MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Conjugate roots : Irrational roots and complex roots occur in conjugate pairs i.e. if one root α + iβ, then other root α – iβ if one root α +

QUADRATIC EQUATION & EXPRESSION
1. Quadratic expression : A polynomial of degree two of the form ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 is called a quadratic expression in x. 2. Quadratic equation : An equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0, a, b, c ∈ R has two and only two roots, given by α= 3.
−b + b2 − 4ac 2a

β , then other root α –

β

5.

Sum of roots : S=α+β=

and

β=

−b − b2 − 4ac 2a

−Coefficient of x −b = Coefficient of x2 a

Nature of roots : Nature of the roots of the given equation depends upon the nature of its discriminant D i.e. b2 – 4ac. Suppose a, b, c ∈ R, a ≠ 0 then (i) (ii) (iii) If D > 0 If D = 0 If D < 0

Product of roots : P = αβ =

cons tant term c = Coefficient of x2 a

⇒ ⇒

roots are real and distinct (unequal) roots are real and equal (Coincident)

6.

.ormation of an equation with given roots : x2 – Sx + P = 0

roots are imaginary and unequal i.e. ⇒ non real complex numbers. Suppose a, b, c ∈ Q a ≠ 0 then 7.

x2 – (Sum of roots) x + Product of roots = 0

(i) (ii)

If D > 0 and D is a perfect square ⇒ roots are rational & unequal If D > 0 and D is not a perfect square ⇒ roots are irrational and unequal.

Roots under particular cases : .or the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0 (i) (ii) (iii) If b = 0 ⇒ roots are of equal magnitude but of opposite sign. If c = 0 ⇒ one root is zero and other is –b/a If b = c = 0 ⇒ both roots are zero

.or a quadratic equation their will exist exactly 2 roots real or imaginary. If the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is satisfied for more than 2 distinct values of x, then it will be an identity & will be satisfied by all x. Also in this case a = b = c = 0.
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E D U C A T

(iv) If a = c ⇒ roots are reciprocal to each other.

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) If a > 0, c < 0 or a < 0, c > 0 ⇒ roots are of opposite signs (vi) If a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 or a < 0, b < 0, c < 0 ⇒ both roots are –ve (vii) If a > 0, b < 0 , c > 0 or a < 0, b > 0, c < 0 roots are +ve. 8. Symmetric function of the roots : If roots of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 are α and β, then (i) (α – β) =

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (vi) α4 + β4 = (α2 + β2)2 – 2α2β2

={(α + β)2 –2αβ}2 – 2α2β2

.b =G H

2

− 2ac a2

I J K

2

–

2c2 a2

⇒ both
(vii) α4 – β4 =(α2 + β2) (α2 – β2) =

−b(b2 − 2ac) b2 − 4ac a4 b2 + ac a2

(viii) α2 + αβ + β2 = (α + β)2 – αβ =

(α + β) − 4αβ = ±

2

b2 − 4ac a

(ix)

α α 2 + β2 (α + β)2 − 2αβ β + = = β αβ αβ α

(ii)

α2 + β2 = (α + β)2 – 2αβ =

b2 − 2ac a2 −b b2 − 4ac a2

(x)

.G α IJ H βK

2

+

. βI G αJ H K

2

=

α4 + β4 [(b2 − 2ac)2 − 2a2c2 ] = α 2 β2 a2c 2

(iii)

α2 – β2 = (α + β)

(α + β) − 4αβ =

2

9.

Condition for common roots : The equations a1 x2 + b1 x + c1 = 0 and a2x2 + b2x + c2 = 0 have (i) One common root if

−b(b2 − 3ac) (iv) α3 + β3 = (α + β)3 – 3(α + β) αβ = a3
(v) α 3 – β3 = (α – β) [α2+ β2 – αβ] =

b1c2 − b2c1 c1a2 − c2a1 c1a2 − c2a1 = a1b2 − a2b1

(α + β)2 − 4αβ [α2+ β2 – αβ] (b2 − ac) b2 − 4ac a3
(ii)

a1 b1 c1 Both roots common if a = b = c 2 2 2

=

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 10. Maximum and Minimum value of quadratic expression :

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) If both the roots lies in the interval (k1, k2) D ≥ 0, a.f(k1) > 0, a.f(k2) > 0, k1 < (vi) If k1, k2 lies between the roots

In a quadratic expression ax Where D = b2 – 4ac (i) If a > 0, quadratic

2

L. b I + bx + c = a MG x + 2a J K MNH

2

D 4a2 ,

OP PQ

−b < k2 2a

expression has minimum value

a.f(k1) < 0, a.f(k2) < 0 (vii) λ will be the repeated root of f(x) = 0 if f(λ) = 0 and f'(λ) = 0 12. .or cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 : We have α + β + γ =
−b c −d , αβ + βγ + γα = and αβγ = a a a

−b 4ac − b2 at x = and there is no maximum value. 2a 4a
(ii) If a < 0, quadratic expression has maximum value
−b 4ac − b2 at x = and there is no minimum value. 2a 4a

11. Location of roots : Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 then w.r.to f(x) = 0 (i) (ii) If k lies between the roots then a.f(k) < 0 (necessary & sufficient) If between k1 & k2 their is exactly one root of k1, k2 themselves are not roots f(k1) . f(k2) < 0 (iii) (necessary & sufficient) If both the roots are less than a number k D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0,

where α, β, γ are its roots. 13. .or biquadratic equation ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0 : We have α + β + γ + δ = –

−d b , αβγ + βγδ + γδα + γδβ = a a
c e and αβγδ = a a

αβ + αγ + αδ + βγ + βδ + γδ =

−b <k 2a

(necessary & sufficient)

(iv) If both the roots are greater than k D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0,
−b >k 2a

(necessary & sufficient)

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z I Gz J H K 1 2 (provided z2 ≠ 0) ez j n = ( z )n = z x2 + y2 * * c zh If α = f(z).+zn = z 1 + z 2 + ... where r = |z|. P(x.. Complex Number : A number of the form z = x + iy (x.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. x = Re(z) and y is called an imaginary part i. x * * .e.. i = 1 → * * 4. i4n+2 = –1. z + z = 0 or z = – z ⇒ z = 0 or z is purely imaginary z= z ⇒ z is purely real Modulus of a complex number : Magnitude of a complex number z is denoted as |z| and is defined as |z| = (i) (ii) (iii) Hence i4n+1 = i. 0744 . then α = f( z ) Where α = f(z) is a function in a complex variable with real coefficients. y = r sinθ. 608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 7 E D U C A T z |z|2 |z1 ± z2|2 = |z1|2 + |z2|2 ± 2 Re (z1 z2 ) PAGE # 8 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. i = –i . where x is called a real part i.(z) (iii) Vector representation : y . z1 + z2 +. i = –1. y = Im(z). |z| ≥ 0 z z = |z|2 = | z |2 z–1 = z is the mirror image of z in the real axis. 0744 . + z n z1 − z2 = z 1 – z 2 z1z2 = z 1 z 2 Modulus |z| = x2 + y2 . Complex conjugate of z : If z = x + iy. θ = amp. r = |z| = (ii) Exponential form : z = reiθ . then z = x – iy is called complex conjugate of z * * * E D U C A T I O N S (Re(z))2 + (Im(z))2 ... i4n or i4(n+1) = 1 3.e.G z IJ Hz K 1 2 = .6450883... |z| = | z | z + z = 2Re(z) = purely real ..6450883. i = −1 ) is called a complex number. 608-A.. i4n+3 = –i.MATHS FORMULA .. y ∈ R. y) then its vector representation is z = OP 2.POCKET BOOK * * * * * z – z = 2i Im(z) = purely imaginary z z = |z|2 COMPLEX NUMBER 1.. Integral Power of lota : i= 2 3 4 −1 .) Ph. 2405510 I O N S . amplitude or amp(z) = arg(z) = θ = tan–1 (i) Polar representation : x = r cosθ.

1I G zJ H K . where m = 0. if z is non real (i) (ii) L .POCKET BOOK (iv) |z1 + z2|2 + |z1 – z2|2 = 2 [|z1|2 + |z2|2] (v) |z1 ± z2| ≤ |z1| + |z2| (vi) |z1 ± z2| ≥ |z1| – |z2| 5. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. (i) (ii) (iii) z ∈ 1st quad. then (cosθ + isinθ)n = cosθ + isin nθ and (cosθ + isinθ)–n = cos nθ – i sin nθ 8. Argument of a complex number : Argument of a complex number z is the ∠ made by its radius vector with +ve direction of real axis. π ] (viii) arg (zn) = n arg z + 2 k π (ix) arg z + arg z = 0 argument function behaves like log function. where eiθ = cosθ + isinθ and e–iθ = cosθ – i sinθ ∴ (iv) arg (z1.6450883. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 9 E D U C A T I O N S . th MATHS FORMULA . arg z ∈ (– π . 608-A.) = 0 arg (any real – ve no.6450883. = θ – π . = –θ. 0] = arg z – π.) Ph. Cube root of unity : cube roots of unity are 1. for b < 0 2 2 O P P Q = ± O P P Q = π – θ . z ∈ 2nd quad.. ω2 where ω= −1 + i 3 and 1 + ω + ω2 = 0. 1. z ∈ 4 quad. Square root of a complex no. De-Moiver's Theorem : It states that if n is rational number.MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . a + ib = ± L M M N L M M N |z|+a |z|−a +i . z ∈ 3rd quad. 2mπ + θ I O M G n J G n JP .z2) = arg z1 + arg z2 + 2 k π (v) arg eiθ + e–iθ = 2cosθ and eiθ – e–iθ = 2 isinθ . 2405510 .POCKET BOOK 6...G z I Hz J K 1 2 = arg z1 – arg z2 + 2 k π 9. 608-A. . arg z = θ. for b > 0 2 2 |z|+a |z|−a −i . 2mπ + θ I + i sin.) = π arg (z – z ) = ± π/2 7. 0744 . ω.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.(n – 1) Sum of all roots of z1/n is always equal to zero Product of all roots of z1/n = (–1)n–1 z 10. ω3 = 1 2 PAGE # 10 . nth roots of complex number z1/n = r1/n cos (vi) arg ( z ) = –arg z = arg .) Ph. arg (any real + ve no. K H KQ N H = arg z.. arg z ∈ (0. Euler's formulae as z = reiθ. if z is real (vii) arg (– z) = arg z + π. 2.

Some important result : If z = cosθ + isinθ (i) z+ MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK or z − z1 z − z1 z − z2 + z − z2 = 0 z− z1 + z 2 2 1 = 2cosθ z 1 = 2 isinθ z 1 = 2cosnθ zn or or = |z1 − z 2 | 2 (ii) z– |z – z1|2 + |z – z2|2 = |z1 – z2|2 (iii) zn + Where z1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. PAGE # 11 E D U C A T I O N S . y = cos β + i sin β & z = cosγ + isinγ and given x + y + z = 0.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . |z – z1| < r and |z – z1| > r represents interior and exterior of circle |z – z1| = r. 13. 2 * Three points z1.or external division = (iii) m1z2 − m2 z1 m1 − m2 Equation of straight line. z2 are end points of diameter and z is any point on circle. 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then (a) (c) Distance formula PQ = |z2 – z1| Section formula . z2. 608-A. Equation of Circle : * * * * * * |z – z1| = r represents a circle with centre z1 and radius r. z3 are collinear if z1 z2 z3 z1 1 z2 1 = 0 z3 1 or slope of AB = slope of BC = slope of AC.P 12.) Ph. z z + a z + a z + b = 0 represents a general circle where a ∈ c and b ∈ R.6450883.MATHS FORMULA .z − z I Gz − z J H K 1 2 π = ± .POCKET BOOK 11. 2405510 PAGE # 12 . * Parametric form z = tz1 + (1 – t)z2 where t ∈ R * Non parametric form z z1 z2 z 1 z1 1 z2 1 = 0.or internal division = 1 1 1 + + =0 y x z x +y +z =0 2 2 2 m1z2 + m2 z1 m1 + m2 MATHS FORMULA . Some important points : (i) (ii) (b) yz + zx + xy = 0 (d) x + y + z = 3xyz 3 3 3 (iv) If x = cosα + isinα .6450883. 608-A. then equation of tangent at the point z1 is z z 1 + z z1 = 2r2 diametric form of circle : arg .) Ph. Let |z| = r be the given circle. 0744 . . |z| = r represents circle with centre at origin.

(viii) If four points z1. 0744 .) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . having the points z1 and z2 as its foci.6450883. 608-A.. z3 be the vertices of an equilateral triangle and z0 be the circumcentre. then (ix) (x) ..G z Hz 1 1 − z2 − z4 I . then z12 + z22 + z32 = 2z2 (z1 + z3).z J Gz K H 3 3 − z4 − z2 I J K is purely real.. z3 . z2. 2405510 PAGE # 14 . z3. z2.. z4 are vertices of a parallelogram then z1+ z3 = z2 + z4 z − z1 (iv) The complex equation z − z 2 (v) = k represents a circle if k ≠ 1 and a straight line if k = 1. then z12 + z22 + . z2. (vi) |z – z1| = |z – z2| = λ . then they lie on a straight line in the complex plane. then z lies on the line passing through z1 and z2 excluding the points between z1 & z2. 0744 . The triangle whose vertices are the points represented by complex numbers z1. then the triangle is equilateral iff (z1 – z2)2 + (z2 – z3)2 + (z3 – z1)2 = 0. If three complex numbers are in A. and if |z1 – z2| = λ . If z1.. (xiv) z1. (xiii) If z1. + zn2 = nz02.. represents an ellipse if |z1 – z2| < λ . then z12 + z22 + z32 = 3z02.. z3.POCKET BOOK (xii) If z1.) Ph. zn be the vertices of a regular polygon of n sides & z0 be its centroid. PAGE # 13 E D U C A T I O N S (xi) ..MATHS FORMULA .. z2. z3.. then z lies on a line segment connecting z1 & z2 (vii) |z – z1| ~ |z – z2| = λ represents a hyperbola if |z1 – z2| > λ . If z1.6450883. z2. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. having the points z1 and z2 as its foci and if |z1 – z2| = λ . z3 is equilateral if 1 1 1 z2 − z3 + z3 − z1 + z1 − z2 = 0 i.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . if z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2z3 + z1z3.P. z3 be the vertices of a triangle. z2.e. right angled at z2...... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. z4 are concyclic. z3 are the vertices of an isosceles triangle.

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) If out of n objects, 'a' are alike of one kind, 'b' are alike of second kind and 'c' are alike of third kind and the rest distinct, then the number of ways of permuting the n objects is 4.

PERMUTATION & COMBINATION
1. .actorial notation The continuous product of first n natural numbers is called factorial i.e. n or n! = 1. 2. 3........(n – 1).n n! = n(n – 1)! = n(n – 1)(n – 2)! & so on or

n! a! b! c!

Restricted Permutations (i) The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time, when m particular things always occupy definite places = n–mpr–m The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time, when m particular things are always to be excluded (included) =
n–m

n! n (n – 1)......... (n – r + 1) = (n − r)!

Here 0! = 1 and (–n)! = meaningless. 2. .undamental principle of counting (i) Addition rule : If there are two operations such that they can be done independently in m and n ways respectively, then either (any one) of these two operations can be done by (m + n) ways. Addition ⇒ OR (or) Option (ii) Multiplication rule : Let there are two tasks of an operation and if these two tasks can be performed in m and n different number of ways respectively, then the two tasks together can be done in m × n ways. Multiplication ⇒ And (or) Condition (iii) Bijection Rule : Number of favourable cases = Total number of cases – Unfavourable number of cases.

(ii)

Pr (n–mCr–m × r!)

5.

Circular Permutations When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as different. (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things taken r at a time (ii)
n

Pr r

The number of circular permutations of n different things taken altogether
n

Pn = (n – 1)! n

3.

Permutations (Arrangement of objects) (i) The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time is npr = (ii) (iii)

When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as same. (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things
n

n! (n − r)!
(ii)

taken r at a time

Pr 2r
n

The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is npn = n! The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, when repetition of objects is allowed is nr.
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E D U C A T

The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all together

1 Pn = (n – 1)! 2 2n
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 6. Combination (selection of objects) The number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time is denoted by nCr or C (n, r)
n

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) Total number of selections of zero or more objects from n identical objects is n + 1. (v) Total number of selections of zero or more objects out of n different objects =
n

Cr =

n! r !(n − r)!

=

n

Pr r!

C0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... +

n

Cn = 2n

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

n n n n n

Cr = nCn–r Cr + nCr–1 = n+1Cr Cr = nCs
n

r = s or r + s = n

(vi) The total number of selections of at least one out of a1 + a2 + ...... + an objects where a1 are alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ......... an are alike (of nth kind) is [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) + ...... + (an + 1)] – 1 (vii) The number of selections taking atleast one out of a1 + a2 + a3 + ....... + an + k objects when a1 are alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ........ an are alike (of kth kind) and k are distinct is [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) .......... (an + 1)] 2k – 1 9. Division and distribution (i) The number of ways in which (m + n + p) different objects can be divided into there groups containing m, n, & p different objects respectively is (ii)

C0 = Cn = 1 C1 = nCn–1 = n Cr = Cr =
n r
n–1

n

Cr–1

n

1 (n – r + 1) nCr–1 r

7.

Restricted combinations The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, when k particular objects are always to be (i) (ii) (iii) included is n–kCr–k excluded is n–kCr included and s particular things are to be excluded is
n–k–s

(m + n + p)! m! n! p!

Cr–k

The total number of ways in which n different objects are to be divided into r groups of group sizes n1, n2, n3, ............. nr respectively such that size of no two groups

8.

Total number of combinations in different cases (i) (ii) The number of selections of n identical objects, taken at least one = n The number of selections from n different objects, taken at least one = nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... + (iii)
n

n! is same is n ! n !............n ! . 1 2 r
(iii) The total number of ways in which n different objects are to be divided into groups such that k1 groups have group size n1, k2 groups have group size n2 and so on, kr groups have group size nr, is given as

Cn = 2n – 1

The number of selections of r objects out of n identical objects is 1.
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n! (n1 !) (n2 !) .............(nr !)k r k1 ! k 2 !............ k r !
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k1 k2

.

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) The total number of ways in which n different objects are divided into k groups of fixed group size and are distributed among k persons (one group to each) is given as (number of ways of group formation) × k! 10. Selection of light objects and multinomial theorem (i) (ii) The coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 – x–r) is equal to n + r – 1Cr – 1 The number of solution of the equation x1 + x2 + .......... + xr = n, n ∈ N under the condition n1 ≤ x1 ≤ n'1, n2 ≤ x2 ≤ n'2 , ................ nr ≤ xr ≤ n'r where all x'is are integers is given as Coefficient of xn is
n1

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (b) Number of total triangles formed by joining the n points on a plane of which m(< n) are collinear is
n

C3 –

m

C3.

(c) (d)

Number of diagonals in a polygon of n sides is
n

C2 – n.

If m parallel lines in a plane are intersected by a family of other n parallel lines. Then total number of parallelogram so formed is mC2 × nC2. Given n points on the circumference of a circle, then number of straight lines nC2 number of triangles nC3 number of quadrilaterals nC4

(e)

(f)

Lex M N

+x

n1 +1

+...+x

n'1

j ex

n2

+x

n2 +1

+...+x

n'2

j...ex

nr

+x

nr +1

+...+ x

n'r

jOQP

If n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three lines are concurrent. Then the number of part into which these lines divide the plane is = 1 + Σn Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n × n is
n

11. Derangement Theorem (i) If n things are arranged in a row, then the number of ways in which they can be rearranged so that no one of them occupies the place assigned to it is

(g)

r =1

∑ r3

n

and number of squares of any size is

r =1

∑ r2 .

L 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 −....+(−1) 1 OP = n! M1 − n!Q N 1! 2! 3! 4!
n

(h)

Number of rectangles of any size in a rectangle of n × p is

(ii)

If n things are arranged at n places then the number of ways to rearrange exactly r things at right places is
n! = r

np (n + 1) (p + 1) and number of squares 4

LM1 − 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 +....+(−1) N 1! 2! 3! 4!

n− r

1 (n − r)!

OP Q

of any size is

r =1

n

(n + 1 – r) (p + 1 – r).

12. Some Important results (a) Number of total different straight lines formed by joining the n points on a plane of which m(<n) are collinear is n C2 – mC2 + 1.
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, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

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0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . (52)n (xiv) P(none) = 1 – P (atleast one) (xv) Playing cards : (a) (b) (c) (d) Total cards : 52 (26 red.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. diamond. 608-A.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 2n PROBABILITY 1. 6n 2. 26 black) . 4 kings. 608-A. Set theoretical notation of probability and some important results : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) P(A + B) = 1 – P( A B ) 1 . the probability of each simple event is 3. Cn and odds in against of A = (xiii) If n cards are drawn one after the other with replacement. 2405510 . club (13 cards each) Court (face) cards : 12 (4 kings. 4 queens. Mathematical definition of probability : Probability of an event = Note : No.6450883. 4 queens. 0744 . P(A) + P(Not A) = 1 i. of favourable cases to event A Total no.POCKET BOOK (vi) P(AB) ≤ P(A) P(B) ≤ P(A + B) ≤ P(A) + P(B) (vii) P(Exactly one event) = P(A B ) + P( A B) (viii) P( A + B ) = 1 – P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) – 2P(AB) = P(A + B) – P(AB) (ix) (x) P(neither A nor B) = P ( A B ) = 1 – P(A + B) When a coin is tossed n times or n coins are tossed once. spade.MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. the probability of each simple event is (xi) 1 .e. of cases (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1 Probability of an impossible event is zero Probability of a sure event is one. 4 jacks) Honour cards : 16 (4 Aces. Odds for an event : If P(A) = m n−m and P( A ) = n n Then odds in favour of A = P(A) m = P(A) n−m P(A) n−m = P(A) m (xii) When n cards are drawn (1 ≤ n ≤ 52) from well shuffled deck of 52 cards. the probability of each simple event is 1 . P(A) + P( A ) = 1 When a dice is rolled n times or n dice are rolled once. the probability of each simple event is 52 1 .) Ph. 4 Jacks) PAGE # 22 P(AB) P(A/B) = P(B) P(A + B) = P(AB) + P( A B) + P(A B ) P( AB ) = P(B) – P(AB) PAGE # 21 E D U C A T I O N S (iv) A ⊂ B ⇒ P(A) ≤ P(B) .our suits : Heart.) Ph.

