CHAPTER 13

Vector-Valued Functions
EXERCISE SET 13.1
1. (−∞, +∞); r(π) = −i − 3πj

2. [−1/3, +∞); r(1) = 2, 1

3. [2, +∞); r(3) = −i − ln 3j + k

4. [−1, 1); r(0) = 2, 0, 0

5. r = 3 cos ti + (t + sin t)j

6. r = (t2 + 1)i + e−2t j

7. r = 2ti + 2 sin 3tj + 5 cos 3tk

8. r = t sin ti + ln tj + cos2 tk
10. x = sin2 t, y = 1 − cos 2t

9. x = 3t2 , y = −2

11. x = 2t − 1, y = −3 t, z = sin 3t

12. x = te−t , y = 0, z = −5t2

13. the line in 2-space through the point (2, 0) and parallel to the vector −3i − 4j
14. the circle of radius 3 in the xy-plane, with center at the origin
15. the line in 3-space through the point (0, −3, 1) and parallel to the vector 2i + 3k
16. the circle of radius 2 in the plane x = 3, with center at (3, 0, 0)
17. an ellipse in the plane z = −1, center at (0, 0, −1), major axis of length 6 parallel to x-axis, minor
axis of length 4 parallel to y-axis
18. a parabola in the plane x = −2, vertex at (−2, 0, −1), opening upward
19. (a) The line is parallel to the vector −2i + 3j; the slope is −3/2.
(b) y = 0 in the xz-plane so 1 − 2t = 0, t = 1/2 thus x = 2 + 1/2 = 5/2 and z = 3(1/2) = 3/2;
the coordinates are (5/2, 0, 3/2).
20. (a) x = 3 + 2t = 0, t = −3/2 so y = 5(−3/2) = −15/2
(b) x = t, y = 1 + 2t, z = −3t so 3(t) − (1 + 2t) − (−3t) = 2, t = 3/4; the point of intersection is
(3/4, 5/2, −9/4).
y

21. (a)

(b)

(0, 1)

y
(1, 1)

x

x

(1, 0)

(1, -1)

534

Exercise Set 13.1

535

z

22. (a)

z

(b)

(0, 0, 1)
(1, 1, 1)

y

(1, 1, 0)

y

(1, 1, 0)

x

x

23. r = (1 − t)(3i + 4j), 0 ≤ t ≤ 1

24. r = (1 − t)4k + t(2i + 3j), 0 ≤ t ≤ 1

25. x = 2

26. y = 2x + 10
y

y
10

x

x

2

-5

27. (x − 1)2 + (y − 3)2 = 1

28. x2 /4 + y 2 /25 = 1

y

y
5

3
x
2
x
1

29. x2 − y 2 = 1, x ≥ 1

30. y = 2x2 + 4, x ≥ 0

y

y

2

x
1
4
x
1

536

Chapter 13

z

31.

z

32.

(0, 2, π /2)
(0, 4, π /2)

y
(2, 0, 0)

y

(9, 0, 0)

x

x
z

33.

z

34.

2
y
c

o

y

x

x

36. x = t, y = −t, z =

35. x = t, y = t, z = 2t2

z

z

√ √
2 1 − t2

y+x=0

y

z=

√2 – x 2 – y2

x
x
y

37. r = ti + t2 j ±

1
81 − 9t2 − t4 k
3

38. r = ti + tj + (1 − 2t)k
z

z
y=x
x
y
x

x+y+z=1
y

(a) Let x = 3 cos t and y = 3 sin t. z = 3 sin t so x2 + y 2 + z 2 = sin2 t + 4 cos2 t + 3 sin2 t√= 4 and z = 3x. y = 3 sin t. 43.2t = 10. x − y + z + 1 = t − (1 + t)/t + (1 − t2 )/t + 1 = [t2 − (1 + t) + (1 − t2 ) + t]/t = 0 √ √ 41. 44. (a) III. since only x is periodic in t. z (b) x 50. let x = t. it is the curve of intersection of the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 and the plane z = 3x. a conical helix. since all three components are periodic in t (d) I. x = sin t. The plane is parallel to a line on the surface of the cone and does not go through the vertex so the curve of intersection is a parabola.  x2 + y 2 = t = z. x = 3 cos t. the helix has made one revolution when t = 2π so when t = 50 it has made 50/(2π) = 25/π ≈ 7. then y = t2 /4 − 1 and z = t2 /4 + 1. since the projection onto the yz-plane is a circle and the curve increases without bound in the x-direction 49. since the curve is a subset of the plane y = −x (b) IV.96 revolutions. and y. 42. z increase without bound (c) II. z = 3 sin t so x2 + y 2 = 9 cos2 t + 9 sin2 t = 9 and z = y. c = 3/(2π). y = x2 /4 − 1. 0. then z = 9 cos2 t. which is an ellipse with √ major axis of length 6 2 and minor axis of length 6. 46. which is a circle with center at (0. The curve wraps around an elliptic cylinder with axis along the z-axis. y z y x . y = 2 cos t.1 537 39. 0. 0) and radius 2. x2 + y 2 = t2 cos2 t + t2 sin2 t = t2 . Eliminate  z to get y + 2 = x2 + y 2 . t = 50. 47. an elliptical helix.Exercise Set 13. The helix makes one turn as t varies from 0 to 2π so z = c(2π) = 3. x2 + y 2 = (t sin t)2 + (t cos t)2 = t2 (sin2 t + cos2 t) = t2 = z 40. (y + 2)2 = x2 + y 2 . 45. it is the curve of intersection of the circular cylinder x2 + y 2 = 9 and the plane z = y.

12. (b) continuous. 0 4. 4 〉 3 2 4 1 x x 2 1 2 3 4 . r (t) = − 1 i + sec2 tj + 2e2t k t2 1 1 i + (cos t − t sin t)j − √ k 1 + t2 2 t r (t) = 1. 2/2 3. lim r(t) = 0 = r(0) (b) not continuous. lim r(t) does not exist 8. 4 r(1) = i + j y y 〈1. 1/3. lim r(t) = 5i − j + k = r(0) t→0 t→0 t→0 y 9. 2 r(2p) – r(3p/2) r''(p) x -2 x 2 -2 r'(p/4) 11. r (t) = sin tj 13. r (t) = 3t2 i + 2tj. lim r(t) does not exist. r (t) = 5i + (1 − 2t)j 14. then y = 2/(1 + (x/2)2 ) = 8/(4 + x2 ) 2 1 x -4 -2 2 4 EXERCISE SET 13. r (1) = 3i + 2j r(2) = 2. 2i − 3j + 4k 6. (a) (b) In Part (a) set x = 2t. 16.2 1.  2/2. 9i + 6j √ √ 2. 3. (a) continuous.538 Chapter 13 y 51. sin 2 7. (a) not continuous. 2t. r (t) = 15. j 5. 4. r (2) = 1. t→0 y 10. 1/2.

2 2 π 1 1 r(π/4) = √ i + √ j + k 4 2 2 z ( ) = − √12 i + √12 j + k r′ 3 (2. y = 2 − t t 24. z = 1 + 3t . 539 r (t) = sec t tan ti + sec2 tj. x = 1 + 2t. x = 1 + 2t.2 17. y = −2 √ 25. y 1 r (t) = 2 cos ti − 3 sin tj. 3 ) x r′ 6 = -2k () 21. √21 . 1 1 r (π/4) = − √ i + √ j + k. r (1) = 2i − j. r(π/2) = 2i + j 20. r (t) = −2π sin πti + 2π cos πtj + 3k.5 x -1 1 -1 -2 19. r(1) = i + 2j. r (π/2) = −2k.5 0 4. y = 3 + πt.5 0 y 1. z r (t) = − sin ti + cos tj + k.Exercise Set 13. r (t) = 2 cos ti − 2 sin tk. r (t) = 2ti − j. r (0) = j r(0) = i 18. √ √ √ r(1/3) = i + 3 j + k.5 0 1 23. 1. r (0) = 2i. x 0 4 22. r(0) = i − 2j. 0) y (√21 . r (t) = 2e2t i + 6 sin 3tj. x = 1 − 3 πt. r (1/3) = − 3 πi + πj + 3k. 1. π √ 3 = 3i − j r 6 √2 π 3 3 r =i+ j 6 2 y x 1 1.

t = π/3 at P0 so r (π/3) = −2 3i − 3j. √ r(π/3) = 2i − πj. cos 3t 3 3   π/3 = 0. t(ln t − 1) + C 39. (−t cos t + sin t)i + tj + C 38. r = (−i + 2j) + t 2i + j 4 √ 28. t3  + C  41. r = (4i + j) + t(−4i + j + 4k) 30. r2 = 4t3 k. x = ln 2 + t. (a) 1 k. d (r1 · r2 ) = 7t6 = r1 · r2 + r1 · r2 dt d (r1 × r2 ) = 18t5 i − 10t4 j = r1 × r2 + r1 × r2 dt 34. d (r1 × r2 ) = (sin t + t cos t)i + (1 + t sin t − cos t)j − cos tk = r1 × r2 + r1 × r2 dt 35. (a) r1 = 2i + 6tj + 3t2 k. r (t) = 2ti + 1 j − 2tk. t 2 1 r(2) = ln 2i + e−2 j + 8k. r (t) = 2i + √ j. r (t) = −4 sin ti − 3j. r1 · r2 = t7 . r(t) · (r (t) × r (t)) =  1  0 t2 2t 2 t3 3t2 6t     = 2t3 . r2 = k. −2/3 0 42. t = 0 at P0 so r (0) = 2i + j. y = e−2 − e−2 t. t = 0 at P0 so r (0) = i + k. (t − 1)et . (b) r1 × r2 = 3t6 i − 2t5 j. r1 · r2 = cos t+t2 . 4 2 3t + 4   3 r(0) = −i + 2j. r (2) = i − e−2 j + 12k. (a) r1 = − sin ti+cos tj+k. z = 8 + 12t 2 26. (sin t)i − (cos t)j + C 37. −e−t . 3ti + 2t2 j + C 36. et . (t3 /3)i − t2 j + ln |t|k + C 40. 1 3 1 t i + t4 j 3 4  1 = 0 1 1 i+ j 3 4 . (t + 1)2 r(−2) = 4i + j. r = ti + j + tk 1 + t2 lim (r(t) − r (t)) = i − j + k t→0 (b) lim (r(t) × r (t)) = lim (− cos ti − sin tj + k) = −i + k t→0 (c) t→0 lim (r(t) · r (t)) = 0 t→0   t    32. d (r1 · r2 ) = − sin t+2t = r1 · r2 +r1 · r2 dt (b) r1 × r2 = t sin ti + t(1 − cos t)j − sin tk. r(0) = j. r (t) = cos ti + sinh tj + 31. 1 1 sin 3t. r = (2i − πj) + t(−2 3i − 3j) 29. t = −2 at P0 so r (−2) = −4i + j + 4k. so lim r(t) · (r (t) × r (t)) = 2  t→1  33. r (t) = 3 3 27.540 Chapter 13 1 1 i − e−t j + 3t2 k.

