2
Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume II – AC
By Tony R. Kuphaldt Sixth Edition, last update July 25, 2007
i c 20002008, Tony R. Kuphaldt This book is published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. These terms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modiﬁcation of this document by the general public. The full Design Science License text is included in the last chapter. As an open and collaboratively developed text, this book is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the Design Science License for more details. Available in its entirety as part of the Open Book Project collection at: www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits
PRINTING HISTORY • First Edition: Printed in June of 2000. PlainASCII illustrations for universal computer readability. • Second Edition: Printed in September of 2000. Illustrations reworked in standard graphic (eps and jpeg) format. Source ﬁles translated to Texinfo format for easy online and printed publication. • Third Edition: Equations and tables reworked as graphic images rather than plainASCII text. • Fourth Edition: Printed in November 2001. Source ﬁles translated to SubML format. SubML is a simple markup language designed to easily convert to other markups like A LTEX, HTML, or DocBook using nothing but searchandreplace substitutions. • Fifth Edition: Printed in November 2002. New sections added, and error corrections made, since the fourth edition. • Sixth Edition: Printed in June 2006. Added CH 13, sections added, and error corrections made, ﬁgure numbering and captions added, since the ﬁfth edition.
ii
Contents
1 BASIC AC THEORY 1.1 What is alternating current (AC)? 1.2 AC waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Measurements of AC magnitude . 1.4 Simple AC circuit calculations . . 1.5 AC phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Principles of radio . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COMPLEX NUMBERS 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Vectors and AC waveforms . . . 2.3 Simple vector addition . . . . . . 2.4 Complex vector addition . . . . . 2.5 Polar and rectangular notation . 2.6 Complex number arithmetic . . 2.7 More on AC ”polarity” . . . . . . 2.8 Some examples with AC circuits 2.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 6 12 19 20 23 25 27 27 30 32 35 37 42 44 49 55 57 57 59 64 71 74 77 79 81 81 83 87 92
3 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE 3.1 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 AC inductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Series resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Parallel resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Inductor quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 More on the “skin effect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE 4.1 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 AC capacitor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Series resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . . . iii
iv 4.5 4.6
CONTENTS
Capacitor quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 97 99 99 101 106 110 119 120 120 121 121 126 131 135 136 145 151 153 153 158 168 174 185 188 189 189 190 196 199 202 204 215 215 217 218 232 237 239 243 248
5 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R, L, AND C 5.1 Review of R, X, and Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Series R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Parallel R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Seriesparallel R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Susceptance and Admittance . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 RESONANCE 6.1 An electric pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance 6.3 Simple series resonance . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Applications of resonance . . . . . . . . 6.5 Resonance in seriesparallel circuits . . 6.6 Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit 6.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Square wave signals . . . . . . . . 7.3 Other waveshapes . . . . . . . . . 7.4 More on spectrum analysis . . . . 7.5 Circuit effects . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 FILTERS 8.1 What is a ﬁlter? . 8.2 Lowpass ﬁlters . 8.3 Highpass ﬁlters 8.4 Bandpass ﬁlters 8.5 Bandstop ﬁlters 8.6 Resonant ﬁlters . 8.7 Summary . . . . 8.8 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 TRANSFORMERS 9.1 Mutual inductance and basic operation 9.2 Stepup and stepdown transformers . 9.3 Electrical isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Phasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Winding conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Voltage regulation . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
9.7 Special transformers and applications 9.8 Practical considerations . . . . . . . . 9.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v 251 268 281 281 283 283 289 296 300 306 313 318 343 345 347 347 352 355 360 365 367 367 374 382 385 387 396 406 406 407 408 412 420 421 426 438 442 459 462 467 469 477
10 POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 10.1 Singlephase power systems . . . . . . . 10.2 Threephase power systems . . . . . . . 10.3 Phase rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Polyphase motor design . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Threephase Y and ∆ conﬁgurations . . 10.6 Threephase transformer circuits . . . . 10.7 Harmonics in polyphase power systems 10.8 Harmonic phase sequences . . . . . . . 10.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 POWER FACTOR 11.1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits 11.2 True, Reactive, and Apparent power . . . . 11.3 Calculating power factor . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Practical power factor correction . . . . . . 11.5 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 AC METERING CIRCUITS 12.1 AC voltmeters and ammeters . . . . 12.2 Frequency and phase measurement 12.3 Power measurement . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Power quality measurement . . . . 12.5 AC bridge circuits . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 AC instrumentation transducers . . 12.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 AC MOTORS 13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . 13.3 Synchronous condenser . . . . . . 13.4 Reluctance motor . . . . . . . . . . 13.5 Stepper motors . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Brushless DC motor . . . . . . . . 13.7 Tesla polyphase induction motors 13.8 Wound rotor induction motors . . 13.9 Singlephase induction motors . . 13.10 Other specialized motors . . . . . 13.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors . . . . . 13.12 AC commutator motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
14 TRANSMISSION LINES 14.1 A 50ohm cable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Circuits and the speed of light . . . . 14.3 Characteristic impedance . . . . . . . 14.4 Finitelength transmission lines . . . 14.5 “Long” and “short” transmission lines 14.6 Standing waves and resonance . . . . 14.7 Impedance transformation . . . . . . 14.8 Waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1 ABOUT THIS BOOK A2 CONTRIBUTOR LIST A3 DESIGN SCIENCE LICENSE INDEX
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481 481 482 484 491 497 500 520 527 535 539 545 548
Chapter 1
BASIC AC THEORY
Contents
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 What is alternating current (AC)? AC waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements of AC magnitude . Simple AC circuit calculations . . AC phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles of radio . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 12 19 20 23 25
1.1
What is alternating current (AC)?
Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as direct current (DC), which is electricity ﬂowing in a constant direction, and/or possessing a voltage with constant polarity. DC is the kind of electricity made by a battery (with deﬁnite positive and negative terminals), or the kind of charge generated by rubbing certain types of materials against each other. As useful and as easy to understand as DC is, it is not the only “kind” of electricity in use. Certain sources of electricity (most notably, rotary electromechanical generators) naturally produce voltages alternating in polarity, reversing positive and negative over time. Either as a voltage switching polarity or as a current switching direction back and forth, this “kind” of electricity is known as Alternating Current (AC): Figure 1.1 Whereas the familiar battery symbol is used as a generic symbol for any DC voltage source, the circle with the wavy line inside is the generic symbol for any AC voltage source. One might wonder why anyone would bother with such a thing as AC. It is true that in some cases AC holds no practical advantage over DC. In applications where electricity is used to dissipate energy in the form of heat, the polarity or direction of current is irrelevant, so long as there is enough voltage and current to the load to produce the desired heat (power dissipation). However, with AC it is possible to build electric generators, motors and power 1
2
CHAPTER 1. BASIC AC THEORY
DIRECT CURRENT (DC) I
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) I
I
I
Figure 1.1: Direct vs alternating current
distribution systems that are far more efﬁcient than DC, and so we ﬁnd AC used predominately across the world in high power applications. To explain the details of why this is so, a bit of background knowledge about AC is necessary. If a machine is constructed to rotate a magnetic ﬁeld around a set of stationary wire coils with the turning of a shaft, AC voltage will be produced across the wire coils as that shaft is rotated, in accordance with Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction. This is the basic operating principle of an AC generator, also known as an alternator: Figure 1.2
Step #1 S N N + no current! Load I Load I S Step #2
Step #3 N S S I
Step #4
N
no current! Load
+ I Load
Figure 1.2: Alternator operation
their construction is not as simple as their AC counterparts. WHAT IS ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)? 3 Notice how the polarity of the voltage across the wire coils reverses as the opposite poles of the rotating magnet pass by. resulting in an alternating voltage and current that switches directions more often in a given amount of time.3: DC generator operation The generator shown above will produce two pulses of voltage per revolution of the shaft. Connected to a load. the faster the magnet will spin. The problems involved with making and breaking electrical contact with a moving coil should be obvious (sparking and heat). The diagram shown above is a bit more simpliﬁed than what you would see in real life.1. especially if the shaft of the generator is revolving at high speed. With a DC generator. the coil of wire is mounted in the shaft where the magnet is on the AC alternator. there are multiple sets of coils making intermittent contact with the brushes. and electrical connections are made to this spinning coil via stationary carbon “brushes” contacting copper strips on the rotating shaft. While DC generators work on the same general principle of electromagnetic induction. rather than brief pulses of voltage once every 1/2 revolution. both pulses in the same direction (polarity).1. The faster the alternator’s shaft is turned. All this is necessary to switch the coil’s changing output polarity to the external circuit so the external circuit sees a constant polarity: Figure 1. this reversing voltage polarity will create a reversing current direction in the circuit. In order for a DC generator to produce constant voltage.3 Step #1 N S N S N S I Load Step #3 N S N S N S I Load Step #2 N S + + Load Step #4 N S + + Load Figure 1. If the atmosphere surrounding the machine contains ﬂammable or explosive .
the AC motor being dependent upon the reversing magnetic ﬁeld produced by alternating current through its stationary coils of wire to rotate the rotating magnet around on its shaft. The fundamental signiﬁcance of a transformer is its ability to step voltage up or down from the powered coil to the unpowered coil. An AC generator (alternator) does not require brushes and commutators to work. AC and DC motor designs are very similar to their generator counterparts (identical for the sake of this tutorial). then step the voltage back down and the current back up for industry. the current through the secondary coil is just the opposite: primary coil current multiplied by the ratio of primary to secondary turns. business. using torque and speed to represent voltage and current. respectively: Figure 1. This relative simplicity translates into greater reliability and lower cost of manufacture. and so is immune to these problems experienced by DC generators. BASIC AC THEORY vapors. Without .7. The AC voltage induced in the unpowered (“secondary”) coil is equal to the AC voltage across the powered (“primary”) coil multiplied by the ratio of secondary coil turns to primary coil turns. and the DC motor being dependent on the brush contacts making and breaking connections to reverse current through the rotating coil every 1/2 rotation (180 degrees).4 Transformer AC voltage source Induced AC voltage Figure 1. whereby two or more coils of wire placed so that the changing magnetic ﬁeld created by one induces a voltage in the other. we will create an AC voltage in the other coil. Transformer technology has made longrange electric power distribution practical. In fact. the transformer “steps up” the voltage from the source level to a higher level at the load: Figure 1. When used as such. If we have two mutually inductive coils and we energize one coil with AC. this device is known as a transformer: Figure 1.4: Transformer “transforms” AC voltage and current. There is an effect of electromagnetism known as mutual induction. This relationship has a very close mechanical analogy. or consumer use. But what else is AC good for? Surely there must be more to it than design details of generators and motors! Indeed there is.4 CHAPTER 1. While DC motors require the use of brushes to make electrical contact with moving coils of wire. If the secondary coil is powering a load. So we know that AC generators and AC motors tend to be simpler than DC generators and DC motors. the practical problems of sparkproducing brush contacts are even greater.5 If the winding ratio is reversed so that the primary coil has less turns than the secondary coil. it is far more efﬁcient to do so with steppedup voltages and steppeddown currents (smallerdiameter wire with less resistive power losses).6 The transformer’s ability to step AC voltage up or down with ease gives AC an advantage unmatched by DC in the realm of power distribution in ﬁgure 1. The beneﬁts of AC over DC with regard to generator design is also reﬂected in electric motors. When transmitting electrical power over long distances. AC motors do not.
to other customers low voltage Stepdown Home or Business low voltage Figure 1.6: Speed reduction gear train steps torque up and speed down. Speed reduction geartrain Large gear (many teeth) Small gear (few teeth) + AC voltage source low voltage few turns high current many turns Load + "Stepup" transformer high voltage low torque high speed high torque low speed low current Figure 1. . high voltage Power Plant Stepup .5: Speed multiplication gear train steps torque down and speed up.7: Transformers enable efﬁcient long distance high voltage transmission of electric energy. . . WHAT IS ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)? Speed multiplication geartrain Large gear (many teeth) Small gear (few teeth) + high voltage AC voltage source low voltage many turns few turns high current Load 5 "Stepdown" transformer + high torque low speed low torque high speed low current Figure 1.1.1. Stepdown transformer steps voltage down and current up. Stepup transformer steps voltage up and current down.
Perhaps more than any other reason. direct current may be interrupted (pulsed) through the primary winding of a transformer to create a changing magnetic ﬁeld (as is done in automotive ignition systems to produce highvoltage spark plug power from a lowvoltage DC battery). are of simpler construction than DC electromechanical generators. • REVIEW: • DC stands for “Direct Current. over time. • AC electromechanical generators.1. they only work with AC.8 In the voltage plot from an electromechanical alternator. and least when the magnet poles are furthest away from the coils. we would ﬁnd the exact same pattern as in Table 1. .” meaning voltage or current that changes polarity or direction. Because the phenomenon of mutual inductance relies on changing magnetic ﬁelds. The voltage produced by the stationary coils by the motion of the rotating magnet is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic ﬂux is changing perpendicular to the coils (Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction). over time. not DC. respectively. the number of turns in each coil is set to create a voltage increase or decrease from the powered (primary) coil to the unpowered (secondary) coil. the voltage switches polarity over time. and direct current (DC) can only produce steady magnetic ﬁelds. Of course. As useful as transformers are.6 CHAPTER 1. the change from one polarity to the other is a smooth one. it would be costprohibitive to construct power systems for anything but closerange (within a few miles at most) use. That rate is greatest when the magnet poles are closest to the coils.” meaning voltage or current that maintains constant polarity or direction. but pulsed DC is not that different from AC. • AC and DC motor design follows respective generator design principles very closely. the voltage level changing most rapidly at the zero (“crossover”) point and most slowly at its peak. When graphed over time. Often. • Secondary voltage = Primary voltage (secondary turns / primary turns) • Secondary current = Primary current (primary turns / secondary turns) 1. BASIC AC THEORY the ability to efﬁciently step voltage up and down. If we were to graph the trigonometric function of “sine” over a horizontal range of 0 to 360 degrees. • A transformer is a pair of mutuallyinductive coils used to convey AC power from one coil to the other. but does so in a very particular manner. the “wave” traced by this voltage of alternating polarity from an alternator takes on a distinct shape. known as alternators. The reason why an electromechanical alternator outputs sinewave AC is due to the physics of its operation.2 AC waveforms When an alternator produces AC voltage. respectively. • AC stands for “Alternating Current. transformers simply will not work with direct current. this is why AC ﬁnds such widespread application in power systems. known as a sine wave: Figure 1.
2588 0.5000 0.7071 + 225 0.1.7071 0.0000 zero 360 0. Angle (o ) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 Table 1.0000 wave zero peak zero .7071 0.0000 zero 180 0.2588 + 195 0.7071 + 315 0.0000 +peak 270 1.0000 0.0000 0.2588 0. AC WAVEFORMS 7 (the sine wave) + Time Figure 1.5000 0.9659 1.8660 + 300 0.9659 + 255 0.2.5000 + 210 0.8660 0.8660 0.8660 + 240 0.1: Trigonometric “sine” function.2588 + 345 0.9659 0.9659 + 285 0.5000 + 330 0.8: Graph of AC voltage over time (the sine wave). sin(angle) wave Angle (o ) sin(angle) 0.
but the amount of time one period occupies depends on the rate voltage oscillates back and forth. The degree marks on the horizontal axis of the graph represent the domain of the trigonometric sine function. In Europe. the standard powerline frequency is 60 Hz. frequency was simply expressed as “cycles per second. the dimension marked for one cycle is often measured in a unit of time. we would have marked exactly one cycle of that wave. gives no hint as to the unit’s origin or meaning. meaning that the AC voltage oscillates at a rate of 60 complete backandforth cycles every second.9: Alternator voltage as function of shaft position (time). on the other hand. The modern unit for frequency is the Hertz (abbreviated Hz). Prior to the canonization of the Hertz unit. The name Centigrade was based on a 100count (“Centi”) scale (“grade”) representing the melting and boiling points of H2 O. If we were to follow the changing voltage produced by a coil in an alternator from any point on the sine wave graph to that point when the wave shape begins to repeat itself. This is called frequency. the AC voltage only completes 50 cycles every second. The name Celsius. When expressed as a measurement.8 CHAPTER 1. most often seconds or fractions of a second. this is often called the period of a wave.” Older meters and electronic equipment often bore frequency units of “CPS” (Cycles Per Second) instead of Hz. where the power system frequency is 50 Hz. Since the horizontal axis of this graph can mark the passage of time as well as shaft position in degrees. In the United States of America. Many people believe the change from selfexplanatory units like CPS to Hertz constitutes a step backward in clarity. and also the angular position of our simple twopole alternator shaft as it rotates: Figure 1. A similar change occurred when the unit of “Celsius” replaced that of “Centigrade” for metric temperature measurement. This is most easily shown by spanning the distance between identical peaks. but may be measured between any corresponding points on the graph. . so the voltage produced by the coils follows that same function. the rate of magnetic ﬂux change due to a rotating magnet follows that of a sine function. respectively. The period of a wave in degrees is always 360. A more popular measure for describing the alternating rate of an AC voltage or current wave than period is the rate of that backandforth oscillation. BASIC AC THEORY Mathematically.9 one wave cycle 0 90 180 270 360 90 180 (0) one wave cycle 270 360 (0) Alternator shaft position (degrees) Figure 1. A radio station transmitter broadcasting at a frequency of 100 MHz generates an AC voltage oscillating at a rate of 100 million cycles every second. which represents the number of wave cycles completed during one second of time.
1. frequency is equivalent to pitch. like sound. or 1/10 of a cycle per second: Frequency in Hertz = 1 Period in seconds An instrument called an oscilloscope. which is nothing more than the alternating compression and decompression (pressure waves) of air molecules. it shares many of the properties of other wave phenomena.5 Hz period 16 ms Figure 1. its frequency will be 0. is used to display a changing voltage over time on a graphical screen. Figure 1. For this reason. plotted as a graph with time as the independent variable. The relationship between period and frequency is very useful to know when displaying an AC voltage or current waveform on an oscilloscope screen.1 Hz. By measuring the period of the wave on the horizontal axis of the oscilloscope screen and reciprocating that time value (in seconds). Voltage and current are by no means the only physical variables subject to variation over time. used by physicians to graph the oscillations of a patient’s heart over time. Generalpurpose oscilloscopes have the ability to display voltage from virtually any voltage source.10: Time period of sinewave is shown on oscilloscope. You may be familiar with the appearance of an ECG or EKG (electrocardiograph) machine. That is to say. AC WAVEFORMS 9 Period and frequency are mathematical reciprocals of one another. . if a wave has a period of 10 seconds.10. Lowpitch notes such as those produced by a tuba or bassoon consist of air molecule vibrations that are relatively slow (low frequency). In musical terms. The ECG is a specialpurpose oscilloscope expressly designed for medical use. you can determine the frequency in Hertz. OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger 16 divisions @ 1ms/div = a period of 16 ms DC GND AC timebase 1m X s/div DC GND AC Frequency = 1 1 = = 62.2. Because alternating current is a wave phenomenon. sound (especially structured music) provides an excellent analogy for relating AC concepts. Much more common to our everyday experience is sound. interpreted by our ears as a physical sensation.
Figure 1. Here are but a few sample waveforms and their common designations in ﬁgure 1.66 311. Following this rule. the shortest span on a musical scale separating such note pairs being called an octave. BASIC AC THEORY Highpitch notes such as those produced by a ﬂute or whistle consist of the same type of vibrations in the air. only vibrating at a much faster rate (higher frequency).25 Figure 1. Audibly.63 349.16 493.13 . The next highest “A” note has a frequency of 440 Hz – exactly twice as many sound wave cycles per second. one octave is equal to seven white keys’ worth of distance on a piano keyboard.08 246. this is not the only kind of alternating wave in existence. While electromechanical alternators and many other physical phenomena naturally produce sine waves.18 293.10 CHAPTER 1.12 As you can see.00 466. The same 2:1 ratio holds true for the ﬁrst A sharp (233.30 440. Other “waveforms” of AC are commonly produced within electronic circuitry.13 329.99 392.08 Hz) and the next A sharp (466.88 523.23 369. Note A A sharp (or B flat) B C (middle) C sharp (or D flat) D D sharp (or E flat) E F F sharp (or G flat) G G sharp (or A flat) A A sharp (or B flat) B C # # # # Musical designation A1 A or B B1 C C# or Db D D or E E F F# or Gb G G or A A A or B B C 1 b b b b Frequency (in hertz) 220. This similarity in sound is musically recognized.11: The frequency in Hertz (Hz) is shown for various musical notes. and for all note pairs found in the table. For example. two notes whose frequencies are exactly double each other sound remarkably similar. The familiar musical mnemonic (doeraymeefahsolahtee) – yes.16 Hz). the ﬁrst frequency shown (designated with the letter “A”) is 220 Hz. the same pattern immortalized in the whimsical Rodgers and Hammerstein song sung in The Sound of Music – covers one octave from C to C. the next lowest “A” (one octave below 220 Hz) will be 110 Hz. the next highest “A” note (one octave above 440 Hz) will be 880 Hz.00 233.00 415.11 is a table showing the actual frequencies for a range of common musical notes. A view of a piano keyboard helps to put this scale into perspective: Figure 1.63 277. Astute observers will notice that all notes on the table bearing the same letter designation are related by a frequency ratio of 2:1.94 261.
.1.13: Some common waveshapes (waveforms).12: An octave is shown on a musical keyboard. Square wave Triangle wave one wave cycle Sawtooth wave one wave cycle Figure 1.2. AC WAVEFORMS 11 C# D# Db Eb F# G# A# Gb Ab Bb C# D# Db Eb F# G# A# Gb Ab Bb C# D# Db Eb F# G# A# Gb Ab Bb C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B one octave Figure 1.
• REVIEW: • AC produced by an electromechanical alternator follows the graphical shape of a sine wave.15 Unfortunately. This is known as the peak or crest value of an AC waveform: Figure 1. triangle.14 Another way is to measure the total height between opposite peaks. They’re simply a few that are common enough to have been given distinct names. We also know that AC can alternate in a variety of different ways.” In music. any waveshape bearing close resemblance to a perfect sine wave is termed sinusoidal. BASIC AC THEORY These waveforms are by no means the only kinds of waveforms in existence. • One cycle of a wave is one complete evolution of its shape until the point that it is ready to repeat itself. we need to be aware of the fact that AC waves come in a variety of shapes. Even in circuits that are supposed to manifest “pure” sine. • The period of a wave is the amount of time it takes to complete one cycle. or sawtooth voltage/current waveforms. For example. anything different being labeled as nonsinusoidal. • Frequency is the number of complete cycles that a wave completes in a given amount of time. Some waveforms are so complex that they defy classiﬁcation as a particular “type” (including waveforms associated with many kinds of musical instruments).” We can measure the rate of alternation by measuring the time it takes for a wave to evolve before it repeats itself (the “period”).12 CHAPTER 1. or magnitude (also called the amplitude). where quantities of voltage and current are generally stable. of an AC quantity is to measure its peak height on a waveform graph. Generally speaking. This is known as the peaktopeak (PP) value of an AC waveform: Figure 1. which is the essential property distinguishing one note from another. either one of these expressions of waveform amplitude can be misleading when comparing two different types of waves. 1 Hz being equal to one complete wave cycle per second. square. However. the reallife result is often a distorted version of the intended waveshape. we encounter a measurement problem if we try to express how large or small an AC quantity is. With DC. we have little trouble expressing how much voltage or current we have in any part of a circuit. and by tracing the alternation over time we can plot it as a “waveform. But how do you grant a single measurement of magnitude to something that is constantly changing? One way to express the intensity. frequency is the same as pitch. Usually measured in Hertz (Hz). • Frequency = 1/(period in seconds) 1. or “frequency. a square wave peaking at 10 volts is obviously a greater amount of voltage for a greater amount of time than a triangle wave .3 Measurements of AC magnitude So far we know that AC voltage alternates in polarity and AC current alternates in direction. and express this as cycles per unit time. Being that the waveform of an AC voltage or current is crucial to its impact in a circuit.
3. PeaktoPeak Time Figure 1.16: A square wave produces a greater heating effect than the same peak voltage triangle wave. 10 V Time (same load resistance) 10 V (peak) more heat energy dissipated 10 V (peak) less heat energy dissipated Figure 1. .1.15: Peaktopeak voltage of a waveform.14: Peak voltage of a waveform. MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE 13 Peak Time Figure 1.
.18 + + + + ++ + + + ++ + + ++ + + + Practical average of points. indicating the true (algebraic) average value of zero for a symmetrical waveform. However.14 CHAPTER 1. of course. as if the waveform looked like this: Figure 1. This amplitude measure is known simply as the average value of the waveform. will be true for any waveform having equalarea portions above and below the “zero” line of a plot. as a practical measure of a waveform’s aggregate value. Figure 1. When the “average” value of a waveform is referenced in this text. we calculate the practical average value of the waveform by considering all points on the wave as positive quantities. aggregate number.16 One way of expressing the amplitude of different waveshapes in a more equivalent fashion is to mathematically average the values of all the points on a waveform’s graph to a single. “average” is usually deﬁned as the mathematical mean of all the points’ absolute values over a cycle. Conversely.17: The average value of a sinewave is zero. Polarityinsensitive mechanical meter movements (meters designed to respond equally to the positive and negative halfcycles of an alternating voltage or current) register in proportion to the waveform’s (practical) average value.18: Waveform seen by AC “average responding” meter. their needles oscillating rapidly about the zero mark. If we average all the points on the waveform algebraically (that is.17 + + + + ++ + + +  . This. In other words. because the inertia of the pointer against the tension of the spring naturally averages the force produced by the varying voltage/current values over time. either positive or negative). BASIC AC THEORY peaking at 10 volts. polaritysensitive meter movements vibrate uselessly if exposed to AC voltage or current.True average value of all points (considering their signs) is zero! Figure 1. because all the positive points cancel out all the negative points over a full cycle: Figure 1. to consider their sign. the average value for most waveforms is technically zero. it will be assumed that the “practical” deﬁnition of average . The effects of these two AC voltages powering a load would be quite different: Figure 1. all values assumed to be positive.
Although the mathematics of such an amplitude measurement might not be straightforward. To rate a jigsaw based on its peak blade speed would be quite misleading when comparing one jigsaw to another (or a jigsaw with a bandsaw!). they are equal in one respect: they all cut wood. an AC measurement based on work performed by a waveform is not the same as that waveform’s “average” value.). equally capable of cutting the same thickness of the same type of wood at the same rate. the jigsaw uses a backandforth motion. toothed. motorpowered metal blade to cut wood. and a quantitative comparison of this common function can serve as a common basis for which to rate blade speed. depending on the mechanical design of the saws. the utility of it is. moves back and forth. Despite the fact that these different saws move their blades in different manners.3. Picture a jigsaw and bandsaw sidebyside.1. MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE 15 is intended unless otherwise speciﬁed. Unfortunately. Consider a bandsaw and a jigsaw. because the power dissipated by a given load (work performed per unit time) is not directly proportional to the magnitude of either the voltage or current impressed upon it. and P = I2 R). its blade speed constantly changing. But while the bandsaw uses a continuous motion of the blade to cut. angle. .19: Bandsawjigsaw analogy of DC vs AC. etc. similar to the way DC voltage pushes or DC current moves with a constant magnitude. Another method of deriving an aggregate value for waveform amplitude is based on the waveform’s ability to do useful work when applied to a load resistance.19 Bandsaw Jigsaw blade motion wood wood blade motion (analogous to DC) (analogous to AC) Figure 1. two pieces of modern woodworking equipment. Rather. aggregate measurement is also present in this saw analogy: how might we express the speed of a jigsaw blade? A bandsaw blade moves with a constant speed. power is proportional to the square of the voltage or current applied to a resistance (P = E2 /R. Both types of saws cut with a thin. What is more. One jigsaw might move its blade with a sinewave motion. the backandforth motion of any two jigsaws may not be of the same type. The problem of trying to describe the changing quantities of AC voltage or current in a single. equipped with identical blades (same tooth pitch. The comparison of alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) may be likened to the comparison of these two saw types: Figure 1. We might say that the two saws were equivalent or equal in their cutting capacity. while another with a trianglewave motion. on the other hand. A jigsaw blade.
20 5A RMS 10 V RMS 2Ω 5A RMS 10 V 50 W power dissipated 5A 2Ω 5A 50 W power dissipated Equal power dissipated through equal resistance loads Figure 1. Peak and peaktopeak measurements are best performed with an oscilloscope. one powered by AC and the other by DC. BASIC AC THEORY Might this comparison be used to assign a “bandsaw equivalent” blade speed to the jigsaw’s backandforth blade motion.” but the quantity and principle are both the same. More speciﬁcally. irrespective of time. analog meter movements (D’Arsonval. iron vane. Because the mechanical inertia and dampening effects of an electromechanical meter movement makes the deﬂection of the needle naturally proportional to the average value of the AC. we would denote its voltage value as being 10 volts RMS. the procedure consists of squaring all the positive and negative points on a waveform graph. because the principal concern with current is overheating of the wire. For RMS measurements. when dealing with measurements of electric power. to relate the woodcutting effectiveness of one to the other? This is the general idea used to assign a “DC equivalent” measurement to any AC voltage or current: whatever magnitude of DC voltage or current would produce the same amount of heat energy dissipation through an equal resistance:Figure 1. Weston. we have the same amount of load resistance (2 Ω) dissipating the same amount of power in the form of heat (50 watts). Sometimes the alternative terms equivalent or DC equivalent are used instead of “RMS. depending on how you look at it) to indicate voltage . we would call this a “10 volt” AC source. RMS current measurement is the best to use.20: An RMS voltage produces the same heating effect as a the same DC voltage In the two circuits above. then taking the square root of that average to obtain the ﬁnal answer). RMS amplitude measurement is the best way to relate AC quantities to DC quantities. For other considerations. averaging those squared values. or other AC quantities of differing waveform shapes. peak or peaktopeak measurements may be the best to employ. The qualiﬁer “RMS” stands for Root Mean Square. when rating insulators for service in highvoltage AC applications. the algorithm used to obtain the DC equivalent value from points on a graph (essentially. electrodynamometer) will work so long as they have been calibrated in RMS ﬁgures. because the principal concern here is insulator “ﬂashover” caused by brief spikes of voltage. peak voltage measurements are the most appropriate. when determining the proper size of wire (ampacity) to conduct electric power from a source to a load. which is a function of power dissipation caused by current through the resistance of the wire. Because the AC voltage source pictured above is equivalent (in terms of power delivered to a load) to a 10 volt DC battery. However. analog meters must be speciﬁcally calibrated (or miscalibrated. not the true RMS value.16 CHAPTER 1. which can capture the crests of the waveform with a high degree of accuracy due to the fast action of the cathoderaytube in response to changes in voltage. For instance.
The crest factor of an AC waveform. Electronic meters speciﬁcally designed for RMS measurement are best for the task. simple conversion coefﬁcients exist for equating Peak.21: Conversion factors for common waveforms.577 (the reciprocal of square root of 3) and form factors of 1. Bear in mind that the conversion constants shown here for peak. The accuracy of this type of RMS measurement is independent of waveshape. for instance. peak (crest).636). Average (practical. In addition to RMS. This is a very important concept to understand when using an analog meter movement . just the laws of physics in action in fulﬁllment of the deﬁnition of RMS. Triangle.21 RMS = 0. and RMS measurements to one another: Figure 1.707/0. PeaktoPeak.1.and sawtoothshaped waveforms have RMS values of 0.577 (Peak) AVG = 0. Some instrument manufacturers have designed ingenious methods for determining the RMS value of any waveform. and triangle waves hold true only for pure forms of these waveshapes.637 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak) RMS = Peak AVG = Peak PP = 2 (Peak) RMS = 0.3. and average amplitudes of sine waves. usually a sine wave. Sinusoidal waveforms have an RMS value of 0. is the ratio of its peak (crest) value divided by its RMS value. square waves. MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE 17 or current in RMS units.707 (Peak) AVG = 0.5 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak) Figure 1. The heating effect of that resistance element is measured thermally to give a true RMS value with no mathematical calculations whatsoever. not algebraic). The form factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its RMS value divided by its average value. average.707 (the reciprocal of the square root of 2) and a form factor of 1. and peaktopeak measures of an AC waveform.22: Arbitrary waveforms have no simple conversions.5).577/0.15 (0.11 (0. there are ratios expressing the proportionality between some of these fundamental measurements.22 RMS = ??? AVG = ??? PP = 2 (Peak) Figure 1. The accuracy of this calibration depends on an assumed waveshape. The RMS and average values of distorted waveshapes are not related by the same ratios: Figure 1. One such manufacturer produces “TrueRMS” meters with a tiny resistive heating element powered by a voltage proportional to that being measured. For “pure” waveforms. Squareshaped waveforms always have crest and form factors equal to 1. since the peak is the same as the RMS and average values. RMS.
will only be accurate when measuring pure sine waves. peaktopeak. RMS meter calibration is obtained by “skewing” the span of the meter so that it displays a small multiple of the average value. Also known as the “equivalent” or “DC equivalent” value of an AC voltage or current. • The form factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its RMS value to its average value.636: the ratio of RMS divided by average for a sinusoidal waveform). the RMS value is approximately 0. and the small multiple used in the calibration of the meter is 1.18 CHAPTER 1. • REVIEW: • The amplitude of an AC waveform is its height as depicted on a graph over time. If the waveform of the voltage or current being measured is anything but a pure sine wave. For a sine wave. Often abbreviated as “PP”. Any waveshape other than a pure sine wave will have a different ratio of RMS and average values. • Analog. analog AC meters not employing “TrueRMS” technology. • Average amplitude is the mathematical “mean” of all a waveform’s points over the period of one cycle. Also known as the crest amplitude of a wave.707 of its peak value. electromechanical meter movements respond proportionally to the average value of an AC voltage or current. a waveform’s average value is often calculated as the mathematical mean of all the points’ absolute values (taking all the negative values and considering them as positive). Bear in mind that this limitation applies only to simple. the meter’s calibration . as a practical measure of amplitude. • Peaktopeak amplitude is the total height of an AC waveform as measured from maximum positive to maximum negative peaks on a graph. For a sine wave. it is the waveshape assumed for analog meter calibration. • “RMS” stands for Root Mean Square. When RMS indication is desired. • Peak amplitude is the height of an AC waveform as measured from the zero mark to the highest positive or lowest negative point on a graph. the average value so calculated is approximately 0. calibrated to indicate sinewave RMS amplitude. However. because the degree of needle deﬂection in an analog meter movement is proportional to the average value of the waveform. or RMS quantity.707/0. • The crest factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its peak (crest) to its RMS value. not the RMS. BASIC AC THEORY to measure AC voltage or current. the indication given by the meter will not be the true RMS value of the waveform. and is a way of expressing an AC quantity of voltage or current in terms functionally equivalent to DC. 10 volts AC RMS is the amount of voltage that would produce the same amount of heat dissipation across a resistor of given value as a 10 volt DC power supply.637 of its peak value. Technically. An amplitude measurement can take the form of peak. Since the sinewave shape is most common in electrical measurements. the average amplitude of any waveform with equalarea portions above and below the “zero” line on a graph is zero. average. and thus a meter calibrated for sinewave voltage or current will not indicate true RMS when reading a nonsinusoidal wave.1107 (the form factor: 0. For example. which will be equal to be the RMS value for a particular waveshape and a particular waveshape only. An analog movement.
23) involving nothing more than an AC power source and resistance. Actually. This means that the accuracy of an electromechanical meter’s RMS indication is dependent on the purity of the waveform: whether it is the exact same waveshape as the waveform used in calibrating. parallel resistances still diminish. R1 100 Ω 10 V R3 400 Ω Figure 1. 1. .4 Simple AC circuit calculations Over the course of the next few chapters. these rules and laws always hold true. However. with simple circuits (ﬁgure 1. R2 500 Ω Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 Rtotal = 1 kΩ Etotal Rtotal 10 V 1 kΩ Itotal = Itotal = Itotal = 10 mA ER3 = ItotalR3 ER3 = 4 V ER1 = ItotalR1 ER1 = 1 V ER2 = ItotalR2 ER2 = 5 V Series resistances still add. however. as we will discover later on. current.23: AC circuit calculations for resistive circuits are the same as for DC. these complexities of AC are of no practical consequence. SIMPLE AC CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS 19 must be “skewed” accordingly. you will learn that AC circuit measurements and calculations can get very complicated due to the complex nature of alternating current in circuits with inductance and capacitance. and opposition to current in more advanced mathematical forms.4.1. and the Laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm still hold true. the same laws and rules of DC apply simply and directly. With purely resistive circuits. its just that we have to express the quantities of voltage. and so we can treat the numbers as though we were dealing with simple DC quantities.
More on this later. then all calculated currents and voltages are cast in AC RMS units as well.” I mean that the two waveforms are not synchronized: that their peaks and zero points do not match up at the same points in time. or RMS). I promise! • The “table” method of organizing circuit values is still a valid analysis tool for AC circuits. If the source voltage is given in peak AC volts. we may need to represent the AC quantities in more complex form.24 illustrates an example of this. Unless otherwise stated. but in most applications (especially industrial electronics) the assumption is RMS. If the source voltage is given in AC RMS volts. peaktopeak. • REVIEW: • All the old rules and laws of DC (Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws. By “out of step. In some areas of electronics. This holds true for any calculation based on Ohm’s Laws. all values of voltage and current in AC circuits are generally assumed to be RMS rather than peak. etc. or peaktopeak. Ohm’s Law) still hold true for AC. with more complex circuits. then all currents and voltages subsequently calculated are cast in terms of peak units. average.20 CHAPTER 1. peak measurements are assumed. A B A B A B A B A B Figure 1. Kirchhoff ’s Laws. this is called a phase shift. average. Earlier A B .5 AC phase Things start to get complicated when we need to relate two or more AC voltages or currents that are out of step with each other. The graph in ﬁgure 1. we can make use of our familiar “table” method of organizing circuit values just as with DC: R1 E I R 1 10m 100 R2 5 10m 500 R3 4 10m 400 Total 10 10m 1k Volts Amps Ohms One major caveat needs to be given here: all measurements of AC voltage and current must be expressed in the same terms (peak. 1. In technical terms. However. but they are out of step with each other.24: Out of phase waveforms The two waves shown above (A versus B) are of the same amplitude and frequency. BASIC AC THEORY Because all these mathematical relationships still hold true.
Typically in the analysis of AC circuits.26 Because the waveforms in the above examples are at the same frequency. the voltage waveform of the power supply is used as a reference for phase. Mathematical operations of addition. A sampling of different phase shifts is given in the following graphs to better illustrate this concept: Figure 1. and division must operate on these quantities of phase shift as well as amplitude. The starting point of a sine wave was zero amplitude at zero degrees. they will be out of step by the same angular amount at every point in time. like voltage. it is safe to say something like. That is. This is what makes AC circuit calculations more complicated than DC.25: Wave A leads wave B by 45o The shift between these two waveforms is about 45 degrees. that voltage stated as “xxx volts at 0 degrees. When applying Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff ’s Laws. and not just an expression of shift between any two particular points along the waves. a full circle. is always a measurement relative between two things.1.” Any other AC voltage or current in that circuit will have its phase shift expressed in terms relative to that source voltage. zero at 180 degrees. AC PHASE 21 we saw how we could plot a “sine wave” by calculating the trigonometric sine function for angles ranging from 0 to 360 degrees. full negative at 270 degrees. and back to the starting point of zero at 360 degrees. the “A” wave being ahead of the “B” wave. multiplication.5.” Whichever waveform is ahead in its evolution is said to be leading and the one behind is said to be lagging. We can use this angle scale along the horizontal axis of our waveform plot to express just how far out of step one wave is with another: Figure 1. Fortunately. we can express phase shift for two or more waveforms of the same frequency as a constant quantity for the entire wave.25 degrees A 0 90 180 270 (0) 360 90 180 270 (0) 360 A B B 0 90 180 270 360 (0) degrees 90 180 270 360 (0) Figure 1. For this reason. subtraction. “voltage ’A’ is 45 degrees out of phase with voltage ’B’. . Phase shift. There’s really no such thing as a waveform with an absolute phase measurement because there’s no known universal reference for phase. progressing to full positive amplitude at 90 degrees. quantities of AC voltage and current must reﬂect phase shift as well as amplitude.
BASIC AC THEORY Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A is ahead of B (A "leads" B) Phase shift = 90 degrees B A B is ahead of A (B "leads" A) A Phase shift = 180 degrees A and B waveforms are mirrorimages of each other B Phase shift = 0 degrees A B A and B waveforms are in perfect step with each other Figure 1.26: Examples of phase shifts. .22 CHAPTER 1.
a major discovery lay hidden just beneath this seemingly simple concept of related perpendicularity. • A leading waveform is deﬁned as one waveform that is ahead of another in its evolution. Example: Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A leads B. A lagging waveform is one that is behind another.6. Maxwell’s discovery was this: . This breakthrough in physics is hard to overstate. some of the basic principles will be covered. it was realized that electricity and magnetism were related to each other. B lags A • • Calculations for AC circuit analysis must take into consideration both amplitude and phase shift of voltage and current waveforms to be completely accurate. with or without the presence of a conductive path for electrons to ﬂow. PRINCIPLES OF RADIO 23 there is a mathematical system of quantities called complex numbers ideally suited for this task of representing amplitude and phase. Because the subject of complex numbers is so essential to the understanding of AC circuits. • REVIEW: • Phase shift is where two or more waveforms are out of step with each other. The limited scope of this lesson on alternating current does not permit full exploration of the concept. who “uniﬁed” the study of electricity and magnetism in four relatively tidy equations. a voltage was produced along the length of that conductor. Likewise. This requires the use of a mathematical system called complex numbers. as deﬁned by the degree units on the horizontal axis of the waveform graph used in plotting the trigonometric sine function. When an electric current was passed through a conductor. • The amount of phase shift between two waves can be expressed in terms of degrees.6 Principles of radio One of the more fascinating applications of electricity is in the generation of invisible ripples of energy called radio waves. However. 1. With Oersted’s accidental discovery of electromagnetism.1. and its unveiling was one of the pivotal moments in modern science. if a conductor was exposed to a change in magnetic ﬂux perpendicular to the conductor. the next chapter will be devoted to that subject alone. scientists knew that electricity and magnetism always seemed to affect each other at right angles. Stated more formally. what he discovered was that electric and magnetic ﬁelds were intrinsically related to one another. a magnetic ﬁeld was generated perpendicular to the axis of ﬂow. The man responsible for this conceptual revolution was the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (18311879). So far. In essence.
with the same endresult of a continuous electromagnetic wave sent away from the antenna.28 . an antenna acts as a receiving device: Figure 1. When attached to a source of highfrequency AC power.24 CHAPTER 1. This dynamic structure of electric and magnetic ﬁelds propagating through space is better known as an electromagnetic wave. and so on as the wave propagates at the speed of light.27: Dipole and loop antennae While the dipole looks like nothing more than an open circuit. and the loop a short circuit. a changing electric ﬁeld is produced at right angles. By using a source of AC voltage and a special device called an antenna. In this mode. BASIC AC THEORY A changing electric ﬁeld produces a perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld. these pieces of wire are effective radiators of electromagnetic ﬁelds when connected to AC sources of the proper frequency. There are many kinds of natural radiative energy composed of electromagnetic waves. So are Xrays and “gamma” ray radiation.27 Basic antenna designs DIPOLE LOOP Figure 1. again providing ample opportunity for the ﬁeld to disperse away from the antenna instead of being concentrated and contained as in a normal inductor. As the powered dipole radiates its changing electric ﬁeld into space. Either antenna achieves the same basic task: the controlled production of an electromagnetic ﬁeld. a changing magnetic ﬁeld is produced at right angles. the alternating electric and magnetic ﬁelds supporting each other as they travel through space at the speed of light. As the powered loop antenna radiates its changing magnetic ﬁeld into space. The two open wires of the dipole act as a sort of capacitor (two conductors separated by a dielectric). and A changing magnetic ﬁeld produces a perpendicular electric ﬁeld. The closed wire path of the loop antenna acts like an inductor with a large air core. All of this can take place in open space. an antenna acts as a transmitting device. thus sustaining the electric ﬁeld further into space. Two fundamental types of antennae are the dipole and the loop: Figure 1. The only difference between these kinds of electromagnetic radiation is the frequency of their oscillation (alternation of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds back and forth in polarity). converting AC voltage and current into electromagnetic wave energy. Even light is electromagnetic in nature. An antenna is nothing more than a device built to produce a dispersing electric or magnetic ﬁeld. Antennas also have the ability to intercept electromagnetic waves and convert their energy into AC voltage and current. with the electric ﬁeld open to dispersal instead of being concentrated between two closelyspaced plates. we can create electromagnetic waves (of a much lower frequency than that of light) with ease.
• REVIEW: • James Maxwell discovered that changing electric ﬁelds produce perpendicular magnetic ﬁelds. 1. primarily generating an electric ﬁeld when energized. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. even in empty space. • A twin set of electric and magnetic ﬁelds. primarily generating a magnetic ﬁeld when energized. designed to radiate a changing electric ﬁeld or changing magnetic ﬁeld when powered by a highfrequency AC source. 2004): Corrected typographical error: “circuit” should have been “circle”. from most recent to ﬁrst. • The loop antenna consists of a loop of wire. Harvey Lew (February 7. and vice versa. • The dipole antenna consists of two pieces of wire (not touching).28: Basic radio transmitter and receiver While there is much more that may be said about antenna technology.7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. and secondarily producing an electric ﬁeld in space. .7.1. CONTRIBUTORS AC voltage produced Radio receivers AC current produced 25 electromagnetic radiation electromagnetic radiation Radio transmitters Figure 1. • An antenna is a device made of wire. and secondarily producing a magnetic ﬁeld in space. constitutes an electromagnetic wave. or intercept an electromagnetic ﬁeld and convert it to an AC voltage or current. oscillating at right angles to each other and traveling at the speed of light. this brief introduction is enough to give you the general idea of what’s going on (and perhaps enough information to provoke a few experiments).
Mark D. BASIC AC THEORY Duane Damiano (February 25. John Symonds (March 28. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. . 2002): Suggestion for improving explanation of the unit “Hertz. 2003): Pointed out magnetic polarity error in DC generator illustration. Zarella (April 28.” Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.26 CHAPTER 1. 2002): Suggestion for improving explanation of “average” waveform amplitude.
. . . . . . . .8 2. . . .5 2. . Complex number arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . Vectors and AC waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we ﬁnd that quantities of voltage. . . . .9 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . or some other unit of linear measurement. . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The kind of information that expresses a single dimension. . 27 30 32 35 37 42 44 49 55 2. . . for example. . . . I would have to provide more information than just the distance between those two cities.Chapter 2 COMPLEX NUMBERS Contents 2. current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . So is the resistance of a piece of wire (ohms). . . Scalar numbers are the kind of numbers you’ve used in most all of your mathematical applications so far. . .1 Introduction If I needed to describe the distance between two cities.1 2. because they’re dynamic (alternating in direction and amplitude). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some examples with AC circuits Contributors . . . More on AC ”polarity” . . . . . these quantities. . . . . . . . . . . . . possess other dimensions that 27 . . is a scalar quantity. . . . . . . . . Rather. . . . . . . . . when we begin to analyze alternating current circuits. . . . kilometers. . . . . . However. However. . . . . . I could provide an answer consisting of a single number in miles. . . .2 2. . . . such as linear distance. and even resistance (called impedance in AC) are not the familiar onedimensional quantities we’re used to measuring in DC circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2.6 2. . . is called a scalar quantity in mathematics. . . . . . Polar and rectangular notation . . . . . . . or the current through it (amps). . . . . . as well. . . . . . Complex vector addition . . . . . if I were to describe how to travel from one city to another. . The voltage produced by a battery. . . . . I would also have to provide information about the direction to travel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple vector addition . . . . . .