..6450883. then P(A/B) = (i) (ii) No.... P(B) ≠ 0 or P(A ∩ B) = P(B/A) P(A).. ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2/E1) P(E3/E1 ∩ E2) P(E4/E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3) . in A ∩ B . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. in B If A and B are independent event.. P( A n ) 4. + An) = 1 – P ( A 1 ) P ( A 2 ) . A2..... given that B has already happened = P(A ∩ B) P(B) 1 n! P(B/A) = Probability of occurrence of B. + (–1)n 2! 3! 4! n! likely.POCKET BOOK (xvi) Probability regarding n letters and their envelopes : If n letters corresponding to n envelopes are placed in the envelopes at random.....(1 – Pn)] or P(A1 + A2 + .. of sample pts.. 0744 ...e. .+(−1) M2! 3! 4! N n− r 1 (n − r)! OP Q Generalized : P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ .. then P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ .... .e. 1 – [(1 – P1) (1 – P2). P2..) Ph.. Pn are the probabilities of n independent events A.6450883.. If events are independent. P(En) 6. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ... An then the probability of happening of at least one of these event is.. P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P (B) ... 608-A. given that A has already happened = Note : Probability that all letters are not in right envelopes = 1 – 1 n! P(A ∩ B) P(A) If the outcomes of the experiment are equally (c) Probability that no letters are in right envelope 1 1 1 1 = – + .. Probability of at least one of the n Independent events : If P1. P(A) ≠ 0 (d) Probability that exactly r letters are in right 1 envelopes = r! L 1 − 1 + 1 +.MATHS FORMULA .... Conditional probability : P(A/B) = Probability of occurrence of A.. then (a) Probability that all the letters are in right envelopes = (b) MATHS FORMULA ..... 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 24 .....) Ph... No.. 0744 .e.. of pts.. then P(A/B) = P(A) and P(B/A) = P(B) Multiplication Theorem : P(A ∩ B) = P(A/B). 608-A. ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2) .. P(B). Addition Theorem of Probability : (i) When events are mutually exclusive i....... n (A ∩ B) = 0 (ii) ⇒ P(A ∩ B) = 0 ∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) When events are not mutually exclusive i.. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . P(A ∩ B) ≠ 0 ∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(AB) P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A) P(B) PAGE # 23 E D U C A T or (iii) ∴ When events are independent i..POCKET BOOK 5...

6450883. x2.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ... 2405510 PAGE # 26 . Given that the probability of A & B speaking truth is p1.. p2.xn with probabilities P1. p1p2 p1p2 + (1 − p1 ) (1 − p2 ) . 2.. A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3 = sample space & A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 = φ) an sample space S and B is any other event on sample space then. + Pn = 1 Variance = Σx Pi – (mean) = Σ (x ) – (E(x)) 2 2 2 αp1p2 + (1 − α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 ) β .. . Probability distribution : (i) If a random variable x assumes values x1......POCKET BOOK 7. then probability of occurence of A P(A) = P(A ∩ A1) + P(A ∩ A2) + . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 25 E D U C A T I O N S . (ii) If A and B both assert that an event has occurred. 608-A... Total Probability : Let A1. A3 be any three mutually exclusive & exhaustive events (i. An are n mutually exclusive & set of exhaustive events and event A can occur through any one of these events.. .. q = 1 – p . 1 1 2 2 3 3 i = 1. the successive trials being independent of one another. 0744 ... then the probability that they are speaking truth will be given by r =1 ∑ P(Ar) P(A/Ar) 8.POCKET BOOK (a) (b) (c) (d) (i) mean E(x) = np E (x2) = npq + n2 p2 Variance E(x2) – (E(x))2 = npq Standard deviation = npq 10..... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Pn respectively then (a) (b) (c) (ii) mean E(x) = Σ Pixi 2 αp1p2 αp1p2 + (1 − α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 ) (iii) If in the second part the probability that their lies (jhuth) coincides is β then from above case required probability will be P1 + P2 + P3 + . 3 9.. Baye's Rule : Let A1...6450883...) Ph. + P(A ∩ An) = n MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA ..... Truth of the statement : If two persons A and B speaks truth with the probability p1 & p2 respectively and if they agree on a statement..e. A2. 608-A.. P(B / A i)P(A i ) P(Ai/B) = P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) .. then the probability of r success is nCr Pr qn–r atleast r success is n k =r ∑ n Ck Pk qn–k where p is probability of success in a single trial.) Ph.. 0744 . P2.. .. probability of occurrence of which is α then the probability that event has occurred. αp1p2 Binomial distribution : If an experiment is repeated n times.. A2.

..r>1 r −1 r −1 Arithmetic mean (A.) : A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.P. a + 2d.MATHS FORMULA ....M. — Sn = n n [2a + (n – 1)d] = [a + Tn] 2 2 Sum of n A.our terms as . then A1 = a + d...P. 2 2A = a + b PAGE # 27 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A....P.. Sn is given then Tn = Sn – Sn–1 where Sn–1 is sum of (n – 1) terms. — (i) (ii) (iii) Three terms as ... ar2 r2 r PAGE # 28 a+b i..P.our terms as a – 3d..P.6450883.. — S ∞ = Supposition of terms in G. A.M. 2405510 . . — Tn = arn–1 If a G. where a is the first term and r is the common ratio (b) General (nth) term of a G. 0744 . having m terms..P.. of n numbers A1. ar..P. — a. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.e. a + d.P.M. having m terms then nth term from end = arm–n (c) Sum of n terms of a G.e... a and b. a + 3d ..6450883. An is defined as A1 + A 2 +... a. = (ii) Sum of an infinite G.. ar.) (a) General G. .. ..P. ..ive terms as a . ar. then A= a ..M's between a and b. 1 (a + an+r).. (except first term) is equal to the half of the sum of term equidistant from the term i.P. then nth term from end = a + (m – n)d (c) Sum of n terms of an A..P. a – d. — (i) (ii) (iii) (e) (i) Three terms as a . a + d. ar2 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 1−r |r|<1 . between two given nos..M's inserted between a and b is (vi) Any term of an A. A2. 608-A. — Tn = a + (n – 1)d [nth term from the beginning] If an A.P... ar3 r3 r a a . a.P. 0744 . — Sn = = (d) (e) a − Tnr a(1 − r n ) = . of middle term..) Ph. A2.e... An are n A. a + d .POCKET BOOK (iv) If A1.) : (a) (b) General A. A2 = a + 2d. (d) Supposition of terms in A.ive terms as a – 2d. r < n 2 n–r Note : If sum of n terms i.... of the terms taken symmetrically from the beginning and from the end will always be constant and will be equal to middle term or A..+ A n ΣA i Sum of numbers = = n n n Geometric Progression (G. r<1 1−r 1−r Tnr − a a(r n − 1) = .) Ph. — a. a + (n – 1) d where a is the first term and d is the common difference General (nth) term of an A. Arithmetic Progression (A.P. .P.M. a – d. .M.d.. where d = (v) b−a n+1 n (a + b) 2 PROGRESSION AND SERIES 1...or an A.. a + d.. If A is the A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .M. a. a + 2d A. a. An = a + nd. ar r (iii) a a . an = 2.

. then H1 = ab(n + 1) ab(n + 1) .. then these numbers are A± Σn2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + ... = (x1 x2 . ...MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK (c) (d) (e) (f) 5.Hn are n H.P..) (i) (ii) If H is the H..M.....M.. + (n times) = na Σ(2n – 1) = 1 + 3 + 5 + . Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + ...M's.. H2. then G2 = ab ⇒ G = (ii) ab MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . (a + d)r...6450883..G..P...M.. where r = G J H aK n 1/n+1 General (nth term) of a H....P — Sn = Sum of infinite terms of an A. then H = 2ab a+b 3. 0744 . Gn 2 Harmonic Progression (H. 608-A..M.. 2405510 PAGE # 30 . 608-A......... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.... Sum standard results : (a) (b) Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + .Geometric Progression (A. + n2 = n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6 A 2 − G2 . + n = Relation Between A...POCKET BOOK (f) Geometric Mean (G. x2. and H.M.... a a + d a + 2d . between a and b. (1 − r)2 1−r General (nth) term — Tn = [a + (n – 1) d] rn–1 Sum of n terms of an A.. and G.. n(n + 1) 2 or first find n A. Arithmetico .... 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 29 E D U C A T I O N S ..M's between a and b.. xn is defined as G.'s inserted between a & b is (ab)n/2 1 1 = th n term coresponding to A. (2n – 1) = n2 Σ2n = 2 + 4 + 6 + ..) Ph. + n 3 3 3 3 3 Ln(n + 1) O = M N 2 P Q 2 Σa = a + a + . then G1 = ar. G..P.M.. Hn = bn + a na + b 1 1 & .P) (a) (b) General H... + 2n = n (n + 1) If G1.. S∞ = If H1.. (i) (ii) (iii) AH = G2 A ≥ G ≥ H If A and G are A.. .M... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. .. (i) If G is the G.M. bI = ar ..M. (a + 2d) r2...... then their a b dr a + (1 − r)2 1−r 6..) : (a) (b) (c) (d) General form — a. d(1 − r n−1) a + r.G.M. respectively between two +ve numbers... — Tn = (iii) Product of the n G. Gn are n G.. 4..M.. G2 = ar .6450883. a + (n − 1)d (c) Harmonic Mean (H. .) Ph. between two given numbers a and b... xn)1/n...M's between a and b.P. . G2.....M..'s between reciprocal will be required H. — 1 1 1 ..... +...) — (i) Geometrical mean of n numbers x1..P.G.

.... if n is even .. if n is odd Cn/2 . 0744 . n Cn are usually denoted by C0... 608-A...POCKET BOOK 3.G n + 3I K H 2 J 2..MATHS FORMULA . + Cn = 2n C0 – C 1 + C2 – C3 + .. = C1 + C 3 + C5 + ..+ (n + 1)Cn = (n + 2)2n–1 C02 + C 12 + C22 + . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 31 E D U C A T I O N S .. th term C1 + 2C2 + 3C3 + .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .. = 2n–1 n ∑ r=0 th n n Cr xn–r ar General term .or the sake of convenience the coefficients n n BINOMIAL THEOREM 1.... if xn occurs in Tr+1 (r + 1)th term then r is given by n α – r (α + β) = m R | Sc−1h | T n/2 n 0.. C2 . + nCn an = (i) (ii) (iii) C0 ... C r . Properties of Binomial coefficients : ... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..Tr+1 = nCr xn–r ar is the (r + 1)th term from beginning.... Cn respectively....... 608-A..) Ph. n Cr .n I (a) If n is even then middle term = G + 1J H2 K (b) If n is odd then middle term = n n −1 nn−1 Cr −1 = r r r −1 2n! n−r ! n+r ! n−2 Cr −2 and so on . = Binomial coefficient of middle term is the greatest binomial coefficient. + C n = 0 C0 + C 2 + C4 + ... 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. To determine a particular term in the given expasion : .. th term * 2n . = 0 C0 + 2C 1 + 3C2 + ....) Ph...2n–1 C1 – 2C2 + 3C3 . + nCr xn–r ar + .. 2405510 PAGE # 32 ....G n + 1IJ H 2K Cn + r = n th c hc h and * * * * * * n Cr + Cr − 1 = n+1 Cr .. * * * * C0 + C1 + C2 + ....6450883. n C1 .. Binomial Theorem for any +ve integral index : (x + a) n = nC0 xn + nC1 xn–1 a + nC2 xn–2 a2 + .... + Cn2 = C02 – C 12 + C22 – C32 + . n α – r (α + β) = 0 α ± 1 xβ I J K c2nh! cn!h 2 = 2n Cn n ....... + nCn = n.. C1 ...6450883...... Let the given expansion be G x H and for x0.. (m + 1) term from the end = (n – m + 1) from beginning = Tn–m+1 th middle term Cr = ....

) Ph... of terms in the expansion (x1 + x2 +. 0744 . n ∈N = ∑ r =0 n! n! xn–r ar = r +∑=n x s ar . N x+a Q {[.rk ! x1 x2 . + 2n 2n + 1 Cn = Cn + 1 + (ii) (x + y + z)n = r + s + t =n ∑ Cn + 2 + . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2n + 1 C2n + 1 = 2 Generalized (x1 + x2 +.. xk)n = 1 n+1 ∑ n! r1 r2 rk r1 ! r2 !.] denotes greatest integer less than or equal to x} 5.. xk * C0 + C1 C2 Cn 2n+1 − 1 + + . 2405510 PAGE # 34 .MATHS FORMULA ... 0744 .. This is (k + 1)th term k = LM(n + 1)aOP .. + 2 3 4 n+1 r1 +r2 +..POCKET BOOK 2n + 1 MATHS FORMULA .. 608-A... s (n − r)! r ! s! r ! where s = n – r .... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ... 608-A..rk =n * C0 – = 6.. Total no. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 33 E D U C A T I O N S .....POCKET BOOK n! xr ys z t s! r !t ! Note : 2n + 1 2n + 1 C0 + 2n + 1 C1 + . Multinomial Theorem : (i) (x + a)n = ∑ n n n r =0 Cr xn–r ar. xn)m is m+n–1 C n–1 4. (ii) If (n + 1)a ∉ Z then the expansion has only one greatx+a est term...6450883.) Ph..6450883. + = 2 3 n+1 n+1 C1 C2 C3 (−1)n C n + – . Greatest term : (i) If (n + 1)a ∈ Z (integer) then the expansion has two x+a greatest terms... These are kth and (k + 1)th where x & a are +ve real nos..

or a regular polygon of side a and number of sides n (a) (b) (c) (d) Internal angle of polygon = (n – 2) Sum of all internal angles = (n – 2) π Radius of incircle of this polygon r = Radius of circumcircle of this polygon R a π = cosec 2 n (e) (f) Area of the polygon = Area of triangle = 1 na2 cot 4 . 0744 . . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK 3. 608-A. Trigonometric identities : (i) sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 (ii) cosec2θ – cot2θ = 1 (iii) sec2θ – tan2θ = 1 Sign convention : y II quadrant sin & cosec are +ve x' O III quadrant tan & cot are +ve y' 5.G π IJ H nK π 1 2 a cos 4 n 2 (g) . 2405510 . T-ratios of allied angles : The signs of trigonometrical ratio in different quadrant. a πI Area of incircle = π G cot J H 2 nK Area of circumcircle = π m sinθ m cotθ m sinθ –cosθ ±tanθ –cosθ ±sinθ ±sinθ cosθ ±tanθ (h) . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Allied∠ of (–θ) 900 ± θ 1800 ± θ 2700 ± θ 3600 ± θ T-ratios sinθ cosθ tanθ cotθ secθ cosecθ 6. 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . Relation between system of measurement of angles : Sum & differences of angles of t-ratios : (i) sin(A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB (ii) cos(A ± B) = cosA cosB ± sinA sinB (iii) tan (A ± B) = D G 2C = = π 90 100 & π radian = 1800 tan A ± tanB 1 m tan A tan B PAGE # 36 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 35 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . Some important results : (i) Arc length AB = r θ Area of circular sector = (ii) 1 2 r θ 2 π n π a cot 2 n 4.) Ph. 0744 .6450883. a cos ec π IJ G2 H nK 2 ±cotθ ±cotθ m tanθ secθ ±cosecθ secθ m cosecθ –secθ –cosecθ secθ ±cosecθ m cosecθ –sec θ m cotθ m tanθ 2. –sinθ cosθ –tanθ –cotθ cosθ IV quadrant cos & sec are +ve I quadrant All +ve x TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO AND IDENTITIES 1.) Ph.6450883.

2 4 6 8 Where S1 = Σ tan A S2 = Σ tan A tan B..6450883. C + D I sin . = 1 − S + S − S + S −.6450883...POCKET BOOK 7. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..ormulaes for product into sum or difference and viceversa : (i) (ii) (iii) 2sinA cosB = sin(A + B) + sin(A – B) 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) – sin(A – B) 2cosA cosB = cos(A + B) + cos(A – B) (v) sin(A + B) sin(A – B) = sin2A – sin2B = cos2 B – cos2 A (vi) cos(A + B) cos (A – B) = cos2A – sin2B = cos2B – sin2A (vii) tan(A + B + C) = (iv) 2sinA sinB = cos(A – B) – cos(A + B) S1 − S3 tan A + tanB + tan C − tan A tan B tan C = 1−S 1 − tan A tan B − tanB tan C − tan C tan A 2 Generalized tan (A + B + C + .. ) S1 − S3 + S5 − S7 +... C + D I cos .. C + D I . C − D I G 2 J G 2 J H K H K . 0744 .. . C + D I cos . C − D I (vii) cosC + cosD = 2cos G H 2 J G 2 J K H K .) Ph. T-ratios of multiple and submultiple angles : (i) sin2A = 2sinA cosA = 2 tan A 1 + tan2 A 3 +1 2 2 3 −1 2 2 = (sin A + cos A)2 – 1 = 1 – (sin A – cos A)2 = cos15 0 ⇒ sinA = 2sinA/2 cosA/2 = = sin150 0 2 tan A / 2 1 + tan2 A / 2 (ix) (x) (xi) E D U C A T I O N S cos750 = 0 (ii) cos2A = cos2A – sin2A = 2cos2A – 1 = 1 – 2sin2A = tan75 = 2 + cot750 = 2 – 3 = cot15 1 − tan2 A 1 + tan2 A 0 3 = tan15 . 608-A. 0744 ...MATHS FORMULA . D − C I (viii) cosC – cosD = 2sin G H 2 J G 2 J K H K (v) sinC + sinD = 2sin (ix) tanA + tanB = sin(A + B) cos A cos B Σ tan A = Π tan A Σ sin A = Σ sin A cos B cos C 1 + Π cos A = Σ sin A sin B cos C (viii) sin75 = 0 8. C − DI (vi) sinC – sinD = 2cos G 2 J sin G 2 J H K H K . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 37 E D U C A T I O N S .. S3 = Σ tan A tan B tan C & so on (viii) sin (A + B + C) = Σ sin A cos B cos C – Π sin A (ix) = Π cos A (Numerator of tan (A + B + C)) cos (A + B + C) = Π cos A – Σ sin A sin B cos C = Π cos A (Denominator of tan (A + B + C)) for a triangle A + B + C = π . 2405510 PAGE # 38 .) Ph..... 608-A..POCKET BOOK (iv) cot (A ± B) = cot A cot B m 1 cot B ± cot A MATHS FORMULA ..

MATHS FORMULA .cos(2n–1 α) = 10.e.) Ph. Some useful series : (i) sinα + sin(α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + .. A + B + C = π. 2405510 PAGE # 40 ... 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK (ii) (iii) (v) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = –1– 4cosA cosB cosC sinA + sinB + sinC = 4cosA/2 cosB/2 cosC/2 sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 1 – 2sinA sinB cosC (iii) 2 tan A / 2 ⇒ tanA = 1 − tan2 A / 2 (iv) sin3θ = 3sinθ – 4sin3θ = 4sin(600 – θ ) sin(600 + θ ) sin θ = sin θ (2 cos θ – 1) (2 cos θ + 1) (v) cos3θ = 4cos3θ – 3cosθ = 4cos(60 – θ ) cos(60 + θ ) cos θ 0 0 (iv) cosA + cosB + cosC = 1 + 4 sinA/2 sinB/2 sinC/2 (vi) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1 – 2cosA cosB cosC (vii) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC (viii) cotB cotC + cotC cotA + cotA cotB = 1 (ix) (x) (xi) = cos θ (1 – 2 sin θ ) (1 + 2 sin θ ) 3 tan A − tan3 A (vi) tan3A = 1 − 3 tan2 A = tan(600 – A) tan(600 + A)tanA (vii) sinA/2 = 1 − cos A 2 1 + cos A 2 1 − cos A 1 − cos A = .. n − 1IβO sinLnβ O M G 2 J P M2P N H K Q N Q . α ≠ nπ 2n sin α cosα .. A ≠ (2n + 1)π sin A 1 + cos A Σ tan A/2 tan B/2 = 1 Σ cot A cot B = 1 Σ cot A/2 = Π cot A/2 11. C are angles of triangle i.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Maximum and minimum value of the expression : acosθ + bsinθ Maximum (greatest) Value = a2 + b2 Minimum (Least) value = – a2 + b2 (iii) cos α + = L .) Ph. α = 2kπ = –1 . 608-A.e. 0744 . 0744 . B.POCKET BOOK 2 tan A tan2A = 1 − tan2 A MATHS FORMULA . then (i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4sinA sinB sinC i..6450883.. + to nterms sin α + = (viii) cosA/2 = L .6450883. Conditional trigonometric identities : If A. α = (2k+1)π . + to nterms 9. n − 1I βO sin nβ M G 2JP 2 N H KQ β ≠ 2nπ sin β 2 sin 2n α . β ≠ 2nπ sin β 2 (ix) tanA/2 = (ii) cosα + cos(α + β) + cos(α + 2β) + . 608-A. Σ sin 2A = 4 Π (sin A) PAGE # 39 E D U C A T I O N S = 1 ..cos2α . cos22α .

2405510 PAGE # 42 . b a + b2 2 = sinα. If two equations are given then find the common values of θ between 0 & 2π and then add 2nπ to this common solution (value). we have to square it. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then the roots found after squaring must be checked wheather they satisfy the original equation or not. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . .6450883. where c ≤ a2 + b2 .POCKET BOOK Thus the equation reduces to form cos(θ – α) = c a + b2 2 TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS 1. 0744 .) Ph.or general solution of the equation of the form a cosθ + bsinθ = c. n∈I π . n∈I 2 now solve using above formula 3. θ = 2nπ + θ = 2πn θ = 2nπ – n∈I (iv) sinθ = 1 (v) cosθ = 1 π 2 (ii) (vi) sinθ = –1 (vii) cosθ = –1 (viii) sinθ = sinα (ix) (x) (xi) cosθ = cosα π 3π or 2nπ + 2 2 θ = (2n + 1)π θ = nπ + (–1)nα ⇒ θ = 2nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α tanθ = tanα ⇒ sin2θ = sin2α θ = nπ + α ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ (xii) cos2θ = cos2α (xiii) tan2θ = tan2α 2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. θ = (2n + 1) θ = nπ. 0744 .) Ph.MATHS FORMULA . divide both side by a2 + b2 and put a a +b 2 2 = cosα. 608-A.6450883. PAGE # 41 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A. Some important points : (i) If while solving an equation. General solution of the equations of the form (i) (ii) (iii) sinθ = 0 cosθ = 0 tanθ = 0 = cosβ(say) ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ θ = nπ.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .

1] π π < θ < 2 2 tan–1 x + cot–1 x = (cot θ ) = θ provided 0 < θ < π ∀ x ∈ R sec–1 (sec θ ) = θ provided 0 ≤ θ < π π or < θ ≤ π 2 2 sec–1 x + cosec–1 x = π . θ ≠ 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2 2 3. 608-A. 0744 . x ≥ 1 Range (R) π – 2 x ≤ θ ≤ π 2 tan (tan–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x < ∞ cot (cot–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x < ∞ sec (sec–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x ≤ – 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞ cosec (cosec–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x ≤ – 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞ cos–1 x tan–1 x cot–1 x sec–1 x cosec–1 x 0 ≤ θ ≤ π – π π < θ < 2 2 (iii) 0 < θ < π 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. similarly for other inverse Tfunctions.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . Domain and Range of Inverse T-functions : . 2 π . 2405510 PAGE # 44 .) Ph. 0744 . cos–1 (– x) = π – cos–1 x tan–1 (– x) = – tan–1 x cot–1 (– x) = π – cot–1 x cosec–1 (– x) = – cosec–1 x sec–1 (– x) = π – sec–1 x π π – . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. ∞ ) 2 ∀ . Properties of Inverse T-functions : (i) sin–1 (sin θ ) = θ provided – π 2 π ≤ θ ≤ 2 cos–1 (cos θ ) = θ provided θ ≤ θ ≤ π tan–1 (tan θ ) = θ provided – cot –1 (iv) sin–1 x + cos–1 x = π . – 1] ∪ [1. x ∈ (– ∞ . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.unction sin –1 ≤ θ < 0 π 2 or 0 < θ ≤ (ii) sin (sin–1 x) = x provided – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 cos (cos–1 x) = x provided – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2.POCKET BOOK cosec–1 (cosec θ ) = θ provided – π 2 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC . Domain (D) – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 – ∞ < x < ∞ – ∞ < x < ∞ x ≤ – 1. θ ≠ π 2 sin–1 (– x) = – sin–1 x.) Ph. then x = sin–1 y. If y = sin x. 2 ∀ x ∈ [– 1.MATHS FORMULA .6450883. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 43 E D U C A T I O N S . x ≥ 1 x ≤ – 1.6450883.UNCTIONS 1. 608-A.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 45 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A. y > 0. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. if x > 0.ormulae for sum and difference of inverse trigonometric function : (i) tan–1x + tan–1y = tan–1 1−x 2 x 1 − x2 = cot–1 1 − x2 x 1 1−x 2 = cosec–1 1 . x − y I . ∞ ) L M N O P Q if x. ∞ ) 2 2 (viii) cos–1x ± cos–1y = cos–1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y . xy > 1 tan x + tan y = π + tan G H 1 − xy J K . 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 x (ii) (ii) cos–1 x = sin–1 1 − x2 = tan–1 1 − x2 = cot–1 x . 608-A.G 1 I H xJ K 2 2 (vii) sin–1x ± sin–1y = π – sin–1 x 1 − y ± y 1 − x .y > 0 & x2 + y2 > 1 . ∀ x ∈ (– ∞ . x + y I .G 1 I H xJ K . 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 x 1 − x2 (iii) = sec–1 1 = cosec–1 x x 1 + x2 1 1 − x2 (iv) (iii) tan–1 x = sin–1 = cos–1 1 1 + x2 = cot–1 1 x (v) (vi) = sec–1 –1 1 + x2 = cosec 1 + x2 .) Ph. y < 0.MATHS FORMULA . xy < 1 G 1 − xy J H K . ∀ x ∈ (– ∞ .G 1 I H xJ K . N Q –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 2 2 if x. 1] ∪ [1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y > 0.y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1 (iv) sin–1 . 2405510 PAGE # 46 . if x > 0.POCKET BOOK 5. L M N O P Q if x.POCKET BOOK 4. x ≥ 0 x . L M N O P Q if x.y > 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1 (vi) tan–1 = R cot x S− π + cot x | T −1 −1 for x > 0 for x < 0 2 2 (ix) cos–1x ± cos–1y = π – cos–1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y . Value of one inverse function in terms of another inverse function : (i) sin–1 x = cos–1 = sec–1 = tan–1 MATHS FORMULA . = cosec–1 x .) Ph.y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 > 1 (v) cos–1 = sec–1 x. 0744 . if xy > –1 H K . . xy < –1 tan x – tan y = π + tan G H 1 + xy J K . 1] ∪ [1.6450883. x + y I . x−yI tan x – tan y = tan G 1 + xy J . x + y + z − xyz I tan x + tan y + tan z = tan G K H 1 − xy − yz − zx J L O sin x ± sin y = sin Mx 1 − y ± y 1 − x P . if x > 0.

b +c > a. 2405510 . In any ∆ABC. A triangle has three sides and three angles. In ∆ABC : (i) A + B + C = π (ii) a + b > c. Inverse trigonometric ratios of multiple angles (i) (ii) (iii) 2sin–1x = sin–1(2x MATHS FORMULA . AB = c.) Ph. if –1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2tan–1x = tan–1 . 608-A. b > 0. 608-A.POCKET BOOK PROPERTIES & SOLUTION O.MATHS FORMULA .6450883. Cosine formula : cos A = b2 + c2 − a2 2bc cos B = c2 + a2 − b2 2ac a2 + b2 − c2 2ab PAGE # 48 cos C = . 0744 . ∠ABC = ∠B. c + a > b (iii) 3.) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 47 E D U C A T I O N S . 2x I = sin .G 1 − x IJ G1 − x J G1 + x K H K H H1 + x K 2 –1 2 –1 (iv) 3sin–1x = sin–1(3x – 4x3) (v) 3cos x = cos (4x – 3x) –1 –1 3 (vi) 3tan–1x = tan–1 . if –1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2cos–1x = cos–1(2x2 –1). 3x − x I G 1 − 3x J H K 3 2 and ∠BAC = ∠A. 2x IJ = cos . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. a > 0.POCKET BOOK 6. ∠ACB = ∠C 2. we write BC = a. TRIANGLE Properties of triangle : 1. 0744 . c > 0 Sine formula : a b c = = = k(say) sin A sinB sin C or sin A sinB sinC = = = k (say) a b c 4. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. AC = b A A c B B a b C C 2 2 1 − x2 ).

In any ∆ABC : (a) sin A = 2 ∆ = s(s − a) (s − b) (s − c) (s − b) (s − c) bc (s − c) (s − a) ca (s − a) (s − b) ab sin B = 2 C = 2 9.) Ph. tan tan 8. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK 5. 0744 . Area of triangle : (i) (ii) 1 1 1 ∆ = 2 ab sin C = 2 bc sin A = 2 ca sin B Half angled formula .) Ph. A −B a−b = cot 2 a+b B−C b−c = cot 2 b+c C−A c−a = cot 2 c+a C 2 A 2 B 2 MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK (c) tan A = 2 B = 2 C = 2 (s − b) (s − c) s (s − a) (s − c) (s − a) s (s − b) (s − b) (s − a) s (s − c) 6. ∆. 2405510 .6450883. Projection formula : a = b cos C + c cos B b = c cos A + a cos C c = a cos B + b cos A Napier's Analogies : tan tan tan 7. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. tan A B s −c tan = 2 2 s B C s −a tan = 2 2 s C tan 2 A s −b = 2 s tan where 2s = a + b + c tan sin (b) cos A = 2 s (s − a) bc s (s − b) ca s (s − c) ab PAGE # 49 E D U C A T I O N S B cos = 2 cos C = 2 10.6450883.MATHS FORMULA . Circumcircle of triangle and its radius : (i) R= a b c = = 2sin A 2sinB 2sin C abc 4∆ Where R is circumradius PAGE # 50 (ii) R= .

The radii of the escribed circles are given by : (i) r1 = ∆ ∆ ∆ .6450883. Incircle of a triangle and its radius : (iii) r= ∆ s A B C = (s – b) tan = (s – c) tan 2 2 2 MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 51 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A.POCKET BOOK (iv) r1 + r2 + r3 – r = 4R (v) 1 1 1 1 r1 + r2 + r3 = r 1 2 r1 (iv) r = (s – a) tan (vi) + 1 2 r2 + 1 2 r3 + 1 r2 = a2 + b2 + c2 ∆2 (v) r = 4R sin A B C sin sin 2 2 2 (vii) (vi) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + r R 1 1 1 1 + + = 2Rr bc ca ab (viii) r1r2 + r2r3 + r3r1 = s2 (ix) ∆ = 2R2 sin A sin B sin C = 4Rr cos B C A C B A a sin sin b sin sin c sin sin 2 2 = 2 2 = 2 2 (vii) r = A B C cos cos cos 2 2 2 12. r2 = .) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . A B cos cos 2 2 A B cos 2 2 C cos 2 c cos r3 = (ii) r1 = s tan r1 = 4R sin r2 = 4R cos r3 = 4R cos (iii) . r3 = s tan 2 2 A B C cos cos . r2 = s tan . 2405510 PAGE # 52 . 2 2 2 A B cos sin 2 2 C 2 C 2 A B C cos cos 2 2 2 a cos (x) r1 = B C C A b cos cos cos 2 2 2 2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2 2 2 A B C sin cos .POCKET BOOK 11. 608-A.6450883. r3 = s−a s −b s−c A B . r2 = . 0744 .) Ph.

6450883.POCKET BOOK (ii) d = h (cotα – cotβ) HEIGHT AND DISTANCE 1. 0744 . h α d β If an observer is at P and object is at O. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 53 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883. 608-A. Angle of elevation and depression : If an observer is at O and object is at P then ∠ XOP is called angle of elevation of P as seen from O. Some useful result : (i) In any triangle ABC if AD : DB = m : n ∠ ACD = α . 2405510 PAGE # 54 . ∠ BCD = β & ∠ BDC = θ then (m + n) cotθ = m cotα – ncot β C α β A A m D θ n B B = ncotA – mcotB [m – n Theorem] . 0744 . 2.) Ph. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . then ∠ QPO is called angle of depression of O as seen from P. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.

then ABCD is a square. my 2 − ny1 m−n I J K (iii) Coordinates of mid point of PQ are . BC. 0) = 3. my 2 + ny1 m+n I J K m n P Externally : AP m = = λ BP n A(x 1. (ii) Circumcentre of a right triangle is mid point of the hypotenuse. Here λ > 0 BP n m A(x 1 . AD = BC.e. y2) is given by d(P. y 1 ) B(x 2. 608-A.e. then ABCD is a parallelogram. then ∆ is right triangle. (iii) If sum of square of any two sides is equal to the third. Q) ≥ 0 (ii) d(P. (iv) Sum of any two equal to left third they do not form a triangle i.ormula : (a) In Triangle : Calculate AB.POCKET BOOK (C) . CA (i) If AB = BC = CA. PA = PB = PC. y) from origin (0. Here P is circumcentre and PA is radius. then ABCD is a rectangle.or circumcentre of a triangle : Circumcentre of a triangle is equidistant from vertices i. (b) In Parallelogram : Calculate AB. (i) Circumcentre of an acute angled triangle is inside the triangle.6450883. (iii) If AB = BC = CD = AD. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. AD = BC and AC = BD. Section formula : (i) Internally : x2 + y2 AP m = = λ . y2 ) 2. (iv) If AB = BC = CD = AD and AC = BD.6450883. (iii) Circumcentre of an obtuse angled triangle is outside the triangle. y1 ) P n B(x 2 . (ii) If any two sides are equal then ∆ is isosceles. P) (iv) Distance of a point (x. y1) and Q(x2. Use of Distance .G mx + nx H m+n 2 1 . 2 2 I J K (iv) The line ax + by + c = 0 divides the line joining the points (ax1 + by + c) (x1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. (ii) If AB = CD. Q) = 0 ⇔ P = Q (iii) d(P. then ∆ is equilateral.G mx − nx H m−n 2 1 . PAGE # 55 E D U C A T P (ii) . Q) = d(Q. Q) = PQ = = (x 2 − x1)2 + (y2 − y1 )2 (Difference of x coordinate)2 + (Difference of y coordinate)2 Note : (i) d(P. then ABCD is a rhombus.MATHS FORMULA . BC.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . y 2 ) P . 608-A. 0744 . CD and AD. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . POINT 1. y2) in the ratio = – (ax + by + c) 2 2 . y1) & (x2. Distance formula : Distance between two points P(x1. Here points are collinear. 0744 .x G H 1 + x2 y1 + y2 .) Ph. (i) If AB = CD.) Ph. AB = BC + CA or BC = AC + AB or AC = AB + BC. 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 56 .

. orthocentre.MATHS FORMULA . y) with reference to new axis will be (x'. (x3..) Ph. C are collinear if area of triangle is zero.POCKET BOOK (v) . yn) is given by area (vi) Coordinates of centroid G (vii) Coordinates of incentre I . (ii) If in a triangle point arrange in anticlockwise then value of ∆ be +ve and if in clockwise then ∆ will be –ve. Rotational Transformation : If coordinates of any point P(x. if area of triangle is zero (ii) Centroid G of ∆ABC divides the median AD or BE or C. circumcentre.x G H 1 + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 . y3) . x1 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1 M xn x1 6. B.6450883. y2) and C(x3. 608-A... 3 3 IJ K x1 x2 x3 = 1 2 y1 y2 y3 M yn y1 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2ab . centroid and circumcentre are always collinear and centroid divides the line joining orthocentre and circumcentre in the ratio 2 : 1 (v) Area of triangle formed by coordinate axes & the line ax + by + c = 0 is c2 . centroid. (xn. B.) Ph. A. (x2. Area of Polygon : Area of polygon having vertices (x 1.6450883. Area of Triangle : The area of triangle ABC with vertices A(x1. y1). y') then x x' → cosθ y' → –sinθ ∆= 1 2 x2 x3 (Determinant method) B y sinθ cosθ B x1 = y1 y2 y3 y1 [Stair method] = 7. 0744 . Some important points : (i) Three pts. (iv) Orthocentre. . y3).POCKET BOOK 5. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. incentre coincide..or parallelogram – midpoint of diagonal AC = mid point of diagonal BD MATHS FORMULA . y2). 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 57 E D U C A T I O N S . C are collinear..G ax + bx + cx H a+b+c 1 2 3 ay + by 2 + cy 3 . 1 a+b+c I J K (viii) Coordinates of orthocentre are obtained by solving the equation of any two altitudes. 2405510 PAGE # 58 . B(x2.. 4. Points must be taken in order. in the ratio 2 : 1 (iii) In an equilateral triangle. y1). 0744 . 608-A. x2 1 2 x3 x1 1 [x y + x2y3 + x3y1 – x2y1 – x3y2 – x1y3] 2 1 2 Note : (i) Three points A.

then θ = tan–1 1 + m m 1 2 .) Ph. θ ≠ +ve direction of x-axis is π with the 2 y2 − y1 B(x2. 0744 . y) on the line from the point (x1.MATHS FORMULA . a b Parametric or distance or symmetrical form of the line : Equation of a line passing through (x1. is x cos α + y sin α = p. 0744 .6450883. b ≠ 0 is – (vi) Slope of two parallel lines are equal. then θ = tan–1 a a − b b 1 2 1 2 Two lines y = m1 x + c and y = m2 x + c are Parallel if m1 = m2 Perpendicular if m1m2 = –1 (d) (ii) (a) (b) (c) y − y1 x − x1 y2 − y1 = x2 − x1 m1 − m2 If not above two. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y1) and and b respectively on x-axis and y-axis is (x) making an angle θ . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 59 E D U C A T I O N S . 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . Thus m = tan θ . Angle between two lines : (i) Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 & a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 are (a) (b) (c) a1 b1 c1 Parallel if a = b ≠ c 2 2 2 Perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2 = 0 a1 b1 c1 Identical or coincident if a = b = c 2 2 2 a2b1 − a1b2 If not above three. 2 1 (v) Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y2) is x − x . y2) is 3. 2.POCKET BOOK (ix) Intercept form : Equation of a line making intercepts a x y + = 1.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . y1) and STRAIGHT LINE 1. a b (xi) x − x1 y − y1 = = r cos θ sinθ x = x1 + r cos θ . y1) is y – y1 = m(x – x1) (viii) Two point form : Equation of a line passing through the points (x1. 608-A. y = y1 + r sin θ ⇒ Where r is the distance of any point P(x. Standard form of the equation of a line : (i) Equation of x-axis is y = 0 (ii) Equation of y-axis is x = 0 (iii) Equation of a straight line || to x-axis at a distance b from it is y = b (iv) Equation of a straight line || to y-axis at a distance a from it is x = a (v) Slope form : Equation of a line through the origin and having slope m is y = mx. (vi) Slope Intercept form : Equation of a line with slope m and making an intercept c on the y-axis is y = mx + c.6450883. 608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 60 . y1) Normal or perpendicular form : Equation of a line such that the length of the perpendicular from the origin on it is p and the angle which the perpendicular makes with the +ve direction of x-axis is α . Slope of a Line : The tangent of the angle that a line makes with +ve direction of the x-axis in the anticlockwise sense is called slope or gradient of the line and is generally denoted by m. (vii) Point slope form : Equation of a line with slope m and passing through the point (x1. (i) Slope of line || to x-axis is m = 0 (ii) Slope of line || to y-axis is m = ∞ (not defined) (iii) Slope of the line equally inclined with the axes is 1 or – 1 (iv) Slope of the line through the points A(x1. (vii) If m1 & m2 are slopes of two ⊥ lines then m1m2 = – 1. y1) & (x2.

amily of straight lines : The general equation of family of straight line will be written in one parameter The equation of straight line which passes through point of intersection of two given lines L1 and L2 can be taken as L1 + λ L2 = 0 . y) respectively. y1) & B (x2. Combined equation of angle bisector of the angle between the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is x −y a−b 2 2 = xy h PAGE # 61 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK 12. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. i = 1.6450883. m ± tan α (x – x1) 1 m m tan α MATHS FORMULA . Equation of bisectors of angles between two lines : a1x + b1y + c1 a +b 2 1 2 1 =± a2 x + b2 y + c 2 a2 + b2 2 2 11. 0744 . General equation of second degree : ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represent a pair of 5. 6. 3 is 2 h2 − ab is tanθ = (a + b) (i) The two lines given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 are (a) Parallel and coincident iff h2 – ab = 0 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0 The two line given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are (a) Parallel if h2 – ab = 0 & af2 = bg2 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0 (c) Coincident iff g2 – ac = 0 a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3 c1 c2 = 0 c3 (ii) 10. 2405510 PAGE # 62 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S 13. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2 will be of same sign or of opposite sign according to the point A(x1.) Ph. Equation of a line parallel (or perpendicular) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is ax + by + c' = 0 (or bx – ay + λ = 0) Equation of st.MATHS FORMULA . Distance between two parallel lines ax + by + ci = 0. 2. yi) i = 1.6450883. then m1 + m2 = –2h/b and m1m2 = a/b 13. 2 is |c1 − c 2| a2 + b2 14. b b 8. 0744 . i = 1. lines through (x1.y1) making an angle α with y = mx + c is y – y1 = 7. .POCKET BOOK 4. Condition of concurrency for three straight lines Li ≡ ai x + bi y + ci = 0. y1) on ax + by + c = 0 is |ax1 + by1 + c| a2 + b2 −2h a . y2) lie on same side or on opposite side of L (x. 608-A. m1m2 = .) Ph. Angle between pair of straight lines : The angle between the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 or ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 9. a h g h b f =0 straight line if ∆ ≡ g f c If y = m1x + c & y = m2x + c represents two straight lines then m1 + m2 = length of perpendicular from (x1. Homogeneous equation : If y = m1x and y = m2x be the two equations represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 . Position of a point with respect to a straight line : The line L(xi. 608-A.

Chord length (length of intercept) = 2 r2 − p2 Intercepts made on coordinate axes by the circle : (i) (ii) x axis = 2 g2 − c y axis = 2 f 2 − c CIRCLE 1.or circle x2 + y2 = a2.t.G − 1 coeff. –f) i. y = k + rsinθ The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are x = –g + (iv) g2 + f 2 − c cosθ. 0744 . −1 coeff. on or inside a circle S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 according as S1 ≡ x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c is +ve. (ii) 2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Position of a point w. where point θ ≡ (r cos θ . of x.6450883.POCKET BOOK 5. . where (h. 6.e. of a diameter of a circle.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . zero or –ve 7.MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. y2) are end pts. 608-A. Diameter form : If (x1. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . then its equation is (x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) = 0 Parametric equations : (i) The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 = r2 are x = rcosθ. D a . equation of chord joining θ 1 & θ 2 is 11. Concentric circles : Two circles having same centre C(h. k) is circle centre and r is the radius. r sin θ ) (ii) (iii) The parametric equations of the circle (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 are x = h + rcosθ. 2 2 2 PAGE # 63 E D U C A T 1 + m2 . Condition of Tangency : Circle x2 + y2 = a2 will touch the line y = mx + c if c = ±a x cos θ1 + θ2 θ + θ2 θ − θ2 + y sin 1 = r cos 1 .e.) Ph. f and c are constants (i) Centre of the cirle is (–g. 3. 10. 0) origin is circle centre and r is the radius.r. General equation of a circle : x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 where g. (ii) x2 + y2 = r2 . y = –f + g2 + f 2 − c sinθ 8. 9. y1 ) lies outside. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A. a circle : A point (x1. 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 64 . y1) and (x2. of yI J H 2 K 2 g2 + f 2 − c Radius is Central (Centre radius) form of a circle : (i) (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 . k) but different radii r1 & r2 respectively are called concentric circles.6450883. Length of tangent = S1 4. 0744 . Length of the intercept made by line : y = mx + c with the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is 2 a2 (1 + m2 ) − c2 1 + m2 or (1 + m2) |x1 – x2| where |x1 – x2| = difference of roots i. where (0. y = r sinθ .

608-A. 0744 . Director circle is a concentric circle whose radius is 2 times the radius of the given circle. Equation of tangent. −a l −a mI are G n . Director circle : Equation of director circle for x2 + y2 = a2 is x2 + y2 = 2a2.POCKET BOOK 15. 608-A. PAGE # 66 14. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 65 E D U C A T I O N S . 2405510 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. a sin θ ) to the (iv) Equation of tangent at (a cos circle x2 + y2 = a2 is x cos θ + y sin θ = a. the circle S = 0 is T = 0 13.MATHS FORMULA . of intersection of S = 0 & S' = 0 if λ ≠ –1 S + λ L = 0 represent a family of circles passing through the point of intersection of S = 0 & L = 0 Equation of circle which touches the given straight line L = 0 at the given point (x1. 19. y1) w. θ1 − θ2 cos 2 r sin I J J J K 16. 0744 . y1) is given as (x – x1)2 + (y – y1)2 + λL = 0. Equation of normal : (i) Equation of normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point P(x1.) Ph. The point of intersection of tangents drawn to the circle x2 + y2 = r2 at point θ 1 & θ 2 is given as . y1) is xy1 – x1y = 0 2 2 2 21.rom the condition of tangency for every value of m.r. . GH ±am 1 + m2 . y1) is xx1 + yy1 = a2 In slope form : . Equation of polar of point (x1.t.amily of Circles : (i) at any (ii) (iii) S + λS' = 0 represents a family of circles passing through the pts. is given by T = S1 18. r cos θ + θ GG 2 θ −θ GH cos 2 1 1 2 2 θ1 + θ 2 2 . Coordinates of pole : Coordinates of pole of the line lx + my + n = 0 w. n J H K 2 2 y1 + f y – y1 = x + g (x – x1) 1 (ii) Equation of normal to the circle x + y = a point (x1. Equation of a chord whose middle pt.POCKET BOOK 12. T = 0 : (i) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point (x1. . y1) is 20.r. y1) is xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0 (ii) (iii) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 at any point (x1. ±a 1 + m2 I J K θ .6450883. Equation of the chord of contact of the tangents drawn from point P outside the circle is T = 0 17.) Ph. The line y = mx ± a 1 + m2 is a tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 and its point of contact is MATHS FORMULA . Equation of pair of tangents SS1 = T2 .t the circle x + y = a 2 2 2 .

then 2gg' + 2ff' = c + c'. |r1 – r2| < C1 C2 < r1 + r2 ⇒ Intersection at two real points. no tangent.POCKET BOOK 25. C1 C2 < |r1 + r2| ⇒ one inside the other.) Ph. 3 common tangents. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. C2 and radii r1.6450883. 0744 . y2) is given as x y 1 MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. 24. 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . r2 . (iv) C1 C2 = |r1 – r2| ⇒ internal touch. 2405510 PAGE # 68 . 2 common tangents. Then following cases arise as (i) (ii) (iii) C1 C2 > r1 + r2 ⇒ do not intersect or one outside the other. Equation of Common Chord is S – S1 = 0. 1 common tangent. The angle θ of intersection of two circles with centres C1 & C2 and radii r1 & r2 is given by 2 2 r1 + r1 − d2 cosθ = . 23. (v) Note : Point of contact divides C1 C2 in the ratio r1 : r2 internally or externally as the case may be . y1) & B(x2. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 67 E D U C A T I O N S . 22. Position of two circles : Let two circles with centres C1. (i) (ii) Equation of radical axis is S – S1 = 0 The point of concurrency of the three radical axis of three circles taken in pairs is called radical centre of three circles. 0744 . C1 C2 = r1 + r2 ⇒ Circles touch externally. where d = C1C2 2r1r2 27. Radical axis and radical centre : (x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) + λ x1 x2 y1 1 y2 1 = 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK (iv) Equation of circle passing through two points A(x1. 4 common tangents.6450883. 608-A. Orthogonality condition : If two circles S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 and S' = x2 + y2 + 2g'x + 2f'y + c' = 0 intersect each other orthogonally. Equation of tangent at point of contact of circle is S 1 – S2 = 0 26.