2 2 43.Exercise Set 13.  541 t2 + t4 dt 2 1/2 = 0 44. 2 t(1 + t ) 0 .

r (t) = 16 sin2 t + 9 cos2 t. r (t) = −4 sin ti + 3 cos tj. Since   r(t) = 16 cos2 t + 9 sin2 t. θ = cos . so r and r are perpendicular for t = 0. meaning that r and r are never parallel. y (0) = C1 = 0. y(0) = C = i + j. y(0) = j + C2 = 2i so C2 = 2i − j and 2   1 2 y(t) = t + 2 i + (et − 1)j 2   50. y(t) = 48. 1 1 2 (e − 1)i + (1 − e−1 )j + k 2 2 y (t)dt = 13 t3 i + t2 j + C. 3π/2. y (t) = 4t3 i − t2 j 1 1 y(t) = y (t)dt = t4 i − t3 j + C2 . π. 72 6/5. so they are never parallel. π/2. . and then r × r = 12 k = 0. y (t) = y (t)dt = 4t3 i − t2 j + C1 . y (t) = y (t)dt = ti + et j + C1 . 1 y(t) = y (t)dt = t2 i + et j + C2 . We can check this by considering them as vectors in 3-space. y(t) = ( 13 t3 + 1)i + (t2 + 1)j y (t)dt = (sin t)i − (cos t)j + C.3/2 1 1 + t2 dt = 3 2 √ = (5 5 − 1)/3 0   3 √ √ 2 2 − (3 − t)5/2 . y(t) =  9 = 1 52 i + 4j 3 46. 2 3/2 t i + 2t1/2 j 3 47. y (0) = j + C1 = j so C1 = 0 and y (t) = ti + et j. (3 + t)5/2 . y(0) = −j + C = i − j so C = i and y(t) = (1 + sin t)i − (cos t)j. y(t) = (t4 + 2)i − ( t3 + 4)j 3 3 51. with the graph 144 + 337 sin2 t cos2 t 3 0 0 o From the graph it appears that θ is bounded away from 0 and π. t = 72 6/5. 6 5 5 −3  45. r(t) · r (t) = −7 cos t sin t.   −7 sin t cos t 2  −1  2 r r = 144 + 337 sin t cos t. 49. 2π. y(0) = C2 = 2i − 4j.

1. −3). 4. θ ≈ 76◦ . r (1) = i + 2j − 3k. (t + 2)(t − 1) = 0 so t = −2. at which point r = r = 0. thus cos θ = r1 (0) · r2 (−1) 1 = √ . write each scalar triple product as a determinant. 53. d d du [u · (v × w)] = u · [v × w] + · [v × w] = u · dt dt dt   dw dv du v× + ×w + · [v × w] dt dt dt   dv dw du +u· =u· v× ×w + · [v × w] dt dt dt 59. 54. The point of intersection is (0. The points of intersection are (−2. Let θ be the acute angle. θ ≈ 74◦ .  √ √ 2 + 3t2 −1 2  2 2 √ √ with the graph r(t) = t 1 + t . r1 (t) = −2e−t i − (sin t)j + 2tk and r2 (t) = −i + 2tj + 3t2 k so r1 (0) = −2i and r2 (−1) = −i − 2j + 3k are tangent to the graphs at P. r (t) = t 4 + 9t . t = 0 at the point (1.   r1 (0) r2 (−1) 14 57. d [r(t) × r (t)] = r(t) × r (t) + r (t) × r (t) = r(t) × r (t) + 0 = r(t) × r (t) dt 58.542 Chapter 13 52. 6) and (1. But x = 0 in the yz-plane so 1 − 2t = 0. r (t) = 2ti + 3t2 j. θ = cos 1 + t2 4 + 9t2 0. In Exercise 58. r1 (1) = r2 (2) = i + j + 3k so the graphs intersect at P.3 0 1 0 θ appears to be bounded away from π and is zero only for t = 0. z = 3t. t = 1/2. θ = cos−1 (6/ 258) ≈ 68◦ . θ ≈ 71◦ . 1. . r (−2) = i − 4j − 3k. r1 (0) = r2 (−1) = 2i + j + 3k so the graphs intersect at P. 0) so r (0) = −2i + 3k and hence the tangent line is x = 1 − 2t. r(t) · r (t) = 2t3 + 3t5 = 0 only for t = 0 since 2 + 3t2 > 0. and n = 2i − j + k is normal to the plane. 3/2). r = −2e−2t i − sin tj + 3 cos tk. 1. (b) r = i + 2tj − 3k. √ for t = 1: cos θ = |n · r |/( n r ) = 3/ 84. t2 + t − 2 = 0. y = 1. r1 (1) r2 (2) 86 3 56. 2 √ r (1) · r2 (2) 6 thus cos θ = 1 = − √ √ . 55. (a) 2t − t2 − 3t = −2. then √ for t = −2: cos θ = |n · r |/( n r ) = 3/ 156. 1. r1 (t) = 2ti + j + 9t2 k and 1 r2 (t) = i + tj − k so r1 (1) = 2i + j + 9k and r2 (2) = i + j − k are tangent to the graphs at P.

2. L = 5dt = 5π 0 √ 9. r (t) = 3t2 + 1. r1 (t) = x1 (t)i + y1 (t)j. r (t) = 3t2 i + (6t − 2)j + 2tk. r (t) = π cos(πt)i + (2 − 1/t)j + (2t − 1)k. π/2 L= 3 sin t cos t dt = 3/2 0 π 8. (dx/dt) + (dy/dt) + (dz/dt) = 1/4 + (1 − t)/4 + (1 + t)/4 = 3/4. smooth 4. (a) The tangent vector reverses direction at the four cusps. in both (6) and (7). r2 (t) = x2 (t)i + y2 (t)j and use properties of derivatives. π/2. r (t) = et .3 1. r (t) = −2t sin(t2 )i + 2t cos(t2 )j − e−t k. smooth 5. not smooth. r (t) = cos ti + 2 sin t cos tj = 0 when t = π/2. 61. L = √ 14 dt = √ 14 3  1 2  13. r (t) = 3i − 2j + k. r (t) = et + e−t . L = 0 2π √ √ 10 dt = 2π 10 −1 √ √ ( 3/2)dt = 3 . r (t) = √ 10. Let r1 (t) = x1 (t)i + y1 (t)j + z1 (t)k and r2 (t) = x2 (t)i + y2 (t)j + z2 (t)k. Let c = c1 i + c2 j. r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j. 3π/2. L = 2 11. −e−t . 62. 1) and (−1. r (t) = (1 − t)e−t i + (2t − 2)j − π sin(πt)k. 3π/2.3 543 60. 2π. (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 + (dz/dt)2 = (−3 cos2 t sin t)2 + (3 sin2 t cos t)2 + 02 = 9 sin2 t cos2 t. L = 3 (3t2 + 1)dt = 28 1 12. (b) r (t) = −3 cos2 t sin ti + 3 sin2 t cos tj = 0 when t = 0. 2. (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 + (dz/dt)2 = (−3 sin t)2 + (3 cos t)2 + 16 = 25. 3. r (t) = −3 sin ti + 3 cos tj + k. L = 1 (et + e−t )dt = e − e−1 0 10. show that the left and right members of the equalities are the same. r (t) = 3t2 i + j + 2 √ 6 tk. (a) kr(t) dt = k(x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t)k) dt = k x(t) dt i + k y(t) dt j + k z(t) dt k = k r(t) dt (b) Similar to Part (a) Use Part (a) on Part (b) with k = −1 (c) EXERCISE SET 13. π. not smooth. The tangent vector reverses direction at (1. r (1) = 0 6. 1). r (t) = √ 4 14. r (1/2) = 0 7.Exercise Set 13.

3 sin πτ . z = − √ 3 3 3 21. (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 = 1. L = π √ √ 5t dt = π 2 5/2 0 15. y = − √ . 2 2 2 2 r(τ ) = eτ i + 4e−τ j. 3π cos πτ . y = 3 − 2s/3. 2 τ 2τ r(τ ) = i + 3τ −3/2 j + √ 1 9 1 k. y = 2 + sin s for 0 ≤ s ≤ 2π. 3. (dr/dt)(dt/dτ ) = −3 sin t. (a) r (t) = 2. y = (2s/3)3/2 for 0 ≤ s ≤ 3/2 . 20/ 14. y = √ 2 2 2 2 0 s (b) Similar to Part (a). r (t) = √ 5t. s= 0 24. (dr/dt)(dt/dτ ) = (et i − 4e−t j)(2τ ) = 2τ eτ i − 8τ e−τ j. z = 5 + s/ 14 √ √ √ (b) r(s) = −5 + 30/ 14. r(τ ) = 3 cos πτ. r (τ ) = −3π sin πτ. 4 when t = 0. (a) x = − √ . r (τ ) = − τ −5/2 j − 2 k τ 2 τ t√ √ s s s s 2t. r (τ ) = 4i + 2(4)(4τ + 1) j 16. −41/3. x = √ . 1 when t = 0. r (t) = 2ti + t cos tj + t sin tk. y = 2s/ 14. x = 3 + cos t. x = cos3 t. r = √ i + √ j. (dr/dt)(dt/dτ ) =  9 1/2 1 9 t j + k (−1/τ 2 ) = − 5/2 j − 2 k. y = 2 + sin t. 0. y = − √ 2 2 s s s (b) x = − √ . 62/3 s=25 t √ √ 9 + 4 + 1 du = 14t. (a) r(t) = −5. 3π cos πτ  2 2 17. 22. cos t = (1 − 2s/3)1/2 . (dr/dt)(dt/dτ ) = (i + 2tj)(4) = 4i + 8tj = 4i + 8(4τ + 1)j. (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 = 9 sin2 t cos2 t. t 3 3 sin u cos u du = sin2 t so sin t = (2s/3)1/2 . t √ 1 + 4 + 4 du = 3t. y = sin3 t. 5 + 10/ 14 s=10 23. (a) r(t) = 1. s = 2 dt = s s 20. x = y = z = √ 3  19. r(τ ) = (4τ + 1)i + (4τ + 1)2 j. s= 2 0 x = (1 − 2s/3)3/2 . z = 4 + 2s/3 so s = 0 (b) r = 28/3. x = 3 + cos s.544 Chapter 13 14. 3 cos t(π) = −3π sin πτ . t du = t so t = s. so s = 0 √ √ √ x = −5 + 3s/ 14. r (τ ) = 2τ eτ i − 4(2)τ e−τ j  18. x = 1 + s/3.