Like distances and directions on a map. we learned that there were ways to designate the values between the whole numbers marked on the line. Here is where we need to abandon scalar numbers for something better suited: complex numbers. These were fractional or decimal quantities: (Figure 2.1: A vector has both magnitude and direction. and angles are counted in a positive direction going counterclockwise: (Figure 2. If I draw a line with a certain length (magnitude) and angle (direction). we need to work with mathematical objects and techniques capable of representing these multidimensional quantities.3) We even learned how addition and subtraction works by seeing how lengths (magnitudes) stacked up to give a ﬁnal answer: (Figure 2.99 degrees) Figure 2.28 CHAPTER 2. Complex numbers are easier to grasp when they’re represented graphically. In order to successfully analyze AC circuits.2) The idea of representing a number in graphical form is nothing new. directly right is considered to be 0o . we still have the dimension of phase shift to contend with in addition to the amplitude.66 angle = 45 degrees length = 9. COMPLEX NUMBERS must be taken into account. In this case. Just like the example of giving directions from one city to another.6) . there must be some common frame of reference for angle ﬁgures to have any meaning. We all learned this in grade school with the “number line:” (Figure 2. Frequency and phase shift are two of these dimensions that come into play.01 degrees (57. Even with relatively simple AC circuits.4) Later.43 angle = 302.1) length = 7 angle = 0 degrees length = 10 angle = 180 degrees length = 5 angle = 90 degrees length = 4 angle = 270 degrees (90 degrees) length = 5. I have a graphic representation of a complex number which is commonly known in physics as a vector: (Figure 2. A complex number is a single mathematical quantity able to express these two dimensions of amplitude and phase shift at once. where we’re only dealing with a single frequency. AC quantities in a singlefrequency circuit have both amplitude (analogy: distance) and phase shift (analogy: direction).5) Later yet we learned that the number line could extend to the left of zero as well: (Figure 2.
1.5: Locating a fraction on the “number line” . Figure 2.. INTRODUCTION 29 The vector "compass" 90o 180o 0o 270o (90o) Figure 2.. 31/2 or 3.2: The vector compass ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 2. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 2.2. 5+3=8 8 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 7 8 9 10 .4: Addition on a “number line”.5 ..3: Number line..
) learned in grade school share a common trait: they’re all onedimensional. phase shift (vector angle) only has meaning in reference to some standard waveform. the greater the length of its corresponding vector.7) The greater the amplitude of the waveform.. a deﬁnite length. These ﬁelds of numbers (whole.2 Vectors and AC waveforms OK.9) The greater the phase shift in degrees between two waveforms. etc. Onedimensional. In other words. It looks like an arrow. • A vector is a graphical representation of a complex number. irrational. Usually. we need multidimensional representations. Being a relative measurement. but they fall short of being able to represent something more complex like the distance and direction between two cities. • REVIEW: • A scalar number is the type of mathematical object that people are used to using in everyday life: a onedimensional quantity like temperature. but all “motion” along that line is restricted to a single axis (horizontal).30 CHAPTER 2. etc. or measuring DC battery voltage. Figure 2. with a starting point.6: “Number line” shows both positive and negative numbers.. To represent these kinds of quantities. a tip. • A complex number is a mathematical quantity representing two dimensions of magnitude and direction. real. rational. or the amplitude and phase of an AC waveform. Generally this “reference” waveform is the main AC power supply voltage in the circuit. like voltage. however. (Figure 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS . when the phase of a waveform in a circuit is expressed. Sometimes the word phasor is used in electrical applications where the angle of the vector represents phase shift between waveforms. scalar numbers are perfectly adequate for counting beads. 2. we need a number line that can point in different directions. The angle of the vector. length.8) (Figure 2. If there is more than .. and a deﬁnite direction. Remember that phase is always a relative measurement between two waveforms rather than an absolute property. 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 . so how exactly can we represent AC quantities of voltage or current in the form of a vector? The length of the vector represents the magnitude (or amplitude) of the waveform.. like this: (Figure 2. weight. the greater the angle difference between the corresponding vectors. representing weight. it is referenced to the power supply voltage waveform (arbitrarily stated to be “at” 0o ). represents the phase shift in degrees between the waveform in question and another waveform acting as a “reference” in time. The straightness of the number line illustrates this graphically. integer. and that’s exactly what a vector is. You can move up or down the number line.
2.7: Vector length represents AC voltage magnitude.8: Vector angle is the phase with respect to another waveform. Waveforms Phase relations Vector representations (of "A" waveform with reference to "B" waveform) Phase shift = 0 degrees A B A and B waveforms are in perfect step with each other A B Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A is ahead of B (A "leads" B) A 90 degrees B Phase shift = 90 degrees B A B is ahead of A (B "leads" A) A B Phase shift = 180 degrees A and B waveforms are A mirrorimages of each other A 180 degrees B 90 degrees B Figure 2. VECTORS AND AC WAVEFORMS Waveform Vector representation 31 Amplitude Length Figure 2. .2.
the length of a vector represents the amplitude of the wave while the angle of a vector represents the phase angle of the wave relative to some other (reference) waveform. if AC voltage sources with the same phase angle are connected together in series. Addition is perhaps the easiest vector operation to visualize. and it lags 64o behind the reference waveform. multiplied. being understood that those voltages (always relative between two points) are referenced to “ground.11) Please note the (+) and () polarity marks next to the leads of the two AC sources.9: Phase shift between waves and vector phase angle one AC voltage source. these marks are . If vectors with common angles are added. with a clearly deﬁned point of reference for phase it becomes possible to speak of voltages and currents in an AC circuit having deﬁnite phase angles. For example. usually assumed to be the main source voltage waveform. 2. their voltages add just as you might expect with DC batteries: (Figure 2. With a clearly deﬁned point in the circuit declared to be “ground. then one of those sources is arbitrarily chosen to be the phase reference for all other measurements in the circuit. COMPLEX NUMBERS A B A angle B phase shift Figure 2.” it means that the current waveform has an amplitude of 24.10: Vector magnitudes add like scalars for a common angle. if the current in an AC circuit is described as “24. Similarly. subtracted. and divided.10) length = 6 angle = 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 0 degrees total length = 6 + 8 = 14 angle = 0 degrees Figure 2. • REVIEW: • When used to describe an AC quantity.” it becomes possible to talk about voltage “on” or “at” single points in a circuit. This concept of a reference point is not unlike that of the “ground” point in a circuit for the beneﬁt of voltage reference.32 CHAPTER 2.3 milliamps at 64 degrees. Even though we know AC doesn’t have “polarity” in the same sense that DC does.3 mA. their magnitudes (lengths) add up just like regular scalar quantities: (Figure 2.” Correspondingly.3 Simple vector addition Remember that vectors are mathematical objects just like numbers on a number line: they can be added. so we’ll begin with that.
The result.11: “In phase” AC voltages add like DC battery voltages. of course. their magnitudes (lengths) subtract just like positive and negative scalar quantities subtract when added: (Figure 2. if opposing AC voltage sources are connected in series. Since both sources are described as having equal phase .2.3. their voltages subtract as you might expect with DC batteries connected in an opposing fashion: (Figure 2. SIMPLE VECTOR ADDITION 33 6V 0 deg +  8V 0 deg + +  6V +  8V + 14 V 0 deg  14 V + Figure 2. is a total voltage of 2 volts. due to the reversal of wire connections on the 8 volt source.12: Directly opposing vector magnitudes subtract. We could have just as well shown the opposing voltages subtracting in series like this: (Figure 2. Notice how the polarity markings in the above diagram seem to indicate additive voltages (from left to right.12) length = 6 angle = 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 180 degrees total length = 6 . essential to knowing how to reference the given phase angles of the voltages. we see .and + on the 6 volt source. Even though these polarity markings would normally indicate an additive effect in a DC circuit (the two voltages working together to produce a greater total voltage). This will become more apparent in the next example. in this AC circuit they’re actually pushing in opposite directions because one of those voltages has a phase angle of 0o and the other a phase angle of 180o .8 = 2 at 0 degrees or 2 at 180 degrees Figure 2. .13) Determining whether or not these voltage sources are opposing each other requires an examination of their polarity markings and their phase angles.14) Note how the polarities appear to be opposed to each other now. Similarly. If vectors directly opposing each other (180o out of phase) are added together.and + on the 8 volt source).
6V 0 deg +  8V 0 deg + 6V +  8V +  + 2V 180 deg + 2V Figure 2.34 CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS 6V 0 deg +  8V 180 deg +  6V + + 8V  2V + 180 deg + 2V  Figure 2. .14: Opposing voltages in spite of equal phase angles.13: Opposing AC voltages subtract like opposing battery voltages.
these voltage quantities are complex quantities.17) If two AC voltages – 90o out of phase – are added together by being connected in series.4 Complex vector addition If vectors with uncommon angles are added. or 2 volts at 0o with the (+) symbol on the left and the () symbol on the right. a 6 volt source at 0o added to an 8 volt source at 90o results in 10 volts at a phase angle of 53.2. Instead. A reversal of wires from an AC voltage source is the same as phaseshifting that source by 180o . they truly are opposed to one another. The resultant voltage can be expressed in two different ways: 2 volts at 180o with the () symbol on the left and the (+) symbol on the right. which add up in a trigonometric fashion.13o : (Figure 2. Note that its possible to obtain voltmeter indications of 6 and 8 volts. yet only . 2.15) 6V 0 deg +  8V 0 deg +  + 2V 180 deg  + 2V 0 deg Figure 2.18) Compared to DC circuit analysis. across the two AC voltage sources.4.15: Just as there are two ways to express the phase of the sources. their voltage magnitudes do not directly add or subtract as with scalar voltages in DC. (Figure 2. this is very strange indeed. (Figure 2. and the overall effect is the same as the former scenario with “additive” polarities and differing phase angles: a total voltage of only 2 volts.16: Example of equivalent voltage sources. their magnitudes (lengths) add up quite differently than that of scalar magnitudes: (Figure 2. there are two ways to express the resultant their sum. respectively. COMPLEX VECTOR ADDITION 35 angles (0o ). and just like the above vectors.16) 8V 180 deg + These voltage sources are equivalent! 8V 0 deg +  Figure 2.
13 degrees length = 6 angle = 0 degrees Figure 2. 6V 0 deg +  8V 90 deg + + 10 V 53. . COMPLEX NUMBERS Vector addition length = 10 angle = 53.13 deg Figure 2.18: The 6V and 8V sources add to 10V with the help of trigonometry.17: Vector magnitudes do not directly add for unequal angles.13 degrees 6 at 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 90 degrees + 8 at 90 degrees 10 at 53.36 CHAPTER 2.
it would be very difﬁcult to perform mathematical calculations for AC circuit analysis. • REVIEW: • DC voltages can only either directly aid or directly oppose each other when connected in series. There are two basic forms of complex number notation: polar and rectangular. To use the map analogy. inclusive.5 Polar and rectangular notation In order to work with these complex numbers without drawing vectors.5.19) 8.2o 7. DC voltages can only directly aid or directly oppose.74o (8.81 ∠ 129. In the next section. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION 37 read 10 volts for a total voltage! There is no suitable DC analogy for what we’re seeing here with two AC voltages slightly out of phase. Vector and triangle diagrams sufﬁce to illustrate the general concept. Without the use of vector (complex number) notation to describe AC quantities.2.39 ∠ 158. polar notation for the vector from New York City to San Diego would be something like “2400 miles. southwest. we’ll learn how to represent vector quantities in symbolic rather than graphical form.81o) Figure 2. but more precise methods of symbolism must be used if any serious calculations are to be performed on these quantities.06 ∠ 330.06 ∠ 29. Polar form is where a complex number is denoted by the length (otherwise known as the magnitude. . two voltages can be aiding or opposing one another to any degree between fullyaiding and fullyopposing. absolute value.” Here are two examples of vectors and their polar notations: (Figure 2.19: Vectors with polar notations.26o) 8.49 ∠ 45o Note: the proper notation for designating a vector’s angle is this symbol: ∠ 5. 2. AC voltages may aid or oppose to any degree depending on the phase shift between them.81 ∠ 230. With AC. we ﬁrst need some kind of standard mathematical notation.19o (7. with nothing in between. or modulus) and the angle of its vector (usually denoted by an angle symbol that looks like this: ).
Please note that vectors angled “down” can have angles represented in polar form as positive numbers in excess of 180.81 129. These lowercase letters do not represent a physical variable (such as instantaneous current. since that dimension is compatible with normal. on the other hand. a vector angled 270o (straight down) can also be said to have an angle of 90o .20: The vector compass Rectangular form. Vectors being twodimensional things. COMPLEX NUMBERS Standard orientation for vector angles in AC circuit calculations deﬁnes 0o as being to the right (horizontal). described by the lengths of the adjacent and opposite sides. the horizontal and vertical quantities are written as a sum: (Figure 2. making 90o straight up.38 CHAPTER 2.81 230. scalar (“real”) numbers. the vertical is preﬁxed with a lowercase “i” (in pure mathematics) or “j” (in electronics).” These two dimensional ﬁgures (horizontal and vertical) are symbolized by two numerical ﬁgures. As a complete complex number. since that dimension lies in a different direction. The “imaginary” axis of the graph corresponds to another number line situated at 90o to the “real” one. the angled vector is taken to be the hypotenuse of a right triangle. but rather are mathematical operators used to distinguish the vector’s vertical component from its horizontal component. also symbolized by a lowercase letter “i”). is where a complex number is denoted by its respective horizontal and vertical components. it is described in terms of “how far left/right” and “how far up/down. 180o to the left. For example. (Figure 2. Rather than describing a vector’s length and direction by denoting magnitude and angle.22) The “real” axis of the graph corresponds to the familiar number line we saw earlier: the one with both positive and negative values on it.81o . The vertical component is referred to as the imaginary component.21) The horizontal component is referred to as the real component. The vector "compass" 90o 180o 0o 270o (90o) Figure 2.19o ) can also be denoted as 7. In essence. (Figure 2.20) The above vector on the right (7. . and 270o straight down. In order to distinguish the horizontal and vertical dimensions from each other. or negative numbers less than 180. totally alien to the scale of the real numbers.
21: In “rectangular” form the vector’s length and direction are denoted in terms of its horizontal and vertical span."real" + "real" j .5.22: Vector compass showing real and imaginary axes .2.j4 "4 right and 4 down" 4 + j0 "4 left and 0 up/down" 4 j4 "4 left and 4 down" Figure 2. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION 39 4 + j4 "4 right and 4 up" 4 + j0 "4 right and 0 up/down" 4 + j4 "4 left and 4 up" 4 . the ﬁrst number representing the the horizontal (“real”) and the second number (with the “j” preﬁx) representing the vertical (“imaginary”) dimensions. + "imaginary" +j ."imaginary" Figure 2.
23) 5 4 3 "imaginary" number line 2 1 . To convert from polar to rectangular.. thus the two number lines perpendicular to each other: (Figure 2. the hypotenuse of the triangle representing the vector itself (its length and angle with respect to the horizontal constituting the polar form). Either method of notation is valid for complex numbers. This may be understood more readily by drawing the quantities as sides of a right triangle.24) . ﬁnd the real component by multiplying the polar magnitude by the cosine of the angle. 5 4 3 2 1 "real" number line 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 .. Conversion between the two notational forms involves simple trigonometry. and polar form lending itself to multiplication and division. rectangular form lending itself to addition and subtraction. Figure 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS we must have a twodimensional “map” upon which to express them. The primary reason for having two methods of notation is for ease of longhand calculation.. and the imaginary component by multiplying the polar magnitude by the sine of the angle.40 CHAPTER 2. respectively: (Figure 2.23: Vector compass with real and imaginary (“j”) number lines. the horizontal and vertical sides representing the “real” and “imaginary” rectangular components..
87o +4 +j3 Figure 2.87o • REVIEW: 42 + 32 3 4 (polar form) • Polar notation denotes a complex number in terms of its vector’s length and angular direction from the starting point. Example: ﬂy 45 miles 203o (West by Southwest).87o 5 ∠ 36. 5 ∠ 36. .87o) = 4 (5)(sin 36.2.87 ) = 3 4 + j3 o (polar form) (real component) (imaginary component) (rectangular form) To convert from rectangular to polar. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION 41 length = 5 angle = 36. and the real and imaginary components are the adjacent and opposite sides. ﬁnd the polar magnitude through the use of the Pythagorean Theorem (the polar magnitude is the hypotenuse of a right triangle. respectively).5.24: Magnitude vector in terms of real (4) and imaginary (j3) components. and the angle by taking the arctangent of the imaginary component divided by the real component: 4 + j3 (rectangular form) c= a2 + b2 (pythagorean theorem) polar magnitude = polar magnitude = 5 polar angle = arctan polar angle = 36.87o (5)(cos 36.
j49 36 + j10 + 20 + j82 16 + j92 When subtracting complex numbers in rectangular form. inverted. Example: drive 41 miles West. they can be added. subtracted. When multiplying complex numbers in polar form.(80 . the horizontal side representing the rectangular “real” component. • Both polar and rectangular forms of notation for a complex number can be related graphically in the form of a right triangle. 2. Addition and subtraction with complex numbers in rectangular form is easy.” This section will show you how the basic operations are performed. • In rectangular notation. It is highly recommended that you equip yourself with a scientiﬁc calculator capable of performing arithmetic functions easily on complex numbers.j15 255 . simply subtract the real component of the second complex number from the real component of the ﬁrst to arrive at the real component of the difference.j3 6 + j2 175 . The imaginary component is preceded by a lowercase “j.6 Complex number arithmetic Since complex numbers are legitimate mathematical entities. COMPLEX NUMBERS • Rectangular notation denotes a complex number in terms of its horizontal and vertical dimensions. Some scientiﬁc calculators are programmed to directly perform these operations on two or more complex numbers.j34 + 80 . and subtract the imaginary component of the second complex number from the imaginary component of the ﬁrst to arrive the imaginary component of the difference: 2 + j5 . For addition.j15) 95 . just like any other kind of number. polar is the favored notation to work with. multiplied. the ﬁrst quantity is the “real” component (horizontal dimension of vector) and the second quantity is the “imaginary” component (vertical dimension of vector). and such. simply multiply the polar magnitudes of the complex numbers to determine the polar magnitude of the product. divided. just like scalar numbers. simply add up the real components of the complex numbers to determine the real component of the sum. with the hypotenuse representing the vector itself (polar form: hypotenuse length = magnitude. and the vertical side representing the rectangular “imaginary” component.j19 36 + j1 0 . angle with respect to horizontal side = angle). It will make your study of AC circuit much more pleasant than if you’re forced to do all calculations the longer way.42 CHAPTER 2.j34 .j72 For longhand multiplication and division. and add up the imaginary components of the complex numbers to determine the imaginary component of the sum: 2 + j5 + 4 . squared. then turn and drive 18 miles South.(20 + j82) 56 .(4 .j3) 2 + j8 175 . and add the angles of the complex numbers to determine the angle of the product: .” sometimes called the j operator. but these operations can also be done “by hand.
and inversion. multiplication.6 ∠ 60o To obtain the reciprocal.0032 ∠ 10o = 1 ∠ 0o 0. and you’ll have little trouble with AC circuit analysis.02857 ∠ 65o o o 35 ∠ 65 35 ∠ 65 1 1 ∠ 0o = = 0. or “invert” (1/x). subtraction. Operations with complex numbers are by no means limited just to addition. and inversion. including powers.5 ∠ 77o = 11. and even trigonometric functions (although this involves a whole new perspective in trigonometry called hyperbolic functions which is well beyond the scope of this discussion).6.5 ∠ 10o These are the basic operations you will need to know in order to manipulate complex numbers in the analysis of AC circuits.273 ∠ 150o = 0.1 ∠ 12o 10 ∠ 12o 10 ∠ 12o 1 0.0032 ∠ 10o = 312. subtraction. Be sure that you’re familiar with the basic arithmetic operations of addition. however. a complex number. multiplication. simply divide the number (in polar form) into a scalar value of 1.2. Virtually any arithmetic operation that can be done with scalar numbers can be done with complex numbers. solving simultaneous equations with complex coefﬁcients. which is nothing more than a complex number with no imaginary component (angle = 0): 1 1 ∠ 0o = = 0. roots. division. division. • REVIEW: . COMPLEX NUMBER ARITHMETIC 43 (35 ∠ 65o)(10 ∠ 12o) = 350 ∠ 53o (124 ∠ 250o)(11 ∠ 100o) = 1364 ∠ 10o or 1364 ∠ 350o (3 ∠ 30o)(5 ∠ 30o) = 15 ∠ 0o Division of polarform complex numbers is also easy: simply divide the polar magnitude of the ﬁrst complex number by the polar magnitude of the second complex number to arrive at the polar magnitude of the quotient. and subtract the angle of the second complex number from the angle of the ﬁrst complex number to arrive at the angle of the quotient: 35 ∠ 65o 10 ∠ 12o 124 ∠ 250o 11 ∠ 100o 3 ∠ 30o 5 ∠ 30o = 3.
This section is written in the attempt to clarify some of these issues. we denote the polarity of voltage sources and voltage drops explicitly. for most people the equivalence between abstract vectors and real circuit quantities is not an easy one to grasp. we have a choice in how we connect a voltmeter or other voltagemeasuring instrument to the source of voltage. Voltage is an inherently relative quantity. Earlier in this chapter we saw how AC voltage sources are given voltage ﬁgures in complex form (magnitude and phase angle). and two test leads on the instrument with which to make connection. Batteries have their polarity designated by way of intrinsic symbology: the shortline side of a battery is always the negative () side and the longline side always the positive (+): (Figure 2. If a digital voltmeter indicates a negative DC voltage.25) + 6V Figure 2. However.26: Decidedly unconventional polarity marking.25: Conventional battery polarity.7 More on AC ”polarity” Complex numbers are useful for AC circuit analysis because they provide a convenient method of symbolically denoting phase shift between AC quantities like voltage and current. . COMPLEX NUMBERS • To add complex numbers in rectangular form. 2.44 CHAPTER 2. it would be decidedly unconventional: (Figure 2. • To multiply complex numbers in polar form. Subtraction is similar.26) 6 V + Figure 2. we know that its test leads are connected “backward” to the voltage (red lead connected to the “” and black lead to the “+”). Although it would be mathematically correct to represent a battery’s voltage as a negative ﬁgure with reversed polarity markings. In DC circuits. multiply the magnitudes and add the angles. as there are two points between which the voltage exists. divide the magnitudes and subtract one angle from the other. To divide. as well as polarity markings. these polarity markings and their relationship to phase angle tends to be confusing. using “+” and “” symbols. and use colorcoded meter test leads (red and black). When we measure a voltage. Being that alternating current has no set “polarity” as direct current does. add the real components and add the imaginary components.
” A voltmeter connected to the above battery with red lead to the bottom terminal and black lead to the top terminal would indeed indicate a negative voltage (6 volts). opposing voltages subtract from one another. we know that source #2 is a battery facing in the opposite direction: (Figure 2. however. the phase angle of an AC voltage has meaning only in the context of knowing which of the two points is considered the “reference” point. we don’t deal with “negative” quantities of voltage. We never describe an AC voltage as being negative in sign. assuming that both sources are unlabeled as to their polarities. we simply say that one is 180o out of phase with the other. By deﬁnition. Consider the use of a DC voltmeter in determining whether or not two DC voltage sources are aiding or opposing each other. Thus. Actually. this form of notation and interpretation is not as unusual as you might think: its commonly encountered in problems of DC network analysis where “+” and “” polarity marks are initially drawn according to educated guess. First. If one AC voltage directly opposes another AC voltage. the polarity marks (which indicate meter test lead placement) indicate the sources aiding each other. Let’s review these principles with some graphical aids.27) The mathematical sign of a digital DC voltmeter’s display has meaning only in the context of its test lead connections. “+” and “” polarity marks are often placed by the terminals of an AC voltage in schematic diagrams to give the stated phase angle a frame of reference. aiding voltage sources add with one another to form the total voltage. however. and the red lead of the meter really is touching the positive. so we subtract 17 volts from 24 volts to obtain the total voltage across the two: 7 volts. By deﬁnition. the “+” meaning “red” and the “” meaning “black. and later interpreted as correct or “backward” according to the mathematical sign of the ﬁgure calculated. In AC circuits. Using the voltmeter to measure across the ﬁrst source: (Figure 2.31) It should be obvious to any experienced student of DC electricity that these two batteries are opposing one another. Thus.2. Still. voltage is relative between two points.30) This second voltmeter reading. so we add 24 volts to 17 volts to obtain 7 volts: still the correct . We could. the polarity marks indicating voltmeter test lead placement: (Figure 2. we know source #1 is a battery facing in this orientation: (Figure 2. Likewise.28) This ﬁrst measurement of +24 across the lefthand voltage source tells us that the black lead of the meter really is touching the negative side of voltage source #1.32) According to this diagram. The mathematical sign of a DC voltmeter’s reading has meaning only in the context of its test lead connections: which terminal the red lead is touching. and which terminal the black lead is touching. is a negative () 17 volts. MORE ON AC ”POLARITY” 45 Interpreting such notation might be easier if the “+” and “” polarity markings were viewed as reference points for voltmeter test leads. and we have a choice in how we might connect a voltagemeasuring instrument between those two points.7. because the facility of polar notation allows for vectors pointing in an opposite direction. we describe to what degree one voltage aids or opposes another by phase: the timeshift between two waveforms. Because of this fact. which tells us that the black test lead is actually touching the positive side of voltage source #2. the principle of relating test lead connections to the mathematical sign of a DC voltmeter indication: (Figure 2. though. while the red test lead is actually touching the negative. draw the two sources as nondescript boxes. labeled with the exact voltage ﬁgures obtained by the voltmeter.29) Measuring the other unknown voltage source: (Figure 2. Instead.
27: Test lead colors provide a frame of reference for interpreting the sign (+ or ) of the meter’s indication.28: (+) Reading indicates black is (). The meter tells us +24 volts V V OFF A A A COM Source 1 Source 2 Total voltage? Figure 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS V V OFF A A V V OFF A A A COM A COM 6V 6V Figure 2.46 CHAPTER 2. red is (+). .
.30: () Reading indicates black is (+).29: 24V source is polarized () to (+). red is ().31: 17V source is polarized (+) to () 24 V Source 1 17 V + Source 2 + Figure 2. The meter tells us 17 volts V V OFF A A A COM Source 1 Source 2 Total voltage? Figure 2. 24 V Source 1 17 V Source 2  Total voltage = 7 V + Figure 2.2. MORE ON AC ”POLARITY” 47 24 V Source 1 Source 2 Total voltage? Figure 2.32: Voltmeter readings as read from meters.7.
.34: Reversing the voltmeter leads on the 6V source changes the phase angle by 180o . the result will always be correct.35) Unlike DC voltage sources. so to determine the total voltage across the resistor we must add the voltage ﬁgures of 10 V 0o and 6 V 45o together to obtain 14. we need polarity markings to provide frames of reference for those voltages’ phase angles. In order to relate multiple AC voltages at different phase angles to each other. COMPLEX NUMBERS answer. Again. except that phase angle substitutes for mathematical sign. The polarity markings show these two voltage sources aiding each other. and still arrive at the same total voltage: (Figure 2. whose symbols intrinsically deﬁne polarity by means of short and long lines.59o . however. The same is true for AC voltages. However. any polarity marks must be included as additional symbols on the diagram.34) 10 V ∠ 0o + 6 V ∠ 225o +  14.861 V 16.861 V ∠ 16. it would be perfectly acceptable to represent the 6 volt source as 6 V 225o .861 V ∠ 16. 6 V 45o with negative on the left and positive on the right is exactly the same as 6 V 225o with positive on the left and negative on the right: the reversal of polarity markings perfectly complements the addition of 180o to the phase angle designation: (Figure 2.48 CHAPTER 2.33: Phase angle substitutes for ± sign.59o Figure 2. correlate with the given phase angle to represent the true phase relationship of that voltage with other voltages in the circuit. AC voltage symbols have no intrinsic polarity marking. (Figure 2. Therefore. They must. If we let the polarity markings guide our decision to either add or subtract voltage ﬁgures – whether those polarity markings represent the true polarity or just the meter test lead orientation – and include the mathematical signs of those voltage ﬁgures in our calculations. the polarity markings serve as frames of reference to place the voltage ﬁgures’ mathematical signs in proper context.59o Figure 2. with a reversed set of polarity markings. and there is no one “correct” way in which to place them.33) Take for example the following circuit: 10 V ∠ 0o + 6 V ∠ 45o + 14.
. If this is the case. and all voltages and currents must be of the same frequency (in order that their phase relationships remain constant). .8. is equivalent to . Kirchhoff ’s Laws. The setup of our equation to ﬁnd total voltage appears as such: . Notice that although magnitude and phase angle is given for each AC voltage source.8 Some examples with AC circuits Let’s connect three AC voltage sources in series and use complex numbers to determine additive voltages. taking into account phase as well as magnitude. The only qualiﬁcation is that all variables must be expressed in complex form. all of the same frequency). thus meeting our qualiﬁcations for applying DC rules to an AC circuit (all ﬁgures given in complex form. network analysis methods). 2. . SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS 49 6 V ∠ 45o + . it is assumed that all frequencies are equal. no frequency value is speciﬁed.36) 22 V ∠ 64 + E1 + E2 E3 load o 12 V ∠ 35o 15 V ∠ 0 o +  Figure 2.36: KVL allows addition of complex voltages.2. The polarity marks for all three voltage sources are oriented in such a way that their stated voltages should add to make the total voltage across the load resistor. . All the rules and laws learned in the study of DC circuits apply to AC circuits as well (Ohm’s Law.35: Reversing polarity adds 180o to phase angle • REVIEW: • Polarity markings are sometimes given to AC voltages in circuit schematics in order to provide a frame of reference for their phase angles. with the exception of power calculations (Joule’s Law). 6 V ∠ 225o +  Figure 2. (Figure 2.
we’re adding these ﬁgures together because the polarity marks for the three voltage sources are oriented in an additive manner: . In order to determine what the resultant vector’s magnitude and angle are without resorting to graphic images. we can convert each one of these polarform complex numbers into rectangular form and add.37: Graphic addition of vector voltages. the vectors add up as shown in Figure 2.50 CHAPTER 2. The sum of these vectors will be a resultant vector originating at the starting point for the 22 volt vector (dot at upperleft of diagram) and terminating at the ending point for the 15 volt vector (arrow tip at the middleright of the diagram): (Figure 2.37.38) resultant vector 22 ∠ 64o 15 ∠ 0o 12 ∠ 35o Figure 2. Remember. 22 ∠ 64o 15 ∠ 0o 12 ∠ 35o Figure 2.38: Resultant is equivalent to the vector sum of the three original voltages. COMPLEX NUMBERS Etotal = E1 + E2 + E3 Etotal = (22 V ∠ 64o) + (12 V ∠ 35o) + (15 V ∠ 0o) Graphically.
lagging the 15 volt (0o phase reference) by 20. An oscilloscope could be used to display two voltage waveforms and thus provide a phase shift measurement. the 10 kΩ resistor value is quite arbitrary.8052 volts). The same principle holds true for AC ammeters: they indicate the polar magnitude of the current. Although rectangular notation is convenient for addition and subtraction. this equates to 36.050E+01 Sure enough. A voltmeter connected across these points in a real circuit would only indicate the polar magnitude of the voltage (36.print ac v(3.39) ac voltage addition v1 1 0 ac 15 0 sin v2 2 1 ac 12 35 sin v3 3 2 ac 22 64 sin r1 3 0 10k .8829 V + 9.7735 V 34. it is not very applicable to practical measurements. Also. whose phase angle was arbitrarily stated at zero degrees so as to be the “reference” . In this test circuit. What this means in real terms is that the voltage measured across these three voltage sources will be 36. we get a total voltage of 36. not the phase angle.5018o .2.j12.j19.4740 .8052 volts.6442 .8906 V In polar form. because resistors respond uniformly for all frequencies of AC voltage and current. Rectangular ﬁgures must be converted to polar ﬁgures (speciﬁcally polar magnitude) before they can be related to actual circuit measurements.6442 . but not a voltmeter.5018o . SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS 51 15 V ∠ 0o = 15 + j0 V 12 V ∠ 35o = 9.7735 V 15 + j0 V 9.8298 + j6.8052 volts 20. but that is another subject! (Figure 2.5o (with reference to the 15 volt source.8829 V 22 V ∠ 64o = 9. We can use SPICE to verify the accuracy of our results.0) vp(3.000E+01 v(3) 3.681E+01 I’m using a frequency of 60 Hz as a default value vp(3) 2. and was indeed the ﬁnal step in our sample problem here.j19.8.81 volts 20. There are other components (notably capacitors and inductors) which do not respond uniformly to different frequencies.end freq 6. It’s there so that SPICE does not declare an opencircuit error and abort analysis. This is extremely important in relating calculated ﬁgures of voltage and current to real circuits.0) . the choice of frequencies for the simulation (60 Hz) is quite arbitrary. not the angle.ac lin 1 60 60 .8298 + j6.
this would be impossible.40) 22 V ∠ 64o Polarity reversed on source E2 ! + E1 E2 + + E3 load 12 V ∠ 35o 15 V ∠ 0o Figure 2.39: Spice circuit schematic. as voltage ﬁgures will either directly add or subtract.40: Polarity of E2 (12V) is reversed. What if we took the same circuit and reversed one of the supply’s connections? Its contribution to the total voltage would then be the opposite of what it was before: (Figure 2. At ﬁrst glance.52 CHAPTER 2. and 22 volt supplies connected in series? With DC. waveform). Note how the 12 volt supply’s phase angle is still referred to as 35o . this is counterintuitive. COMPLEX NUMBERS 3 22 V ∠ 64o 2 12 V ∠ 35o 1 15 V ∠ 0o 0 + V3 + V2 R1 + V1  3 10 kΩ 0 Figure 2.41) The resultant (sum) vector should begin at the upperleft point (origin of the 22 volt vector) . even though the leads have been reversed. and this allows for such paradoxical summing. Remember that the phase angle of any voltage drop is stated in reference to its noted polarity. But with AC. depending on polarity. the vector will be drawn 180o opposite of what it was before: (Figure 2. 12 volt. How is it possible to obtain a total voltage of just over 36 volts with 15 volt. Even though the angle is still written as 35o . our “polarity” (phase shift) can vary anywhere in between fullaiding and fullopposing.
SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS 53 22 ∠ 64o 12 ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 ∠ 215o or 12 ∠ 35o 15 ∠ 0o Figure 2.41: Direction of E2 is reversed. and terminate at the right arrow tip of the 15 volt vector: (Figure 2.8.42: Resultant is vector sum of voltage sources.2.42) 22 ∠ 64o resultant vector 12 ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 ∠ 215o or 12 ∠ 35ο 15 ∠ 0o Figure 2. The connection reversal on the 12 volt supply can be represented in two different ways in .
or reversing the sign of the magnitude.7735 V 14. conversion to rectangular form yields the same result: 12 V ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 V ∠ 215o = 9.8298 .8298 .8143 .j6.j6.ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(3. then: 15 + j0 V 9. or a reversal of sign on the magnitude (making it 12 volts 35o ).000E+01 v(3) 3.end freq 6.6564 V In polar form. although they are convenient for performing addition and subtraction.j19. • When reversing the direction of a vector (equivalent to reversing the polarity of an AC voltage source in relation to other voltage sources).4964 V verify the results of our calculations: 60.54 CHAPTER 2.0) . we will use SPICE to ac voltage addition v1 1 0 ac 15 0 sin v2 1 2 ac 12 35 sin Note the reversal of node numbers 2 and 1 v3 3 2 ac 22 64 sin to simulate the swapping of connections r1 3 0 10k .j6. so long as all values are expressed and manipulated in complex form.8829 V The resulting addition of voltages in rectangular form. Once again.j26.8298 . with the exception of power calculations (Joule’s Law). • Meter measurements in an AC circuit correspond to the polar magnitudes of calculated values. COMPLEX NUMBERS polar form: by an addition of 180o to its vector angle (making it 12 volts 215o ).8829 V or 12 V ∠ 35o = 9. as Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws require.9368o .094E+01 • REVIEW: • All the laws and rules of DC circuits apply to AC circuits.0) vp(3. this equates to 30.050E+01 vp(3) 6. Either way. empirical equivalent. it can be expressed in either of two different ways: adding 180o to the angle.6442 .8829 V + 9. and all voltages and currents are at the same frequency. . Rectangular expressions of complex quantities in an AC circuit have no direct.
CONTRIBUTORS 55 2. from most recent to ﬁrst. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.2.9. . which led to a much betterlooking second edition.9 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.
COMPLEX NUMBERS .56 CHAPTER 2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Series resistorinductor circuits . .1: Pure resistive AC circuit: resistor voltage and current are in phase. . . . . More on the “skin effect” . . . . . . . . it would look something like this: (Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel resistorinductor circuits Inductor quirks . . . . . . . . . .2) 57 . . . . . . . . . If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a resistor (Figure 3. . . AC inductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . .Chapter 3 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE Contents 3. . . . .7 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1). . . . . . . . . . . . 57 59 64 71 74 77 79 3.6 3. . . . . . . .1 AC resistor circuits ET I ER IR ET = ER I = IR R 0° IR ET Figure 3. . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
the voltage across the resistor is also at its positive peak. and so on.3: Instantaneous AC power in a pure resistive circuit is always positive. at the moment in time where the current through the resistor is at its positive peak. the waveform for the voltage drop across the resistor is exactly in phase with the waveform for the current through it. taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat energy. meaning the values at that instant in time). Ohm’s Law holds true for the instantaneous values of voltage and current. This consistent “polarity” of power tells us that the resistor is always dissipating power. the voltage is also negative. when the current is negative (below the line). Note that the power is never a negative value. We can look at any point in time along the horizontal axis of the plot and compare those values of current and voltage with each other (any “snapshot” look at the values of a wave are referred to as instantaneous values. When the instantaneous value for current is zero. Whether the . Because the resistor simply and directly resists the ﬂow of electrons at all periods of time. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE e= i= + Time  Figure 3.3) e= i= p= + Time  Figure 3. Likewise. and plot those values on the same graph: (Figure 3. which results in a positive value for power (a negative number multiplied by a negative number equals a positive number).58 CHAPTER 3. resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positive value. We can also calculate the power dissipated by this resistor. When the current is positive (above the line). the instantaneous voltage across the resistor is also zero. At any given point in time along the waves. the voltage is also positive.2: Voltage and current “in phase” for resistive circuit. Conversely.
This results in a voltage wave that is 90o out of phase with the current wave. the relationship between the voltage dropped across the inductor and rate of current change through the inductor is as such: e = L di dt The expression di/dt is one from calculus. is in volts. the polarity will reverse and “push with” the electron ﬂow to oppose the decrease.2 AC inductor circuits Inductors do not behave the same as resistors.5) Remember. Whereas resistors simply oppose the ﬂow of electrons through them (by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the current). In accordance with Lenz’s Law.2. the instantaneous voltage is zero whenever the instantaneous current is at a peak (zero change. on the current sine wave).4) ET I EL IL ET = EL I = IL L EL IL 90° Figure 3. meaning the rate of change of instantaneous current (i) over time. if current is increasing in magnitude. That is. Therefore. but it means the exact same thing. and the current “lags” behind the voltage.3. this induced voltage is always of such a polarity as to try to maintain current at its present value. let’s analyze a simple inductor circuit: (Figure 3. the voltage dropped across an inductor is a reaction against the change in current through it. if current is decreasing. 59 3. the induced voltage will “push against” the electron ﬂow. a resistor still dissipates energy. and the instantaneous voltage is at a peak wherever the instantaneous current is at maximum change (the points of steepest slope on the current wave. inductors oppose changes in current through them. If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit. Sometimes you will ﬁnd the rate of instantaneous voltage expressed as “v” instead of “e” (v = L di/dt). or level slope. (Figure 3. Looking at the graph. where it crosses the zero line).4: Pure inductive circuit: Inductor current lags inductor voltage by 90o . AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS current is positive or negative. The inductance (L) is in Henrys. rather than resistance.6) Things get even more interesting when we plot the power for this circuit: (Figure 3. and the instantaneous voltage (e). it would look something like this: (Figure 3.7) Because instantaneous power is the product of the instantaneous voltage and the instantaneous current (p=ie). the voltage “leads” the current. of course. in amps per second. Expressed mathematically. This opposition to current change is called reactance. by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the rate of change of current. the power equals zero whenever the instantaneous current or voltage is . the voltage wave seems to have a “head start” on the current wave. To show what happens with alternating current.
() Figure 3. (+) e= i= Time + current slope = 0 voltage = 0 current slope = max.7: In a pure inductive circuit. + e= i= p= Time Figure 3.5: Pure inductive circuit. current slope = 0 voltage = 0 current slope = max. (+) voltage = max. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE + e= i= Time Figure 3. waveforms.6: Current lags voltage by 90o in a pure inductive circuit.60 CHAPTER 3. () voltage = max. instantaneous power may be positive or negative .
. Since inductors drop voltage in proportion to the rate of current change. and it dissipates zero power. the power is also positive when the instantaneous current and voltage are both negative (below the line). As with the resistor example. if you imagine one cycle of AC to represent a full circle’s rotation. which is every 2π radians. This opposition to alternating current is similar to resistance. except that its mathematical symbol is X instead of R. The exact formula for determining reactance is as follows: XL = 2πfL If we expose a 10 mH inductor to frequencies of 60. the lowercase Greek letter Omega. quite unlike the resistance of a resistor. 120. It is the number of radians per second that the alternating current is “rotating” at. reactance associate with an inductor is usually symbolized by the capital letter X with a letter L as a subscript. which appears similar to our Roman lowercase “w”: ω. known as the angular velocity of the AC system. Table 3. it will produce one cycle for every full turn of shaft rotation. the power is positive. which have no wire resistance. If the alternator producing the AC is a doublepole unit. because the current and voltage waves are 90o out of phase.7699 120 7. Since the positive and negative power cycles are equal in magnitude and duration over time. or 360o . which is by deﬁnition always changing in instantaneous magnitude and direction. just as there are 360o in a full circle. AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS 61 zero. However. Angular velocity may be represented by the expression 2πf. Because of the differences. there are times when one is positive while the other is negative. A radian is a unit of angular measurement: there are 2π radians in one full circle. Reactance to AC is expressed in ohms. If this constant of 2π is multiplied by frequency in Hertz (cycles per second). Whenever the instantaneous current and voltage are both positive (above the line).2.1. while a positive power means that it is absorbing power from the circuit. To be speciﬁc. which dissipates energy in the form of heat. like this: XL . the result will be a ﬁgure in radians per second. What this means in a practical sense is that the reactance of an inductor dissipates a net energy of zero. or it may be represented by its own symbol. just like resistance is. but different in that it always results in a phase shift between current and voltage. resulting in equally frequent occurrences of negative instantaneous power.0796 In the reactance equation.1: Reactance of a 10 mH inductor: Frequency (Hertz) Reactance (Ohms) 60 3. and less voltage for slowerchanging currents. the reactance formula XL = 2πfL could also be written as XL = ωL. An inductor’s opposition to change in current translates to an opposition to alternating current in general. But what does negative power mean? It means that the inductor is releasing power back to the circuit. and 2500 Hz.5398 2500 157. the inductor releases just as much power back to the circuit as it absorbs over the span of a complete cycle.3. this is for perfect inductors only. it will manifest the reactances in Table Figure 3. they will drop more voltage for fasterchanging currents. What this means is that reactance in ohms for any inductor is directly proportional to the frequency of the alternating current. Mind you. the term “2πf ” (everything on the righthand side except the L) has a special meaning unto itself. Thus. it has a different name: reactance.
an inductor will offer greater opposition to the passage of current. As the frequency (or alternator shaft speed) is increased in an AC system. we ﬁnd that an inductor’s opposition to current has a phase angle. As was shown earlier.9) If we represent these phase angles of voltage and current mathematically in the form of complex numbers. If the alternator has more than two poles. we need to keep in mind that voltage and current are not in phase here. ω is sometimes expressed in units of electrical radians per second rather than (plain) radians per second.8: Inductive reactance (inductive reactance of 10 mH inductor at 60 Hz) XL = 3. the voltage has a phase shift of +90o with respect to the current.7699 Ω I= I= I = 2. a full cycle being equal to 2π radians. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE It must be understood that this “angular velocity” is an expression of how rapidly the AC waveforms are cycling.6526 A However. so as to distinguish it from mechanical motion. just as either alternating or direct current in a simple resistive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the resistance (in ohms). Any way we express the angular velocity of the system.8) 10 V 60 Hz L 10 mH Figure 3. and vice versa. It is not necessarily representative of the actual shaft speed of the alternator producing the AC. Alternating current in a simple inductive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the inductive reactance (in ohms).62 CHAPTER 3. it is apparent that it is directly proportional to reactance in an inductor. (Figure 3.7699 Ω E X 10 V 3. For this reason. the angular velocity will be a multiple of the shaft speed. An example circuit is shown here: (Figure 3. too: .
especially for complex AC circuits where reactance and resistance interact. .2. meaning that an inductor’s opposition to current is a positive imaginary quantity. It will prove beneﬁcial to represent any component’s opposition to current in terms of complex numbers rather than scalar quantities of resistance and reactance.9: Current lags voltage by 90o in an inductor. • REVIEW: • Inductive reactance is the opposition that an inductor offers to alternating current due to its phaseshifted storage and release of energy in its magnetic ﬁeld. This phase angle of reactive opposition to current becomes critically important in circuit analysis. It is symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter “omega.7699 Ω ∠ 90o or 0 + j3. • Inductive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XL = 2πfL • The angular velocity of an AC circuit is another way of expressing its frequency. we say that the phase angle of an inductor’s opposition to current is 90o .3.7699 Ω For an inductor: 90o 90o E 0o I Opposition (XL) Figure 3. AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS 63 Opposition = Voltage Current 10 V ∠ 90o 2. in units of electrical radians per second instead of cycles per second. Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter “X” and is measured in ohms just like resistance (R).” or ω. Mathematically.6526 A ∠ 0ο Opposition = Opposition = 3.
Because the resistor’s resistance is a real number (5 Ω 0o . its symbol is Z.016o . In the above example. or 5 + j0 Ω).10: Series resistor inductor circuit: Current lags applied voltage by 0o to 90o . and the inductor’s reactance is an imaginary number (3. 3.64 CHAPTER 3. This term is called impedance.7699 Ω ∠ 900) or (5 + j0 Ω) + (0 + j3. In order to express this opposition succinctly. the total circuit impedance is: Ztotal = (5 Ω resistance) + (3. and it is also expressed in the unit of ohms. we need a more comprehensive term for opposition to current than either resistance or reactance alone. the combined effect of the two components will be an opposition to current equal to the complex sum of the two numbers.7699 Ω 90o . Take this circuit as an example to work with: (Figure 3.7699 Ω or 6.3 Series resistorinductor circuits In the previous section.7699 Ω of reactance to AC current at 60 Hz. This combined opposition will be a vector combination of resistance and reactance. or 0 + j3. In other words.10) R ET I IR EL IL ET = ER+ EL I = IR = IL L EL 37° I ER ET 10 V 60 Hz R 5Ω L 10 mH Figure 3.262 Ω ∠ 37. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE • Inductive reactance increases with increasing frequency. Now we will mix the two components together in series form and investigate the effects.7699 Ω) Ztotal = 5 + j3. while the inductor will offer 3. just like resistance and reactance. the higher the frequency.7699 Ω).7699 Ω inductive reactance) Ztotal = 5 Ω (R) + 3. The resistor will offer 5 Ω of resistance to AC current regardless of frequency. we explored what would happen in simple resistoronly and inductoronly AC circuits.7699 Ω (XL) Ztotal = (5 Ω ∠ 0o) + (3. the more it opposes the AC ﬂow of electrons.
