16:19-20 = It ends with the gospel being taken to the world by the messengers of God. And this gospel is incomplete; it will be complete with you and me. And it talks about the gospel going to the whole world. The book of Mark stresses action, movement. One word is repeated throughout ‘straightway’.

John prepares the way through Baptism (1-8)
1:1 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God;

What can you tell me about the gospel from this verse? It is about Jesus Christ, who is Jesus? The Christ, and who is the Christ? The Son of God. Gospel means good news, glad tidings. What are the glad tidings? That Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Son of God automatically makes Him divine. Jesus shows He is human.
1:2 As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.

“As it is written in the prophets” – What is written in the prophets, the Old Testament? The gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. (See Romans 1:1-3) “my messenger” – This shows that he has a message. And this message is a part of the gospel, and this message will prepare the way for Him to come the first time. How will he prepare the way? By giving a message
Amos 3:7 Surely the Lord GOD will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets. 1:3 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.

“make his paths straight” – This is the message; make his paths straight. According to eastern culture this language was used to usher in a king. What does that mean? The true message of the gospel is that Jesus is a man, God, and King. Note: Mal 3:1 Messenger prepares the way for him to enter His temple. That was on this earth when
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Jesus came the first time; for our time it was before He went into the MHP. This phrase also shows that He was a Priest. App: Before God comes, He first sends a message. And that means He must have a messenger. A mouth piece. So it must follow that before He comes back the second time He must have a messenger. Remember Mk 16:19, what is there message? Jesus, a man, who is He? Lord, divine, and he sat on the right hand of God, King. Same message. Practically how do we make his paths straight?
1:4 John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.

It didn’t mention his birth, who his parents were, etc. “baptism” – this is how we make his paths straight, this is the message. App: We should be propelled to take the gospel to the world. If not, we need to re-examine if we are ready to make his paths straight, if we need to be re-baptized.
1:5 And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.

Confession of sin
1:6 And John was clothed with camel's hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins; and he did eat locusts and wild honey;

He wore simple clothing, the people were attracted to the message, and not the man. He pointed them to the message.
1:7 And preached, saying, There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose.

He didn’t mention his name? Why? Because of what there expectations were. He pointed them to the scriptures first, took attention off of himself.
1:8 I indeed have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost.

This is how He is mightier than Him. How do we make his paths straight, confession, repentance, and baptism of the water and Holy Ghost.

Baptism & Temptation of Jesus in the wilderness (9-13)
1:9 And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan.

“Jesus came from Nazareth” – What did verse 1 say? Jesus Christ. Here He is called Jesus, why? Because He was not yet the Christ.
1:10 And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him:

Why does He mention the Holy Spirit here? This is how He became the Christ. What does Christ mean? The anointed one. The Messiah.
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Dan 9:25 Messiah Jn 1:41 We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ.” (the anointed margin) Acts 10:38 How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power. 1:11 And there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

“my beloved Son”
Mark 1:9 Jesus Mark 1:10 Christ Mark 1:11 Son of God

What is the gospel? Jesus Christ the Son of God. Make the Messiah’s path, the kings path straight. Verses 1-11. The gospel put succinctly.
1:12 And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness. 1:13 And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.

Call of Peter, Andrew, James and John (14-20)
1:14 Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, 1:15 And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel. 1:16 Now as he walked by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew his brother casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. 1:17 And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me, and I will make you to become fishers of men. 1:18 And straightway they forsook their nets, and followed him. 1:19 And when he had gone a little further thence, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who also were in the ship mending their nets. 1:20 And straightway he called them: and they left their father Zebedee in the ship with the hired servants, and went after him.

Christ's authority over all diseases and demons (21-34)
1:21 And they went into Capernaum; and straightway on the sabbath day he entered into the synagogue, and taught. 1:22 And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes. 1:23 And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,

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1:24 Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God. 1:25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him. 1:26 And when the unclean spirit had torn him, and cried with a loud voice, he came out of him. 1:27 And they were all amazed, insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, What thing is this? what new doctrine is this? for with authority commandeth he even the unclean spirits, and they do obey him. 1:28 And immediately his fame spread abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee. 1:29 And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. 1:30 But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever, and anon they tell him of her. 1:31 And he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them. 1:32 And at even, when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils. 1:33 And all the city was gathered together at the door. 1:34 And he healed many that were sick of divers diseases, and cast out many devils; and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew him.

Healing of the leper and Christ's fame spreads abroad (35-45)
1:35 And in the morning, rising up a great while before day, he went out, and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed. 1:36 And Simon and they that were with him followed after him. 1:37 And when they had found him, they said unto him, All men seek for thee. 1:38 And he said unto them, Let us go into the next towns, that I may preach there also: for therefore came I forth. 1:39 And he preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and cast out devils. 1:40 And there came a leper to him, beseeching him, and kneeling down to him, and saying unto him, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.

Who came to Jesus and who does he represent spiritually? A leper. Note: The leper came to Jesus. Not Jesus went to him. The leper = a sinner = all of us. How can we make this comparison? Rom 3:23 and 6:23 tells us that all have sinned and our wages is death. So just like the leper, we are on a death sentence How did the leper come to Jesus? What does this represent? The leper was kneeling to Jesus. This represents prayer.

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What did the leper ask for? What does this for us? To be made clean. It meAnswer for the sinner to free from sin. What does the word beseech mean? What can we learn? To beg, to implore, plead. When is the last time that you pleaded, begged, implored God to cleanse you from your sins? Or do you just ask it out of habit and without much feeling involved.
1:41 And Jesus, moved with compassion, put forth his hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, I will; be thou clean.

How did Jesus respond? What application can we draw from this? Jesus reacted with compassion. What application can we draw? When you pray, Jesus is filled with compassion when you are asking for forgiveness. He is not a tyrant sitting there ready to punish you What does Christ’s hand represent?
Isa 41:10

Righteousness. Why did Jesus touch the man? Many instances He heals without touching. Why did He have to touch him? Have you been touched by Jesus? What did Jesus say to the leper? I wilt be thou clean. According to verse 41, what is the will of God? Compare with other texts as well.
Mark 1:41 1 Thess 4:3 John 17:17

Answer: For us sinners to be clean. For us to be clean = free from sin.
1:42 And as soon as he had spoken, immediately the leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed.

How was the leper healed? What has healing power?
Mark 1:42 Eph 5:26-27

Answer: As soon as Jesus spoke. Jesus’ words = word of God. How soon was the leper healed? What can we learn? Answer: Immediately. In summary: As soon as we pray to Jesus, beseeching him to forgive us and make us clean, Jesus has compassion, and touches us with his righteousness. Then he speaks through His word to heal us. Immediately, Christ’s word has healing power and can make us clean. We don’t have to wait days, weeks, or months. We can be healed through Christ’s righteousness and we should believe that we can be healed as long as we plead with Christ.

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1:43 And he straitly charged him, and forthwith sent him away; 1:44 And saith unto him, See thou say nothing to any man: but go thy way, shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing those things which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them. 1:45 But he went out, and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter, insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city, but was without in desert places: and they came to him from every quarter.

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Chapter 2 – Healing of Man with Palsy
Summary: This chapter shows His authority over sin, interacting with sinners, fasting, and the Sabbath. He is totally restructuring the Jewish economy. Placing everything back in its proper sphere in relation to the original purpose of God for His people. Chapter Outline     Healing of the man sick with palsy (1-12) The call and feast of Levi Matthew (13-17) The question on fasting (18-22) Plucking corn on the Sabbath (23-28)

Healing of the man sick with palsy (1-12)
2:1 And again he entered into Capernaum after some days; and it was noised that he was in the house. 2:2 And straightway many were gathered together, insomuch that there was no room to receive them, no, not so much as about the door: and he preached the word unto them.

Where is Jesus and what is He doing?
Mark 2:1-2

Answer: Jesus was in a house, preaching. Application: Equivalent of conducting prayer meeting or vespers – it is a worship or gathering of followers.
What type of people could be listening to Him and blocking the way for the man that was sick of the palsy?

Mark 1:16-20 His disciples were listening to Him
Mark 1:21-22

Those that heard His teaching at church
Mark 1:32

Those that He healed physically
Mark 2:6

Scribes APPLICATION: Mixture of church attendees and the sick.
2:3 And they come unto him, bringing one sick of the palsy, which was borne of four.

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Who does the man sick of the palsy represent today? Those who are too crippled by life or circumstances to come to Jesus. They need their friends’ help. According Luke 5:19, Mark 2:4, how hard was it to bring this sick man before Jesus? Remember, who was blocking the way? And how many people did it take to carry this sick man? They tried through the door, the window. Eventually they had to lift him up on the roof, break it and then lower him from the roof. They went to a lot of trouble to get him to Jesus. They were being blocked by the followers of Jesus. APPLICATION: sometimes we can block others to Christ by our actions or attitudes. We can block others even by wanting to hear a good sermon. Good motive – wanting to be spiritually fed, but there are others more in need but because we are stronger, we block them. It took 4 people to bring the sick man to Christ. In this verse who does the four men represent that were carrying this man sick of the palsy? Friends. Those with burden to see their friends come to Christ so that they can be healed physically and spiritually. What personal lesson can we learn in bringing souls to Christ from the four men? When a person comes to church, they need to make at least four friends. It takes team work to bring a soul to Christ. It takes a lot of effort to bring a soul to Christ.
2:4 And when they could not come nigh unto him for the press, they uncovered the roof where he was: and when they had broken it up, they let down the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay. 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee.

What was Jesus’ response to the man sick of the palsy? Son, thy sins be forgiven thee. Do you think that that was a response that he was seeking for? Discuss. Many people that are burdened with the guilt of sin first want to know that they are accepted by Christ and that their sins are forgiven them. The physical healing can sometimes be desired more, but usually it is the mind that wants to have peace first. It is that conscience that wants to be void of guilt and shame and transgression.
2:6 But there were certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts, 2:7 Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive sins but God only?

Who do the scribes represent today? Discuss it in relation to their response.
Mark 2:6-7

Learned men. The best theologians from the most acclaimed universities. APPLICATION: Some theologians, despite studying the truth, are not converted and will fight against God’s authority or will. We must be careful not to become like that.
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2:8 And immediately when Jesus perceived in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, he said unto them, Why reason ye these things in your hearts? 2:9 Whether is it easier to say to the sick of the palsy, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and take up thy bed, and walk?

Was it easier for Jesus to offer forgiveness or for Him to heal the man? Discuss. It would have been easier for Jesus to heal Him. Forgiveness signified that He had to make a provision for forgiveness.
1 Cor. 15:17

If He had to be resurrected, that means He had to die before that. So forgiveness of sins comes from the death and resurrection of Christ.
Heb 9:22

He had to shed His blood that He could give us remission of sins which is forgiveness. According to the story, whose faith was exercised that caused this man to be healed? It was the faith of four friends and the palsy man that enabled him to be healed (Mark 2:5). However, more importantly without the faith of friends, palsy man would not have reached Jesus. What lessons can we learn from the four men and their faith? How did Jesus see their faith? Discuss.
Mark 2:5

We must accompany our faith with works. It is our works that demonstrate what type of faith we have. The people listening had faith, but it didn’t help them because they had no works. Their faith was united in winning souls for Christ. It is when we are working for Christ for those crippled by sin that men will become united in faith.
2:10 But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (he saith to the sick of the palsy,) 2:11 I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy bed, and go thy way into thine house. 2:12 And immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went forth before them all; insomuch that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, We never saw it on this fashion.