x = [(27s + 13 13)2/3 − 4]. w w w 31. t 1 u(u2 + 1)1/2 du = [(t2 + 1)3/2 − 1] so t = [(3s + 1)2/3 − 1]1/2 . dy/dt = a cos t. so s(t) = wt and s s bs r = a cos i + sin j + k. = sin θ + r cos θ . y = [(3s + 1)2/3 − 1] for s ≥ 0 3 2 26. y= 32. x = (1 + t)2 . s(t0 ) = t0 a2 + c2 = wt0 . (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 = 2e2t . s = 0 29.3 545 25. x = (s/ 2 + 1) cos[ln(s/ 2 + 1)]. s= 0 cos t = 2 cos2 (t/2) − 1 = 2[1 − s/(4a)]2 − 1. y = et sin t. s(8a − s) for 0 ≤ s ≤ 8a 8a dx dr dθ dy dr dθ = cos θ − r sin θ . 3 9 √ √ √ 1 [(27s + 13 13)2/3 − 4]3/2 for 0 ≤ s ≤ (80 10 − 13 13)/27 y= 27 t√ √ 27. x = sin(1 + s/2). y = t2 /2. x = et cos t. x = sin(et ). t = 2 cos−1 [1 − s/(4a)]. s = 2 eu du = 2(et − 1) so 0 √ √ √ √ √ t = ln(s/ 2 + 1). (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 = (1 + t)2 [4 + 9(1 + t)2 ]. t 2a sin(u/2)du = 4a[1 − cos(t/2)] so cos(t/2) = 1 − s/(4a). y = cos(1 + s/2). (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 = t2 (t2 + 1). sin t = 2 sin(t/2) cos(t/2) = 2(1 − [1 − s/(4a)]2 )1/2 (2[1 − s/(4a)]2 − 1). s= 3 0 x= 1 1 [(3s + 1)2/3 − 1]3/2 . dx/dt = −a sin t.Exercise Set 13. x = t3 /3. y = cos(et ). y = (1 + t)3 . y = (s/ 2 + 1) sin[ln(s/ 2 + 1)] √ for 0 ≤ s ≤ 2(eπ/2 − 1) 28. y = a − a cos t. dt dt dt dt dt dt  2  2  2  2  2  2 dx dθ dy dz dr dz + + = + r2 + dt dt dt dt dt dt . z = 3(1 + s/2) for s ≥ 0 (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 + (dz/dt)2 = 4e2t . t 2eu du = 2(et − 1) so √ et = 1 + s/2. x = at − a sin t. From Exercise 29. dz/dt = c. t0  a2 sin2 t + a2 cos2 t + c2 dt = s(t0 ) = L = 0 t0  a2 + c2 dt = t0  a2 + c2 0 √ 30. x = 2a cos−1 [1 − s/(4a)] − 2a(1 − [1 − s/(4a)]2 )1/2 (2[1 − s/(4a)]2 − 1). (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 = 4a2 sin2 (t/2). z = √ 3et . t √ 1 (1 + u)[4 + 9(1 + u)2 ]1/2 du = s= ([4 + 9(1 + t)2 ]3/2 − 13 13) so 27 0 √ √ 1 1 1 + t = [(27s + 13 13)2/3 − 4]1/2 .

but r(τ 3 ) = (τ i + τ 6 j) = 3τ 2 i + 6τ 5 j is zero at τ = 0. r (t) = (1/t)i + 2j + 2tk   (a) r (t) = 1/t2 + 4 + 4t2 = (2t + 1/t)2 = 2t + 1/t 3 ds (b) (2t + 1/t)dt = 8 + ln 3 = 2t + 1/t (c) dt 1 42. L = 2 √ 3e−t dt = √ 3(1 − e−2 ) 0 5 √ √ 5dt = 4 5 1 d d 3 d r(t) = i + 2tj is never zero. Represent the helix by x = a cos t. = sin φ sin θ dt dt dt dt dt dt dt  2  2  2  2  2  2 dx dφ dθ dz dρ dy + ρ2 + = + ρ2 sin2 φ + dt dt dt dt dt dt 35. is a continuous function of t. r(t) = cos ti + sin tj + t3/2 k. L = (b) (dρ/dt)2 + ρ2 sin2 φ(dθ/dt)2 + ρ2 (dφ/dt)2 = 5. From Exercise 29 the length of the  helix is 2π 6.252 + (10/π)2 ≈ 44 in. Thus the angle between r (t) and i. t=1−τ 39. (a) (dρ/dt)2 + ρ2 sin2 φ(dθ/dt)2 + ρ2 (dφ/dt)2 = 3e−2t . dτ dt dτ dτ 36. z = ct with a = 6. = cos φ − ρ sin φ . r (t) = − sin ti + cos tj + t1/2 k 2  √ 1 (a) r (t) = sin2 t + cos2 t + 9t/4 = 4 + 9t 2 2 √ 1√ 1√ 2 ds = 4 + 9t (c) 4 + 9t dt = (b) (11 22 − 4) 2 27 dt 0 2 41. given by cos−1 (x (t)/ r (t) ). (a) g(τ ) = πτ (b) g(τ ) = π(1 − τ ) 38. 3 40. (a) 37. Let r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j and use the chain rule. dt dt dt dt dφ dθ dz dρ dφ dy dρ + ρ cos φ sin θ + ρ sin φ cos θ . If r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t)k is smooth. then r (t) is continuous and nonzero. the angles between r (t) and the vectors j and k are continuous functions of t. (a) (dr/dt) + r (dθ/dt) + (dz/dt) = 9e . 43. and since t = τ 3 . Similarly. and the helix makes one turn in a distance of 20 in.25 and c = 10/π. L = 0 = 9/2 0 (b) (dr/dt)2 + r2 (dθ/dt)2 + (dz/dt)2 = 5t2 + t4 = t2 (5 + t2 ). (t = 2π).546 Chapter 13 2 2 2 2 ln 2 3 3e dt = e2t 2 ln 2 2t 4t 33. so that the radius of the helix is the distance from the axis of the cylinder to the center of the copper cable. . dρ dx dφ dθ = sin φ cos θ + ρ cos φ cos θ − ρ sin φ sin θ . 2 √ L= t(5 + t2 )1/2 dt = 9 − 2 6 1 34. y = a sin t. = 0 when τ = 0. dt dτ dτ dr dt dr dt (b) = .

2 1 1 2 2 T(1) = √ i + √ j. T (t) = (4t2 + 1)−1/2 (2i) − 4t(4t2 + 1)−3/2 (2ti + j). T (π/3) = − i − j. N(1) = √ i − √ j. r (t) = i + j. N(1) = − √ i + √ j 2 2 2 2 2 2 5.4 y 1. r (t) = 2ti + j. r (t) = √ 4t2 + 1. y x 3. T(t) = √ (−4 sin ti + 4 cos tj + k).4 547 EXERCISE SET 13. T(t) = (t2 + t4 )−1/2 (ti + t2 j). T (0) = j = N(0) . T(t) = − sin ti + cos tj. T (1) = √ (−i + j). T(π/2) = − √ i + √ k 17 17 17 4 T (π/2) = − √ j. r (t) = . 2 1+e 1 + e2 1 e 1 T (e) = (−ei + j). r (t) = 5. N(π/2) = −j 17 8. t t 1 e T (t) = (1 + t2 )−1/2 (j) − t(1 + t2 )−3/2 (i + tj). r (t) = i + tj + t2 k. N(e) = − √ i+ √ j (1 + e2 )3/2 1 + e2 1 + e2 1 7. √ √ √ 1 1 3 3 3 1  i + j. 1 1 1 1 1 T(1) = √ i + √ j. (a) (b) y x x 2. r (t) = ti + t2 j. T (t) = − cos ti − sin tj. T(0) = i. r (t) = −4 sin ti + 4 cos tj + k. T(t) = (1 + t2 + t4 )−1/2 (i + tj + t2 k). 17 1 4 1 T (t) = √ (−4 cos ti − 4 sin tj).Exercise Set 13. N(π/3) = − i − j T(π/3) = − 2 2 2 2 2 2 √ 1 + t2 1 6. r (t) = −5 sin ti + 5 cos tj. T(t) = (1 + t2 )−1/2 (i + tj). T (t) = (t2 + t4 )−1/2 (i + 2tj) − (t + 2t3 )(t2 + t4 )−3/2 (ti + t2 j). T (1) = √ (i − 2j). T (t) = (1 + t2 + t4 )−1/2 (j + 2tk) − (t + 2t3 )(1 + t2 + t4 )−3/2 (i + tj + t2 k). T(t) = (4t2 + 1)−1/2 (2ti + j). T(e) = √ i+ √ j. 5 5 5 5 5 5 4.

√ . r × r = 2e2t . T= r × r = 15. r (t) = sinh ti + cosh tj + k. N(0) = − √ i + √ j 3 3 2 2 3 3  √ 10. √ r × r = a a2 + c2 . T (0) = √ (−i + j). T(0) = i. so r = r(t0 ) + tv becomes r = r(t0 ) + sT(t0 ). the line is parametrized by normalizing v. N(ln 2) = i − k 5 5 25 2 11. so the tangent line has the parametrization x = s. 2. r × r = 2e2t . Check: r = t sin t i + t cos t j. so the tangent line can be parametrized as t=1 t=1 5 5   1 s 2 2s r = 1. √ 17 t 1   k. (r × r )/ r × r = 4 5 cos t i − 4 5 sin t j − 3 5 k = B. 5 5 5 2 2 5 2 4 4 3 T (ln 2) = √ (4i − 3k). r × r = ca sin t i − ca cos t j + a2 k. r (1) = i + j − √ k. at t = ln 2. r (0) = i. 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 T(0) = √ i + √ j + √ k. y = 1 + √ .  12. (r × r )/ r × r = −k = B. N = cos ti − sin tj. 3 1 T (t) = √ [(− sin t − cos t)i + (− sin t + cos t)j]. r = t. B = T × N = −k. r (t) = sinh2 t + cosh2 t + 1 = 2 cosh t. r (t) = i + j − √ 2 8 8 9−t √     √ √ 1 s 8 1 line has parametrizations r = i + j + 8k + t i + j − √ k = i + j + 8k + √ i+j− √ k . 17. r × r = 12 cos t i − 12 sin t j − 9 k. T (t) = √ [(cos t + sin t) i + (− sin t + cos t) j ]. 5 5 5 5 13. 1 + s √ . r = (sin t + t cos t) i + (cos t − t sin t) j. 8 17 8 √ 15. (r × r )/ r × r = −k = B. but T(t0 ) = v/ v . (r × r )/ r × r = B. . Check: 5 5 5 5 5 5 r = 3 cos t i − 3 sin t j + 4 k. T = (−a sin t i + a cos t j + c k)/ a2 + c2 . N = √ [(− sin t + cos t) i − (cos t + sin t) j]. r (t) = cos ti − sin tj + tk. r × r = −2e2t k.548 Chapter 13 1 9. r = 2et cos t i − 2et sin t j.  3 4 4 4 3 3 cos t i − sin t j + k. and T(1) =  √ . so the tangent 14. 2 2 3 1 4 3 4 tanh(ln 2) = and sech(ln 2) = so T(ln 2) = √ i + √ j + √ k. so x = 1 + √ . 2 2 B = T × N = −k. r = −a cos t i − a sin t j. 2t 1 2 = 1. Check: r = et (cos t + sin t) i + et (cos t − sin t) j. N = − cos t i − sin t j. r (1) = √ . 1 1 T(t) = √ (tanh ti + j + sech tk). r(1) = i + j + 8k. T(t) = √ [(cos t − sin t)i + (cos t + sin t)j + k]. Check: r = −a sin t i + a cos t j + c k. r (t) = et [(cos t − sin t)i + (cos t + sin t)j + k]. r (t) = t sin ti + t cos tj. B = T × N = cos t i − sin t j − k. √ 18. r = −3 sin t i − 3 cos t j. r × r = −2e2t k. From the remark. T (t) = √ (sech2 ti − sech t tanh tk). √ . T = sin ti + cos tj. 1 1 16. r (t)  = 1. √ B = T × N = (c sin t i − c cos t j + a k)/ a2 + c2 . r(0) = j. y = 1. N = − sin t i − cos t j.