11) phase shift = 37.016o as opposed to a full 90o as was the case in the purely inductive circuit. regardless of the given phase angles for voltage or current). we ﬁrst need to give a phase angle reference for the voltage source. the phase relationships between voltage and current haven’t changed. the current wave lags behind the voltage wave (of the source). (Figure 3. Voltage across the resistor is in phase (0o shift) with the current through . respectively.016o + e= i= Time Figure 3.262 Ω ∠ 37.016o As with the purely inductive circuit. Any resistance and any reactance.11: Current lags voltage in a series LR circuit. although this time the lag is not as great: only 37. For the resistor and the inductor. this is a far more comprehensive form of Ohm’s Law than what was taught in DC electronics (E=IR).3. form In fact.597 A ∠ 37. I= I= E Z 10 V ∠ 0o 6. To calculate current in the above circuit. which is generally assumed to be zero.3. (The phase angles of resistive and inductive impedance are always 0o and +90o . SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS 65 Impedance is related to voltage and current just as you might expect. separately or in combination (series/parallel). just as impedance is a far more comprehensive expression of opposition to the ﬂow of electrons than resistance is. not scalar.016o I = 1. in a manner similar to resistance in Ohm’s Law: Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I All quantities expressed in complex. can be and should be represented as a single impedance in an AC circuit.
984o .016o)(5 Ω ∠ 0o) ER = 7. telling us that E and I are in phase (for the resistor only). and the voltage across the inductor is +90o out of phase with the current going through it. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE it.016o Notice that the phase angle of ER is equal to the phase angle of the current.016o . We can also mathematically prove that these complex values add together to make the total voltage.0203 V ∠ 52. We can verify this mathematically: E = IZ ER = IRZR ER = (1. a difference of exactly 90o between the two.12) . The voltage across the resistor has the exact same phase angle as the current through it. The voltage across the inductor has a phase angle of 52.984o) Etotal = 10 V ∠ 0o Let’s check the validity of our calculations with SPICE: (Figure 3.016o) + (6. This tells us that E and I are still 90o out of phase (for the inductor only).597 A ∠ 37.016o)(3.0203 V ∠ 52.984o Notice that the phase angle of EL is exactly 90o more than the phase angle of the current.7699 Ω ∠ 90o) EL = 6.9847 V ∠ 37.9847 V ∠ 37.66 CHAPTER 3. E = IZ EL = ILZL EL = (1.597 A ∠ 37. while the current through the inductor has a phase angle of 37. just as Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law would predict: Etotal = ER + EL Etotal = (7.
This is merely an idiosyncrasy of SPICE and does not represent anything signiﬁcant in the circuit simulation itself.985E+00 vp(1.02o and 52. Instead of a phase angle of 37.3.298E+01 i(v1) 1. ac rl circuit v1 1 0 ac 10 sin r1 1 2 5 l1 2 0 10m .0) i(v1) . respectively. don’t insert actual resistance or inductance values in Ohms and Henrys. Applying a table to this simple series resistorinductor circuit would proceed as such. First.000E+01 freq 6.430E+02 Interpreted SPICE results ER = 7.597E+00 ip(v1) 1. SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS 67 1 10 V 60 Hz 0 R 5Ω L 2 10 mH 0 Figure 3.98o . just as we expected them to. With all these ﬁgures to keep track of for even such a simple circuit as this. respectively).2) vp(2.020E+00 vp(2) 5.02o EL = 6.000E+01 v(1.2) v(2.98o I = 1.3.020 V ∠ 52. SPICE outputs current ﬁgures as though they were negative (180o out of phase) with the supply voltage.702E+01 v(2) 6. we get a current phase angle of 143o (37o + 180o ). Note how both the resistor and inductor voltage phase readings match our calculations (37.2) 3.0) ip(v1) .016o .597 A ∠ 143. it would be beneﬁcial for us to use the “table” method.985 V ∠ 37.print ac vp(1. draw up a table for E/I/Z ﬁgures and insert all component values in these terms (in other words.ac lin 1 60 60 . into the table. rather.print ac v(1.0o Note that just as with DC circuits.2) 7.end freq 6. convert them into complex ﬁgures of impedance and write those in): .12: Spice circuit: RL.
7699 3.68 R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o CHAPTER 3.7699 3. we can proceed just as with DC: determine the total impedance from the individual impedances. we know that opposition to electron ﬂow (resistance or impedance) adds to form the total opposition: R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 0 + j3.016o Ohms Now that we know total voltage and total impedance.7699 6. writing each quantity in both forms will be useful indeed. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 0 + j3.7699 ∠ 90o Ohms Although it isn’t necessary.262 ∠ 37. then this extra documentation is completely unnecessary. if you are forced to perform complex arithmetic “longhand” (addition and subtraction in rectangular form. Since this is a series circuit. Now that our “given” ﬁgures are inserted into their respective locations in the table.7699 ∠ 90o Rule of series circuits Ztotal = ZR + ZL 5 + j3. However. and multiplication and division in polar form). we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) to determine total current: . I ﬁnd it helpful to write both the rectangular and polar forms of each quantity in the table. If you are using a calculator that has the ability to perform complex arithmetic without the need for conversion between rectangular and polar forms.
9614 1.7699 6.9614 1.7699 6.597 ∠ 37.597 ∠ 37.597 ∠ 37.3. applied vertically in each column of the table: .j0.016o 5 + j3.9614 1. therefore the rate of their ﬂow must uniform throughout. This is done through the use of Ohm’s Law (E=IZ).7699 3.2751 .262 ∠ 37. respectively. the total current in a series AC circuit is shared equally by all components. we can transfer the ﬁgures for current into the columns for the resistor and inductor alike: R E I Z 1.7699 3.016o 0 + j3.016o 5 + j3.2751 .597 ∠ 37.016o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 1.262 ∠ 37. SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3.2751 .016o Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IL Now all that’s left to ﬁgure is the voltage drop across the resistor and inductor.3. This is still true because in a series circuit there is only a single path for electrons to ﬂow. Consequently.2751 .j0.016o Volts Amps Ohms 69 Ohm’s Law E I= Z Just as with DC.7699 ∠ 90o 1.j0.9614 1.7699 ∠ 90o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 1.j0.
70 R E I Z 6.0203 ∠ 52.13) Example: Given: A 40 Ω resistor in series with a 79.9614 1.8071 6. XL XL XL Z Z = = = = = 2πfL 2π·60·79.2751 . our table is complete.3756 (real rectangular) or 4. I will indicate both polar and rectangular forms of each quantity in my AC circuit tables simply for convenience of mathematical calculation. reactance. respectively.016o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o CHAPTER 3.j0.016o 1.262 ∠ 37. not 6.8071 7.j0. (Figure 3.9614 1. it would indicate 7.597 ∠ 37.597 ∠ 37.58 millihenry inductor. there is no fundamental difference in how we approach basic AC circuit analysis versus DC. As I stated before.7699 3. Find the impedance at 60 hertz. is a more abstract form of notation than polar in relation to realworld measurements.7699 6.9847 volts. Now is a good time to review the relationship between these calculated ﬁgures and readings given by actual instrument measurements of voltage and current. resistance. This is not absolutely necessary.9614 1. but may be helpful for those following along without the beneﬁt of an advanced calculator.8071 (imaginary rectangular) volts.j4.016o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E = IZ Ohm’s Law E = IZ And with that.3756 . while convenient for arithmetical addition and subtraction.9847 ∠ 37. because it is the only one that can be directly correlated to real measurements. and E=IZ. To describe this in graphical terms. The exact same rules we applied in the analysis of DC circuits apply to AC circuits as well. The ﬁgures here that directly relate to reallife measurements are those in polar notation.j0.016o 0 + j3.7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 1.597 ∠ 37. if you were to connect a voltmeter across the resistor in this circuit. and impedance are proportional to voltage. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE L 3. If we were to restrict ourselves to the use of only one form of notation. Rectangular notation.984o 1. with the caveat that all quantities must be represented and calculated in complex rather than scalar form. the best choice would be polar.2751 .016o 5 + j3. Since E=IR.2751 . Impedance (Z) of a series RL circuit may be calculated.6244 + j4. given the resistance (R) and the inductive reactance (XL ).58×10−3 30 Ω R + jXL 40 + j30 . not rectangular! In other words. E=IXL . measurement instruments simply tell you how long the vector is for that particular quantity (voltage or current). So long as phase shift is properly represented in our calculations. Thus. the voltage phasor diagram can be replaced by a similar impedance diagram.
PARALLEL RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS 71 R ET I IR EL IL XL EL 37° I Voltage ET XL 37° Z ER Impedance R Figure 3. the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in series circuit analysis: series impedances add to form the total impedance. • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ .13: Series: RL circuit Impedance phasor diagram. .4.14) Because the power source has the same frequency as the series example circuit. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . It is symbolized by the letter “Z” and measured in ohms. Z = sqrt(402 + 302 ) = 50 Ω Z = arctangent(30/40) = 36. Zn • A purely resistive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 0o (ZR = R Ω 0o ). and the resistor and inductor both have the same values of resistance and inductance. voltage drops add to form the total voltage. . Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + .3. respectively. Z = E/I • When resistors and inductors are mixed together in circuits.87o Z = 40 + j30 = 50 36. just like resistance (R) and reactance (X). and impedances add to form the total impedance. • Series AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as series DC circuits: current is uniform throughout the circuit.4 Parallel resistorinductor circuits Let’s take the same components for our series example circuit and connect them in parallel: (Figure 3. I = E/Z . • A purely inductive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly +90o (ZL = XL Ω 90o ). 3.87o • REVIEW: • Impedance is the total measure of opposition to electric current and is the complex (vector) sum of (“real”) resistance and (“imaginary”) reactance. .
The approach is fundamentally the same as for DC.7699 3.14: Parallel RL circuit. we can begin our analysis table with the same “given” values: R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3.72 CHAPTER 3. they must also have the same values of impedance. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE E I R 53° E I R 10 V 60 Hz R 5Ω L 10 mH IR IL L IL I I = IR+ IL E = ER = EL Figure 3.7699 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EL 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Now we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically to two columns of the table. So. We know that voltage is shared uniformly by all components in a parallel circuit. so we can transfer the ﬁgure of total voltage (10 volts 0o ) to all components columns: R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3.7699 ∠ 90o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms The only difference in our analysis technique this time is that we will apply the rules of parallel circuits instead of the rules for series circuits. calculating current through the resistor and current through the inductor: .7699 3.
6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3. Zparallel = 1 1 1 1 + + .. branch currents in a parallel AC circuit add to form the total current (Kirchhoff ’s Current Law still holds true for AC as it did for DC): R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 .984o Volts Amps Ohms Finally. Z1 Z2 Zn The only problem with using this formula is that it typically involves a lot of calculator keystrokes to carry out.j2. and this example is no different. No matter which way you calculate total impedance (Ohm’s Law or the reciprocal formula). Incidentally. And if you’re determined to run through a formula like this “longhand.6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3. parallel impedance can also be calculated by using a reciprocal formula identical to that used in calculating parallel resistances.j2.6526 3.3221 ∠ 52.” be prepared for a very large amount of work! But.4.j2. PARALLEL RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 . we often have multiple options in calculating the quantities in our analysis tables.6526 2. total impedance can be calculated by using Ohm’s Law (Z=E/I) vertically in the “Total” column. you will arrive at the same ﬁgure: .7699 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Itotal = IR + IL Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 .7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 73 Ohm’s Law E I= Z Ohm’s Law E I= Z Just as with DC circuits..6526 2.3.7699 3.7699 3. just as with DC circuits.
Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = 1/(1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + .j2. .0102 ∠ 52.4035 3. the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . an inductor acts as a purely reactive device. like this: (Figure 3.984o 1.5 Inductor quirks In an ideal case.6526 2. the impedance of any real inductor will always be a complex combination of resistance and inductive reactance.8122 + j2. Compounding this problem is something called the skin effect.322 ∠ 52. However. using the reciprocal formula. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o .7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 . REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 .74 R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o CHAPTER 3. which is AC’s tendency to ﬂow through the outer areas of a conductor’s crosssection rather than through the middle. branch currents add to form the total current. I = E/Z . • Parallel AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as parallel DC circuits: voltage is uniform throughout the circuit. its opposition to AC current is strictly based on inductive reaction to changes in current.7699 3. and not electron friction as is the case with resistive components. 3. That is. 1/Zn ) • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ . .j2. and we know that all wire possesses some measurable amount of resistance (unless its superconducting wire). To begin with.6526 3. . This builtin resistance acts as though it were connected in series with the perfect inductance of the coil. they’re made of wire.984o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law Z= E I or Rule of parallel circuits: 1 Ztotal = 1 1 + ZR ZL • REVIEW: • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in parallel circuit analysis: parallel impedances diminish to form the total impedance. and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal formula) to form the total impedance. inductors are not quite so pure in their reactive behavior.15) Consequently. Z = E/I • When resistors and inductors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just as in series circuits).6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3.
which is not as good a conductor as copper.15: Inductor Equivalent circuit of a real inductor. When an inductor is energized with AC. on the other hand. The effect is more pronounced at higher frequencies. this process of “inductive heating” is often used in highpurity metal foundry operations. The skin effect becomes more pronounced as frequency increases. Electrons switching directions of ﬂow. and can be so extreme that it is sometimes exploited in manufacturing processes to heat metal objects! In fact. With the crosssection of the core divided up into many electrically isolated sections. These electric currents in the iron core have to overcome the electrical resistance offered by the iron. the alternating magnetic ﬁelds produced tend to induce circulating currents within the iron core known as eddy currents. Also. eddy currents can even develop within the crosssection of the wire itself. contributing to additional resistive effects. As you might have expected. there are other effects at work in ironcore inductors which manifest themselves as additional resistance between the leads. Eddy current losses are primarily counteracted by dividing the iron core up into many thin sheets (laminations). Added to the resistive losses of wire and radiation. current cannot circulate within that crosssectional area and there will be no (or very little) resistive losses from that effect. especially if the AC is of high frequency. and thus where standard combustion heating technology would be useless. eddy current losses in metallic inductor cores manifest themselves in the form of heat. This radiated energy does not return to the inductor.3. each one separated from the other by a thin layer of electrically insulating varnish. the alternating magnetic ﬁeld of an inductor energized with AC may radiate off into space as part of an electromagnetic wave. limiting the effective crosssectional area available. the heated substance not having to touch the coil(s) producing the magnetic ﬁeld. It is a “noncontact” technology. where metallic elements and alloys must be heated in a vacuum environment to avoid contamination by air. When electrons ﬂow in a single direction (DC). special . tend to avoid travel through the very middle of a conductor. and so it manifests itself as resistance (power dissipation) in the circuit. INDUCTOR QUIRKS 75 Equivalent circuit for a real inductor Wire resistance R Ideal inductor L Figure 3.5. To counteract this tendency. they use the entire crosssectional area of the conductor to move. In highfrequency service.
For some reason. The higher the value for “Q. which tends to be confusing. and hysteresis losses. A radio transmitter antenna. the Powers That Be decided to use the same letter of the alphabet to denote a totally different quantity. another value exists called the Q factor. It is worthy to note that the skin effect and radiation losses apply just as well to straight lengths of wire in an AC circuit as they do a coiled wire. radiation. any magnetic hysteresis that needs to be overcome with every reversal of the inductor’s magnetic ﬁeld constitutes an expenditure of energy that manifests itself as resistance in the circuit. radiation losses. eddy current.” the “purer” the inductor is. Usually their combined effect is too small to notice. or “quality factor” which is calculated as follows: Q= XL R The symbol “Q” has nothing to do with electric charge (coulombs). Because its so easy to add additional resistance if needed. and hysteresis losses) are expressed under the single term of “effective resistance:” (Figure 3.76 CHAPTER 3. Some core materials (such as ferrite) are particularly notorious for their hysteretic effect. The insulation separating strands from each other prevent eddy currents from circulating through the whole wire’s crosssectional area. Altogether.16) Equivalent circuit for a real inductor "Effective" resistance R Ideal inductor L Figure 3. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE wire made of very ﬁne. for example. but at radio frequencies they can be quite large. Effective resistance in an inductor can be a serious consideration for the AC circuit designer. the stray resistive properties of a real inductor (wire resistance. To help quantify the relative amount of effective resistance in an inductor. a highQ inductor is better than a lowQ inductor for design . eddy currents. individually insulated strands called Litz wire (short for Litzendraht) can be used. Additionally. Counteracting this effect is best done by means of proper core material selection and limits on the peak magnetic ﬁeld intensity generated with each cycle.16: Equivalent circuit of a real inductor with skineffect. is designed with the express purpose of dissipating the greatest amount of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
3. This effectively limits the crosssectional conductor area available to carry alternating electron ﬂow.17) Crosssectional area of a round conductor available for conducting DC current "DC resistance" Crosssectional area of the same conductor available for conducting lowfrequency AC "AC resistance" Crosssectional area of the same conductor available for conducting highfrequency AC "AC resistance" Figure 3. the skin effect is where alternating current tends to avoid travel through the center of a solid conductor.6. Due to the fact that the multiple turns of wire comprising inductors are separated from each other by an insulating gap (air. 3. since the resistive effects of inductors (wire skin effect. limiting itself to conduction near the surface. it must be speciﬁed at a particular test frequency. we have the potential for capacitance to develop between turns. However. MORE ON THE “SKIN EFFECT” 77 purposes.6 More on the “skin effect” As previously mentioned. . so will Q. In order for a Q value to have precise meaning. Q does not vary proportionally with reactance. increasing the resistance of that conductor above what it would normally be for direct current: (Figure 3. Because inductive reactance (X) varies with frequency. radiation losses. and therefore further “taints” the reactive purity of real inductors. but it sufﬁces to say at this point that it behaves very differently from AC inductance.17: Skin effect: skin depth decreases with increasing frequency. Stray resistance isn’t the only inductor quirk we need to be aware of. and hysteresis) also vary with frequency. with zero effective resistance. eddy current. An ideal inductor would have a Q of inﬁnity. or some other kind of electrical insulation). varnish. AC capacitance will be explored in the next chapter.
why not just use hollow metal rods instead of solid metal wires and save both weight and cost? (Figure 3. Since radiofrequency (“RF”) AC currents wouldn’t travel through the middle of a conductor anyway. for excellent conductivity at the “skin” of the tube: Figure 3. The inductors are hollow copper tubes coated with silver.” the “AC resistance” of the same conductor referring to a higher ﬁgure resulting from the skin effect. at high frequencies the AC current avoids travel through most of the conductor’s crosssectional area.18) Most antenna structures and RF power conductors are made of hollow metal tubes for this reason. The degree to which frequency affects the effective resistance of a solid wire conductor is impacted by the gauge of that wire.18: High power inductors formed from hollow tubes.78 CHAPTER 3. largegauge wires exhibit a more pronounced . For the purpose of conducting current. In the following photograph you can see some large inductors used in a 50 kW radio transmitting circuit. most notably) this effect is exploited. the wire might as well be hollow! In some radio applications (antennas. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE The electrical resistance of the conductor with all its crosssectional area in use is known as the “DC resistance. As a rule. As you can see.
are entirely different matters. This is simply an estimated ﬁgure of pure resistance for the conductor (that opposition to the AC ﬂow of electrons which does dissipate power in the form of heat).2 gives approximate values of “k” factor for various round wire sizes. gage size k factor gage size k factor 4/0 124.182 kΩ f 10 Please remember that this ﬁgure is not impedance.5 22 6. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.6 2 69. and it does not consider any reactive effects.3. corrected for the skin effect.8 18 10. Reactance.9  For example. The equation for approximating skin effect at high frequencies (greater than 1 MHz) is as follows: RAC = (RDC)(k) Where.6 1/0 88.7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.0 14 17. inductive or capacitive.2: “k” factor for various AWG wire sizes.5 8 34.9 4 55.182 kΩ at a frequency of 10 MHz: RAC = (RDC)(k) RAC = (25 Ω)(27. a length of number 10gauge wire with a DC endtoend resistance of 25 Ω would have an AC (effective) resistance of 2. CONTRIBUTORS 79 skin effect (change in resistance from DC) than smallgauge wires at any given frequency. Table 3.7.8 2/0 99. . from most recent to ﬁrst. and the combined effects of reactance and resistance (impedance). f RAC = AC resistance at given frequency "f" RDC = Resistance at zero frequency (DC) k = Wire gage factor (see table below) f = Frequency of AC in MHz (MegaHertz) Table 3.86 6 47.0 10 27.6) RAC = 2. 3.
Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE Jim Palmer (June 2001): Identiﬁed and offered correction for typographical error in complex number calculation.80 CHAPTER 3. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 AC resistor circuits ET I ER IR ET = ER I = IR R 0° IR ET Figure 4. . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . .2) Because the resistor allows an amount of current directly proportional to the voltage across it at all periods of time. . . . . . . . . .1: Pure resistive AC circuit: voltage and current are in phase. . . . . (Figure 4. AC capacitor circuits . . .1) it would look something like this: (Figure 4. . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . Contributors .Chapter 4 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE Contents 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a resistor. . . Series resistorcapacitor circuits . . . the waveform for the current is exactly in phase with the waveform for 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 AC resistor circuits . 81 83 87 92 95 97 4. . . . . . . . Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits Capacitor quirks . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a resistor still dissipates energy. the voltage is also negative. at the moment in time where the voltage across the resistor is at its positive peak. the current through the resistor is also at its positive peak. Whether the current is positive or negative. and so on. taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat energy. meaning the values at that instant in time). Conversely. the voltage is also positive. We can look at any point in time along the horizontal axis of the plot and compare those values of current and voltage with each other (any “snapshot” look at the values of a wave are referred to as instantaneous values. We can also calculate the power dissipated by this resistor.82 CHAPTER 4.2: Voltage and current “in phase” for resistive circuit. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE e= i= + Time  Figure 4. When the instantaneous value for voltage is zero. which results in a positive value for power (a negative number multiplied by a negative number equals a positive number). At any given point in time along the waves.3: Instantaneous AC power in a resistive circuit is always positive.3) e= i= p= + Time  Figure 4. This consistent “polarity” of power tells us that the resistor is always dissipating power. and plot those values on the same graph: (Figure 4. When the current is positive (above the line). the instantaneous current through the resistor is also zero. . Ohm’s Law holds true for the instantaneous values of voltage and current. resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positive value. Likewise. Note that the power is never a negative value. the voltage. when the current is negative (below the line).
capacitors oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current as they charge or discharge to the new voltage level. Expressed mathematically. Therefore. To show what happens with alternating current. the relationship between the current “through” the capacitor and rate of voltage change across the capacitor is as such: i=C de dt The expression de/dt is one from calculus. but it means the exact same thing. the instantaneous current is zero whenever the instantaneous voltage is . The capacitance (C) is in Farads.4.5: Pure capacitive circuit waveforms. the current through a capacitor is a reaction against the change in voltage across it. AC CAPACITOR CIRCUITS 83 4.2. let’s analyze a simple capacitor circuit: (Figure 4. Sometimes you will ﬁnd the rate of instantaneous voltage change over time expressed as dv/dt instead of de/dt: using the lowercase letter “v” instead or “e” to represent voltage. and the instantaneous current (i).2 AC capacitor circuits Capacitors do not behave the same as resistors.5) + e= i= Time Figure 4. is in amps. Remember. The ﬂow of electrons “through” a capacitor is directly proportional to the rate of change of voltage across the capacitor. This opposition to voltage change is another form of reactance.4: Pure capacitive circuit: capacitor voltage lags capacitor current by 90o If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit. of course. meaning the rate of change of instantaneous voltage (e) over time. it would look something like this: (Figure 4. but one that is precisely opposite to the kind exhibited by inductors. Whereas resistors allow a ﬂow of electrons through them directly proportional to the voltage drop. in volts per second.4) ET I VC IC EC ET = EC I = IC C 90° IC Figure 4.
(Figure 4. Looking at the graph. As you might have guessed. or level slope. and the instantaneous current is at a peak wherever the instantaneous voltage is at maximum change (the points of steepest slope on the voltage wave.7) + e= i= p= Time Figure 4. .6) voltage slope = 0 current = 0 voltage slope = max. the current “leads” the voltage.7: In a pure capacitive circuit. and the voltage “lags” behind the current. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE at a peak (zero change. where it crosses the zero line).84 CHAPTER 4.6: Voltage lags current by 90o in a pure capacitive circuit. on the voltage sine wave). the current wave seems to have a “head start” on the voltage wave. As with the simple inductor circuit. it merely absorbs and releases power. () Figure 4. () current = max. This means that a capacitor does not dissipate power as it reacts against changes in voltage. alternately. (+) e= i= Time + voltage slope = 0 current = 0 voltage slope = max. too: (Figure 4. the instantaneous power may be positive or negative. This results in a voltage wave that is 90o out of phase with the current wave. the same unusual power wave that we saw with the simple inductor circuit is present in the simple capacitor circuit. (+) current = max. the 90 degree phase shift between voltage and current results in a power wave that alternates equally between positive and negative.
which is by deﬁnition always changing in instantaneous magnitude and direction.8: Capacitive reactance.8) 10 V 60 Hz C 100 µF Figure 4. Inductors oppose faster changing currents by producing greater voltage drops.4. Alternating current in a simple capacitive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the capacitive reactance (in ohms). which is referred to as the angular velocity of the AC circuit. a capacitor of given size will “conduct” a certain magnitude of AC current. For any given magnitude of AC voltage at a given frequency.6366 Please note that the relationship of capacitive reactance to frequency is exactly opposite from that of inductive reactance. AC CAPACITOR CIRCUITS 85 A capacitor’s opposition to change in voltage translates to an opposition to alternating voltage in general. the reactance equation’s 2πf term may be replaced by the lowercase Greek letter Omega (ω). and the reactance offered by the capacitor. Conversely. Thus. (Table 4. the AC current through a capacitor is a function of the AC voltage across it. Just as the current through a resistor is a function of the voltage across the resistor and the resistance offered by the resistor. As with inductors. As with inductors.1) XC = 1 2πfC Table 4. and less current for slowerchanging voltages.2. Capacitive reactance (in ohms) decreases with increasing AC frequency. Since capacitors “conduct” current in proportion to the rate of voltage change. with ω cast in units of radians per second. just as either alternating or direct current in a simple resistive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the resistance (in ohms). What this means is that reactance in ohms for any capacitor is inversely proportional to the frequency of the alternating current.1: Reactance of a 100 uF capacitor: Frequency (Hertz) Reactance (Ohms) 60 26. inductive reactance (in ohms) increases with increasing AC frequency. they will pass more current for fasterchanging voltages (as they charge and discharge to the same voltage peaks in less time). . The following circuit illustrates this mathematical relationship by example: (Figure 4. the reactance of a capacitor is expressed in ohms and symbolized by the letter X (or XC to be more speciﬁc). the equation XC = 1/(2πfC) could also be written as XC = 1/(ωC).2629 2500 0.5258 120 13. capacitors oppose faster changing voltage drops by allowing greater currents.
the current has a phase shift of +90o with respect to the voltage.5258 Ω I = 0. If we represent these phase angles of voltage and current mathematically.3770 A ∠ 90o Opposition = Opposition = 26. especially for complex AC circuits where reactance and resistance interact. (Figure 4. and not just scalar quantities of resistance and reactance. we can calculate the phase angle of the capacitor’s reactive opposition to current. As was shown earlier.9: Voltage lags current by 90o in an inductor. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE XC = 26.3770 A However. meaning that a capacitor’s opposition to current is a negative imaginary quantity.5258 Ω ∠ 90o For a capacitor: 90o 90o I 0o E Opposition (XC) Figure 4. Opposition = Voltage Current 10 V ∠ 0o 0. Mathematically.5258 Ω I= I= E X 10 V 26.9) This phase angle of reactive opposition to current becomes critically important in circuit analysis. we need to keep in mind that voltage and current are not in phase here. we say that the phase angle of a capacitor’s opposition to current is 90o .86 CHAPTER 4. It will prove beneﬁcial to represent any component’s opposition to current in terms of complex numbers. .
4.3. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
• REVIEW:
87
• Capacitive reactance is the opposition that a capacitor offers to alternating current due to its phaseshifted storage and release of energy in its electric ﬁeld. Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter “X” and is measured in ohms just like resistance (R).
• Capacitive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XC = 1/(2πfC)
• Capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency. In other words, the higher the frequency, the less it opposes (the more it “conducts”) the AC ﬂow of electrons.
4.3
Series resistorcapacitor circuits
In the last section, we learned what would happen in simple resistoronly and capacitoronly AC circuits. Now we will combine the two components together in series form and investigate the effects. (Figure 4.10)
R ET I IR VC IC ET = ER+ EC I = IR = IC EC C
I ER
79.3°
R 10 V 60 Hz
5Ω
C
100 µF
ET
Figure 4.10: Series capacitor inductor circuit: voltage lags current by 0o to 90o . The resistor will offer 5 Ω of resistance to AC current regardless of frequency, while the capacitor will offer 26.5258 Ω of reactance to AC current at 60 Hz. Because the resistor’s resistance is a real number (5 Ω 0o , or 5 + j0 Ω), and the capacitor’s reactance is an imaginary number (26.5258 Ω 90o , or 0  j26.5258 Ω), the combined effect of the two components will be an opposition to current equal to the complex sum of the two numbers. The term for this complex opposition to current is impedance, its symbol is Z, and it is also expressed in the unit of ohms, just like resistance and reactance. In the above example, the total circuit impedance is:
88
CHAPTER 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
Ztotal = (5 Ω resistance) + (26.5258 Ω capacitive reactance) Ztotal = 5 Ω (R) + 26.5258 Ω (XC) Ztotal = (5 Ω ∠ 0o) + (26.5258 Ω ∠ 90o) or (5 + j0 Ω) + (0  j26.5258 Ω) Ztotal = 5  j26.5258 Ω or 26.993 Ω ∠ 79.325o
Impedance is related to voltage and current just as you might expect, in a manner similar to resistance in Ohm’s Law:
Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I
All quantities expressed in complex, not scalar, form
In fact, this is a far more comprehensive form of Ohm’s Law than what was taught in DC electronics (E=IR), just as impedance is a far more comprehensive expression of opposition to the ﬂow of electrons than simple resistance is. Any resistance and any reactance, separately or in combination (series/parallel), can be and should be represented as a single impedance. To calculate current in the above circuit, we ﬁrst need to give a phase angle reference for the voltage source, which is generally assumed to be zero. (The phase angles of resistive and capacitive impedance are always 0o and 90o , respectively, regardless of the given phase angles for voltage or current).
I= I=
E Z 10 V ∠ 0o 26.933 Ω ∠ 79.325o
I = 370.5 mA ∠ 79.325o
As with the purely capacitive circuit, the current wave is leading the voltage wave (of the source), although this time the difference is 79.325o instead of a full 90o . (Figure 4.11) As we learned in the AC inductance chapter, the “table” method of organizing circuit quantities is a very useful tool for AC analysis just as it is for DC analysis. Let’s place out known ﬁgures for this series circuit into a table and continue the analysis using this tool:
4.3. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
89
phase shift = 79.325 degrees + e= i= Time Figure 4.11: Voltage lags current (current leads voltage)in a series RC circuit.
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
C
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.623m + j364.06m 370.5m ∠ 79.325o Volts Amps Ohms
0  j26.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o
5  j26.5258 26.993 ∠ 79.325o
Current in a series circuit is shared equally by all components, so the ﬁgures placed in the “Total” column for current can be distributed to all other columns as well:
R E I Z 68.623m + j364.06m 370.5m ∠ 79.325o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 68.623m + j364.06m 370.5m ∠ 79.325o 0  j26.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o C Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.623m + j364.06m 370.5m ∠ 79.325o 5  j26.5258 26.993 ∠ 79.325o Volts Amps Ohms
Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IC
Continuing with our analysis, we can apply Ohm’s Law (E=IR) vertically to determine voltage across the resistor and capacitor:
90
R E I Z 343.11m + j1.8203 1.8523 ∠ 79.325o 68.623m + j364.06m 370.5m ∠ 79.325o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
C 9.6569  j1.8203 9.8269 ∠ 10.675o 68.623m + j364.06m 370.5m ∠ 79.325o 0  j26.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.623m + j364.06m 370.5m ∠ 79.325o 5  j26.5258 26.993 ∠ 79.325o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Notice how the voltage across the resistor has the exact same phase angle as the current through it, telling us that E and I are in phase (for the resistor only). The voltage across the capacitor has a phase angle of 10.675o , exactly 90o less than the phase angle of the circuit current. This tells us that the capacitor’s voltage and current are still 90o out of phase with each other. Let’s check our calculations with SPICE: (Figure 4.12)
1 10 V 60 Hz 0
R 5Ω C
2 100 µF 0
Figure 4.12: Spice circuit: RC.
ac rc circuit v1 1 0 ac 10 sin r1 1 2 5 c1 2 0 100u .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(1,2) v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac vp(1,2) vp(2,0) ip(v1) .end
4.3. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(1,2) 1.852E+00 vp(1,2) 7.933E+01 v(2) 9.827E+00 vp(2) 1.067E+01 i(v1) 3.705E01 ip(v1) 1.007E+02
91
Interpreted SPICE results ER = 1.852 V ∠ 79.33o EC = 9.827 V ∠ 10.67o I = 370.5 mA ∠ 100.7o
Once again, SPICE confusingly prints the current phase angle at a value equal to the real phase angle plus 180o (or minus 180o ). However, its a simple matter to correct this ﬁgure and check to see if our work is correct. In this case, the 100.7o output by SPICE for current phase angle equates to a positive 79.3o , which does correspond to our previously calculated ﬁgure of 79.325o . Again, it must be emphasized that the calculated ﬁgures corresponding to reallife voltage and current measurements are those in polar form, not rectangular form! For example, if we were to actually build this series resistorcapacitor circuit and measure voltage across the resistor, our voltmeter would indicate 1.8523 volts, not 343.11 millivolts (real rectangular) or 1.8203 volts (imaginary rectangular). Real instruments connected to real circuits provide indications corresponding to the vector length (magnitude) of the calculated ﬁgures. While the rectangular form of complex number notation is useful for performing addition and subtraction, it is a more abstract form of notation than polar, which alone has direct correspondence to true measurements. Impedance (Z) of a series RC circuit may be calculated, given the resistance (R) and the capacitive reactance (XC ). Since E=IR, E=IXC , and E=IZ, resistance, reactance, and impedance are proportional to voltage, respectively. Thus, the voltage phasor diagram can be replaced by a similar impedance diagram. (Figure 4.13)
ER ET I R IR EC IC C
37°
I ER
37°
I R XC
ET Voltage
EC
Z Impedance
Figure 4.13: Series: RC circuit Impedance phasor diagram. Example: Given: A 40 Ω resistor in series with a 88.42 microfarad capacitor. Find the impedance at 60 hertz.
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CHAPTER 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
XC = 1/2πfC) XC = 1/(2π·60·88.42×10−6 XC = 30 Ω Z = R  jXC Z = 40  j30 Z = sqrt(402 + (30)2 ) = 50 Ω Z = arctangent(30/40) = 36.87o Z = 40  j30 = 50 36.87o
• REVIEW: • Impedance is the total measure of opposition to electric current and is the complex (vector) sum of (“real”) resistance and (“imaginary”) reactance. • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in series circuit analysis: series impedances add to form the total impedance. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + . . . Zn • Please note that impedances always add in series, regardless of what type of components comprise the impedances. That is, resistive impedance, inductive impedance, and capacitive impedance are to be treated the same way mathematically. • A purely resistive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 0o (ZR = R Ω 0o ). • A purely capacitive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 90o (ZC = XC Ω 90o ). • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ ; I = E/Z ; Z = E/I • When resistors and capacitors are mixed together in circuits, the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . • Series AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as series DC circuits: current is uniform throughout the circuit, voltage drops add to form the total voltage, and impedances add to form the total impedance.
4.4
Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits
Using the same value components in our series example circuit, we will connect them in parallel and see what happens: (Figure 4.14) Because the power source has the same frequency as the series example circuit, and the resistor and capacitor both have the same values of resistance and capacitance, respectively, they must also have the same values of impedance. So, we can begin our analysis table with the same “given” values:
4.4. PARALLEL RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
93
E
I R
IR IC C
IC
10.7°
I 10 V 60 Hz E IR R 5Ω 100 µF C
I = IR+ IL E = ER = EC
Figure 4.14: Parallel RC circuit.
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
C
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
0  j26.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o
Ohms
This being a parallel circuit now, we know that voltage is shared equally by all components, so we can place the ﬁgure for total voltage (10 volts 0o ) in all the columns:
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o
C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
0  j26.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EC
Ohms
Now we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically to two columns in the table, calculating current through the resistor and current through the capacitor:
94
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376.99m 376.99m ∠ 90o 0  j26.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Just as with DC circuits, branch currents in a parallel AC circuit add up to form the total current (Kirchhoff ’s Current Law again):
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376.99m 376.99m ∠ 90o 0  j26.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Itotal = IR + IC Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j376.99m 2.0352 ∠ 10.675o Volts Amps Ohms
Finally, total impedance can be calculated by using Ohm’s Law (Z=E/I) vertically in the “Total” column. As we saw in the AC inductance chapter, parallel impedance can also be calculated by using a reciprocal formula identical to that used in calculating parallel resistances. It is noteworthy to mention that this parallel impedance rule holds true regardless of the kind of impedances placed in parallel. In other words, it doesn’t matter if we’re calculating a circuit composed of parallel resistors, parallel inductors, parallel capacitors, or some combination thereof: in the form of impedances (Z), all the terms are common and can be applied uniformly to the same formula. Once again, the parallel impedance formula looks like this:
Zparallel =
1 1 1 1 + ... + Z1 Z2 Zn
The only drawback to using this equation is the signiﬁcant amount of work required to work it out, especially without the assistance of a calculator capable of manipulating complex quantities. Regardless of how we calculate total impedance for our parallel circuit (either Ohm’s Law or the reciprocal formula), we will arrive at the same ﬁgure:
4.5. CAPACITOR QUIRKS
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376.99m 376.99m ∠ 90o 0  j26.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j376.99m 2.0352 ∠ 10.675o 4.8284  j910.14m 4.9135 ∠ 10.675o Volts Amps Ohms
95
Ohm’s Law E Z= I
or
Rule of parallel circuits: Ztotal = 1 1 1 + ZR ZC
• REVIEW: • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in parallel circuit analysis: parallel impedances diminish to form the total impedance, using the reciprocal formula. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = 1/(1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + . . . 1/Zn ) • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ ; I = E/Z ; Z = E/I • When resistors and capacitors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just as in series circuits), the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . • Parallel AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as parallel DC circuits: voltage is uniform throughout the circuit, branch currents add to form the total current, and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal formula) to form the total impedance.
4.5
Capacitor quirks
As with inductors, the ideal capacitor is a purely reactive device, containing absolutely zero resistive (power dissipative) effects. In the real world, of course, nothing is so perfect. However, capacitors have the virtue of generally being purer reactive components than inductors. It is a lot easier to design and construct a capacitor with low internal series resistance than it is to do the same with an inductor. The practical result of this is that real capacitors typically have impedance phase angles more closely approaching 90o (actually, 90o ) than inductors. Consequently, they will tend to dissipate less power than an equivalent inductor. Capacitors also tend to be smaller and lighter weight than their equivalent inductor counterparts, and since their electric ﬁelds are almost totally contained between their plates (unlike inductors, whose magnetic ﬁelds naturally tend to extend beyond the dimensions of the core),
96
CHAPTER 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
they are less prone to transmitting or receiving electromagnetic “noise” to/from other components. For these reasons, circuit designers tend to favor capacitors over inductors wherever a design permits either alternative. Capacitors with signiﬁcant resistive effects are said to be lossy, in reference to their tendency to dissipate (“lose”) power like a resistor. The source of capacitor loss is usually the dielectric material rather than any wire resistance, as wire length in a capacitor is very minimal. Dielectric materials tend to react to changing electric ﬁelds by producing heat. This heating effect represents a loss in power, and is equivalent to resistance in the circuit. The effect is more pronounced at higher frequencies and in fact can be so extreme that it is sometimes exploited in manufacturing processes to heat insulating materials like plastic! The plastic object to be heated is placed between two metal plates, connected to a source of highfrequency AC voltage. Temperature is controlled by varying the voltage or frequency of the source, and the plates never have to contact the object being heated. This effect is undesirable for capacitors where we expect the component to behave as a purely reactive circuit element. One of the ways to mitigate the effect of dielectric “loss” is to choose a dielectric material less susceptible to the effect. Not all dielectric materials are equally “lossy.” A relative scale of dielectric loss from least to greatest is given in Table 4.2. Table 4.2: Dielectric loss Material Loss Vacuum Low Air Polystyrene Mica Glass LowK ceramic Plastic ﬁlm (Mylar) Paper HighK ceramic Aluminum oxide Tantalum pentoxide high Dielectric resistivity manifests itself both as a series and a parallel resistance with the pure capacitance: (Figure 4.15) Fortunately, these stray resistances are usually of modest impact (low series resistance and high parallel resistance), much less signiﬁcant than the stray resistances present in an average inductor. Electrolytic capacitors, known for their relatively high capacitance and low working voltage, are also known for their notorious lossiness, due to both the characteristics of the microscopically thin dielectric ﬁlm and the electrolyte paste. Unless specially made for AC service, electrolytic capacitors should never be used with AC unless it is mixed (biased) with a constant DC voltage preventing the capacitor from ever being subjected to reverse voltage. Even then, their resistive characteristics may be too severe a shortcoming for the application anyway.
4.6. CONTRIBUTORS
97
Equivalent circuit for a real capacitor
Rseries
Ideal capacitor
Rparallel
Figure 4.15: Real capacitor has both series and parallel resistance.
4.6
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions, from most recent to ﬁrst. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting, which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE .98 CHAPTER 4.
. . . . . . . 101 Parallel R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When alternating current goes through a pure reactance. . . . and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Z . . . . . . . . . L. . . . . . . Reactance is essentially inertia against the motion of electrons. . . respectively. . . . . . . . . . . . X. . . . . When alternating current goes through a resistance. . most notably in resistors. . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . and capacitors connected together in the same AC circuits. . . . . 99 . . . . . . . . but most notably in capacitors and inductors. inductors. . . . . . . X. . 120 Contributors . . . .2 5. Reactance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “X” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). .4 5. . . . . .1 Review of R. . a voltage drop is produced that is 90o out of phase with the current. L. . Resistance is essentially friction against the motion of electrons. . . .Chapter 5 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. . . L. . . . . . . . . . 99 Series R. . . . . . . . . Resistance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “R” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). . . . . . . . . . . . . . It is present anywhere electric or magnetic ﬁelds are developed in proportion to applied voltage or current. . . .5 5. 119 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . and Z Before we begin to explore the effects of resistors. . . . . . . . AND C Contents 5. . . . . . . 106 Seriesparallel R. . .1 5. . . . 120 5. . . . . It is present in all conductors to some extent (except superconductors!). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L. . let’s brieﬂy review some basic terms and facts. . . and C . . . . . . . . . a voltage drop is produced that is inphase with the current. . .7 Review of R. . . . . . . . . and C . .3 5. . 110 Susceptance and Admittance .
It is present in all circuits. it makes sense to translate all component values (resistance. voltage drop always leads current by 90o . and so a capacitor’s impedance phase angle is said to be 90o . REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. the concept of power in AC circuits is radically different from that of DC circuits. When alternating current goes through an impedance.1) possess reactance but no resistance.15 Hz R=0Ω X = 100 Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 90o Figure 5. While this qualiﬁed equivalence may be arithmetically challenging. the voltage drop and current are always in phase with each other. but not reactance. For a perfect resistor. More on this subject in a later chapter! . For an perfect inductor. looks like this: Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I All quantities expressed in complex. including both resistance and reactance. and they diminish in parallel. The impedance phase angle for any component is the phase shift between voltage across that component and current through that component. it is conceptually simple and elegant. a voltage drop is produced that is somewhere between 0o and 90o out of phase with the current. and so an inductor’s impedance phase angle is said to be +90o . and because of this universal quality. voltage drop always lags current by 90o . Perfect resistors (Figure 5. AND C Impedance is a comprehensive expression of any and all forms of opposition to electron ﬂow. and so the impedance angle of a resistor is said to be 0o .100 CHAPTER 5. form Kirchhoff ’s Laws and all network analysis methods and theorems are true for AC circuits as well. in complex form. L. and in all components. A revised version of Ohm’s Law.15 Hz R=0Ω X = 100 Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 90 o Capacitor 10 µF 159. so long as quantities are represented in complex rather than scalar form. All components possess impedance. Perfect inductors and perfect capacitors (Figure 5. based on impedance rather than resistance. and capacitor. not scalar. inductor. Impedance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “Z” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). capacitance) into common terms of impedance as the ﬁrst step in analyzing an AC circuit. inductance. Resistor 100 Ω Inductor R = 100 Ω X=0Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 0 o 100 mH 159. For a perfect capacitor. Because reactance doesn’t dissipate power as resistance does. Impedances in AC behave analogously to resistances in DC circuits: they add in series.1: Perfect resistor.1) possess resistance. The only real difference between DC and AC circuit calculations is in regard to power.
Resistance. L.04 Ω 1 2πfC 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(1.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o .5. while a capacitive reactance translates into a negative imaginary impedance (impedance at 90o ).5 µF) XC = XC = XC = 1.2) R 250 Ω 120 V 60 Hz C 1.7684 kΩ The next step is to express all resistances and reactances in a mathematically common form: impedance. SERIES R.2: Example series R. (Figure 5.04 Ω or 245. L.2. L. AND C 101 5.j1. of course.5 µF Figure 5. and C circuit.04 Ω ∠ 90o ZC = 0 .3) Remember that an inductive reactance translates into a positive imaginary impedance (or an impedance at +90o ).2 Series R. L 650 mH XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(60 Hz)(650 mH) XL = 245. is still regarded as a purely “real” impedance (polar angle of 0o ): ZR = 250 + j0 Ω or 250 Ω ∠ 0o ZL = 0 + j245. and C Let’s take the following example circuit and analyze it: (Figure 5. The ﬁrst step is to determine the reactances (in ohms) for the inductor and the capacitor.7684k Ω or 1.
and capacitor). they can be handled in the same way as plain resistances in a DC circuit. Since the above example circuit is a series circuit. This is an ideal time to draw up an analysis table for this circuit and insert all the “given” ﬁgures (total voltage. Remember that there is no such thing as an “absolute” angle of phase shift for a voltage or current.5233k Ω or 1. inductor. and the impedances of the resistor.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Unless otherwise speciﬁed. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. and not as resistances or reactances).04 245. and so will be written at an angle of 0o . inductor.j1. are known absolutely.j1. L.3: Example series R.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o Figure 5. L. the source voltage will be our reference for phase shift.7684k 1. Notice that I’m assuming a perfectly reactive inductor and capacitor.j1. because the phase relationships between voltage and current at each component are absolutely deﬁned.7684k Ω) Ztotal = 250 . Phase angles for impedance. and capacitor).102 CHAPTER 5.04 Ω ∠ 90o Now.04 ∠ 90o 0 . with impedance phase angles of exactly +90 and 90o . they should be fairly close. ZL 245.04 Ω) + (0 . For simplicity. respectively. R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245. complex number format (as impedances. since its always a quantity relative to another waveform. AND C ZR 250 Ω ∠ 0o 120 V 60 Hz ZC 1. so: Ztotal = ZR + ZL + ZC Ztotal = (250 + j0 Ω) + (0 + j245. we know that the total circuit impedance is equal to the sum of the individuals. with all quantities of opposition to electric current expressed in a common. and C circuit with component values replaced by impedances. I’ll assume perfectly reactive inductors and capacitors from now on in my example calculations except where noted otherwise. Although real components won’t be perfect in this regard.680o Inserting this ﬁgure for total impedance into our table: . however (like those of the resistor.5437 kΩ ∠ 80.