R.ocal distance Parametric Coordinates Parametric Equations x = at2 y = 2at x = – at2 y = 2at x = 2at y = 2at2 x = 2at y = – at2 (at2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 . 2at) (2at.MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883.6450883. . 608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 70 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 69 E D U C A T I O N S . – at2) y2 = 4ax y2 = – 4ax x2 = 4ay (0. 0) x = a y = 0 4a a – x (0. –a) y = a x = 0 4a a – y y2 = – 4ax x2 = 4ay y2 = 4ax x2 = – 4ay . 0) (0. at2) (2at. 0) x = –a y = 0 4a x + a (0. Standard Parabola : Imp.POCKET BOOK PARABOLA 1.) Ph.ocus (f) Directrix (D) Axis L. a) y = –a x = 0 4a y + a x2 = – 4ay (0. 0744 . 0) (a. 2at) (– at2. 0) (–a.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0) (0. Terms Vertex (v) . 608-A.

y1) and a line w. 0744 . a(t1 + t2)) i. i.with vertex . 4ac − b I GH 2a 4a J K and axes parallel to y-axis . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S y2 = – 4ax x2 = 4ay x 2 .MATHS FORMULA . kIJ H 4 K .)) 6. touches. (a(G. am2) (–2am. b 4ac − b2 y – = a x+ 2a 4a 2 . D = 0. at ) 2 Tangent of 't' ty=x+at2 ty=–x+at2 tx=y + at2 tx =–y+at2 of parabola (x 1.M. we have c = a/m and for other parabolas check disc. intersect a parabola y2 = 4ax according as c > = < a/m Note : Condition of tangency for parabola y2 = 4ax. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 72 PAGE # 71 E D U C A T I O N S . latus rectum l and axis parallel to y-axis is (x – h)2 = l (y – k) yy 1=–2a(x+x 1 ) (–at2. y1) Parabola which has vertex at (h.6450883. 0744 . G H I J K 2 .− a G m H 2 . 2at2) on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (at1t2. k).e. y1) lies outside. 608-A.POCKET BOOK 2. 2at1) and Q(at22. 2at) xx 1=–2a(y+y 1 ) (2at. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. Equations of tangent in different forms : (i) Point . y1) / at t (parameter) Equation y 2=4ax y 2 =–4ax x =4ay 2 ⇒ * axis is y = k and focus at . * The point (x1.M. − b . S' = y12 – 4ax1 and T = yy1 – 2a(x + x1) .) Ph.r.a Gm H 2 . = or < 0 * The line y = mx + c does not intersect. where S = y2 – 4ax. 2at) (2at.e. y = k + 2at 3. parabola y2 = 4ax. .)2. –am ) y = mx – am2 y = mx + am c = –am2 c = am2 = – 4ay 5.) Ph. 2a m I J K 2 y = mx – a m 2 c = – a m (2am. k + l IJ H 4K Tangent at yy 1 =2a(x+x1 ) xx 1 =2a(y+y1 ) Parametric coordinates't' (at2.Gh. Position of a point (x1.t.orm of Parabola * Parabola which has vertex at (h. latus rectum l and axis parallel to x-axis is (y – k)2 = l (x – h) MATHS FORMULA . Point of intersection of tangents at any two points P(at12. 2a m I J K a m c = a m Note : Parametric equation of parabola (y – k)2 = 4a(x – h) are x = h + at2.orm / Parametric form Equations of tangent of all other standard parabolas at (x1. Special . 608-A. Combined equation of the pair of tangents drawn from a point to a parabola is SS' = T2.Gh + l . –at2) x 2 =–4ay ⇒ * axis is x = h and focus at (ii) Slope form Equations of tangent of all other parabolas in slope form Equation of parabolas Point of contact in terms of slope(m) y2 = 4ax Equations of tangent in terms of slope (m) y = mx + Condition of Tangency Equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = y represents parabola. on or inside the parabola y2 = 4ax according as y12 – 4ax1 >.POCKET BOOK 4. a(2A. k).

If point lies on x-axis. then one normal will be x-axis itself. (ii) Sum of ordinates (y coordinate) of foot of normals through a point is zero. If normal of y2 = 4ax at t1 meet the parabola again at t2 then t2 = – t1 – y2 = 4ax −y1 (x–x1) (at2.) Ph. 8. 2at) 2a y1 (x–x1) 2a y+tx = 2at+at3 y2 = –4ax y–y1 = (–at2. of parabola Normal at (x1. then t1t2 = 2 and t3 = – t1 – t2 Equation of focal chord of parabola y2 = 4ax at t1 is y = 2 t1 10. a I G m mJ H K 2 y = mx+2a+ a m 2 c = 2a+ a m 2 2 |t2 – t1| 3 x2 = –4ay . (iii) The centroid of the triangle formed by taking the foot of normals as a vertices of concurrent normals of y2 = 4ax lies on x-axis. 608-A. 2405510 . 0) on x-axis to parabola y2 = 4ax (i) We get 3 normals if h > 2a (ii) (iii) We get one normal if h ≤ 2a. point of contact. Condition for three normals from a point (h.POCKET BOOK Note : (i) In circle normal is radius itself. –at2) x–ty = 2at+at3 2 t1 (ii) (ii) Slope form Equations of normal. of parabola y2 = 4ax y 2 The normals to y2 = 4ax at t1 and t2 intersect each other at the same parabola at t3. 0744 . y1) y–y1 = Point 't' Normals at 't' MATHS FORMULA . (i) x2 = –4ay y–y1 = 2a x1 (x–x1) (2at. and condition of normality in terms of slope (m) Eqn. Equations of normal in different forms (i) Point . – at1t2 (t1 + t2)) PAGE # 74 . –2am) y = mx–2am–am3 c = –2am–am3 = – 4ax (–am2. 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 73 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK 7.) Ph.MATHS FORMULA . 2a . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. at2) x+ty = 2at+at3 9. 608-A. 2at) y–tx = 2at+at3 x2 = 4ay y–y1 = – 2a x1 (x–x1) (2at.6450883. − a I Gm m J H K 2 (iii) y = mx–2a– a m 2 c = –2a– a m2 Intersecting point of normals at t1 and t2 on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (2a + a(t12 + t22 + t1t2). 2am) y = mx+2am+am3 c = am+am3 (ii) If focal chord of y2 = 4ax cut (intersect) at t1 and t2 then t1t2 = – 1 (t1 must not be zero) Angle formed by focal chord at vertex of parabola is tan θ = x2 = 4ay . (i) 2t1 −1 Point of contact Equations of normal Condition of Normality (x – a) (am2.orm / Parametric form Equations of normals of all other standard parabolas at (x1. y1) / at t (parameter) Eqn. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. − 2a .6450883.

r. −2amI Gl l J H K 14. 2405510 PAGE # 76 . 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 75 E D U C A T I O N S . . Equation of chord of parabola y2 = 4ax which is bisected at (x1. Equation of polar at the point (x1. the parabola y2 = 4ax is . 608-A. If tangents drawn at ends point of a focal chord are mutually perpendicular then their point of intersection will lie on directrix.t.6450883. (ii) (iii) (iv) Any light ray travelling parallel to axis of the parabola will pass through focus after reflection through parabola.MATHS FORMULA .e. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y1) is given by T = S1 12. 0744 . y1) with respect to parabola y2 = 4ax is same as chord of contact and is given by T = 0 i. Important results for Tangent : (i) Angle made by focal radius of a point will be twice the angle made by tangent of the point with axis of parabola The locus of foot of perpendicular drop from focus to any tangent will be tangent at vertex.) Ph. (vii) Circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will touch tangent at vertex. Its equation is y = 2a . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. (vi) Intercepted portion of a tangent between the point of tangency and directrix will make right angle at focus.POCKET BOOK (v) Angle included between focal radius of a point and perpendicular from a point to directrix will be bisected of tangent at that point also the external angle will be bisected by normal.POCKET BOOK 11.) Ph. n .6450883. The locus of the mid point of a system of parallel chords of a parabola is called its diameter. 608-A. 13. m MATHS FORMULA . Diameter : It is locus of mid point of set of parallel chords and equation is given by T = S1 15. yy1 = 2a(x + x1) Coordinates of pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w. (viii) Circle drawn on any focal chord as diameter will touch directrix.

±ae. 0744 . 2405510 PAGE # 78 . 608-A. ± b I G aJ H K 2 . ± beI GH b JK 2 Parametric coordinates (a cos φ . ±be) y = ±b/e a2 = b2(1 – e2) 2a2/b a2 + p2 2 b2 = 1 a > b b2 = a2(1 – e2) 2b2/a Ends of latus rectum . b sin φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π . then |xp| = p1 .or a > b (0. y = – b Sum of focal radii Distance bt n foci b > a Distance btn directrices Tangents at the vertices . |yp| = p2 ⇒ 2 p1 ELLIPSE 1. 0) (±a.POCKET BOOK Note : If P is any point on ellipse and length of perpendiculars from to minor axis and major axis are p1 & p2.) Ph.) Ph.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. 0) (0.ocal radii SP = a – ex1 S'P = a + ex1 SP + S'P = 2ae 2a/e x = –a. Standard Ellipse (e < 1) Ellipse Imp. b and e Length of latus rectum Rx | Sa | T . b sin φ ) (a cos φ . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.oci Equation of directrices Relation in a.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. 0) 2a 2b (±ae. 0744 . ±b) 2b 2a (0. terms Centre Vertices Length of major axis Length of minor axis . x = a SP = b – ey1 S'P = b + ey1 2a 2b 2be 2b/e y = b.or b > a (0. 0) x = ±a/e 2 2 + y 2 b2 U | = 1V | W . ± a . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 77 E D U C A T I O N S .

a2m2 + b2 touches the ellipse 3. k) and the directions of the axes are parallel to the coordinate axes. If x2 a2 + y2 b2 = 1 is an ellipse then its auxillary circle is (iii) + = 1 at . then c2 = a2m2 + b2. b sin φ ) is x y cos φ + sin φ = 1. on or inside the ellipse if S1 = * 2 x1 2 2 y1 2 Parametric form : The equation of tangent at any point (a cos φ . Special form of ellipse : If the centre of an ellipse is at point (h. G H ±a2m a2m2 + b2 .MATHS FORMULA . a b 6. 0744 . Equation of tangent in different forms : (i) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the ellipse x 2 + y2 b2 = 1 is a2 + y 2 b2 = 1 at the point (x1. y1 x1 . Note : Ellipse is locus of a point which moves in such a way that it divides the normal of a point on diameter of a point of circle in fixed ratio. 608-A.6450883. K x2 + y2 = a2.r. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. y1) to an ellipse x2 a2 a + b – 1 > . 2405510 PAGE # 80 . touches. Auxillary Circle : The circle described by taking centre of an ellipse as centre and major axis as a diameter is called an auxillary circle of the ellipse. = or < 0 + y2 b2 The line y = mx + c does not intersect.POCKET BOOK 2.t. ±b2 a2m2 + b2 I J. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . 4. an ellipse : * The point lies outside. y1) to the ellipse x2 a 2 5. Hence. y1) is xx1 a2 + yy1 b2 = 1. straight line y = mx ± Point of contact : Line y = mx ± x2 a2 y2 b2 a2m2 + b2 always represents the tangents to the ellipse.POCKET BOOK (ii) Slope form : If the line y = mx + c touches the ellipse x2 a2 cx − hh a2 + y2 b2 = 1. the 2 + (y − k)2 b2 = 1. 608-A. = 1 is given by SS1 = T2 Equation of normal in different forms : (i) Point form : The equation of the normal at (x1. intersect. Position of a point and a line w. 0744 . Equation of pair of tangents from (x1.) Ph. PAGE # 79 E D U C A T I O N S a2 x b2x – = a2 – b2. then its equation is MATHS FORMULA .6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. the ellipse if a2m2 + b2 < = > c2 7.

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) Parametric form : The equation of the normal to the ellipse
x2 a2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) Sum of square of intercept made by auxillary circle on any two perpendicular tangents of an ellipse will be constant.

+

y2 b2

= 1 at (a cos φ , b sin φ ) is
2 2

ax sec φ – by cosec φ = a – b . (iii) Slope form : If m is the slope of the normal to the ellipse
x2 a2

(vi) If a light ray originates from one of focii, then it will pass through the other focus after reflection from ellipse. 9. Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from the external point (x1, y1) to an ellipse is given by

+

y2 b2

= 1, then the equation of normal

is y = mx ±

m (a2 − b2 ) a2 + b2m2

.

xx1 a
2

+

yy1 b2

= 0 i.e. T = 0.

The co-ordinates of the point of contact are

. GH

±a2 a2 + b2m2

,

±mb2 a2 + b2m2

I J. K

10. The equation of a chord of an ellipse mid point is (x1, y1) is T = S1.

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 whose

Note : In general three normals can be drawn from a point (x1, y1) to an ellipse

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1.

11. Equation of chord joining the points (a cos θ , b sin θ ) and (a cos φ , b sin φ ) on the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

8.

Properties of tangents & normals : (i) Product of length of perpendicular from either focii to any tangent to the ellipse will be equal to square of semi minor axis. The locus of foot of perpendicular drawn from either focii to any tangent lies on auxillary circle. The circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will touch auxillary circle. (ii)

x cos a
(i)

θ+φ y + sin b 2

θ+φ = cos 2

θ−φ 2

(ii) (iii)

Relation between eccentric angles of focal chord

tan

θ1 , tan 2

θ2 ±e − 1 = 2 1±e

(iv) The protion of the tangent intercepted between the point and directrix makes right angle at corresponding focus.
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E D U C A T I O N S

Sum of feet of eccentric angles is odd π. i.e.

θ 1 + θ 2 + θ 3 + θ 4 = (2n + 1) π .
PAGE # 82

PAGE # 81
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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 12. Equation of polar of the point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the ellipse
x2 a2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (c) If CP, CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is given by

xx1 a2

+

yy1 b2

= 0 i.e. T = 0.

+

y2 b2

= 1 and S, S' be two foci

The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

. −a l , −b nI G n n J. H K
2 2

of the ellipse, then SP.S'P = CQ2 (d) The tangents at the ends of a pair of conjugate diameters of an ellipse form a parallelogram.

13. Eccentric angles of the extremities of latus rectum of the ellipse 14. (i)

x2 a
2

+

y2 b
2

= 1 are tan–1

. ± b IJ . G aeK H

15. The area of the parallelogram formed by the tangents at the ends of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is constant and is equal to the product of the axis i.e. 4ab. 16. Length of subtangent and subnormal at p(x1, y1) to the ellipse
x2 a2

Equation of the diameter bisecting the chords of slope in the ellipse
b2 a2m x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

+

y2 b2

a2 = 1 is – x1 & (1 – e2) x1 x1

y = – (ii)

x

Conjugate Diameters : The straight lines y = m1x, y = m2x are conjugate diameters of the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 if m1m2 = –

b2 a2

.

(iii)

Properties of conjugate diameters : (a) If CP and CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of the ellipse
x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1, then

CP2 + CQ2 = a2 + b2 (b) If θ and φ are the eccentric angles of the extremities of two conjugate diameters, then

θ – φ = ±

π 2
PAGE # 83
E D U C A T I O N S

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E D U C A T I O N S

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PAGE # 84

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

HYPERBOLA
1. Standard Hyperbola : Hyperbola
x2 a2

–

y2 b2

= 1

–

x2 a2 x2 a2

+

y2 b2 y2 b2

= 1

Imp. terms Centre Length of transverse axis Length of conjugate axis .oci Equation of directrices Eccentricity Length of L.R. Parametric co-ordinates .ocal radii (0, 0) 2a 2b (±ae, 0) x = ±a/e e = 2b2/a (a sec φ , b tan φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π SP = ex1 – a S'P = ex1 + a 2a

or

–

= – 1

(0, 0) 2b 2a (0, ±be) y = ± b/e
2

Hyperbola

.a + b I G a J H K
2 2 2

e = 2a2/b

.a + b I GH b JK
2 2

(b sec φ , a tan φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π SP = ey1 – b S'P = ey1 + b 2b y = – b, y = b x = 0 y = 0 Conjugate Hyperbola

S'P – SP Tangents at the vertices x = – a, x = a Equation of the y = 0 transverse axis Equation of the x = 0 conjugate axis

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PAGE # 85
E D U C A T I O N S

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PAGE # 86

Special form of hyperbola : If the centre of hyperbola is (h. Equations of tangents in different forms : (a) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the hyperbola x2 a2 y2 b2 7. y1 x1 – = 1 (b) Parametric form : The equation of normal at (a sec θ .POCKET BOOK 2.t. Equations of normals in different forms : (a) Point form : The equation of normal to the hyperbola x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 at (x1. x2 a2 a2m a2m2 − b2 . Parametric equations of hyperbola : The equations x = a sec φ and y = b tan φ are known as the parametric equations of hyperbola x y sec φ – tan φ = 1. touches. a hyperbola : The point (x1.) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 87 E D U C A T I O N S . intersect the hyperbola according as c2 <. =. 5. x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is ax cos θ + by cot θ = a2 + b2 . 608-A. – y2 b2 = 1 at (a sec φ .± GH 6.6450883. y1) is xx1 a 2 – yy1 b 2 = 1.POCKET BOOK (b) Parametric form : The equation of tangent to the hyperbola x2 a2 – (y − k)2 b2 = 1. k) and axes are parallel to the co-ordinate axes. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . y1) is a2 x b2y + = a2 + b2.) Ph. 0744 .± b2 a2m2 − b2 I J. y1) to the hyperbola – y2 b2 according as a2 – b2 – 1 is +ve. b tan φ ) is 3. > a2m2 – b2. zero or –ve. 608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 88 . 0744 . = 1 is given by SS1 = T2 The line y = mx + c does not intersect. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b tan θ ) to the hyperbola at (x1. K Equation of pair of tangents from (x1. b a (c) Slope form : The equations of tangents of slope m to the hyperbola x2 a 2 – y2 b 2 = 1 x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 are y = mx ± a2m2 − b2 and the 4. then its equation is (x − h)2 a2 MATHS FORMULA .6450883. Position of a point and a line w. y1) lies inside.r. on or outside the hyperbola x2 a2 y2 b2 co-ordinates of points of contacts are – = 1 2 x1 2 y1 .

2 2 2 2 9.t.POCKET BOOK (c) Slope form : The equation of the normal to the hyperbola x2 a 2 MATHS FORMULA . The equation of a diameter of the hyperbola x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is y = b2 a2m x. y1) is T = S1. − a l . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S x2 a2 – y2 b2 Asymptote to a curve touches the curve at infinity. 2 I J K Condition for normality : If y = mx + c is the normal of x2 a2 – y2 b2 12.r. 0744 . 608-A. Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from the external point (x1. Asymptotes of a hyperbola : * The equations of asymptotes of the hyperbola x2 a2 xx1 a2 – yy1 b2 = 1.) Ph. The equation of director circle of hyperbola x2 a2 14. Equation of chord joining the points P(a sec φ 1.φ G H 1 + φ2 2 I J K = cos .) Ph. 0744 .r.POCKET BOOK 11. The equation of chord of the hyperbola whose mid point is (x1. 608-A. y1) to the hyperbola is given by 15.t.φ G H 1 + φ2 .± GH a2 a2 − b2m2 . Points of contact : Co-ordinates of points of contact are . 2405510 . = 1 * The asymptote of a hyperbola passes through the centre of the hyperbola. y1) w. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Equation of polar of the point (x1.6450883. m (a2 + b2 ) a2 − b2m2 then c = m (e) or c2 = m(a2 + b2 )2 (a2 − m2b2) x2 . The diameters y = m1x and y = m2x are conjugate if m1m2 = b2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is x + y = a – b . which a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is . a 10.MATHS FORMULA . b mI G n nJ K H 2 2 is condition of normality. 8. The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w. 13. b tan φ 2) is the normal is y = mx m (d) x cos a . – y2 b2 = 1 are y = ± b x. b tan φ 1) and Q(a sec – y2 b 2 = 1 in terms of the slope m of m (a + b ) a2 − b2m2 2 2 φ 2. .6450883.m mb2 a2 − b2m2 I JK . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. PAGE # 90 PAGE # 89 E D U C A T I O N S .φ G H 1 − φ2 2 I J K – y sin b . = 1. the hyperbola is given by T = 0.

t2 on xy = c2 is x + y t1t2 = c(t1 + t2) .) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 91 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK * The combined equation of the asymptotes of the hyperbola * MATHS FORMULA . (This results shows that four normal can be drawn from a point to the hyperbola xy = c2) * * * 16.POCKET BOOK * Equation of tangent at (x1. * Equation of normal at (x1. Rectangular or Equilateral Hyperbola : * * A hyperbola for which a = b is said to be rectangular hyperbola.6450883. The bisector of the angles between the asymptotes are the coordinate axes. If a triangle is inscribed in a rectangular hyperbola then its orthocentre lies on the hyperbola. 608-A. y = 0. y1) to xy x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 1 is x2 a2 – y2 b2 = 0. its equation is x2 – y2 = a2 xy = c2 represents a rectangular hyperbola with asymptotes x = 0. y = c . t * Equation of chord joining t1.6450883. 2405510 PAGE # 92 . Equation of chord of the hyperbola xy = c2 whose middle point is given is T = S1 Point of intersection of tangents at t1 & t2 to the hyperbola xy = c2 is * . 1 1 Equation of tangent at t is x + yt2 = 2ct x * * * 2 a 2 – y b 2 2 = 1 is 2 tan–1 y 2 b2 or 2 sec–1 e. 2c t1 + t 2 I J K * Parametric equation of the hyperbola xy = c2 are x = ct. * Equation of normal at t on xy = c2 is xt3 – yt – ct4 + c = 0. 2c t t Gt +t H 1 1 2 2 . where t is a parameter. Eccentricity of rectangular hyperbola is 2 and angle between asymptotes of rectangular hyperbola is 90º. 0744 . Equation of hyperbola – Equation of asymptotes = Equation of asymptotes – Equation of conjugate hyperbola = constant. The angle between the asymptotes of x y = c2 is x + y = 2.) Ph. y1) to xy = c2 is xx1 – yy1 = x12 – y12 A hyperbola and its conjugate hyperbola have the same asymptotes. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.