r (t) = −4 cos ti − 4 sin tj. N = √ (−j + k).5 549 √ √ √ 2 2 2 2 i+ j + k. u(t) = −(4t + 18t3 )i + (2 − 18t4 )j + (6t + 12t3 )k. T = √ (i + j + k). and normal planes are given (respectively) by x + y = 2.Exercise Set 13. u = 2. . (c) From Exercise 39 of Section 12.   r (t) × r (t) r (t) (b) Since r is perpendicular to r × r it follows from Lagrange’s Identity (Exercise 32 of Section 12. 3 2 6 and normal planes are given (respectively) by −y + z = −1. the rectifying. osculating. (a) By formulae (1) and (11). r (t) = 2j + 6tk. N(t) = B(t) × T(t) = r (t) × r (t) r (t) ×  . r(π/4) = 1 1 1 20. B = √ (2i − j − k). so N(t) = u(t)/ u(t) 1 2 22. r (t) = 2i. −x + y = 0. r (t) = i + 2tj + 3t2 k. u = −2(sin ti+cos tj). (r (t) × r (t)) × r (t) = r (t) 2 r (t) − (r (t) · r (t))r (t) = u(t). N = −j 2 23. z = 1. r (t) = − sin ti−cos tj. osculating. u = 2i − 4j. r (1) = 2i + j. and the result follows. N = −(cos ti + sin tj) = − (i + j). T = − sin ti + cos tj = (−i + j). r (t) = cos ti−sin tj+k. N = − sin ti−cos tj 24. r ( ) = −4i + k. u = 17(−4j). the rectifying. 2 2 2 2 √ B = k. N = √ i − √ j 5 5    π (b) r (t) = −4 sin ti + 4 cos tj + k. 2 π r ( ) = −4j. 21. √ 19.4. 2x − y − z = 1. (a) r (t) = 2ti + j. r(0) = i + j.4) that (r (t) × r (t)) × r (t) = r (t) × r (t) r (t) . x + y + z = 2.

r (t) = −4 sin ti+cos tj. κ ≈ 1 3 = 4/3 4 3. κ ≈ 1 =2 0. r (t) = −4 cos ti − 4 sin tj. κ = r (t) × r (t) / r (t) 3 = 6|t2 − t| (9t4 + 4t2 − 4t + 1)3/2 7.5 2. r (t) = −4 sin ti + 4 cos tj + k. r (t) = j + 2tk. r (t) = 2i + 6tj. κ = r (t)×r (t) / r (t) 3 = 5. r (t) = i + tj + t k.5 1. 1 −(4t + 18t3 )i + (2 − 18t4 )j + (6t + 12t3 )k N= √ 8 6 4 2 2 81t + 117t + 54t + 13t + 1 EXERCISE SET 13. κ = r (t) × r (t) / r (t) 3 = 4/17 √      8. r (t) = 2ti + 3t2 j. κ = r (t) × r (t) / r (t) 3 = 4 (16 sin2 t + cos2 t)3/2 12e2t 3/2 (9e6t + e−2t ) 6. r (t) = −3t2 i + (1 − 2t)j. r (t) = −4 cos ti−sin tj. κ = r (t) × r (t) / r (t) 3 = 6 t(4 + 9t2 )3/2 4. r (t) = −6ti − 2j. r (t) = 3e3t i − e−t j. r (t) = 9e3t i + e−t j. κ = r (t) × r (t) / r (t) = 2 3 t4 + 4t2 + 1 (t4 + t2 + 1)3/2 .

r (t) = cos ti − sin tj + tk. r (0) = i + j. By implicit differentiation. κ =   ds  = 9 − 6s + 6s = 2s(9 − 6s) ds 9 − 6s 6s  16. y) = (2. r (t) = 2k. (1 + tan2 φ)3/2 = (sec2 φ)3/2 = | sec φ|3 . x = 1. κ(π/4) = 4/(5 5) (1 + sec4 x)3/2 24. κ = (b) Set x = t. r (t) = cosh ti + sinh tj. r (s) = 1. r (t) = −3 cos ti − 4 sin tj. y = 2. ρ = 5/2 12. dy/dx = 4x/y. (1 + 16x2 /y 2 )3/2 . 5) then κ = 36 36/125 = √ 3/2 (1 + 64/25) 89 89 36/|y|3 . κ = − j − k / i 3 = 2. r (t) = sinh ti + cosh tj + k. r (s) = − 17. κ = − i + j + 2k / i − j + k 3 = 2/3. r (π/2) = −4j. κ(π/2) = 1 (1 + cos2 x)3/2 20. so 2 2 2 2 2      dT  1 1 s 1 s dT  = − sin 1 + i − cos 1 + j.κ = dx dx (1 + (dy/dx)2 )3/2 dy |y  | = |y  cos3 φ| = tan φ. (a) r = x i + y  j. so 3      dT  dT 1 1 1 3 1  =√ i + √ j. √ √ r (0) = i − j + k. κ(x) = dx | sec φ|3 19. κ = r (t) × r (t) / r (t) 3 = 10. r = x i + y  j. κ(x) = | sin x| . κ =   ds  = 4 ds 4 2 4 2 15. r (t) = et (cos t − sin t)i + et (cos t + sin t)j + et k. |x y  − y  x | (x2 + y 2 )3/2 dy  d2 y |d2 y/dx2 | . √ √ r (0) = i. y = f (x) = f (t). r (t) = − sin ti − cos tj + k. κ = − i − j + 2k / i + j + k 3 = 2/3. r (t) = et i − e−t j + k. r (t) = j + 2tk.550 Chapter 13 9. κ = r (t) × r (t) / r (t) 3 = 1 2 cosh2 t 2 (4t2 + 1)3/2 11. κ(1) = 1/ 2 4 3/2 (x + 1) 22. r (t) = −3 sin ti + 4 cos tj + k. ρ = 2/2 √   s 1 3 1 s cos 1 + i − sin 1 + j+ k. y  = 18. r (0) = −j + k. r (t) = et i + e−t j. r (s) =  3 − 2s si + 3  2s j. κ(x) = √ 2 sec2 x| tan x| . κ(x) = 2|x| . r (0) = i + j + k. d2 y/dx2 = 36/y 3 so κ = if (x. x = 0. r × r = |x y  − x y  |. r (t) = −2et sin ti + 2et cos tj + et k. κ(0) = 0 (1 + x4 )3/2 21. ρ = 3/ 2 13. κ = 4i + 12k / − 3i + k 3 = 2/5. κ(x) = √ 2|x|3 . ρ = 3 2/2 14. r (π/2) = −3i + k. κ(1) = (1 + e−2x )3/2 (1 + e−2 )3/2 23. r (s) = 1. √ √ r (0) = 2j + k. κ(x) = e−x e−1 .

x (t) = 1. x (t) = 2. x (t) = −8 sin 2t. hence I is the curvature of II. y  (1) = −1. y  (t) = 2/t3 √ x (1) = 1. . y  (0) = −1. y  (t) = cos t. but II is not zero there.  κ −t y (t) = e (cos t − sin t).  −t x (t) = 2e  sin t. x (1/2) = 2. κ = 1/16 27. using the formula of Exercise 17(a). (a) κ(x) = ρ(x) = | cos x| . y  (1) = 2. x (t) = −3t2 . κ = 12/43/2 = 3/2 31. y  (t) = 6t. y  (t) = − sin t. x (π/2) = 0. x (t) = −e−t (cos t + sin t). 1 κ = √ et . x (t) = 9e3t . (1 + sin2 x)3/2 (b) κ(t) = (1 + sin2 x)3/2 | cos x| ρ(t) = 2 . x (0) = 9. x (t) = 4 cos 2t. κ = 96/125 26.Exercise Set 13. x (1/2) = 1. y  (1) = −1. so II is not the curvature of I. y  (π/2) = −3. x (1) = −6. y  (t) = 3 cos t. √ x (0) = 3. y  (1) = −2. κ = 1/ 2 30. κ = 0 29. (4 sin2 t + cos2 t)3/2 1 (4 sin2 t + cos2 t)3/2 . y  (1/2) = 3. x (π/2) = −4. x (t) = 2t. yet the value of II there is zero. y  (0) = 1. x (1) = −3. x (π/2) = −4. 2 t -3 3 33. (a) At x = 0 the curvature of I has a large value.5 551 25. 2 ρ(0) = 1/2. x (π/2) = 0. y  (t) = −3 sin t. so I is the curvature of II. κ = 6/(5 10) 28. (b) I has points of inflection where the curvature is zero. y  (1/2) = 3/4. −t y (t) = −2e 6 cos t. y y c r (0) = r (c) = 1 x 1 ρ 6 =4 () x 2 1 ρ (0) = 2 32. y  (π/2) = 0. y  (t) = 1 − 2t. x (t) = 0. and hence is not the curvature of I. y  (t) = −1/t2 . y  (t) = e−t . y  (π/2) = 0. y  (t) = −2. ρ(π/2) = 4 ρ(0) = ρ(π) = 1. x (t) = −4 cos t. y  (t) = −e−t . y  (π/2) = −1. x (t) = −6t. x (t) = 3e3t . x (t) = −4 sin t. x (1) = 0. y  (t) = 3t2 .

and ρ = 1/4 for x = 0 and ρ = 1/8 when x = ±1. ±1. y 38. (a) (c) κ(t) = 30 x -30 30 -30 t2 + 2 (t2 + 1)3/2 (d) lim κ(t) = 0 t→+∞ . (a) 0 1 (b) 1 5 0 0 5 0 36. hence I is the curvature of II. 35. (a) κ = -4 |12x2 − 4| y (b) 3/2 (1 + (4x3 − 4x)2 ) 8 k f(x) x -2 2 (c) f  (x) = 4x3 − 4x = 0 at x = 0. so extrema at x = 0. (a) (b) 4 -1 1 4 -1 1 -4 37.552 Chapter 13 34. yet the curvature of I is large there. (b) I has constant zero curvature. hence I is the curvature of II. positive curvature. (a) II takes the value zero at x = 0. f  (x) = 12x2 − 4. II has constant. ±1.

