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Reading: Chapter 1

1

**What is Automata Theory?
**

Study of abstract computing devices, or “machines” Automaton = an abstract computing device A fundamental question in computer science is:

Finding out what different models of machines can do and cannot do

**The theory of computation Computability vs. Complexity
**

2

Alan Turing Father of Modern Computer Science 1912-1954 English mathematician Studied abstract machines called Turing machines even before real computers existed 3 .

Theory of Computation: A Historical Perspective 1930s • Alan Turing studies Turing machines • Decidability • Halting problem 1940-1950s • “Finite automata” machines studied • Noam Chomsky proposes the “Chomsky Hierarchy” for formal languages 1969 1970Cook introduces “intractable” problems or “NP-Hard” problems Modern computer science. evolve 4 . computational theory. compilers.

1959 Image source: Nowak et al. vol 417. Nature. Vol 2. 2002 5 .Languages & Grammars Or “words” Languages: “A language is a collection of sentences of finite length all constructed from a finite alphabet of symbols” Grammars: “A grammar can be regarded as a device that enumerates the sentences of a language” . Chomsky. Information and Control.nothing more. nothing less N.

The Chomsky Hierachy • A containment hierarchy of classes of formal languages Regular (DFA) Contextfree (PDA) Contextsensitive (LBA) Recursivelyenumerable (TM) 6 .

web pages) for pattern finding Software for verifying systems of all types that have a finite number of states (e.g. communication/network protocol) 7 .Finite Automata Some Applications Software for designing and checking the behavior of digital circuits Lexical analyzer of a typical compiler Software for scanning large bodies of text (e.g.. stock market transaction..

Finite Automata : Examples On/Off switch Modeling recognition of the word “then” Start state Transition Intermediate state Final state 8 .

The Central Concepts of Automata Theory 9 .

z} Alphanumeric: ∑ = {a-z.Alphabet An alphabet is a finite.t} … 10 .b.g.c.c.1} All lower case letters: ∑ = {a. A-Z.. non-empty set of symbols We use the symbol ∑ (sigma) to denote an alphabet Examples: Binary: ∑ = {0. 0-9} DNA molecule letters: ∑ = {a..

Strings A string or word is a finite sequence of symbols chosen from ∑ Empty string is ε (or “epsilon”) Length of a string w is |w| = number of characters in the string Powers of an alphabet ∑k = set of strings of length k ∑* = ∑0 U ∑1 U ∑2 U … ∑+ = ∑1 U ∑2 U ∑3 U … xy = concatentation of two strings x and y 11 .

1010.1001.10.0101.000111.…} Ø = Empty language Let L = {ε}.Languages L is a said to be a language over alphabet ∑. 01.0011. if L is a subset of strings in ∑* Examples: The language of all strings consisting of n 0’s followed by n 1’s: {ε.01.1100.…} The set of strings of with equal number of 0’s and 1’s: {ε.0011. Is L=Ø? no 12 .

13 . decide whether or not w is in L.The Membership Problem Given a string w in ∑*and a language L over ∑.

Structural expressions Grammars Regular expressions E. unix style to capture city names such as “Palo Alto CA”: [A-Z][a-z]*([ ][A-Z][a-z]*)*[ ][A-Z][A-Z] Start with a letter A string of other letters (possibly empty) Should end w/ 2-letter state code Other space delimited words (part of city name) 14 ..g.

Formal Proofs 15 .

to a conclusion statement (what we want to prove) Logical progression by direct implications Theorem 1: If x≥4. then 2x≥x2.Deductive Proofs From the hypothesis or the given statement. hypothesis conclusion Theorem 2: If x is the sum of the squares of 4 positive integers. then 2x≥x2 16 .

c≥1.Example: Deductive proof Theorem: If x is the sum of the squares of 4 positive integers. d≥1 a2≥1. b2≥1. d2≥1 (by 2) x≥4 (by 1 & 3) 2x ≥ x2 (by 4 and previous theorem) “implies” or “follows” 17 . c2≥1. b≥1. then 2x≥x2 Proof: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Given: x = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 Given: a≥1.

. “IF A THEN B” can also be written as “A=>B” 18 .g.Quantifiers “For all” or “For every” Universal proofs Notation=? “There exists” Used in existential proofs Notation=? Other notation: Implication is denoted by => E.

inductive step By contrapositive statement If A then B == If not B then not A 19 . inductive hypothesis. we could start with: A and B and not(C or D) … and show that could never happen due to other implications By induction (3 steps) Basis.g..Proving techniques By contradiction Start with a contradictory statement E. To prove (A and B => C or D).

Proving techniques… By counter-example Show an example that disproves the claim Note: There is no such thing called a “proof by example”! So when asked to prove a claim. an example that satisfied that claim is not a proof 20 .

Different ways of saying the same thing “If H then C”: i. v. iii. C follows 21 . iv. H implies C H => C C if H H only if C Whenever H holds. ii.

“If-and-Only-If” statements “A if and only if B” (A <==> B) (if part) if B then A ( <= ) (only if part) A only if B ( => ) “If and only if” is abbreviated as “iff” i. Then floor of x = ceiling of x if and only if x is an integer. “A iff B” Example: Theorem: Let x be a real number. Proofs for iff have two parts One for the “if part” Another for the “only if part” 22 ..e.

contradiction. strings/words/sentences. induction.Summary Automata theory & a historical perspective Chomsky hierarchy Finite automata Alphabets. languages Membership problem Proofs: Deductive. counterexample If and only if Read chapter 1 for more examples and exercises Gradiance homework 1 23 . contrapositive.

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