i = 1 . Relation between A. = ∑f n i= 1 i =1 n i ∑Gx J H K i i . it is x effected by any change in origin.M.axn is a x where a is any number different from zero..M. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 93 E D U C A T I O N S . x2.. n be n observations and fi be their corresponding frequencies (b) . i where A = assumed mean..or ungrouped data (individual series) x = (ii) or .or grouped data (continuous series) n .or grouped data H. xn. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..or grouped data f f f G..+ xn Σ xi = i=1 n(no. where xi . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.M. 608-A. Properties of A. = antilog G n ∑ log x J H K i i =1 x1 + x2 +. xnn e j n 1 N . . The mean of ax1.xn)1/n n MEASURES O. = n ∑x i=1 n 1 i 2. (i) (ii) (iii) In a statistical data. If each of the n given observation be doubled.. ≥ G. where N = ∑f i= 1 n i (a) Direct method x = i =1 n Σ fixi i=1 n Σ fi . is always zero...e. G. A. then their mean is doubled If x is the mean of x1.M. ≥ H..6450883.. .. . ax2 .. Harmonic Mean ........ (i) .M..M and H. 608-A. (ii) .MATHS FORMULA . = x11 x22 . f log x I G∑ J G J = antilog G G ∑f J J H K i i i =1 n i i= 1 Σfidi short cut method : x = A + Σf ...M.M.M. Equality holds only when all the observations in the series are same. of terms) n (ii) . di = xi – A = deviation for each term 4.Harmonic Mean is reciprocal of arithmetic mean of reciprocals. Geometric Mean : (i) . 0744 .1 I G.M.M.POCKET BOOK 3.or ungrouped data G.. the sum of the deviation of items from A..M. Arithmetic mean : (i) . CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION 1..POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .) Ph.) Ph.f I 5. 2405510 PAGE # 94 (iv) Arithmetic mean is independent of origin i.M.or ungrouped data H.6450883. = (x1 x2 x3 . 0744 .

or individual series : In the case of individual series.POCKET BOOK 6.or series in ascending order L f −f O M2f − f − f P N Q 1 0 1 0 2 × i Where l 1 = Lower limit of the model class. .irst find cumulative frequencies of the variables arranged in ascending or descending order and Median = (iii) .or continuous series Mode = l 1 + 1 If n is even. f = . class. i = The width of the median class C = Cumulative frequency of the class preceding to median class. . Mode & Median : (i) (ii) In symmetrical distribution : Mean = Mode = Median In Moderately symmetrical distribution : Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mean PAGE # 96 Median = l + Where . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. f1 = . 7. of observations. where n is cumulative (c) frequency. N = Sum of all frequencies.) Ph.e.requency of the median class. If n is odd. the value which is repeated maximum number of times is the mode of the series.or continuous frequency distribution : first find the model class i. n + 1I G 2 J H K th observation. 608-A. N − CI G2 J H K f × i class.requency of the model class. . Continuous distribution (grouped data) (i) .6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. . mode is the value of the variate corresponding to the maximum frequency. 2405510 . f0 = . 0744 . l = Lower limit of the median class.POCKET BOOK (ii) . N − CI G2 J H K f × i th observation th where u = upper limit of median class. n + 1IJ ] observation.MATHS FORMULA . arrange in ascending or descending order and n be the no. 8.6450883. Mode : (i) . G2 K H th (ii) (b) Discrete series : .G n + 1IJ H 2 K Median = u - . Median = Value of MATHS FORMULA .requency of the class succeeding model i = Size of the model class.or discrete frequency distribution series : In the case of discrete frequency distribution. the class which has maximum frequency.requency of the class preceding model f2 = .) Ph.or series in descending order . 608-A. Median : (a) Individual series (ungrouped data) : If data is raw.G nIJ + value of H 2K . Relation between Mean. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 95 E D U C A T I O N S . 0744 . Median = [Value of 2 .

e. 1. (a) . Popular methods of measure of dispersion. 0744 . Variance – Square of standard direction i. S = deviation of variate from mean mode. 0744 .or individual series (ungrouped data) σ = σ × 100 x Σ(x − x)2 N where x = Arithmetic mean of the series (b) N = Total frequency . Mean deviation : The arithmetic average of deviations from the mean. Standard Deviation : S.6450883. (σ) is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the terms from their A.) Ph. Mean deviation = Σ f | x − s| Σf |x − s| = Σf N Note : Mean deviation is the least when measured from the median.requency of the corresponding xi (ii) N = Σ f = Total frequency Short cut method σ = Σfd2 Σfd − N N .D. 2405510 PAGE # 98 .M.POCKET BOOK Measure of Dispersion : The degree to which numerical data tend to spread about an average value is called variation or dispersion. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.)2 = (σ)2 Coefficient of variance = Coefficient of S. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. I G J H K 2 or σ= Σd2 Σd − N N . I G J H K 2 Where d = x – A = Derivation from assumed mean A f = .MATHS FORMULA .or continuous series (grouped data) (i) Direct method σ = Where Σfi (xi − x)2 N x = Arithmetic mean of series xi = Mid value of the class PAGE # 97 E D U C A T I O N S . Continuous series (grouped data).D. median. variance = (S.POCKET BOOK fi = .6450883. × 100 = (b) Where n = number of terms.D. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .) Ph. 608-A. (a) Individual series (ungrouped data) Mean deviation = Σ|x − S| n MATHS FORMULA . median or mode is known as mean deviation. 2.requency of item (term) N = Σf = Total frequency.

if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j.) Identity or unit matrix Upper Triangular matrix Lower Triangular matrix Symmetric matrix Skew symmetric matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j = 1 for i = j if m = n and aij = 0 for i > j if m = n and aij = 0 for i < j if m = n and aij = aji for all i. j or AT = A if m = n and aij = – aji ∀ i. Matrix . Trace of a matrix : Sum of the elements in the principal diagonal is called the trace of a matrix.) Ph. Multiplication of Matrices : Two matrices A & B can be multiplied only if the number of columns in A is same as the number of rows in B. trace AB ≠ trace A trace B. Horizontal line is row & vertical line is column 3. It is denoted by O..MATHS FORMULA . AB ≠ BA.e.A system or set of elements arranged in a rectangular form of array is called a matrix. 608-A. trace On = O On is null matrix.. 0744 .. 6. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S 2. A(BC) = (AB)C [Associative law] PAGE # 100 PAGE # 99 E D U C A T I O N S . then A + B (or A – B) is defined and is obtained by adding (or subtracting) each element of B from corresponding element of A Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar : KA = K (aij)m×n Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) 7. Order of matrix : If a matrix A has m rows & n columns then A is of order m × n. j or AT = – A .6450883. a11 = a22 . 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. K(A + B) = KA + KB (K1 K2)A = K1(K2 A) = K2(K1A) (K1 + K2)A = K1A + K2A = (Ka)m×n where K is constant.POCKET BOOK 4. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . = ann = k (cons. trace (A ± B) = trace A ± trace B trace kA = k trace A trace A = trace AT trace In = n when In is identity matrix. if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j = k for i = j i. Properties : (i) (ii) In general matrix multiplication is not commutative i.6450883.. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS MATRICES : 1. Addition & subtraction of matrices : If A and B are two matrices each of order same. 5. 2405510 .e... 608-A. Types of matrices : A matrix A = (aij)m×n A matrix A = (aij)mxn over the field of complex numbers is said to be Name A row matrix A column matrix A rectangular matrix A square matrix A null or zero matrix A diagonal matrix A scalar matrix Properties if m = 1 if n = 1 if m ≠ n if m = n if aij = 0 ∀ i j. The number of rows is written first and then number of columns.

(B + C) = AB + AC [Distributive law] MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . aij = a ji (vi) Skew . (AT)T = A (A ± B)T = AT ± BT (AB) = B A T T T a22 M11 = a 32 a23 a33 and so. 608-A. A is matrix of order n × n . If two rows (or columns) are identical then |A| = 0 (iv) Nilpotent matrix : if ∃ p ∈ N such that Ap = 0 (v) Hermitian matrix : if Aθ = A i. cofactor of an element aij is denoted by Cij or . = –Mij.MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A.POCKET BOOK DETERMINANT : 1. Minor & cofactor : If A = (aij)3×3.) Ph. then it is not necessary A = 0 or B = 0 (vi) AI = A = IA (vii) Matrix multiplication is commutative for +ve integral i.13 and a11 .11 + a12 .Hermitian matrix : if A = –Aθ (iv) |KA| = Kn det A. Transpose of a matrix : A' or A T is obtained by interchanging rows into columns or columns into rows Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) 9.21 + a12 . 0744 .6450883. then minor of a11 is / (iv) If AB = AC ⇒ B = C (v) If AB = 0.6450883. if i = j if i ≠ j Note : |A| = a11.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.22 + a13 .e. expansion of determinant of order 3 × 3 (iv) (KA)T = KAT IT = I a1 b1 a2 b2 ⇒ a3 b3 c1 c2 c3 b2 = a1 b 3 c2 a2 –b1 a c3 3 c2 a2 b2 + c1 a b c3 3 3 Some special cases of square matrices : A square matrix is called (i) (ii) (iii) Orthogonal matrix : if AAT = In = ATA 2 or Properties : b1 = –a2 b 3 c1 a1 + b2 a c3 3 c1 a1 b1 c3 – c2 a3 b3 Idempotent matrix : if A2 = A Involutory matrix : if A = I or A –1 =A (i) (ii) (iii) |AT| = |A| By interchanging two rows (or columns). value of determinant differ by –ve sign.e.23 = 0 2. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 101 E D U C A T I O N S .12 + a13 . Determinant : if A is a square matrix then determinant of matrix is denoted by det A or |A|. 2405510 PAGE # 102 . Am+1 = Am A = AAm 8.POCKET BOOK (iii) A.ij and is equal to (–1)i+j Mij or Cij = Mij.

) Ph. |0n| = 0.6450883. Skew symmetric matrix of odd order is zero.) Ph. A(adj A) = (adjA) A = |A|In |adj A| = |A|n–1 (adjAB) = (adjB) (adjA) (adj AT) = (adjA)T (adj KA) = Kn–1(adj A) (vi) Determinant of : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 3. |A| ≠ 0 | A| A–1A = In = A A–1 (A–1)–1 = A (iv) (AT)–1 = (A–1)T Multiplication of two determinants : Multiplication of two second order determinants is defined as follows. A zero matrix is zero i. A Hermitian matrix is purely real.e. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 103 E D U C A T I O N S . where Cij is cofactor of aij . then the value of the new determinant remain unchanged. where 0n is a zero matrix of order n A diagonal matrix = product of its diagonal elements.POCKET BOOK (v) If same multiple of elements of any row (or column) of a determinant are added to the corresponding elements of any other row (or column). MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS : 1. 2405510 . |In| = 1. PAGE # 104 If order is different then for their multiplication. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. express them firstly in the same order. (vi) |A–1| = |A|–1 = 1 | A| a1 b1 l1 m1 a1l1 + b1l2 × l m = a l +b l a2 b2 2 1 2 2 2 2 a1m1 + b1m2 a2m1 + b2m2 3.e. 608-A.e.6450883. |A| ≠ 0 A–1 = adjA .POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) (iii) (v) 2.MATHS FORMULA . Adjoint of a matrix : adj A = (Cij)T . An identity matrix is one i. where In is a unit matrix of order n. (iv) adj(adjA) = |A|n–2 Inverse of a matrix : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) A–1 exists if A is non singular i. 0744 . An orthogonal matrix is 1 or – 1 A unitary matrix is of modulus unity. if (i) (ii) Every square sub matrix of order (r + 1) or more is singular There exists at least one square submatrix of order r which is non singular. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. MATHS FORMULA . (vii) If A & B are invertible square matrices then (AB)–1 = B–1 A–1 Rank of a matrix : A non zero matrix A is said to have rank r. 0744 . A nilpotent matrix is 0.

(adj A) B = 0 det A i xi = . 2. 0744 .) Ph. Homogeneous & non homogeneous system of linear equations : A system of equations Ax = B is called a homogeneous system if B = 0.MATHS FORMULA .. 608-A. MATHS FORMULA . 2. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 105 E D U C A T I O N S . If B ≠ 0.e. Inconsistent (with no solution). 0744 .. Consistent (With infinite many solution).. if |A| = 0 and all det (Ai) are zero. (a) Solution of non homogeneous system of linear equations : (i) Cramer's rule : Determinant method The non homogeneous system Ax = B. B = 0 of n equations in n variables is (i) Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and for each i = 1. Inconsistent (with no solution) if |A| = 0 and at least one of the det (Ai) is non zero.POCKET BOOK 4.. (ii) Consistent (with infinitely many solution). if |A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a null matrix. NOTE : A homogeneous system of equations is never inconsistent. where Ai is the matrix obtained det A from A by replacing ith column with B. 608-A. if |A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a non null matrix. then it is called non homogeneous system equations... Consistent (with infinitely many solutions). 5..6450883... B ≠ 0 of n equations in n variables is Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and for each i = 1. n xi = 0 is called trivial solution. .) Ph. . if |A| = 0 (a) |A| = |Ai| = 0 (for determinant method) (for matrix method) (b) |A| = 0. B ≠ 0 of n equations in n variables is Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 i. if A is non singular.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..POCKET BOOK (b) Solution of homogeneous system of linear equations : The homogeneous system Ax = B. (ii) Matrix method : The non homogeneous system Ax = B. . 2405510 PAGE # 106 .. n. x = A–1 B...

Greatest Integer function : f(x) = [x].POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) loga 1 = 0 loga a = 1 Rx.G bI H cJ K = loga b – loga c (iv) |x + y| ≤ |x| + |y| (v) |x – y| ≥ |x| – |y| or ≤ |x| + |y| (vi) ||a| – |b|| ≤ |a – b| for equality a.POCKET BOOK . x < 0 |0. b ≠ 1 loga b = c loga b > c a>1 0<a<1 if a > 1 if 0 < a < 1 PAGE # 107 E D U C A T (ix) (x) log1/a .UNCTION 1.unction : (i) (ii) (iii) logb a to be defined a > 0... (vi) Base change formulae logc b loga b = log a c (vii) logam bn = 1 (viii) loga b or 1 loga b = log a b ⇒ x=±a ⇒ no solution ⇒ x < – a or x > a ⇒ –a ≤ x ≤ a ⇒ No solution. Modulus function : MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. ⇒ or E D U C A T I O N S 3. ⇒ x∈R n loga b m . + loga bn = loga (b1 b2 . 0744 . where [... 2405510 PAGE # 108 ...]denotes greatest integer function equal or less than x.) Ph.bn) (v) loga . b > 0. x = 0 T Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) |x| ≠ ± x |xy| = |x||y| x |x| = y |y| aloga b = b if k > 0. 0744 . [–4.2] = –5 Period of [x] = 1 .G I H J K = – loga b = log1/a b Logarithmic .2] = 4. x > 0 | |x| = S−x.6450883. i.. ⇒ or b < ac. (iv) loga b > loga c b > c. (vii) If a > 0 |x| = a |x| = –a |x| > a |x| ≤ a |x| < –a |x| > –a 2.. 608-A.. k = blogb k (iv) loga b1 + loga b2 + .MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 I O N S b < c.b ≥ 0. defined as [4... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. . cI G bJ H K ⇒ b=a c alogb c = clogb a b > ac.e...6450883. 608-A. bI G cJ H K = loga .

1) (ii) {x + I} = {x} {x + y} ≠ {x} + {y} (iii) {x} + {–x} = 0. x ∈ (– ∞ . x ∈ [I + 1. 2405510 I O N S . I + 1] (vii) [x] > I. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .{x} |x| . 608-A..ractional part function : f(x) = {x} = difference between number & its integral part = x – [x]. [x] ≥ I + 1. x ∈R− . then this relation (mapping) is called a function. . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . 1] [0. ∞ ] R+ R PAGE # 110 x2.unctions Polynomial function Identity function x Constant function K Reciprocal function 1 x Domain R R R R0 R R Range R R (K) R0 R+ ∪{x} R {-1. Domain = All possible values of x for which f(x) exists. where I is an integer x ∈ [I. x ∈ [I. ∞ ) (vi) [x] ≤ I. Graphically .6450883.POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) x – 1 < [x] ≤ x (ii) [x + I] = [x] + I [x + y] ≠ [x] + [y] (iii) [x] + [–x] = 0. Here set A is called domain and set of all f images of the elements of A is called range. . x=0 . ∞ ) (viii) [x] < I.) Ph. {{x}} = {x}. x ∈ I = –1. R−1 | |0 S f(x) = sgn (x) = | |1 T or f(x) = |x| x R R R R R [0.∪{x} 1 [0. i. x ∈R+ x +|x| x -|x| [x] (greatest integer function) x . x|x| Signum function 5. Properties : (i) {x}.MATHS FORMULA . x x ≠ 0 x=0 PAGE # 109 E D U C A T x ax (exponential function) log x (logarithmic function) = 0. I + 1) (v) [x] ≥ I.6450883. all possible values of f(x).POCKET BOOK 6.e. {[x]} = 0 Signum function : MATHS FORMULA . x ∈ (– ∞ . I) 4. x ∉ I (iv) [{x}] = 0. 0744 . Definition : Let A and B be two given sets and if each element a ∈ A is associated with a unique element b ∈ B under a rule f.no vertical line should intersect the graph of the function more than once. [x] ≤ I – 1. x ∈ [0. 0.) Ph.or all values of x. ∞ ) R R+ . Range = . 1} R+ ∪{x} R. x ∈ I = 1. 608-A. x ∉ I (iv) [x] = I. Table : Domain and Range of some standard functions . |x| (modulus function) x3. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.

A function which is both one-one and onto is called bijective function. 1] [-1.U S2 2 V T W ⇒ f(a) ≠ f(b).POCKET BOOK Trigonometric .{0..POCKET BOOK 7.{0.1) Range R.atleast one horizontal line intersects with the graph of the function more than once.{0} N 2 2Q PAGE # 111 E D U C A T I O N S .. Similarly if y is replace by (y – a)..6450883. 608-A.. x ≠ y but f(x) = f(y) Graphically .(-1. π OP. .unctions sin x cos x tan x cot x sec x cosec x Inverse Trigo . ± 3π .MATHS FORMULA . (iv) Into function : f is said to be into function if R(f) < B (v) One-one-onto function (Bijective) . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.G −π .1) LM− π .t. If a is +ve it moves towards right. π OP N 2 2Q [0.t.e. a is –ve it moves toward left. if to each y ∈ B ∃ x ∈ A s. 1] [-1. π ]2 RU SV TW cosec-1 x R . ± 3π . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . π ) 9.. f–1(b) = a -1 ⇒ f(a) = b tan-1 x cot-1 x sec-1 x .) Ph. f(x) = y Many one function : f : A → B is a many one function if there exist x. ± 2 π } Domain x x (-1.6450883. (ii) (iii) Onto function (surjection) . y ∈ A s.1] R R R -(-1.1) R .} R - R..unctions sin cos -1 MATHS FORMULA . ± π .. Kinds of functions : (i) One-one (injection) function .. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.f : A → B is one-one if f(a) = f(b) ⇒ a = b or a≠b Domain R R R- Range [-1.U S2 2 V T W R± π .) Ph. the graph will be shifted parallel to y-axis. Inverse function : f–1 exists iff f is one-one & onto both f–1 : B → A. 0744 .(-1. π IJ H 2 2K (0. R R R . ± 2 π . 608-A.1) LM −π .(-1. Transformation of curves : (i) Replacing x by (x – a) entire graph will be shifted parallel to x-axis with |a| units. 1] R± π . a.f : A → B is onto if R (f) = B i. 0744 . π ] 8. upward if a is +ve downward if a is –ve. 2405510 PAGE # 112 π [0. b ∈ A Graphically-no horizontal line intersects with the graph of the function more than once. ± π ..

There may be infinitely many such T which satisfy the above equality.S. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S ∀ x ∈ Domain.S.H. remove the portion of the curve corresponding to –ve x (on left hand side of y-axis) and take reflection of right hand side on LHS. Even and odd function : A function is said to be (i) (ii) Even function if f(–x) = f(x) and Odd function if f(–x) = –f(x). f(x + T) = f(x). 608-A. (v) Replace x by ax (a > 0). 0744 . if on L.e. f(x) = 0 is the only function which is even and odd both. 608-A. Increasing function : A function f(x) is an increasing function in the domain D if the value of the function does not decrease by increasing the value of x. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 114 . Similarly if y is replaced by –y then take reflection of entire curve in x-axis.POCKET BOOK (g) (h) (i) Zero function i. Sum & difference of two even (odd) function is an even (odd) function. f(x) = 1 1 [f(x) + f(–x)] + [f(x) – f(–x)] 2 2 (iv) Replace f(x) by |f(x)|.) Ph.6450883. 0744 . then Period of f(xn + a) = T/n and Period of (x/n + a) = nT (ii) If the period of f(x) is T1 & g(x) has T2 then the period of f(x) ± g(x) will be L. If f(x) is odd (even) function then f'(x) is even (odd) function provided f(x) is differentiable on R. (iii) Replacing x by |x|. of T1 & T2 provided it satisfies definition of periodic function. The graph of an odd function is always symmetric about origin. Product of two even or odd function is an even function.C.unction f(x) will be periodic if a +ve real number T exist such that 11. Sum of even and odd function is neither even nor odd function.M. (i) If a function f(x) has period T. (iii) PAGE # 113 E D U C A T I O N S . Such a least +ve no. then the period of af(x) + bg(x) will also be T. then divide all the value on xaxis by a. 12. . MATHS FORMULA . = even function + odd function. 14.6450883. Properties of even & odd function : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) The graph of an even function is always symmetric about y-axis. 10.e. then portion of the curve below x-axis will be reflected above x-axis. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK (ii) Replacing x by –x. i. Periodic function: .H.MATHS FORMULA . Similarly if y is replaced by ay (a > 0) then divide all the values of y-axis by a. If period of f(x) & g(x) are same T. A given function can be expressed as sum of even & odd function. Product of an even or odd function is an odd function. Decreasing function : A function f(x) is a decreasing function in the domain D if the value of function does not increase by increasing the value of x. y is present and mode is taken on R.) Ph. 13. T is called period of f(x). take reflection of entire curve is yaxis.

Period 2π π 6π π/4 1 π π/2 6π 2π/3 2π 2π π 1 1 2 cos .) Ph. x .6450883.unction sin x. cos x sec x. cosec x tan x. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then the composite function of f and g. x .POCKET BOOK 15. 0744 .POCKET BOOK . 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . 608-A.G x − π I H 3 J K 4 sin3 x + cos3 x sin x + cos x 3 sin x sin5x tan2 x – cot2 x x – [x] [x] NON PERIODIC .6450883.UNCTIONS : 2 3 x. 2405510 PAGE # 116 . 608-A. 5 cos x2 x + sin x x cos x cos x . cot x sin (x/3) tan 4x cos 2πx |cos x| sin x + cos x 4 4 MATHS FORMULA . Composite function : If f : X → Y and g : Y → Z are two function. gof : X → Z will be defined as gof(x) = g(f(x)). then so is gof. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 115 E D U C A T I O N S .) Ph. ∀ x ∈ X In general gof ≠ fog If both f and g are bijective function.

. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 117 E D U C A T I O N S . 1∞ 0 ∞ 4. (ii) x→a lim (f(x) ± g(x)) = lim f(x) ± Lim g(x) x→a x→a lim f(x). & devo. separately and cancel the lim . lim Existence of limit : x → a f(x) exists iff xlim− f(x) = xlim+ f(x) = l →a →a Case II: If c is an integer. then xlim− [x] = c – 1. 0744 . When x → ∞ : Divide num. 2405510 . xlim+ [x] = c →c →c lim and x → c [x] = does not exist 6. x x (v) x→a lim f(g(x)) = f lim g(x) . replace lim (k f(x)) = k lim f(x)..6450883. provided x → a g(x) ≠ 0 g(x) x→a x→a (iii) (iv) x→a lim 1 1 . ∞ × 0. Limit of the greatest integer function : Let c be any real number lim Case I : If c is not an integer. 608-A.6450883. by the highest power of x present in the expression and then after removing common factor which is participating in making the indeterminate form. ∞ – ∞ .) Ph. Lim g(x) x→a x→a lim f(x) x→a f(x) lim = lim g(x) . 2 . . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. H I K (iv) (v) n n lim x − a = nan–1 x→a x −a By using standard results (limits) : g(x) function f(x) is continuous. & deno.MATHS FORMULA . 0744 .actorisation method : If x → a 0 form. H I K x→0 L lim f(x)O M P N Q x→a x→0 x→a lim g(x) x→0 . (vi) x→a lim [f(x) + k] = lim f(x) + k x→a (a) (b) (c) (d) x→0 lim x lim sinx = 1 = x → 0 x sin x x lim tan x = 1 = lim x→0 x tan x lim sinx = 0 lim cosx = lim x→0 1 =1 cos x PAGE # 118 lim lim (vii) x → a log(f(x)) = log x → a f(x) lim (viii) x → a (f(x))g(x) = . Theorems on limits : (i) (ii) (iii) x→a f(x) 0 is of form g(x) 0 then factorize num. 608-A. we rationalize the factor and simplify. by 0. lim Limit of a function : x → a f(x) = l (finite quantity) 2.g(x) = lim f(x).POCKET BOOK 5.) Ph. ∞ 0 . provided value of x→a . then x → c [x] = [c] LIMIT 1. Methods of evaluation of limits : (i) 3. 0 Rationalization method : If we have fractional powers on the expression in num. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x→a k is a constant. Indeterminate forms : 0 ∞ .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . deno or in both. 0∞ .

x →a PAGE # 120 ... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. 2405510 ..POCKET BOOK 0 lim sin x = π x→0 180 x −1 x lim sin x = 1 = lim x→0 x→0 sin−1 x x −1 x lim tan x = 1 = lim x→0 x→0 tan−1 x x MATHS FORMULA . 3! 5! x2 x4 + –..6450883... 2! Sandwich Theorem : In the neighbour hood of x = a f(x) < g(x) < h(x) (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + lim f(x) = lim h(x) = l.. 0744 .G1 + 1 IJ H xK . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK (vi) By substitution : (a) If x → a..MATHS FORMULA .) Ph.. 608-A... x n(n − 1) 2 x + .. t → 0...... then we can substitute x=a+t ⇒ t=x–a If x → a.. 0744 ...) Ph... 2 3 (x loge a)2 (x loge a)3 + + .. 2 3 x2 x3 – –. 608-A. 2! 3! (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) 1 ⇒ t → 0+ x (vii) By using some expansion : ex = 1 + x + e–x = 1 – x + lim a − 1 = log a x→0 e x x lim e − 1 = 1 x→0 x x lim log(1 + x) = 1 x→0 x 1 lim loga (1 + x) = x→0 loga x x→0 log(1 + x) = x – log(1 – x) = –x – lim (1 + x) − 1 = n x lim sinx = lim cos x = 0 x→∞ x x sin 1 x 1 x n ex ln a = ax = 1 + xlogea + sinx = x – x→∞ x3 x5 + –. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. 2! 3! x2 x3 + – .. 2! 4! 2 x3 + x5 + ... then lim g(x) = l. (b) When x → – ∞ substitute x = – t ⇒ t → ∞ (c) When x → ∞ substitute t = x2 x3 + + .6450883... 2! 3! x2 x3 – + .... aI = lim G1 + J H xK x x→∞ 7. 15 3 cosx = 1 – =1 tanx = x + (n) x→∞ lim (o) x→0 lim (1 + x)1/x = e = lim x→∞ 1/x lim = ea x → 0 (1 + ax) (p) .. x →a x →a x →a ⇒ PAGE # 119 E D U C A T I O N S l < lim g(x) < l........

where c is a constant.UNDAMENTAL RULES . 0744 . dx dx dx dx sin–1 x .ERENTIATION 1. 0744 . then f (ax + b) dx dx . . (k) Derivative 0 . where u & v are functions dx dx dx of x. dx = d f(x) ± dx d g(x) dx loga x ax sin x tan x cosec x 1 x loge a ax loge a cos x sec2 x –cosec x cot x 1 1−x 2 loge x ex cos x cot x sec x 1 x ex –sin x –cosec2 x sec x tan x 1 1 − x2 (iii) cf(x) ± g(x)h (iv) d dv du (uv) = u + v . x≠ 0 | x| (vii) If y = f(u).. x ∉ I |x| x .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . v = h(x). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.–1<x<1 (v) sec–1 x 1 |x| 1 − x 2 If . 608-A.6450883. 608-A..ERENTIATION : .|x|>1 cosec–1 x – 1 |x| 1 − x2 d d f(x) = φ(x). (Product rule) or d du dv dw (uvw) = vw + uw + uv . u = g(x) [chain rule or differential coefficient of a function of a function] then dy dy du = × dx dx du NOTE : d [x] does not exist at any integral Point.OR DI.) Ph.ERENTIATION : (i) DI.x ∈ R cot–1 x – 1 1 + x2 .POCKET BOOK 2.G u I H vJ K = v du dv −u dx dx 2 v (quotient rule) [x] 0.–1|x|>| = a φ(ax + b) tan–1 x 1 1+x 2 .–1<x<1 cos–1x – . 2405510 . then PAGE # 122 .unction A cons.unction xn Derivative nxn – 1 d f(x) = 0 if and only if f(x) = constant dx d dx d dx (ii) ccf(x)h = c d f(x).6450883. u = g(v). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. SOME STANDARD DI..MATHS FORMULA . x ∈R (vi) d dx . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . dx PAGE # 121 E D U C A T I O N S llly If y = f(u).

0744 .r. 0744 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . y) = 0 in which y is not expressible explicitly in terms of x are called implicit functions] (xiii) Differentiation of parametric functions : If x = f(t) and y = g(t).. 608-A. form (f(x))g(x) or g ( x ) g ( x ).. g'(x) i. 2405510 PAGE # 124 . then (ix) d dx .t..r.) Ph.e if y = un ⇒ dy du = nun–1 dx dx dy at one side and find dx dy .MATHS FORMULA . dx OR (viii) Differentiation of composite functions Suppose a function is given in form of fog(x) or f[g(x)].6450883. 608-A. m (e) logan xm = loga x n = x (g) loge e = 1 (h) loge m logn m = log n e PAGE # 123 E D U C A T I O N S . |u| dx dx dy g'(t) dy dt = = f'(t) dx dx dt (xiv) Differentiation of a function w.t..POCKET BOOK (xii) Differentiation of implicit function : If f (x. where t is a parameter. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . We first take log on 1 2 both sides and then differentiate.t. y) = 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. dx [The relation f(x.G 1I H uJ K = −1 u2 du . If no such substitution is found then differentiate directly by using trigonometrical formula frequently. then differentiate applying chain rule d f[g(x)] = f'g(x) . another function : Let y = f(x) and z = g(x). u ≠ 0 dx (x) (xi) u du d |u| = .e. z is u ≠ 0 Logarithmic Differentiation : If a function is in the f1 ( x ) f2 ( x ).6450883.r. (a) (b) (c) loge (mn) = logem + logen loge dy / dx f'(x) dy = = g'(x) dz / dx dz (xv) Differentiation of inverse Trigonometric functions m = logm – logen n (d) (f) logn m aloga x loge (m)n = nlogem logm n = 1 using Trigonometrical Transformation : To solve the problems involving inverse trigonometric functions first try for a suitable substitution to simplify it and then differentiate..) Ph. x and collect the terms containing dy dy du dv = × × dx du dv dx i. then differentiation of y w. differentiate w..

1I G xJ H K . 1I G xJ H K . cosec–1 (xii) tan–1 x + cot–1 x = π /2 . (ix) (x) (xi) tan3x = tan–1 = cot–1 x.cos . cot–1 .MATHS FORMULA . tan–1 (–x) = – tan–1 x. H . sin–1 x + cos–1 x = π /2 sec–1 x + cosec–1 x = π /2 sec–1 = cos–1 x. π − θI I G G 2 JJ H H KK = π – θ 2 π – θ 2 tan–1 (cot θ ) = tan–1 = . for – π π < x < 2 2 (ii) cos2x = 1 − tan2 x 1 + tan2 x = 2 cos2 x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin2 x (viii) tan2x = (iii) 2 tan x 1 − tan2 x (xvii) sin–1 (–x) = –sin–1 x. for – π 2 ≤ x ≤ π 2 cos–1 (cos x) = x. 1I G xJ H K = tan–1 x.sin .) Ph. Important Trigonometrical . for 0 ≤ x ≤ π tan–1 (tan x) = x. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 1I G xJ H K = cosec–1 x. 0744 . xy m H 1 − x2 1 − y2 IK cos–1 (sin θ ) = cos–1 .ormula : (i) sin2x = 2sinx. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 125 E D U C A T I O N S . 2405510 PAGE # 126 .POCKET BOOK (xvi) sin–1 sin (x) = x. cosx = 2 tan x 1 + tan2 x MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. cos–1 (–x) = π – cos–1 x sin3x = 3sinx – 4sin3 x (xviii) sin–1 (vi) cos3x = 4cos3 x – 3cosx 3 tan x − tan3 x 1 − 3 tan2 x . π − θI I G G 2 JJ H H KK . x ± y IJ G 1 m xy K H I K (xix) sin–1 (cos θ ) = sin–1 (xiv) sin–1 x ± sin–1 y = sin–1 x 1 − y2 ± y 1 − x2 . cos–1 . π − θI I G G 2 JJ H H KK = π – θ 2 (xv) cos–1 x ± cos–1 y = cos–1 .6450883.6450883. tan .POCKET BOOK 3. 1I G xJ H K = sec–1 x. 608-A. 0744 . 1I G xJ H K = sin–1 x (xiii) tan–1 x ± tan–1 y = tan–1 .

t. dy I G dx J H K = d f'(x) dx c h 1 + x2 x = tanθ x = cotθ is called the second derivative of y w. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 127 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883. 0744 .r.t. 608-A. x . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 128 .POCKET BOOK 4.r.POCKET BOOK Part B Expression Substitution x = a tan θ or x = a cot θ Substitution x = sinθ x = cosθ .ormula 3sinθ – 4sin3 θ 4cos3 θ – 3cosθ 3 tan θ − tan3 θ 1 − 3 tan2 θ Result sin3θ cos3θ a2 + x2 a− x a+ x or a+ x a− x x = a tan θ x = a sin θ or x = a cos θ a2 – x2 tan3θ a+x or a−x a−x a+x x = tanθ x = a cos θ x = a sec θ or x=acosec θ 2x 1+x 2x 1−x 2 2 x = tanθ 2 tan θ 1 + tan2 θ 2 tan θ 1 − tan θ 1 – 2sin2 θ 2cos2 θ – 1 1 – sin2 θ 1 – cos2 θ sec θ – 1 2 sin2θ x 2 – a2 x = tanθ x = sinθ x = cosθ x = sinθ x = cosθ 2 tan2θ cos2θ cos2θ cos2 θ sin2 θ tan θ 2 a2 + x2 a2 − x2 or a2 − x2 a2 + x2 x2 = a2 cos θ 1 – 2x2 2x2 – 1 1 – x2 5. 0744 . 608-A. Successive differentiations or higher order derivatives : (a) If y = f(x) then dy = f'(x) is called the first derivadx tive of y w. Some Useful Substitutions : Part A Expression 3x – 4x3 4x3 – 3x 3x − x3 1 − 3x 2 MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA . x d2 y dx 2 x 2 – 1 x = secθ x = cosecθ cosec2 θ – 1 1 + tan2 θ 1 + cot2 θ cot 2 θ sec2 θ cosec2 θ ⇒ = d dx .6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.) Ph.

) Ph. 608-A.. then yn = an cos nth Derivatives of Some .an (iii) dn dx n (cos x) = cos x + . 0744 . 2405510 PAGE # 130 ....POCKET BOOK llly d3 y dx3 = d2 dx2 cf'(x)h etc. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then yn = an sin ax + b + . (f) If y = sin (ax + b). 608-A. if x = 2t. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 129 E D U C A T I O N S . This process can be continued and we can obtain derivatives of higher order Note : To obtain higher order derivative of parametric functions we use chain rule i. = dx dx t csin xh nπ = sin x + 2 . then ym = m! am and ym+1 = 0 (iv) dn dx n dn dx n (emx ) = mn emx (d) (−1)n n! 1 If y = .. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. G H I J K πn 2 If y = (ax + b)m m ∉ I. then yn = (n − 1)! (ax + b)n an then f g(x) c h = Kn Ld Mdu M N n n f(u) O P P Q u= g(x) .MATHS FORMULA .. If y = cos (ax + b). then yn = m(m–1) (m–2) .unctions : dn dxn dn dx n .6450883.6450883.e. y = t2 (i) 6. G H I J K (c) If m ∈I.. dy I G dx J H K (ii) = d dt 1 (t) = 1.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0744 ..) Ph.. (m–n+1) (ax + b)m–n . then yn = an (ax + b)n+1 ax + b (−1) n−1 (v) (log x) = (– 1)n–1 (n–1)! x–n If u = g(x) is such that g'(x) = K (constant) dn dx n NOTE : (e) If y = log (ax + b).ax + b + nπ I G J H 2K ⇒ dy = t dx d2 y dx 2 d dx ex j n = n! ⇒ (b) = . G H nπ 2 I J K Thus.

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. rule can't be applied. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 131 E D U C A T I O N S . L-hospital rule : if as x → a f(x) & g(x) either both → 0 or both → ∞. Differentiation of Infinite Series : method is illustrated with the help of example x if y = x x− −∞ MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA . exist or d'not exist because value → ∞.6450883. . 0744 .t.S. If it is applied continuously then at each step 0/0 or ∞/∞ should be checked. v If R.H. 608-A. Differentiation of Determinant : then function becomes y = xy now taking log on both sides i. then L.POCKET BOOK 7.POCKET BOOK 9.e logy = y log x.) Ph.6450883. 2405510 PAGE # 132 .r. 0744 .H.) Ph. But if value fluctuate on R. then L.H rule can be applied.G 1 − log xI J Hy K y x y2 = x(1 − y log x) = |C'1 C2 C3| + |C1 C'2 C3| + |C1 C2 C'3| 8. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.S. x we get ∆ = R1 R2 R3 = |C1 C2 C3| 1 y dy 1 dy = y + logx dx dx x R'1 ∆' = R 2 R3 R1 R'2 + R3 R1 R2 + R'3 ⇒ dy = dx . differentiating both sides w.H. 608-A. then lim f(x) f'(x) = lim x →a g'(x) g(x) x →a (a) it can be applied only on 0/0 or ∞/∞ form (b) Numerator & denominator are differentiated separately not (c) u formulae.

y1) = tan ψ = slope of the tangent.G dy IJ H dx K 1 Slope of the tan gent (x1 . (x1 . y 1 ) . Slope of the normal =– If the tangent line makes equal angle with the axes. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.G dy I H dx J K 10.POCKET BOOK 7. Length of intercepts made on axes by the tangent : APPLICATION O.) Ph. dy I G dx J H K (x . 4.G dy IJ H dx K . f(a)) If the tangent makes an angle ψ (say) with +ve x direction then f'(x) = 3.6450883. If normal makes an angle of φ with +ve direction of x-axis. then . 608-A. y1) = ± 1. y1) (x – x1) dy = – cot φ . ψ = 2 y1 − x1 = ⇒ 5. dx . π If the tangent is perpendicular to x-axis.6450883. dx I G dy J H K (x 1 . =– 6. DERIVATIVES TANGENT AND NORMAL : 1.G dy IJ H dx K 8. y1) → ∞ 9.) Ph. 0744 . y – intercept = y1 – x1 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 133 E D U C A T I O N S . x – intercept = x1 R | y | – S .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . dy I | G dx J |H K T 1 (x .y1 ) (x1 . 608-A. y ) 1 1 U | | V | | W . y1) Length of perpendicular from origin to the tangent : = 0. 2. Equation of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at a point (x1. . 0744 . y1 ) (x1 . dy I G dx J H K . then (x1 . y1) is y – y1 = . Geometrically f'(a) represents the slope of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at the point (a. ψ = 0 ⇒ . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 134 . dy I 1+G J H dx K 2 (x1 .MATHS FORMULA . y ) 1 1 If the tangent is parallel to x-axis.G dy IJ H dx K (x1 .

6450883. dy I G dx J H K 2 x1 = . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y1 ) 15. 2405510 PAGE # 136 .) Ph. 608-A. Length of perpendicular from origin to normal : Length of normal = y 1+ . dy I G dx J H K 1 = ± 1. Angle of intersection of the two curves : 11.y1 ) Length of sub-normal = y .G dy I of second.y1 ) 16.G dy IJ H dx K (x1 . If the normal is parallel to x-axis ⇒ . dx I G dy J H K y 1+ Length of tangent = (x1 . dy I − . dy I G dx J H K (x – x1) 18. 0744 .y1 ) dy dx . dy I G dx J H K . dy I G dx J H K 2 y – intercept = y1 + x1 (x1 . dy I +y G J H dx K . Length of intercept made on axes by the normal : x – intercept = x1 + y1 .6450883. y1) is y – y1 = – . If both curves intersect orthogoH dx J K . dy I 1+G J H dx K 1 Length of sub-tangent = 2 y dy / dx dy dx (x1 . normal. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Length of tangent. dy I nally then G dx J G dx J = –1 H K H K curve & 1 2 . tanθ = ± 12. dy I G dx J G dx J H K H K . y1) = 0. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 135 E D U C A T I O N S . subtangent & subnormal : (x1 . dy I . dy I G dx J H K 1 is the slope of first 2 . dy I 1−G J G J H dx K H dx K 1 1 2 2 where .MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. The equation of the normal to the curve y = f(x) at a point (x1. If the normal is perpendicular to x-axis ⇒ . 14. If normal is equally inclined from both the axes or cuts equal intercept then . 0744 . dy I .) Ph. y1) = 0.G dy IJ H dx K (x1 .POCKET BOOK 17. 13.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .

x ≠ a. Similarly by getting the sign of f"(x) for other critical points (b. MAXIMA & MINIMA : 1. b] is not necessarily its greatest value in that interval. f(c). i..r. MATHS FORMULA . .6450883. 6.. b] = min.e.) Ph.. a function f(x) is Monotonic increasing if f'(x) ≥ 0 Monotonic decreasing if f'(x) ≤ 0 constant if f'(x) = 0 ∀ x ∈ (a. 5.) we can find the points of maxima and minima. f(d)] Where x = c. Working rule for finding local maxima & Local Minima : (i) . (iv) If f"(a) < 0.POCKET BOOK MONOTONICITY.) Ph. ∀ x ∈ (b – h. b]. f(c). . 608-A. 608-A. f(d)] Least value of f(x) in interval [a. 2. [f(a).. 2405510 PAGE # 138 7. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b] = max [f(a). a + h). (iii) Now differentiate f'(x) w. Maximum & Minimum Points : Maxima : A function f(x) is said to be maximum at x = a. if there exists a very small +ve number h.6450883. f'(x) and equate it to zero. b. ∀ x ∈ (a – h. provided f'(a) exists.. such that f(x) < f(a). then the value of f(x) is maximum at x = 0 and if f"(a) > 0. f(b). Remark : (a) (b) The maximum & minimum points are also known as extreme points. b) Strictly increasing if f'(x) > 0 Strictly decreasing if f'(x) < 0 4.MATHS FORMULA . . x = d are those points for which f'(x) = 0. A function is said to be monotonic function in a domain if it is either monotonic increasing or monotonic decreasing in that domain At a point function f(x) is monotonic increasing if f'(a) > 0 At a point function f(x) is monotonic decreasing if f'(a) < 0 3. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then the value of f(x) is minimum at x = a..to x. 0744 ..POCKET BOOK (ii) Sufficient condition : (a) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is maximum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) < 0. Conditions for Maxima & Minima of a function : (i) Necessary condition : A point x = a is an extreme point of a function f(x) if f'(a) = 0. Absolute (Greatest and Least) values of a function in a given interval : (i) A minimum value of a function f(x) in an interval [a. 0744 .. c.. In an interval [a. x ≠ b. f(b). 2405510 PAGE # 137 E D U C A T E D U C A T I O N S I O N S . Thus greatest value of f(x) in interval [a. Minima : A function f(x) is said to be minimum at x = b.. b + h).r. (b) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is minimum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) > 0.ind the differential coefficient of f(x) w. then greatest or least values of this function occurs either at x = a or x = b or at those values of x for which f'(x) = 0. if there exists a very small +ve number h. A function may have more than one maximum & minimum points. c . (ii) Solve the equation f'(x) = 0 and let its real roots (critical points) be a. b].to x and substitute the critical points in it and get the sign of f"(x) for each critical point. Similarly a minimum value may not be the least value of the function. (ii) If a function f(x) is defined in an interval [a. such that f(x) > f(b).

Mean value theorem [Lagrange's theorem] : (i) If f(x) is such that (a) It is continuous on [a. b) and (c) f(a) = f(b). b] (b) It is differentiable on (a.POCKET BOOK 8. then there exists at least one c ∈ (a. b) such that f(b) − f(a) = f'(c) b−a 3 (side)2.POCKET BOOK ROLLE'S THEOREM & LAGRANGES THEOREM: 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b] (b) It is differentiable on (a. 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . 4 3 (side) (side)2 4(side) l × b 2(l × b) 1 (sum of parallel sides) 2 × (distance between them) πr2 2πr 4 3 πr 3 Area of circle Perimeter Volume of sphere Surface area of sphere Volume of cone Surface area of cone Volume of cylinder Curved surface area Total surface area Volume of cuboid Surface area of cuboid Area of four walls Volume of cube Surface area of cube Area of four walls of cube (ii) If for c in lagrange's theorem (a < c < b) we can say that c = a + θ h where 0 < θ < 1 and h = b – a the theorem can be written as f(a + h) = f(a) + h f'(a + θ h). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Some Geometrical Results : In Usual Notations Area of equilateral and its perimeter Area of square Perimeter Area of rectangle Perimeter Area of trapezium Results MATHS FORMULA .6450883. 2. 0 < θ < 1. then there exists at least one point c ∈ (a. 0744 . 608-A. Rolle's Theorem : If f(x) is such that (a) It is continuous on [a.MATHS FORMULA .) Ph.6450883. h = b – a 4πr2 1 2 πr h 3 πrl πr2h 2πrh 2πr(h + r) l × b × h 2(lb + bh + hl) 2(l × b) h l3 6l2 4l2 PAGE # 139 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A. b) such that f'(c) = 0.) Ph. b). 2405510 PAGE # 140 .