589m + 76.734m ∠ 80.7684k 1.589m + 76.680o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E I= Z Being a series circuit. we can take the ﬁgure obtained for total current and distribute it to each of the other columns: R E I Z 12.5233k 1.589m + 76.734m ∠ 80. AND C R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.04 ∠ 90o 0 .04 ∠ 90o 0 .j1.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.j1.734m ∠ 80.589m + 76.708m 77.04 245. L.708m 77.2.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.5437k ∠ 80.734m ∠ 80.5.734m ∠ 80.7684k ∠ 90o Rule of series circuits: Ztotal = ZR + ZL + ZC 250 .708m 77.680o Volts Amps Ohms Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IL = IC Now we’re prepared to apply Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) to each of the individual component columns in the table.589m + 76.708m 77.708m 77.680o 0 .j1.680o 250 .680o 0 + j245.j1.680o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 12.04 245.7684k 1.7684k 1. to determine voltage drops: .5437k ∠ 80.5437k ∠ 80.04 245.5233k 1.5233k 1.680o 250 .04 ∠ 90o 12. current must be equal through all components.j1. Thus.j1. SERIES R.680o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 103 We can now apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/R) vertically in the “Total” column to ﬁnd total current for this series circuit: R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.
04 ∠ 90o Ohm’s Law E = IZ Ohm’s Law E = IZ Ohm’s Law E = IZ Notice something strange here: although our supply voltage is only 120 volts.7684k 1. they tend to cancel each other out! Although they’re still added together to produce a sum.734m ∠ 80. AND C C 135. and capacitor should equal the applied voltage from the source.589m + 76.04 245. If the total impedance in a series circuit with both inductive and capacitive elements is less than the impedance of either element separately.680o Volts Amps Ohms 18.5233k 1.680o 0 .3199o 12.589m + 76. the inductor’s impedance has a positive imaginary term and the capacitor has a negative imaginary term. Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) still holds true.5437k ∠ 80. then the total current in that circuit must be greater than what it would be with only the inductive or only the capacitive elements there. To demonstrate Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law in an AC circuit.104 R E I Z 3.589m + 76. using impedances (Z) instead of resistances (R).048 ∠ 170. a bit of complex number addition proves otherwise: .708m 77.734m ∠ 80. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. With the exception of equations dealing with power (P). the voltage across the capacitor is 137. When these two contrary impedances are added (in series). and so do Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws. we can see that the inductor opposes current in a manner precisely opposite that of the capacitor. voltages greater than the source voltage may be obtained across some of the individual components! Further consequences of inductors’ and capacitors’ opposite reactances in the same circuit will be explored in the next chapter.1472 + j19.0848 19.j1. analyzing any AC circuit is only about as difﬁcult as analyzing any DC circuit.680o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L CHAPTER 5.46 ∠ 9.68o 12. that sum is actually less than either of the individual (capacitive or inductive) impedances alone. KVL tells us that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops across the resistor.680o 250 .177 19. Once you’ve mastered the technique of reducing all component values to impedances (Z).708m 77.680o 0 + j245.j1. It is analogous to adding together a positive and a negative (scalar) number: the sum is a quantity less than either one’s individual absolute value.65 .708m 77.589m + 76. Expressed in rectangular form. Even though this may not look like it is true at ﬁrst sight.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12. except that the quantities dealt with are vector instead of scalar. With this abnormally high current through each of the components.734m ∠ 80.680o 12. equations in AC circuits are the same as those in DC circuits.j22. Expressed as impedances.797 + j3. inductor. L. we can look at the answers we derived for component voltage drops in the last circuit.708m 77.734m ∠ 80.434 ∠ 80.46 volts! How can this be? The answer lies in the interaction between the inductive and capacitive reactances.262 137.
375E+02 vp(3) 9.797 + j3.1472 + j19.2) vp(2.0848 V + 135.4: Example series R.707E+02 v(3) 1.0) ip(v1) .905E+01 vp(2.0) i(v1) . ac rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 120 sin r1 1 2 250 l1 2 3 650m c1 3 0 1. L.320E+00 i(v1) 7.000E+01 freq 6.262 V 120 + j0 V EL EC Etotal Aside from a bit of rounding error.2) 1. the sum of these voltage drops does equal 120 volts. and C SPICE circuit. L.000E+01 v(1.177 V ER 18.65 .4) 1 120 V 60 Hz R 250 Ω L C 2 650 mH 0 1.2) 8.3) v(3.773E02 ip(v1) 9.5 µF 3 Figure 5.3) 1.end freq 6. SERIES R.ac lin 1 60 60 .932E+01 .2.print ac v(1.print ac vp(1.5u .3) 1. Performed on a calculator (preserving all digits).2) v(2.068E+01 v(2.3) vp(3. We can also use SPICE to verify our ﬁgures for this circuit: (Figure 5.j22. AND C 105 ER + EL + EC should equal Etotal 3.943E+01 vp(1. the answer you will receive should be exactly 120 + j0 volts.5.
3 Parallel R. and resistance (actually.5 µF Figure 5.5) 120 V 60 Hz R 250 Ω L 650 mH C 1. This may lead to voltage drops across components exceeding the supply voltage! • All rules and laws of DC circuits apply to AC circuits. As you can see. The only exception to this consistency is the calculation of power.32o (actual phase angle = 80.43 V ∠ 80. The only exception to this principle is the calculation of power. Zn • Although impedances add in series. This is good. L. and C We can take the same components from the series circuit and rearrange them into a parallel conﬁguration for an easy example circuit: (Figure 5.7o EC = 137.05 V ∠ 170. . except that all quantities of voltage.5: Example R.5 V ∠ 9. AND C Interpreted SPICE results ER = 19. the total impedance for a circuit containing both inductance and capacitance may be less than one or more of the individual impedances. there is little difference between AC circuit analysis and DC circuit analysis. L.320o I = 77. since it means all you’ve learned about DC electric circuits applies to what you’re learning here. which is so unique that it deserves a chapter devoted to that subject alone. . REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. and C parallel circuit. So long as the power supply is the same .73 mA ∠ 99. 5. L. The fact that these components are connected in parallel instead of series now has absolutely no effect on their individual impedances.68o) The SPICE simulation shows our handcalculated results to be accurate. • REVIEW: • Impedances of any kind add in series: ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + . which is very different for AC. because series inductive and capacitive impedances tend to cancel each other out.106 CHAPTER 5.68o EL = 19. current. impedance) must be handled in complex rather than scalar form so as to account for phase angle. so long as values are expressed in complex form rather than scalar.
we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in each column to determine current through each component: .7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Knowing that voltage is shared equally by all components in a parallel circuit.7684k ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EL = EC 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o L 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Now.04 Ω ∠ 90o Figure 5.04 245.3.04 ∠ 90o 0 .j1. PARALLEL R.7684k 1.5.6: Example R. and C parallel circuit with impedances replacing component values.04 245.j1. we can set up an analysis table and proceed as in the last example problem.6) With all component values expressed as impedances (Z). AND C 107 120 V 60 Hz ZR 250 Ω ∠ 0o ZL ZC 1. L.7684k 1. L.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o 245. we can transfer the ﬁgure for total voltage to all component columns in the table: R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245. frequency as before. except this time following the rules of parallel circuits instead of series: R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.04 ∠ 90o 0 . the inductive and capacitive reactances will not have changed at all: (Figure 5.
then convert them all to rectangular form for addition. we could calculate total impedance from all the individual impedances in parallel (ZT otal = 1/(1/ZR + 1/ZL + 1/ZC ).j1. performed properly. and then calculate total current by dividing source voltage by total impedance (I=E/Z).858m ∠ 90o 0 . will provide the correct answers.71m ∠ 90o 0 + j245.7) .7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 .71m ∠ 90o 0 + j245.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m .04 ∠ 90o Ohm’s Law E I= Z Ohm’s Law E I= Z Ohm’s Law E I= Z There are two strategies for calculating total current and total impedance.71m 489. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.04 ∠ 90o C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 + j67.108 R E I Z 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m + j0 480 ∠ 0o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L CHAPTER 5.7684k 1. This is especially true if you’re unfortunate enough not to have a calculator that handles complex numbers and are forced to do it all by hand (reciprocate the individual impedances in polar form.79 ∠ 41.j489. The second way to calculate total current and total impedance is to add up all the branch currents to arrive at total current (total current in a parallel circuit – AC or DC – is equal to the sum of the branch currents).05 + j123.96 187.04 245.04 245. AND C C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 + j67. then invert). with all the reciprocations (1/Z). then convert back to polar form for the ﬁnal inversion.858m 67.7684k 1.311o Volts Amps Ohms Either method. However.71m 489. R E I Z 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m + j0 480 ∠ 0o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 .j421.03m ∠ 41. First.858m ∠ 90o 0 .j489. then use Ohm’s Law to determine total impedance from total voltage and total current (Z=E/I). working through the parallel impedance equation with complex numbers is no easy task. Let’s try analyzing this circuit with SPICE and see what happens: (Figure 5.j1. L.858m 67.311o 141.85m 639.
000E+00 i(vil) 4.897E01 ip(vil) 9. PARALLEL R.3.7: Example parallel R. ac rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 120 sin vi 1 2 ac 0 vir 2 3 ac 0 vil 2 4 ac 0 rbogus 4 5 1e12 vic 2 6 ac 0 r1 3 0 250 l1 5 0 650m c1 6 0 1. All are set to 0 volts.5 µF 0 0 Figure 5.000E+01 i(vi) 6.000E+01 .000E+01 freq 6. Battery symbols are “dummy” voltage sources for SPICE to use as current measurement points.print ac i(vi) i(vir) i(vil) i(vic) .000E+01 i(vic) 6. L. and C SPICE circuit.390E01 ip(vi) 4. AND C 109 2 Vir Vi 3 1 120 V 60 Hz 0 R 2 Vil 4 2 Vic Rbogus 5 250 Ω L 650 mH 0 C 2 6 1. L.print ac ip(vi) ip(vir) ip(vil) ip(vic) .131E+01 i(vir) 4.786E02 ip(vic) 9.ac lin 1 60 60 .800E01 ip(vir) 0.5u .5.end freq 6.
is to determine values of impedance (Z) for all components based on the frequency of the AC power source. it should come as no surprise that seriesparallel analysis would be the same as well.86 mA ∠ 90o It took a little bit of trickery to get SPICE working as we would like on this circuit (installing “dummy” voltage sources in each branch to obtain current ﬁgures and installing the “dummy” resistor in the inductor branch to prevent a direct inductortovoltage source loop.5 µF R 470 Ω Figure 5.0 mA ∠ 41.8: Example seriesparallel R. we were able to avoid that idiosyncrasy of SPICE of printing current ﬁgures 180o out of phase. just using complex numbers instead of scalar to represent voltage. current. and C Now that we’ve seen how series and parallel AC circuit analysis is not fundamentally different than DC circuit analysis. This way. The ﬁrst order of business. by installing the dummy voltage sources (current meters) in the proper directions. and C circuit. 5. L.7 µF 120 V 60 Hz L C2 650 mH 1. L. Take this seriesparallel circuit for example: (Figure 5. Even more than that.8) C1 4.7 mA ∠ 90o IC = 67. and impedance.110 CHAPTER 5.31o IR = 480 mA ∠ 0o IL = 489. we need to ﬁrst determine values of reactance (X) for all inductors and capacitors. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. but we did get the proper readings. AND C Interpreted SPICE results Itotal = 639. To do this. our current phase readings came out to exactly match our hand calculations. then convert reactance (X) and resistance (R) ﬁgures into proper impedance (Z) form: .4 Seriesparallel R. which SPICE cannot tolerate). L. as usual.
j564. so I will place a new row of columns underneath.5 µF) XC2 = XC2 = R = 470 Ω XC2 = 1. by adding their impedances together. In order that our table may follow all these steps. it will be necessary to add additional columns to it so that each step may be represented.5.7 µF) XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(60 Hz)(650 mH) XL = 245.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o ZR = 470 + j0 Ω or 470 Ω ∠ 0o Now we can set up the initial values in our table: C1 E I Z 0 . Adding more columns horizontally to the table shown above would be impractical for formatting reasons. each column designated by its respective component combination: . that impedance will be combined in parallel with the impedance of the resistor.j1.38 564. we must reduce it to a total impedance in more than one step.4.04 Ω or 245. AND C Reactances and Resistances: XC1 = XC1 = 1 2πfC1 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(4. that quantity will be added to the impedance of C1 to arrive at the total impedance.j1.7684 kΩ ZC1 = 0 . Then.7684k 1. SERIESPARALLEL R.38 Ω ∠ 90o ZL = 0 + j245. Finally. L. to arrive at another combination of impedances.j564.04 245.38 Ω or 564.04 Ω 111 XC1 = 564.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o L C2 R Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Being a seriesparallel combination circuit.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245. The ﬁrst step is to combine L and C2 as a series combination of impedances.04 Ω ∠ 90o ZC2 = 0 .38 Ω 1 2πfC2 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(1.04 ∠ 90o 0 .7684k Ω or 1.
C2 E I Z 0 .371o ) and the total voltage (120 volts 0o ). L.41 449.j696.34 ∠ 58.j132.C2) Total C1 .C2) Calculating these new (combination) impedances will require complex addition for series combinations. we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in the “Total” column to arrive at a ﬁgure for total current: .15 .5233k 1. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.112 CHAPTER 5.C2)] Volts Amps Ohms L .j1. AND C Total C1 . there is no avoidance of the reciprocal formula: the required ﬁgures can be arrived at no other way! L .11 ∠ 17.34 Ω 58.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 429.79 818. and the “reciprocal” formula for complex impedances in parallel.[R // (L .15 .5233k ∠ 90o R // (L .” we can safely discard that column from the ﬁrst table. This time.[R // (L . This gives us one table with four columns and another table with three columns.371o Ohms Rule of series circuits: ZLC2 = ZL + ZC2 Rule of parallel circuits: 1 ZR//(LC2) = 1 1 + ZR ZLC2 Rule of series circuits: Ztotal = ZC1 + ZR//(LC2) Seeing as how our second table contains a column for “Total. Now that we know the total impedance (818.C2 E I Z R // (L .147o 429.
38 564.86m 146.371o 0 .86m 146.64m ∠ 58.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 76.34 ∠ 58.899m + j124.5233k 1.j564.899m + j124.5.5233k 1.15 .C2) Total C1 .04 245.371o Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IC1 = IR//(LC2) Now. we can calculate voltage drops across C1 and the seriesparallel combination of R//(L−−C2 ) using Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) vertically in those table columns: .j696.371o 429.79 818.11 ∠ 17.j1. SERIESPARALLEL R.64m ∠ 58.86m 146.15 . AND C Total C1 .147o 429.C2 E I Z R // (L .j696.371o Volts Amps Ohms 113 L .41 449.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.41 449.j1.34 ∠ 58.86m 146.11 ∠ 17.147o 76.C2) Ohm’s Law E I= Z At this point we ask ourselves the question: are there any components or component combinations which share either the total voltage or the total current? In this case.15 .899m + j124.64m ∠ 58.15 .[R // (L .5233k ∠ 90o 429.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.C2 E I Z 0 .64m ∠ 58.j132.[R // (L .j132.5233k ∠ 90o R // (L .j1.79 818.371o 429. Thus. both C1 and the parallel combination R//(L−−C2 ) share the same (total) current.4. since the total impedance is composed of the two sets of impedances in series.371o 0 .7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o L C2 R Volts Amps Ohms Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IC1 = IR//(LC2) L . L.7684k 1.899m + j124. we can transfer the ﬁgure for total current into both columns: C1 E I Z 76.04 ∠ 90o 0 .
371o 429.j132.86m 146.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.04 245.7684k 1.899m + j124.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Ohms Ohm’s Law E = IZ L . because those sets of impedances are in parallel with each other.400 82.400 V + 49.371o 429. According to Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law.467 .j696.38 564.114 C1 E I Z 70.5233k 1.225o 76. Occasional crosschecks like that one can save a person a lot of work and unnecessary frustration by identifying problems prior to the ﬁnal step of the problem. we can transfer the voltage ﬁgure just solved for into the columns for R and L−−C2 : .5233k ∠ 90o R // (L .629o 76.86m 146.41 449.38 ∠ 90o L CHAPTER 5.04 ∠ 90o 0 . there is much opportunity for error.C2 E I Z 0 .64m ∠ 58.400 65. they should! Etotal should be equal to EC1 + ER//(LC2) 70.64m ∠ 58.j1.C2) 49. Therefore.34 ∠ 58.15 . we again ask ourselves the question: what other components share the same voltage or current? In this case.15 .371o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E = IZ A quick doublecheck of our work at this point would be to see whether or not the voltage drops across C1 and the seriesparallel combination of R//(L−−C2 ) indeed add up to the total.[R // (L .400 V 120 + j0 V Indeed. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.899m + j124.j564.467 . it is! That last step was merely a precaution.533 + j43.j1.760 ∠ 31. the resistor (R) and the combination of the inductor and the second capacitor (L−−C2 ) share the same voltage. AND C C2 R Volts Amps 0 + j245. L.64m ∠ 58.533 + j43.371o 0 .147o Total C1 . In a problem with as many steps as this one has.79 818.86m 146.j43.857 ∠ 41.899m + j124. After having solved for voltage drops across C1 and the combination R//(L−−C2 ).11 ∠ 17.j43.
64m ∠ 58.225o Volts Amps Ohms 115 L .5233k ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: ER//(LC2) = ER = ELC2 49.C2) 49.79 818.760 ∠ 31.467 .4.41 449.400 65.467 .j564.400 65.15 .7684k ∠ 90o L C2 R 49.j696.371o 0 . SERIESPARALLEL R.j132. AND C C1 E I Z 70.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Rule of parallel circuits: ER//(LC2) = ER = ELC2 L C2 R 49.857 ∠ 41.j43.760 ∠ 31.899m + j124.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.j564.C2 E I Z 0 .86m 146.86m 146.34 ∠ 58.899m + j124.857 ∠ 41.857 ∠ 41.371o 429.400 82.533 + j43.38 564.7684k 1.899m + j124.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.7684k 1.[R // (L .64m ∠ 58.5.04 245.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.533 + j43.533 + j43.371o Volts Amps Ohms Now we’re all set for calculating current through the resistor and through the series combination L−−C2 .64m ∠ 58.341m 140.64m ∠ 58.147o Total C1 .225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Ohm’s Law E I= Z .15 . L.400 65.86m 146.225o 105.12m ∠ 41.371o 429.5233k 1.225o 76.39m + j92.j1.11 ∠ 17.400 65.86m 146.04 ∠ 90o 0 . All we need to do is apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in both of those columns: C1 E I Z 70.j1.371o 0 .629o 76.629o 76.400 82.j43.04 ∠ 90o 0 .225o R // (L .857 ∠ 41.533 + j43.899m + j124.04 245.j1.38 564.
j43.371o Volts Amps Ohms L .j696.12m ∠ 41.04 ∠ 90o 0 .64m ∠ 58.899m + j124.5233k ∠ 90o 429.899m + j124.533 + j43. With impedance and current ﬁgures in place for L and C2 .15 .225o R // (L .j1.22o 146.490m + j32.j132.899m + j124.400 65.857 ∠ 41.400 65.j564.232m ∠ 131. all we have to do is apply Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) vertically in those two columns to calculate voltage drops.7684k 1. AND C Total C1 .629o 76.225o 105.86m Indeed.86m 146.7684k ∠ 90o L C2 R 49.86m 43.38 ∠ 90o 28.371o 0 . two calculations).5233k 1.533 + j43.516m 76. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. and since we know the current through their series combination impedance.232m ∠ 131.760 ∠ 31.857 ∠ 41. we can complete our analysis table for this circuit.15 .64m ∠ 58.C2) 49.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms Rule of series circuits: ILC2 = IL = IC2 With one last step (actually.490m + j32.341m + 28.371o 0 .11 ∠ 17.341m 140.116 CHAPTER 5.64m ∠ 58.533 + j43. we can distribute that current ﬁgure to the L and C2 columns following the rule of series circuits whereby series components share the same current: C1 E I Z 70.39m + j92.04 245.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.86m 146.516m 76.232m ∠ 131.[R // (L .516m 43.467 . L. According to Kirchhoff ’s Current Law.22o 43.899m + j124.490m + j32.39m + j92.j1.857 ∠ 41.516m 28.79 818.490m + j32. they should: IR//(LC2) should be equal to IR + I(LC2) 105.371o 429.38 564.22o 0 + j245.C2 E I Z 49.147o Ohm’s Law E I= Z Another quick doublecheck of our work at this point would be to see if the current ﬁgures for L−−C2 and R add up to the total current.400 82.41 449. .400 65.225o 28.34 ∠ 58. it is! Since the L and C2 are connected in series.
12m ∠ 41. and current phase angle for C1 .j6. as do the voltage and current Laws of Kirchhoff.225 R 49. let’s turn to SPICE for a computer veriﬁcation of our work: 2 C1 4.7684k ∠ 90o Ohm’s Law E = IZ Ohm’s Law E = IZ Now.594 ∠ 221.857 ∠ 41.371o 0 . L. C2 . voltage phase angle.490m + j32.225o 105.5 µF 0 0 0 Figure 5.04 ∠ 90o 0 .451 ∠ 41. in that order.j1.39m + j92. L.533 + j43.490m + j32.22o 0 + j245.04 245.400 65. it must be emphasized that there is nothing really new going on here besides the use of complex numbers.7 µF more "dummy" voltage sources to act as current measurement points in the SPICE analysis (all set to 0 volts). While there is more potential for human error in carrying out the necessary complex number calculations. C SPICE circuit. AND C C1 E I Z 70. current. As you can see.9: Example seriesparallel R.j43.341m 140.516m 43. 3 Vir 4 6 R 470 Ω 3 Vit 1 120 V 60 Hz Vilc L 5 C2 650 mH 1. SERIESPARALLEL R.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms 117 28.22o 43.38 564.5. these ﬁgures do concur with our handcalculated ﬁgures in the circuit analysis table.467 .232m ∠ 131.968 .232m ∠ 131. As daunting a task as seriesparallel AC circuit analysis may appear.981 10.4.7684k 1.760 ∠ 31.38 ∠ 90o L 7.400 82. L.899m + j124.629o 76.516m 28.22o C2 57. Each line of the SPICE output listing gives the voltage.382 76.64m ∠ 58. Ohm’s Law (in its new form of E=IZ) still holds true. .501 + j50.j564. the basic principles and techniques of seriesparallel circuit reduction are exactly the same. and R.86m 146.
5) vp(4. inductor.5u r 6 0 470 .3) .5) 1. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.0) . That way.312E+02 C2 freq 6.466E01 ip(vit) 5. all component values will be expressed in common terms (Z) instead of an incompatible mix of resistance (R).059E+01 vp(4. .end circuit i(vit) ip(vit) i(vilc) ip(vilc) i(vilc) ip(vilc) i(vir) ip(vir) freq 6. you must determine the impedance (Z) of every resistor.3) vp(2.000E+01 v(6) 6.837E+01 C1 freq 6.122E+01 i(vir) 1.323E02 ip(vilc) 1.5) 1.5) .586E+01 vp(6) 4.print ac v(6. L.3) 3.000E+01 v(4.000E+01 v(2. and capacitance (C).312E+02 L freq 6. The only substantive difference is that all ﬁgures and calculations are in complex (not scalar) form.print ac v(4. inductance (L).0) vp(5.0) .645E+01 vp(5) 4.118 CHAPTER 5.401E01 ip(vir) 4.122E+01 R • REVIEW: • Analysis of seriesparallel AC circuits is much the same as seriesparallel DC circuits. • It is important to remember that before seriesparallel reduction (simpliﬁcation) can begin.163E+01 i(vit) 1.print ac v(5.7u l 4 5 650m c2 5 0 1.0) vp(6.000E+01 v(5) 7.print ac v(2. and capacitor.323E02 ip(vilc) 1. AND C ac seriesparallel rlc v1 1 0 ac 120 sin vit 1 2 ac 0 vilc 3 4 ac 0 vir 3 6 ac 0 c1 2 3 4.3) 8.388E+02 i(vilc) 4.122E+01 i(vilc) 4.276E+01 vp(2.ac lin 1 60 60 .
there is also a complementary expression of reactance. just like resistance and conductance. Unlike resistance. which diminishes as more parallel components are included in the circuit. or “ohms” spelled backward. susceptances (B) add in parallel and diminish in series. While reactance is the measure of how much a circuit reacts against change in current over time.e. Resistance is the measure of how much a circuit resists current. “conductance” represents the ease of which electrons may ﬂow. . Likewise. Like impedance. Also like conductance. Its mathematical symbol is “B”. then add susceptances rather than diminish reactances: Xparallel = 1/(1/X1 + 1/X2 + . 1/Rn ). . SUSCEPTANCE AND ADMITTANCE 119 5. their combined effects can no longer be analyzed with scalar quantities of resistance (R) and reactance (X). susceptance is a scalar quantity. one could convert each reactance (X) to a susceptance (B). susceptance is the measure of how much a circuit is susceptible to conducting a changing current. and each 1/R term in the “parallel resistance formula” is actually a conductance. If one were tasked with determining the total effect of several parallelconnected.5. Whereas the term “resistance” denotes the amount of opposition to ﬂowing electrons in a circuit. or a purely reactive (susceptive) circuit. . called susceptance. the student of electricity comes across a term meaning the opposite of resistance: conductance. and its symbol is “Y”. conductance is the reciprocal of resistance. The terms “reactance” and “susceptance” have a certain linguistic logic to them. To be consistent. Given a scientiﬁc calculator capable of handling complex number arithmetic in both polar and rectangular forms. unfortunately the same symbol used to represent magnetic ﬂux density. pure reactances. the reciprocal of reactance. either a purely resistive (conductive) circuit. ﬁgures of conductance (G) and susceptance (B) are most useful in circuits where the two types of opposition are not mixed. measured in ohms and symbolized by the letter “Z”. admittance is a measure of how much current is admitted. The name for this measure is admittance. we see a certain logic to the naming of this new term: while impedance is a measure of how much alternating current is impeded in a circuit. Now. but now is measured in Siemens. . In order to express and quantify the effects of mixed resistive and reactive components. Like conductances (G). we need a complementary measure representing the reciprocal of impedance. When resistive and reactive components are interconnected. Admittance is measured in (guess what?) the unit of Siemens. rather than with a constant. we had to have a new term: impedance. As conductance is the complement of resistance. unchanging friction as resistors do. conductance simply adds. reactance. while conductance is the measure of how much a circuit conducts current. Reactive components such as inductors and capacitors oppose the ﬂow of electrons with respect to time. the proper unit of measurement is Siemens. It is a useful term when exploring the mathematical formula for parallel resistances: Rparallel = 1 / (1/R1 + 1/R2 + . Again.5. it used to be measured in the unit of mhos. and like resistance we also measure it in the unit of ohms. you may never have to work with ﬁgures of susceptance (B) or admit . admittance is a complex quantity rather than scalar. Like conductance. it is equal to 1/X. i. When symbolized in a mathematical formula. Mathematically. We call this timebased opposition. Conductance used to be measured in the unit of mhos. Mathematically. 1/Xn ).5 Susceptance and Admittance In the study of DC circuits. the proper letter to use for conductance is “G”.
Be aware. Rectangular notation is merely a useful tool for us to add and subtract complex quantities together. and impedance are all expressed with complex numbers. proceed with the same steps and strategies learned for analyzing DC circuits. 5. although AC can certainly be more difﬁcult to work with due to phase angles which aren’t registered by a handheld multimeter. the ﬁrst step in analysis is to convert all resistor. and will be covered in its own chapter in this book.120 CHAPTER 5. based on the frequency of the power source. and Z=E/I Remember that only the calculated ﬁgures expressed in polar form apply directly to empirical measurements of voltage and current. all AC circuit calculations are based on the same general principles as calculations for DC circuits.7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. L. Power is another subject altogether. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. and the angle directly relates to the phase shift in degrees. When faced with analyzing an AC circuit. After that. and capacitor component values into impedances (Z). The same troubleshooting strategies applied toward DC circuits also hold for AC. current. inductor. and even the network theorems learned in DC still hold true for AC when voltage. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. . I=E/Z . where the magnitude (length of vector) directly relates to the magnitude of the voltage or current measured. using the “new” form of Ohm’s Law: E=IZ . of their existence and their meanings. The only signiﬁcant difference is that fact that AC calculations use complex quantities while DC calculations use scalar quantities. though. is the most practical way to express complex quantities for circuit analysis. Kirchhoff ’s Laws. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. from most recent to ﬁrst. 5. Ohm’s Law. AND C tance (Y). REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. Because power in a reactive circuit is both absorbed and released – not just dissipated as it is with resistors – its mathematical handling requires a more direct application of trigonometry to solve. Polar notation.6 Summary With the notable exception of calculations for power (P).
. Applications of resonance . . . . . . . . . and electrically manifest that stored energy as a kinetic motion of electrons: current.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . .2 6. . the two components will exchange energy between them. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 An electric pendulum . . its voltage decreasing. . . . . . . . 6. . . . creating their own AC voltage and current cycles. . . . . . . Resonance in seriesparallel circuits . . . . . . . . . . 121 126 131 135 136 145 146 148 151 6. . . . . . . . . . back and forth. . . . .5 6. . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1) The capacitor will begin to discharge. . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . .1 An electric pendulum Capacitors store energy in the form of an electric ﬁeld. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . Inductors store energy in the form of a magnetic ﬁeld. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . their complementary tendencies to store energy will produce an unusual result. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and electrically manifest that stored energy as a potential: static voltage. . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance Simple series resonance .6. . Capacitors and inductors are ﬂipsides of the same reactive coin. .2) 121 . the inductor will begin to build up a “charge” in the form of a magnetic ﬁeld as current increases in the circuit: (Figure 6. . the capacitor will very quickly charge and the inductor will oppose change in current. . . . . . . . . leaving the capacitor in the charged state and the inductor in the discharged state: (Figure 6.2 Parallel resonant circuits . . . . If we assume that both components are subjected to a sudden application of voltage (say. . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . Meanwhile. .1 Series resonant circuits . . . . . . . . .Chapter 6 RESONANCE Contents 6. . . from a momentarily connected battery). . . . . . . . storing and releasing energy in complementary modes. . When these two types of reactive components are directly connected together. If either the capacitor or inductor starts out in a charged state. . . . . . . Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit . . . . .
6) Eventually the capacitor will discharge to zero volts. the capacitor will have reached full (voltage) charge in the opposite polarity as when it started: (Figure 6.3) e= i= Time capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage inductor fully charged: maximum current Figure 6.3: Capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage. being the recipient of this current. The inductor will maintain current ﬂow even with no voltage applied. as before. The capacitor. In fact. inductor fully charged: maximum current. still charging.2: Capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing. leaving the inductor fully charged with . inductor discharged: zero current. leaving zero voltage across it: (Figure 6. RESONANCE e= i= e Time capacitor charged: voltage at (+) peak inductor discharged: zero current Figure 6.1: Capacitor charged: voltage at (+) peak. will begin to accumulate a charge in the opposite polarity as before: (Figure 6. it will generate a voltage (like a battery) in order to keep current in the same direction. Inductor charging: current increasing. will begin to discharge through the inductor. The capacitor. causing an increase in current (in the opposite direction as before) and a decrease in voltage as it depletes its own energy reserve: (Figure 6. e= i= + capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing inductor charging: current increasing Time Figure 6.122 Battery momentarily connected to start the cycle + i CHAPTER 6. will keep electrons ﬂowing in the circuit until the capacitor has been completely discharged.5) Now we’re at a condition very similar to where we started: the capacitor at full charge and zero current in the circuit. The inductor.4) When the inductor is ﬁnally depleted of its energy reserve and the electrons come to a halt.
6: Capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing.4: Capacitor charging: voltage increasing (in opposite polarity).1. inductor fully discharged: zero current. inductor charging: current increasing. e= i= + capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing inductor charging: current increasing Time Figure 6.5: Capacitor fully charged: voltage at () peak. e= i= + capacitor fully charged: voltage at () peak inductor fully discharged: zero current Time Figure 6. inductor discharging: current decreasing. AN ELECTRIC PENDULUM 123 e= i= + capacitor charging: voltage increasing (in opposite polarity) inductor discharging: current decreasing Time Figure 6.6. .
will act like a source again. This completes one full cycle of the energy exchange between the capacitor and inductor: (Figure 6. This oscillation will continue with steadily decreasing amplitude due to power losses from stray resistances in the circuit.8: Capacitor charging: voltage increasing. inductor discharging: current decreasing.124 full current through it: (Figure 6. The voltage will once again be at its positive peak and the current at zero. inductor fully discharged: zero current. the capacitor will begin to charge up and the current will decrease in magnitude: (Figure 6. this behavior is akin to that of a pendulum: as the pendulum mass swings back and forth. In doing so. The inductor. there is a transformation . Overall. generating a voltage like a battery to continue the ﬂow. RESONANCE Time capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage inductor fully charged: current at () peak Figure 6. until the process stops altogether. inductor fully charged: current at () peak.9) e= i= + capacitor fully charged: voltage at (+) peak inductor fully discharged: zero current Time Figure 6.9: Capacitor fully charged: voltage at (+) peak. desiring to maintain current in the same direction. Eventually the capacitor will become fully charged again as the inductor expends all of its energy reserves trying to maintain current.8) e= i= + capacitor charging: voltage increasing inductor discharging: current decreasing Time Figure 6.7: Capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage.7) e= i= CHAPTER 6.
The rate of oscillation is strictly dependent on the sizes of the capacitor and inductor. The oscillation rate is independent of the amount of energy stored in it. in a similar fashion to the way energy is transferred in the capacitor/inductor circuit back and forth in the alternating forms of current (kinetic motion of electrons) and voltage (potential electric energy).6. not on the amount of voltage (or current) at each respective peak in the waves. Like the circuit. the result of air friction (resistance) dissipating energy.10) maximum potential energy. this kind of natural sinewave oscillation for a mechanical system is called Simple Harmonic Motion (often abbreviated as “SHM”). the pendulum’s position and velocity measurements trace two sine waves (90 degrees out of phase) over time: (Figure 6.1. a pendulum’s backandforth oscillation will continue with a steadily dampened amplitude. maximum kinetic energy potential energy = kinetic energy = Figure 6. The same is true for the capacitor/inductor circuit. AN ELECTRIC PENDULUM 125 of energy taking place from kinetic (motion) to potential (height). potential energy (height) is at zero and kinetic energy (motion) is at maximum. It is at this point that potential energy (height) is at a maximum and kinetic energy (motion) is at zero. At this point. Also like the circuit. At the peak height of each swing of a pendulum.10: Pendelum transfers energy between kinetic and potential energy as it swings low to high. it passes quickly through a point where the string is pointed straight down. That is why a pendulum will keep swinging at the same frequency as the oscillations decrease in amplitude. As the mass swings back the other way. zero kinetic energy mass zero potential energy. The ability for such a circuit to store energy in the form of . In physics. hence the similarity in effect. and not the weight of the mass itself. It is an interesting property of any pendulum that its periodic time is governed by the length of the string holding the mass. The same underlying principles govern both the oscillation of a capacitor/inductor circuit and the action of a pendulum. the mass brieﬂy stops and switches directions.
at a particular frequency is not limited to circuits exclusively designed for that purpose. In fact. or resonate. 6. which oscillates (or resonates) at one particular frequency. Its property of maintaining a single. energy is alternately shufﬂed between the capacitor and the inductor in the form of alternating voltage and current 90 degrees out of phase with each other. For this reason. and we’re looking for that . we have a 10 µF capacitor and a 100 mH inductor. In the above circuit.11: Simple parallel resonant circuit (tank circuit). natural frequency regardless of how much or little energy is actually being stored in it gives it special signiﬁcance in electric circuit design. this tendency to oscillate. a condition of resonance will have been reached. the circuit is said to be in a state of resonance. If the power supply frequency for a circuit exactly matches the natural frequency of the circuit’s LC combination. The unusual effects will reach maximum in this condition of resonance. there will only be one frequency where these two reactances will be equal. Because inductive reactance increases with increasing frequency and capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency.2 Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance A condition of resonance will be experienced in a tank circuit (Figure 6. This is true regardless of the circuit’s intended purpose. 10 µF 100 mH Figure 6. RESONANCE oscillating voltage and current has earned it the name tank circuit.11) when the reactances of the capacitor and inductor are equal to each other. • REVIEW: • A capacitor and inductor directly connected together form something called a tank circuit. • When the power supply frequency for an AC circuit exactly matches that circuit’s natural oscillation frequency as set by the L and C components. we need to be able to predict what the resonant frequency will be for various combinations of L and C. and be aware of what the effects of resonance are.126 CHAPTER 6. Since we know the equations for determining the reactance of each at a given frequency. However. nearly any AC circuit with a combination of capacitance and inductance (commonly called an “LC circuit”) will tend to manifest unusual effects when the AC power source frequency approaches that natural frequency. At that frequency.
155 Hz. What happens at resonance is quite interesting. we arrive at a resonant frequency of 159. . SIMPLE PARALLEL (TANK CIRCUIT) RESONANCE 127 point where the two reactances are equal to each other. . . . we can set the two reactance formulae equal to each other and solve for frequency algebraically: XL = 2πfL XC = 1 2πfC . . . meaning that the tank circuit draws no current from the AC power source! We can calculate the individual impedances of the 10 µF capacitor and the 100 mH inductor and work through the parallel impedance formula to demonstrate this mathematically: . 2πfL = 1 2πfC Multiplying both sides by f eliminates the f term in the denominator of the fraction . . . 2πf2L = 1 2πC Dividing both sides by 2πL leaves f2 by itself on the lefthand side of the equation . given the values of inductance (L) in Henrys and capacitance (C) in Farads. . f= 2π 1 LC So there we have it: a formula to tell us the resonant frequency of a tank circuit. the total impedance increases to inﬁnity. . With capacitive and inductive reactances equal to each other. . .2. f= 1 2π2πLC . Plugging in the values of L and C in our example circuit. .6. setting the two equal to each other. simplifying . . representing a condition of equal reactance (resonance) . f2 = 1 2π2πLC Taking the square root of both sides of the equation leaves f by itself on the left side .
155 Hz)(100 mH) XL = 100 Ω XC = XC = 1 2πfC 1 (2)(π)(159. I chose these component values to give resonance impedances that were easy to work with (100 Ω even). What this means in practical terms is that. (Figure 6. This SPICE simulation plots circuit current over a frequency range of 100 to 200 Hz in twenty even steps (100 and 200 Hz inclusive). we use the parallel impedance formula to see what happens to total Z: Zparallel = 1 1 1 + ZL ZC 1 1 100 Ω ∠ 90o + 1 100 Ω ∠ 90o Zparallel = Zparallel = 0.01 ∠ 90 1 0 o 1 + 0. but we can say that the result approaches a value of inﬁnity as the two parallel impedances get closer to each other. Current magnitude on the graph increases from .12) The 1 picoohm (1 pΩ) resistor is placed in this SPICE analysis to overcome a limitation of SPICE: namely. Now.01 ∠ 90o Zparallel = Undefined! We can’t divide any number by zero and arrive at a meaningful result.12) A very low resistance value was chosen so as to have minimal effect on circuit behavior. We can plot the consequences of this over a wide power supply frequency range with a short SPICE simulation: (Figure 6.128 CHAPTER 6.155 Hz)(10 µF) XC = 100 Ω As you might have guessed. the total impedance of a tank circuit is inﬁnite (behaving as an open circuit) at resonance. RESONANCE XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(159. that it cannot analyze a circuit containing a direct inductorvoltage source loop.
. . * .505E03 .. * ....684E+02 1. ..947E+02 4.000E+02 9. .350E03 . . 1. 1. .789E+02 2.263E+02 4... * . 1.749E03 .211E+02 5. 1. . .. * . .. . . . .132E03 .. .737E+02 1. .. 1. * . . .158E+02 6. * .... .470E03 . * ..2. .. . * . .. 1.6. .. SIMPLE PARALLEL (TANK CIRCUIT) RESONANCE 129 1 1 Rbogus 2 C1 0 0 0 10 uF L1 0 100 mH 1 1 pΩ Figure 6.373E04 . ...... * . . . . * .316E+02 3. .12: Resonant circuit sutitable for SPICE simulation. ..542E03 . * ... 1.368E+02 3. . ... 1.. ..162E03 1.. . .. . . .540E03 .526E+02 8. 1.105E+02 7.421E+02 2.. .. 3... ..663E03 .. . 1.* . .632E+02 4. .828E03 . 1.063E03 . . .609E03 . . 1. . 1.455E03 .895E+02 3..* ..506E03 . . * 1. . . .053E+02 8. 1. ..842E+02 2.. . . . ...000E+02 4...0E02 . * 1.969E04 . freq i(v1) 3.. 1. * .934E03 ... .590E04 . . ..579E+02 1.000E03 . . 1. * . . .162E04 1...474E+02 1. * .. .. .. 2.1.. . * . * .632E03 ....271E03 .033E03 .
The above spice ( *.plot) command. • For a tank circuit with no resistance (R). though it does no harm.raw resonant. Such graphs plot amplitude or phase shift on one axis and frequency on the other. • REVIEW: • Resonance occurs when capacitive and inductive reactances are equal to each other. It is at this point that total current from the power source falls to zero.130 tank circuit frequency sweep v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 0 10u * rbogus is necessary to eliminate a direct loop * between v1 and l1. The steepness of a Bode plot curve characterizes a circuit’s “frequency response. A better looking plot is produced by the “nutmeg” graphical postprocessor. which SPICE can’t handle rbogus 1 2 1e12 l1 2 0 100m .” or how sensitive it is to changes in frequency.cir ( b batch mode. The current in this circuit takes a sharp dip around the analysis point of 157.cir) does not require the plot (.raw From the nutmeg prompt: >setplot ac1 (setplot {enter} for list of plots) >display (for list of signals) >plot mag(v1#branch) (magnitude of complex current vector v1#branch) Incidentally. input is resonant. the command (. r raw file.13) spice b r resonant.cir). . resonant frequency can be calculated with the following formula: fresonant = • 1 2π LC • The total impedance of a parallel LC circuit approaches inﬁnity as the power supply frequency approaches resonance. The plot above is produced from the above spice circuit ﬁle ( *.end CHAPTER 6. which is the closest analysis point to our predicted resonance frequency of 159.ac lin 20 100 200 . The following commands produce the plot below: (Figure 6. the graph output produced by this SPICE computer analysis is more generally known as a Bode plot. RESONANCE left to right.cir) nutmeg resonant. while frequency increases from top to bottom.plot) in the last line producing the text plot on any printer or terminal.155 Hz. part of the spice package.plot ac i(v1) .9 Hz.
.3 Simple series resonance A similar effect happens in series inductive/capacitive circuits. (Figure 6.3. 6. the two impedances cancel each other out and the total impedance drops to zero! 10 µF 100 mH Figure 6. • A Bode plot is a graph plotting waveform amplitude or phase on one axis and frequency on the other.13: Nutmeg produces plot of current I(v1) for parallel resonant circuit.14: Simple series resonant circuit.14) When a state of resonance is reached (capacitive and inductive reactances equal).6. SIMPLE SERIES RESONANCE 131 Figure 6.
9 Hz. I’ll add a small resistor (Figure 6.15) in series along with the capacitor and the inductor to keep the maximum circuit current somewhat limited.155 Hz: ZL = 0 + j100 Ω Zseries = ZL + ZC Zseries = (0 + j100 Ω) + (0 .end As before. the closest analyzed point to our predicted resonance point of 159. series lc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m .15: Series resonant circuit suitable for SPICE.plot ac i(v1) .16) The peak is still seen to be at the plotted frequency point of 157.16) ZC = 0 .j100 Ω) Zseries = 0 Ω With the total series impedance equal to 0 Ω at the resonant frequency of 159. In the circuit drawn above.j100 Ω 1 R1 1Ω C1 3 L1 2 10 µF 100 mH 0 1V 0 Figure 6.155 Hz. This would suggest that our resonant frequency formula holds as true for simple series LC circuits as it does for simple parallel LC circuits. (Figure 6. this would not be good. which is the case: . RESONANCE At 159. the result is a short circuit across the AC power source at resonance.155 Hz. circuit current amplitude increases from bottom to top. and perform another SPICE analysis over the same range of frequencies: (Figure 6.ac lin 20 100 200 .132 CHAPTER 6. while frequency increases from left to right.
as each component possesses signiﬁcant impedance. it is possible to produce dangerously high voltage drops across the capacitor and the inductor. Needless to say.6. fresonant = 1 2π LC A word of caution is in order with series LC resonant circuits: because of the high currents which may be present in a series LC circuit at resonance.155 Hz.155)(100mH)=j100Ω XC = 1/(2πfC) = 1/(2π(159. What is the expected value? Given: fr = 159. SIMPLE SERIES RESONANCE 133 Figure 6. L = 100mH. R = 1 XL = 2πfL = 2π(159.16: Series resonant circuit plot of current I(v1). voltage across the capacitor and inductor reach a peak somewhere around 70 volts! This is quite impressive for a power supply that only generates 1 volt.ac lin 20 100 200 . We can edit the SPICE netlist in the above example to include a plot of voltage across the capacitor and inductor to demonstrate what happens: (Figure 6.17) series lc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m .3.155)(10µF)) = j100Ω . caution is in order when experimenting with circuits such as this.plot ac i(v1) v(2.ac lin 20 100 200). This SPICE voltage is lower than the expected value due to the small (20) number of steps in the AC analysis statement (.end According to SPICE.3) v(3) .
3) 70 V peak. Q = VL /VR = VC /VR • REVIEW: • The total impedance of a series LC circuit approaches zero as the power supply frequency approaches resonance. the applied voltage. VL =v(3) 70 V peak. I=I(V1#branch) 0. RESONANCE Figure 6. • Extremely high voltages can be formed across the individual components of series LC circuits at resonance. . This voltage will stress these components to that level and they must be rated accordingly.17: Plot of Vc=V(2.532 A peak Z = 1 +j100 j100 = 1 Ω I = V/Z = (1 V)/(1 Ω) = 1 A VL = IZ = (1 A)(j100) = j100 V VC = IZ = (1 A)(j100) = j100 V VR = IR = (1 A)(1)= 1 V Vtotal = VL + VC + VR Vtotal = j100 j100 +1 = 1 V The expected values for capacitor and inductor voltage are 100 V. The ratio of the capacitor (or inductor) voltage to the applied voltage is the “Q” factor.134 CHAPTER 6. due to high current ﬂows and substantial individual component impedances. these voltages are out of phase and cancel yielding a total voltage across all three components of only 1 V. However. • The same formula for determining resonant frequency in a simple tank circuit applies to simple series circuits as well.