The call and feast of Levi Matthew (13-17)
2:13 And he went forth again by the sea side; and all the multitude resorted unto him, and he taught them. 2:14 And as he passed by, he saw Levi the son of Alphaeus sitting at the receipt of custom, and said unto him, Follow me. And he arose and followed him. 2:15 And it came to pass, that, as Jesus sat at meat in his house, many publicans and sinners sat also together with Jesus and his disciples: for there were many, and they followed him.

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2:16 And when the scribes and Pharisees saw him eat with publicans and sinners, they said unto his disciples, How is it that he eateth and drinketh with publicans and sinners? 2:17 When Jesus heard it, he saith unto them, They that are whole have no need of the physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

The question on fasting (18-22)
2:18 And the disciples of John and of the Pharisees used to fast: and they come and say unto him, Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not? 2:19 And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. 2:20 But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days. 2:21 No man also seweth a piece of new cloth on an old garment: else the new piece that filled it up taketh away from the old, and the rent is made worse. 2:22 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles: else the new wine doth burst the bottles, and the wine is spilled, and the bottles will be marred: but new wine must be put into new bottles.

Plucking corn on the Sabbath (23-28)
2:23 And it came to pass, that he went through the corn fields on the sabbath day; and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of corn. 2:24 And the Pharisees said unto him, Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful? 2:25 And he said unto them, Have ye never read what David did, when he had need, and was an hungred, he, and they that were with him? 2:26 How he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and did eat the shewbread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to them which were with him? 2:27 And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath:

“Sabbath was made for man” – It was made for the needs of man, for the benefit of man. If a man is hungry on the Sabbath we are to feed him. Same if he is hungry, without water or clothes. “not man for the Sabbath” – Man was not made to determine what should or shouldn’t be done on the Sabbath. To set up his own restrictions and rules on the Sabbath.
2:28 Therefore the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.

Because I did not create you to determine what should be done on the Sabbath. The one who has authority over the Sabbath will dictate and give an example of what should be done on the Sabbath.

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Chapter 3
Chapter Outline     Healing of the withered hand on the Sabbath (1-6) Multitude from seven regions gathers at the sea of Capernaum (7-12) Ordination of the twelve disciples (13-19) Who are my brethren? & Warning against the sin of blasphemy (20-35)

Healing of the withered hand on the Sabbath (1-6)
3:1 And he entered again into the synagogue; and there was a man there which had a withered hand. 3:2 And they watched him, whether he would heal him on the sabbath day; that they might accuse him. 3:3 And he saith unto the man which had the withered hand, Stand forth. 3:4 And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill? But they held their peace. 3:5 And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other. 3:6 And the Pharisees went forth, and straightway took counsel with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him.

Multitude from seven regions gathers at the sea of Capernaum (7-12)
3:7 But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to the sea: and a great multitude from Galilee followed him, and from Judaea, 3:8 And from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea, and from beyond Jordan; and they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, when they had heard what great things he did, came unto him. 3:9 And he spake to his disciples, that a small ship should wait on him because of the multitude, lest they should throng him. 3:10 For he had healed many; insomuch that they pressed upon him for to touch him, as many as had plagues. 3:11 And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God. 3:12 And he straitly charged them that they should not make him known.

Ordination of the twelve disciples (13-19)
3:13 And he goeth up into a mountain, and calleth unto him whom he would: and they came unto him. 3:14 And he ordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, 3:15 And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils:

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3:16 And Simon he surnamed Peter; 3:17 And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and he surnamed them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder: 3:18 And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Canaanite, 3:19 And Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him: and they went into an house.

Who are my brethren? & Warning against the sin of blasphemy (20-35)
3:20 And the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. 3:21 And when his friends heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him: for they said, He is beside himself. 3:22 And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said, He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casteth he out devils. 3:23 And he called them unto him, and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan? 3:24 And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 3:25 And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand. 3:26 And if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end. 3:27 No man can enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he will first bind the strong man; and then he will spoil his house. 3:28 Verily I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme: 3:29 But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation: 3:30 Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit. 3:31 There came then his brethren and his mother, and, standing without, sent unto him, calling him. 3:32 And the multitude sat about him, and they said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren without seek for thee. 3:33 And he answered them, saying, Who is my mother, or my brethren? 3:34 And he looked round about on them which sat about him, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren! 3:35 For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother.

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Chapter 4 – Disciples in the Storm
Chapter Outline    Parable of the four grounds (1-23) Parables of the full corn in the ear and the mustard seed (24-34) Let us pass over to the other side (35-41)

Parable of the four grounds (1-23)
4:1 And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land. 4:2 And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine, 4:3 Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow: 4:4 And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up. 4:5 And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth: 4:6 But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 4:7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 4:8 And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred. 4:9 And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. 4:10 And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable. 4:11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables: 4:12 That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them. 4:13 And he said unto them, Know ye not this parable? and how then will ye know all parables? 4:14 The sower soweth the word. 4:15 And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan cometh immediately, and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts. 4:16 And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness; 4:17 And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended.

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4:18 And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word, 4:19 And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful. 4:20 And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred. 4:21 And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? 4:22 For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad. 4:23 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.

Parables of the full corn in the ear and the mustard seed (24-34)
4:24 And he said unto them, Take heed what ye hear: with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you: and unto you that hear shall more be given. 4:25 For he that hath, to him shall be given: and he that hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he hath. 4:26 And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground; 4:27 And should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how. 4:28 For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear. 4:29 But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come. 4:30 And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it? 4:31 It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth: 4:32 But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it. 4:33 And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it. 4:34 But without a parable spake he not unto them: and when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples.

Let us pass over to the other side (35-41)
4:35 And the same day, when the even was come, he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side.

What parable had Jesus been teaching before this encounter? What was the lesson about?
Mark 4:3-8

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Matt 13:20 Rom 10:17

Parable of the sower. This is about the different grounds and how they receive the seed = word (Matt 13:20). The main theme is about faith, because Rom 10:17 tells us that faith comes by hearing, hearing by the word of God. Jesus is about to follow up this parable with a practical example on faith. This is what this encounter is about. What did Jesus ask the disciples to do?
Mark 4:35

He asked them to pass over onto the other side.
4:36 And when they had sent away the multitude, they took him even as he was in the ship. And there were also with him other little ships. 4:37 And there arose a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full.

What happened next? There was a great storm. It beat against the boat and filled it up.
4:38 And he was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish?

Where was Jesus, and what was he doing?
Mark 4:38

He was asleep in the hinder part of the ship and He was fast asleep. How do the disciples react? What does it tell us about their attitude? The disciples call out to Jesus and ask Him if He cares whether they perish. When someone says something like that, what are they implying? That you don’t care. Why did the disciples think that? Because they were in the middle of a storm and Jesus was fast asleep. They probably felt Jesus did not do his part in keeping everyone alive. In what state was the boat in when the disciples called Christ? What do you think the disciples had already been doing before calling out to Christ and what lesson can we learn from this?
Mark 4:37

The boat was already full (v37). This means that the disciples only came to Jesus when the boat was full. As fishermen, what would be their natural instinct as they saw the boat filling up? They would try to use a bucket to scoop the water out. This means that by the time the disciples approached Jesus, they had already tried everything they humanly could. All that was left was to cry out to Jesus. Many of us try to save ourselves, we try working our way to heaven, before we will surrender all to
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Jesus. If only the disciples had called out to Jesus earlier they would have saved themselves a lot of work and grief. What does Jesus do next?
Mark 4:39

He rebukes the wind and sea. He tells them “Peace, be still.” If Jesus knew that the storm was coming, why did He first ask the disciples to go across the sea? Jesus wanted to teach the disciples a lesson about faith, or their lack of faith. Remember that He had just been teaching about faith just before they got into the boat. Application: Many times, Jesus deliberately brings us into the storms of life so that He can teach us something or test our character to show us where we are at.
4:39 And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still. And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm. 4:40 And he said unto them, Why are ye so fearful? how is it that ye have no faith?

What two things did Jesus rebuke the disciples for? What lessons can we learn from this? Answer: 1. For fearing. 2. For having no faith. Application: Fear = Lack of faith. The spirit of blaming Christ came from the disciples’ lack of faith in Jesus and first trying on their own human strength. Lessons:  1. The disciples forgot Jesus words of promise that they would pass over to the other side. Lesson 1 = Remember God’s word and hold on to promises during storms. 2. The disciples tried to save themselves on their own strength first. Righteousness by works. Lesson 2 = Have faith in God. Righteousness by faith. 3. The disciples only called out to Christ when the boat was full. Lesson 3 = Seek God first, not last. 4. Their desperation, lack of faith caused them to doubt Christ’s care and love for them. Lesson 4 = Do not fear, but remember God’s love.

What does the Bible tell us about fear and faith?
1 John 4:18

There is no fear in love. If we really love Jesus we will have faith.

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Gal 5:6

Faith works by love.
Isa 57:20-21

There is no peace with the wicked. They are fearful. Why? Because they don’t love God and they don’t trust Him.
Rom 5:1

If we are justified by faith, we don’t need to fear for our lives. Many are living by works and because our works always fall short (it will always make the boat sink) that we become fearful. Application: The disciples did not have perfect love for Jesus. They did not completely trust Him at His word. Those who have perfect love and faith will also have peace in their lives, despite the storms. God’s people should be able to pass through storms, but still have perfect love and peace. It doesn’t mean that all our storms will be taken away, but they are given so that it may reveal what sort of faith we have been building. Trials don’t build faith, they reveal the sort of faith that we have. What key attributes must the people at the end of time have that are brought out in this story?
Rev 14:12

Patience – patience to endure storms of life. Faith – to believe that God will carry you through.
4:41 And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?

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Chapter 5 - Demoniacs of the Gadarenes | Women with Issue of Blood
Reading
Desire of Ages – Chapter The Demoniacs Chapter Outline   Christ casts out legion into the swine (1-20) Resurrection of Jairus daughter and the Issue of Blood (21-43)

Christ casts out legion into the swine (1-20)
5:1 And they came over unto the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 5:2 And when he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit,

Unclean spirit is a fallen angel Parallel passage is Luke 8:27
5:3 Who had his dwelling among the tombs; and no man could bind him, no, not with chains:

What are some of the characteristics of the demoniacs?
Luke 8:27

He lived in tombs. No man could bind him with chains. No man could tame him. Always crying. Always cutting himself. He wore no clothes. He had supernatural strength. This indicates what Satan will do when he has control of us. When Satan does that, he is trying to destroy the image of God in man. Application: Do you think Satan is pleased when we pierce ourselves? Or when we get tattoos? Baal worship, they cut themselves. Anytime you are destroying your body in some way, Satan is behind that. He made them naked – that is a symbol of sin. Satan does not get you put your clothes on, he gets you to take them off. When you are doing something night and day, you get no rest! Satan does not give you any rest when he takes full control.
5:4 Because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: neither could any man tame him. 5:5 And always, night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting himself with stones.

Night and day he was crying and cutting himself.
5:6 But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped him, 5:7 And cried with a loud voice, and said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the most high God? I adjure thee by God, that thou torment me not.

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5:8 For he said unto him, Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit. 5:9 And he asked him, What is thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion: for we are many.

What was the name of the unclean spirit? And what is the meaning of its name? 3000-6000 infantry troops and 100-200 cavalry. Application: How many demons do you have in you? Selfishness, pride, etc…?
5:10 And he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country. 5:11 Now there was there nigh unto the mountains a great herd of swine feeding. 5:12 And all the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them.

What did the unclean spirits enter after departing from the man? What applications can we learn from this? They entered the pigs. Application: God will take bad stuff away for us with good reason.
5:13 And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea, (they were about two thousand;) and were choked in the sea.

