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(a) Find the tangent plane to the surface z = f (x, y) at P . (b) Find the quadratic approximation of f around P . (c) Use part (b) to estimate the value of f (1.1, 0.1). 2. (10 marks) Find and classify all the critical points of the function 1 f (x, y) = x2 y + y 3 − 9y + 8x2 . 3 3. (10 marks) Suppose the energy of a particle (in Joules) is given by E = f (x, y) = sin(πx) + cos(πy) where x and y are its coordinates measured in metres. Consider a particle at the point P = ( 1 , 1 ). 4 4 (a) Find the direction in which the particle would move to decrease its energy most rapidly. (b) Find the initial rate of energy increase (in Joules per metre), if the particle were to move from P directly towards the origin. (c) If the particle were to travel from P , along the curve x = 4y 2 with x decreasing at 10 metres per second, ﬁnd the initial rate of energy increase (in Joules per second).
(10 marks) Consider the diﬀerential equation dy = (1 − y)(3 − y)(5 − t). t→∞ 6. where s is the arclength measured from the point (1. 0) in the direction of increasing 2 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. (10 marks) Solve the initial value problem 1 dy = y 2 sin t. (b) Given a solution y(t) satisfying the condition y(0) = 2. dt (a) Find the equilibrium solutions and determine their stability. (10 marks) Give a parametrisation of the curve r(t) = 2 2t −1 i+ 2 j t2 + 1 t +1 in terms of a new parameter s. 4) parameterised by r(t) = (t2 + 1)i + (2t2 + 2)j. 2) to (2. where C is the path from (1. y(0) = . dt 2 7. dt2 dt 5.4. (10 marks) Find the general solution of the diﬀerential equation d2 y dy + 4 − 5y = 5t + 1. (10 marks) Evaluate the line integral C y 2 dx + 2xy dy. determine lim y(t). 8.
Express your answer in terms of cos and sin functions only. and hence provide a rough sketch of the curve for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. Hint: recall the trigonometric identities sin(2θ) = 2 sin(θ) cos(θ) cos(2θ) = 2 cos2 (θ) − 1 sec2 (θ) = 1 + tan2 (θ).t. 3 .