As was noted before. so can a tank circuit be used to stabilize the electrical frequency of an AC oscillator circuit.19) the natural frequency of the "tank circuit" helps to stabilize oscillations AC source of mixed frequencies Tank circuit presents a high impedance to a narrow range of frequencies.6. .. Resonance is a very valuable property of reactive AC circuits. • REVIEW: . or at most a nuisance to be avoided (especially if series resonance makes for a shortcircuit across our AC voltage source!)..18) . a parallel (tank) circuit is used for this purpose. employed in a variety of applications. In essence.4.18: Resonant circuit serves as stable frequency source. Figure 6. and their design constitutes a discipline of study all by itself: (Figure 6. A resonant circuit can be used to “block” (present high impedance toward) a frequency or range of frequencies. or select. this is not the case. thus acting as a sort of frequency “ﬁlter” to strain certain frequencies out of a mix of others. one station frequency out of the mix of different radio station frequency signals intercepted by the antenna. exchanging energy between each other.4 Applications of resonance So far. APPLICATIONS OF RESONANCE 135 6.19: Resonant circuit serves as ﬁlter. One use for resonance is to establish a condition of stable frequency in circuits designed to produce AC signals... Usually. these particular circuits are called ﬁlters. and not on the magnitudes of voltage or current present in the oscillations: (Figure 6. the frequency set by the tank circuit is solely dependent upon the values of L and C.. blocking them from getting to the load load Figure 6.. Just as a pendulum can be used to stabilize the frequency of a clock mechanism’s oscillations. In fact. However. Another use for resonance is in applications where the effects of greatly increased or decreased impedance at a particular frequency is desired. the phenomenon of resonance appears to be a useless curiosity. to the rest of the "oscillator" circuit . with the capacitor and inductor directly connected together. this is how analog radio receiver tuner circuits work to ﬁlter.
5 Resonance in seriesparallel circuits In simple reactive circuits with little or no resistance.20: Parallel LC circuit with resistance in series with L. this simple calculation for resonance becomes invalid.22)is necessary to prevent SPICE from encountering trouble in analysis. it means zero impedance at resonance: fresonant = 1 2π LC However. According to our simple equation. just as a pendulum can be used to maintain constant oscillation speed in a timekeeping mechanism. In a parallel (tank) LC circuit. the effects of radically altered impedance will manifest at the resonance frequency predicted by the equation given earlier. where current reaches maximum or minimum in the following SPICE analyses: Parallel LC with resistance in series with L 1 1 R1 V1 1V C1 0 0 0 10 µF 2 L1 0 100 mH 1 100 Ω Figure 6.155 Hz. as soon as signiﬁcant levels of resistance are introduced into most LC circuits. Watch. an extra resistor (Rbogus ) (Figure 6. 6. so the addition of a series resistor is necessary to “break .136 CHAPTER 6. the resonant frequency should be 159. using the same values for capacitance and inductance as before: 10 µF and 100 mH. though. SPICE can’t handle an inductor connected directly in parallel with any voltage source or any other inductor. • Resonance can be exploited for its impedance properties: either dramatically increasing or decreasing impedance for certain frequencies. In a series LC circuit. Circuits designed to screen certain frequencies out of a mix of different frequencies are called ﬁlters. respectively. RESONANCE • Resonance can be employed to maintain AC circuit oscillations at a constant frequency. this means inﬁnite impedance at resonance. We’ll take a look at several LC circuits with added resistance. Here.
end Figure 6.6.plot ac i(v1) .8 Hz instead of calculated 159.21: Resistance in series with L produces minimum current at 136.2 Hz! .2 Hz Minimum current at 136.ac lin 20 100 200 .8 Hz instead of 159. RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS 137 resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 0 10u r1 1 2 100 l1 2 0 100m .5.
24) we experiment with placing signiﬁcant resistances in parallel with either L or C. The astute observer will notice a pattern between the four SPICE examples given above. a series LC circuit with the signiﬁcant resistance in parallel with the capacitor. in terms of how resistance affects the resonant peak of a circuit: . In the following series circuit examples.plot ac i(v1) .end Minimum current at roughly 180 Hz instead of 159. resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 100 c1 2 0 10u rbogus 1 3 1e12 l1 3 0 100m . (Figure 6. R2 .ac lin 20 100 400 . RESONANCE Parallel LC with resistance in series with C 1 1 R1 V1 1V C1 0 0 0 2 100 Ω 3 10 µF L1 0 100 mH 1 Rbogus Figure 6.26) The shifted resonance is shown in (Figure 6. The results are shown in (Figure 6.25).138 CHAPTER 6.27) The tendency for added resistance to skew the point at which impedance reaches a maximum or minimum in an LC circuit is called antiresonance. This resistor is chosen to be a very low value for minimum impact on the circuit’s behavior. a 1 Ω resistor (R1 ) is placed in series with the inductor and capacitor to limit total current at resonance. (Figure 6.22: Parallel LC with resistance in serieis with C. up” the voltage source/inductor loop that would otherwise be formed. And ﬁnally. The “extra” resistance inserted to inﬂuence resonant frequency effects is the 100 Ω resistor.2 Hz! Switching our attention to series LC circuits.
RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS 139 Figure 6.24: Series LC resonant circuit with resistance in parallel with L.5.23: Resistance in series with C shifts minimum current from calculated 159. .2 Hz to roughly 180 Hz.6. Series LC with resistance in parallel with L 1 R1 1Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH R2 10 µF 3 100 Ω 0 2 Figure 6.
ac lin 20 100 200 .2 Hz! .9 Hz instead of 159.end CHAPTER 6.2 Hz! Figure 6.140 resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m r2 3 0 100 .plot ac i(v1) .8 Hz instead of 159.ac lin 20 100 400 .2 Hz to roughly 180 Hz. RESONANCE Maximum current at roughly 178. resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u r2 2 3 100 l1 3 0 100m .end Maximum current at 136.plot ac i(v1) .25: Series resonant circuit with resistance in parallel with L shifts maximum current from 159.
8 Hz. .2 Hz to about 136.6.26: Series LC resonant circuit with rsistance in parallel with C.27: Resistance in parallel with C in series resonant circuit shifts curreent maximum from calculated 159. Figure 6. RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS 141 Series LC with resistance in parallel with C 1 R1 1Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH 2 2 10 µF R2 100 Ω 3 Figure 6.5.
While it is possible to manufacture capacitors with negligible unwanted resistances. we also have to contend with the “core losses” of ironcore inductors.28) The resulting plot is shown in (Figure 6. One notable exception to the rule of circuit resistance causing a resonant frequency shift is the case of series resistorinductorcapacitor (“RLC”) circuits. the resonant frequency of the circuit will be unaffected by the resistance. and that the shape of the complementary graphs are mirrorimages of each other! Antiresonance is an effect that resonant circuit designers must be aware of. changing ﬂux produced by alternating current through the coil will tend to induce electric currents in the core itself (eddy currents). but at least it has the same natural frequency! . RESONANCE • Series LC circuit: • R in parallel with L: resonant frequency shifted up • R in parallel with C: resonant frequency shifted down Again. Thus.29) has not changed from the earlier series LC circuit (the one with the 1 Ω token resistance in it).142 • Parallel (“tank”) LC circuit: • R in series with L: resonant frequency shifted down • R in series with C: resonant frequency shifted up CHAPTER 6. but never completely eliminated. this illustrates the complementary nature of capacitors and inductors: how resistance in series with one creates an antiresonance effect equivalent to resistance in parallel with the other. this circuit does not resonate as strongly as one with less series resistance (it is said to be “less selective”). (Figure 6. which manifest themselves as added resistance in the circuit. and what its general tendencies are. thereby reducing the wire’s effective crosssectional area. It should sufﬁce the beginning student of electronics to understand that the effect exists. the resistance of wire tends to increase as frequency goes up. Maximum current at 159. The equations for determining antiresonance “shift” are complex. So long as all components are connected in series with each other. good core design and highgrade materials. but changing. Added resistance in an LC circuit is no academic matter. even though the resistance is now 100 times greater. inductors not only have resistance. frequencydependent resistance at that.2 Hz once again! Note that the peak of the current graph (Figure 6. If you look even closer to the four SPICE examples given. This effects can be minimized with laminated cores.29). inductors are typically plagued with substantial amounts of resistance due to the long lengths of wire used in their construction. What is more. and will not be covered in this brief lesson. Since iron is a conductor of electricity as well as a conductor of magnetic ﬂux. due to a strange phenomenon known as the skin effect where AC current tends to be excluded from travel through the very center of a wire. you’ll see that the frequencies are shifted by the same amount. This effect can be thought of as though the iron core of the transformer were a sort of secondary transformer coil powering a resistive load: the lessthanperfect conductivity of the iron metal. As if the resistance of an inductor’s wire weren’t enough to cause problems. The only thing that has changed is the “sharpness” of the curve. Obviously.
5. broadening the curve.end Figure 6. .6.plot ac i(v1) . RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS 143 Series LC with resistance in series 1 R1 100 Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH 2 10 µF Figure 6.ac lin 20 100 200 .2 Hz.28: Series LC with resistance in series.29: Resistance in series resonant circuit leaves current maximum at calculated 159. series rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 100 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m .
which is the time constant of the circuit in seconds. Energy lost through resistance (or inductor core losses or radiated electromagnetic waves or . so how can we have resonant oscillation with just an inductor. and battery? All inductors contain a certain amount of stray capacitance due to turntoturn and turntocore insulation gaps. cars would bounce wildly at their resonant frequency after hitting any bump in the road. While clean circuit layout is important in eliminating much of this stray capacitance. But frictionless machines are difﬁcult to ﬁnd in the real world.31) Why is this? There’s no capacitor in the circuit. as almost all circuits do.144 CHAPTER 6. Interestingly enough.30) switch R L Figure 6. and so are lossless tank circuits. where any moving object with mass is a potential resonator. if you were to build such a circuit. Antiresonance’s dampening effect is more than just a curiosity: it can be used quite effectively to eliminate unwanted oscillations in circuits containing stray inductances and/or capacitances. A very common application of this is the use of shock absorbers in automobiles. In a perfect tank circuit (no resistance). you might ﬁnd unexpected oscillations (AC) of voltage across the inductor when the switch is closed. The shock absorber’s job is to introduce a strong antiresonant effect by dissipating energy hydraulically (in the same way that a resistor dissi . (Figure 6. resistor. . the principle of employing resistance to eliminate unwanted resonance is one frequently used in the design of mechanical systems. just as a frictionless pendulum would continue to swing at its resonant frequency forever. the placement of circuit conductors may create stray capacitance. Take note of the following L/R time delay circuit: (Figure 6. In the beginning of this chapter we saw how a capacitor and inductor connected directly together would act something like a pendulum. . it will fail to resonate at all. there will always be some that you cannot eliminate. If resistor R is large enough. it will cause a condition of antiresonance. Also.) in a tank circuit will cause the oscillations to decay in amplitude until they are no more. RESONANCE It is noteworthy that antiresonance has the effect of dampening the oscillations of freerunning LC circuits such as tank circuits. If enough energy losses are present in a tank circuit. exchanging voltage and current peaks just like a pendulum exchanges kinetic and potential energy. Without shock absorbers. dissipating enough energy to prohibit the inductance and stray capacitance from sustaining oscillations for very long.30: L/R time delay circuit The idea of this circuit is simple: to “charge” the inductor when the switch is closed. added resistance may be a way to combat it. The rate of inductor charging will be set by the ratio L/R. If this causes resonant problems (unwanted AC oscillations). However. this oscillation would continue forever.
A higher value for this ﬁgure of merit correspondes to a more narrow bandwith. • Resistance inherent in realworld inductors can contribute greatly to conditions of antiresonance. resistance does not produce antiresonance. Resonance still occurs when capacitive and inductive reactances are equal. • In a simple series LC circuit containing resistance (an “RLC” circuit). One source of such resistance is the skin effect.6 Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit The Q. More formally. quality factor. and also parallel resonant ciruits if the resistance is in series with the inductor.6. as we . This is the case in practical applications. 6.6.31: Inductor ringing due to resonance with stray capacitance. where the peak impedance effects happen at frequencies other than that which gives equal capacitive and inductive reactances. of a resonant circuit is a measure of the “goodness” or quality of a resonant circuit. Another source is that of core losses in ironcore inductors. Q is the ration of power stored to power dissipated in the circuit reactance and resistance. • REVIEW: • Added resistance to an LC circuit can cause a condition known as antiresonance. respectively: Q = Pstored /Pdissipated = I2 X/I2 R Q = X/R where: X = Capacitive or Inductive reactance at resonance R = Series resistance. caused by the exclusion of AC current from the center of conductors. This formula is applicable to series resonant circuits. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT 145 ideal L/R voltage curve = actual L/R voltage curve = Figure 6. pates energy electrically). which is desirable in many applications.
This is correct for a large value of R in parallel with C and L. the reactive components cancel. current through L or C is Q times the total applied current. In a parallel resonant circuit. low Q circuit. Current is maximum at resonance. Above resonance it appears inductive. leaving a net inductive component.1 Series resonant circuits A series resonant circuit looks like a resistance at the resonant frequency. Above or below resonance. the series resonant circuit looks capacitive since the impedance of the capacitor increases to a value greater than the decreasing inducitve reactance. Current is set by the value of the resistance. Below resonance it looks capacitive.33) Below the resonant frequency. leaving a net capacitive value. RESONANCE are mostly concerned with the resistance of the inductor limiting the Q.146 CHAPTER 6. (Figure 6. as compared to a high resistance. leaving only the resistance to contribute to the impedance. which changes the Q. Bandwidth in terms of Q and resonant frequency: .6. (Figure 6.34) This also affects the broadness of the curve. Figure 6. Note: Some text may show X and R interchanged in the “Q” formula for a parallel resonant circuit. capacitive reactance decreases. impedance increases. The resonant current peak may be changed by varying the series resistor. high Q circuit has a narrow bandwidth. A practical application of “Q” is that voltage across L or C in a series resonant circuit is Q times total applied voltage. Above resonance. A low resistance. The impedance is also at a minimum at resonance. (Figure 6. 6. Our formula is correct for a small R in series with L. impedance at a minumum.32: At resonance the series resonant circuit appears purely resistive.32) Since the deﬁnition of resonance is XL =XC . the inductive rectance increases.
34: A high Q resonant circuit has a narrow bandwidth as compared to a low Q . BW = fc /Q Where fc = resonant frquency Q = quality factor Figure 6. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT 147 Figure 6.6.33: Impedance is at a minumum at resonance in a series resonant circuit.6.
4 mA. (Figure 6. (0.148 CHAPTER 6. fl = low band edge fl = fc .35) Figure 6. RESONANCE Bandwidth is measured between the 0.6.2 Parallel resonant circuits A parallel resonant circuit is resistive at the resonant frequency. (Fig . The impedance is maximum at resonance. The 0.707)2 = (0.7% level is 0707(50 mA)=35.∆f/2 = 32332 = 291 fh = fc + ∆f/2 = 323+32 = 355 Since BW = fc /Q: Q = fc /BW = (323 Hz)/(64 Hz) = 5 6. and the half power points are ± 32 Hz of the center resonant frequency: BW = ∆f = fh fl = 355291 = 64 fl = fc .707 current points correspond to the half power points since P = I2 R. The upper and lower band edges read from the curve are 291 Hz for fl and 355 Hz for fh .707 current amplitude points. The 70.7% amplitude points of series resonant circuit. (Figure 6.∆f/2 fh = fc + ∆f/2 Where fc = center frequency (resonant frequency) In Figure 6. ∆f is measured between the 70. The bandwidth is 64 Hz.35: Bandwidth. BW = ∆f = fh fl = fc /Q Where fh = high band edge. the reactive components cancel. the 100% current point is 50 mA.35.36) At resonance XL =XC .5).
707)2 =0. the 100% impedance point is 500 Ω.39. the series resonant circuit looks inductive since the impedance of the inductor is lower. we may use the impedance curve.36: A parallel resonant circuit is resistive at resonance. lower resistance wire. drawing the larger current. the capacitive rectance decreases. inductive below resonance.38) conversely. The high Q is achieved by winding the inductor with larger diameter (smaller gague).50) Since voltage is proportional to impedance. This produces a higher peak in the narrower response curve. ((0.6. and the half power points are ± 31 Hz of the center resonant frequency: BW = ∆f = fh fl = 343281 = 62 fl = fc . a high Q is due to a low resistance in series with the inductor. capacitive above resonance. taking on a capacitive characteristic. This corresponds to the 70. Voltage is at a peak at resonance since voltage is proportional to impedance (E=IZ).39) In Figure 6.∆f/2 = 31231 = 281 fh = fc + ∆f/2 = 312+31 = 343 Q = fc /BW = (312 Hz)/(62 Hz) = 5 . The upper and lower band edges read from the curve are 281 Hz for fl and 343 Hz for fh . (Figure 6. The bandwidth of the parallel resonant response curve is measured between the half power points.37) Below the resonant frequency. Above resonance. (Figure 6. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT 149 ure 6. Impedance is maximum at resonance in a parallel resonant circuit. thus. Figure 6.6.37) A low Q due to a high resistance in series with the inductor prodces a low peak on a broad response curve for a parallel resonant circuit.7% level is 0707(500)=354 Ω.7% voltage points since power is proportional to E2 . drawing the larger proportion of current. The 70. but decreases above or below resonance. The bandwidth is 62 Hz. (Figure 6.
Figure 6.37: Parallel resonant circuit: Impedance peaks at resonance.150 CHAPTER 6.38: Parallel resonant response varies with Q. . RESONANCE Figure 6.
which led to a much betterlooking second edition. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. ∆f is measured between the 70.6. CONTRIBUTORS 151 Figure 6. 6. from most recent to ﬁrst.39: Bandwidth. .7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.7.7% impedance points of a parallel resonant circuit.
152 CHAPTER 6. RESONANCE .
.4 7. . . . . . . . More on spectrum analysis Circuit effects . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . .6 Introduction . its “frequency” is said to be zero. . circuit waveforms may be something other than sinewave shaped. Square wave signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or changing polarity asymmetrically (spending more time positive than negative. . . . . . . . .1 Introduction In our study of AC circuits thus far. . we’ve explored circuits powered by a singlefrequency sine voltage waveform. and any signal containing DC along with a signal of varying intensity (AC) may be rightly called a mixedfrequency signal as well. . . Other waveshapes . . . . . . . . . . . In any of these cases where there is a mix of frequencies in the same circuit. . . . . . we may encounter situations where DC is mixed with AC: where a waveform is superimposed on a steady (DC) signal. . . . . . . . . . . . Since DC does not alternate as AC does. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quite often we may encounter circuits where multiple frequencies of voltage coexist simultaneously. . . . singlefrequency signals are the exception rather than the rule. .2 7. . . . . . . for example). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additionally. . . . . . This may be the result of unintended connections between circuits – called coupling – made possible by 153 . . . . . . . . . . The result of such a mix is a signal varying in intensity. . . Also. . . . . . . . analysis is more complex than what we’ve seen up to this point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . .5 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7. . . . 153 158 168 174 185 188 7. Sometimes mixedfrequency voltage and current signals are created accidentally. .Chapter 7 MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Contents 7. . In many applications of electronics. . in which case we call them nonsinusoidal waveforms. . . . though. . . but never changing polarity. . . . . . .
in which case both signals may become “mixed” with each other: (Figure 7.1) "Noise" source Mstray Zwire Cstray Zwire Zwire "Clean" DC voltage DC voltage + AC "noise" Figure 7. dedicated metal conduit. The result is a mix of DC and AC at the signal load. the results are usually undesirable. The nearby presence of high AC voltages and currents may cause “foreign” voltages to be impressed upon the length of the signal wiring.2) The grounded cable shield – a wire braid or metal foil wrapped around the two insulated conductors – isolates both conductors from electrostatic (capacitive) coupling by blocking any external electric ﬁelds. and signals should be conducted via 2conductor “twisted pair” cable rather than through a single wire and ground connection: (Figure 7. Stray capacitance formed by the electrical insulation separating power conductors from signal conductors may cause voltage (with respect to earth ground) from the power conductors to be impressed upon the signal conductors. A classic example of coupling phenomenon is seen frequently in industry where DC signal wiring is placed in close proximity to AC power wiring. (Figure 7. Polarity marks placed near each inductive portion of signal conductor length shows how the induced voltages are phased in such a way as to cancel one another.1: Stray inductance and capacitance couple stray AC into desired DC signal. Coupling may also occur between two sets of conductors carrying AC signals. The following schematic shows how an AC “noise” source may “couple” to a DC circuit through mutual inductance (Mstray ) and capacitance (Cstray ) along the length of the conductors. canceling each other at the receiving end for a net (differential) noise voltage of almost zero. power wiring and lowlevel signal wiring should always be routed through separated. while stray inductance formed by parallel runs of wire in conduit may cause current from the power conductors to electromagnetically induce voltage along the signal conductors. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS stray capacitance and/or inductance between the conductors of those circuits. When stray AC voltages from a “noise” source mix with DC signals conducted along signal wiring.3) .154 CHAPTER 7. For this reason. while the parallal proximity of the two conductors effectively cancels any electromagnetic (mutually inductive) coupling because any induced noise voltage will be approximately equal in magnitude and opposite in phase along both conductors.
.3: Coupling of AC signals between parallel conductors.7. INTRODUCTION 155 "Noise" source Mstray Cstray  + Shielded cable + Figure 7. Signal A Zwire Zwire Zwire A+B Mstray Zwire Zwire Cstray Zwire Signal B B+A Figure 7.1.2: Shielded twisted pair minimized noise.
4: Series connection of voltage sources mixes signals. this application of the term “overtone” is speciﬁc to particular instruments. Very few natural sounds consist of single. while the ﬁrst frequency is called the fundamental). pure sine wave vibrations but rather are a mix of different frequency vibrations at different amplitudes. However. the resulting voltage waveform produced by the microphone will consist of those frequencies mixed together. If the sound wave is a chord or other harmony of several notes. which convert audiofrequency air pressure waves into corresponding voltage waveforms. Certainly these are examples of mixedfrequency AC voltages. Such is the case with microphones. If the sound waves consist of a single. the ﬁrst overtone would be 2000 Hz (the 2nd harmonic). signal coupling via stray inductance and capacitance is usually accidental and undesired. If we had an instrument producing the entire range of harmonic frequencies shown in the table above. each frequency a wholenumber multiple of the ﬁrst (called harmonics. Musical chords are produced by blending one frequency with other frequencies of particular fractional multiples of the ﬁrst. It is generally quite easy to create mixedfrequency signal sources. mixedfrequency signals may be produced by a single voltage source. This technique has been used for years in electric power distribution networks to communicate load data along highvoltage power lines. The particular mix of frequencies in the voltage signal output by the microphone is dependent on the sound being reproduced. pure note or tone. etc. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Coupling is but one example of how signals of different frequencies may become mixed. the voltage waveform will likewise be a sine wave at a single frequency. under conditions that are deliberately established. However.1 with a fundamental frequency of 1000 Hz (an arbitrary ﬁgure chosen for this example). In other cases. Whether it be AC mixed with DC. investigating a little further. or two AC signals mixing with each other.156 CHAPTER 7. Some computer communications networks operate on the principle of superimposing highfrequency voltage signals along 60 Hz powerline conductors. Perhaps the easiest way is to simply connect voltage sources in series: (Figure 7. The “ﬁrst” overtone is the ﬁrst harmonic frequency greater than the fundamental. while the second overtone would be 3000 Hz (the 3rd harmonic). we ﬁnd that even a single piano note (produced by a plucked string) consists of one predominant frequency mixed with several other frequencies. mixedfrequency signals are the result of intentional design or they may be an intrinsic quality of a signal. In some cases. so as to convey computer data along existing lengths of power cabling. Sometimes the term “overtone” is used to describe the a harmonic frequency produced by a musical instrument. An illustration of these terms is shown in Table 7. .4) 60 Hz AC + DC voltage 90 Hz mixedfrequency AC voltage Figure 7.
and so on. etc. lute. and neither produce the same harmonic content as stringed instruments.) tend to produce sounds composed of a single frequency (the “fundamental”) and a mix of harmonics.1. dulcimer. Musical tones become even more complex when the resonating element of an instrument is a twodimensional surface rather than a onedimensional string. . and some types of bells). pipe organ. In musical terms. described by the physics of motion for each unique object producing the sound. Instruments based on the vibration of a ﬂat plate (steel drums. etc. As such. ﬂute. but would not produce 2000 Hz. piano. the tone produced by a guitar string changes depending on where along its length it is plucked. or fundamental 2000 2nd harmonic 3000 3rd harmonic 4000 4th harmonic 5000 5th harmonic 6000 6th harmonic 7000 7th harmonic 157 It so happens that certain instruments are incapable of producing certain types of harmonic frequencies. Also. produce a much broader range of frequencies. which produces sound when air is blown across the opening) is incapable of producing evennumbered harmonics. 5000 Hz. being entirely devoid of any harmonics. Most musical instruments are incapable of producing sounds this simple. A distinctive blend of frequencies is what gives a musical instrument its characteristic tone. The result is a distinctive tone that some people ﬁnd acoustically offensive. 4000 Hz. INTRODUCTION Table 7. however. 7000 Hz. sounds very “ﬂat” and “featureless” to the human ear. or any other evenmultiple frequencies of the fundamental. not limited to wholenumber multiples of the fundamental. banjo. while the second overtone would be 5000 Hz (the 5th harmonic). clarinet. are a result of different harmonic content produced by differences in the mechanical vibrations of an instrument’s parts. but the relative amplitudes of those harmonic frequencies are different for different instruments. tuba. A pure sine wave (single frequency). Brass instruments do not possess the same “harmonic content” as woodwind instruments. These differences in tone. steel strings have a different sound than nylon strings. as well.1: For a “base” frequency of 1000 Hz: Frequency (Hz) Term 1000 1st harmonic. All these instruments produce harmonic frequencies (wholenumber multiples of the fundamental frequency) when a single note is played. the measure of a tone’s harmonic content is called timbre or color. As anyone who has played guitar can tell you. an instrument made from a tube that is open on one end and closed on the other (such as a bottle. What gives each instrument its distinctive tone is the same phenomenon that gives each person a distinctive voice: the unique blending of harmonic waveforms with each fundamental note.) or of a column of air in a tube (trumpet. Instruments based on the vibration of a string (guitar. For example. etc. Such an instrument set up to produce a fundamental frequency of 1000 Hz would also produce frequencies of 3000 Hz. we would say that the ﬁrst overtone (the ﬁrst frequency greater than the fundamental) in such an instrument would be 3000 Hz (the 3rd harmonic).7. 6000 Hz.
Some devices and systems do not permit the establishment of certain harmonics. plus an inﬁnite series of oddmultiple frequency sine waves at diminishing amplitude: . and so their overtones would only include some (not all) harmonic frequencies. nonsinusoidal waveform can be equated to a combination of DC voltage. The “ﬁrst” overtone is the ﬁrst frequency greater than the fundamental. Successive overtones may or may not correspond to incremental harmonics. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS As you can see. sine waves. and/or cosine waves (sine waves with a 90 degree phase shift) at various amplitudes and frequencies. So long as it repeats itself regularly over time. Most musical tones. while the “second” overtone is the next greater frequency produced. it has been found that square waves are mathematically equivalent to the sum of a sine wave at that same frequency. 7. purposely created. This is true no matter how strange or convoluted the waveform in question may be. • REVIEW: • A sinusoidal waveform is one shaped exactly like a sine wave. music provides a rich ﬁeld of study for mixed frequencies and their effects. depending on the device producing the mixed frequencies.158 CHAPTER 7. but are rich blends of different frequencies. • When multiple sine waveforms are mixed together (as is often the case in music). • A nonsinusoidal waveform can be anything from a distorted sinewave shape to something completely different like a square wave. • Mixedfrequency waveforms can be accidently created. or simply exist out of necessity. for instance. Later sections of this chapter will refer to musical instruments as sources of waveforms for analysis in more detail. it is reducible to this series of sinusoidal waves. the lowest frequency sinewave is called the fundamental. are not composed of a single frequency sinewave. • An overtone is a harmonic produced by a particular device. In particular.2 Square wave signals It has been found that any repeating. and the other sinewaves whose frequencies are wholenumber multiples of the fundamental wave are called harmonics.
5th. This truth about waveforms at ﬁrst may seem too strange to believe. it stands to reason that we should be able to prove this by adding together several sine wave harmonics to produce a close approximation of a square wave.5) V1=1. However. This reasoning is not only sound. ad infinitum .5: A square wave is approximated by the sum of harmonics. We’ll use SPICE to plot the voltage waveforms across successive additions of voltage sources. .7. The circuit we’ll be simulating is nothing more than several sine wave AC voltage sources of the proper amplitudes and frequencies connected together in series. and 9th harmonic . if a square wave is actually an inﬁnite series of sine wave harmonics added together. 7th. like this: (Figure 7. 3rd. . I’ve summed the 1st.27V 50Hz V3=424mV 150Hz V5=255mV 250Hz V7=182mV 350Hz V9=141mV 450Hz plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform Figure 7. . .2. but easily demonstrated with SPICE. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 159 1 V (peak) repeating square wave at 50 Hz is equivalent to: 4 (1 V peak sine wave at 50 Hz) π + + 4 (1/3 V peak sine wave at 150 Hz) π 4 (1/5 V peak sine wave at 250 Hz) π 4 (1/7 V peak sine wave at 350 Hz) π 4 (1/9 V peak sine wave at 450 Hz) π + + + . In this particular SPICE simulation.
0) Plot 1st + 3rd + 5th harmonics . 1/7.6) Figure 7. The amplitude (voltage) ﬁgures are not random numbers. Next. The fundamental frequency is 50 Hz and each harmonic is.0) Plot 1st + .0) Plot 1st + 3rd harmonics . It is nothing but a pure sine shape.plot tran v(4. This is the kind of waveform produced by an ideal AC power source: (Figure 7. 1/5. for each of the increasing odd harmonics). they have been arrived at through the equations shown in the frequency series (the fraction 4/π multiplied by 1. of course.plot tran v(1. rather.tran 1m 20m . we see what happens when this clean and simple waveform is combined with the .27324 50 0 0) 1st harmonic (50 Hz) v3 2 1 sin (0 424.413m 150 0 0) 3rd harmonic v5 3 2 sin (0 254.0) Plot 1st + 3rd + 5th + 7th harmonics . 1/3.6: Pure 50 Hz sinewave.end I’ll narrate the analysis step by step from here. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS voltage sources in series for a total of ﬁve AC voltage sources.160 CHAPTER 7.plot tran v(2. building a squarewave v1 1 0 sin (0 1.plot tran v(3. . + 9th harmonics . explaining what it is we’re looking at. we see the fundamentalfrequency sinewave of 50 Hz by itself. etc. an integer multiple of that frequency.plot tran v(5.0) Plot 1st harmonic .648m 250 0 0) 5th harmonic v7 4 3 sin (0 181. In this ﬁrst plot.471m 450 0 0) 9th harmonic r1 5 0 10k . with no additional harmonic content. .891m 350 0 0) 7th harmonic v9 5 4 sin (0 141.
7) Figure 7.8) Figure 7. and the crests of the wave are closer to becoming ﬂat like a squarewave.7. The rise and fall times between positive and negative cycles are much steeper now.8: Sum of 1st. 3rd and 5th harmonics approximates square wave. Suddenly. or 150 Hz). . it doesn’t look like a clean sine wave any more: (Figure 7.2. Watch what happens as we add the next odd harmonic frequency: (Figure 7.7: Sum of 1st (50 Hz) and 3rd (150 Hz) harmonics approximates a 50 Hz square wave. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 161 third harmonic (three times 50 Hz.
electrical or otherwise. sine waves. 3rd.162 CHAPTER 7. the ﬁfth sine wave voltage source in our circuit. adding the 9th harmonic. SPICE has the ability to sample a waveform and reduce it into its constituent sine wave harmonics by way of a Fourier Transform algorithm.9) Figure 7. and 7th harmonics approximates square wave. which in fact they are. and its application in AC power quality and signal analysis is widespread. There are more several dips and crests at each end of the wave. Finally. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS The most noticeable change here is how the crests of the wave have ﬂattened even more. we obtain this result: (Figure 7. to prove that a pure square wave is actually equivalent to a series of sine waves. but those dips and crests are smaller in amplitude than they were before. However. computer algorithms have been created to perform this analysis at high speeds on real waveforms. 5th. When a square wave AC voltage is applied to a circuit with reactive components (capacitors and inductors). those components react as if they were being exposed to several sine wave voltages of different frequencies. The point in doing this is to illustrate how we can build a square wave up from multiple sine waves at different frequencies. The mathematical process of reducing a nonsinusoidal wave into these constituent frequencies is called Fourier analysis. the details of which are well beyond the scope of this text. which we already know is composed of oddharmonic sine waves: The pulse option in the netlist line describing voltage source v1 instructs SPICE to simulate .10) The end result of adding the ﬁrst ﬁve odd harmonic waveforms together (all at the proper amplitudes. of course) is a close approximation of a square wave. Here we can see the wave becoming ﬂatter at each peak. Let’s try this on a square wave. Watch again as we add the next odd harmonic waveform to the mix: (Figure 7. outputting the frequency analysis as a table of numbers. nonsinusoidal waves are equivalent to a deﬁnite series of additive DC voltage. The fact that repeating.9: Sum of 1st. and/or cosine waves is a consequence of how waves work: a fundamental property of all waverelated phenomena.
four 50 v(1.end . 3rd.0) .7.1m .plot tran v(1.1m 10m 20m) r1 1 0 10k .0) . 7th and 9th harmonics approximates square wave. 5th.tran 1m 40m .10: Sum of 1st. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 163 Figure 7. squarewave analysis netlist v1 1 0 pulse (1 1 0 .2.
439E02 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 5.561 105.11: Squarewave for SPICE Fourier analysis Next. 4th. plus a small DC voltage labelled DC component.274E+00 1.500E+02 2.010E02 0. this frequency is 50 Hz).11) Figure 7.000E+02 5.000000 2.040175 107. 8th).000 2 1.500E+02 4.171 8 4.12) SPICE has broken the waveform down into a spectrum of sinusoidal frequencies up to the ninth harmonic.000E+01 1.805747 percent Here.195 0.366 13.976 7 3.038415 94.561 total harmonic distortion = 43. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS a squareshaped “pulse” waveform.116E02 0.039337 103.171 100.936E02 0.144549 15.390 92.841E01 0.756 17. and how the amplitudes of the odd harmonics diminish (1st is largest. 9th is smallest).164 CHAPTER 7.500E+02 1. First we’ll plot the square wave to be analyzed: (Figure 7.038757 98. (Figure 7.500E+02 1.113316 19. we’ll print the Fourier analysis generated by SPICE for this square wave: fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 2. .780 6 3. so it knew how to classify the harmonics.562E01 0.390 4 2.195 3 1.000E+02 4.366 9 4.585 4.443E01 0.000E+02 4.892E02 0.780 96.201179 10. I had to inform SPICE of the fundamental frequency (for a square wave with a 20 millisecond period.585 5 2.333987 6. Note how small the ﬁgures are for all the even harmonics (2nd. in this case one that is symmetrical (equal time for each halfcycle) and has a peak amplitude of 1 volt. 6th.000E+02 5.253E01 0.976 8.
This same mathematical technique used in SPICE to analyze the harmonic content of waves can be applied to the technical analysis of music: breaking up any particular sound into its constituent sinewave frequencies. but be aware of their existence and application.7. You need not be concerned with exactly how these computer routines work. (Figure 7.2.5 kHz 5 7. displaying the amplitude of each particular frequency. to “customize” the sound for the listener’s beneﬁt. you may have already seen a device designed to do just that without realizing what it was! A graphic equalizer is a piece of highﬁdelity stereo equipment that controls (and sometimes displays) the nature of music’s harmonic content. sampling the AC waveform(s) and determining the harmonic content thereof. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 165 Figure 7.5 kHz kHz 3. In fact. Typically. Equipped with several knobs or slide levers. .12: Plot of Fourier analysis esults. A common computer algorithm (sequence of program steps to perform a task) for this is the Fast Fourier Transform or FFT function.5 kHz kHz Figure 7. This same technique of “Fourier Transformation” is often used in computerized power instrumentation.13: HiFi audio graphic equalizer. there will be a “bar graph” display next to each control lever. the equalizer is able to selectively attenuate (reduce) the amplitude of certain frequencies present in music.5 kHz kHz 10 12.13) Graphic Equalizer Bargraph displays the amplitude of each frequency Control levers set the attenuation factor for each frequency 50 Hz 150 300 Hz Hz 500 Hz 750 Hz 1 1.
an oscilloscope’s plot of amplitude (vertical) over time (horizontal) is a “timedomain” analysis. the less precise the analysis. Unlike an oscilloscope. A waveform of inﬁnite duration (inﬁnite number of cycles) can be analyzed with absolute precision. Again. When we use SPICE to plot signal amplitude (either voltage or current amplitude) over a range of frequencies. whereas a spectrum analyzer’s plot of amplitude (vertical) over frequency (horizontal) is a “frequencydomain” analysis.14) Spectrum Analyzer amplitude frequency Figure 7. but the less cycles available to the computer for analysis. It is only when we have an equation describing a waveform in its entirety that . such as those produced by radio transmitters and computer network hardware.14: Spectrum analyzer shows amplitude as a function of frequency. and so should the DC component. they often have an appearance like that of an oscilloscope: (Figure 7. this plot is amplitude over frequency rather than amplitude over time.166 CHAPTER 7. the amplitudes of all the even harmonics should be absolutely zero. Spectrum analyzers are often designed to analyze extremely highfrequency signals. The design of spectrum analyzers may be as simple as a set of “ﬁlter” circuits (see the next chapter for details) designed to separate the different frequencies from each other. the spectrum analyzer uses a CRT (or a computer display mimicking a CRT) to display a plot of the signal. we are performing frequencydomain analysis. Thus. In essence.” Ideally. a frequency analyzer gives the operator a Bode plot of the signal: something an engineer might call a frequencydomain rather than a timedomain analysis. Please take note of how the Fourier analysis from the last SPICE simulation isn’t “perfect. The term “domain” is mathematical: a sophisticated word to describe the horizontal axis of a graph. this is not so much a quirk of SPICE as it is a property of waveforms in general. In that form. Like an oscilloscope. or as complex as a specialpurpose digital computer running an FFT algorithm to mathematically split the signal into its harmonic components. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS A device built strictly to display – not control – the amplitudes of each frequency range for a mixedfrequency signal is typically called a spectrum analyzer.
200 79.plot tran v(1. Sufﬁce it to say that the number of cycles and the certainty of a waveform’s frequency component(s) are directly related.999E02 0.182 5.273E+00 1.800 75.000E+01 1. I’ve omitted the waveform plot for brevity’s sake – its just a really long square wave: squarewave v1 1 0 pulse (1 1 0 .999E03 harmonic frequency fourier normalized no (hz) component component 1 5. the imprecision of the ﬁrst analysis is not so much a ﬂaw in SPICE as it is a fundamental property of waves and of signal analysis.199215 6 3.199 14.141737 8 4.332897 4 2. all because we let the computer sample more cycles of the wave. • Computer algorithms exist which are able to sample waveshapes and determine their constituent sinusoidal components.000000 2 1.804E01 0. the less certain its frequency is.500E+02 1.400 3. not just AC voltages and currents.764 84. Again.000E+02 1. and the result would be a spectrum analysis more consistent with the ideal.146 80.option limpts=1001 .000E+02 1.000 7. The Fourier Transform algorithm (particularly the .529 77.tran 1m 1 . SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS 167 Fourier analysis can reduce it to a deﬁnite series of sinusoidal waveforms.329 16. The fewer times that a wave cycles.0) .015688 5 2.800 0. Taking this concept to its logical extreme.000E+02 1.997E02 0.564 9.1m 10m 20m) r1 1 0 10k . In the following analysis.600 10.end fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 9.000E+02 1. but rather acts as an inﬁnite range of frequencies. This principle is common to all wavebased phenomena.382 88.500E+02 4.four 50 v(1.109662 phase normalized (deg) phase (deg) 1.000 86.500E+02 2.7.946 12.536E01 0.989E02 0. We could improve the precision of our analysis here by letting the wave oscillate on and on for many cycles.015663 7 3.396E01 0.500E+02 1.015704 3 1.399 Notice how this analysis (Figure 7.2.600 82. a short pulse – a waveform that doesn’t even complete a cycle – actually has no frequency. • REVIEW: • Square waves are equivalent to a sine wave at the same (fundamental) frequency added to an inﬁnite series of oddmultiple sinewave harmonics at decreasing amplitudes.994E02 0.238E01 0.15) shows less of a DC component voltage and lower amplitudes for each of the even harmonic frequency sine waves.1m .015627 9 4.0) .
These devices have the ability to suddenly change their resistance with the application of a control signal voltage or current. These current waveforms then produce changes in the voltage waveform to other circuit components. due to voltage drops created by the nonsinusoidal current through circuit impedances. Circuit components that distort the normal sinewave shape of AC voltage or current are called nonlinear. these harmonic waveforms created by electronic switching components may cause erratic circuit behavior. If not taken into consideration by the circuit designer. are equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms of higher (harmonic) frequencies. Electronic power control devices such as transistors and siliconcontrolled rectiﬁers (SCRs) often produce voltage and current waveforms that are essentially choppedup versions of the otherwise “clean” (pure) sinewave AC from the power supply. but not the only one. producing current waveforms bearing little resemblance to the source voltage waveform powering the circuit. regardless of their actual shape. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7. Nonlinear components such as SCRs ﬁnd popular use in power electronics due to their ability to regulate large amounts of electrical power without dissipating much heat.15: Improved fourier analysis. any repeating. These nonsinusoidal waveforms. It is becoming increasingly common in the electric power industry to observe overheating of transformers and motors due to distortions in the sine . Square waves are a very common and wellunderstood case. or FFT) is commonly used in computer circuit simulation programs such as SPICE and in electronic metering equipment for determining power quality. the waveshape distortions they introduce can cause problems. nonsinusoidal waveform is actually equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms of different amplitudes and frequencies added together. Fast Fourier Transform. While this is an advantage from the perspective of energy efﬁciency. thus “turning on” or “turning off ” almost instantaneously. 7.3 Other waveshapes As strange as it may seem.168 CHAPTER 7.
too small to show on the harmonic plot above. where a single diode blocks half of the AC current (over time) from passing through the load. This is no theoretical exercise: it is very real and potentially very troublesome. Ideally. halfwave rectifier v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rload 2 0 10k d1 1 2 mod1 .four 60 v(1. I will investigate a few of the more common waveshapes and show their harmonic components by way of Fourier analysis using SPICE. but our Fourier analysis ﬁgures aren’t perfect because SPICE doesn’t have the luxury of sampling a waveform of inﬁnite duration. there would be nothing but the fundamental frequency showing (being a perfect sine wave). OTHER WAVESHAPES 169 wave shape of the AC power line voltage stemming from “switching” loads such as computers and highefﬁciency lights.plot tran v(1.0) v(2. which only allow the passage of current in one direction.7.end halfwave rectifier First.16: Halfwave rectiﬁer. The simplest type of AC/DC rectiﬁcation is halfwave. or “rectiﬁed” into DC. (Figure 7. though. One very common way harmonics are generated in an AC power system is when AC is converted.16) Oddly enough. we’ll see how SPICE analyzes the source waveform. we’ll compare this with the Fourier analysis of the halfwave .5m 17m .0) v(2. Figure 7.0) . This is generally done with components called diodes.tran . In this section. a pure sine wave voltage: (Figure 7.18) Notice the extremely small harmonic and DC components of this sinusoidal waveform in the table above.3. Next.0) .model mod1 d . the conventional diode schematic symbol is drawn such that electrons ﬂow against the direction of the symbol’s arrowhead: 1 diode 2 + load  0 0 The diode only allows electron flow in a counterclockwise direction.
347 104.400E+02 1.000000 0.092E03 0. V(1)+0.669 54.091 70.000E+02 1.655 .319 5 3.4 shifts the sinewave input V(1) up for clarity.000080 70.000076 61.324 61.800E+02 1.000074 63. fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 8.482E+01 1.17: Halfwave rectiﬁer waveforms.800E+02 6.185E03 0.492E03 0.000091 54. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7.220E03 0.086 6 3.283 8 4. This is not part of the simulation.602 7 4.000E+01 1.607 63.132E03 0.000168 104.658 4 2.664 9 5.663 86.000082 56.170 CHAPTER 7.200E+02 2.200E+02 1.000099 52.342 3 1.660 52.005 0.467E03 0.000044 86.000 2 1.016E04 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 6.288 56.354E03 0.600E+02 1.465E04 0.400E+02 1.
Because our AC voltage waveform has been “rectiﬁed” (only allowed to push in one direction across the load rather than backandforth).20).800E+02 1.005787 115.7.073556 87. which as you may have guessed utilizes the full cycle of AC power from the source. we have a 2nd harmonic component to this waveform that’s over 85 times the amplitude of the original AC source frequency! .000E+02 6.085 normalized phase (deg) 0. By cutting out half of our AC wave.18: Fourier analysis of the sine wave input.295 5 3.100 152.456E+00 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.800E+02 7.600E+02 1.382E02 0.765 3 1. we’ve introduced the equivalent of several higherfrequency sinusoidal (actually.492E02 0.224 61.479 9 5.456 volts.000E+01 7.167 132. cosine) waveforms into our circuit from the original. I won’t bore you with details of exactly how this is done.000E+00 1.195 2 1.570 167. reversing the polarity of half the AC cycle to get electrons to ﬂow through the load the same direction all the time.420 8 4.727E01 0.200E+02 3.400E+02 5.790 6 3.22) What a difference! According to SPICE’s Fourier transform.284 114. Another method of AC/DC conversion is called fullwave (Figure 7.3.051E02 0. pure sinewave.000000 0.810 87. “rectiﬁed” voltage across the load resistor: (Figure 7. OTHER WAVESHAPES 171 Figure 7.400E+02 4.21) and its harmonic analysis through SPICE: (Figure 7.430849 89. but we can examine the waveform (Figure 7.016E+00 0.149E01 0.206E01 0. Also take note of the large DC component: 4.000 89.362 7 4.010703 61.024676 79.005 4 2.017223 168.889 Notice the relatively large evenmultiple harmonics in this analysis.19) fourier components of transient response v(2) dc component = 4.595 79.200E+02 4.493E02 0. it behaves a lot more like DC.006417 132.009117 152.
four 60 v(2.model mod1 d .3) .20: Fullwave rectiﬁer circuit.5m 17m .tran .172 CHAPTER 7. fullwave bridge rectifier v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rload 2 3 10k d1 1 2 mod1 d2 0 2 mod1 d3 3 1 mod1 d4 3 0 mod1 .end .19: Fourier analysis halfwave output.3) . MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7.plot tran v(1.0) v(2. 1 D1 V1 15 V 60 Hz 2 D2 0 1 D3 R + load 10 kΩ D4 0 3 Figure 7.