r (t) = − sin ti + cos tj − sin tk. κ(π/2) = √ 41. r (t) = − cos ti − sin tj − cos tk. 46. d2 r 3 dr = − sin θ. √ √ ρ(t) = (1 + sin2 t)3/2 / 2. . ρ(t) = 6(1 − 45x4 ) 6x  for x > 0. 1/ 2). κ(θ) = √ 44. Let y = t. r (t) = (1 + sin2 t)1/2 .Exercise Set 13. The radius of curvature is minimum at (3. √ √ r (t) × r (t) = − i + k = 2. and κ(θ) = 3 3 . by the (1 + 9x4 )3/2 (1 + 9x4 )5/2 first derivative test. so that dr/dθ = 0. then x = t2 1/|2p| . κ(θ) = √ 1/2 2 2(1 + cos θ) 2 2 43. By the first (1 + e2x )3/2 (1 + e2x )5/2 √ 1 1 derivative test. dθ     dr dr d2 r d2 r r (θ) = −r cos θ − 2 sin θ + cos θ 2 i + −r sin θ + 2 cos θ + sin θ 2 j. κ (x) = . The radius of curvature is zero when θ = π. r (θ) =  −r sin θ + cos θ dr dθ  40.  3/2  2 dr r2 + dθ 39. 50. κ(t) = 2/(1 + sin2 t)3/2 . κ(t) = 6 so (9 sin2 t + 4 cos2 t)3/2 1 1 (9 sin2 t + 4 cos2 t)3/2 = (5 sin2 t + 4)3/2 which. yields the maximum. 0) so κ(0) = 1/|2p|. ex ex (1 − 2e2x )   . y = 2 sin t for 0 ≤ t < 2π. κ(x) = 51. by inspection. dθ dθ dθ dθ    2  dr d2 r   2 − r 2 r + 2  dθ dθ  κ= . ρ = 2|p|. x = −(ln 2)/2. κ(θ) = 1 1 . so there is a cusp there. Let x = 3 cos t. 2 = − cos θ. κ(x) = 49. 0). κ (x) = . the maximum value is 2. κ(1) = √ 2θ 5e 5e2 3 θ2 + 2 . 2 2 48. κ (x) = 0 when e2x = 1/2. κ(θ) = 3/2 √ dθ dθ 2 1 + cos θ 47.5 553   dr i + r cos θ + sin θ j. κ(θ) = 10 + 8 cos2 3θ 2 . κ(0) = 3 (1 + 8 cos2 θ)3/2 1 1 = r a 42. 0) and (−3. Let r = a be the circle. κ(1) = √ (θ2 + 1)3/2 2 2 45. κ (x) = 0 when x = 45−1/4 which. y) = (0. The minimum value of ρ is 1/ 2. is minimum when 6 6 t = 0 or π. κ(− ln 2) is maximum so the point is (− ln 2. and κ(t) = 2 4p [t /(4p2 ) + 1]3/2 t = 0 when (x.

κ(x) = 6|x|/(1 + 9x4 )3/2 . (1 + 16x6 )3/2 κ is not continuous at x = 0. if y = ax2 + bx + c. = − r + 2  dθ dθ  dθ r [r + (dr/dθ)2 ]1/2 dθ 54. along y = ax2 . and dθ dθ  2  2  2 d2 r dr dr d2 r dr 2 2 again to get r 2 + − 2r2 . √ √ √ 1 2 . ρ(t) = √ (et + e−t )2 = 2 2 cosh2 t.554 Chapter 13 √ 52. r (t) = et i + e−t j. κ = 1/r along the circle. κ(t) = 2t e + e−2t + 2 2  53.κ= 2 − r 2 = 3 r + . κ = 0 along y = 0. b = 1. κ(x) = . hence κ = 2 . r (t) = et i − e−t j + 2k. κ(φ) = |2 cos3 φ| √ √ (b) dy/dx = tan φ = 1. 60. κ(x) = 2a/(1 + 4a2 x2 )3/2 . and the values of y  are equal at x = 0. κ(π/4) = |2 cos3 (π/4)| = 1/ 2. thus − 2a cos 2θ = − = −2a cos 2θ so r 2 = − dθ dθ dθ dθ dθ    2  2   3 dr d2 r  dr dr a2 sin 2θ  2 2 so . |y  | so the transition will be smooth if the values of y are equal. 0 . and y  at x = 0 to get c = 1. for y = x4 . κ(0) = 2. (a) (b) For y = x2 . Use implicit differentiation on r2 = a2 cos 2θ to get 2r  r2 + dr dθ 2 = r2 + a4 sin2 2θ r4 + a4 sin2 2θ a4 cos2 2θ + a4 sin2 2θ a4 3r = = = . From Exercise 39: dr/dθ = aeaθ = ar. y  . κ(x) = x -2 12x2 so κ(0) = 0. y 58. κ(0) = 0. κ(x) = 2 (1 + 4x2 )3/2 4 so κ(0) = 2. 0. κ(0) = 2a so 2a = 1/r. dr dr = −2a2 sin 2θ. 2 2 2 2 r r r r a 55. 2 59. then y  = y  = ex . κ(x) = 2/(1 + 4x2 )3/2 . The minimum value of ρ is 2 2. namely the center of the circle 57. along y = x2 . ρ = 2 y (c) 3 x -2  56. κ = 1/[ 1 + a2 r]. (a) 1    5 5 . Equate y. If y = ex . Along y = x3 . − 3 2 (b) clockwise (c) it is a point. then y  = 2ax + b and y  = 2a. (a) d2 y/dx2 = 2. the values of y  (1 + y 2 )3/2 are equal. r = −a2 sin 2θ. φ = π/4. and a = 1/2. a = 1/(2r). d2 r/dθ2 = a2 eaθ = a2 r.

(a) T = (b) r (t) = s so r (t) = s T and r (t) = s T + s T = s T + s (κs N) = s T + κ(s )2 N. 63. r = 2i + 2tj + t2 k. r (s) × r (s) = T × (κN) = κT × N = κB. but = κN(s) so κB(s) · N(s) + · ds ds ds ds dB dB T(s) = 0. 62. (r × r ) · r = a2 c/w6 . The result follows from the definitions N = T (s) and κ = T (s) . (c) r (t) = s T + s T + κ(s )2 N + [2κs s + κ (s )2 ]N = s (κs N) + s T + κ(s )2 (−κs T + τ s B) + [2κs s + κ (s )2 ]N = [s − κ2 (s )3 ]T + [3κs s + κ (s )2 ]N + κτ (s )3 B. N = dt ds dt 66.Exercise Set 13. T (s) dB dB = 0 because B(s) = 1 so is perpendicular to B(s). r = a cos(s/w)i + a sin(s/w)j + (cs/w)k. τ = 8/[2(t2 + 2)]2 = 2/(t2 + 2)2 . dN dT dB + × T = B × (κN) + (−τ N) × T = κB × N − τ N × T. r = −(a/w2 ) cos(s/w)i − (a/w2 ) sin(s/w)j. r = 2j + 2tk. r = (a/w3 ) sin(s/w)i − (a/w3 ) cos(s/w)j. r × r = 2(t2 + 2). [r (s) × r (s)] · r (s) = −κ3 B · T + κ(dκ/ds)B · N + κ2 τ B · B = κ2 τ . thus is perpendicular to T(s). r × r = (ac/w3 ) sin(s/w)i − (ac/w3 ) cos(s/w)j + (a2 /w3 )k. [r (t) × r (t)] · r (t) = κ2 τ (s )6 so τ= [r (t) × r (t)] · r (t) [r (t) × r (t)] · r (t) = κ2 (s )6 r (t) × r (t) 2 67. r = 2k. (d) r (t) × r (t) = s s T × T + κ(s )3 T × N = κ(s )3 B. thus τ = 0. (a) B · (d) If C lies in a plane. r × r = 2t2 i − 4tj + 4k. ds ds dB dB (c) is perpendicular to both B(s) and T(s) but so is N(s). r (s) = dT/ds = κN so r (s) = κdN/ds + (dκ/ds)N but dN/ds = −κT + τ B so r (s) = −κ2 T + (dκ/ds)N + κτ B. ds ds dT dB dT dB (b) B(s) · T(s) = 0. B(s) · + · T(s) = 0. B(s) = T(s) × N(s) so B(s) is always perpendicular to the plane and hence dB/ds = 0. r = −(a/w) sin(s/w)i + (a/w) cos(s/w)j + (c/w)k.5 555 61. then T(s) and N(s) also lie in the plane. τ = [r (s) × r (s)] · r (s)/κ2 = [r (s) × r (s)] · r (s)/ r (s) 2 and B = T× N = [r (s) × r (s)]/ r (s) 65. so τ = c/w2 and B = (c/w) sin(s/w)i − (c/w) cos(s/w)j + (a/w)k dT dT ds = = (κN)s = κs N. but B × N = −T and = B× ds ds ds dN N × T = −B so = −κT + τ B ds 64. · T(s) = 0 because B(s) · N(s) = 0. dt ds dt dN ds dN = = (−κT + τ B)s = −κs T + τ s B. thus is parallel to N(s) and ds ds hence a scalar multiple of N(s). r (s) = a/w2 .

4) x 3 a=− 3 3√3 j i− 2 2 3. v(t) = −3 sin ti + 3 cos tj a(t) = −3 cos ti − 3 sin tj  v(t) = 9 sin2 t + 9 cos2 t = 3 √ r(π/3) = (3/2)i + (3 3/2)j √ v(π/3) = −(3 3/2)i + (3/2)j √ a(π/3) = −(3/2)i − (3 3/2)j 2. v(t) = et i − e−t j t x 4 y −t a(t) = e i + e j √ v(t) = e2t + e−2t a= i + j r(0) = i + j v(0) = i − j a(0) = i + j (1. r = sin ti + cos tj. r = a sin ti − a cos tj. r = cos ti − sin tj. τ = (−2 2)/[2(et + e−t )2 ] = − 2/(et + e−t )2 70.  r × r = ac sin ti − ac cos tj + a2 k.   r × r = cos2 t + sin2 t + (cos t − 1)2 = 1 + 4 sin4 (t/2). 3 √2 3) (2. √ √ √ r × r = 2(et + e−t ). r = et i − e−t j + 2k.6 1. r × r = − cos ti + sin tj + (cos t − 1)k. r = −a sin ti + a cos tj + ck. r = et i + e−t j.556 Chapter 13 68. r × r = a2 (a2 + c2 ). τ = −1/[1 + 4 sin4 (t/2)] EXERCISE SET 13. r × r = − 2e−t i + 2et j + 2k. τ = a2 c/[a2 (a2 + c2 )] = c/(a2 + c2 ) √ √ √ 69. r = (1 − cos t)i + sin tj + k. r = et i − e−t j. 1) x v = i − j . r = −a cos ti − a sin tj. v(t) = i + 2tj a(t) = 2j v(t) = √ 1 + 4t2 r(2) = 2i + 4j v(2) = i + 4j a(2) = 2j y y v = − 3√3i + 3 j 2 2 v = i + 4j 8 a = 2j (32 .