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 142 . f(x) is the f x dx = f(x) f' x dx = f(x) + c. c ∈ R k f x dx = k f(x) dx (f x ± g x ) dx = ch ch z zch zch h n+1 f x dx ± g x dx . 608-A.UNDAMENTAL .INITE INTEGRATION 1.ORMULAE : .(x) = f(x). 0744 . n ≠ –1 sin–1 x x + c = –cos–1 + c a a z z z z E D U C A T I O 1 dx x log|x| + c tan–1x + c = –cot–1x + c x 1 x −1 tan–1 + c = cot–1 a + c a a a 1 dx ax + b ex dx ax dx sinx dx 1 (log|ax + b|) + c a ex + c dx a2 + x2 dx |x| x2 − 1 dx |x| x2 − a2 ax + c loge a –cos x + c PAGE # 141 E D U C A T z z sec–1x + c = –cosec–1x + c 1 x sec–1 + c = a a x −1 cosec–1 a + c a .) Ph.) Ph. (integrating constant) d (ii) dx (iii) (iv) (v) 2. 0744 . π + x I +c G 4 2J H K x log|cosec x – cot x|+c = log tan +c 2 sin–1 x + c = –cos–1x + c h n 1 ax + b .(x) + c dx is the notation of integration. then dx Here integrand.6450883.6450883. z z ch z ch zch zm r zch z cos x Integration sin x + c tan x + c – cot x + c sec x + c –cosec x + c –log|cos x| + c = log|sec x| + c log|sin x| + c = –log|cosec x| + c log|sec x + tan x|+c = log tan f x dx = .unction INDE. n ≠ –1 n+1 n+1 z z z z z z z z z z z z dx sec2 x dx cos ec2x dx sec x tan x dx cos ec x cot xdx tanx dx cot x dx sec x dx cos ec x dx dx 1 − x2 dx a −x dx 1 + x2 2 2 . (i) d If . 2405510 N S . 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA .unction Integration z zc z x dx ax + b dx n x + c.POCKET BOOK . a n+1 c + c.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . c is any real no.

2405510 PAGE # 144 . the variable x in MATHS FORMULA . x −a . 0744 . 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . x−a x x−a .) Ph.(ax + b) + c a f x f' x dx f(x) = t dfcxhi 2 2 x . n ≠ – 1 x . 2 2 Substitution 1 a2 − x2 1 x + a2 1 x2 − a2 a+ x . x2 + a2 . h x a− x x−a . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 143 E D U C A T I O N S . x 2 .unction Substitution ax + b = t Integration z f x dx is changed ch . x 2 – a2 x = a tanθ or x = a sinhθ x = a sec θ or x = a cosh θ zc h zch ch z d c hi c h z cc hh fφx f' x f x dx f ax + b dx 1 .6450883. a− x a− x . x c 1 h x = a sin2 θ z d c hi c h z cc hh f x n f' x dx f(x) = t cf(x)h n+1 n+1 + c.POCKET BOOK SOME RECOMMENDED SUBSTITUTION : into another variable t so that the integrand f(x) is changed into . a− x . a2 – x 2 x = a sin θ or a cos θ x2 + a2 . 2 2 .(β > α) .unction a −x .) Ph. 608-A. a+ x x−α . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK 3. . Some following suggestions will prove useful. a+ x +c φ x dx φ(x) = t z ch 1 x a+ x . x a+ x c c h c h x = a tan2 θ f t dt x .(t) which is some standard integral. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x f(x) = t log|f(x)| + c x a−x . 608-A.6450883. β−x c h x a− x a+x a−x c 1 h x = a sec2 θ f' x fx dx f(x) = t 2[f(x)]1/2 + c x = a cos 2θ x = α cos2 θ + β sin2 θ cx − αh cβ − xh . INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION : By suitable substitution.

608-A. xI + c G aJ H K x2 + a2 |} + c z z z dx or Express : px + q dx or = λ d (ax2 + bx + c) + µ dx dx x +a 2 2 log{|x + (px + q) (ax2 + bx + c) dx evaluate λ & µ by equat ing coefficient of x and = sinh–1 .6450883. the integral reduces to known form z z z E D U C A T I O N S a − x dx 2 2 1 1 2 x a2 − x2 + a sin–1 2 2 . 0744 . MG MH N b 2a I J K 2 + 4ac − b2 4a 2 O P P Q x 1 = tanh–1 a + c. 0744 .) Ph.unction Integration MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 PAGE # 146 . . Apply division rule and express it x − a dx 2 2 1 1 x x2 − a2 – a2 log {|x + 2 2 1 1 x x2 + a2 + a2 log {|x + 2 2 where P(x) is a polynomial of degree 2 or more in form Q(x) + R x 2 ax + bx + c ch x2 + a2 dx The integral reduces to known form . 608-A.UNCTIONS USING ABOVE STANDARD RESULTS : .POCKET BOOK IMPORTANT RESULTS USING STANDARD SUBSTITUTIONS : . when x < a a dx x −a 2 2 (ax2 + bx + c) dx px + q ax + bx + c px + q ax2 + bx + c 2 then use appropriate formula log{|x + x − a |} + c 2 2 = cosh–1 . 2405510 PAGE # 145 E D U C A T I O N S . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. I G J H K x a + c constant. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK INTEGRATION O.G x IJ + c H aK x − a |} + c x2 + a2 |} + c 2 2 z ax P(x) 2 + bx + c dx .MATHS FORMULA .unction z z z z 1 x −a 2 2 x−a 1 log x+a 2a = + c x −1 coth–1 a + c when x > a a 1 a −x 2 2 dx a+ x 1 log a− x 2a + c z z z Method 1 ax + bx + c 1 2 dx or Express : ax2 + bx + c = ax2 + bx + c dx or a x+ L.) Ph.

GH d 1st fun. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 147 E D U C A T I O N S . [The fun.dxjO dx J P K Q Divide numerator & denominator Rule to choose the first function : first fun. the integral becomes one of standard forms. should be choosen in the following order of preference (ILATE). dx – z LMN.) + ν Evaluate λ. = λ(deno.) Ph.POCKET BOOK 1 a sin x + b cos2 x + c 2 dx Divide numerator & denominator by cos x. z 4. dx I ez 2nd fun. 0744 . 1 a sin x + b cos x h 2 dx then put tanx = t & solve. 2 z z zc z x2 x + kx 2 + a 4 4 dx Divide numerator & denominator by 2 and then add & sub. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. (i) then put tan x/2 = t and replace 1 + tan2 x/2 = sec2 x/2 a sin x + b cos x dx c sin x + d cos x Express : num. .z or MATHS FORMULA .Hz du dx υ dx I O dx KP Q 1st fun. by 2a2 and then add & sub x2.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .e. Thus the form reduces as above. dx Thus integral reduces to known form.) + zc z z z LMN .) + d (deno. 2nd fun. 0744 . υ dx = u. Thus the form reduces to the known form. dx h c h d (deno. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. on the left is normally chosen as first function] I – Inverse trigonometric function L – Logarithmic function A – Algebraic function T – Trigonometric function E – Exponential function by x2 and put . cos x = 1 − tan2 x / 2 1 + tan2 x / 2 INTEGRATION BY PARTS : when integrand involves more than one type of functions the formula of integration by parts is used to integrate the product of the functions i.) Ph.6450883. υ dx – z z or a sin x + b cos x + c dx p sin x + q cos x + r Express : Num. a2. 608-A.6450883. dx x + kx2 + a2 4 Divide num & deno. 2405510 PAGE # 148 . ν. µ x 2 ± a2 x 4 + kx 2 + a 4 dx = (1st fun) (ii) 2nd fun. Thus dx integral reduces to known form. µ z u. µ.) Evaluate λ & µ. 608-A. dx dx a sin x + b cos x + c Replace sin x = 2 tan x / 2 1 + tan2 x / 2 . = λ(deno.x ± a I GH x JK 2 = t. .

6450883. resolve the gcxh gcxh r x fraction into partial factors. c h.6450883.) ≥ deg(deno. is said to be proper other wise it is improper. Qcxh (iv) NOTE : Breaking (iii) & (iv) integral into two integrals.RACTION : Every Rational fun.) apply division rule i. 0744 . 608-A. the rational fun.) Ph. PAGE # 149 E D U C A T I O N px3 + qx2 + rx + s 2 + ax + b x2 + cx + d . may be represented in the form Px ex f x + f' x dx = ex f(x) + c e mx ch ch mf x + f' x dx = e ch ch mx f(x) + c emx f x + L f' cxh O dx Mc h m P P M Q N = emx f x m ch + c. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 150 .POCKET BOOK 5. RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC . ch ch ch gcxh f x = q(x) + c h . 2405510 S .(iii) (a) (b) (c) z z z MATHS FORMULA . b. c are distinct hc h a +b [a sin (bx + c) – b cos(bx + c)] + k1 cx − ah cx − bh . The following table illustrate the method. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x2 + cx + d can not be factorised . z z xf' x + f x dx = x f(x) + c. where px2 + qx + r he j Bx + C A + 2 x−a x + bx + c x2 + bx + c can not be factorised = a +b 2 2 cacos bx + b sinbxh c h + k ex h + k1. x−a x−b x−c = (a sin bx – b cos bx) + k and a. a px2 + qx + r ≠ b A + x−a cx − ah B 2 + C x−b (vi) z e ax cos bx dx and e ax z e ax cos bx + c dx c h c x − a x2 + bx + c . If deg (num. 0744 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .UNCTIONS USING PARTIAL .e. Types of proper rational functions Types of partial fractions A B + x−a x −b A B C + + x−a x −b x−c (v) eax sinbx dx and e ax a2 + b2 e 2 ax 2 z eax sin bx + c dx c h c c px + q x−a x−b . Integrate one integral by parts and keeping other integral as it is by doing so we get the result (integral). where P(x). a ≠ b hc hc 2 h px2 + qx + r . for integrating rcxh . If degree of numerator is less than that of denominator. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Q(x) are polynomials.) Ph. 2 je j Ax + B x + ax + b 2 + Cx + D x + cx + d 2 and eax a2 + b2 a cos bx + c + b sin bx + c c where x + ax + b. INTEGRATION O.

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. put pure quad = u (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) = sec2 mx – 1 = cosec2 mx – 1 cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B) cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B) PAGE # 152 .6450883. (iv) To evaluate put linear = t2 7.POCKET BOOK (viii) To evaluate z dx quad. (v) To evaluate linear. 2405510 . quadratic x dx h h 2 1 + cos 2mx 2 mx mx cos 2 2 or linear . INTEGRATION O. quad or z linear quad. pure quad put 3 sin mx − sin 3mx 4 3 cos mx + cos 3mx 4 pure quad = t (vii) To evaluate dx pure quad. (ax + b)1/n and (ax + b)1/m then put (ax + b) = tp where p = (L.UNCTIONS : (i) (ii) If integrand is a function of x & (ax + b)1/n then put (ax + b) = tn If integrand is a function of x.6450883. quad dx and if the quadratic not under the square root can be resolved into real linear factors.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .) Ph. each of which is of the put linear = t form : z dx linear quad.POCKET BOOK 6. pure quad put x = 1 and t then is the resulting integral. 0744 . then resolve 1 or quadratic . of m & n). 608-A. linear dx split the integral into two. linear I G quadratic J H K into partial fractions and z z z dx linear linear dx quad. 608-A. IRRATIONAL ALGEBRAIC . quadratic dx put linear = 1/t INTEGRATION USING TRIGONOMETRICAL IDENTITIES : (A) To evaluate trigonometric functions transform the function into standard integrals using trigonometric identities as (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) sin2 mx = cos2 mx = 1 − cos 2 mx 2 or zc zc linear .M. quadratic 2 sin mx = 2sin sin3 mx = cos3 mx = tan2 mx cot2 mx 2 cos A 2 sin A 2 sin A (vi) To evaluate z z dx pure quad. (iii) To evaluate MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 151 E D U C A T I O N S .C.MATHS FORMULA .

INTEGRATION BY SUCCESSIVE REDUCTION (REDUCTION . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 154 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . z xn−1eax dx xn sin x dx sinn x dx –xn cos x + nxn–1sin x – n(n – 1) In–2 – n−1 sinn−1 cos x + In–2 n n cosn x dx n−1 cosn−1 x sin x + In–2 n n tann x dx ctanxh – n−1 n−1 n−1 – In–2 cotn x dx ccot xh n−1 – In–2 .6450883.MATHS FORMULA . if m is odd put cos x = t if m is even put sin x = t if m & n both odd put sin x or cos x as t if m & n both even use the formula of sin2x & cos2x if m & n rational no. n ∈ N 1 n ax n x e – I a a n–1 where In–1 = NOTE : These formulae are specifically useful when m & n are both even nos.n c cm + nh h 8.unction z z z z z z Integration xneaxdx . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 153 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883.) Ph. 608-A. n−2 –sinm–1x cosn+1x + (m – 1) Im–2.ORMULA) : .) Ph. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .POCKET BOOK (B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) z sinm x cosm xdx . & put tan x = t m+n−2 is –ve integer 2 z z z secn x dx n−2 secn−2 x tan x + I n − 1 n–2 n−1 cos ecnx dx – n−2 cos ecn−2 x cot x + I n − 1 n–2 n−1 sinm x cosn x dx cosn−1 x sinm+1 x + n − 1 Im. 608-A.

then ch III. if f x is an even function ch .INITE INTEGRATION II. PROPERTIES O. We note that while changing the independent variable in a definite integral.(b) – . .(x) + c.dx} b a b – a z .) Ph.POCKET BOOK DE. if f cxh is an odd function * When we use method of substitution. Then nT I. DE. b zch zc f x dx = −a f a + b − x dx or h 0 zch a f x dx = zc a 0 f a − x dx h V. 2405510 E D U C A T I O .(a) is called definite integral This property is mainly used for modulus function. the limits of integration must also we changed accordingly. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.t. 608-A.) Ph. 1. z b a a b f x dx = zch c a a b f x dx + zch b c f x dx where a < c < b f x dx = . x + c ch ch b a = .MATHS FORMULA . zch b a N S f x dx = z b a f t dt ch zch f x dx = n f x dx 0 zch T and further if a ∈ R+. x from x = a to x = b Here a is called lower limit and b is called upper limit.r. .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . of f(x) w. 2a VI. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 156 . if f 2a − x = f x VII. 0744 . greatest integer function & breakable function IV. dx dx dx IJ K = R2 f x dx |zch S | 0 T a 0 .or integration by parts in definite integral we use following rule. then PAGE # 155 E D U C A T I O N S .irst obtain the indefinite integral of f(x) and then apply the upper and lower limit. z a f x dx = ch z ch a 0 f x + f −x dx c h * z uv dx = a {uz v. Remarks : * To evaluate definite integral of f(x).6450883. 0744 . if f c2a − xh = − f cxh .GH z du .INITE INTEGRAL : If f(x) is a periodic function with period T.6450883. Definite Integration : If z b a f x dx = – f x dx b ch ch zch a z b a z f x dx = . zch 0 0 f x dx = R |2 fcxh dx S | 0 | T z a 0 c h ch . v.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S u(x) z f(t) dt = z 0 π /2 n sin x dx or z 0 cosn x dx PAGE # 157 E D U C A T I O N S . If f(x) < g(x) on [a. b). Reduction . | T π /2 if n is odd if n is even g x dx (ii) . S dx V T W π /2 φ(x)).POCKET BOOK (ii) If the function φ(x) and ψ(x) are defined on [a.. then m(b – a) < ψ(x)) – Rdφ(x) U f(x. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. f x dx = (n – m) f x dx .. b] and differentiable at a point x ∈ (a. and f(x. z b a f x dx ch < z ch z a cosn x dx = z 0 sinn x dx |f x dx| = X. then. then.ormulae : π /2 f x dx < M(b – a) (i) IX. 2.MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . b]. 2405510 PAGE # 158 ... v(x) are differentiable z 0 sinm x cosn x dx follow the following If m is odd put cos x = t If n is odd put sin x = t If m and n are even use sin2x = 1– cos2x or cos2x = 1 – sin2x and then use π /2 d functions in the interval [a. 2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A. dx dx . 2 .. n − 3 . d dx nT zch f x dx = zch zch a nT f x dx . zch b a b a 3.. 0744 . t) dt O P= P Q ψ (x) φ(x) z f (x.) Ph. then z b a f x dx ≤ ch zch b a v(x) R n − 1 . 0 0 mT zch T b +nT a+ nT zch zch b f x dx = f x dx a L M M N ψ (x) φ(x) z f (x. S dx V T W VIII. b].. t) is continuous. b]. 2 . If m and M are the smallest and greatest values of a function f(x) on an interval [a.1.) Ph.6450883.or integration steps (a) (b) (c) Differentiation Under Integral Sign : Leibnitz's Rule : (i) If f(x) is continuous and u(x). n − 2 .POCKET BOOK a+nT MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. t) dt + Rdψ (x) U f(x.6450883... dx d d f{v(x)} {v(x)} – f{u(x)} {u(x)}. | n n−2 3 Sn − 1 n − 3 1 π | n .

.. e −ax xndx = n! a +1 n (ii) lim π /2 (vi) z 0 r 1 f n r =1 n . the given series in the form ∑ n f G nJ H K 1 ... 2 . 608-A. n − 1.. 2 Mm + n m + n − 2 2 + n n n − 2 3 M Mm − 1.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . n − 3.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n − 1.6450883... 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. by π when m and n are both even 2 * z 0 π /2 logsin x dx = z 0 logcos x dx = −π log2 2 π /2 to be multiplied integers.. if m is odd and n may be even or odd . m − 3 ...e. 1 Mm+n m+n−2 3 +n 1+n M M m − 1 . n − 3 ..POCKET BOOK 4.. m − 3 ..6450883. * z 0 c h f csin xh + fccos xh dx = f sin x π /2 zc 0 f sin x + f cos x dx f cos x c h h c h . if m is even and n is even OP PP PP PP Q replace r 1 by x and by dx and the limit of the n n sum is These formulae can be expressed as a single formula : π /2 zch 1 0 f x dx ] z 0 sinm x cos n x dx 5... 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 159 E D U C A T I O N S .. 1 .. exp.... Key Results : π /2 = [(m − 1) (m − 3). π Mm + n m + n − 2 2 + n n n − 2 2 2 N .. 1 ..I ∑G J HK n = zch 1 0 f x dx sinn x cosm x dx [i... if m is enen and n is odd .. 1 .) Ph.. m − 3 ..rI = L m − 1 . 2405510 PAGE # 160 . Summation of series by Definite integral or limit as a sum : (iii) z 0 ∞ e − ax cos bx dx = a a2 + b2 (iv) z 0 ∞ e−ax sinbx dx = b a + b2 2 (i) zch b a n→∞ lim f x dx = h→0 h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) +.] (m − n) (m + n − 2) .] [(n − 1) (n − 3) ...MATHS FORMULA . +f(a + (n – 1)h] (v) z 0 ∞ where nh = b – a. 0744 .

0744 . 7.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .. 0744 . G H I J K if a > 0 = R0 |π S |2 T if m.) Ph. 4. 608-A.. 2405510 PAGE # 162 .POCKET BOOK π /2 = z 0 f tan x + f cot x c f tan x c h c h π /2 h dx = z 0 c h dx f csec xh + f ccos ecxh f sec x f cot x * ze a 0 x dx a2 + x2 j 3/2 dx = 1 2a2 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O PAGE # 161 E D U C A T I O N S .. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. fctan xh + fccot xh * z a 0 x2 a2 − x2 dx = πa4 16 π /2 * z 0 π /2 sinmx sin nx dx = z 0 cos mx . 608-A. then If a < b then ze a 0 a2 − x2 j n 2.6450883..MATHS FORMULA . = zc f cos ec x f cos ec x + f sec x c h c h π /2 h dx= z 0 c h dx = π/4.6450883.. cos nx dx * z a 0 x2 π 2 a2 − x2 − dx = a3 4 3 a+ x . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 6. 2n + 1 a c c h h * z a 0 π 1 dx = 2 a2 − x2 (i) * z a 0 z b a dx x−a b−x =π x a − x2 2 2 dx = a (ii) * z a 0 N S z a 0 a 0 x−a π b−a dx = a+x 2 c h x a2 − x2 dx = πa 3a + 6 8 2 2 (iii) zc x − a b − x dx = π b − a 2 2 hc h c h . n are different + ve int egers if m = n 2a * z 0 2ax − x2 dx = πa2 2 * z a 0 a2 − x2 dx = π 2 a 4 * * If n ∈ N.. 2n 2n+1 dx = 3..) Ph...5 .

) Ph. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. b]. The above result is called the first mean value theorem for integrals.6450883. b > 0) x . n ∈ N. 2k a− x a π −2 a + x dx = 2 c h zd 0 a x − x dx = k. 608-A. i (iii) (iv) * z z a 0 a 0 a+ x a− x dx = 10 a a 3 * Q x – [x] is a periodic function with period 1. log 1 + tan x dx = h π log2 8 ∞ x e −ax dx = a > 0 ∞ (ii) z e −r 2 2 x dx = 0 π (r > 0) 2r (iii) z 0 ∞ e−ax − e −bx dx = loge(b/a) (a. with period T. z a 0 a a+x π +2 dx = 2 a−x c h * f(c) = 1 f x dx is called the mean value of the b−a a zch b (ii) z a 0 fun.6450883. where k ∈ I. 2405510 PAGE # 164 . The no. If f(x) is a periodic fun. b] then there exists a point c ∈ (a.POCKET BOOK * If f(x) is continuous on [a.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0744 .t (iv) * z b a x cx − ahcb − xh dx = π ab 2 ab > 0 If a > 0 then (i) zch b a f x dx = f(c) [b – a]. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then a+ T a+ x a − x dx = .MATHS FORMULA . π + 1I a G2 J H K * π 2a a π /4 If a > 0. f(x) on the interval [a. then (i) z 0 zch z c 0 f x dx is independent of a. 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 163 E D U C A T I O N S . b) s.