3) dc component = 8.400E+02 7.404E01 2.21: Waveforms for fullwave rectiﬁer fourier components of transient response v(2.000E+02 7.319 9 5.241E02 1.034465 93.907 2.006043 118.267 4 2.026 1.364E02 1.7.465161 92.3.052023 95.000E+01 7.000000 93.600E+02 3. OTHER WAVESHAPES 173 Figure 7.200E+02 5.800E+02 7.787 0.230 3.457E02 1.065240 90.013E+00 14.519 0.023 0.839 25.271 6.997E+00 85.000E02 1.612 .000 2 1.767350 100.289 3 1.070827 94.027 5 3.669415 90.752 7 4.800E+02 1.496E02 1.504 8 4.200E+02 7.492 1.507 6 3.337E01 4.273E+00 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 6.400E+02 1.
174 CHAPTER 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7. While the complex mathematics behind all this Fourier transformation is not necessary for the beginning student of electric circuits to understand. The practical effects of harmonic frequencies in circuits will be explored in the last section of this chapter. The odd harmonics are actually stronger at some of the higher frequencies than they are at the lower frequencies. • REVIEW: • Any waveform at all.273 volts (almost twice what is was for the halfwave rectiﬁer circuit) while the second harmonic is almost 6 volts in amplitude. • Rectiﬁcation of AC to DC is a very common source of harmonics within industrial power systems.4 More on spectrum analysis Computerized Fourier analysis. Different waveshapes consist of different blends of sinewave harmonics.22: Fourier analysis of fullwave rectiﬁer output.fourier option is also programmed into a variety of electronic test instruments to perform realtime Fourier analysis on measured signals. This section is devoted to the use of such tools and the analysis of several different waveforms. Notice all the other harmonics further on down the table. is a powerful tool for furthering our understanding of waveforms and their related spectral components. it is of the utmost importance to realize the principles at work and to grasp the practical effects that harmonic signals may have on circuits. what may begin as a neat. so long as it is repetitive. particularly in the form of the FFT algorithm. 7. As you can see. The DC component of this wave shows up as being 8. simple AC sinewave may end up as a complex mess of harmonics after passing through just a few electronic components. can be reduced to a series of sinusoidal waveforms added together. but before we do that we’ll take a closer look at waveforms and their respective harmonics. which is interesting. . This same mathematical routine programmed into the SPICE simulator as the .
4.25 Hz. unfortunately. Close observation reveals imperfections in the sinewave shape. the result is quite different: (Figure 7.7. showing signal amplitude (voltage) over time: (Figure 7. is a result of the speciﬁc equipment used to analyze the waveform. one octave above “middle C”.23: Oscilloscope display: voltage vs time. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 175 First we have a simple sine wave at a frequency of 523. This particular frequency value is a “C” pitch on a piano keyboard. This. the horizontal axis of the display is marked with the word “Frequency.24) As you can see. The curve itself. of course. The height of the peak represents the signal amplitude (voltage). a sine wave looks like a wavy curve traced horizontally on the screen. The horizontal axis of this oscilloscope display is marked with the word “Time” and an arrow pointing in the direction of time’s progression. you would see that this peak occurs at 523. The single peak on the curve represents the predominance of a single frequency within the range of frequencies covered by the width of the display. If the scale of this analyzer instrument were marked with numbers. If we view this same AC voltage on a spectrum analyzer. Actually.23) Figure 7. The plot below was taken from an oscilloscope display. Characteristics like these due to quirks of the test equipment are technically known as artifacts: phenomena existing solely because of a peculiarity in the equipment used to perform the experiment. a C . the closest instrument “voice” I could ﬁnd resembling a perfect sine wave.” denoting the domain of this measurement.25 Hz. If we mix three different sinewave tones together on the electronic keyboard (CEG. Viewed with an oscilloscope. the signal measured for this demonstration was created by an electronic keyboard set to produce the tone of a panﬂute. represents the cyclic increase and decrease of voltage over time.
As was stated before. a direct result of the mixing of these three frequencies. some of these peaks are higher than the peaks of the original singlepitch waveform. For example. let’s view the signal for a trumpet tone: (Figure 7. while others are lower.25 Hz.” The waveform itself is far from a pure and simple sinewave form. the device used to generate these waveforms is an electronic keyboard: a musical instrument designed to mimic the tones of many different instruments.176 CHAPTER 7. Knowing that any repeating. and not a necessary characteristic of the musical chord itself. In fact. The spectrum display (frequencydomain) is much easier to interpret: each pitch is represented by its own peak on the curve.27) The fundamental frequency of this tone is the same as in the ﬁrst panﬂute example: 523. nonsinusoidal waveform is equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7. As you will notice. This is a result of the three different waveforms alternately reinforcing and canceling each other as their respective phase shifts change in time. we should expect to see multiple . one octave above “middle C.26) The difference in height between these three peaks is another artifact of the test equipment: a consequence of limitations within the equipment used to generate and analyze these waveforms. (Figure 7. though. major chord) and measure the result. The panﬂute “voice” was chosen for the ﬁrst demonstrations because it most closely resembled a pure sine wave (a single frequency on the spectrum analyzer display). Other musical instrument “voices” are not as simple as this one. the unique tone produced by any instrument is a function of its waveshape (or spectrum of frequencies). both the oscilloscope display and the spectrum analyzer display reﬂect this increased complexity: (Figure 7.25) The oscilloscope display (timedomain) shows a waveform with many more peaks and valleys than before.24: Spectrum analyzer display: voltage vs frequency.
.26: Spectrum analyzer display: three tones. Figure 7.25: Oscilloscape display: three tones. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 177 Figure 7.4.7.
.178 CHAPTER 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7.28) Figure 7.27: Oscilloscope display: waveshape of a trumpet tone. peaks on the spectrum analyzer display: (Figure 7.28: Spectrum of a trumpet tone.
the pattern of oddonly . we obtain a similarly complex oscilloscope (timedomain) plot (Figure 7. The second harmonic is twice the frequency of the fundamental (1046. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 179 Indeed we do! The fundamental frequency component of 523.29: Oscilloscope display: waveshape of accordion tone. Although this display doesn’t show frequencies past the sixth harmonic.32) plots for a waveform approximating a square wave: According to the spectrum analysis. only odd. The analytical power of the oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer permit us to derive general rules about waveforms and their harmonic spectra from real waveform examples. Both instrument tones contain harmonics all the way from 1st (fundamental) to 6th (and beyond!). this waveform contains no even harmonics. Bear in mind that all this complexity is in reference to a single note played with these two instrument “voices. This display only shows the ﬁrst six harmonics. Note. but the proportions aren’t the same. would create a much more complex mixture of frequencies than what is seen here.30) Figure 7.4. Trying a different instrument voice (the accordion) on the keyboard.31) and frequencydomain (Figure 7. for example. close observation allows us to be more speciﬁc than this. Note the differences in relative harmonic amplitudes (peak heights) on the spectrum displays for trumpet and accordion. and so on. for example.(Figure 7.5 Hz).7. Each instrument has a unique harmonic “signature” to its tone. We already know that any deviation from a pure sinewave results in the equivalent of a mixture of multiple sinewave waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. the third harmonic three times the fundamental (1569.25 Hz is represented by the leftmost peak.29) and spectrum analyzer (frequencydomain) display: (Figure 7. but there are many more comprising this complex tone. with each successive harmonic represented as its own peak along the width of the analyzer screen. However. the time.” Multiple notes played on an accordion.75 Hz).
30: Spectrum of accordion tone.31: Oscilloscope timedomain display of a square wave . Figure 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7.180 CHAPTER 7.
artifacts of the test equipment used in this analysis). Tiny peaks can be seen for the second.34) the only signiﬁcant frequency peaks on the spectrum analyzer display belong to oddnumbered multiples of the fundamental frequency.36) The distinction between a waveform having even harmonics versus no even harmonics resides in the difference between a triangle waveshape and a sawtooth waveshape. as we’ve already seen with SPICE that a square wave is comprised of an inﬁnitude of odd harmonics. its oscilloscope plot reveals it to be aptly named: (Figure 7. however. contained both even and odd harmonics. It should be obvious from inspection that the harmonic spectrum of the triangle wave is not identical to the spectrum of the square wave: the respective harmonic peaks are of different heights. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 181 Figure 7. That difference is symmetry above and below the horizontal centerline of the wave. The trumpet and accordion tones.7. Let’s continue our investigation with an analysis of a triangle wave: (Figure 7. this one very similar to the triangle wave.35) When the spectrum analysis of this waveform is plotted. This should come as no surprise.33) In this waveform there are practically no even harmonics: (Figure 7. fourth. we see a result that is quite different from that of the regular triangle wave. A waveform that is . Known as a sawtooth wave. A perfect triangle waveshape produces no even harmonics. This difference in harmonic content is noteworthy. However. except that its risetime is not the same as its falltime. Let’s examine another waveform. and sixth harmonics. for this analysis shows the strong presence of evennumbered harmonics (second and fourth): (Figure 7. just like a perfect square wave. harmonics in descending amplitude continues indeﬁnitely. the two different waveforms are common in their lack of even harmonics.32: Spectrum (frequencydomain) of a square wave. but this is due to imperfections in this particular triangle waveshape (once again.4.
182 CHAPTER 7.33: Oscilloscope timedomain display of a triangle wave. . Figure 7.34: Spectrum of a triangle wave. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Figure 7.
36: Frequencydomain display of a sawtooth wave.35: Timedomain display of a sawtooth wave. .4. Figure 7.7. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 183 Figure 7.
and note that their harmonic contents are unchanged.39: These waveforms are composed exclusively of odd harmonics.37) Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only Figure 7. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS symmetrical above and below its centerline (the shape on both sides mirror each other precisely) will contain no evennumbered harmonics. and the sawtooth wave are unsymmetrical around their centerlines and therefore do contain even harmonics. (Figure 7. Waveforms like the trumpet tone. (Figure 7.40) . (Figure 7. In the examples shown. the amount of DC voltage present in a waveform has nothing to do with that waveform’s harmonic frequency content. triangle waves. the horizontal centerline of the waveform happens to be zero volts on the timedomain graph.184 CHAPTER 7. the accordion tone. I will show the same sets of waveforms. but this has nothing to do with harmonic content. This principle of centerline symmetry should not be confused with symmetry around the zero line.” For further clariﬁcation. and all are devoid of even harmonics. and pure sine waves all exhibit this symmetry.38: Asymmetric waveforms contain even harmonics. This rule of harmonic content (even harmonics only with unsymmetrical waveforms) applies whether or not the waveform is shifted above or below zero volts with a “DC component.39) Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only Figure 7. (Figure 7. Again.37: Waveforms symmetric about their xaxis center line contain only odd harmonics. Square waves. shifted with DC voltage.38) Figure 7.
if you happen to measure even harmonics in an AC circuit with a spectrum analyzer or frequency meter. and that clue may be helpful in locating the source of a problem (look for components or conditions more likely to distort one halfcycle of the AC waveform more than the other). you know that something in that circuit must be unsymmetrically distorting the sinewave voltage or current. the components in that circuit respond to each constituent frequency in a different way. Any reactive component such as a capacitor or an inductor will simultaneously present a unique amount of impedance to each and every frequency present in a circuit. CIRCUIT EFFECTS 185 Figure 7. Since most sources of sinewave distortion in AC power circuits tend to be symmetrical. and . This is good to know if you’re a power system designer and are planning ahead for harmonic reduction: you only have to concern yourself with mitigating the odd harmonic frequencies. • The amount of DC “bias” voltage present (a waveform’s “DC component”) has no impact on that wave’s harmonic frequency content.5. It means that any time we have a waveform that isn’t perfectly sinewaveshaped. repeating waveforms being equivalent to a series of sine waves at different frequencies is a fundamental property of waves in general and it has great practical import in the study of AC circuits. Also. even harmonics being practically nonexistent. 7.40: These waveforms contain even harmonics. When an AC circuit is subjected to a source voltage consisting of a mixture of frequencies. Why is this harmonic ruleofthumb an important rule to know? It can help us comprehend the relationship between harmonics in AC circuits and speciﬁc circuit components. • REVIEW: • Waveforms that are symmetrical above and below their horizontal centerlines contain no evennumbered harmonics. Thankfully. the analysis of such circuits is made relatively easy by applying the Superposition Theorem. the circuit in question will react as though its having an array of different frequency voltages imposed on it at once. evennumbered harmonics are rarely seen in those applications. there being no symmetry at all above and below center. it makes more sense that a waveform like that produced by a rectiﬁer circuit should contain such strong even harmonics.5 Circuit effects The principle of nonsinusoidal. regarding the multiplefrequency source as a set of singlefrequency voltage sources connected in series. Now that we have this rule to guide our interpretation of nonsinusoidal waveforms.7.
2k .1168m 1.2k + j0 2.j2.1168m 1.186 CHAPTER 7.4509m ∠ 50. Analyzing circuit for 60 Hz source alone: 2.22µ + j1.4569 3.653k ∠ 90o Total 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 926.328o 2. R E I Z 2.653k 3.4509m ∠ 50.j2.42: Circuit for solving 60 Hz.4509m ∠ 50.2k ∠ 0o C 2.22µ + j1.j2.8486 ∠ 39. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS analyzing the circuit for one source at a time.43: Circuit of solving 90 Hz.328o Volts Amps Ohms Analyzing the circuit for 90 Hz source alone: R 5V 90 Hz 2. .6716o 926.0377 + j2.328o 2.328o 926.2 kΩ C XC = 1.768 kΩ 1 µF Figure 7.653k 2.1168m 1.1919 ∠ 50.4569 3.2 kΩ C 1 µF R 2.9623 .41: Circuit driven by a combination of frequencies: 60 Hz and 90 Hz. summing the results at the end to determine the aggregate total: R 5V 60 Hz 5V 90 Hz Figure 7.2 kΩ 5V 60 Hz C XC = 2.653 kΩ 1 µF Figure 7.22µ + j1.446k ∠ 50.328o 0 .
What we can tell from this application of the superposition theorem is that there will be a greater 60 Hz voltage dropped across the capacitor than a 90 Hz voltage.793o 1. It is this kind of unequal circuit response to signals of differing frequency that will be our speciﬁc focus in the next chapter.3807m + j1. Technicians and engineers need to be made aware of the potential effects of nonsinusoidal waveforms in reactive circuits.1325 V ∠ 51. such as a square wave.j2.7714m ∠ 38. we get: ER = [3.793o 2.7. Just the opposite is true for the resistor’s voltage drop. and the like.793o (90 Hz)] EC = [3.2k + j0 2. or ﬁve sine waves in all!). Studies have been performed on the potential hazards of using portable computers aboard passenger aircraft. I mention this not to scare you.6716o (60 Hz)] + [3. We can also apply the superposition theorem to the analysis of a circuit powered by a nonsinusoidal voltage.328o (60 Hz)] + [3. but it is possible.1098m 1.7714m ∠ 38.9625 . transformer and inductor core overheating due to eddy currents.j1. It’s bad enough that typical microprocessor clock signal frequencies are within the range of aircraft radio frequency bands.8971 ∠ 38. frequencies. electromagnetic noise over broad ranges of the frequency spectrum.1325 ∠ 51.1098m 1. but worse yet is the fact that the harmonic multiples of those fundamental frequencies span an even larger range. we cannot consolidate them into a single voltage ﬁgure as we could if we were adding together two voltages of different amplitude and/or phase angle at the same frequency. Harmonics are known to manifest their effects in the form of electromagnetic radiation as well.1919 V ∠ 50.2k .207o 1. If we know the Fourier series (multiple sine/cosine wave equivalent) of that wave. we can regard it as originating from a seriesconnected string of multiple sinusoidal voltage sources at the appropriate amplitudes.768k 1. and phase shifts.0375 + j2.8486 V ∠ 39. This has been known to translate into unexpected circuit resonances. this can be a laborious task for some waveforms (an accurate squarewave Fourier Series is considered to be expressed out to the ninth harmonic.2k ∠ 0o C 1.793o Volts Amps Ohms 187 Superimposing the voltage drops across R and C.823k ∠ 38.4415 3.793o 2. but to inform you of the potential complexity lurking behind seemingly simple waveforms. citing the fact that computers’ high frequency squarewave “clock” voltage signals are capable of generating radio waves that could interfere with the operation of the aircraft’s electronic navigation equipment. Needless to say. but not frequency.5.3807m + j1.8971 V ∠ 38. .7714m ∠ 38.1098m 1.768k 2.j1. due to the fact that clock signal voltages are squarewave in shape and not sinewave.4415 3.768k ∠ 90o Total 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 1. Complex number notation give us the ability to represent waveform amplitude (polar magnitude) and phase angle (polar angle). especially in light of the fact that the two source voltages are equal. A reallife circuit will respond just the same to being powered by a square wave as being powered by an inﬁnite series of sine waves of oddmultiple frequencies and diminishing amplitudes.793o 0 . CIRCUIT EFFECTS R E I Z 3.207o (90 Hz)] Because the two voltages across each component are at different frequencies.3807m + j1. This is worthy to note.
nonsinusoidal waveform is equivalent to a particular series of sine/cosine waves of different frequencies. since complex numbers only account for amplitude and phase shift. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS Electromagnetic “emissions” of this nature can be a problem in industrial applications. because the old controls never generated harmonics. . This problem can manifest itself in industry when old motor controls are replaced with new. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. These unwanted signals may come by way of capacitive coupling. capacitive and inductive “coupling” caused by closeproximity conductors is usually more severe at high frequencies. and amplitudes. Suddenly there may be weird electrical noise being impressed upon signal wiring that never used to be there. Signal wiring nearby power wiring will tend to “pick up” harmonic interference from the power wiring to a far greater extent than pure sinewave interference. but those harmonic frequency multiples theoretically extend into inﬁnitely high frequency ranges. Also. not frequency! • Harmonics can cause problems by impressing unwanted (“noise”) voltage signals upon nearby circuits. Low frequency power line voltage and current doesn’t radiate into space very well as electromagnetic energy.188 CHAPTER 7. from most recent to ﬁrst. 7. • Multiplefrequency voltage sources can be simulated for analysis by connecting several singlefrequency voltage sources in series. The fundamental power line frequency may only be 60 Hz. too. plus a DC offset voltage if necessary. and those highfrequency harmonic voltages and currents tend to inductively and capacitively “couple” better to nearby conductors than any 60 Hz signals from the old controls used to. NOTE: superimposed voltages and currents of different frequencies cannot be added together in complex number form. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. electromagnetic radiation. inductive coupling. with harmonics abounding in very large quantities due to (nonlinear) electronic control of motor and electric furnace power. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.6 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. The mathematical process for determining the sinusoidal waveform equivalent for any waveform is called Fourier analysis. or a combination thereof. phases. solidstate electronic motor controls providing greater energy efﬁciency. but high frequencies do. Analysis of voltages and currents is accomplished by using the superposition theorem. • REVIEW: • Any regular (repeating).
A common need for ﬁlter circuits is in highperformance stereo systems. . . . . 196 Bandpass ﬁlters . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . 189 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 8 FILTERS Contents 8. . . . . . . You may also be familiar with crossover networks. . . . . . so a crossover circuit is connected between the tweeter and the stereo’s output terminals to block lowfrequency signals. . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . which allow the amplitudes of several frequency ranges to be adjusted to suit the listener’s taste and acoustic properties of the listening area. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Contributors . . . where certain ranges of audio frequencies need to be ampliﬁed or suppressed for best sound quality and power efﬁciency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Summary . . . . . . . .1 What is a ﬁlter? It is sometimes desirable to have circuits capable of selectively ﬁltering one frequency or range of frequencies out of a mix of different frequencies in a circuit. . You may be familiar with equalizers. . . . 190 Highpass ﬁlters . . . A circuit designed to perform this frequency selection is called a ﬁlter circuit. . . . . . A tweeter (highfrequency speaker) is inefﬁcient at reproducing lowfrequency signals such as drum beats. . . . . which block certain ranges of frequencies from reaching speakers. . . . . . . . . or simply a ﬁlter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. 215 8. . . . . . . Both equalizers and crossover networks are examples of ﬁlters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Resonant ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Bandstop ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . only passing highfrequency signals to the speaker’s connection terminals.8 What is a ﬁlter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Lowpass ﬁlters . designed to accomplish ﬁltering of certain frequencies. . . . This gives better audio system efﬁciency and thus better performance.
• REVIEW: • A ﬁlter is an AC circuit that separates some frequencies from others within mixedfrequency signals.2) . blocking all (higherfrequency) harmonics. I will make extensive use of SPICE as an analysis tool. This can be demonstrated with a SPICE analysis: (Figure 8. FILTERS Another practical application of ﬁlter circuits is in the “conditioning” of nonsinusoidal voltage waveforms in power circuits. To reduce the load of math on the reader. that these circuits can be analyzed over several points of frequency by repeated seriesparallel analysis. This high impedance in series tends to block highfrequency signals from getting to the load. • A Bode plot is a graph plotting waveform amplitude or phase on one axis and frequency on the other. Bear in mind.190 CHAPTER 8. and many variations of each one: The inductive lowpass ﬁlter in Figure 8. and so require power conditioning for proper operation.1: Inductive lowpass ﬁlter The inductor’s impedance increases with increasing frequency. If a distorted sinewave voltage behaves like a series of harmonic waveforms added to the fundamental frequency.3 1 L1 3H 2 V1 1V Rload 1 kΩ 0 0 Figure 8.1 and the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter in Figure 8. though. There are two basic kinds of circuits capable of accomplishing this objective. Some electronic devices are sensitive to the presence of harmonics in the power supply voltage. if the student is willing to invest a lot of time working and reworking circuit calculations for each frequency. a lowpass ﬁlter is a circuit offering easy passage to lowfrequency signals and difﬁcult passage to highfrequency signals. We will be studying the design of several elementary ﬁlter circuits in this lesson.2 Lowpass ﬁlters By deﬁnition. • Audio equalizers and crossover networks are two wellknown applications of ﬁlter circuits. 8. displaying Bode plots (amplitude versus frequency) for the various kinds of ﬁlters. much like the previous example with two sources (60 and 90 Hz). then it should be possible to construct a ﬁlter circuit that only allows the fundamental waveform frequency to pass through.
1 R1 500 Ω 1V C1 7 µF Rload 2 1 kΩ V1 0 0 Figure 8. LOWPASS FILTERS 191 inductive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 3 rload 2 0 1k .ac lin 20 1 200 .3: Capacitive lowpass ﬁlter. .end Figure 8.2.2: The response of an inductive lowpass ﬁlter falls off with increasing frequency.8.plot ac v(2) .
4: The response of a capacitive lowpass ﬁlter falls off with increasing frequency. capacitive ﬁlter designs are generally preferred over inductive because capacitors tend to be “purer” reactive components than inductors and therefore are more predictable in their behavior.end Figure 8. with only a resistor and capacitor needed for operation. passing only . The capacitive version of this ﬁlter is not that much more complex.192 CHAPTER 8.plot ac v(2) . despite their increased complexity.4) capacitive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 c1 2 0 7u rload 2 0 1k .ac lin 20 30 150 . making them almost 100% reactive. By “pure” I mean that capacitors exhibit little resistive effects than inductors. typically exhibit signiﬁcant dissipative (resistorlike) effects. with only one component comprising the ﬁlter. This low impedance in parallel with the load resistance tends to short out highfrequency signals. (Figure 8. dropping most of the voltage across series resistor R1 . on the other hand. The inductive lowpass ﬁlter is the pinnacle of simplicity. both in the long lengths of wire used to make them. However. and in the magnetic losses of the core material. Inductors. FILTERS The capacitor’s impedance decreases with increasing frequency. However. Capacitors also tend to participate less in “coupling” effects with other components (generate and/or receive interference from other components via mutual electric or magnetic ﬁelds) than inductors. the inductive lowpass ﬁlter is often preferred in ACDC power supplies to ﬁlter out the AC “ripple” waveform created when AC is converted (rectiﬁed) into DC. and are less expensive.
That is. All lowpass ﬁlters are rated at a certain cutoff frequency. In the design of a highcurrent circuit like a DC power supply where additional series resistance is undesirable.7 is not really arbitrary. If a cutoff frequency equation fails to give consideration to load impedance.end fcutof f = 1/(2πRC) = 1/(2π(500 Ω)(7 µF)) = 45. A prime example of this is unwanted AC signals (“noise”) becoming impressed on DC power lines supplying sensitive circuits: (Figure 8. the inductive lowpass ﬁlter is the better design choice. below the calculated cutoff point. it is always important to note that the response of the ﬁlter depends on the ﬁlter’s component values and the impedance of the load. the frequency above which the output voltage falls below 70. all though it may seem so at ﬁrst glance. A capacitive lowpass ﬁlter requires an extra resistance in series with the source. What’s wrong? The problem here is that the load resistance of 1 kΩ affects the frequency response of the ﬁlter.6) .7% of the input voltage. it is the frequency at which capacitive reactance in ohms equals resistance in ohms. we arrive at a cutoff frequency of 45. This cutoff percentage of 70. The primary reason for this is the requirement of low ﬁlter resistance for the output of such a power supply. Without that load resistance in place. LOWPASS FILTERS 193 the pure DC component.2. the cutoff frequency is given as: fcutoff = 1 2πRC Inserting the values of R and C from the last SPICE simulation into this formula. SPICE produces a Bode plot whose numbers make more sense: (Figure 8.plot ac v(2) .ac lin 20 40 50 . In a simple capacitive/resistive lowpass ﬁlter. we see the load voltage well below 70. However.473 Hz.5) capacitive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 c1 2 0 7u * note: no load resistor! . the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter might make more sense. if low weight and compact size are higher priorities than low internal supply resistance in a power supply design. sometimes AC signals can “couple” from one circuit to another via capacitance (Cstray ) and/or mutual inductance (Mstray ) between the two sets of conductors.473 Hz When dealing with ﬁlter circuits. In a simple capacitive lowpass ﬁlter (one resistor.8.7% of the source voltage (1 volt) even at a frequency as low as 30 Hz.” As mentioned at the beginning of the last chapter. when we look at the plot generated by the SPICE simulation. On the other hand. it assumes no load and will fail to give accurate results for a reallife ﬁlter conducting power to a load. one capacitor). One frequent application of the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter principle is in the design of circuits having components or sections sensitive to electrical “noise. skewing it down from what the formula told us it would be. whereas the inductive lowpass ﬁlter does not.
.7% at 45. the Output should be 70. FILTERS Figure 8.473 Hz. "Noise" source Mstray Zwire Cstray Zwire Load Zwire "Clean" DC power Esupply "Dirty" or "noisy" DC power Eload Figure 8.194 CHAPTER 8.6: Noise is coupled by stray capacitance and mutual inductance into “clean” DC power.5: For the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter with R = 500 Ω and C = 7 µF.
power conductor impedance allows the two voltages to differ.2. one would expect Eload to be precisely identical to Esource . Greater capacitance will do a better job at ﬁltering noise.1 µF or more. the AC being unwanted. the voltage as measured at the load terminals is now a mix of AC and DC. all we need to do is connect a lowpass ﬁlter near the load to block any coupled signals. In its simplest form. A cursory glance at a crowded printedcircuit board (PCB) will typically reveal decoupling capacitors scattered throughout.8. though. and difﬁcult passage of highfrequency signals. If we wish to prevent such “noise” from reaching the DC load. capacitive lowpass ﬁlters insert a resistor in series and a capacitor in parallel with the load. However. The former .7) "Noise" source Mstray Zwire Cstray Zwire Load Zwire "Clean" DC power Esupply "Cleaner" DC power with decoupling capacitor Eload Figure 8. • Inductive lowpass ﬁlters insert an inductor in series with the load. a minimum amount of capacitance needed to produce a low enough impedance to short out any noise. LOWPASS FILTERS 195 The oscilloscopemeter on the left shows the “clean” power from the DC voltage source. because the uninterrupted conductors connecting them should make the two sets of points electrically common. applied to load.7: Decoupling capacitor. After coupling with the AC noise source via stray mutual inductance and stray capacitance. Such a capacitor is called a decoupling capacitor: (Figure 8. which means the noise magnitude can vary at different points in the DC system. the capacitor behaving as a very low impedance to any AC noise. Normally. Capacitor size is usually 0. ﬁlters noise from DC power supply. but size and economics limit decoupling capacitors to meager values. • REVIEW: • A lowpass ﬁlter allows for easy passage of lowfrequency signals from source to load. and shorting it out. this is nothing more than a capacitor connected directly across the power terminals of the load. usually located as close as possible to the sensitive DC loads.
5u rload 2 0 1k . As one might expect.196 CHAPTER 8. And. Above the cutoff frequency. FILTERS ﬁlter design tries to “block” the unwanted frequency signal while the latter tries to short it out.ac lin 20 1 200 . especially with highpass ﬁlters where high frequencies commonly cause inductors to behave strangely due to the skin effect and electromagnetic core losses.3 Highpass ﬁlters A highpass ﬁlter’s task is just the opposite of a lowpass ﬁlter: to offer easy passage of a highfrequency signal and difﬁcult passage to a lowfrequency signal.8) increases with decreasing frequency. 8.plot ac v(2) . requiring only one component above and beyond the load. The capacitor’s impedance (Figure 8. and vice versa. the output voltage is lower than 70.5 µF V1 1V Rload 1 kΩ 2 0 0 Figure 8.7% of the input voltage.end The inductor’s impedance (Figure 8. This time. again.10) and capacitive (Figure 8. the reactive purity of capacitors over inductors tends to favor their use in ﬁlter design.8: Capacitive highpass ﬁlter. the inductive (Figure 8. Just as in the case of the capacitive . (Figure 8.8) versions of the highpass ﬁlter are just the opposite of their respective lowpass ﬁlter designs: C1 1 0. above which the output voltage increases above 70.10) decreases with decreasing frequency.11) This low impedance in parallel tends to short out lowfrequency signals from getting to the load resistor. As a consequence. As with lowpass ﬁlters. (Figure 8. capacitive highpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 2 0. the capacitive design is the simplest.7% of the input. most of the voltage gets dropped across series resistor R1 . • The cutoff frequency for a lowpass ﬁlter is that frequency at which the output (load) voltage equals 70.9) This high impedance in series tends to block lowfrequency signals from getting to load.7% of the input (source) voltage. highpass ﬁlters have a rated cutoff frequency.
10: Inductive highpass ﬁlter.8.end .3.9: The response of the capacitive highpass ﬁlter increases with frequency. HIGHPASS FILTERS 197 Figure 8.plot ac v(2) . inductive highpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 l1 2 0 100m rload 2 0 1k .ac lin 20 1 200 . 1 R1 200 Ω 1V L1 100 mH Rload 2 V1 1 kΩ 0 0 Figure 8.
imposing a high impedance to lowfrequency bass signals.198 CHAPTER 8. and 2 tweeters. 2 midranges. so that is the value for R in the formula. In this simple example circuit. but this should give you the general idea. lowpass ﬁlter circuit. What we would be looking for is called a bandpass ﬁlter. an inductor connected in series with the woofer (bass) speaker will serve as a lowpass ﬁlter for the low frequencies that particular speaker is designed to reproduce.11: The response of the inductive highpass ﬁlter increases with frequency. we might like to have some kind of ﬁlter circuit capable of passing frequencies that are between low (bass) and high (treble) to the midrange speaker so that none of the low. FILTERS Figure 8. which is the topic of the next section. a capacitor connected in series with the tweeter (treble) speaker will serve as a highpass ﬁlter. A real stereo would have six speakers: 2 woofers. Also bear in mind that I’m only showing you one channel (either left or right) on this stereo system. there is no resistance other than the load resistor. Using a stereo system as a practical example. the capacitive highpass ﬁlter’s cutoff frequency can be found with the same formula: fcutoff = 1 2πRC In the example circuit. In like fashion. thereby preventing that power from being wasted on a speaker inefﬁcient for reproducing such sounds. the midrange speaker is subjected to the full spectrum of frequencies from the stereo’s output. . • REVIEW: • A highpass ﬁlter allows for easy passage of highfrequency signals from source to load.or highfrequency signal power is wasted on a speaker incapable of efﬁciently reproducing those sounds. For better performance yet. More elaborate ﬁlter networks are sometimes used.
The former ﬁlter design tries to “block” the unwanted frequency signal while the latter tries to short it out.13: System level block diagram of a bandpass ﬁlter. BANDPASS FILTERS 199 lowpass Woofer Stereo Midrange highpass Tweeter Figure 8. or frequencies need to be ﬁltered from a wider range of mixed signals. and vice versa.7% of the input (source) voltage. while lowpass ﬁlter routes lows to woofer. and difﬁcult passage of lowfrequency signals. .8.14) Signal input Lowpass filter blocks frequencies that are too high Highpass filter blocks frequencies that are too low Signal output Figure 8.12: Highpass ﬁlter routes high frequencies to tweeter. • Capacitive highpass ﬁlters insert a capacitor in series with the load. 8. The result is called a bandpass ﬁlter. Creating a bandpass ﬁlter from a lowpass and highpass ﬁlter can be illustrated using block diagrams: (Figure 8. inductive highpass ﬁlters insert a resistor in series and an inductor in parallel with the load.7% of the input. Above the cutoff frequency.4. Filter circuits can be designed to accomplish this task by combining the properties of lowpass and highpass into a single ﬁlter. the output voltage is greater than 70. • The cutoff frequency for a highpass ﬁlter is that frequency at which the output (load) voltage equals 70. or spread.4 Bandpass ﬁlters There are applications where a particular band.
capacitive bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 c1 2 0 2. While the general idea of combining lowpass and highpass ﬁlters together to make a bandpass ﬁlter is sound. Using real components. the reactive “purity” of capacitors gives them a design advantage. it might look something like Figure 8.end Bandpass ﬁlters can also be constructed using inductors.16. it is not without certain limitations.59 volts.5u c2 2 3 1u rload 3 0 1k . If we were to design a bandpass ﬁlter using inductors.5 µF Rload 1 kΩ V1 0 0 0 Figure 8. Notice the curve peak on the previous SPICE analysis: the load voltage of this ﬁlter never rises above 0. FILTERS What emerges from the series combination of these two ﬁlter circuits is a circuit that will only allow passage of those frequencies that are neither too high nor too low. .plot ac v(3) . It will still ﬁlter out all frequencies too high or too low.14: Capacitive bandpass ﬁlter. even at the peak of the “passband” frequency range. The fact that the highpass section comes “ﬁrst” in this design instead of the lowpass section makes no difference in its overall operation. here is what a typical schematic might look like Figure 8. and their combined effort makes for an attenuated (reduced amplitude) signal at best. but as mentioned before. The response of the bandpass ﬁlter is shown in (Figure 8. Because this type of bandpass ﬁlter works by relying on either section to block unwanted frequencies. although the source voltage is a full volt. Both the lowpass and highpass sections will always be blocking signals to some extent.ac lin 20 100 500 .15) Source Lowpass filter section 1 R1 200 Ω 1V C1 2 Highpass filter section C2 3 1 µF 2. it can be difﬁcult to design such a ﬁlter to allow unhindered passage within the desired frequency range.14.200 CHAPTER 8.
Source Highpass filter section R1 Lowpass filter section L2 L1 Rload Figure 8.8.15: The response of a capacitive bandpass ﬁlter peaks within a narrow frequency range. . BANDPASS FILTERS 201 Figure 8.16: Inductive bandpass ﬁlter.4.
Not surprisingly. giving sharp response when the component values are chosen in the following ratios: Signal output Component value ratios for the "TwinT" bandstop filter R1 = R2 = 2(R3) C2 = C3 = (0.18).5)C1 . it can be made out of a lowpass and a highpass ﬁlter. just like the bandpass design. or vice versa. this kind of ﬁlter passes all frequencies above and below a particular range set by the component values. The lowpass ﬁlter section is comprised of R1 . • Bandpass ﬁlters can be made by stacking a lowpass ﬁlter on the end of a highpass ﬁlter. you are “attenuating” the signal being sent to the speakers. and C1 in a “T” conﬁguration. R2 . 8. • “Attenuate” means to reduce or diminish in amplitude. except that this time we connect the two ﬁlter sections in parallel with each other instead of in series. or notch ﬁlters.17: System level block diagram of a bandstop ﬁlter. (Figure 8.17) passes low frequencies Lowpass filter Signal input Highpass filter passes high frequencies Figure 8. giving easy passage only to frequencies within a certain range. FILTERS This signal attenuation becomes more pronounced if the ﬁlter is designed to be more selective (steeper curve. this arrangement is commonly known as a “TwinT” ﬁlter. When you turn down the volume control on your stereo. Together. The highpass ﬁlter section is comprised of C2 .202 CHAPTER 8. and R3 in a “T” conﬁguration as well. bandreject. We will discuss those methods a little later in this chapter. narrower band of passable frequencies). it looks something like (Figure 8. C3 . • REVIEW: • A bandpass ﬁlter works to screen out frequencies that are too low or too high.5 Bandstop ﬁlters Also called bandelimination. Constructed using two capacitive ﬁlter sections. There are other methods to achieve bandpass operation without sacriﬁcing signal strength within the passband.
BANDSTOP FILTERS 203 R1 C2 source R3 C1 R2 C3 Rload Figure 8. or notch ﬁlters.ac lin 20 200 1.18: “TwinT” bandstop ﬁlter. • Bandstop ﬁlters can be made by placing a lowpass ﬁlter in parallel with a highpass ﬁlter. giving easy passage only to frequencies outside of that range. .8. • The frequency of maximum attenuation is called the notch frequency. bandreject.5k .plot ac v(3) . the frequency of maximum rejection (the “notch frequency”) can be calculated as follows: fnotch = 1 4πR3C3 The impressive bandstopping ability of this ﬁlter is illustrated by the following SPICE analysis: (Figure 8. Commonly. Also known as bandelimination.5.end • REVIEW: • A bandstop ﬁlter works to screen out frequencies that are within a certain range. Given these component ratios.19) twint bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 c1 2 0 2u r2 2 3 200 c2 1 4 1u r3 4 0 100 c3 4 3 1u rload 3 0 1k . giving the name “TwinT” to the bandstop combination. both the lowpass and highpass ﬁlter sections are of the “T” conﬁguration.
20). and this property can be exploited in designing bandpass and bandstop ﬁlter circuits. the two basic resonant strategies are this: series LC to pass a signal (Figure 8.6 Resonant ﬁlters So far. while parallel LC (“tank”) circuits give maximum impedance at their resonant frequency. or parallel LC (Figure 8. We should know by now that combinations of L and C will tend to resonate. we have two basic strategies for designing either bandpass or bandstop ﬁlters. but never both at the same time. the ﬁlter designs we’ve concentrated on have employed either capacitors or inductors. FILTERS Figure 8.204 CHAPTER 8. . For bandpass ﬁlters. Knowing this. Series LC circuits give minimum impedance at resonance. The two schemes will be contrasted and simulated here: filter 1 V1 0 L1 1H 1V 2 C1 3 1 µF Rload 1 kΩ 0 Figure 8.19: Response of “twinT” bandstop ﬁlter.22) to short a signal. 8.20: Series resonant LC bandpass ﬁlter.
end Figure 8. unlike the bandpass ﬁlters made from capacitors or inductors alone. shorting out the signal and dropping most of it across series resistor R1 .6. the resonant frequency of which is unaffected by circuit resistance.21: Series resonant bandpass ﬁlter: voltage peaks at resonant frequency of 159. the value of the load resistor will not skew the peak frequency. A couple of points to note: see how there is virtually no signal attenuation within the “pass band” (the range of frequencies near the load voltage peak). RESONANT FILTERS 205 Series LC components pass signal at resonance. (Figure 8. different values for the load resistor will change the “steepness” of the Bode plot (the “selectivity” of the ﬁlter). The other basic style of resonant bandpass ﬁlters employs a tank circuit (parallel LC combination) to short out signals too high or too low in frequency from getting to the load: (Figure 8.23) .22) The tank circuit will have a lot of impedance at resonance.15 Hz.8.21) series resonant bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 1u rload 3 0 1k . However.plot ac v(3) .ac lin 20 50 250 . however. Under or over resonant frequency. since this ﬁlter works on the principle of series LC resonance. allowing the signal to get to the load with minimal attenuation. (Figure 8. the tank circuit will have a low impedance. and block signals of any other frequencies from getting to the load. Also.
15 Hz.end Figure 8.ac lin 20 50 250 .plot ac v(2) .206 CHAPTER 8.23: Parallel resonant ﬁlter: voltage peaks a resonant frequency of 159. . parallel resonant bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 l1 2 0 100m c1 2 0 10u rload 2 0 1k . FILTERS 1 V1 1V 0 R1 500 Ω L1 filter 2 C1 100 mH 0 2 Rload 2 1 kΩ 0 10 µF 0 Figure 8.22: Parallel resonant bandpass ﬁlter.
Again.27) The parallel LC components present a high impedance at resonant frequency.25) When the series LC combination reaches resonance. notice how the absence of a series resistor makes for minimum attenuation for all the desired (passed) signals. RESONANT FILTERS 207 Just like the lowpass and highpass ﬁlter designs relying on a series resistance and a parallel “shorting” component to attenuate unwanted frequencies.26) Next. we have two major strategies to follow in doing this. dropping it across resistor R1 and preventing its passage on to the load. The amplitude at the notch frequency. Figure 8.6. creating a bandstop ﬁlter. this resonant circuit can never provide full input (source) voltage to the load. (Figure 8. we will examine the parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter: (Figure 8. It should be noted that this form of bandpass ﬁlter circuit is very popular in analog radio tuning circuitry. The variable capacitor and aircore inductor shown in Figure 8. on the other hand. the rotating dial for station selection moves a variable capacitor in a tank circuit. we can also use them to block frequencies within a certain range. is . to use either series or parallel resonance.8. its very low impedance shorts out the signal. In most analog radio tuner circuits. for selecting a particular radio frequency from the multitudes of frequencies available from the antenna.24 photograph of a simple radio comprise the main elements in the tank circuit ﬁlter used to discriminate one radio station’s signal from another. we’ll look at the series variety: (Figure 8. Just as we can use series and parallel LC resonant circuits to pass only those frequencies within a certain range.28) Once again. it passes signals to the load at any other frequencies. (Figure 8. First. thereby blocking the signal from the load at that frequency. Conversely.24: Variable capacitor tunes radio receiver tank circuit to select one out of many broadcast stations. That series resistance will always be dropping some amount of voltage so long as there is a load resistance connected to the output of the ﬁlter.
ac lin 20 70 230 .plot ac v(2) .208 CHAPTER 8. .26: Series resonant bandstop ﬁlter: Notch frequency = LC resonant frequency (159. series resonant bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 l1 2 3 100m c1 3 0 10u rload 2 0 1k .15 Hz). FILTERS 1 R1 500 Ω 2 L1 100 mH Rload 3 C1 10 µF 0 2 V1 1V 1 kΩ 0 0 Figure 8.25: Series resonant bandstop ﬁlter.end Figure 8.
RESONANT FILTERS 209 C1 1 V1 0 1V 10 µF 2 L1 100 mH Rload 1 kΩ 0 Figure 8.8.ac lin 20 100 200 .15 Hz).end Figure 8.6.plot ac v(2) .27: Parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter. .28: Parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter: Notch frequency = LC resonant frequency (159. parallel resonant bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 100m c1 1 2 10u rload 2 0 1k .
this will diminish the ﬁlter’s ability to ﬁnely discriminate frequencies. The output voltage to the load at this point actually . In other words. A word of caution to those designing lowpass and highpass ﬁlters is in order at this point. as well as introduce antiresonant effects that will skew the peak/notch frequency. The inductors should block any high frequencies. After assessing the standard RC and LR lowpass and highpass ﬁlter designs. which is seen at the load. the more insightful student will recognize that any combination of capacitors and inductors together in a circuit is likely to cause resonant effects to happen at a certain frequency. Resonance. regardless of L2 ’s attenuating inﬂuence.end What was supposed to be a lowpass ﬁlter turns out to be a bandpass ﬁlter with a peak somewhere around 526 Hz! The capacitance and inductance in this ﬁlter circuit are attaining resonance at that point.ac lin 20 100 1k . this seems to be a good strategy. can cause strange things to happen. both working together to allow only low frequency signals to reach the load. In all these resonant ﬁlter designs. it might occur to a student that a better.29: Capacitive Inductive lowpass ﬁlter. the selectivity depends greatly upon the “purity” of the inductance and capacitance used. If there is any stray resistance (especially likely in the inductor). FILTERS very low. creating a large voltage drop around C1 . At ﬁrst. However. as we have seen before. this is a very “selective” ﬁlter. while the capacitor should short out any high frequencies as well.30) lc lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 100m c1 2 0 1u l2 2 3 100m rload 3 0 1k .210 CHAPTER 8. and eliminates the need for a series resistance.29. Let’s plot a SPICE analysis and see what happens over a wide frequency range: (Figure 8. 1 V1 0 1V L1 100 mH filter 2 L2 100 mH 1 µF Rload 3 C1 1 kΩ 0 0 Figure 8.plot ac v(3) . more effective design of lowpass or highpass ﬁlter might be realized by combining capacitive and inductive elements together like Figure 8.
they will impose a very heavy (very low impedance) load on the AC source. and the source current. vm(2) in Figure 8.30: Unexpected response of LC lowpass ﬁlter. only this time plotting C1 ’s voltage. I(v1).31. We’ll run the same analysis again. RESONANT FILTERS 211 Figure 8. which might not be good either.31: Current inceases at the unwanted resonance of the LC lowpass ﬁlter. . exceeds the input (source) voltage! A little more reﬂection reveals that if L1 and C2 are at resonance.8. along with load voltage.6. vm(3): Figure 8.
we see the voltage across C1 and the source current spiking to a high point at the same frequency where the load voltage is maximum. we might be disappointed by the results. The problem is that an LC ﬁlter has a input impedance and an output impedance which must be matched.end . LC matched lowpass filter V1 1 0 ac 1 SIN Rg 1 4 316 L1 4 2 100m C1 2 0 1.plot ac v(3) .212 CHAPTER 8. The input and output impedance is given by the square root of (L/C). Note that if we needed to drive a 1000 Ω load. C= 1µF Z = (L/C)1/2 =((100 mH)/(1 µF))1/2 = 316 Ω In Figure 8. Rg and Rload to match it.ac lin 20 100 1k . FILTERS Sure enough.29). The voltage source impedance must match the input impedance of the ﬁlter. the L/C ratio could have been adjusted to match that resistance. filter 316 Ω 1 Rg Vpp Voffset 1 Hz L1 1V C1 L2 1. For L= 100 mH. Z = (L/C)1/2 Taking the component values from (Figure 8.32: Circuit of source and load matched LC lowpass ﬁlter. If we were expecting this ﬁlter to provide a simple lowpass function.0u L2 2 3 100m Rload 3 0 316 . and changed the load Rload from 1000 Ω to 316 Ω. and the ﬁlter output impedance must be matched by “rload” for a ﬂat response. and the required . we can ﬁnd the impedance of the ﬁlter.32 we have added Rg = 316 Ω to the generator.0 uF Rload 316 Ω 4 100 mH 2 100 mH 3 0 Figure 8.