Two thousand swine perished.
Luke 8:30

Legion means many. A legion of Roman soldiers consists of a thousand soldiers.
5:14 And they that fed the swine fled, and told it in the city, and in the country. And they went out to see what it was that was done.

What was the reaction of those that fed the swine? They fled and told everyone in the city and country.
5:15 And they come to Jesus, and see him that was possessed with the devil, and had the legion, sitting, and clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid.

What was the new look of the man that was possessed with the unclean spirit? Compare it to his previous description. What lessons can we learn from that? Sitting, clothed and in the right mind. Jesus is concerned with our actions, the way we look and our mind. When Jesus cleans us up, He cleans us up in three ways: Our actions are different. Our outward appearances are different. The way we think is different which affects the way that we talk (Matt. 12:34) What was the reaction of the people that came to see the reports? Why is it they reacted that way? Discuss.

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They were afraid. Why were they afraid? Maybe they were afraid of Jesus making them lose more substances because the swine had drowned already Application: Sometimes we become afraid of what Jesus might take away from us if we were to follow Him. We are afraid to sacrifice.
5:16 And they that saw it told them how it befell to him that was possessed with the devil, and also concerning the swine. 5:17 And they began to pray him to depart out of their coasts.

What was the final reaction of the townsfolk (Mark 5:17) as compared to the demoniac that was now free (Mark 5:18)? Why do you think the townsfolk reacted that way? They thought more of what they lost instead of a man saved to the kingdom of God. Sometimes we look more on our own selfish things and are not willing to sacrifice those things which are harmful to us – swine were unclean. They lost what was bad for them, yet they complained. Are we like that sometimes? What was the reaction of Jesus to the townsfolk and the demoniac? What lessons can we learn from His reaction to both groups? Jesus didn’t react or say anything to the townsfolk. Jesus said no to the man that was possessed with the unclean spirit. Sometimes, the better work is done by the locals. No point to argue with those who are the locals because they have more respect. So He left behind the man that was possessed because he was a local. Sometimes Jesus says no to even the good things and we may be a bigger blessing
5:18 And when he was come into the ship, he that had been possessed with the devil prayed him that he might be with him. Luke 8:35

“sitting at the feet of Jesus” – the attitude of learning. “clothed” – he must have gotten his clothes from Jesus “In his right mind” – when we are apart from Christ, we are really out of our mind.
5:19 Howbeit Jesus suffered him not, but saith unto him, Go home to thy friends, and tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee, and hath had compassion on thee.

Principle of witnessing
Luke 8:38-39

The first area of witnessing is our own household.
DA 340 But they bore in their own persons the evidence that Jesus was the Messiah. They could tell what they knew; what they themselves had seen, and heard, and felt of the power of Christ. This is

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what everyone can do whose heart has been touched by the grace of God. – DA 339 In doing this work they could receive a greater blessing than if, merely for benefit to themselves, they had remained in His presence.

You can witness wherever you go – what Christ has done for you in your life. What lesson can we learn from the man that was possessed by the unclean spirit who obeyed Jesus’ command to go tell what great things God had done for him?
Mark 5:19-20

You don’t need to know much to share. Just your own experience what great things God has done for you? Application: is it sometimes that you don’t think about what God has done for you and as a result, you don’t share about Him at all? Witnessing begins with remembering the great things God has done for you.
5:20 And he departed, and began to publish in Decapolis how great things Jesus had done for him: and all men did marvel.

What was the fruit of the man who bore his simple testimony to the whole town?
Luke 8:40

As a result of his testimony, the whole town after that came to see Jesus. How does his simple testimony apply to us today? What lesson can we learn from that?
Rev 12:11

Overcoming has a lot to do with bearing our own testimony, witnessing. “Decapolis" – Took place during Jesus' second Galilean tour. Between the 2nd and 3rd Passover. Jesus was 32 Note: He had 1 ½ years left on this earth. This increases the intensity of all His actions. Between 60-75% of His work had been accomplished at this point, but He didn't have anytime to loose. He knew He was going to die. Extra: I am beginning to see that there are more examples of believing, in exercising faith in the gospels than there are of works. Not that works aren't important, but they are put in their proper place. God is emphasizing to us BELIEVE!

Resurrection of Jairus daughter and the Issue of Blood (21-43)
5:21 And when Jesus was passed over again by ship unto the other side, much people gathered unto him: and he was nigh unto the sea. 5:22 And, behold, there cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name; and when he saw him, he fell at his feet, 5:23 And besought him greatly, saying, My little daughter lieth at the point of death: I pray thee, come and lay thy hands on her, that she may be healed; and she shall live. 5:24 And Jesus went with him; and much people followed him, and thronged him. 5:25 And a certain woman, which had an issue of blood twelve years,

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The parallel passage of Mark 5:24-43 is Luke 8:40-56.
5:26 And had suffered many things of many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse,

What do we know about the past of the woman with the issue of blood?
Luke 8:43

She had tried many other physicians who had not made her better but worse. She had spent all her living on trying to find healing. Who does the woman represent today? Application: The woman represents those who have been looking for healing – physical or spiritual. They have tried all types of solutions / physicians – religions, worldly solutions – amusement or entertainment. But still they are not fulfilled or made whole.
5:27 When she had heard of Jesus, came in the press behind, and touched his garment.

How did the woman know about Jesus? She had heard about Jesus, probably from the crowd or through friends. What does the manner in which the woman approached Jesus and what she did tell us about her? What application can we draw? She was too shy to speak to Jesus openly. Instead of approaching Jesus directly, she came from behind him. Instead of asking Jesus upfront, she preferred to touch his garment. Application: This woman represents those in the crowd or church today who are scared to openly seek Jesus. Maybe they are embarrassed of their condition or just naturally very shy. Shy people should take comfort that Jesus does not miss them, even in the crowd. Points: Issue of blood 12 years. Jesus was 20 years old when this condition began with her. He had not yet been revealed as the Messiah. God the Father was orchestrating events that would reach a pinnacle in Decapolis. For 12 years she sought help in vain. And it gives a picture that she became poor. It says she spent all. And as she went from physician to physician her anxiety increased. (The worse the condition, the greater the physician. As you go from physician to physician the quality and skill of the physician increases, not decreases, later exalting Jesus above all earthly skill and ability. And as the quality increases the cost rises, and she ends up spending all she had, but later Jesus does it for free.) Her dependence upon man decreased. It also gives the picture of the imbecility of man. As a result of seeing the physicians it says she grew worse. But at the same time it shows an attitude of perseverance and determination. Perhaps if she had heard of Jesus sooner she would not have responded in the same way. After 12 years Jesus comes. When she heard of Him. And now Jesus comes. Do you think He knew about her condition? Yes, but He doesn't go to her directly. He appears to be so busy. But He places Himself in close proximity to her giving her a chance to seek Him. “came in the press”
Mark 5:24 …much people followed him, and thronged him…

This happened at a time when all the attention was fixed upon Jesus. Every one was following Him pressed together. No one wanted to loose their position. Look there He is! This is the one we have
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heard about. It was like religious revival. And no one was paying attention to her. (It's like what about me? He is not paying attention to me. What about my issue of blood?) Per App: But they were not the real followers. She was the real follower. Per App: To follower after Jesus is more then just hearing about Him or hearing the spoken word Sabbath after Sabbath. To be a true follower of Jesus is to seek after Him for spiritual restoration. To overcome your issue of blood.
Mark 5:27 …touched His garment… 5:28 For she said, If I may touch but his clothes, I shall be whole.

Do you think she said this out loud? No. She said it within her heart. 12 years of disappointment and grief were bottled up inside her. (Just like when you shake up carbonated water, when you open the cap, POOF!) And she reaches out and touches the tip of His garment. Where do you think she got this attitude from? From all exterior appearance Jesus was just another man. To her another physician. She said I will be what? 'whole' The previous year Jesus went to the pool of Bethesida. And Jesus asked the invalid of 38 years wilt thou be made whole? She had heard of His power. And she knew He was not just another physician. He was THEE physician.
Mark 5:29 She touched Him and straight way her blood was dried up.

What action did the woman have to do to be healed? What was probably going through her mind? She had to reach out to touch Jesus. She believed that if only she touched Jesus garments, she could be made whole. Where on Christ’s garment did she touch? What does it represent?
Luke 8:44

Num 15:38-39 She touched the border of Christ’s garment. What does it represent? In reaching out to touching the border of Christ’s garment, the woman represents those who reach out for healing in faith, and are willing to keep God’s commandments and no longer seek after the things of their own heart. This is true conversion. What does Jesus do as soon as he is touched? What can we learn from this?
Luke 8:45-46

He asks who touched him because he perceives virtue gone out of him.God notices the unnoticed touch of faith of an earnest sinner seeking for healing above the crowd. Discuss the reactions of Peter and the crowd. Why do you think Jesus felt the woman’s touch over everyone else? Peter and the crowd had been pressed against Jesus and yet they had felt nothing. Application: There are many in the crowd who come to church every week who press against Jesus but feel nothing. There is no change in their life, no healing, because they are not reaching out. Maybe they are in the crowd because they find Christ interesting, or their friends invited them, etc, but they themselves are not reaching out for anything in particular. Therefore, they will receive nothing in particular.

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Why did Jesus want the woman to share what she had done? What does it represent? Who in particular did it encourage in the crowd?
Isa 43:12

Testify.
Matt 10:32

Confess. Jesus wanted the woman to make a public confession and testimony for everyone. It was not enough for the woman to experience the healing power of Christ, she needed to confess it to all men.
Rev 12:11

God’s people will overcome not just through the blood of the lamb, but by the word of their testimony. What are they supposed to testify? How Christ has healed them from their sinful, helpless lives. What is so important about sharing? By sharing how Jesus had healed her, this woman would encourage others to reach out to Jesus. What do you think happened right after she told everyone what happened? Probably everyone started trying to touch Jesus. What can we learn about faith from the woman? Faith involves:  1. Understanding our needs – physical, spiritual. Do we see that there are things in our life we cannot overcome? Can we see we need a Savior? Did the woman know how Christ was going to heal her? No. Did she even know Christ? No. Then what was it that made Jesus save her? Her desire and desperation to be saved. She needed a Savior.  2. Reaching out to Christ with a determination that even if we touch the hem of his garment, we can be healed. o Can you imagine the woman reaching out with all the determination and desperation? This is how our faith should be. o Every day as reach out to Christ, we should reach out with desperation that He is our only hope. o We must realize that we can try everything in this world, but only Christ can truly make us whole.  3. Obedience to the law.
5:29 And straightway the fountain of her blood was dried up; and she felt in her body that she was healed of that plague. 5:30 And Jesus, immediately knowing in himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about in the press, and said, Who touched my clothes?

“virtue had gone out” – Who touched me? He could have just kept walking. Look at the nature of His question. He could have said anything else. But when He asked this question the people would begin to do what? Start thinking about touching Him. They would be like what do you mean? That is why Peter said V.31 That means that Jesus wanted them to understand what it really means to touch Him. Do you think He didn't know who she was?
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Mark 5:32 …looked round about to see her…

Not look round to see the person who touched Him. It shows He already knew who it was. (Ex. Remember Nathaniel, and the man who they brought threw the roof? He was already acquainted with them.) He uses her as an example to show what it really means to touch Him! And it was because she exercised faith that He uses her as an example. PNA: You see we can be so close to Jesus. We can be bumping Him in a crowd with other people. But just because we are nudging Him it does not mean we are truly TOUCHING! People around us tell us He did this for me, He did that, did you hear about it? Did you hear that sermon, etc. That is like bumping up against Him. But that is not enough. You must truly TOUCH HIM!
5:31 And his disciples said unto him, Thou seest the multitude thronging thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me? 5:32 And he looked round about to see her that had done this thing. 5:33 But the woman fearing and trembling, knowing what was done in her, came and fell down before him, and told him all the truth. 5:34 And he said unto her, Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace, and be whole of thy plague.