Order of a differential equation : The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest derivative occurring in it. k dY aX + bY = . Degree of a differential equation : The degree of a differential equation is the degree of the highest order derivative occurring in it when the derivatives are made free from the radical sign. . dX dx find h. y) is said to be homogeneous of the form y of degree n if it can be written as xn f x (ii) dy y = x + dx ..IRST ORDER AND .ERENTIAL EQUATIONS O. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . z dy = g(y) (C) Homogeneous Equations : It is a differential equation z f(x) dx + c + dy + 5y = 0 dx f(x.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . g(x..1 + dy I G dx J K H + 5y = 0 (D) Such an equation can be solved by putting y = vx or x = vy... The given equation will have variables separable in v and x. PAGE # 165 E D U C A T I O N S .) Ph.. d yI G dx J H K 3 3 2 + . dX AX + BY Solve it and then put X = x – h. DI. 0744 .. SOLUTIONS O.orm : Differential equation of dy = f(x) g(y) dx This can be integrated as DI.IRST DEGREE : (A) Differential equation of the form dy = f(y) dx dy = f(x) or dx * ax + by + c dy = Ax + By + C dx .. Integrate both sides i. or z dy = f(y) z z dy = z f(x) dx Then dx to get its solution. Y = y – k we shall get the solution. I G J H K (iii) ..ERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1.orm where order of (i) 2 (ii) 1 & (iii) 3. degree of (i) 1 (ii) 2 & (iii) 2 3. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA .. y) dy = .) Ph. 608-A. Ah + Bk + C = 0. y) dx y) are homogeneous functions of x and y of the same degree.POCKET BOOK (B) Variable Separable . Eg. THE . This is homogeneous. dy I 1+G J H dx K 2 2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. A function f(x..e. where f(x. I G J H K x or yn f y . After substituting y = vx or x = vy. 2405510 PAGE # 166 .. 0744 . (i) d2 y dx 2 the form 2. y) and g(x.6450883.. Equations Reducible to Homogeneous form and variable separable form . (1) a b ≠ A B This is non Homogeneous Put x = X + h and y = Y + k in (1) ∴ dy dY = Put ah + bk + c = 0.6450883. 608-A.

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.. 0744 .dy is called the integrating factor (I. according to our convenience. 608-A..6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Equation reducible to linear form : * Differential equation of the form dy dx ⇒ dz kz + c = A + B dx z+c This is variable separable form and can be solved. alone or constant. 2405510 PAGE # 168 . (1). * dy . 608-A.MATHS FORMULA .) of the equation.POCKET BOOK * .6450883. log c etc. its solution ye z P dx = z Qe z P dx dx + c where e z P dx is called the integrating factor (I. Note : In general solution of differential equation we can take integrating constant c as tan–1 c..orm = f(ax + by + c) dx + Py = Qyn Put ax + by = z ⇒ a + b dy dz = dx dx where P and Q are functions of x or constant is called Bernoulli's equation. where P.. e z R. (.. we get y–n Put ∴ dz = a + b f(z) dx This is variable separable form and can be solved. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 167 E D U C A T I O N S ... ec. On dividing through out by yn.) of the equation.dy dy + c ⇒ dy dz A + B = dx dx e z R. Q are function of x dx ⇒ The given equation will be linear in z and can be solved in the usual manner.) Ph.. where R.orm where MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK * In x : dx + Rx = S. (E) * Linear equation : In y : dy + py–n dx y–n + 1 + 1 = Q = z dy + Py = Q. its solution x e where k (Ax + By) + c dy = ∴ Ax + By + C dx Put Ax + By = z z R dy = z S. alone or constant. 0744 . S are functions of y dy ax + by + c dy = Ax + By + C dx a b = = k say A B . .

y2. Vectors in terms of position vectors of end points - VECTORS 1. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 169 E D U C A T I O N S . Multiplication of a vector by a scalar : r r If a is a vector and m is a scalar. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. z2) → c = a + b –b – + a C = Magnitude of AB = 7. then m a is a vector and r magnitude of m a = m|a| r $ $ i and if a = a1 $ + a2 j + a3 k r $ $ then m a = (ma1) $ + (ma2) j + (ma3) k i 2. 2405510 PAGE # 170 .POCKET BOOK 4. 5.v. c of the point C dividing [AB] in ratio m1 : m2 is given by r r m1b + m2a r c = m +m 1 2 (ii) (iii) p. of A + p.v. 0744 . –c = – b (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1)2 + (z2 − z1 )2 A – a B 3. 608-A. y1.MATHS FORMULA .v. of C is c = D where OC is a diagonal of the parallelogram OABC – a A m1 b − m2 a m1 − m2 .) Ph. z1) and B(x2. Types of vectors : (a) Zero or null vector : A vector whose magnitude is zero is called zero or null vector.6450883.v. of the mid point of [AB] is 1 [p. Parallelogram law of addition : OA + OB = OC a + b = c B – b C Position vector of a dividing point : r (i) If A( a ) & B( b ) be two distinct pts. Triangle law of addition : AB + BC = AC 6. of initial pt. 0744 . of terminal pt – p. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. the p. r a Vector a $ (b) Unit vector : a = || = a Magnitude of a (c) Equal vector : Two vectors a and b are said to be equal if |a| = |b| and they have the same direction.6450883.v. Distance between two points : Distance between points A(x1. then p. any vector = p. 608-A. AB = OB – OA = Position vector of B – position vector of A i.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .e.v.v. of B] 2 If point C divides AB in the ratio m1 : m2 externally.

b | b| (iv) If H is orthocentre of ∆ABC. then a vector c can be expressed uniquely as linear combination of aα + bβ + cγ where a = |BC|. a Component of r on a = |a 2 | Component of r ⊥ . y = 0. $ = $ . of centriod of triangle formed by the points A( a ).) Ph. . of the incentre of the triangle formed by the points r r r A( α ). then GA + GB + GC = 0 If O is the circumcentre of a ∆ABC.6450883. l + m + n = 0 (iv) (v) a. 608-A.POCKET BOOK (iv) p. b = |a| |b| cosθ Projection of a in the direction of b = a.e. then AD + BE + C.k = 1 $ $ j j i i $ . I G Ja H K . c to be collinear is that there exist three scalars l. CA & AB respectively. b . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. c be three coplanar vectors. 608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 172 . $ = k .POCKET BOOK 10. c = |AB| a+b+c 8. B( β ) and C( γ ) is ⇒ x = 0. r. b and c i.) Ph.6450883.k = k . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 171 E D U C A T I O N S . b . a . 0744 . b & Projection of b in the direction of a = | a| (iii) r. z = 0 (ii) If a . b . Collinearity of three points : (i) (ii) Three points A. 0744 . Products of vectors : (I) (i) (ii) Scalar or dot product of two vectors : a . Coplanar and non coplanar vector : (i) If a . E.MATHS FORMULA . B and C are collinear if AB = λ AC for some non zero scalar λ. MATHS FORMULA .v. b = |CA|.e. then OA + OB + OC = 3 OG = OH where G is centriod and H is orthocentre of ∆ABC. $ = 0 $ i j $ i j . = 0 (ii) (iii) If G is the centriod of ∆ABC. r = x a + y b + z c 11. $ = $ . a I to a = r – G H|a| J a K 2 $ .v. m. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. are the mid points of sides BC. The necessary and sufficient condition for three points with p.v. then HA + HB + HC = 3 HG = OH 9. remaining two vectors i. Some results : (i) If D. n all non zero such that l a + m b + n c = 0. c be three non coplanar non zero vector then x a + y b + z c = 0 r r a+b+c B( b ) and C ( c ) is 3 (v) p. c = λ a + µ b (iii) Any vector r can be expressed uniquely as inner combination of three non coplanar & non zero vectors a .

= r × . 0744 . $ $ $ $ let a = a1 $ + a2 j + a3 k & b = b1 $ + b2 j + b3 k . ⇒ If a . then = (xiii) work done by the force : where . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then a . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b b. b is not defined (ix) (x) (xi) ( a ± b )2 = a2 ± 2 a . 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 174 . 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . is displacement vector. b = –| a || b | (vii) a .orce : Moment of the force .v. 0744 .POCKET BOOK (vi) If a and b are like vectors. . $ × $ = k . b are parallel ⇔ a × b = 0 a × b = –( b × a ) $ n =± 1 |a × b | 2 a×b | a × b| (xii) Moment of .) Ph. acting at a point A about O is Moment of force = OA × . is force vector and d (xi) 1 |( a × b ) + ( b × c ) + ( c × a )| 2 Area of parallelogram : (a) If a & b are two adjacent sides of a parallelogram. then area = | a × b | (b) If a and b are two diagonals of a parallelogram. j j j i i i $ $ $ j × k = $. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . b = 0 (viii) ( a . b = | a || b | and If a and b are unlike vectors.POCKET BOOK (vii) a × ( b × c ) = ( a × b ) × c (viii) a × ( b + c ) = ( a × b ) + ( a × c ) (ix) $ $ $ $ × $ = $ × $ = k × k = 0. of vertices of ∆ABC. b ). then i i $ $ $ k j i a a2 a3 a × b = 1 b1 b2 b3 a. b are ⊥ ⇔ a .6450883. b = b1 $ + b2 $ + b3 k and j j i i r $ c = c1 $ + c2 $ + c3 k then j i (vi) a × a =0 PAGE # 173 E D U C A T . b + b2 | a + b | = | a| + | b | | a + b |2 = |a|2 + |b|2 MATHS FORMULA . b (III) Scalar triple product : r r $ $ (i) If a = a1 $ + a2 $ + a3 k . then area = (II) Vector or cross product of two vectors : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) $ a × b = |a| |b| sinθ n if a . then a . b (xiii) Lagrange's identity : | a × b |2 = a. a a. b . 608-A. d . k × $ = $ j i i Area of triangle : (a) (b) (x) ⇒ a || b ⇒ a ⊥ b a ⊥ b 1 2 AB × AC (xii) | a + b | = | a – b | work done = . c are p.) Ph.6450883.

. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. r .( b × c ) etc. then so are r r r × c . c × a and r r r r r r r + b . c ) b – (b . b . b .v. D are coplanar if [$ $ k] = 1 i j $ (IV) Vector triple Product : r r r r r r If a .our points with p. 2405510 I O N S . c ) a r r r r r r r r r and a × ( b × c ) = ( a . 0744 . r r r r r r (iv) ( a × b ). r r r and [ a b c ] = volume of the parallelopiped whose r r r coterminus edges are formed by a .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . c ) b – ( a . c are coplanar ⇔ [ a b c ] = 0 1 | AB × AC . |r | |r | |r | Incentre formula : The position vector of the incentre r r r aa + bb + cc of ∆ ABC is . r r a × b. r . b . c + a and a – b . r r r r r r r r r but [ a b c ] = – [ b a c ] = – [ a c b ] etc. r r r r r (iii) [ a b c ] = 0 if any two of the three vectors a . c are coplanar. b . B.6450883. a+b+c Orthocentre formula : The position vector of the r r r a tan A + b tan B + c tan C orthocentre of ∆ ABC is tan A + tan B + tan C (iii) [ AB AC AD ] = 0 r r r r (xii) (a) [ a + b b + c r r r r (b) [ a – b b – c r r r r (c) [ a × b b × c E D U C A T I O N S → → → r r r r r c + a ] = 2[ a b c ] r r c – a] = 0 r r r r r c × a ] = [ a b c ]2 PAGE # 175 E D U C A T (iv) Vector equation of a straight line passing through a r fixed point with position vector a and parallel to a r r r r given vector b is r = a + λb . c = [ a b c ] = a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c 2 c 3 r r b – c. r r r r r r ( a × b ). b . b r & c are collinear 12. r c are collinear or equal. 608-A. c = a . (v) r r r r r r (vi) If λ is a scalar. c be any three vectors. c r r r r r r r r r (ii) [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ]. then [λ a b c ] = λ[ a b c ] r r r r r r r r r r (vii) [ a + d b c ] = [ a b c ] + [ d b c ] r r r r r r (viii) a . 0744 .6450883.) Ph. 2405510 PAGE # 176 . AD | 6 r r r r (x) . r – a are also coplanar. d will be coplanar if r r r r r r r r r r r r [d b c ] + [d c a] + [d a b] = [a b c ] (xi) . b . 608-A.POCKET BOOK (d) If r b r a r c r r r a .our points A. Application of Vector in Geometry : (i) (ii) (ix) Volume of tetrahedron ABCD is → → → a b c r $ $ $ Direction cosines of r = ai + bj + ck are r . c . b ) c r r r r r r Clearly in general a × ( b × c ) ≠ ( a × b ) × c but r r r r r r r r ( a × b ) × c = a × ( b × c ) if and only if a . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . b + c . C. a . then ( a × b ) × c r r r and a × ( b × c ) are known as vector triple product and is defined as r r r r r r r r r ( a × b ) × c = ( a .

r r |a.n1 − d1| |r.) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S e j PAGE # 177 E D U C A T I O N S . |n| |n| |n| . a − b + a. n1 + λn2 = d1 + λd2. r If n is not a unit vector. (ix) Vector equation of a plane passing through a point r r r r rrr abc is r = 1 − s − t a + sbt + c r r r r r r r rrr or r. MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA . r (vii) Vector equation of a plane normal to unit vector n and at a distance d from the origin is r $ r .b = 0. The perpendicular distance of a point having position r r r vector a from the plane r. e j (vi) Shortest distance between two parallel lines : Let l1 and l2 be two lines whose equations are l 1 : r r r r r r r = a1 + λb1 and l2 : r = a2 + µb2 respectively. |n| (xv) If the position vectors of the extremities of a diamr r eter of a sphere are a and b . Therefore. n = d. n = r .n2 = d2 is given by cos θ = ± |n ||n | .n = d touches the sphere | r − a | = R.n2 − d2| r r = r r and r2 . n1 = d1 and r . n = d to normal form we divide both sides by | n | r r n r d d $ r.n − d| r p= . where λ and µ are scalars. where λ is an arbitrary shortest distance between two parallel lines : The r r r shortest distance between the parallel lines r = a1 + λb r r r | a2 − a1 × b| r r r r and r = a2 + µb is given by d = . |b| c h constant. then to reduce the equation r r r r . 0744 . c h ⇒ r r r r [ a2 − a1 b1b2 ] = 0 c h ⇒ r ca 2 r r r − a1 .6450883.n − d| r if = R.) Ph. 2405510 PAGE # 178 . then the shortest distance between them is zero. Then. 1 2 (xiii) The equation of the planes bisecting the angles r r between the planes r1 . then its equation is r r r r r r r r r r ( r − a ). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. [ b1 b2 a2 − a1 ] = 0 n1 .POCKET BOOK (v) The vector equation of a line passing through two r r points with position vectors a and b is r r r r r =a+ λb−a .n2 = d2 are |n1| |n2| r r r r (xiv) The plane r .n1 = d1 and c h If the lines r r r r = a1 + λb1 and r r r r = a2 + µb2 intersect. 608-A.n1 = d1 r r r r |r.6450883. b × c + c × a + a × b = [ abc ]. b1 × b2 h e j = 0.( r − b ) = 0 or | r |2 – r. a2 − a1 |b1 × b2 | h c h= b1 b2 a2 − a1 |b1 × b2 | c h (xi) The equation of any plane through the intersection r r r r of planes r .POCKET BOOK (viii) The equation of the plane passing through a point r r r having position vector a and parallel to b and c is r r r r rrr rrr r = a + λb + µc or [ r bc ] = [ abc ]. |n| r r (xii) An angle θ between the planes r1.n = d is given by r r |a. 0744 . r = r to obtain or r . shortest distance e c h j (x) PQ = cb 1 × b2 . 608-A. n2 = d2 is r r r . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n2 r r r2 .

z) from coordinate axes OX. y2. y2. z2) is given by AB = (ii) (x 2 − x1 )2 + (y 2 − y1 )2 + (z 2 − z1 )2 .6450883.6450883. x = 0 Equation of YOZ plane is x = 0 . J m−n K 1 segment makes with the +ve direction of the coordinate axes. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line : * If α . OY. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . 3 3 3 I J K I J K * Coordinates of centroid of a tetrahedron (iv) Equation of z-axis is x = 0. mx − nx G m−n H 2 2 1 . y1. 0744 . m+n m+n my2 − ny1 m−n 2 1 . γ are the angles which a directed line The coordinates of a point which divides the join of (x1. my 2 + ny1 mz 2 + nz1 . . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n = cos γ are called direction cosines of the line and cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1 i. y. z1) and (x2.x G H 1 + x 2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y 3 z1 + z 2 + z3 . z2) in the ratio m : n * Internally are * Externally are . y1.e. 4 4 4 Note : * Area of triangle is given by ∆ = ∆2 + ∆2 + ∆2 x y z y1 1 y 2 Where ∆x = 2 y 3 z1 1 z2 1 z3 1 and so. z) = 2 2 2 x1 + y1 + z1 * x1 − x2 y1 − y2 z1 − z2 Condition of collinearity x − x = y − y = z − z 2 3 2 3 2 3 x1 x2 x3 x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 z1 z2 z3 z4 1 1 1 1 (iii) Distance of a point p(x. Section formula : z2 + x2 and x2 + y2 4. IJ K mz − nz I . 608-A. Points in Space : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) Origin is (0. 608-A. l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1. . 3. m = cos β . 0) & point (x. z = 0 Equation of y-axis is z = 0. 0) Equation of x-axis is y = 0. Distance between origin (0. y. γ ≤ π . then l = cos α . OZ is given by * Volume of tetrahedron = 1 6 y 2 + z2 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 179 E D U C A T I O N S . z1) and B(x2. y = 0 (vi) Equation of ZOX plane is y = 0 (vii) Equation of XOY plane is z = 0 2. mx + nx G m+n H . β. β . where 0 ≤ α. 2405510 PAGE # 180 .G x H 1 + x2 + x3 + x 4 y1 + y2 + y3 + y 4 z1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 .) Ph.) Ph. 0. Distance formula : (i) Distance between two points A(x1. 0.POCKET BOOK * Coordinates of the centroid of a triangle are THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 1.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .

2405510 PAGE # 182 . z1) and Q(x2. where P is (x1.MATHS FORMULA . 0 and 0.'s l .POCKET BOOK x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 x2 − x1 = y2 − y1 = z2 − z1 * The angle θ between the lines whose d. m1.) Ph. c are proportional to l . n are d. 0. * Two straight lines in space (not in same plane) which are neither parallel nor intersecting are called skew lines. r r r m1 n1 l1 l2 = m2 = n2 and * The lines are ⊥ if l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0 * The angle θ between the lines whose d.6450883. 0. b2. n respectively. then projection of [PQ] on L = l (x2 – x1) + m(y2 – y1) + n(z2 – z1) 5. 608-A. b. m. y2. m. z2). z2) are x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z 2 − z1 . Shortest distance between two skew lines.s of a line OP and (x. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.c. n.POCKET BOOK * If l .s are a1. z1) and Q(x2. n = (x2 – x1) l + (y2 – y1)m + (z2 – z1)n. z2) be two points and L be a line with d.c. y1. 1.. then a2 + b2 + c2 need not to be equal to 1. y1. y. 0744 . 0. y2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. . z) are coordinates of P then x = l r. y = mr and z = nr where r = OP. m2.'s a. Direction cosines of x-axis are 1.) Ph. y2. 1.r. c2 is given by cos θ = ± * a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 2 2 2 a1 + b1 + c1 a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2 * If a. z1) & Q(x2. b.6450883. 608-A. Direction cosines of PQ = r. m.'s are l 1. l . n2 is given by cos θ = l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2. The lines are || if m n l = = =± a b c * l 2 + m2 + n2 a2 + b2 + c 2 =± 1 a + b2 + c2 2 . 0744 . similarly direction cosines of y-axis and z-axis are respectively 0. c are called direction ratios of the line and MATHS FORMULA . b1. c is x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = (is the symmetrical a c b The lines are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0 Length of the projection of PQ upon AB with d. * x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = and m1 n1 l1 x − x2 y − y2 z − z2 = = is given m2 n2 l2 * form) Equation of a line passing through two points is . of a line. c are direction no. m. where p(x1. b. y1.r.c.c. n are direction cosines of a line and a. m. then a. If P(x1. Straight line in space : * Equation of a straight line passing through a fixed point and having d. b. If l . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 181 E D U C A T I O N S . * The lines are || if a1 b1 c1 = b = c and a2 2 2 Note : Direction cosines of a line are unique but the direction ratios of line are not unique. c1 and a2. n1 and l 2.

C. m.r.) Ph.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . C are d.c. 0744 .) Ph. Equation of plane through origin is given by Ax + By + Cz = 0. where l . Plane : A plane is a surface such that if two points are taken in it.'s of a normal to the plane. y and z is x y z + + = 1. = ± l1 l2 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 m1 n1 m2 n2 (m1n2 − m2n1)2 + (n1 l2 − l1n2 )2 + (l1m2 − m1 l2 )2 * Two straight lines are coplanar if they are intersecting or parallel x2 − x1 condition l1 l2 y2 − y1 m1 m2 z2 − z1 n1 = 0 n2 * Equation of plane through three non collinear points is 6. a c b PAGE # 183 E D U C A T I O N S x x1 x2 x3 y y1 y2 y3 z 1 z1 1 z2 1 z3 1 = 0 or * x − x1 x2 − x1 x3 − x1 y − y1 z − z1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 y3 − y1 z3 − z1 = 0 * The angle between the two planes is given by cos θ = ± a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 2 2 2 a1 + b1 + c1 a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2 where θ is the angle between the normals. * * * Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 represents a plane whose normal has d. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883.c. y1. Equation of plane passing through a point (x1. B. n are the d.'s of the normal to the plane and p is the length of perpendicular from the origin. z1) is A(x – x1) + B(y – y1) + C(z – z1) = 0. 608-A. c respectively on the axes x. straight line joining them lies wholly in the surface.6450883. b. where A.s proportional to A. a c b x2 − x1 s.d. 608-A. * Equation of plane which cuts off intercepts a. 2 2 2 . B. 2405510 PAGE # 184 .POCKET BOOK * Normal form of the equation of plane is l x + my + nz = p.MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. plane are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0 a1 b1 c1 plane are || if a = b = c = 0. * ax + by + cz + k = 0 represents a plane || to the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 and ⊥ to the line x y z = = . 0744 . Equation of plane through the intersection of two planes P ≡ a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and Q ≡ a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is P + λ Q = 0.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 185 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A.6450883. z2) lie on the same or different sides of the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0. ax + by + cz + d2 = 0) is given by d2 − d1 a + b2 + c2 2 al + bm + cn a2 + b2 + c2 l2 + m2 + n2 * General equation of the plane containing the line x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = is n m l * Two points A(x1. .MATHS FORMULA . Length of the perpendicular from a point (x1. then it is || to the normal. y1. y2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK 7.POCKET BOOK * If AP be the ⊥ from A to the given plane. where A l + Bm + Cn = 0. The line lies in the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0 and ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0 The angle θ between the line and the plane is given by sin θ = p= * Distance between two parallel planes (ax + by + cz + d1 = 0. cr + γ ) * Length of the ⊥ from P(x1. y1. z1) to the line * Bisector of the angles between the planes a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are x−α y−β z−γ = = is given by m n l + m(y1 – β ) + n(z1 – γ )]2 p2 = (x1 – α )2 + (y1 – β )2 + (z1 – γ )2 – [ l (x1 – α ) a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 2 2 2 a1 + b1 + c1 = ± a2 x + b2 y + c2 z + d2 a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2 if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 is –ve then origin lies in the acute angle between the planes provided d1 and d2 are of same sign.) Ph. 0744 . br + β . z1) and B(x2. z1) to a plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d a2 + b2 + c 2 The line is || to the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y1. then m n l * * * * The line is ⊥ to the plane if a b c = = m n l Any point P on it is (ar + α . 608-A.) Ph. 2405510 PAGE # 186 . * A(x – x1) + B(y – y1) + C(z – z1) = 0. so that its equation is x−α y−β z−γ = = = r (say) a c b MATHS FORMULA . Line and Plane : If ax + by + cz + d = 0 represents a plane and x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = represents a straight line.6450883. 0744 . according as the expression ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d and ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d are of same or different sign.

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