y = 4 cos 2πt = 4 cos2 πt − 4 sin2 πt = 4 − 8 sin2 πt. √ √ √ √ √ at t = π/4. v = i + j + k. v = et (cos t + sin t)i + et (cos t − sin t)j + k. a = − 2i − 2j 8. v = 5. v =  √ (1 − 2t)2 + 4t2 = 8t2 − 4t + 1. minimum speed is 1/ 2 when the particle is at r = 16 16 13. 12.   √ 11. v = (6/ t)i + (3/2)t1/2 j. v = −16πi. a = 0 7. v(t) = 4i − j a(t) = 0 v(t) = √ y 17 (6. d v /dt = (−36/t2 + 9/4)/(2 36/t + 9t/4) = 0 √ if t = 4 which yields a minimum by the first derivative test. v = 16π. a = −16π 2 sin πti − 16π 2 cos 2πtj.Exercise Set 13. r = (1 + 3t)i + (2 − 4t)j + (7 + t)k. at t = 2. The dt 4 8t2 − 4t + 1 √ 1 3 i − j. a = −2 cos ti − 2 sin tj. (a) v = −aω sin ωti + bω cos ωtj. v = 3i − 4j + k. at t = π/2. so after 2 s the particle retraces its path. v = eπ/2 i − eπ/2 j + k. y = 4 − x2 /32 (c) Both x(t) and y(t) are periodic and have period 2. v = i + tj + t2 k. a = j + 2tk. (a) v = 16π cos πti − 8π sin 2πtj. a = 2et cos ti − 2et sin tj. v = (1 − 2t)i − 2tj. v = 36/t + 9t/4. v = (1 + 2eπ )1/2 .6 557 4. a = −aω 2 cos ωti − bω 2 sin ωtj = −ω 2 r (b) From Part (a). v = − 2i + 2j + k. √ a = 0. at t = 1. 1 d 8t − 2 = 0 if t = v = √ which yields a minimum by the first derivative test. (a) 6 0 3 8 . The minimum speed is 3 2 when r = 24i + 8j. a = j + 2k 6. at t = 1. a = −16π 2 j (b) x = 16 sin πt. v = √ 3. v = 3i − 4j + k. v = −2 sin ti + 2 cos tj + k. a = −2eπ/2 j 9. a = ω 2 r 10. 0) r(1) = 6i x v = 4i − j a=0 v(1) = 4i − j a(1) = 0 5. v = 26.

so the velocity is always perpendicular to the acceleration. r(t) = (t2 /2 + 2t)i + (2t + e−t )j + C2 r(0) = j + C2 = i − j. 15. e 4 2   9 1 −2t 1 1 9 − e r(0) = − k + C2 = 2k so C2 = k. 4 4 4 2 4 18. the minimum speed is 2 5 when t = 0 or π. v(t) = ti − e−t j + C1 . v(t) = − cos ti + sin tj + et k + C1 . the motion is along a straight line and has constant speed. C2 = i − 2j so r(t) = (t2 /2 + 2t + 1)i + (2t + e−t − 2)j 17.558 Chapter 13   (b) v = 3 cos 3ti + 6 sin 3tj. C1 = 3i − k. v(0) = j + C1 = i. the maximum speed is 6 which dt 2 1 + 3 sin2 3t occurs first when sin 3t = 1. v = 36 sin2 2t + 4 cos2 2t + 16 = 2 8 sin2 t + 5. . (a) 8 0 0 c   (d) v = −6 sin 2ti + 2 cos 2tj + 4k. v(t) = − 19. 2π/3. but then x2 + y 2 = c2 (2-space) or x2 + y 2 + z 2 = c2 (3-space). If a = 0 then x (t) = y  (t) = z  (t) = 0. v(t) = (1 − sin t)i + (cos t − 1)j. v(t) = − sin ti + cos tj + C1 . so x(t) = x1 t + x0 . v(t) · a(t) = 0. r(0) = i + C2 = j. 20. maximum speed is 6 and minimum speed is 3 (d) 27 sin 6t d v =  = 0 when t = 0. v(0) = −i + k + C1 = k so C1 = i. r(t) = (t − sin t − 1)i + (1 − cos t)j + et k. t = π/6. r(t) = (t + cos t)i + (sin t − t)j + C2 . z(t) = z1 t + z0 . 1 1 1 j + e−2t k + C1 . π/3. v(t) = (1 − cos t)i + sin tj + et k. C1 = i − j. √ √ by inspection the maximum speed is 2 13 when t = π/2. v(0) = −j + C1 = 2i + j. r(0) = −j + k + C2 = −i + k so C2 = −i + j. and the velocity vector is always perpendicular to the position vector. so the motion is along a circle or a sphere of radius c centered at the origin. π/2. by inspection. r(t) = (t − sin t)i − cos tj + et k + C2 . (b) If v is constant then by the Theorem. C1 = 2i + 2j so v(t) = (t + 2)i + (2 − e−t )j. π/6. r(t) = 3ti − ln(t + 1)j + − t k. (a) If r is constant then so is r 2 . C2 = −i + j so r(t) = (t + cos t − 1)i + (sin t − t + 1)j 16. v(t) = 3i − − 2 t+1 2 2   1 −2t 1 r(t) = 3ti − ln(t + 1)j − + t k + C2 . y(t) = y1 t + y0 . v = 9 cos2 3t + 36 sin2 3t = 3 1 + 3 sin2 3t. 14. v(0) = −j + k + C1 = 3i − j so 2 2 t+1   1 1 −2t 1 1 j+ e k.

32. v = et (cos t − sin t)i + et (cos t + sin t)j. the equation of the path in rectangular coordinates is x2 + y 2 = 4. v1 = −6 sin 3ti + 6 cos 3tj and v2 = −4t sin(t2 )i + 4t cos(t2 )j so v1 = 6 and v2 = 4t. s = 3 t  √ √ 4 + t2 dt = (13 13 − 5 5)/3. the particles move counterclockwise around this circle. cos θ = (v · a)/( v a ) = 1/ 2. a = i + j.8k. 23. aN = π √ √ (b) aT T = − 2(i − j). v = −2 sin 2ti + 2 sin 2tj − sin 2tk. ∆r = r(3) − r(1) = 8i + (26/3)j. ∆r = r(3π/2) − r(0) = 3i − 3j. v = − π/2i + π/2j. y 24.4k (b) ∆r = r1 − r0 .7j − 3. 22. v = π. aN = 2. v · a = 0. (a) displacement = r1 − r0 = 0. √ 2et . 30. so r0 = r1 − ∆r = −0. 31.Exercise Set 13. √ v · a = 2 π.7i + 2. Let u = 1 − t3 in r2 to get r1 (u) = (3 + 2(1 − t3 ))i + (1 − t3 )j + (1 − (1 − t3 ))k = (5 − 2t3 )i + (1 − t3 )j + t3 k = r2 (t) 2 2 2 so both √particles move along √ 2 the same path.9j + 4. v = 2ti + t2 j. v = 3t2 i + 2tj. s = 3| sin 2t|dt = 6 sin 2t dt = 6. s = ln 3 (et + e−t )dt = 8/3. v = √ v × a = −2k so aT = 0. a = [−4t2 cos(t2 ) − 2 sin(t2 )]i + [−4t2 sin(t2 ) + 2 cos(t2 )]j. a = (−π/ 2 − 2)i + (−π/ 2 + 2)j. or 10π 4 2 x -4 -2 2 4 -2 -4 25. v = −3 cos ti − 3 sin tj. when t = 0. a = e−t i + et j. aN N = a − aT T = −(π/ 2)(i + j) (c) κ = 1 . when   √ √ √ √ √ √ t = π/2.7i − 2. s = 3dt = 9π/2. π π/2 v = 3| sin 2t|. (a) v = −e−t i + et j. 0 28. a = 6ti + 2j. v · a = 2e2t . v = et i − e−t j + √ 2 k. θ ≈ 15◦ .6 559 21. v = 3i + 2j and a = 6i + 2j when t = 1 so √ cos θ = (v · a)/( v a ) = 11/ 130. (a) v = −2t sin(t2 )i + 2t cos(t2 )j. v = √ a = 2et . v × a = π 3/2 k so aT = 2. aN N = a − aT T = i + j √ 2. (a) (b) one revolution. √ (c) κ = 1/ 2 (b) aT T = 0. In both cases. θ = 45◦ . v1 = 2i + j − k and v2 = −6t i − 3t j + 3t k so v1 = 6 and v2 = 3 6t . a = −2et sin ti + 2et cos tj. v = −i + j. ∆r = r(ln 3) − r(0) = 2i − (2/3)j + √ 2(ln 3)k. ∆r = r(π) − r(0) = 0. 1 3π/2 26. 0 27. 0 0 29.

560 Chapter 13 33. v × a = −6k so aT = 3/ 5. aN N = a − aT T = j+ k 265 265 265 265 144 2653/2 39. (a) v = et (− sin t+cos t)i+et (cos t+sin t)j. a = (2/t3 ) i+2j+6tk. √ N = (a − aT T)/aN = (i − 8j + 14k)/(3 29) . a = −2et sin ti+2et cos tj. (a) v = (−1/t2 )i+2tj+3t2 k. v = i − 2j + k. v × a = 6i + 12j − 6k so aT = 20/ 14. aN = 144/ 265 (b) aT T = − (c) κ = √ 265. (a) v = 3 cos ti−2 sin tj−2 cos 2tk. a = −3 sin ti−2 cos tj+4 sin 2tk. v × a = −4i + j + 6k so aT = −7/ 6. v · a = 10. 7 13 19 7 (b) aT T = − (i − 2j + k). T = (1/3)(2i + 2j + k). aN N = a = −3i (c) κ = 3 8 38. v =  √ v · a = −7. v × a = 144i so aT = −238/ 265. v = i + 2j. when t = 0. v × a = 2eπ/2 k so aT = 2eπ/4 . v = 3j − 16k. 714 2304 3808 432 j+ k. √ √ √ √ v = 14. √ N = (a − aT T)/aN = (1/ 5)(2i − j) √ 41. aN = 6/ 5. √ a = −3i. (a) v = et i − 2e−2t j + k. v = −i+2j+3k. v = −2j+2k. a = et i + 4e−2t j. aN N = a − aT T = 4i − 2j 5 √ (c) κ = 2/ 5 √ 5. T = −j. √ 34. v = 3. v × a = 4i − 3j − 2k so aT = 4/3. when t = π/4. a = 6i + 2j. aN N = a − aT T = i− j+ k 7 7 7 7 7 7 √  3/2 3 6 6 (c) κ = 3/2 = 7 14 (b) aT T = − 36. v · a = 20. v · a = 4. v · a = 2eπ/2 . aN = 2 5 √ 2 5 (b) aT T = √ (i + 2j) = 2i + 4j. v = √ √ v × a = −10k so aT = 2 5. N = (a − aT T)/aN = i √ √ √ √ 40. v · a = 3. v · a = −12. aN = 2. aN N = a − aT T = − 2eπ/4 i (c) κ = √ 1 2eπ/4 35. aN = 6 3/ 7 24 10 20 30 6 12 i + j + k. v · a = 0. a = i + 4j. v × a = −6j − 6k so aT = 0. v = 4. v = 2e . aN N = a − aT T = i+ j+ k 6 6 3 6 √ 53 (c) κ = √ 6 6 37. (a) v = (3t2 − 2)i + 2tj. √ π/4 √ π/4 √ π/4 √ a = − 2e i + 2e j. a = 6ti + 2j. when t = 1. (a) v = 3t2 j − (16/t)k. v = 5. when t = π/2. a = 2i+2j+6k. when t = 1. v = √ √ v · a = −238. aN = 29/3. a = 6tj + (16/t2 )k. a = 6j + 16k. v = 2eπ/4 j. when t = 1. aN = 53/6 √ 6. T = (1/ 5)(i + 2j). √ aN = 2eπ/4 √ √ (b) aT T = 2eπ/4 j. aN = 3 (b) aT T = 0. v = 2 2. v × a = 8k so aT = −3.