“faith made thee whole” – Remember she said that in her mind. Now Jesus is confirming her thoughts and actions. She believed and she acted on it. NOT ACTED THEN Believed. This word whole includes forgiveness of sins as well as physical healing. (Ex. The man at the pool of Betheisda) PNA: What is your issue of blood? What has been plaguing you for so long? Many times in our walk when we fall what do we do? Ask forgiveness and say Lord please help me, give me the power. Then we get up try to do it in our own strength and fall again. It is like we rely on the act of repentance to receive strength. BUT How was she made whole?
Mark 5:30 …virtue had gone out of Him…

This word virtue in the Greek means Dunamis power. She exercised FAITH and then received POWER and then her blood was dried up. It's FAITH, POWER, Blood dried up. Not Repentance, POWER, Blood dries up. In other words, you must believe that God can heal you first. And when you exercise the Faith THEN the POWER is given, and then the blood dries up. Our problem is we don’t believe.
Mark 5:34 …whole of thy plague….

Jesus just called her issue of blood a plague. It was a plague of blood. And she was cured from it. Conclusion: Either you can exercise faith receive power and be cured of your plague of blood. Or you can be a partaker of the plagues of blood when probation closes. Miscellaneous: She has an interesting personality. We see excellent virtues: Determination; perseverance; stamina, endurance, honesty. (she didn't just say I touched you. She told the whole story. She didn't leave any thing out.) But at the same time she is shy, timid, and discreet. She

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doesn't like to call attention to herself.
5:35 While he yet spake, there came from the ruler of the synagogue's house certain which said, Thy daughter is dead: why troublest thou the Master any further? 5:36 As soon as Jesus heard the word that was spoken, he saith unto the ruler of the synagogue, Be not afraid, only believe. 5:37 And he suffered no man to follow him, save Peter, and James, and John the brother of James. 5:38 And he cometh to the house of the ruler of the synagogue, and seeth the tumult, and them that wept and wailed greatly. 5:39 And when he was come in, he saith unto them, Why make ye this ado, and weep? the damsel is not dead, but sleepeth. 5:40 And they laughed him to scorn. But when he had put them all out, he taketh the father and the mother of the damsel, and them that were with him, and entereth in where the damsel was lying. 5:41 And he took the damsel by the hand, and said unto her, Talitha cumi; which is, being interpreted, Damsel, I say unto thee, arise. 5:42 And straightway the damsel arose, and walked; for she was of the age of twelve years. And they were astonished with a great astonishment. 5:43 And he charged them straitly that no man should know it; and commanded that something should be given her to eat.

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Chapter 6
Chapter Outline      Is this the carpenters Son? (1-6) Disciples receive power over sicknesses and demons (7-13) Herod kills John the Baptist (14-29) Feeding the 5,000 (30-44) Christ’s walks on water and heals in Gennsaret (45-56)

Is this the carpenters Son? (1-6)
6:1 And he went out from thence, and came into his own country; and his disciples follow him. 6:2 And when the sabbath day was come, he began to teach in the synagogue: and many hearing him were astonished, saying, From whence hath this man these things? and what wisdom is this which is given unto him, that even such mighty works are wrought by his hands? 6:3 Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him. 6:4 But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, but in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house. 6:5 And he could there do no mighty work, save that he laid his hands upon a few sick folk, and healed them. 6:6 And he marvelled because of their unbelief. And he went round about the villages, teaching.

Disciples receive power over sicknesses and demons (7-13)
6:7 And he called unto him the twelve, and began to send them forth by two and two; and gave them power over unclean spirits; 6:8 And commanded them that they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only; no scrip, no bread, no money in their purse: 6:9 But be shod with sandals; and not put on two coats. 6:10 And he said unto them, In what place soever ye enter into an house, there abide till ye depart from that place. 6:11 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them. Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for that city. 6:12 And they went out, and preached that men should repent. 6:13 And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them.

Herod kills John the Baptist (14-29)
6:14 And king Herod heard of him; (for his name was spread abroad:) and he said, That John the Baptist

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was risen from the dead, and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him. 6:15 Others said, That it is Elias. And others said, That it is a prophet, or as one of the prophets. 6:16 But when Herod heard thereof, he said, It is John, whom I beheaded: he is risen from the dead. 6:17 For Herod himself had sent forth and laid hold upon John, and bound him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife: for he had married her. 6:18 For John had said unto Herod, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife. 6:19 Therefore Herodias had a quarrel against him, and would have killed him; but she could not: 6:20 For Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just man and an holy, and observed him; and when he heard him, he did many things, and heard him gladly. 6:21 And when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords, high captains, and chief estates of Galilee; 6:22 And when the daughter of the said Herodias came in, and danced, and pleased Herod and them that sat with him, the king said unto the damsel, Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee. 6:23 And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give it thee, unto the half of my kingdom. 6:24 And she went forth, and said unto her mother, What shall I ask? And she said, The head of John the Baptist. 6:25 And she came in straightway with haste unto the king, and asked, saying, I will that thou give me by and by in a charger the head of John the Baptist. 6:26 And the king was exceeding sorry; yet for his oath's sake, and for their sakes which sat with him, he would not reject her. 6:27 And immediately the king sent an executioner, and commanded his head to be brought: and he went and beheaded him in the prison, 6:28 And brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel: and the damsel gave it to her mother. 6:29 And when his disciples heard of it, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb.

Feeding the 5,000 (30-44)
6:30 And the apostles gathered themselves together unto Jesus, and told him all things, both what they had done, and what they had taught. 6:31 And he said unto them, Come ye yourselves apart into a desert place, and rest a while: for there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6:32 And they departed into a desert place by ship privately. 6:33 And the people saw them departing, and many knew him, and ran afoot thither out of all cities, and outwent them, and came together unto him. 6:34 And Jesus, when he came out, saw much people, and was moved with compassion toward them,

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because they were as sheep not having a shepherd: and he began to teach them many things. 6:35 And when the day was now far spent, his disciples came unto him, and said, This is a desert place, and now the time is far passed: 6:36 Send them away, that they may go into the country round about, and into the villages, and buy themselves bread: for they have nothing to eat. 6:37 He answered and said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they say unto him, Shall we go and buy two hundred pennyworth of bread, and give them to eat? 6:38 He saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? go and see. And when they knew, they say, Five, and two fishes. 6:39 And he commanded them to make all sit down by companies upon the green grass. 6:40 And they sat down in ranks, by hundreds, and by fifties. 6:41 And when he had taken the five loaves and the two fishes, he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and brake the loaves, and gave them to his disciples to set before them; and the two fishes divided he among them all. 6:42 And they did all eat, and were filled. 6:43 And they took up twelve baskets full of the fragments, and of the fishes. 6:44 And they that did eat of the loaves were about five thousand men.

Christ’s walks on water and heals in Gennsaret (45-56)
6:45 And straightway he constrained his disciples to get into the ship, and to go to the other side before unto Bethsaida, while he sent away the people. 6:46 And when he had sent them away, he departed into a mountain to pray. 6:47 And when even was come, the ship was in the midst of the sea, and he alone on the land. 6:48 And he saw them toiling in rowing; for the wind was contrary unto them: and about the fourth watch of the night he cometh unto them, walking upon the sea, and would have passed by them. 6:49 But when they saw him walking upon the sea, they supposed it had been a spirit, and cried out: 6:50 For they all saw him, and were troubled. And immediately he talked with them, and saith unto them, Be of good cheer: it is I; be not afraid. 6:51 And he went up unto them into the ship; and the wind ceased: and they were sore amazed in themselves beyond measure, and wondered. 6:52 For they considered not the miracle of the loaves: for their heart was hardened. 6:53 And when they had passed over, they came into the land of Gennesaret, and drew to the shore. 6:54 And when they were come out of the ship, straightway they knew him, 6:55 And ran through that whole region round about, and began to carry about in beds those that were

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sick, where they heard he was. 6:56 And whithersoever he entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch if it were but the border of his garment: and as many as touched him were made whole.

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Chapter 7
Chapter Outline    Commandents of God vs. Tradition of men (1-23) Demon casts out of Syrophenecian woman (24-30) Ephatha (Blind and deaf man healed) (31-37)

Commandents of God vs. Tradition of men (1-23)
7:1 Then came together unto him the Pharisees, and certain of the scribes, which came from Jerusalem. 7:2 And when they saw some of his disciples eat bread with defiled, that is to say, with unwashen, hands, they found fault. 7:3 For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders. 7:4 And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables. 7:5 Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands? 7:6 He answered and said unto them, Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. 7:7Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. 7:8 For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do. 7:9 And he said unto them, Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition. 7:10 For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, Whoso curseth father or mother, let him die the death: 7:11 But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free. 7:12 And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother; 7:13 Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye. 7:14 And when he had called all the people unto him, he said unto them, Hearken unto me every one of you, and understand: 7:15 There is nothing from without a man, that entering into him can defile him: but the things which come out of him, those are they that defile the man. 7:16 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.

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7:17 And when he was entered into the house from the people, his disciples asked him concerning the parable. 7:18 And he saith unto them, Are ye so without understanding also? Do ye not perceive, that whatsoever thing from without entereth into the man, it cannot defile him; 7:19 Because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging all meats? 7:20 And he said, That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man. 7:21 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, 7:22 Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness: 7:23 All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.

Demon casts out of Syrophenecian woman (24-30)
7:24 And from thence he arose, and went into the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and entered into an house, and would have no man know it: but he could not be hid. 7:25 For a certain woman, whose young daughter had an unclean spirit, heard of him, and came and fell at his feet: 7:26 The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation; and she besought him that he would cast forth the devil out of her daughter. 7:27 But Jesus said unto her, Let the children first be filled: for it is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it unto the dogs. 7:28 And she answered and said unto him, Yes, Lord: yet the dogs under the table eat of the children's crumbs. 7:29 And he said unto her, For this saying go thy way; the devil is gone out of thy daughter. 7:30 And when she was come to her house, she found the devil gone out, and her daughter laid upon the bed.

Ephatha (Blind and deaf man healed) (31-37)
7:31 And again, departing from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, he came unto the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the coasts of Decapolis. 7:32 And they bring unto him one that was deaf, and had an impediment in his speech; and they beseech him to put his hand upon him. 7:33 And he took him aside from the multitude, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spit, and touched his tongue; 7:34 And looking up to heaven, he sighed, and saith unto him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened. 7:35 And straightway his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plain.

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7:36 And he charged them that they should tell no man: but the more he charged them, so much the more a great deal they published it; 7:37 And were beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things well: he maketh both the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak.

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Chapter 8 – Blind Man near Bethsaida
Chapter Outline      Feeding of the 4,000 (1-9) Pharisees seek a sign (10-13) Beware of the leaven of Herod and Pharisees (14-21) Healing of the blind man with saliva (22-26) Who am I? (Confession of Peter) (27-38)

Feeding of the 4,000 (1-9)
8:1 In those days the multitude being very great, and having nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples unto him, and saith unto them, 8:2 I have compassion on the multitude, because they have now been with me three days, and have nothing to eat: 8:3 And if I send them away fasting to their own houses, they will faint by the way: for divers of them came from far. 8:4 And his disciples answered him, From whence can a man satisfy these men with bread here in the wilderness? 8:5 And he asked them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven. 8:6 And he commanded the people to sit down on the ground: and he took the seven loaves, and gave thanks, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and they did set them before the people. 8:7 And they had a few small fishes: and he blessed, and commanded to set them also before them. 8:8 So they did eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets. 8:9 And they that had eaten were about four thousand: and he sent them away.