This poor load regulation can be mitigated by a swinging choke. The ﬁlter inductors and capacitors are generally quite large (several Henrys for the inductors and thousands of µF for the capacitors is typical). making the ﬁlter’s resonant frequency very. Figure 8. The point to make in comparing the response of the unmatched ﬁlter (Figure 8. increasing the voltage at the ﬁlter output. This improves the voltage regulation with respect to variable loads. The decrease in inductance decreases reactance XL . the inductance is decreased by the heavy DC current. DC of course. reduces the voltage drop across the inductor. designed to saturate when a large DC current passes through it. The power supply voltage changes with a change in load.8.30) to the matched ﬁlter (Figure 8. This is a choke. on the other hand. By saturate. The ripple voltage. so there’s no way it can make an LC circuit resonate. so that the AC component of current cannot vary the ﬂux. RESONANT FILTERS 213 Figure 8.33) is that variable load on the ﬁlter produces a considerable change in voltage. lowpass ﬁlters made up of capacitors and inductors are frequently used as ﬁnal stages in AC/DC power supplies to ﬁlter the unwanted AC “ripple” voltage out of the DC converted from AC. This property is directly applicable to LC ﬁltered power supplies– the regulation is poor. This is undesirable.33: The response of impedance matched LC lowpass ﬁlter is nearly ﬂat up to the cutoff frequency. Decreasing reactance. we mean that the DC current creates a “too” high level of ﬂux in the magnetic core. has a “frequency” of zero. Since induction is proportional to dΦ/dt. very low.6. inductor. if this particular ﬁlter design possesses a potentially troublesome resonant point? The answer lies in the selection of ﬁlter component sizes and the frequencies encountered from an AC/DC converter (rectiﬁer). Why is this. What we’re trying to do in an AC/DC power supply ﬁlter is separate DC voltage from a small amount of relatively highfrequency AC voltage.33 shows the “ﬂat” response of the LC low pass ﬁlter when the source and load impedance match the ﬁlter input and output impedances. is a nonsinusoidal AC voltage consisting . thus. Despite the unintended resonance.
the potentially troublesome resonant point in a such a ﬁlter is completely avoided.dc v2 12 12 1 . this circuit design proves itself to be a very effective power supply ﬁlter.ac lin 1 120 120 . 2 V2 1 V1 0 L1 3H 12 V C1 1V 120 Hz 3 L2 2H 9500 µF Rload 4 1 kΩ 0 0 Figure 8. which is well above its resonant point.34: AC/DC power suppply ﬁlter provides “ripple free” DC power. 50 Hz in Europe).200E+01 v(4) 3.412E05 DC voltage at load = 12 volts AC voltage at load = 34.12 µV of AC left from the 1 volt AC source imposed across the load. . with series DC and AC (120 Hz) voltage sources providing a rough approximation of the mixedfrequency output of an AC/DC converter. FILTERS of a fundamental frequency at least twice the frequency of the converted AC voltage.214 CHAPTER 8.end v2 1. ac/dc power supply filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin v2 2 1 dc l1 2 3 3 c1 3 0 9500u l2 3 4 2 rload 4 0 1k . Therefore.print ac v(4) . The following SPICE analysis calculates the voltage output (AC and DC) for such a ﬁlter.200E+01 freq 1.print dc v(4) . the lowest frequency the ﬁlter will ever see is 120 Hz (100 Hz in Europe). with harmonics many times that in addition.200E+02 v(4) 1. For pluginthewall power supplies running on 60 Hz AC power (60 Hz United States.12 microvolts With a full 12 volts DC at the load and only 34.
See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. 8. If you are not familiar with the use of SPICE or other circuit simulation programs. . it only begins to scratch the surface of ﬁlter design. The mathematics involved with component selection and frequency response prediction is daunting to say the least – well beyond the scope of the beginning electronics student.7. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. Circuit simulation software empowers the student to explore circuit designs far beyond the reach of their math skills. The beneﬁt of such computer simulation software cannot be understated. It has been my intent here to present the basic principles of ﬁlter design with as little math as possible. With the ability to generate Bode plots and precise ﬁgures.8. leaning on the power of the SPICE circuit analysis program to explore ﬁlter performance. which is something often lost when a student is burdened with the task of solving lengthy equations by hand. from most recent to ﬁrst. strange things will happen! • REVIEW: • Resonant combinations of capacitance and inductance can be employed to create very effective bandpass and bandstop ﬁlters without the need for added resistance in a circuit that would diminish the passage of desired frequencies.7 Summary As lengthy as this chapter has been up to this point. So long as the desired and undesired frequencies are well to either side of the resonant point. To see SPICE analyses presented in this book is an aid to understanding circuits. But if any signal of signiﬁcant magnitude close to the resonant frequency is applied to the input of the ﬁlter. but to actually set up and analyze your own circuit simulations is a much more engaging and worthwhile endeavor as a student. A quick perusal of any advanced ﬁlter design textbook is sufﬁcient to prove my point. SUMMARY 215 The lesson learned here about resonant effects also applies to the design of highpass ﬁlters using both capacitors and inductors. fresonant = • 1 2π LC 8. an intuitive understanding of circuit concepts can be attained.8 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. the ﬁlter will work OK. for the beginning student or for the working engineer. take the time to become so! It will be of great beneﬁt to your study.
FILTERS .216 CHAPTER 8.
262 Saturable reactors ScottT transformer .Chapter 9 TRANSFORMERS Contents 9. . . . . . 239 Winding conﬁgurations . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Voltage regulation . . . . . .7. . . . . . .7 Mutual inductance and basic operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Tesla Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . .8. .8 9. . . . . . . . .7.5 9. . 268 Energy losses . . .9 Impedance matching . . . . . . . . . . .3 9.2 9. 251 Potential transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . 277 Practical considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Current transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Stray capacitance and inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Special transformers and applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Linear Variable Differential Transformer . . . .8. . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. .8 9. . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . 257 Air core transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Phasing .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Heat and Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . 271 Core saturation . 218 Stepup and stepdown transformers . . . . 232 Electrical isolation . . . . . . . . . . 281 217 . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 . 268 Contributors . . . . . . . 251 9. . . . . . 272 Inrush current . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . .4 9.7. . . . . . 267 Power capacity . . . . . . . . . .
limiting current through the coil as predicted by the equations XL = 2πfL and I=E/X (or I=E/Z). When AC current changes. the opposing voltage comes from another mechanism: the reaction to a changing magnetic ﬂux in the iron core. TRANSFORMERS 9. in order that it may balance against the source voltage and produce an algebraic loop voltage sum of zero.1 (a)) iron core wire coil resistor (a) (b) Figure 9. In other words. the load (inductor coil) must produce an opposing voltage equal in magnitude to the source. we could apply this fundamental law of electricity to describe the respective voltages of the source and of the inductor coil.218 CHAPTER 9. as in any onesource. current. ﬂux Φ changes.1 (b)). . With a perfect inductor (no resistance in the coil wire).1: Insulated winding on ferromagnetic loop has inductive reactance. the “friction” of electrons ﬂowing through the resistance. oneload circuit. the voltage drop originates from electrical energy loss. Michael Faraday discovered the mathematical relationship between magnetic ﬂux (Φ) and induced voltage with this equation: e= N dΦ dt e = (Instantaneous) induced voltage in volts N = Number of turns in wire coil (straight wire = 1) Φ = Magnetic flux in Webers t = Time in seconds Where.1 Mutual inductance and basic operation Suppose we were to wrap a coil of insulated wire around a loop of ferromagnetic material and energize this coil with an AC voltage source: (Figure 9. For the purposes of this example. From where does this opposing voltage arise? If the load were a resistor (Figure 9. assuming zero voltage dropped along the resistance of any connecting wires. Kirchhoff ’s voltage law describes how the algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero. we need to take a more detailed look at the interactions of voltage. Here. though. Changing ﬂux induces a counter EMF. we would expect this ironcore coil to oppose the applied voltage with its inductive reactance. and magnetic ﬂux in the device. limiting AC current. In this example. As an inductor. the voltage dropped across the load must equal the voltage supplied by the source.
MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION 219 The instantaneous voltage (voltage dropped at any instant in time) across a wire coil is equal to the number of turns of that coil around the core (N) multiplied by the instantaneous rateofchange in magnetic ﬂux (dΦ/dt) linking with the coil. and because the mathematical relationship between mmf and current is also directly proportional (no ratesofchange present in either equation). Because the mathematical relationship between magnetic ﬂux and mmf is directly proportional. this current is sometimes referred to as the magnetizing current. the current through the coil will be inphase with the ﬂux wave as in (Figure 9. if the . Graphed. due to the nonlinear B/H magnetization curve of iron. Magnetomotive force (mmf) and magnetic ﬂux (Φ) are related to each other by a property of magnetic materials known as reluctance (the latter quantity symbolized by a strangelooking letter “R”): A comparison of "Ohm’s Law" for electric and magnetic circuits: E = IR Electrical mmf = Φℜ Magnetic In our example.a.2) this shows itself as a set of sine waves (assuming a sinusoidal voltage source).” this motivating force is magnetomotive force. In magnetic “circuits. Magnetic ﬂux through a ferromagnetic material is analogous to current through a conductor: it must be motivated by some force in order to occur.1. electromotive force. It should be mentioned that the current through an ironcore inductor is not perfectly sinusoidal (sinewave shaped).3) This is why alternating current through an inductor lags the applied voltage waveform by 90o : because that is what is required to produce a changing magnetic ﬂux whose rateofchange produces an opposing voltage inphase with the applied voltage. the ﬂux wave 90o lagging behind the voltage wave: e = voltage e Φ = magnetic flux Φ Figure 9. Due to its function in providing magnetizing force (mmf) for the core.k. (Figure 9. the mmf required to produce this changing magnetic ﬂux (Φ) must be supplied by a changing current through the coil.9. dΦ/dt. In fact. or mmf. Magnetomotive force generated by an electromagnet coil is equal to the amount of current through that coil (in amps) multiplied by the number of turns of that coil around the core (the SI unit for mmf is the ampturn).2: Magnetic ﬂux lags applied voltage by 90o because ﬂux is proportional to a rate of change. or EMF). this motivating force is voltage (a. In electric circuits.
the magnetic ﬂux density might reach high levels (approaching saturation).3: Magnetic ﬂux.) is called the exciting current. This coil current resulting from the sum total of all magnetic effects in the core (dΦ/dt magnetization plus hysteresis losses. the large increases of mmf required to supply the needed increases in ﬂux results in large increases in coil current. lags applied voltage by 90o . this . resulting in a magnetizing current waveform that looks something like Figure 9. When a ferromagnetic material approaches magnetic ﬂux saturation. like current. TRANSFORMERS e = voltage e Φ = magnetic flux Φ i i = coil current Figure 9. Thus. Generally speaking. inductor is cheaply built. the magnetizing current waveform becomes distorted.220 CHAPTER 9.4 e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ Figure 9. Because mmf is proportional to current through the magnetizing coil (mmf = NI. disproportionately greater levels of magnetic ﬁeld force (mmf) are required to deliver equal increases in magnetic ﬁeld ﬂux (Φ). The effects of hysteresis and eddy currents conspire to further distort and complicate the current waveform. making it even less sinusoidal and altering its phase to be lagging slightly less than 90o behind the applied voltage waveform. The situation is further complicated by energy losses within the iron core. The distortion of an ironcore inductor’s exciting current may be minimized if it is designed for and operated at very low ﬂux densities. etc. using as little iron as possible. coil current increases dramatically at the peaks in order to maintain a ﬂux waveform that isn’t distorted. eddy current losses. where “N” is the number of turns of wire in the coil and “I” is the current through it).4: As ﬂux density approaches saturation. accounting for the bellshaped halfcycles of the current waveform in the above plot.
but unlike normal inductance it is symbolized by the capital letter “M” rather than the letter “L”: . The ﬁrst coil will be labeled the primary coil. having a current waveform 90o out of phase with the voltage waveform creates a condition where power is alternately absorbed and returned to the circuit by the inductor.1. As we’ve seen already in the inductors chapter. resulting in a perfectly sinusoidal exciting current. which tends to make the inductor bulky and expensive. (Figure 9. while the second will be labeled the secondary: iron core wire coil wire coil Figure 9. Like normal (self) inductance. we’ll assume that our example core is far from saturation and free from all losses.). it is measured in the unit of Henrys. no magnetic core losses.5: Ferromagnetic core with primary coil (AC driven) and secondary coil. and has the same number of turns around the core. it will dissipate zero power. etc. If the inductor is perfect (no wire resistance. For the sake of simplicity.9. though. In the following graph. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION 221 requires a core with large crosssectional area.5) wrapped around the same iron core. If this secondary coil experiences the same magnetic ﬂux change as the primary (which it should. assuming perfect containment of the magnetic ﬂux through the common core). except this time with a second coil (Figure 9. Let us now consider the same inductor device.6) the induced voltage waveform is drawn slightly smaller than the source voltage waveform simply to distinguish one from the other: This effect is called mutual inductance: the induction of a voltage in one coil in response to a change in current in the other coil. a voltage of equal magnitude and phase to the applied voltage will be induced along its length.
However. Polarity marks and current direction arrows have been added to the illustration to clarify phase relations: (Figure 9. this mmf is accompanied by magnetic ﬂux. In fact. In this case. because the primary coil’s induced voltage must remain at the same magnitude and phase in order to balance with the applied voltage. do not worry. an alternating current forming in the primary coil – 180o out of phase with the secondary coil’s current – to generate this counteracting mmf and prevent additional core ﬂux. the magnetic ﬂux in the core cannot be affected by secondary coil current. e2 = voltage induced in secondary coil i1 = current in primary coil No current will exist in the secondary coil. what does change is the amount of mmf in the magnetic circuit. Therefore induced secondary voltage es is the same magnitude and phase as the primary voltage ep. If more ﬂux were induced in the core.6: Open circuited secondary sees the same ﬂux Φ as the primary. though. Inductance di e=L dt Mutual inductance di e2 = M 1 dt Where.222 CHAPTER 9. Consequently. since it is opencircuited. of equal magnitude and opposite phase. in accordance with Kirchhoff ’s voltage law. However.7) At ﬁrst. one might expect this secondary coil current to cause additional magnetic ﬂux in the core. Usually. in accordance with the mmf=ΦR “magnetic Ohm’s Law” equation. This cannot happen. if we connect a load resistor to it. so the only way the secondary coil’s mmf may exist is if a counteracting mmf is generated by the primary coil. it would cause more voltage to be induced voltage in the primary coil (remember that e = dΦ/dt). Transformer dynamics is a complex . this is what happens. an alternating current will go through the coil. it does not. inphase with the induced voltage (because the voltage across a resistor and the current through it are always inphase with each other). Indeed. additional ﬂux is not permitted. Magnetomotive force is produced any time electrons move through a wire.8) If you ﬁnd this process a bit confusing. (Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS ep = primary coil voltage Φ = magnetic flux ep Φ es ip ip = primary coil current es = secondary coil voltage Figure 9.
8: Flux remains constant with application of a load. a counteracting mmf is produced by the loaded secondary.9.1.7: Resistive load on secondary has voltage and current inphase. However. . + + + + wire coil wire coil iron core mmfprimary mmfsecondary Figure 9. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION 223 iron core wire coil wire coil Figure 9.
there are some that do not.10) Both coils of wire can be seen here with coppercolored varnish insulation. Any current drawn through the secondary coil to power a load induces a corresponding current in the primary coil.224 CHAPTER 9. We call this type of device a transformer.” transformers are necessarily AC devices. What is important to understand is this: when an AC voltage is applied to the primary coil. The reason for this disparity in wire gauge will be made clear in the next section of this chapter. Of course. their constituent inductors being magnetically linked together through the air. Figure 9. While many transformers have ferromagnetic core materials. drawing current from the source. and how the secondary coil is behaving as a source with respect to the resistor. As modeled in our initial example.9) Transformer Figure 9.11. there is also an additional primary coil current lagging the applied voltage by 90o . exposing the crosssection of the iron core as well as both windings. a transformer is shown cut in half. because it transforms electrical energy into magnetic energy. this particular transformer is open for viewing and so serves its illustrative purpose well: (Figure 9. which induces AC voltage in the secondary coil inphase with the source voltage. in reference to the manufacturing process where wire is wound around the core material. The wire gauge can also be seen to differ between primary and secondary windings. In the next photograph. separated by lines indicating a ferromagnetic core. the iron core can be seen in this photograph to be made of many thin sheets (laminations) rather than a . this unit also utilizes primary and secondary windings of differing turn counts.” its directly powering the resistor. Because its operation depends on electromagnetic induction between two stationary coils and a magnetic ﬂux of changing magnitude and “polarity. then back into electrical energy again. The following photograph shows a power transformer of the type used in gasdischarge lighting. the two inductor coils can be clearly seen. while the unpowered coil is called the secondary winding. While most transformer designs enclose the coils and core in a metal frame for protection. The top coil is larger than the bottom coil. just enough to magnetize the core to create the necessary voltage for balancing against the source (the exciting current). wound around an iron core.9: Schematic symbol for transformer consists of two inductor symbols. TRANSFORMERS subject. Additionally. As far as the source “knows. Its schematic symbol looks like two inductors (coils) sharing the same magnetic core: (Figure 9. Notice how the primary coil is behaving as a load with respect to the AC voltage source. Rather than energy merely being alternately absorbed and returned the primary coil circuit. the powered inductor of a transformer is called the primary winding. Here. energy is now being coupled to the secondary coil where it is delivered to a dissipative (energyconsuming) load. In transformers. The two inductor coils are easily distinguished in the above symbol. it creates a magnetic ﬂux in the core. having a greater number of “turns” around the core. The pair of vertical lines represent an iron core common to both inductors. the inductor coils are often referred to as windings. Like the transformer shown previously.
The reason for this will also be explained in a later section of this chapter. (Fig .1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION 225 Figure 9. Figure 9. It is easy to demonstrate simple transformer action using SPICE.9.11: Transformer crosssection cut shows core and windings.10: Example of a gasdischarge lighting transformer. solid piece. setting up the primary and secondary windings of the simulated transformer as a pair of “mutual” inductors.
12) The coefﬁcient of magnetic ﬁeld coupling is given at the end of the “k” line in the SPICE circuit description. What you are seeing here .000).12: Spice circuit for coupled inductors. and so the primary and secondary currents are almost equal. This coefﬁcient describes how closely “linked” the two inductors are. magnetically. necessary because SPICE cannot function with any ungrounded circuits.0) i(v1) . The second provides a path to ground (node 0) from the secondary circuit. As is seen here. it is usually very small compared to primary current induced by the load. the more efﬁcient the energy transfer between them should be.5) i(vi1) .print ac v(3. the AC voltages and currents are nearly equal for the two. TRANSFORMERS ure 9.226 CHAPTER 9.ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2. Note that with equal inductances for both windings (100 Henrys each). transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 ** This line tells SPICE that the two inductors ** l1 and l2 are magnetically ‘‘linked’’ together k l1 l2 0. this example being set very nearly at perfection (1. The difference between primary and secondary currents is the magnetizing current spoken of earlier: the 90o lagging current necessary to magnetize the core. (for SPICE to measure current) 1 Rbogus1 (very small) 2 3 Vi1 0V 4 V1 0 10 V L1 100 H 0 (very large) L2 100 H 5 Rload 1 kΩ 5 Rbogus2 Figure 9.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .end Note: the Rbogus resistors are required to satisfy certain quirks of SPICE. The better these two inductors are magnetically coupled. The ﬁrst breaks the otherwise continuous loop between the voltage source and L1 which would not be permitted by SPICE.
The primary current is very close to being the same.000E+01 freq 6. Even though the AC power source is not directly connected to the load resistance (rather.0) i(v1) . it is electromagnetically “coupled”).1.975E03 i(vi1) 9.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 ** Note load resistance value of 200 ohms rload 4 5 200 . Let’s try another simulation with an even lower value of load resistance (15 Ω): Our load current is now 0. the amount of current drawn from the source will be almost the same as the amount of current that would be drawn if the load were directly connected to the source. but notice how the secondary .end freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1. If we decrease the load resistance so as to draw more current with the same amount of voltage. we see that the current through the primary winding increases in response. showing what happens with different values of load resistors: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0. Note also how the secondary voltage has decreased some with the heavier (greater current) load.962E03 227 Primary winding Secondary winding is quite typical of transformer efﬁciency.5) 9. Take a close look at the next two SPICE simulations. Anything less than 95% efﬁciency is considered poor for modern power transformer designs.000E+01 v(3.348E+00 i(v1) 4.9.5) i(vi1) .13 amps. but now they are both around 47 mA.000E+01 v(2) 1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION freq 6.ac lin 1 60 60 . which is substantially higher than the last time.674E02 Notice how the primary current closely follows the secondary current.962E+00 i(v1) 9. or 130 mA. both currents were approximately 10 mA. because the magnetizing current remains the same as before while the load current has increased.000E+01 freq 6. In our ﬁrst simulation. the two currents are closer to equality. In this second simulation.print ac v(2. and this transfer of power occurs with no moving parts or other components subject to wear.print ac v(3.000E+01 v(3.679E02 i(vi1) 4.5) 9.
end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1. In other words.13: Leakage inductance is due to magnetic ﬂux not cutting both windings. resulting in a reduced load voltage: . this “leakage” ﬂux merely stores and returns energy to the source circuit via selfinductance. TRANSFORMERS voltage has fallen well below the primary voltage (1. Voltage gets dropped across this series impedance.000) there is “stray” or “leakage” inductance. The reason for this is an imperfection in our transformer design: because the primary and secondary inductances aren’t perfectly linked (a k factor of 0.5) 1.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .228 transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.5) i(vi1) . effectively acting as a series impedance in both primary and secondary circuits. Consequently.999 instead of 1.950E+00 i(v1) 1. and thus cannot couple energy to it: (Figure 9.print ac v(3.000E+01 v(3.print ac v(2.300E01 CHAPTER 9. some of the magnetic ﬁeld isn’t linking with the secondary coil.0) i(v1) .95 volts versus 10 volts at the primary).ac lin 1 60 60 .301E01 i(vi1) 1.13) wire coil leakage flux wire coil leakage flux core flux Figure 9.
the strategy being that less inductance overall leads to less “leakage” inductance to cause trouble. the ﬁgures for voltage between primary and secondary windings will be much closer to equality again: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 ** Coupling factor = 0.5) 9.5) i(vi1) . This results in a load voltage that is closer to ideal with the same (high current heavy) load and the same coupling factor: Simply by using primary and secondary coils of less inductance. If we change the transformer design to have better magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary coils.658E01 Here we see that our secondary voltage is back to being equal with the primary.9. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION voltage across the load “sags” as load current increases.ac lin 1 60 60 . At this .0) i(v1) . for any given degree of magnetic coupling inefﬁciency.1. the load voltage for this heavy load (high current) has been brought back up to nearly ideal levels (9.000E+01 v(2) 1.99999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .987E+00 i(v1) 6.print ac v(2.000E+01 freq 6. building a real transformer with coupling this complete is very difﬁcult.end freq 6. Unfortunately. and the secondary current is equal to the primary current as well. (Figure 9.14: Equivalent circuit models leakage inductance as series inductors independent of the “ideal transformer”. A compromise solution is to design both primary and secondary coils with less inductance.999 k l1 l2 0.000E+01 v(3.99999 instead of 0.977 volts).print ac v(3.658E01 i(vi1) 6.14) 229 ideal transformer leakage inductance Source leakage inductance Load Figure 9.
0) i(v1) . Why is this? With less inductance in the primary winding.652E01 CHAPTER 9. the primary current is 28.000E+01 freq 6.print ac v(3.977E+00 i(v1) 6.print ac v(2.ac lin 1 60 60 . but the primary and secondary currents are not. and consequently a much larger magnetizing cur . there is less inductive reactance. TRANSFORMERS point.print ac v(2. one might ask.35 mA while the secondary current is only 9.5) i(vi1) .ac lin 1 60 60 .000E+01 v(2) 1.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .print ac v(3.230 transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 ** inductance = 1 henry instead of 100 henrys l1 2 0 1 l2 3 5 1 k l1 l2 0.0) i(v1) . but easy to design coils with low inductance. then why not just build all transformers with lowinductance coils and have excellent efﬁciency even with poor magnetic coupling?” The answer to this question is found in another simulation: the same lowinductance transformer. then why worry about coupling efﬁciency at all? If its impossible to build a transformer with perfect coupling.end freq 6.000E+01 v(3. the primary and secondary voltages are closer to being equal.5) 9.end With lower winding inductances. but this time with a lighter load (less current) of 1 kΩ instead of 15 Ω: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 1 l2 3 5 1 k l1 l2 0.990 mA: almost three times as much current in the primary as the secondary.664E01 i(vi1) 6. In this particular case.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k . “If less inductance is all that’s needed to achieve nearideal performance under heavy load.5) i(vi1) .
The unpowered inductor in a transformer is called the secondary winding.000E+01 freq 6. one of which is powered by AC. and is comprised of magnetizing current plus any additional current necessary to overcome core losses. • REVIEW: • Mutual inductance is where the magnetic ﬂux of two or more inductors are “linked” so that voltage is induced in one coil proportional to the rateofchange of current in another. If the second inductor is connected to a load. In a perfect world. However. • A transformer is a device made of two or more inductors. the most important thing to keep in mind is a transformer’s basic operating principle: the transfer of power from the primary to the secondary circuit via electromagnetic coupling.5) 9. • Any current drawn through the secondary winding by a load will be “reﬂected” to the primary winding and drawn from the voltage source. • Core ﬂux induces a voltage in any coil wrapped around the core. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION freq 6. A substantial amount of the current through the primary winding merely works to magnetize the core rather than transfer useful energy to the secondary winding and load. transformers would transfer electrical power from primary to secondary as smoothly as though the load were directly connected to the primary power source. • Total primary current in an unloaded transformer is called the exciting current.000E+01 v(3. and it also lags the supply voltage by 90o . but may be made more so if the transformer is designed and operated so that magnetic ﬂux density is kept to a minimum.000E+01 v(2) 1. The induces voltage(s) are ideally in. you can see this ideal goal can only be met if there is perfect coupling of magnetic ﬂux between primary and secondary windings.990E03 231 rent. . with no transformer there at all.1. An ideal transformer with identical primary and secondary windings would manifest equal voltage and current in both sets of windings for any load condition.835E02 i(vi1) 9. It is never perfectly sinusoidal in a real transformer. transformers must be designed to operate within certain expected ranges of voltages and loads in order to perform as close to ideal as possible.9. Being that this is impossible to achieve. as if the source were directly powering a similar load. • Magnetic ﬂux in the core (Φ) lags 90o behind the source voltage waveform.990E+00 i(v1) 2. The current drawn by the primary coil from the source to produce this ﬂux is called the magnetizing current.phase with the primary winding source voltage and share the same waveshape. • The powered inductor in a transformer is called the primary winding. inducing an AC voltage across the second inductor. power will be electromagnetically coupled from the ﬁrst inductor’s power source to that load. For now.
we can easily multiply or divide voltage and current in AC circuits.end freq 6.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .975E05 i(vi1) 9.print ac v(3.15) Primary winding Secondary winding Figure 9. Indeed.9962 mA compared to 0. indeed.9962 volts compared to 10 volts).print ac v(2.2 Stepup and stepdown transformers So far. is not the norm for all transformers. What we have here is a device that steps voltage down by a factor of ten and current up by a factor of ten: (Figure 9. while the secondary current is approximately ten times greater (0.000E+01 v(2) 1. If the inductances of the two windings are not equal.09975 mA).ac lin 1 60 60 . as AC voltage can be “stepped up” and current “stepped down” for reduced wire resistance power losses along power lines connecting generating stations with .232 CHAPTER 9.5) 9. TRANSFORMERS 9.5) i(vi1) .962E04 Primary winding Secondary winding Notice how the secondary voltage is approximately ten times less than the primary voltage (0. we’ve observed simulations of transformers where the primary and secondary windings were of identical inductance. however. giving approximately equal voltage and current levels in both circuits.000E+01 v(3. This is a very useful device.0) i(v1) . Equality of voltage and current between the primary and secondary sides of a transformer. something interesting happens: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.000E+01 freq 6.962E01 i(v1) 9. the transformer has made longdistance transmission of electric power a practical reality.15: Turns ratio of 10:1 yields 10:1 primary:secondary voltage ratio and 1:10 primary:secondary current ratio. With it.
may be made of smallergauge wire. Let’s reexamine a photograph shown in the previous section: (Figure 9. which doesn’t have to conduct as much current. it is possible to operate either of these transformer types backwards (powering the secondary winding with an AC source and letting the primary winding power a load) to perform the opposite function: a stepup can function as a stepdown and visaversa.16) Figure 9. The largergauge wire used in the secondary winding is necessary due to the increase in current. voltage levels are reduced by transformers for safer operation and less expensive equipment. In case you were wondering.16: Transformer crosssection showing primary and secondary windings is a few inches tall (approximately 10 cm). as evidenced by the high turn count of the primary winding and the low turn count of the secondary. A transformer that increases voltage from primary to secondary (more secondary winding turns than primary winding turns) is called a stepup transformer. However.2. the secondary winding in a stepup) and “X” designations for the lowervoltage winding. Therefore. Conversely. One convention used in the electric power industry to help alleviate confusion is the use of “H” designations for the highervoltage winding (the primary winding in a stepdown unit. this transformer converts highvoltage. so if a transformer is to be used “backwards” like this it must be employed within the original design parameters of voltage and current for each winding. Transformers are often constructed in such a way that it is not obvious which wires lead to the primary winding and which lead to the secondary. efﬁcient operation of a transformer requires that the individual winding inductances be engineered for speciﬁc operating ranges of voltage and current. a transformer designed to do just the opposite is called a stepdown transformer. The primary winding. This is a stepdown transformer. lest it prove to be inefﬁcient (or lest it be damaged by excessive voltage or current!). lowcurrent power into lowvoltage. as we saw in the ﬁrst section of this chapter. STEPUP AND STEPDOWN TRANSFORMERS 233 loads. At either end (both the generator and at the loads). As a stepdown unit. a simple power transformer will have . highcurrent power.9.
they cannot convert one frequency of AC power to another. While transformers are clearly superior over motor/generator sets for AC voltage and current level conversion. “X1 ”.234 CHAPTER 9.17) Power in A motor/generator set Power out Shaft coupling Motor Generator Figure 9. and realize that transformers cannot produce power. and “X2 ”. its angular momentum (the inertia of that rotating mass) will maintain rotation of the generator for a short duration. Furthermore. the generator designed to produce the desired levels of voltage and current at the rotating speed of the motor. or (by themselves) convert DC to AC or visaversa. voltage/current level conversion could only be achieved through the use of motor/generator sets. The fact that voltage and current get “stepped” in opposite directions (one up. mechanical wear and balance are factors inﬂuencing both service life and performance. albeit with the limitations of efﬁciency and mechanical factors already described. on the other hand. Any device that could output more power than it took in would violate the Law of Energy Conservation in physics. “H2 ”. which we’ll explore a little later in this chapter. because motor/generator sets obviously require moving parts. a motor is mechanically coupled to a generator. TRANSFORMERS wires labeled “H1 ”.17: Motor generator illustrates the basic principle of the transformer. In all fairness it should be noted that motor/generator sets have not necessarily been obsoleted by transformers for all applications.). making possible the widespread distribution and use of electric power we take for granted. While both motors and generators are fairly efﬁcient devices. etc. thus isolating any loads powered by the genera . There is usually signiﬁcance to the numbering of the wires (H1 versus H2 . are able to convert levels of AC voltage and current at very high efﬁciencies with no moving parts. Transformers. the use of both in this fashion compounds their inefﬁciencies so that the overall efﬁciency is in the range of 90% or less. The practical signiﬁcance of this is made more apparent when an alternative is considered: before the advent of efﬁcient transformers. In such a machine. namely that energy cannot be created or destroyed. power transfer efﬁciency is very good from the primary to the secondary sides of the device. As with the ﬁrst transformer example we looked at. the other down) makes perfect sense when you recall that power is equal to voltage times current. A drawing of a motor/generator set reveals the basic principle involved: (Figure 9. if the motor’s power supply is momentarily interrupted for any reason. Motor/generator sets also have the unique property of kinetic energy storage: that is. only converted. Motor/generator sets can do all these things with relative simplicity. only convert it.
18: Stepdown transformer: (many turns :few turns).19) Stepup and stepdown transformers for power distribution purposes can be gigantic in proportion to the power transformers previously shown. This works out to be the same ratio we found between primary and secondary voltages and currents (10:1). it should be apparent that our two inductors in the last SPICE transformer example circuit – with inductance ratios of 100:1 – should have coil turn ratios of 10:1. not relative) A = Area of coil in square meters l = Average length of coil in meters Where.20) . Stepdown transformer many turns high voltage low current few turns low voltage high current load Figure 9. we see that inductance is proportional to the square of the number of coil turns: L= N2µA l L = Inductance of coil in Henrys N = Number of turns in wire coil (straight wire = 1) µ = Permeability of core material (absolute. STEPUP AND STEPDOWN TRANSFORMERS 235 tor from “glitches” in the main power system. So. transforming values of speed and torque in much the same way: (Figure 9. because 10 squared equals 100. the parameters affecting inductance for the two coils are equal except for the number of turns in each coil. and that the measured voltage stepdown ratio was 10 to 1. The stepup/stepdown effect of coil turn ratios in a transformer (Figure 9.18) is analogous to gear tooth ratios in mechanical gear systems. Looking closely at the numbers in the SPICE analysis. Notice how the primary inductor (l1) has 100 times more inductance than the secondary inductor (10000 H versus 100 H). some units standing as tall as a home. Since the two inductors are wound around the same core material in the transformer (for the most efﬁcient magnetic coupling between the two). so we can say as a rule that the voltage and current transformation ratio is equal to the ratio of winding turns between primary and secondary. The following photograph shows a substation transformer standing about twelve feet tall: (Figure 9.9. we should see a correspondence between the transformer’s ratio and the two inductances. If we take another look at our inductance formula.2. The winding with more inductance will have higher voltage and less current than the other.
TRANSFORMERS LARGE GEAR (many teeth) SMALL GEAR (few teeth) high torque low speed low torque high speed Figure 9. while stepping speed up. .236 CHAPTER 9. Figure 9.20: Substation transformer.19: Torque reducing gear train steps torque down.
9.3. ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
• REVIEW:
237
• Transformers “step up” or “step down” voltage according to the ratios of primary to secondary wire turns.
Voltage transformation ratio = Nsecondary Nprimary Nprimary Nsecondary
Current transformation ratio = Where,
•
N = number of turns in winding
• A transformer designed to increase voltage from primary to secondary is called a stepup transformer. A transformer designed to reduce voltage from primary to secondary is called a stepdown transformer. • The transformation ratio of a transformer will be equal to the square root of its primary to secondary inductance (L) ratio.
Voltage transformation ratio = Lsecondary Lprimary
•
9.3
Electrical isolation
Aside from the ability to easily convert between different levels of voltage and current in AC and DC circuits, transformers also provide an extremely useful feature called isolation, which is the ability to couple one circuit to another without the use of direct wire connections. We can demonstrate an application of this effect with another SPICE simulation: this time showing “ground” connections for the two circuits, imposing a high DC voltage between one circuit and ground through the use of an additional voltage source:(Figure 9.21) v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 v2 5 0 dc 250 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end
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CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
(for SPICE to measure current)
1
Rbogus
2
3
Vi1 0V
4
V1 0
10 V
L1 10 kH 0 V2
L2 100 H 5 250 V 0
Rload
1 kΩ 5
Figure 9.21: Transformer isolates 10 Vac at V1 from 250 VDC at V2 .
DC voltages referenced to ground (node (1) 0.0000 (2) 0.0000 (3) (4) 250.0000 (5) 250.0000 AC voltages: freq v(2) i(v1) 6.000E+01 1.000E+01 9.975E05 freq v(3,5) i(vi1) 6.000E+01 9.962E01 9.962E04
0): 250.0000
Primary winding Secondary winding
9.4. PHASING
239
SPICE shows the 250 volts DC being impressed upon the secondary circuit elements with respect to ground, (Figure 9.21) but as you can see there is no effect on the primary circuit (zero DC voltage) at nodes 1 and 2, and the transformation of AC power from primary to secondary circuits remains the same as before. The impressed voltage in this example is often called a commonmode voltage because it is seen at more than one point in the circuit with reference to the common point of ground. The transformer isolates the commonmode voltage so that it is not impressed upon the primary circuit at all, but rather isolated to the secondary side. For the record, it does not matter that the commonmode voltage is DC, either. It could be AC, even at a different frequency, and the transformer would isolate it from the primary circuit all the same. There are applications where electrical isolation is needed between two AC circuit without any transformation of voltage or current levels. In these instances, transformers called isolation transformers having 1:1 transformation ratios are used. A benchtop isolation transformer is shown in Figure 9.22.
Figure 9.22: Isolation transformer isolates power out from the power line. • REVIEW: • By being able to transfer power from one circuit to another without the use of interconnecting conductors between the two circuits, transformers provide the useful feature of electrical isolation. • Transformers designed to provide electrical isolation without stepping voltage and current either up or down are called isolation transformers.
9.4
Phasing
Since transformers are essentially AC devices, we need to be aware of the phase relationships between the primary and secondary circuits. Using our SPICE example from before, we can
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CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
plot the waveshapes (Figure 9.23) for the primary and secondary circuits and see the phase relations for ourselves: spice transient analysis file for use with nutmeg: transformer v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rbogus1 1 2 1e12 v2 5 0 dc 250 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .tran 0.5m 17m .end nutmeg commands: setplot tran1 plot v(2) v(3,5)
Figure 9.23: Secondary voltage V(3,5) is inphase with primary voltage V(2), and stepped down by factor of ten.
In going from primary, V(2), to secondary, V(3,5), the voltage was stepped down by a factor of ten, (Figure 9.23) , and the current was stepped up by a factor of 10. (Figure 9.24) Both
9.4. PHASING
241
current (Figure 9.24) and voltage (Figure 9.23) waveforms are inphase in going from primary to secondary. nutmeg commands: setplot tran1 plot I(L1#branch) I(L2#branch)
Figure 9.24: Primary and secondary currents are inphase. Secondary current is stepped up by a factor of ten. It would appear that both voltage and current for the two transformer windings are inphase with each other, at least for our resistive load. This is simple enough, but it would be nice to know which way we should connect a transformer in order to ensure the proper phase relationships be kept. After all, a transformer is nothing more than a set of magneticallylinked inductors, and inductors don’t usually come with polarity markings of any kind. If we were to look at an unmarked transformer, we would have no way of knowing which way to hook it up to a circuit to get inphase (or 180o outofphase) voltage and current: (Figure 9.25)
+
+ or
??? +


Figure 9.25: As a practical matter, the polarity of a transformer can be ambiguous.
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CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
Since this is a practical concern, transformer manufacturers have come up with a sort of polarity marking standard to denote phase relationships. It is called the dot convention, and is nothing more than a dot placed next to each corresponding leg of a transformer winding: (Figure 9.26)
Figure 9.26: A pair of dots indicates like polarity. Typically, the transformer will come with some kind of schematic diagram labeling the wire leads for primary and secondary windings. On the diagram will be a pair of dots similar to what is seen above. Sometimes dots will be omitted, but when “H” and “X” labels are used to label transformer winding wires, the subscript numbers are supposed to represent winding polarity. The “1” wires (H1 and X1 ) represent where the polaritymarking dots would normally be placed. The similar placement of these dots next to the top ends of the primary and secondary windings tells us that whatever instantaneous voltage polarity seen across the primary winding will be the same as that across the secondary winding. In other words, the phase shift from primary to secondary will be zero degrees. On the other hand, if the dots on each winding of the transformer do not match up, the phase shift will be 180o between primary and secondary, like this: (Figure 9.27)
Figure 9.27: Out of phase: primary red to dot, secondary black to dot. Of course, the dot convention only tells you which end of each winding is which, relative to the other winding(s). If you want to reverse the phase relationship yourself, all you have to do is swap the winding connections like this: (Figure 9.28) • REVIEW:
9.5. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS
243
Figure 9.28: In phase: primary red to dot, secondary red to dot. • The phase relationships for voltage and current between primary and secondary circuits of a transformer are direct: ideally, zero phase shift. • The dot convention is a type of polarity marking for transformer windings showing which end of the winding is which, relative to the other windings.
9.5
Winding conﬁgurations
Transformers are very versatile devices. The basic concept of energy transfer between mutual inductors is useful enough between a single primary and single secondary coil, but transformers don’t have to be made with just two sets of windings. Consider this transformer circuit: (Figure 9.29)
load #1
load #2
Figure 9.29: Transformer with multiple secondaries, provides multiple output voltages. Here, three inductor coils share a common magnetic core, magnetically “coupling” or “linking” them together. The relationship of winding turn ratios and voltage ratios seen with a single pair of mutual inductors still holds true here for multiple pairs of coils. It is entirely possible to assemble a transformer such as the one above (one primary winding, two secondary windings) in which one secondary winding is a stepdown and the other is a stepup. In fact, this design of transformer was quite common in vacuum tube power supply circuits, which were required to supply low voltage for the tubes’ ﬁlaments (typically 6 or 12 volts) and high voltage for the tubes’ plates (several hundred volts) from a nominal primary voltage of 110 volts AC. Not only are voltages and currents of completely different magnitudes possible with such a transformer, but all circuits are electrically isolated from one another.
244
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
Figure 9.30: Photograph of multiplewinding transformer with six windings, a primary and ﬁve secondaries. The transformer in Figure 9.30 is intended to provide both high and low voltages necessary in an electronic system using vacuum tubes. Low voltage is required to power the ﬁlaments of vacuum tubes, while high voltage is required to create the potential difference between the plate and cathode elements of each tube. One transformer with multiple windings sufﬁces elegantly to provide all the necessary voltage levels from a single 115 V source. The wires for this transformer (15 of them!) are not shown in the photograph, being hidden from view. If electrical isolation between secondary circuits is not of great importance, a similar effect can be obtained by “tapping” a single secondary winding at multiple points along its length, like Figure 9.31.
load #1
load #2
Figure 9.31: A single tapped secondary provides multiple voltages. A tap is nothing more than a wire connection made at some point on a winding between the very ends. Not surprisingly, the winding turn/voltage magnitude relationship of a normal transformer holds true for all tapped segments of windings. This fact can be exploited to produce a transformer capable of multiple ratios: (Figure 9.32) Carrying the concept of winding taps further, we end up with a “variable transformer,”
9.5. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS
245
multipole switch
load
Figure 9.32: A tapped secondary using a switch to select one of many possible voltages. where a sliding contact is moved along the length of an exposed secondary winding, able to connect with it at any point along its length. The effect is equivalent to having a winding tap at every turn of the winding, and a switch with poles at every tap position: (Figure 9.33)
Variable transformer
load
Figure 9.33: A sliding contact on the secondary continuously varies the secondary voltage. One consumer application of the variable transformer is in speed controls for model train sets, especially the train sets of the 1950’s and 1960’s. These transformers were essentially stepdown units, the highest voltage obtainable from the secondary winding being substantially less than the primary voltage of 110 to 120 volts AC. The variablesweep contact provided a simple means of voltage control with little wasted power, much more efﬁcient than control using a variable resistor! Movingslide contacts are too impractical to be used in large industrial power transformer designs, but multipole switches and winding taps are common for voltage adjustment. Adjustments need to be made periodically in power systems to accommodate changes in loads over months or years in time, and these switching circuits provide a convenient means. Typically,
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CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
such “tap switches” are not engineered to handle fullload current, but must be actuated only when the transformer has been deenergized (no power). Seeing as how we can tap any transformer winding to obtain the equivalent of several windings (albeit with loss of electrical isolation between them), it makes sense that it should be possible to forego electrical isolation altogether and build a transformer from a single winding. Indeed this is possible, and the resulting device is called an autotransformer: (Figure 9.34)
Autotransformer
load
Figure 9.34: This autotransformer steps voltage up with a single tapped winding, saving copper, sacriﬁcing isolation. The autotransformer depicted above performs a voltage stepup function. A stepdown autotransformer would look something like Figure 9.35.
Autotransformer
load
Figure 9.35: This auto transformer steps voltage down with a single coppersaving tapped winding.
9.5. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS
247
Autotransformers ﬁnd popular use in applications requiring a slight boost or reduction in voltage to a load. The alternative with a normal (isolated) transformer would be to either have just the right primary/secondary winding ratio made for the job or use a stepdown conﬁguration with the secondary winding connected in seriesaiding (“boosting”) or seriesopposing (“bucking”) fashion. Primary, secondary, and load voltages are given to illustrate how this would work. First, the “boosting” conﬁguration. In Figure 9.36 the secondary coil’s polarity is oriented so that its voltage directly adds to the primary voltage.
"boosting"
120 V
30 V
150 V
Figure 9.36: Ordinary transformer wired as an autotransformer to boost the line voltage. Next, the “bucking” conﬁguration. In Figure 9.37 the secondary coil’s polarity is oriented so that its voltage directly subtracts from the primary voltage:
"bucking"
120 V
30 V
90 V
Figure 9.37: Ordinary transformer wired as an autotransformer to buck the line voltage down. The prime advantage of an autotransformer is that the same boosting or bucking function is obtained with only a single winding, making it cheaper and lighter to manufacture than a regular (isolating) transformer having both primary and secondary windings. Like regular transformers, autotransformer windings can be tapped to provide variations in ratio. Additionally, they can be made continuously variable with a sliding contact to tap the winding at any point along its length. The latter conﬁguration is popular enough to have earned itself its own name: the Variac. (Figure 9.38) Small variacs for benchtop use are popular pieces of equipment for the electronics experimenter, being able to step household AC voltage down (or sometimes up as well) with a wide, ﬁne range of control by a simple twist of a knob.
The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer’s voltage regulation. even with a constant voltage input. among other factors. where the transformer is seen by the load (ideally) as a constant source of voltage. it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current. This allows for multiple stepup and/or stepdown ratios in the same device. of course. For power transformer applications. except without providing electrical isolation. • Transformer windings can also be “tapped:” that is. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. TRANSFORMERS The "Variac" variable autotransformer load Figure 9. • Variable transformers can be made by providing a movable arm that sweeps across the length of a winding.38: A variac is an autotransformer with a sliding tap. • An autotransformer is a single. • A Variac is a variable autotransformer. the output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances. The winding. intersected at many points to segment a single winding into sections. • REVIEW: • Transformers can be equipped with more than just a single primary and single secondary winding pair. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. 9. making contact with the winding at any point along its length. tapped inductor coil used to step up or step down voltage like a transformer.6 Voltage regulation As we saw in a few SPICE analyses earlier in this chapter. has to be bare (no insulation) in the area where the arm sweeps.248 CHAPTER 9.Efullload Efullload (100%) . It can be calculated from the following formula: Regulation percentage = Enoload .
a good power transformer should exhibit .348 V (100%) Regulation percentage = 6. we get: Regulation percentage = 9.348 volts at the point we decided to call “full load. Powering a simple resistive load like this.000E+01 v(2) 1.5) 9.9. This operating point will be determined primarily by the winding wire size (ampacity) and the method of transformer cooling.print ac v(2.000E+01 v(3.110E12 Output with (almost) no load So.990E+00 i(v1) 2.000E+01 v(3.653E04 i(vi1) 1.5) 9.348 V 9. VOLTAGE REGULATION 249 “Fullload” means the point at which the transformer is operating at maximum permissible secondary current. let’s compare the output voltage with a 1 kΩ load versus a 200 Ω load (assuming that the 200 Ω load will be our “full load” condition).8678 % Incidentally.990 V .end freq 6.” Calculating voltage regulation with these ﬁgures.print ac v(3.962E+00 v(3. Taking our ﬁrst SPICE transformer simulation as an example.6.000E+01 freq 6. Recall if you will that our constant primary voltage was 10.990 volts at (virtually) no load and 9.5) 9.348E+00 i(vi1) 9. Now let’s take that same transformer circuit and place a load resistance of extremely high magnitude across the secondary winding to simulate a “noload” condition: (See ”transformer” spice list”) transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 9e12 .000E+01 freq 6.5) i(vi1) . we see that our output (secondary) voltage spans a range of 9. this would be considered rather poor (or “loose”) regulation for a power transformer.674E02 Output with 1k ohm load Output with 200 ohm load Notice how the output voltage decreases as the load gets heavier (more current).0) i(v1) .00 volts AC: freq 6.962E03 i(vi1) 4.ac lin 1 60 60 .9.