81 = 9 + a2N . dy/dt = 0 when t = 50 2 so √ √ √ ymax = 490 2(50 2) − 4. y = 490 2t − 4. √ √ √ √ √ (d) v(t) = 490 2 i + (490 2 − 9. v(100 2) = 980 m/s. v(10 3) = 320 ft/s.9(50 2)2 = 24. . √ √ √ √ (d) v(t) = 160i + (160 3 − 32t)j.8t)j. Let c = ds/dt. aN = κ(ds/dt)2 = [ex /(1 + e2x )3/2 ](2)2 = 4ex /(1 + e2x )3/2 51. a 2 = a2T + a2N . v(10 3) = 160(i − 3j). α = 60◦ .8t. by the Pythagorean Theorem aN = 52. v(100 2) = 490 2(i − j). (a) v0 = 980. so F = 500 15 36  100 36 2 ≈ 257. a = (d2 s/dt2 )T + κ(ds/dt)2 N where κ = |d2 y/dx2 | . aN =  √ a 2 − a2T = 9 − 9 = 0 √ √ 72 = 6 2. aN = √ N = (a − aT T)/aN = (8i − 5j + 6k)/(5 5) √ 5. 43. then κ = 0 and [1 + (dy/dx)2 ]3/2 a = (d2 s/dt2 )T so a is tangent to the curve. √ √ (b) dy/dt = 160 3 − 32t. dy/dt = 0 when t = 5 3 so √ √ √ ymax = 160 3(5 3) − 16(5 3)2 = 1200 ft. y = 0 when t = 0 or 100 2 so √ √ xmax = 490 2(100 2) = 98. aN = κ(ds/dt)2 = (1/ρ)(ds/dt)2 = (1/1)(2. = t + e T dt2 dt  d2 s d 2 + cos2 πt = [4(4t − 1) − π cos πt sin πt]/ (4t − 1)2 + cos2 πt so when = (4t − 1) dt2 dt √ t = 1/4. so c2 = 1000aN .6 561 42. √ √ 1 2 c . y = 160 3t − 16t2 . α = 45◦ . aT = 46.9t2 √ √ (b) dy/dt = 490 2 − 9. t + 5t = T dt2 dt 47.73 m/s. aT = 3/2. 500 m.20 N. aT = −π/ 2. aN = κ(ds/dt)2 = [2/(1 + 4x2 )3/2 ](3)2 = 18/(1 + 4x2 )3/2 50. v × a = −4i − 10j − 3k so aT = −1. y = 0 when t = 0 or 10 3 so xmax = 160(10 3) = 1600 3 ft. If d2 y/dx2 = 0. √ 55. √ √ √ √ (c) y = 16t(10 3 − t). aT =  d2 s d2 −3t = (2t − 3e−3t )/[2 t2 + e−3t ] so when t = 0. 1000 100 1 54. 000 m. As in Exercise 51. √ √ 56.Exercise Set 13.9 × 105 )2 = 8. c ≤ 10 10 1. 49. s0 = 0 so x = 160t. a = −3/2. T = (1/5)(3i − 4k). a = 7/3. aT =  d2 s d 2 = 3t + 4 = 3t/ 3t2 + 4 so when t = 2.5 ≈ 38. dt2 dt 44. 10 km/h is the same as m/s. 45.41 × 1010 km/s2 48. v = 5. a = aT T + aN N.9t(100 2 − t). v · a = −5. aN =  53. aT =  d2 s d4 2 + 3 = (2t3 + 5t)/ t4 + 5t2 + 3 so when t = 1. s0 = 0 so x = 490 2 t. y = ex . aN = κ ds dt 2 . √ √ (c) y = 4. (a) v0 = 320.

7898 ≈ 37.98 ft to spare. from Exercise 17a in Section 13. t ≈ 0. s0 = 0 so x = (800 cos α)t.497) ≈ 29. s0 = 4 so x = 5t. y = (35 2/2)t − 4. s0 = 168 so x = 40t. 000 sin α cos α = 20. so the water hits the roof. v0 = 800 ft/s. α = −60◦ . y = 4 + (v0 3/2)t − 16t2 . and  √ √ 40 = v0 = x (0)2 + y  (0)2 = A2 + 3A2 .98 ft.942 ft √ 64. (a) Let r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j with j pointing up. v(1/2) = 281 so the ball hits the floor with a speed √ of 281 ft/s. dy/dt = 0 when t = v0 /64 so ymax = v02 /256 = 2500. s0 = 4 so x = 0. y = 4 − 16t2 . y = v0 t/2 − 16t2 . (a) v0 = 5. Then a = −32j = x (t)i + y  (t)j. y = 168 − 16t2 .8 √ = 0. x(1. (c) about 29. t = 0.00565685. √ (b) v(t) = 5i − 32tj. ρ = 1/κ ≈ 176. so x(t) = At + B. v0 = 80. α = 0◦ . dy/dt = v0 /2 − 32t. √ 59.668 (reject) or 1. 61. 62. 500.942 − 15 = 14. s0 = 0 so x = 3v0 t/2.9t2 . y = 0 when t = 0 or 50 sin α so xmax = 40. y = 0 when t = − 42/2 (invalid) or √ √ √ t = 42/2 so x( 42/2) = 40 42 ft. (c) v0 = 0.  2 √ 3 3 3 When x = 15. v(1/2) = 5i − 16j. y(t) = −16t2 + Ct + D. v0 = 490 m/s. α = 0◦ . √ (b) y = 20 when −16t2 + 20 3t − 16 = 0. y(t) = −16t2 + Ct + 4.7898. 2α = 30◦ or 150◦ . y = 168 − 40 3 t − 16t2 . s0 = 168 so x = 80t. and y = 4 + 20 3 − 16 ≈ 20.98 ft/s. κ(0) =  2  2 3/2 [(x ) + (y ) ] 352 2 (b) y  (t) = 0 when t = 25 √ 125 2. α = −90◦ . y = 0 when √ √ √ √ t = −7 3/2 (invalid) or t = 3 so x( 3) = 40 3 ft. y = √ 2v0 t/2 − 4. so C = 3A. y(0) = 4 so √ √ x(t) = At. A = 20. y = m 14 4 . 000. s0 = 0 so x = xmax = v02 /9. solve x = 15. thus r(t) = 20t i + (−16t2 + 20 3t + 4) j. x(0) = 0.942 ft. √ 58. (a) x = (35 2/2)t.8 √ 2 v0 t/2. y = 4 − 16t2 . α = 30◦ . 15 √ 3 − 1.8 so = 24. y = 0 when t = 0 or √ 2v0 /9. v0 ≈ 30/0. t2 = 16 √ √ 65.9t2 . t = .78 m . Next. v0 = 80. 63.497. y = 0 when t = −1/2 (invalid) or 1/2 so it takes the ball 1/2 s to hit the floor. α = 15◦ or 75◦ . α = 45◦ . v0 = 800.562 Chapter 13 √ 57. y = 20 simultaneously for v0 and t. 000 sin 2α = 10.5 κ= √ |x y  − x y  | 9. y = 0 when t = 1/2 so both balls would hit the ground at the same instant. x = (v0 /2)t.004 2 ≈ 0. y = (800 sin α)t − 16t2 = 16t(50 sin α − t). v0 /2 = 15/t. so the water clears the 4 4 4 corner point A with 0. y  (0)/x (0) = tan 60◦ = 3. 60.

6 563  2 d2 s ds 1 1322 2 ft/s2 . √ 69.  R02 = v 2 (v 2 + 2gh)/g 2 . aN = κ dt dt ρ 3000  2   1322 2 2 2 a = aT + aN = (7. v cos α 2 h + (tan α)R − g(sec2 α)R2 /(2v 2 ) = 0.76 ft. the distance traveled 2.9)2 = −259 sin 23◦ so v0 sin α ≈ 11. g tan α0 R0 − v = 0.Exercise Set 13.5 ft/s . α = 45◦ . 71. α = (1/2) sin−1 (3/4) ≈ 24.3◦ or α = (1/2)[180◦ − sin−1 (3/4)] ≈ 65.62 s. α0 = tan−1 (v/ v 2 + 2gh).21061/ cos 8◦ ≈ 83 ft/s. √ (b) x ≈ 40 3(2.62) ≈ 181.9  is (dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 dt ≈ 268. = (132)2 = 66. 68.49 a T a 67. (a) v0 = v. divide v0 sin α by v0 cos α to get tan α ≈ 0. if = 0 and α = α0 (b) 2g sec2 α tan αR2 + 2g sec2 αR dα dα dα 2 2 2 2 2 when R = R0 .139929. s0 = 5 so x = 40 3t. then 2g sec α0 tan α0 R0 − 2v sec α0 R0 = 0. ymax = (v0 sin α)2 /(2g) (b) y = 0 when t = 0 or (2v0 sin α)/g. gR02 − v 4 /g − 2v 2 h = 0. R0 = (v/g) v 2 + 2gh and    tan α0 = v 2 /(v v 2 + 2gh) = v/ v 2 + 2gh. 0 . v0 (sin α)(2. y = (v0 sin α)t − gt2 /2 (a) dy/dt = v0 sin α − gt so dy/dt = 0 when t = (v0 sin α)/g. thus α ≈ 8◦ and v0 ≈ 82. reject (5 − 30)/4 to get √ t = (5 + 30)/4 ≈ 2. aT = 2 = −7.5 ft.50367t − 16t2 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. The range is (v02 sin 2α)/g and the maximum range is v02 /g so (v02 sin 2α)/g = (3/4)v02 /g.5 ≈ −0. x ≈ 82. (a) a = aT T + aN N. then (v cos α)t = R. 1 70. v0 = 80. s0 = 0 so x = (v0 cos α)t. θ ≈ 2. tan α0 = v 2 /(gR0 ).9) = 259 cos 23◦ so v0 cos α ≈ 82. but from Part (b) tan α0 = v 2 /(gR0 ) so sec2 α0 = 1 + tan2 α0 = 1 + v 4 /(gR0 )2 thus g[1 + v 4 /(gR0 )2 ]R02 − 2v 2 [v 2 /(gR0 )]R0 − 2v 2 h = 0. s0 = h so x = (v cos α)t. and the maximum value of R is v02 /g.79. dR dR dR − 2v 2 sec2 αR − 2v 2 tan α = 0. (a) v0 (cos α)(2.7◦ .49 ft/s2 3000 (b) cos θ = a·T aT 7. so x = R = (2v02 sin α cos α)/g = (v02 sin 2α)/g when t = (2v0 sin α)/g. α = 30◦ . y = h + (v sin α)t − gt2 . If x = R.50367.5) + ≈ 9. then from Part (a) g(sec2 α0 )R02 − 2v 2 (tan α0 )R0 − 2v 2 h = 0.21061t and y ≈ 11. R is maximum when 2α = 90◦ . sin 2α = 3/4. 2 R 1 t= but y = 0 for this value of t so h + (v sin α)[R/(v cos α)] − g[R/(v cos α)]2 = 0.21061.48 radians ≈ 142◦ = ≈− 9. g(sec2 α)R2 − 2v 2 (tan α)R − 2v 2 h = 0. y = 5 + 40t − 16t2  √ √ (a) y = 0 when t = (−40 ± (40)2 − 4(−16)(5))/(−32) = (5 ± 30)/4. (c) If α = α0 and R = R0 .9) − 16(2. (b) From Part (a).9.