Pharisees seek a sign (10-13)
8:10 And straightway he entered into a ship with his disciples, and came into the parts of Dalmanutha. 8:11 And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question with him, seeking of him a sign from heaven, tempting him. 8:12 And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek after a sign? verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation. 8:13 And he left them, and entering into the ship again departed to the other side.

Beware of the leaven of Herod and Pharisees (14-21)
8:14 Now the disciples had forgotten to take bread, neither had they in the ship with them more than one loaf. 8:15 And he charged them, saying, Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of

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Herod. 8:16 And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have no bread. 8:17 And when Jesus knew it, he saith unto them, Why reason ye, because ye have no bread? perceive ye not yet, neither understand? have ye your heart yet hardened? 8:18 Having eyes, see ye not? and having ears, hear ye not? and do ye not remember? 8:19 When I brake the five loaves among five thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up? They say unto him, Twelve. 8:20 And when the seven among four thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up? And they said, Seven. 8:21 And he said unto them, How is it that ye do not understand?

Healing of the blind man with saliva (22-26)
8:22 And he cometh to Bethsaida; and they bring a blind man unto him, and besought him to touch him.

Who was brought to Jesus? Who brought the man? Answer: A blind man. Someone who could not find Jesus for himself. Who brought the man? Most likely people from the town. His friends. In what manner did ‘they’ ask for Jesus’ help? What did ‘they’ want Jesus to do? Answer: Like the nobleman (John 5:43-54), the blind man’s friends were beseeching Jesus. It says he “besought” = beseeching = pleading or begging Application: When we are trying to bring others to Christ, we should have a beseeching spirit. We should be pleading with Christ on their behalf. And we know that Christ will have compassion. Too often, we fail to care as much as we should about our family and friends’ salvation. They wanted Jesus to touch him. Application: Our most basic request to Jesus should be that He touches their lives.
8:23 And he took the blind man by the hand, and led him out of the town; and when he had spit on his eyes, and put his hands upon him, he asked him if he saw ought.

What was the first thing that Jesus did? What application can we draw from this? Answer: Jesus took the blind man by the hand and led him out of the city. Application: Sometimes, those who are spiritually blind need to be lead out of the city. They need to be separated from the places which are causing them to sin. They need to be lead away from their friends. This means that we need to spend time with them. Holding their hand indicates that we need to be there every step of the way, like a child. Words just won’t be enough, you need to literally show them, hand hold them. What was the next thing that Jesus did?

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Answer: Jesus spit in his eyes and put his hands upon him. What is a spiritual remedy for the eyes?
Rev. 3:18

Eyesalve. This blind man also represents those who are lukewarm / Laodicean because they are also called blind (Rev 3:17). What does eyesalve represent? It provides sight to the spiritually
blind. 1 Sam 9:9

Those who see are the prophets. To anoint ourselves with eyesalve from God is to seek the counsel of the prophets. Rom 1:2 Where can we hear the words of the prophets? In the scriptures. What is the purpose of spiritual sight?
Eph 1:18

To understand the hope of our calling and the inheritance for saints.
Acts 26:18

This verse gives 4 reasons: Turn from darkness to light (spiritual discernment). 2 Cor 4:16 – knowledge of Jesus. To turn them from the power of Satan to God. What is the power of Satan? Heb 2:14 = power of death. What is the power of God? Rom 1:4 = resurrection. Summary – power of Satan (death) to power of God (life in resurrection). Receive forgiveness of sins. Acts 5:31 – receive forgiveness through repentance. Receive inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith (likewise, in order to receive this inheritance, each individual must also be sanctified by faith. What is this inheritance? 1 Cor 15:50-53 – eternal life. We see a process here from knowledge of Jesus to eternal life. Psa 119:18 What gives us light? Psalms 119:105 – Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.
8:24 And he looked up, and said, I see men as trees, walking.

What was the response when Jesus asked him what he saw? What does this represent?
Psa 1:3

Tree according to this verse represents a righteous man. The man looked up and said he saw men walking as trees. What do trees represent according to the Bible? Application: Sometimes when a person is first touched by Christ and as their spiritual eyes begin to open, they look at all men as righteous. Or they follow men’s righteousness when they try to look

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up. They see men as walking trees, walking righteous. Application: His eyesight was blurry – could not clearly discern light and darkness, do not completely understand forgiveness of sins, does not completely understand sanctification.
8:25 After that he put his hands again upon his eyes, and made him look up: and he was restored, and saw every man clearly.

What happens to the man after Jesus touches him a second time? Answer: The man looks up again. This time he sees men more clearly. Application: As people are touched more by Christ and as they apply the eyesalve more to their lives, they will see men more clearly. A more mature Christian relies less on men as they see men more clearly for what they are – unrighteous. However, we should understand that young Christians look to those who have lead them to Christ as trees of righteousness. We need to continually point them up to Christ.
8:26 And he sent him away to his house, saying, Neither go into the town, nor tell it to any in the town.

What lessons can we learn from this encounter? Answer: Sometimes spiritually blind need to be lead away from the city or places of temptation in order to be healed. Blind men need eyesalve from Christ. Blind men need to be touched by Christ personally. As blind men are touched by Christ, they will at first mistakenly see men as righteous and look to them for direction. However, as they get to know Christ more, they will begin to better spiritually discern which men are righteous.

Who am I? (Confession of Peter) (27-38)
8:27 And Jesus went out, and his disciples, into the towns of Caesarea Philippi: and by the way he asked his disciples, saying unto them, Whom do men say that I am? 8:28 And they answered, John the Baptist: but some say, Elias; and others, One of the prophets. 8:29 And he saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? And Peter answereth and saith unto him, Thou art the Christ. 8:30 And he charged them that they should tell no man of him. 8:31 And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 8:32 And he spake that saying openly. And Peter took him, and began to rebuke him. 8:33 But when he had turned about and looked on his disciples, he rebuked Peter, saying, Get thee behind me, Satan: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men. 8:34 And when he had called the people unto him with his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. 8:35 For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's, the same shall save it.

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8:36 For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? 8:37 Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? 8:38 Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.

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Chapter 9
Chapter Outline     The coming Kingdom of God (Transfiguration of Christ) (1-13) Cast out through Fasting and Prayer (14-29) Who is the greatest? (30-37) How to enter the kingdom of God (38-50)

The coming Kingdom of God (Transfiguration of Christ) (1-13)
9:1 And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here, which shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power. 9:2 And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them. 9:3 And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them. 9:4 And there appeared unto them Elias with Moses: and they were talking with Jesus. 9:5 And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias. 9:6 For he wist not what to say; for they were sore afraid. 9:7 And there was a cloud that overshadowed them: and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him. 9:8 And suddenly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves. 9:9 And as they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead. 9:10 And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean. 9:11 And they asked him, saying, Why say the scribes that Elias must first come? 9:12 And he answered and told them, Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all things; and how it is written of the Son of man, that he must suffer many things, and be set at nought. 9:13 But I say unto you, That Elias is indeed come, and they have done unto him whatsoever they listed, as it is written of him.

Cast out through Fasting and Prayer (14-29)
9:14 And when he came to his disciples, he saw a great multitude about them, and the scribes questioning with them. 9:15 And straightway all the people, when they beheld him, were greatly amazed, and running to him saluted him.

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9:16 And he asked the scribes, What question ye with them? 9:17 And one of the multitude answered and said, Master, I have brought unto thee my son, which hath a dumb spirit; 9:18 And wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away: and I spake to thy disciples that they should cast him out; and they could not. 9:19 He answereth him, and saith, O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him unto me. 9:20 And they brought him unto him: and when he saw him, straightway the spirit tare him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming. 9:21 And he asked his father, How long is it ago since this came unto him? And he said, Of a child. 9:22 And ofttimes it hath cast him into the fire, and into the waters, to destroy him: but if thou canst do any thing, have compassion on us, and help us. 9:23 Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth. 9:24 And straightway the father of the child cried out, and said with tears, Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief. 9:25 When Jesus saw that the people came running together, he rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him. 9:26 And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and came out of him: and he was as one dead; insomuch that many said, He is dead. 9:27 But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted him up; and he arose. 9:28 And when he was come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, Why could not we cast him out? 9:29 And he said unto them, This kind can come forth by nothing, but by prayer and fasting.

Who is the greatest? (30-37)
9:30 And they departed thence, and passed through Galilee; and he would not that any man should know it. 9:31 For he taught his disciples, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and after that he is killed, he shall rise the third day. 9:32 But they understood not that saying, and were afraid to ask him. 9:33 And he came to Capernaum: and being in the house he asked them, What was it that ye disputed among yourselves by the way? 9:34 But they held their peace: for by the way they had disputed among themselves, who should be the greatest. 9:35 And he sat down, and called the twelve, and saith unto them, If any man desire to be first, the same

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shall be last of all, and servant of all. 9:36 And he took a child, and set him in the midst of them: and when he had taken him in his arms, he said unto them, 9:37 Whosoever shall receive one of such children in my name, receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me, receiveth not me, but him that sent me.

How to enter the kingdom of God (38-50)
9:38 And John answered him, saying, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he followeth not us: and we forbad him, because he followeth not us. 9:39 But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for there is no man which shall do a miracle in my name, that can lightly speak evil of me. 9:40 For he that is not against us is on our part. 9:41 For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink in my name, because ye belong to Christ, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward. 9:42 And whosoever shall offend one of these little ones that believe in me, it is better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea. 9:43 And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched: 9:44 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 9:45 And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched: 9:46 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 9:47 And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out: it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire: 9:48 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 9:49 For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. 9:50 Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one with another.

Summary
For all intensive purposes Mark is finish with the main emphasis in his biography, which is Christ’s role as a Servant. The demon that was cast out in this chapter was the most powerful of the previous demons. This is the second climatic chapter in Mark. From this point his focus changes to the closing scenes.

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Chapter 10 – Conditions of the Kingdom of God
Chapter Outline      Is it lawful to put away your wife? (1-12) Little children and the kingdom of God (13-16) Rich young ruler (kingdom of God) (17-31) Let us sit on your right and left hand (32-45) Blind Bartimaeus (Son of David) (46-52)

Is it lawful to put away your wife? (1-12)
10:1 And he arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of Judaea by the farther side of Jordan: and the people resort unto him again; and, as he was wont, he taught them again. 10:2 And the Pharisees came to him, and asked him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? tempting him. 10:3 And he answered and said unto them, What did Moses command you? 10:4 And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away. 10:5 And Jesus answered and said unto them, For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept. 10:6 But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female. 10:7 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife; 10:8 And they twain shall be one flesh: so then they are no more twain, but one flesh. 10:9 What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. 10:10 And in the house his disciples asked him again of the same matter. 10:11 And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her. 10:12 And if a woman shall put away her husband, and be married to another, she committeth adultery.

Little children and the kingdom of God (13-16)
10:13 And they brought young children to him, that he should touch them: and his disciples rebuked those that brought them. 10:14 But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God. 10:15 Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein. 10:16 And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them.

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Rich young ruler (kingdom of God) (17-31)
10:17 And when he was gone forth into the way, there came one running, and kneeled to him, and asked him, Good Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?

What is the significance of kneeling? What does this indicate about the rich young ruler? The significance of kneeling was showing that the rich young ruler recognized Jesus as his master. This is also shown by the fact that he called him good master as well. This indicated that he knew who Jesus was and he knew that eternal life was to come from Jesus. Or at least Jesus knew the TRUE way to eternal life. It almost showed a type of respect to Jesus so that he could gain favor as it is in Eastern cultures.
10:18 And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God. 10:19 Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud not, Honour thy father and mother.

What commandments did Jesus list and why? If you need to, compare it with the commandments in Exodus 20. He listed commandments 5-9.
Mark 12:30-31

Jesus wanted to show the rich young ruler one thing that he could do to inherit eternal life, which was loving his neighbour. And Jesus was about to show that this rich young rulers actions was going against the second great commandment. Which of the second segment of the commandments were missing? What does this tell us about the rich young ruler’s problem? The 10th commandment was missing – thou shalt not covet. This indicates to us that maybe this rich young ruler is struggling with coveting. What order did Jesus give these commandments in? Why do you think Jesus gave it that way? The order: Adultery – 7th commandment, Kill – 6th commandment, Steal – 8th commandment, Lie (twice) – 9th commandment, and Honor father and mother – 5th commandment. Adultery was considered worse than killing. Jesus listed the commandments from worse to better. Almost giving the rich young ruler a false sense of security because he was quoting commandments that he had kept. Notice that Jesus repeated lying twice. It was almost to say to the rich young ruler, please don’t lie, don’t lie about your true condition about keeping them up from your youth. Note: Obviously we know the rich young rulers response. That doesn’t need a question. Please bridge it by asking them “What was the rich young rulers reply?” Let them respond. And then just add a comment to their answer saying that the rich young ruler was probably feeling more confident now because he had kept all the commandments that Jesus spoken. Maybe feeling a bit closer to eternal life.
10:20 And he answered and said unto him, Master, all these have I observed from my youth. 10:21 Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the cross, and follow me.

What was Jesus’ response to the rich young rulers reply? What important lesson can we learn from Jesus’ reply?

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First – Jesus beholding him loved him. Second – Jesus speaks the lack to the rich young ruler and then gives him the remedy, to sell all that he has and to follow Him. Important lesson: Before Jesus asks us to give up everything to follow Him, He shows us reassurance in His look of love that He will take care of us and supply all our need. Jesus reminds us of His love for us that we are more precious than a bird or a grass of the field.
10:22 And he was sad at that saying, and went away grieved: for he had great possessions.

Why was the rich young ruler grieved? Contrast this with godly sorrow. What is the difference?
2 Cor 7:10

He was grieved because he had a lot of possessions. The difference between this grief and the godly sorrow is: This grief: He was sad because he wasn’t willing to follow the words of Jesus that he may have eternal life. This showed the true character of the rich young ruler. He wanted to have the riches of heaven with the sacrifice on earth. He was grieved over his earthly possessions. Godly sorrow: He ought to have repented and given up his possessions at any cost that he may win heaven. Godly sorrow is a type of sorrow that repents from past wrongs when shown that error from the word of God.
10:23 And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God! 10:24 And the disciples were astonished at his words. But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God!

What does it mean to trust in riches?
Ps 49:6-8

Means to boast about your riches. It means to trust in the riches to an extent that you can buy pardon or mercy from God. Trying to pay the debt that you owe to God. Ransom – giving money in exchange for something else. This rich man was trying to give God his earthly wealth so that he could buy heaven. What lesson of covetousness can we learn from this story? Covetousness isn’t just about trying to buy up all that others have (trying to keep up with the Jones’) and it isn’t just about wanting everything you see out there. From this encounter, we can see that covetousness can also be equated to being rich, and not using those riches to bless others. It can also mean having riches or possessions and not being willing to give them up to follow Jesus. Application: Are you truly willing to give up all to follow Jesus? Or are you just like the rich young ruler, desiring it, wanting to know the way to eternal life, but not being willing to give up all on the altar of sacrifice for Jesus. What is the difference between 10th commandment and the other 5? The other 5 commandments are all showing how you deal with your friends and family. It has external fruits to others. The 10th commandment of covetousness is dealing with the heart and is more personal. It doesn’t affect others in a bad way. But neither does it affect that person personally in a bad way either (temporarily on this earth). The problem is not so apparent as one cannot condemn another

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for being rich. The underlying problem is not so obvious. What is Jesus’ solution to those who trust in riches? How rich do you think this man would have been after that?
Mark 10:21

Sell everything that you have. He would actually have been a very poor man. Nothing left of this earth. Application: Are you willing to sell all that you have that God may grant you eternal life? Easy to say, hard to do. How much do you struggle with even giving a bit of money to the Lord work and treasury? How many times do we find ourselves like the rich young ruler?… grieved.
10:25 It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.

Why did Christ use the example of a camel passing through the eye of the needle? This situation of a camel passing through an eye of a needle is almost wholly impossible. Jesus wanted to demonstrate that it is wholly impossible for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of heaven. Why? Because they will trust in their riches too much, or they would become covetous and not use it to bless others.
10:26 And they were astonished out of measure, saying among themselves, Who then can be saved?

Why were the disciples astonished? The disciples were astonished because Jesus’ reply practically gave no hope of any rich man going to heaven.
10:27 And Jesus looking upon them saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God: for with God all things are possible.

Contextually speaking, what does Jesus mean when He said “With men it is impossible, but not with God: for with God all things are possible.” Within context, it doesn’t mean that we can do everything. But that it is possible for a rich man to be saved. But how will he be saved? He must cooperate with Christ and be willing to sell all that he has.
10:28 Then Peter began to say unto him, Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee. 10:29 And Jesus answered and said, Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the gospel's, 10:30 But he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life.

What is Christ’s promise of reward? What lessons can we learn from this? Just because you give up everything to follow Christ it doesn’t mean that you will be a pauper your whole life on this earth. God blesses you with more. But we shouldn’t expect for more just because we sacrificed, then that is wrong motive. Those that started out first in life may end up becoming last because of their riches. And those that end up poorest and last in this world may end up first in the kingdom of God because it is easier for a poor person to give up everything as there’s not much to give up.
10:31 But many that are first shall be last; and the last first.

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Let us sit on your right and left hand (32-45)
10:32 And they were in the way going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus went before them: and they were amazed; and as they followed, they were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should happen unto him, 10:33 Saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles: 10:34 And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again. 10:35 And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire. 10:36 And he said unto them, What would ye that I should do for you? 10:37 They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory. 10:38 But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask: can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? 10:39 And they said unto him, We can. And Jesus said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of; and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized: 10:40 But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared. 10:41 And when the ten heard it, they began to be much displeased with James and John. 10:42 But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them. 10:43 But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister: 10:44 And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all. 10:45 For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.

Blind Bartimaeus (Son of David) (46-52)
10:46 And they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a great number of people, blind Bartimaeus, the son of Timaeus, sat by the highway side begging. 10:47 And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou Son of David, have mercy on me. 10:48 And many charged him that he should hold his peace: but he cried the more a great deal, Thou Son of David, have mercy on me. 10:49 And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called. And they call the blind man, saying unto him, Be of good comfort, rise; he calleth thee.

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10:50 And he, casting away his garment, rose, and came to Jesus. 10:51 And Jesus answered and said unto him, What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? The blind man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my sight. 10:52 And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.

Summary
Verse 45 I believe is the verse which captures the theme of the book. Mark saves his final miracle for this chapter. The blind man calls Jesus the Son of David preparing the way for Jesus to teach what that title means. There are no more recorded miracles from chapter 11-16. Christ’s greatest act of servitude is to lay down His life as a ransom for man!

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Chapter 11
Chapter Outline      Christ’s entry into Jerusalem (1-11) Curse of the fig tree (12-14) Cleansing the temple (15-18) Curse fig tree and have faith in God (19-26) By what authority do you do these things? (27-33)

Christ’s entry into Jerusalem (1-11)
11:1 And when they came nigh to Jerusalem, unto Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth forth two of his disciples, 11:2 And saith unto them, Go your way into the village over against you: and as soon as ye be entered into it, ye shall find a colt tied, whereon never man sat; loose him, and bring him. 11:3 And if any man say unto you, Why do ye this? say ye that the Lord hath need of him; and straightway he will send him hither. 11:4 And they went their way, and found the colt tied by the door without in a place where two ways met; and they loose him. 11:5 And certain of them that stood there said unto them, What do ye, loosing the colt? 11:6 And they said unto them even as Jesus had commanded: and they let them go. 11:7 And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him; and he sat upon him. 11:8 And many spread their garments in the way: and others cut down branches off the trees, and strawed them in the way. 11:9 And they that went before, and they that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna; Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: 11:10 Blessed be the kingdom of our father David, that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest. 11:11 And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into the temple: and when he had looked round about upon all things, and now the eventide was come, he went out unto Bethany with the twelve.

Curse of the fig tree (12-14)
11:12 And on the morrow, when they were come from Bethany, he was hungry: 11:13 And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply he might find any thing thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves; for the time of figs was not yet. 11:14 And Jesus answered and said unto it, No man eat fruit of thee hereafter for ever. And his disciples heard it.

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Cleansing the temple (15-18)
11:15 And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves; 11:16 And would not suffer that any man should carry any vessel through the temple. 11:17 And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called of all nations the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves. 11:18 And the scribes and chief priests heard it, and sought how they might destroy him: for they feared him, because all the people was astonished at his doctrine.

Curse fig tree and have faith in God (19-26)
11:19 And when even was come, he went out of the city. 11:20 And in the morning, as they passed by, they saw the fig tree dried up from the roots. 11:21 And Peter calling to remembrance saith unto him, Master, behold, the fig tree which thou cursedst is withered away. 11:22 And Jesus answering saith unto them, Have faith in God. 11:23 For verily I say unto you, That whosoever shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have whatsoever he saith. 11:24 Therefore I say unto you, What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them. 11:25 And when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have ought against any: that your Father also which is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses. 11:26 But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses.

By what authority do you do these things? (27-33)
11:27 And they come again to Jerusalem: and as he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders, 11:28 And say unto him, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority to do these things? 11:29 And Jesus answered and said unto them, I will also ask of you one question, and answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. 11:30 The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men? answer me. 11:31 And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then did ye not believe him? 11:32 But if we shall say, Of men; they feared the people: for all men counted John, that he was a prophet indeed.

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11:33 And they answered and said unto Jesus, We cannot tell. And Jesus answering saith unto them, Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things.

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Chapter 12
Chapter Outline      Parable of the vineyard and the heir (1-12) Render unto Caesar (Question by Pharisees and Herodians) (13-17) Question on marriage and resurrection (Sadducee's) (18-27) Question on first commandment (Scribe) (28-34) Son of David, Beware of scribes, Two mites (35-45)

Parable of the vineyard and the heir (1-12)
12:1 And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country. 12:2 And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard. 12:3 And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty. 12:4 And again he sent unto them another servant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled. 12:5 And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some. 12:6 Having yet therefore one son, his wellbeloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son. 12:7 But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours. 12:8 And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. 12:9 What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others. 12:10 And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner: 12:11 This was the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes? 12:12 And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people: for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way.

Render unto Caesar (Question by Pharisees and Herodians) (13-17)
12:13 And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words. 12:14 And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?

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12:15 Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a penny, that I may see it. 12:16 And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Caesar's. 12:17 And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.