v × b = v b = vr0 v0 . v = v0 at all points on the orbit. vmin occurs when θ = π so 1−e 1+e v0  2 vmin = e − 2e + 1 = vmax .99 × 105 /6640 ≈ 7. By (10) and GM  2 e + 2e cos θ + 1.5 days. and maximum distance = 252. 3.564 Chapter 13 EXERCISE SET 13.680 mi. vesc = 1.24 × 1012 ≈ 6873 mi/h.7 1.760 − 5080 = 220.24 × 1012 ) ≈ 659 hr ≈ 27. r = rmin = a(1 − e) = 238. 7. v × b = GM (cos θi + sin θj) + GM ei.040 mi. so from (7) and (17). The results follow from formulae (1) and (7) of Section 11. . 6740 2π 3/2 4π 2 a3 a . (a) From (15) and (6). v × b = v b = v(r0 v0 ) thus v = r0 v0 v0  2 r0 v02 /(GM ) = 1 + e. GT 2 GM 11. From Example 1. the orbit is 22. thus v ≈  9. and the result follows. C = v0 × b0 − GM u = v0 j × r0 v0 k − GM u = r0 v02 i − GM i = (r0 v02 − GM )i (b) From (22).055) ≈ 252. From (22). From Part (b).88 km/s.99 × 1030 kg.6. Part (c).250 2(3.  √ v × b = GM (e + cos θ)2 + sin2 θ = GM e2 + 2e cos θ + 1.   (b) T = 2π a3 /(GM ) = 2π (238. GM/(r0 v0 ) = v0 /(1 + e) so v = e + 2e cos θ + 1.  8. r0 v02 − GM = GM e. and the result follows.055) ≈ 225. vmax occurs when θ = 0 so vmax = v0 .040 − 5080 = 246. (c) From (10) it follows that b is perpendicular to v. (a) At perigee. But T = 1 yr = 365 · 24 · 3600 s. cos θ = −c/a = −e so  1−e v0  v0  2 2 . Subtract the sum of the radius of the Moon and the radius of the Earth to get minimum distance = 225. and the result follows. r0 = 6440 + 200 = 6640 km so v =  3. at apogee. r = rmax = a(1 + e) = 238. 1+e 1+e 1−e 6.960 mi. From (29). If the orbit is a circle then e = 0 so from Part (d) of Exercise 3.900(1 + 0. 26. thus M = 10. At the end of the minor axis. e + 2e(−e) + 1 = 1 − e = v0 v= 1+e 1+e 1+e 5.   Use (22) with e = 0 to get v0 = GM/r0 so v = GM/r0 . thus vmax = vmin . (a) (rmax − rmin )/(rmax + rmin ) = 2ae/(2a) = e (b) rmax /rmin = (1 + e)/(1 − e). (d) From Part (c) and (10).760 mi.900 (1 − 0. T = √ ≈ 1. 2.900)3 /(1. From (23) with r0 = 6440 + 300 = 6740 km. at t = 0.75 km/s.250 mi above the Earth.99) × 105 ≈ 10. 1+e 4.

rmax = 6440 + 4. v = 14.780 − 7. a = a = Rω 2 . 2 0 0  2  2  2  dr  πt 2   = x (t)2 + y  (t)2 = cos2 πt + sin = 1 and r(0) = 0  dt  2 2  2  2  2  2 πs πs πs πs   (b) r (s) = cos i + sin j. so by Theorem 13. (a) speed (b) distance traveled distance of the particle from the origin  πu2 du j. v = v(t) = Rω (b) a = −Rω 2 (cos ωti + sin ωtj). + 600.780 km so a = (rmin + rmax )/2 = 8934. 2 2 2 2 κ = r (s) = π|s| 7.071) ≈ 4819 mi. r is minimal when θ = 0. (c) The smallest value of t for which r(t) = r(0) satisfies ωt = 2π.071. the acceleration vector is always perpendicular to the velocity vector   1 1 (c) r(t) 2 = 1 − cos2 t (cos2 t + sin2 t) + cos2 t = 1 4 4 9. 1 + e cos θ CHAPTER 13 SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES 2. and a = −ω 2 r is directed toward the origin. e = r0 GM GM GM rmax = 4180(1 + 0.089 km. 13. By equation (20).5 km. ω . (a) the line through the tips of r0 and r1 (b) the line segment connecting the tips of r0 and r1 (c) the line through the tip of r0 which is parallel to r (t0 ) 4.   (c) T = 2π a3 /(GM ) = 2π (8934.Chapter 13 Supplementary Exercises 565 12. (a) r(t) =  t cos πu2 2  (c) du i +  t sin (c) κ(s) → +∞. r = hence e ≥ 0. (a) r0 = 4000 + 180 = 4180 mi. (a) rmin = 6440 + 649 = 7.99 × 105 ) ≈ 8400 s ≈ 140 min   GM = 1. so v · a = 0. v0 = − 1 = 1200 + (600)2 ≈ 0. 8. (b) v = const. where k > 0.224 mi/h r0   GM r0 r0 r0 v02 (b) r0 = 4180 mi. so T = t = 2π .2.9.780 + 7.207. Then v(t) = Rω(− sin ωti + cos ωtj). (b) e = (10. (a) The tangent vector to the curve is always tangent to the sphere. r (s) = −πs sin i + πs cos j. (a) r(t) = 1. so the spiral winds ever tighter.340 = 10.071)/(1 − 0.089) ≈ 0.089)/(10.24 × 1012 /4180 ≈ 17.5)3 /(3. the apogee altitude is 4819 − 4000 = 819 mi. r (t) is always perpendicular to the vector r(t). By assumption. k .

566 Chapter 13 10. 9640 (b) R = 6440 + 3200 = 9640 km.00429[cos(0.30030 kN = 300.30 N 11. z = ± 4 − t2 /3 − t4 /6 z x y 12.000667t)i + sin(0. ω = 6.000667t)j] a = Rω 2 = vω = (c) F = ma ≈ 70(0. which is true. then x2 + z 2 = t2 (sin2 πt + cos2 πt) = t2 = y 2 z y x  (b) Let x = t. so they have the same direction if r(t) > 0. then y = t2 . eθ (t) is perpendicular to er (t) since er (t) · eθ (t) = 0.000667.00429 km/s2 9640 a = −a(cos ωti + sin ωtj) ≈ −0. (a) er (t) 2 = cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1. (a) Let r = xi + yj + zk. y t= 2 3 t=0 t=1 x t= 1 3 13. opposite if r(t) < 0.43 = v = Rω = 9640ω. 6.00429) kg · km/s2 ≈ 0. .432 ≈ 0. (a) F = F = m a = mRω 2 = mR v2 mv 2 = 2 R R 6. r(t) = r(t)e(t).43 ≈ 0. so er (t) is a unit vector. and it will result from a counterclockwise rotation of er (t) provided e(t) × eθ (t) = k.

so dt dt dt dt dt dt d d dθ v(t) = r(t) = (r(t)er (t)) = r (t)er (t) + r(t) eθ (t) dt dt dt (c) From Part (b). Maximize the 28 .    0. Note: the possibility that the baseball keeps 47 47 47 climbing until it hits the wall can be rejected as follows: if so. r(s) = 3 i + 3 3 −→ 16. then y  (t) = 0 after the ball hits 15 15 the wall. so if r (t) = 3t2 i + 10j + 10tk is perpendicular to r (1). x(0) = x0 . so r = −1000i − 100j + 500k.e. hmax = 60 tan α − 16 sec2 α + 4 = 75 √ √ 28 75 120 329 − 1012 60 √ − 16 + 4 = ≈ 24. hence sin α ≥ sec α. = y(t). r(t) = et r0 .e. tan α = = .  j+ k  dt  = 3. 17. v =  dθ dt 2 er (t) dy dθ dy dθ = b sec2 θ . and the maximum 15 height of the baseball occurs when y  (t) = 0. subject to the constraint sin2 α ≤ 75 15 15 60 15 h (α) = 60 sec2 α − 32 sec2 α tan α = 0. If r(t) is a vector in 3-space then an analogous solution holds. i. so sin α = √ . sin2 α ≤ . so the ball clears the 8 15 152 sin2 α 28 152 ceiling if ymax = (60 sin α) sin α − 16 2 sin2 α + 4 ≤ 25. By equation (26) of Section 13.6. 18. dx dy = x(t). it follows that h is increasing throughout the interval. then . t = sec α. t = −10.Chapter 13 Supplementary Exercises (b) 567 dθ dθ d dθ d dθ er (t) = (− sin θi + cos θj) = eθ (t) and eθ (t) = − (cos θi + sin θj) = − er (t). 15 sin α cos α ≥ 8. −(1000/729)i − (100/9)j + (500/81)k. Let r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j. = dt dθ dt dt    dr  9 + 2s s−3 12 − 2s  15. r(t) = (60 cos α)ti + ((60 sin α)t − 16t2 + 4)j. 60 sin α = 32t. so dt dt x(t) = x0 et . Hence the maximum value of h occurs at one of the endpoints of the α-interval on which the ball clears the ceiling. impossible. y(t) = y0 et . y = b tan θ. sin−1 28/75 . Then height h(α) = y(sec α) = 60 tan α − 16 sec2 α + 4. t = sin α occurs after t = sec α. t = sin α. i.78 ft. and y(sec α) = 60 sin α sec α − 16 sec2 α + 4. The ball 8 8 4 75 hits the wall when x = 60. y(0) = y0 . r (1) = 3i + 10j + 10k. ≤ 21. then 9t2 + 100 + 100t = 0. but for = 32 8 17 82 + 152 this value of α the constraint is not satisfied (the ball hits the ceiling). Since h (0) = 60. r = r0 + t P Q= (t − 1)i + (4 − 2t)j + (3 + 2t)k. since 28 h > 0 inside the interval. The height y(t) of the rocket satisfies tan θ = y/b. a = d v(t) dt dθ d2 θ dθ = r (t)er (t) + r (t) eθ (t) + r (t) eθ (t) + r(t) 2 eθ (t) − r(t) dt dt dt     2 d2 r dθ d2 θ dr dθ eθ (t) = e − r (t) + r +2 r dt dt2 dt dt dt2   14. Thus hmax occurs when sin2 α = . −10/9. 8 8 15 sin 2α ≥ 16.

475 dt t=1 t=1 20. v0 = i + 2j − k. z(t) = − cos 2t − t + . so x (t) = t3 + 1. since r(0) = 0. v dt dt .568 Chapter 13 19. y(t) = t2 + 2t. (a) 2 1 dv = 2t2 i + j + cos 2tk. v 2 = v(t) · v(t). z  (t) = sin 2t − 1. 2 v 1 d d (v · a) ( v ) = v = 2v · a. dt 3 2 1 4 1 1 1 t + t. Hence 6 2 4 4       1 2 1 1 1 4 k t +t i+ t + 2t j − cos 2t + t − r(t) = 6 2 4 4 x(t) = (b)   ds  = r (t) (5/3)2 + 9 + (1 − (sin 2)/2)2 ≈ 3. y  (t) = t + 2.