Question on marriage and resurrection (Sadducee's) (18-27)
12:18 Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying, 12:19 Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. 12:20 Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed. 12:21 And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise. 12:22 And the seven had her, and left no seed: last of all the woman died also. 12:23 In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife. 12:24 And Jesus answering said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures, neither the power of God? 12:25 For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven. 12:26 And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? 12:27 He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living: ye therefore do greatly err.

Question on first commandment (Scribe) (28-34)
12:28 And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all? 12:29 And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord: 12:30 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. 12:31 And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these. 12:32 And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he: 12:33 And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with

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all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12:34 And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question.

Son of David, Beware of scribes, Two mites (35-45)
12:35 And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the Son of David? 12:36 For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool. 12:37 David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly. 12:38 And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and love salutations in the marketplaces, 12:39 And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts: 12:40 Which devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation. 12:41 And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much. 12:42 And there came a certain poor widow, and she threw in two mites, which make a farthing. 12:43 And he called unto him his disciples, and saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury: 12:44 For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living.

Summary
One word that sums up this whole chapter is questions. Questions on punishment of the husbandman, tribute, marriage and resurrection, the first commandment, and the Son of David.

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Chapter 13
Chapter Outline    Not one stone left for the temple (1-4) Signs of Christ's coming (5-13) Abomination of Desolation (14-23) o o o o  o o o  Don't return to your house Pray that flight is not in winter Days shortened for the elect Personation of Christ After these things Coming with power and glory Coming to deliver elect

Time frame, manner, and purpose of Coming (24-31)

Warning to watch and be ready for Coming (32-37)

Not one stone left for the temple (1-4)
13:1 And as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner of stones and what buildings are here! 13:2 And Jesus answering said unto him, Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. 13:3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately, 13:4 Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled?

Signs of Christ's coming (5-13)
13:5 And Jesus answering them began to say, Take heed lest any man deceive you: 13:6 For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. 13:7 And when ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, be ye not troubled: for such things must needs be; but the end shall not be yet. 13:8 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and there shall be famines and troubles: these are the beginnings of sorrows. 13:9 But take heed to yourselves: for they shall deliver you up to councils; and in the synagogues ye shall be beaten: and ye shall be brought before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them. 13:10 And the gospel must first be published among all nations.

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13:11 But when they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye: for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost. 13:12 Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against their parents, and shall cause them to be put to death. 13:13 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.

Abomination of Desolation (14-23)
13:14 But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains: 13:15 And let him that is on the housetop not go down into the house, neither enter therein, to take any thing out of his house: 13:16 And let him that is in the field not turn back again for to take up his garment. 13:17 But woe to them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days! 13:18 And pray ye that your flight be not in the winter. 13:19 For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be. 13:20 And except that the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect's sake, whom he hath chosen, he hath shortened the days. 13:21 And then if any man shall say to you, Lo, here is Christ; or, lo, he is there; believe him not: 13:22 For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect. 13:23 But take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things.

Time frame, manner, and purpose of Coming (24-31)
13:24 But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, 13:25 And the stars of heaven shall fall, and the powers that are in heaven shall be shaken. 13:26 And then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory. 13:27 And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven. 13:28 Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is near: 13:29 So ye in like manner, when ye shall see these things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors.

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13:30 Verily I say unto you, that this generation shall not pass, till all these things be done. 13:31 Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away.

Warning to watch and be ready for Coming (32-37)
13:32 But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father. 13:33 Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when the time is. 13:34 For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch. 13:35 Watch ye therefore: for ye know not when the master of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight, or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning: 13:36 Lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping. 13:37 And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.

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Chapter 14
Satan was pressing upon Jesus that no appreciation was given for the sacrifice that Jesus was giving. It was a test on Christ where He had to go in faith on His Father. He couldn’t rely on any external source.
DA 687 The people who claim to be above all others in temporal and spiritual advantages have rejected You. They are seeking to destroy You, the foundation, the center and seal of the promises made to them as a peculiar people. One of Your own disciples, who has listened to Your instruction, and has been among the foremost in church activities, will betray You. One of Your most zealous followers will deny You. All will forsake You. Christ's whole being abhorred the thought. That those whom He had undertaken to save, those whom He loved so much, should unite in the plots of Satan, this pierced His soul. The conflict was terrible. Its measure was the guilt of His nation, of His accusers and betrayer, the guilt of a world lying in wickedness. The sins of men weighed heavily upon Christ, and the sense of God's wrath against sin was crushing out His life. DA 687 How dark seemed the malignity of sin! Terrible was the temptation to let the human race bear the consequences of its own guilt, while He stood innocent before God. If He could only know that His disciples understood and appreciated this, He would be strengthened. DA 690 The humanity of the Son of God trembled in that trying hour. He prayed not now for His disciples that their faith might not fail, but for His own tempted, agonized soul. The awful moment had come--that moment which was to decide the destiny of the world. The fate of humanity trembled in the balance. Christ might even now refuse to drink the cup apportioned to guilty man.

What would have happened if Christ had gone back? Would it have been wrong? It wasn’t wrong. Justice demands that the guilty receive their punishment. There would always be a question about God’s character and angels and other unfallen beings could doubt God’s character.
DA 690 Three times has He uttered that prayer. Three times has humanity shrunk from the last, crowning sacrifice. DA 693 Having made the decision, He fell dying to the ground from which He had partially risen. Where now were His disciples, to place their hands tenderly beneath the head of their fainting Master, and bathe that brow, marred indeed more than the sons of men? The Saviour trod the wine press alone, and of the people there was none with Him. DA 693 In this awful crisis, when everything was at stake, when the mysterious cup trembled in the hand of the sufferer, the heavens opened, a light shone forth amid the stormy darkness of the crisis hour, and the mighty angel who stands in God's presence, occupying the position from which Satan fell, came to the side of Christ. The angel came not to take the cup from Christ's hand, but to strengthen Him to drink it, with the assurance of the Father's love.

Chapter Outline  Simon’s feast (3-9)

14:1 After two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death. 14:2 But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar of the people. 14:3 And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious; and she brake the box, and poured it on

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his head. 14:4 And there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said, Why was this waste of the ointment made? 14:5 For it might have been sold for more than three hundred pence, and have been given to the poor. And they murmured against her. 14:6 And Jesus said, Let her alone; why trouble ye her? she hath wrought a good work on me. 14:7 For ye have the poor with you always, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good: but me ye have not always. 14:8 She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying. 14:9 Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her. 14:10 And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the chief priests, to betray him unto them. 14:11 And when they heard it, they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him. 14:12 And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the passover? 14:13 And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him. 14:14 And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? 14:15 And he will shew you a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us. 14:16 And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover. 14:17 And in the evening he cometh with the twelve. 14:18 And as they sat and did eat, Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me. 14:19 And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? and another said, Is it I? 14:20 And he answered and said unto them, It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me in the dish. 14:21 The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born. 14:22 And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body. 14:23 And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them: and they all drank of it. 14:24 And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many.

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14:25 Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God. 14:26 And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives. 14:27 And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered. 14:28 But after that I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee. 14:29 But Peter said unto him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I. 14:30 And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. 14:31 But he spake the more vehemently, If I should die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. Likewise also said they all. 14:32 And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane: and he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray. 14:33 And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy; 14:34 And saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here, and watch. 14:35 And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him. 14:36 And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt. 14:37 And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping, and saith unto Peter, Simon, sleepest thou? couldest not thou watch one hour? 14:38 Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. The spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is weak. 14:39 And again he went away, and prayed, and spake the same words. 14:40 And when he returned, he found them asleep again, (for their eyes were heavy,) neither wist they what to answer him. 14:41 And he cometh the third time, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: it is enough, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 14:42 Rise up, let us go; lo, he that betrayeth me is at hand. 14:43 And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders. 14:44 And he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take him, and lead him away safely. 14:45 And as soon as he was come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed

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him. 14:46 And they laid their hands on him, and took him. 14:47 And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. 14:48 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and with staves to take me? 14:49 I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but the scriptures must be fulfilled. 14:50 And they all forsook him, and fled. 14:51 And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him: 14:52 And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked. 14:53 And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes. 14:54 And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire. 14:55 And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none. 14:56 For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together. 14:57 And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying,

When the witnesses were brought in, they were brought in one at a time. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall everything be established. None could match. They were trying to get Him on charges of sedition against the Roman government. The second one blasphemy.
DA 699 Christ read the priest's purpose as an open book. DA 698 His counsel was sought and carried out as the voice of God. DA 699 Turning upon His questioner, Jesus said, "Why askest thou Me?" Had not the priests and rulers sent spies to watch His movements, and report His every word? Had not these been present at every gathering of the people, and carried to the priests information of all His sayings and doings? "Ask them which heard Me, what I have said unto them," replied Jesus; "behold, they know what I said."

We know this court was done at night (Friday morning). Usually, it was done after the morning sacrifice. Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathaea were not present because they knew they would defend Jesus.
DA 700 Christ suffered keenly under abuse and insult. At the hands of the beings whom He had created, and for whom He was making an infinite sacrifice, He received every indignity. And He suffered in proportion to the perfection of His holiness and His hatred of sin.

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If Christ were to flash forth His divinity, everything would have been destroyed. The greatest temptation comes to those who have the power to do so but do not. All who are godly in Christ Jesus will suffer persecution. If you are not having persecution, chances are you are not living a Godly life.
DA 704 Caiaphas had regarded Jesus as his rival. The eagerness of the people to hear the Saviour, and their apparent readiness to accept His teachings, had aroused the bitter jealousy of the high priest. But as Caiaphas now looked upon the prisoner, he was struck with admiration for His noble and dignified bearing. A conviction came over him that this Man was akin to God. The next instant he scornfully banished the thought. DA 707 Never in afterlife did he forget that searching glance of the persecuted Son of God. 14:58 We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands. 14:59 But neither so did their witness agree together. 14:60 And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee? 14:61 But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14:62 And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. 14:63 Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses? 14:64 Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And they all condemned him to be guilty of death. 14:65 And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands. 14:66 And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest: 14:67 And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth. 14:68 But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew. 14:69 And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them. 14:70 And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilaean, and thy speech agreeth thereto. 14:71 But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak. 14:72 And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.

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Chapter 15
Chapter Outline
15:1 And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate. 15:2 And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering said unto him, Thou sayest it. 15:3 And the chief priests accused him of many things: but he answered nothing. 15:4 And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against thee. 15:5 But Jesus yet answered nothing; so that Pilate marvelled. 15:6 Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired. 15:7 And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection. 15:8 And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them. 15:9 But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews? 15:10 For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy. 15:11 But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them. 15:12 And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews? 15:13 And they cried out again, Crucify him. 15:14 Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him. 15:15 And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified. 15:16 And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band. 15:17 And they clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head, 15:18 And began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews! 15:19 And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him. 15:20 And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him.

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15:21 And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross. 15:22 And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull. 15:23 And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not. 15:24 And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take. 15:25 And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. 15:26 And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS. 15:27 And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left. 15:28 And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors. 15:29 And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, 15:30 Save thyself, and come down from the cross. 15:31 Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save. 15:32 Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him. 15:33 And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. 15:34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? 15:35 And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias. 15:36 And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down. 15:37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. 15:38 And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom. 15:39 And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God. 15:40 There were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome; 15:41 (Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him;) and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem. 15:42 And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath,

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15:43 Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus. 15:44 And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead. 15:45 And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph. 15:46 And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre. 15:47 And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.

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Chapter 16
Chapter Outline    Mary, Mary, and Salome tell Peter the Christ is risen (1-8) Disciples don't believe Mary and the two disciples (9-13) Gospel commission to believe and cast out demons (14-20)

Mary, Mary, and Salome tell Peter the Christ is risen (1-8)
16:1 And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.

Bringing the Spices (Not ready for His death)
Mark 16:1

Spices were brought after the Sabbath was past. Why? Note: It was the Jews custom to use Myrrh & Aloe to embalm the body of those who died
Luke 23:54-56; 24:1

Prepared spices right before Sabbath came Note: These verses show that it took time to prepare these spices. Perhaps almost an hour. They also needed at least 100 lbs. It was expensive so maybe they needed to pull all of their funds together to buy it. Using the Spices
John 19:39-40

Spices ready to anoint the body of Jesus
John 19:39

100 lbs weight – took time to make Significance of the Spices
Jn 3:14

Jesus spoke of His death to Nicodemus
Jn 7:48, 50-51

Nicodemus knew they wanted to kill him. App: Those who are the closest to Jesus and hear His words the most are the most prone to not be ready for the crises. Nicodemus was not in the inner circle. He didn’t hear the words of Jesus every day. Jesus told the disciples several times He would die. He told Nicodemus once that he would die. Appeal/Con

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Matt 2:11

Three wise men brought spices. They were ready for the 1st Coming.
Jn 19:39

Nicodemus was ready for His death. Spices used in sanctuary work. Who will be ready for the 2nd coming? Those who have the spices, they are involved in the sanctuary work Miscellaneous: Myrrh Gk 4666 - myrrh, a bitter gum and costly perfume which exudes from a certain tree or shrub in Arabia and Ethiopia, or is obtained by incisions made in the bark: as an antiseptic it was used for embalming3. Antiseptic - Capable of preventing infection by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. Embalming - 1. To treat (a corpse) with preservatives in order to prevent decay. 3. To impart fragrance to; perfume: Spicy aromas embalmed the air. Bible “Myrrh.” Principle ingredient for the holy anointing oil used in the Sanctuary.
Ex 30:23

Brought as a gift from the Wise men from the east.
Matt 2:11 16:2 And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. 16:3 And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? 16:4 And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great. 16:5 And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted. 16:6 And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. 16:7 But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you. 16:8 And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.

Disciples don't believe Mary and the two disciples (9-13)
16:9 Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. 5BC 1114 Only the Father Could Release Christ.--He who died for the sins of the world was to remain
3Strong,

J. 1996. The exhaustive concordance of the Bible : Showing every word of the test of the common English version of the canonical books, and every occurence of each word in regular order. (electronic ed.) . Woodside Bible Fellowship.: Ontario http://breachrepairers.webs.com/ 395

in the tomb the allotted time. He was in that stony prison house as a prisoner of divine justice. He was responsible to the Judge of the universe. He was bearing the sins of the world, and His Father only could release Him. A strong guard of mighty angels kept watch over the tomb, and had a hand been raised to remove the body, the flashing forth of their glory would have laid him who ventured powerless on the earth. MS 94, 1897 There was only one entrance to the tomb, and neither human force nor fraud could tamper with the stone that guarded the entrance. Here Jesus rested during the Sabbath. But prophecy had pointed out that on the third day Christ would rise from the dead. Christ Himself had assured His disciples of this. "Destroy this temple," He said, "and in three days I will raise it up." Christ never committed sin, neither was guile found in His mouth. His body was to come forth from the tomb untarnished by corruption. Ps 16:10 For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.

Heb 7845 Corruption = corruption 4, pit 14, destruction 2, grave 1; 23 (Pit for catching lions, or of Sheol).
Ps 49:9 That he should still live for ever, [and] not see corruption.

Greek 1312 Corruption = corruption 6; 6 corruption, destruction. In the NT that destruction which is effected by the decay of the body after death.
Acts 2:27 Acts 2:31 Acts 13:34-37 5BC 1113 (John 1:1-3, 14; Phil. 2:5-8; Col. 2:9; Heb. 1:6, 8; 2:14-17; 4:15). Deity Did Not Die.--Was the human nature of the Son of Mary changed into the divine nature of the Son of God? No; the two natures were mysteriously blended in one person--the man Christ Jesus. In Him dwelt all the fullness of the Godhead bodily. When Christ was crucified, it was His human nature that died. Deity did not sink and die; that would have been impossible. Christ, the sinless One, will save every son and daughter of Adam who accepts the salvation proffered them, consenting to become the children of God. The Saviour has purchased the fallen race with His own blood. This is a great mystery, a mystery that will not be fully, completely understood in all its greatness until the translation of the redeemed shall take place. Then the power and greatness and efficacy of the gift of God to man will be understood. But the enemy is determined that this gift shall be so mystified that it will become as nothingness (Letter 280, 1904). {.3} 5BC 1113 (Matt. 28:5, 6; Luke 24:5, 6; John 2:19; 10:17, 18; Acts 13:32, 33.) When the voice of the angel was heard saying, "Thy Father calls thee," He who had said, "I lay down my life, that I might take it again," "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up," came forth from the grave to life that was in Himself. Deity did not die. Humanity died, but Christ now proclaims over the rent sepulcher of Joseph, "I am the resurrection, and the life." In His divinity Christ possessed the power to break the bonds of death. He declares that He had life in Himself to quicken whom He will. 5BC 1113 I am the resurrection, and the life." He who had said, "I lay down my life, that I might take it again," came forth from the grave to life that was in Himself. Humanity died: divinity did not die. In His divinity, Christ possessed the power to break the bonds of death. He declares that He has life in Himself to quicken whom He will. All created beings live by the will and power of God. They are

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recipients of the life of the Son of God. However able and talented, however large their capacities, they are replenished with life from the Source of all life. He is the spring, the fountain, of life. Only He who alone hath immortality, dwelling in light and life, could say, "I have power to lay down my life, and I have power to take it again." . . . Christ was invested with the right to give immortality. The life which He had laid down in humanity, He again took up and gave to humanity. "I am come," He says, "that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly" (YI Aug. 4, 1898). 16:10 And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 16:11 And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not. 16:12 After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country. 16:13 And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.

Gospel commission to believe and cast out demons (14-20)
16:14 Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen. 16:15 And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. 16:16 He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. 16:17 And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; 16:18 They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. 16:19 So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. 16:20 And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.

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Luke - Humanity of Jesus Christ
Introduction
  Where did he get his material from? o From others whom had written and seen – Luke 1:2, 3 Luke 1:3 o Theophilus  Theo – means God  Philus – means friend  So Theophilus means the friend of God – those who are the friends of God Nationality – a Gentile, a Greek o Begins his genealogy from Adam o Luke 3:1 o Tries to anchor the life of Jesus into secular history o He was trying to reach the Gentile mind

Author: Luke = "light-giving." This whole book is an example of Luke giving light to Theophilus. Theophilus was his student and high priest. Commonly believed that he came from Antioch. He was a companion of Paul (2nd journey to Rome) both a physician and gentile. His literary style is Grecian. He died at the age of 84 a martyr. Tradition states he was nailed to an olive tree. He sends this work to Theophilus for examination and criticism. 6BC 1051

Author
The third Gospel does not name its author. This is also true of the book of Acts, the author's second work. This does not mean, however, that the original readers did not know who wrote these two books. The Lukan authorship of Luke–Acts is affirmed by both external evidence (church tradition) and internal evidence. Church tradition supporting Luke as the author is both early (from the mid2nd century a.d.) and unanimous (it was never doubted until the 19th century). The “we” sections of Acts (16:10–17; 20:5–21:18; 27:1–28:16) assume that the author was a companion of Paul and participated in the events described in those sections. Thus the author of Acts was probably one of Paul's companions listed in his letters written during those periods (Luke is listed in Col. 4:14; 2 Tim. 4:11; Philem. 24) and not one of those referred to in the third person in the “we” sections (cf. Acts 20:4–5). It is known that the author was from the second generation of the early church, was not an “eyewitness” of Jesus' ministry (Luke 1:2), and was a Gentile cf. Col. 4:14). All of this confirms the tradition that Luke was the author of the third Gospel. Because Luke traveled with Paul, this Gospel was received as having apostolic endorsement and authority from Paul and as a trustworthy record of the gospel that Paul preached.

Date
The earliest possible date of Luke–Acts is immediately after the events that Luke recorded in Acts 28, c. a.d. 62. In fact, Luke could have been written slightly earlier, and Acts could have been completed at that time. The specific date centers on two questions: would Luke have added to his Gospel later, and did he make use of the Gospel of Mark in writing his own Gospel? If Luke wrote Luke–Acts after the martyrdom of Paul (c. a.d. 64–67), some have suggested that the omission of the details of Paul's trial and death seems strange (see Introduction to Acts: Date). In addition, Luke makes no mention of the terrible persecution under Nero in a.d. 65 but gives a very positive picture of Paul preaching the gospel in Rome for two years “with all boldness and without hindrance” (Acts

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28:31), so he must have written sometime before 65. (Those who hold to a later date for Luke reply that ending with Paul preaching in Rome is natural, because it shows that the preaching “to the end of the earth” in Acts 1:8 has been fulfilled. Since a primary purpose of Luke–Acts is to tell the story of how the gospel spread to the Gentile capital of Rome, when that purpose is accomplished the story could come to a natural end, regardless of what happens to Paul.) Concerning the relationship of Luke to Mark, the great majority of scholars believe that Luke made use of Mark in writing his Gospel. There is no real difficulty in dating Mark in the mid- to late-50s a.d. (see Introduction to Mark: Date and Location), which would allow for a date of Luke in the early 60s. Other scholars dispute this and claim that the predictions of the fall of Jerusalem in Luke 21:20–24 are so vivid that they could have been written only after the fact, which means that Luke and Acts were written after a.d. 70. These scholars would then date Mark somewhat before Luke, in the late 60s (after Peter's death). However, many evangelical scholars, who consider Luke 21:20–24 a predictive prophecy by Jesus, would hold to a date for Luke in the early 60s.

Theme
Luke wrote his Gospel so that his readers would understand that the gospel is for all, both Jews and Gentiles alike, since Jesus is the promised one of God as prophesied in the OT and as attested through God's saving activity in Jesus' life, death, and resurrection. In addition to this, Luke emphasized the truthfulness of the Christian traditions his readers had been taught, so that by believing in Jesus Christ, the Son of God, they would receive the promised Holy Spirit whom he gives to all who follow him. Shows His close connection with human needs. Presents Him as a friend and partaker of humanity. Observation – Of the 4 gospel writers Luke was the only Gentile. It is like the gospel account would not be complete unless God choose a gentile to write it.
Luke 9:56 For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save [them]. Luke 19:10 For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost

Key Themes
1. God's sovereign rule over history. The promises God made through the prophets are already being fulfilled. 2. The arrival and actual presence of the kingdom of God. Nevertheless, the consummation of the kingdom is still a future event, a blessed hope for which the church prays. 3. The coming and indwelling of the Holy Spirit upon Jesus and his followers. The Spirit is present in the Gospel of Luke, from the births of John the Baptist and Jesus to the end. The Spirit is present at Jesus' dedication in the temple, his baptism, temptation, early ministry, and first sermon. The Holy Spirit is central to the message of John the Baptist, and Jesus at his ascension promises the Spirit's future coming in power. 13:33; 22:22, 42; Acts 1:16–17; 2:23; 4:28; etc. 11:2, 20; 16:16; 17:20– 21; 18:1–8; 21:27–28, 34–36; cf. Acts 1:11; 1 Cor. 16:22; Rev. 22:20 1:15–17, 35; 2:25–27; 3:16, 22; 4:1, 14, 18; 5:17; 24:49

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4. The great reversal taking place in the world, in which the first are becoming last and the last are