TRANSFORMERS a regulation percentage of less than 3%. its iron core is “stuffed full” of magnetic lines of ﬂux for a large portion of the AC cycle so that variations in supply voltage (primary winding current) have little effect on the core’s magnetic ﬂux density. Some arc welder designs provide arc current adjustment by means of a movable iron core in the transformer. where poor regulation is actually desired. cranked in or out of the winding assembly by the operator. core saturation in a transformer results in distortion of the sinewave shape. which is available for sustaining output winding voltage for brief periods of input voltage loss (milliseconds’ worth of time. A high voltage is desired to assist in “striking” the arc (getting it started). and the ability to “ride through” brief losses in power by keeping a reserve of energy in its resonant tank circuit. There are some applications. but like the discharge lamp. and provides the added beneﬁt of storing energy in the form of AC oscillations. In this case.39) In addition to blocking harmonics created by the saturated core. highcurrent power for the welding process. forming a resonant circuit tuned to the power supply frequency. providing “clean” power to the load. then the voltage is expected to drop off once the lamp begins to draw current. harmonic ﬁltering between the power source and the load. These transformers are also highly tolerant . That is. Moving the iron slug away from the windings reduces the strength of magnetic coupling between the windings. Ferroresonant transformers offer several features useful in AC power conditioning: constant output voltage given substantial variations in input voltage. which are nothing more than stepdown transformers supplying lowvoltage. which means the secondary winding outputs a nearly constant voltage despite signiﬁcant variations in supply (primary winding) voltage.250 CHAPTER 9. While being somewhat difﬁcult to describe without going deep into electromagnetic theory. which diminishes noload secondary voltage and makes for poorer voltage regulation. No exposition on transformer regulation could be called complete without mention of an unusual device called a ferroresonant transformer. a decrease of secondary voltage under high load current would be a good thing. This is because discharge lamps’ voltage requirements tend to be much lower after a current has been established through the arc path. the ferroresonant transformer is a power transformer engineered to operate in a condition of persistent core saturation. ferroresonant transformers have an auxiliary secondary winding paralleled with one or more capacitors. To combat this side effect. One such case is in discharge lighting. Another application is in current control for AC arc welders. so this analysis with purely resistive loads was a “bestcase” condition. Normally. This “tank circuit” serves as a ﬁlter to reject harmonics created by the core saturation. Inductive loads tend to create a condition of worse voltage regulation. (Figure 9. “Ferroresonance” is a phenomenon associated with the behavior of iron cores while operating near a point of magnetic saturation (where the core is so strongly magnetized that further increases in winding current results in little or no increase in magnetic ﬂux). where a stepup transformer is required to initially generate a high voltage (necessary to “ignite” the lamps). but certainly better than nothing). however. an arc doesn’t require as much voltage to sustain itself once the air has been heated to the point of ionization. this resonant circuit also “ﬁlters out” harmonic frequencies generated by nonlinear (switching) loads in the secondary winding circuit and any harmonics present in the source voltage. Thus. a stepup transformer with poor voltage regulation sufﬁces nicely for the task of conditioning power to the lamp. and the ferroresonant transformer is no exception.
which means they don’t work very well when powered by small enginedriven generators having poor speed regulation. they can be used to “convert” the impedance of a load to a different level. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 251 AC power output AC power input Resonant LC circuit Figure 9. allowing a load to be switched from one source of power to another in a “makebeforebreak” fashion with no interruption of power on the secondary side! Unfortunately. of excessive loading and transient (momentary) voltage surges. the practical purpose for the power dissipated is to . generating signiﬁcant heat in the process. may prioritize the ferroresonant transformer’s advantages over its disadvantages. They are so tolerant.7.7. necessitating expensive capacitors and presenting the service technician with very dangerous working voltages. 9.9. Semiconductor circuits exist to “condition” AC power as an alternative to ferroresonant devices. The purpose of a load (usually) is to do something productive with the power it dissipates.1 Special transformers and applications Impedance matching Because transformers can step voltage and current to different levels. and are intolerant of frequency variations. so let’s investigate what it means. the more stable the secondary voltage and the better the regulation it will provide. • A ferroresonant transformer is a special transformer designed to regulate voltage at a stable level despite wide variation in input voltage.7 9. though. in fact. That last phrase deserves some explanation. Some applications. and because power is transferred equivalently between primary and secondary windings. but none can compete with this transformer in terms of sheer simplicity. these devices have equally noteworthy disadvantages: they waste a lot of energy (due to hysteresis losses in the saturated core).39: Ferroresonant transformer provides voltage regulation of the output. Voltages produced in the resonant winding/capacitor circuit tend to be very high. that some may be brieﬂy paralleled with unsynchronized AC power sources. The lower the percentage (closer to zero). In the case of a resistive heating element. • REVIEW: • Voltage regulation is the measure of how well a power transformer can maintain constant secondary voltage given a constant primary voltage and wide variance in load current.
not the actual 62. 125/62.5 Ω Pload = 1000 W I=8A 125 V Rload 15. not only has our stepup transformer transformed voltage and current. we could operate the 250 volt heater element on the 125 volt power system like Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS heat something up.” its powering a 15. The transformation ratio of impedance is the square of the voltage/current transformation ratio.625 Ω (R=E/I) load at 125 volts. although in this case that’s all they’re composed of (no reactance). The impedance of the heater and the voltage of our source would be mismatched. we arrive at ﬁgures of 62. or onequarter of its rated power. Consider these two 1000 watt resistive heating elements: (Figure 9. Both heaters dissipate exactly 1000 watts of power. we would end up being disappointed. With a stepup transformer. but they do so at different voltage and current levels (either 250 volts and 4 amps. the current would only be 2 amps (I=E/R.5 Ω 1000 watts dissipation at the load resistor ! Figure 9.5 Ω of the load itself. All hope is not lost. the same as the winding inductance ratio: . 125 x 2). In other words.41. The 250 volt heater would be said to be a higher impedance load than the 125 volt heater. but two loads of equal power rating are not necessarily identical. Loads are engineered to safely dissipate a certain maximum amount of power. and the power dissipation would only be 250 watts (P=IE. not a 62. With 62. though. at different voltage and current ratings.625 Ω. If these are AC loads. I=8A 125 V I=4A 250 V Rload 62.41: Stepup transformer operates 1000 watt 250 V heater from 125 V power source The ratio of the transformer’s windings provides the voltage stepup and current stepdown we need for the otherwise mismatched load to operate properly on this system. Take a close look at the primary circuit ﬁgures: 125 volts at 8 amps. but it has transformed impedance as well. If we desired to operate the 250 volt heater element directly on a 125 volt power system. or 125 volts and 8 amps). respectively.252 CHAPTER 9. and we couldn’t obtain the full rated power dissipation from the heater. Using Ohm’s Law to determine the necessary resistance of these heating elements (R=E/I).40) I=4A 250 V Rload 62.5 Ω load! The voltage and current ﬁgures for the primary winding are indicative of 15.625 Ω load impedance.40: Heating elements dissipate 1000 watts.625 Ω Pload = 1000 W Figure 9. we might refer to their opposition to current in terms of impedance rather than plain resistance.5).5 Ω and 15. As far as the power supply “knows.5 Ω of impedance (resistance).
for it allows a load to dissipate its full rated power even if the power system is not at the proper voltage to directly do so. Substitute the word “impedance” for “resistance” in that deﬁnition and you have the AC version of that Theorem. we would need a winding ratio equal to the square root of 500:8 (the square root of 62. low current) supply to a low impedance (low voltage. Since we’re going from a high impedance (high voltage. If we’re trying to obtain theoretical maximum power dissipation from a load. To make this system work better. drawing power at the correct voltage and current levels to satisfy the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem and make for the . we’ll need to use a stepdown transformer: (Figure 9. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 253 Voltage transformation ratio = Nsecondary Nprimary Nprimary Nsecondary 2 Current transformation ratio = Impedance transformation ratio = Nsecondary Nprimary 2 Inductance ratio = Where. Recall from our study of network analysis the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.906:1).5 Ω to 15.5:1. Additionally. If an 8 Ω speaker were connected directly to the 500 Ω ampliﬁer as shown.7. the speaker will load the ampliﬁer to just the right degree. Let’s take an audio ampliﬁer system and see how it works: (Figure 9. which states that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by a load resistance when that load resistance is equal to the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the network supplying the power.625 Ω (a 4:1 ratio. we can use a transformer to match these mismatched impedances. the ampliﬁer would tend to dissipate more than its fair share of power in the form of heat trying to drive the low impedance speaker. Impedance transformation is a highly useful ability of transformers. the impedance mismatch would result in very poor (low peak power) performance.9. we must be able to properly match the load impedance and source (Thevenin/Norton) impedance together. With such a transformer in place. Such a load would drop higher voltage and draw less current than an 8 Ω speaker dissipating the same amount of power.43) To obtain an impedance transformation ratio of 500:8. the ampliﬁer can only deliver full power to a load (speaker) also having 500 Ω of impedance. Nsecondary Nprimary N = number of turns in winding This concurs with our example of the 2:1 stepup transformer and the impedance ratio of 62. high current) load. This is generally more of a concern in specialized electric circuits such as radio transmitter/antenna and audio ampliﬁer/speaker systems. or 7.42) With an internal impedance of 500 Ω. which is 2:1 squared).
. impedance "matching" transformer Audio amplifier Thevenin/Norton Z = 500 Ω impedance ratio = 500 : 8 Speaker Z=8Ω winding ratio = 7. . .254 CHAPTER 9. . equivalent to . Speaker Z=8Ω ZThevenin EThevenin 500 Ω Speaker Z=8Ω Figure 9.906 : 1 Figure 9.42: Ampliﬁer with impedance of 500 Ω drives 8 Ω at much less than maximum power. . TRANSFORMERS Audio amplifier Thevenin/Norton Z = 500 Ω .43: Impedance matching transformer matches 500 Ω ampliﬁer to 8 Ω speaker for maximum efﬁciency.
It is labeled “T1”: (Figure 9. The purpose of the bicycle’s “gears” is to impedancematch the rider’s legs to the riding conditions so that they always spin the crank at the optimum speed. its because the lower speed ratio of the selected gear creates another type of mismatch between the conditions (low load) and the rider’s legs (losing power if spinning faster than 90 RPM).9. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 255 most efﬁcient power delivery to the load. A small impedancematching transformer (about two centimeters in width) for audiofrequency applications is shown in the following photograph: (Figure 9. It is much the same with electric power sources and loads: there must be an impedance match for maximum system efﬁciency. Impedance matching transformers are not fundamentally different from any other type of transformer in construction or appearance. Anyone who has ridden a multispeed bicycle can intuitively understand the principle of impedance matching. Above or below that rotational speed. If the rider attempts to start moving while the bicycle is shifted into its “top” gear. human leg muscles are less efﬁcient at generating power. Is it because the rider is weak? No. is the lack of speed an indication of weakness in the bicyclist’s legs? No. he or she will ﬁnd it very difﬁcult to get moving. its because the high stepup ratio of the bicycle’s chain and sprockets in that top gear presents a mismatch between the conditions (lots of inertia to overcome) and their legs (needing to spin at 6090 RPM for maximum power output).44) Figure 9. On the other hand. selecting a gear that is too low will enable the rider to get moving immediately.44: Audio frequency impedance matching transformer. in the upper right corner. In AC circuits. Again. but limit the top speed they will be able to attain.7. transformers perform the same matching function as the sprockets and chain (“gears”) on a bicycle to match otherwise mismatched sources and loads. to the immediate left of resistors R2 and R1 . The use of a transformer in this capacity is called impedance matching. Another impedancematching transformer can be seen on this printed circuit board.45) . A human’s legs will produce maximum power when spinning the bicycle crank at a particular speed (about 60 to 90 revolution per minute).
and the electrical isolation they provide.8 kV conductors into an instrument panel would be severe.8 kV down to a safe level of voltage at a constant ratio. The safety hazard alone of bringing 13.256 CHAPTER 9. not to mention the design of the voltmeter itself. However. installing.46) highvoltage power source 13. TRANSFORMERS Figure 9. they can serve as a way of connecting electrical instrumentation to highvoltage. and maintaining a voltmeter capable of directly measuring 13. Designing.45: Printed circuit board mounted audio impedance matching transformer.46: Direct measurement of high voltage by a voltmeter is a potential safety hazard. adding an additional level of safety to the metering system: (Figure 9. and isolate it from the instrument connections. Due to transformers’ ability to step up or step down voltage and current. Suppose we wanted to accurately measure the voltage of a 13. top right.8 kV load Figure 9. high current power systems.2 Potential transformers Transformers can also be used in electrical instrumentation systems. by using a precision stepdown transformer. we can reduce the 13. 9.800 volts AC would be no easy task.8 kV power system (a very common power distribution voltage in American industry): (Figure 9.47) .7.
The standard voltmeter range to accompany a PT is 150 volts.48).7. for safety and ease of disconnecting the PT from the circuit. the power line itself acting as a singleturn primary winding: (Figure 9. the Current Transformer (or CT) is a stepup device (with respect to voltage). or ratio. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 257 highvoltage power source 13. To aid in precise voltage regulation. a fuse has been connected in series with the PTs primary winding. As you can see. so there is no direct connection between the power lines and the instrument or instrument wiring. Of course.9. fullscale.3 Current transformers Following the same line of thinking. 9. Note that while the PT is a stepdown device. like (Figure 9. of the actual system voltage. for fullrated power line voltage. The transformer keeps the instrument voltage at a safe level and electrically isolates it from the power system. since the PT will be sized to step the system voltage down to this standard instrument level. or simply PT. we can use a transformer to step down current through a power line so that we are able to safely and easily measure high system currents with inexpensive ammeters. PTs with custom winding ratios can be manufactured to suit any application. allowing insertion around a power conductor without . which is what is needed to step down the power line current. Potential transformers are designed to provide as accurate a voltage stepdown ratio as possible.7. such a transformer would be connected in series with the power line. Quite often. the transformer is called a Potential Transformer.47: Instrumentation application:“Potential transformer” precisely scales dangerous high voltage to a safe value applicable to a conventional voltmeter. CTs are built as donutshaped devices through which the power line conductor is run. This lends itself well to industry standardization of the actual voltmeter instruments themselves. loading is kept to a minimum: the voltmeter is made to have high input impedance so as to draw as little current from the PT as possible.8 kV load fuse fuse precision stepdown ratio PT grounded for safety V 0120 VAC voltmeter range Figure 9.49) Some CTs are made to hinge open. A standard secondary voltage for a PT is 120 volts AC. Now the voltmeter reads a precise fraction. its scale set to read as though it were measuring the voltage directly. When used in this capacity.
Scaled down current is available on wire leads. .48: Instrumentation application: “Currrent transformer” steps high current down to a value applicable to a conventional ammeter.8 kV load fuse fuse precision stepdown ratio PT grounded for safety V 0120 VAC voltmeter range Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS grounded for 05 A ammeter range safety A Instrument application: the "Current Transformer" CT 13. Figure 9.258 CHAPTER 9.49: Current conductor to be measured is threaded through the opening.
Because CTs are designed to be powering ammeters. it is perfectly proper and quite necessary when working with current transformers. is the air core transformer.50: Shortcircuit switch allows ammeter to be removed from an active current transformer circuit. The degree of coupling (mutual inductance) between windings in such a transformer is many times less than that . CT ratios are usually described in terms of fullload primary amps to 5 amps. Failure to heed this warning will result in the CT producing extremely high secondary voltages. shortcircuiting switches are often installed in parallel with the CT’s secondary winding.4 Air core transformers Another kind of special transformer. The industry standard secondary current for a CT is a range of 0 to 5 amps AC. usually a hollow tube of some material. That is. (Figure 9. to be closed whenever the ammeter is removed for service: (Figure 9. Like PTs. which are lowimpedance loads. To facilitate maintenance of ammeter instrumentation.51) True to its name. ever be operated with an opencircuited secondary winding.50) power conductor CT ground connection (for safety) current close switch BEFORE disconnecting ammeter! 05 A meter movement range Figure 9. they should never.9. seen often in radiofrequency circuits. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 259 disturbing the conductor at all. Because their “full load” secondary current is 5 amps. and they are wound as voltage stepup transformers. 9. an air core transformer has its windings wrapped around a nonmagnetic form.7.7. Though it may seem strange to intentionally shortcircuit a power system component. dangerous to equipment and personnel alike. CTs can be made with custom winding ratios to ﬁt almost any application. there will be 5 amps of current induced in the CT’s winding. when the conductor through the center of the torus is carrying 50 amps of current (AC). like this: 600 : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 600 A line current) 100 : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 100 A line current) 1k : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 1000 A line current) The “donut” CT shown in the photograph has a ratio of 50:5.
It is in highfrequency applications that these effects of iron cores are most problematic. polyphase AC power systems. 9. The largest radio transmitters may use meter sized coils. The over winding is connected between a radio antenna and ground for one such application. The secondary is tuned to resonance with a variable capacitor. particularly for biﬁlar windings. Toroidal air core transformers are rare except for VHF (Very High Frequency) work. Air core transformers are used at radio frequencies when iron core losses are too high. Biﬁlar winding on toroidal form (b).51) Toroidal air core transformers also show a higher degree of coupling. The basic schematic for a Tesla Coil is shown in Figure 9.260 CHAPTER 9.5 Tesla Coil One notable example of an aircore transformer is the Tesla Coil. Three or four wires may be grouped for 1:2 and other integral ratios.52. could match unequal impedances when DC isolation is not required. . This implies a 1:1 turns ratio. simply broadcasting it in the form of radio waves which could be received and conducted to loads by means of antennas. TRANSFORMERS of an equivalent ironcore transformer. However.) are completely eliminated. etc. Biﬁlar windings are wound from a slightly twisted pair of wires. without the over winding. who was also the inventor of the rotating magnetic ﬁeld AC motor. One of Tesla’s dreams was to employ his coil technology to distribute electric power without the need for wires. Unshielded air core solenoid transformers are mounted at right angles to each other to prevent stray coupling. but the undesirable characteristics of a ferromagnetic core (eddy current losses. Small millimeter size air core transformers are used in radio receivers. hysteresis. (a) (b) Figure 9. and many elements of radio technology. When isolation is required the over winding is added over one end of the main winding. Stray coupling is minimized when the transformer is wound on a toroid form. This allows arbitrary turns ratios. The output may be taken from the tap point for ampliﬁcation or detection. (Figure (b) 9. The inside tapped solenoid winding. Core materials other than air such as powdered iron or ferrite are preferred for lower radio frequencies. the degree of coupling suffers. named after the Serbian electrical genius Nikola Tesla. Windings do not have to be biﬁlar. saturation.7. highfrequency stepup transformer used to produce extremely high voltages.51: Air core transformers may be wound on cylindrical (a) or toroidal (b) forms. The Tesla Coil is a resonant. (Figure (a) 9.51). Center tapped primary with secondary (a). Frequently air core transformers are paralleled with a capacitor to tune it to resonance.
SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 261 discharge terminal "Tesla Coil" Figure 9. lowfrequency AC source and spark gap: (Figure 9. but also backandforth between .53) HIGH voltage! HIGH frequency! RFC high voltage low frequency RFC spark gap Figure 9. this secondary tank circuit is tuned to the same resonant frequency as the primary circuit. in conjunction with the transformer’s primary winding. Several options exist for “exciting” the primary circuit. allowing it to oscillate at its resonant frequency. The capacitor. The “RFC” inductors are “Radio Frequency Chokes. The secondary winding is wound in close proximity to the primary. lowfrequency AC power source is to “charge” the primary tank circuit.7. usually around the same nonmagnetic form. relying on the parasitic (stray) capacitance existing between the discharge terminal and earth ground to complement the secondary winding’s inductance.53: System level diagram of Tesla coil with spark gap drive. forms a tank circuit. When the spark gap ﬁres.9. with energy exchanged not only between capacitors and inductors during resonant oscillation. its low impedance acts to complete the capacitor/primary coil tank circuit. The secondary side of the Tesla coil transformer is also a tank circuit. the simplest being a highvoltage.” which act as high impedances to prevent the AC source from interfering with the oscillating tank circuit. For optimum operation. The purpose of the highvoltage.52: Tesla Coil: A few heavy primary turns. many secondary turns.
we’ve explored the transformer as a device for converting different levels of voltage.7. Burns caused by radiofrequency (“RF”) current. can be very deep. 9. Tesla Coils ﬁnd application primarily as novelty devices. TRANSFORMERS primary and secondary windings. . unlike skin burns caused by contact with hot objects or ﬂames. this does not mean Tesla coils cannot hurt or even kill you! I strongly advise seeking the assistance of an experienced Tesla coil experimenter if you would embark on building one yourself. a transformer acts as an ampliﬁer.54: High voltage high frequency discharge from Tesla coil. and the occasional low budget scienceﬁction movie. current. In this mode. Now we’ll take a look at it as a completely different kind of device: one that allows a small electrical signal to exert control over a much larger quantity of electrical power.262 CHAPTER 9. showing up in high school science fairs. The visual results are spectacular: (Figure 9.6 Saturable reactors So far. It should be noted that Tesla coils can be extremely dangerous devices. like all electrical burns. and even impedance from one circuit to another. Although the highfrequency discharge of a Tesla coil has the curious property of being beyond the “shock perception” frequency of the human nervous system.54) Figure 9. basement workshops.
it is not really a transformer at all. The ﬁrst problem is the natural transformer action of the saturable reactor: AC current through the power winding will induce a voltage in the control winding.55) L load I Figure 9. ZL will correspondingly change. If an inductor’s inductance changes. but it would not work very well. A saturable reactor capitalizes on this effect by forcing the core into a state of saturation with a strong magnetic ﬁeld generated by current through another winding. an inductor loses its inductance (ability to oppose changes in current) when its core becomes magnetically saturated. all its magnetic domains are lined up with the applied magnetizing force). When a material such as iron is completely saturated (that is. no further magnetic ﬂux will result from further increases in current. and the “control” winding is one carrying a DC current strong enough to drive the core into saturation: (Figure 9. The reactor’s “power” winding is the one carrying the AC load current. Increased DC control current produces more magnetic ﬂux in the reactor core. Like the ferroresonant transformer.9. or simply saturable reactor. If an inductor has a saturated core. . the saturable reactor relies on the principle of magnetic saturation. Now. and the number of winding turns in the inductor. and so there will be no voltage induced in opposition to the change in current.7. decreasing its impedance. this will result in a change in current: (Figure 9.56) The strangelooking transformer symbol shown in the above schematic represents a saturablecore reactor. thus changing the circuit current. In a circuit with a constant voltage source. The circuit shown would work. then its reactance (and impedance) to AC current changes as well.55: If L changes in inductance. thus decreasing the power winding’s inductance. In other words. which may cause trouble for the DC power source. Actually. inductance is the measure of how well an inductor opposes changes in current by developing a voltage in an opposing direction. the upper winding being the DC control winding and the lower being the “power” winding through which the controlled AC current goes. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 263 The device I’m referring to is called a saturablecore reactor. and increasing current to the load. Thus. driving it closer to a condition of saturation. the DC control current is able to exert control over the AC current delivered to the load. additional increases in current through the magnetizing winding will not result in further increases of magnetic ﬂux. The ability of an inductor to generate this opposing voltage is directly connected with the change in magnetic ﬂux inside the inductor resulting from the change in current. but rather a special kind of inductor whose inductance can be varied by the application of a DC current through a second winding wound around the same iron core.
” If both reactors are identical. one reactor will saturate more in one cycle of the AC . the core will have more ﬂux in it during one half of the AC cycle than the other. Also. passing load current more easily in one direction than the other. and current. Furthermore. in the other half. modulating the power winding inductance. since the DC control current through both reactors produces magnetic ﬂuxes in different directions through the reactor cores. Thus. via the control winding. both problems can be overcome with a little ingenuity: (Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS saturable reactor load I Figure 9. Notice the placement of the phasing dots on the two reactors: the power windings are “in phase” while the control windings are “out of phase.57: Out of phase DC control windings allow symmetrical of control AC.56: DC. the mmf ’s from both windings add. any voltage induced in the control windings by load current through the power windings will cancel out to zero at the battery terminals. and will saturate ﬁrst in that cycle half. they subtract. Thus. Fortunately. saturates the core. thus eliminating the ﬁrst problem mentioned.57) load I Figure 9. impedance.264 CHAPTER 9. saturable reactors tend to regulate AC power only in one direction: in one half of the AC cycle.
SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 265 power while the other reactor will saturate more in the other. The twophase generated power was changed to threephase by the use of ScottT transformations. I personally ﬁnd this to be fascinating: the effect of ampliﬁcation (one electrical signal controlling another). weight. This phasing of control windings can be accomplished with two separate reactors as shown.6% tap R3 2phase2 = V∠90° R4 50% tap Y2 R2 T1 T2 Y3 2phase1 = V∠0° R1 Figure 9. [1] 3phase23 = V∠0° 3phase31 = V∠120° 3phase12 = V∠240° Y1 86. and bandwidth (frequency response). However. New York.7 ScottT transformer Nikola Tesla’s original polyphase power system was based on simple to build 2phase components. can be realized in a device both physically and electrically rugged. 9. normally requiring the use of physically fragile vacuum tubes or electrically “fragile” semiconductor devices.7. or vice versa. General Electric built a 35.9. Both 2φ and 3φ components coexisted for a number of years.5 km (22 mi) threephase transmission line operated at 11 kV to transmit power to Buffalo. Yamamoto and Yamaguchi: In 1896. or in a single reactor design with intelligent layout of the windings and core.58: ScottT transformer converts 2φ to 3φ. but their utter simplicity still commands a certain degree of appreciation. Saturable reactor technology has even been miniaturized to the circuitboard level in compact packages more generally known as magnetic ampliﬁers. from the Niagara Falls Project.7. Saturablecore reactors are less commonly known as “saturablecore inductors” or transductors. the more transmission line efﬁcient 3phase system became more prominent. if not practical application. thus equalizing the control action through each halfcycle so that the AC power is “throttled” symmetrically. . The ScottT transformer connection allowed 2φ and 3φ components like motors and alternators to be interconnected. nonlinearity. as transmission distances increased. namely size. Magnetic ampliﬁers do have disadvantages over their more fragile counterparts.
The T2 secondary voltage is 0. V23 .5V∠0° = 0. Keep in mind that this 2nd phase of the 2φ is 90o . one of the 3φ voltages is identical to a 2φ voltage due to the 1:1 transformer T1 ratio.59. The primaries of both transformers are connected to the 2φ voltages. TRANSFORMERS The ScottT transformer set. The bottom line is when we add 86. Figure 9.VBA = 0 (1) KVL: V12 = VAC (2) KVL: V31 = VCB +VBD (3) KVL: V23 = VDB .866 90o .866V(0+j1) VCB = VBA = 0.6% . One end of the T2 86. the other end is connected to the T1 secondary center tap.6% tap. Both ends of the T1 secondary are the other two 3φ connections.866V2P 2 due to the 86.6% secondary winding is a 3φ output.0.5 0o . Subtracting 86.5V(1+j0) V12 = V2P1 = V∠0° V31 = (0. to keep track of the Kirchhoff voltage loop polarities. We show “DC” polarities all over this AC only circuit. More common these days is the application of 3φ power to produce a 2φ output for driving an old 2φ motor. along with input 1 0o (a). subtracted at V23 in the KVL equations. .5V2P 1 on the secondary ends. consists of a center tapped transformer T1 and an 86.866V∠90°=V(0.5)V∠0°+0.5 and 0.866V2P2 = 0.866(0+j1))=V(0.5V2P1 = 0.866(0+j1))=V(0. we use vectors in both polar and complex notation to prove that the ScottT converts a pair of 2φ voltages to 3φ. V23 . In Figure 9. The three output phases are 1 120o and 1 240o from (c).50% +B  . D V23 + − T2 Y3 + R3 + V31 + − + V2P2 − Given two 90° phased voltages: V2P1 =Vsin(θ+0°)=V∠0°=V(1+j0) V2P2 =Vsin(θ+90°)=Vcos(θ)=V∠90°=V(0+j1) Derive the three phase voltages V12 . The T1 center tapped secondary produces opposite polarities of 0.59: ScottT transformer 2φ to 3φ conversion equations.866V∠90°=V(0. This 0.5)V∠0°0. VP 12 = V2P 1 .5(1+j0)+0. This 0o is vectorially subtracted from T2 secondary voltage due to the KVL equations V31 .866V2P 2 is added at V31 .5(1+j0)0.266 CHAPTER 9.5 0o + 0. At (c) 1 120o = 0. V31 : V12=V2P1 =Vsin(θ+0°)=V∠0°=V(1+j0) (1) KVL: V12 +VAC = 0 (2) KVL: V31 VCB +VBD = 0 (3) KVL: V23 = VDB . and 1 240o = 0.866)=V∠−120°=V∠240° Figure 9.R4 + + Y1 R1 A Y2 R2 T1 + − + − V12 V2P1 C VDB = 0.5+j0.866V∠90° = 0. Application of 2φ Niagara generator power produced a 3φ output for the more efﬁcient 3φ transmission line.6% of 90o from 50% of 180o yields 120o or 240o .60 we graphically show the 2φ vectors at (a).5+j0. At (b) the vectors are scaled by transformers T1 and T2 to 0.6% tapped transformer T2 on the 3φ side of the circuit. Subtracting 0o is equivalent to adding 180o .6% of 90o to 50% of 180o we get 120o .866 respectively.58.866 90o . First.VBA 86.866)=V∠120° V23 =(0. In Figure 9.
7. 1∠90° yields 1∠−120° . bottom winding.59.8 Linear Variable Differential Transformer A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) has an AC driven primary wound between two secondaries on a cylindrical air core form. 9. Units are available for measuring displacement over a distance of a fraction of a millimeter to a half a meter. the seriesopposing wired secondaries cancel yielding V13 = 0.61: LVDT: linear variable differential transformer. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS 0. a centered slug yields equal voltages across both coils.60: Graphical explanation of equations in Figure 9. (Figure 9.866V∠90° 1∠90° 1∠0° 0. and inphase with V3 . As the core is moved toward the top winding. Note that it is inphase with with V1 . Theoretically. Moving the slug from top to bottom shows a minimum at the center point. and 180o out of phase with V3 .1∠240° Figure 9. In practice leakage inductance prevents the null from dropping all the way to 0 V. with a 180o phase reversal in passing the center. the voltage across this coil increases due to increased coupling.5∠0° 1∠240° 1∠120° 267 a 0. Moving the slug up increases V13 . Moving the slug down from the center position increases V13 . The excitation voltage is in the range of 0. the voltage on this coil increases as the voltage decreases across the top coil.5 to 10 VAC at a frequency of 1 to 200 Khz. If the core is moved toward the bottom winding. .9. the top winding. LVDT’s are rugged and dirt resistant compared to linear optical encoders. It is extended outside the body by an nonmagnetic rod.5∠0° 0.7. it is 180o out of phase with with V1 . while the voltage on the bottom coil decreases. bottom winding. the top winding.866V∠90° b c 1∠0°. With a centered slug. up V1 V1 V2 V13 V3 V3 center down Figure 9. A ferrite core is suitable at these frequencies.61) A movable ferromagnetic slug converts displacement to a variable voltage by changing the coupling between the driven primary and secondary windings. The LVDT is a displacement or distance measuring transducer. However.
With enough DC current.8 9. the ideal transformer would have to be inﬁnitely large and heavy to meet these design goals. perfect voltage regulation. 9. Respecting these limitations. Unfortunately. in the business of practical transformer design. it is called impedance matching. • A Current Transformer (CT) is another special instrument transformer designed to step down the current through a power line to a safe level for an ammeter to measure.1 Practical considerations Power capacity As has already been observed. decreasing the inductance of the power winding in a controlled fashion. • A Potential Transformer (PT) is a special instrument transformer designed to provide a precise voltage stepdown ratio for voltmeters measuring high power system voltages. TRANSFORMERS • Transformers can be used to transform impedance as well as voltage and current. perfectly sinusoidal exciting current. the inductance of which can be controlled by the DC current through a second winding around the same core. Also.8. the magnetic core can be saturated. It has a movable ferromagnetic core to vary the coupling between the excited primary and a pair of secondaries. aircore. stepup transformer designed to produce very high AC voltages at high frequency.268 • REVIEW: CHAPTER 9. • A ScottT transformer converts 3φ power to 2φ power and vice versa. is a distance measuring device. Thus. but each winding has to be sufﬁciently insulated from the other in order to maintain electrical isolation between windings. transformers must be well designed in order to achieve acceptable power coupling. though the current rating is usually derived from a voltamp (VA) rating assigned to the transformer. • A Tesla Coil is a resonant. and wire thick enough to handle any amount of current. no hysteresis or eddy current losses. compromises must be made. This means the winding conductors must be made of the proper gauge wire to avoid any heating problems. For example. as they often are in stepup and stepdown power distribution transformers. tight voltage regulation. Not only do the windings have to be well insulated from the iron core. transformers are rated for certain levels of primary and secondary winding voltage and current. An ideal transformer would have perfect coupling (no leakage inductance). • An aircore transformer is one lacking a ferromagnetic core. winding conductor insulation is a concern where high voltages are encountered. and low exciting current distortion. • A linear variable differential transformer. also known as an LVDT. take a stepdown transformer with . When this is done to improve power transfer to a load. Additionally. transformers must be designed to carry the expected values of primary and secondary winding current without any trouble. • A saturable reactor is a special type of inductor.
Increasing the gauge of the winding wire is one way to minimize this loss. The maximum winding currents can be determined as such: 1000 VA 120 V 1000 VA 48 V = 8. power lost due to resistance of the wire windings. Resistive losses aside. but not as good as the copper or aluminum from which wire windings are typically made. but only with substantial increases in cost. the bulk of transformer power loss is due to magnetic effects in the core.” . and a VA rating of 1 kVA (1000 VA). These induced currents – as described by the perpendicularity clause of Faraday’s Law – tend to circulate through the crosssection of the core perpendicularly to the primary winding turns. and what causes it to be lost. but this is typically seen on small transformers. The photograph of (Figure 9. this loss can be a signiﬁcant factor. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 269 a primary voltage rating of 120 volts. In order to maximize the eddy current effect. there will always be power dissipated in the form of heat through the resistance of currentcarrying conductors. Unless superconducting wires are used. they dissipate power in the form of heat. Because transformers require such long lengths of wire. The box units at the right of the picture produce the highfrequency AC and control the amount of current in the wires to stabilize the pipe temperature at a predetermined “setpoint. Perhaps the most signiﬁcant of these “core losses” is eddycurrent loss. 9. Their circular motion gives them their unusual name: like eddies in a stream of water that circulate rather than move in straight lines.8. they do so with a minimum of loss. highfrequency alternating current is used rather than power line frequency (60 Hz). There is.8. In overcoming the resistance offered by the iron. It is good to know where some of this lost power goes. however.333 A (maximum primary winding current) = 20. This phenomenon is so pronounced that it is often exploited as a means of heating ferrous (ironcontaining) materials. Because iron is a conductor of electricity as well as being an excellent “conductor” of magnetic ﬂux. Hence. of course. we have a source of inefﬁciency in the transformer that is difﬁcult to eliminate. these “eddy currents” must overcome signiﬁcant electrical resistance as they circulate through the core.2 Energy losses When transformers transfer power. As it was stated earlier.833 A (maximum secondary winding current) Sometimes windings will bear current ratings in amps. which is resistive power dissipation due to the passage of induced currents through the iron of the core. Iron is a fair conductor of electricity. and weight. inducing eddy currents within the pipe wall by electromagnetic induction. modern power transformer designs typically exceed 95% efﬁciency. a secondary voltage rating of 48 volts. size.9. Large transformers are almost always rated in terms of winding voltage and VA or kVA. Loops of wire covered by hightemperature insulation encircle the pipe’s circumference. there will be currents induced in the iron just as there are currents induced in the secondary windings from the alternating magnetic ﬁeld.62) shows an “induction heating” unit raising the temperature of a large pipe section. Consequently.
used in many military and aircraft applications) must use thinner laminations to keep the losses down to a respectable minimum.63) solid iron core "eddy" current laminated iron core Figure 9. Eddy current losses increase with frequency. The main strategy in mitigating these wasteful eddy currents in transformer cores is to form the iron core in sheets.62: Induction heating: Primary insulated winding induces current into lossy iron pipe (secondary). each sheet covered with an insulating varnish so that the core is divided up into thin slices. . This has the undesirable effect of increasing the manufacturing cost of the transformer. so transformers designed to run on higherfrequency power (such as 400 Hz. Laminated cores like the one shown here are standard in almost all lowfrequency transformers. TRANSFORMERS Figure 9.270 CHAPTER 9. Recall from the photograph of the transformer cut in half that the iron core was composed of many thin sheets rather than one solid piece.63: Dividing the iron core into thin insulated laminations minimizes eddy current loss. The result is very little width in the core for eddy currents to circulate in: (Figure 9.
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 271 Another. nonsinusoidal waveforms are equivalent to additive series of multiple sinusoidal waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. Unfortunately it does. Closely related to the issue of ﬂux containment is leakage inductance. transformers often harbor other undesirable limitations which circuit designers must be made aware of. This type of loss can be mitigated through good core material selection (choosing a core alloy with low hysteresis. and winding to core. transformers of signiﬁcant size are designed to operate efﬁciently in a limited range of frequencies. and making sure other devices’ magnetic ﬂux is shielded from the transformer core) is another concern shared both by inductors and transformers. as evidenced by a “thin” B/H hysteresis curve). the effect of having capacitance along with the windings’ designed inductance gives transformers the ability to resonate at a particular frequency. which makes the core nonconductive except for within the width of each granule. Usually this capacitance is of no concern in a power application. In most power distribution systems where the line frequency is very stable. one would think excessive frequency would never pose a problem. than the design frequency of the transformer. Power transformers can be engineered to handle certain levels of power system harmonics. 9.” and it takes a certain investment in energy to overcome this opposition to change every time the magnetic ﬁeld produced by the primary winding changes polarity (twice per AC cycle). Powdered iron cores are often found in transformers handling radiofrequency currents. these other frequencies are wholenumber multiples of the fundamental (line) frequency. As we’ve seen in earlier chapters.3 Stray capacitance and inductance Aside from power ratings and power losses. Another “core loss” is that of magnetic hysteresis. This tendency to stay magnetized is called “hysteresis.8. thereby increasing effective resistance as the frequency goes up and creating more power lost through resistive dissipation. The skin effect within winding conductors reduces the available crosssectional area for electron ﬂow.8. deﬁnitely a design concern in signal applications where the applied frequency may reach this point (usually the resonant frequency of a power transformer is well beyond the frequency of the AC power it was designed to operate on). these granules of iron are individually coated in an electrically insulating material. not lower. Flux containment (making sure a transformer’s magnetic ﬂux doesn’t escape so as to interfere with another device. meaning that they will always be higher. but small signal applications (especially those of high frequency) may not tolerate this quirk well. and designing the core for minimum ﬂux density (large crosssectional area). Transformer energy losses tend to worsen with increasing frequency. eddy currents and hysteresis effects becoming more severe.9. All ferromagnetic materials tend to retain some degree of magnetization after exposure to an external magnetic ﬁeld. turn to turn (in a single winding). For this reason. Also. In signiﬁcant measure. and this capability is sometimes denoted with a “K factor” rating. they can cause severe transformer overheating. We’ve already seen the detrimental effects of leakage inductance on voltage regulation with SPICE simulations . In power systems. similar technique for minimizing eddy current losses which works better for highfrequency applications is to make the core out of iron powder instead of thin iron sheets. Magnetic core losses are also exaggerated with higher frequencies. Like their simpler counterparts – inductors – transformers exhibit capacitance due to the insulation dielectric between conductors: from winding to winding. in the form of harmonics created by nonlinear loads. Like the lamination sheets.
. it manifests itself as a series impedance with the load. As was stated before. but there are exceptional applications. which will in turn produce the poor regulation needed for discharge lighting. the less voltage available at the secondary winding terminals. good voltage regulation is desired in transformer design. Usually. creating harmonics in the secondary winding’s output. meaning that further increases in magnetic ﬁeld force (mmf) do not result in proportional increases in magnetic ﬁeld ﬂux (Φ). Because leakage inductance is equivalent to an inductance connected in series with the transformer’s winding. This results in a severely cropped sinewave ﬂux waveform. When a transformer’s primary winding is overloaded from excessive applied voltage.64: Voltage and ﬂux waveforms for a peaking transformer. discharge lighting circuits require a stepup transformer with “loose” (poor) voltage regulation to ensure reduced voltage after the establishment of an arc through the lamp.272 CHAPTER 9. Special transformers known as peaking transformers exploit this principle to produce brief voltage pulses near the peaks of the source voltage waveform. we must be mindful of the saturation limits of the core. the more current drawn by the load.64) ep = primary voltage es = secondary voltage Φ = magnetic flux es ep Φ Figure 9. Thus. For ferromagnetic core transformers. the voltage induced in the secondary winding will no longer match the waveshape as the voltage powering the primary coil. the core ﬂux may reach saturation levels during peak moments of the AC sinewave cycle. harmonic content in AC power systems typically causes problems. the overloaded transformer will distort the waveshape from primary to secondary windings.8. In other words. One way to meet this design criterion is to engineer the transformer with ﬂux leakage paths for magnetic ﬂux to bypass the secondary winding(s). TRANSFORMERS early in this chapter.4 Core saturation Transformers are also constrained in their performance by the magnetic ﬂux limitations of the core. at voltage levels well below peak. 9. If this happens. The core is designed to saturate quickly and sharply. The resulting leakage ﬂux will produce leakage inductance. As we discussed before. Remember that ferromagnetic materials cannot support inﬁnite magnetic ﬂux densities: they tend to “saturate” at a certain level (dictated by the material and core dimensions). and secondary voltage pulses only when the ﬂux is changing (below saturation levels): (Figure 9.
demands that the ﬂux maintain the same rate of change as before. the ﬂux must reach greater peak levels than before in order to produce the same opposing voltage needed to balance against the source voltage. For example. this is another example of calculus in action. If we take the opposite perspective.65) e 60 Hz Φ e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux Φ e 50 Hz Figure 9.66. (Figure 9. Thus. and the ﬂux waveform is the integral of the voltage waveform. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 273 Another cause of abnormal transformer core saturation is operation at frequencies lower than normal. Any amount of DC voltage dropped across the primary winding of a transformer will . but for longer periods of time. a voltage waveform reaching the same peak value. it will climb to a greater peak value. but taking a longer amount of time to complete each halfcycle.8.9. we say that the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. we may call the original waveform the integral of the derivative waveform. though. if a power transformer designed to operate at 60 Hz is forced to operate at 50 Hz instead. Since each halfcycle of the 50 Hz waveform accumulates more area between it and the zero line of the graph than the 60 Hz waveform will – and we know that the magnetic ﬂux is the integral of the voltage – the ﬂux will attain higher values in Figure 9.65: Magnetic ﬂux is higher in a transformer core driven by 50 Hz as compared to 60 Hz for the same voltage. and relate the original waveform to its derivative. (Figure 9. In this case. “derivative” being that calculus operation deﬁning one mathematical function (waveform) in terms of the rateofchange of another. Because the voltage is proportional to the ﬂux’s rateofchange. but for longer periods of time. if the ﬂux has to climb at the same rate as before. This is true even if the source voltage is the same as before. Yet another cause of transformer saturation is the presence of DC current in the primary winding. the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. Since instantaneous winding voltage is proportional to the instantaneous magnetic ﬂux’s rate of change in a transformer. The integral of any mathematical function is proportional to the area accumulated underneath the curve of that function.66) Mathematically.
shifts the waveform peaks toward the upper saturation limit. This ensures that the relationship between mmf and Φ is more linear throughout the ﬂux cycle. abnormal conditions such as frequency variation and DC offset. .274 CHAPTER 9.67: DC in primary. cause additional magnetic ﬂux in the core. core saturation is a very undesirable effect. This additional ﬂux “bias” or “offset” will push the alternating ﬂux waveform closer to saturation in one halfcycle than the other. which is good because it makes for less distortion in the magnetization current waveform. and it is avoided through good design: engineering the windings and core so that magnetic ﬂux densities remain well below the saturation levels.67) saturation limit flux centerline 60 Hz e Φ saturation limit Figure 9. engineering the core for low ﬂux densities provides a safe margin between the normal ﬂux peaks and the core saturation limits to accommodate occasional. TRANSFORMERS e 60 Hz Φ less area less height e 50 Hz Φ more area more height Figure 9. Also. (Figure 9. For most transformers.66: Flux changing at the same rate rises to a higher level at 50 Hz than at 60 Hz.
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 275 9. In a continuouslyoperating transformer.72) This is analogous to the inrush current exhibited by an electric motor that is started up by sudden connection to a power source. these two waveforms are phaseshifted by 90o .5 Inrush current When a transformer is initially connected to a source of AC voltage. (Figure 9. however. between continuousmode operation and the sudden starting condition assumed in this scenario: during continuous operation.9. however. the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform.69) Alternatively. there may be a substantial surge of current through the primary winding called inrush current. both magnetic ﬂux and winding current should . lags applied voltage by 90o . experiencing zero rateofchange (dΦ/dt = 0 and di/dt = 0). We know that the rate of change of instantaneous ﬂux in a transformer core is proportional to the instantaneous voltage drop across the primary winding. Thus.69) Both core ﬂux and coil current start from zero and build up to the same peak values experienced during continuous operation.68) Since ﬂux (Φ) is proportional to the magnetomotive force (mmf) in the core. this is the point in time where both ﬂux and winding current are at their negative peaks. and the mmf is proportional to winding current. a magnetic ﬂux of rapidly increasing value must be generated. Let us suppose that the primary winding of a transformer is suddenly connected to an AC voltage source at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at its positive peak value. In order for the transformer to create an opposing voltage drop to balance against this applied source voltage. although transformer inrush is caused by a different phenomenon. and the ﬂux waveform is the integral of the voltage waveform.68: Continuous steadystate operation: Magnetic ﬂux. there is no “surge” or “inrush” or current in this scenario. the ﬂux and current levels were at their negative peaks when voltage was at its zero point. the current waveform will be inphase with the ﬂux waveform. (Figure 9. During continuous operation (when the transformer has been powered for quite some time). but actually no more rapidly than under normal conditions: (Figure 9.8. let us consider what happens if the transformer’s connection to the AC voltage source occurs at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at zero. and on upward to their positive peaks as the voltage descends to a level of zero: A signiﬁcant difference exists. the ﬂux and current waveforms build to their maximum positive ratesofchange. like current. and both will be lagging the voltage waveform by 90o : e = voltage e Φ = magnetic flux Φ i i = coil current Figure 9. as stated before. (Figure 9. As the voltage builds to its positive peak. Or.8. The result is that winding current increases rapidly. in a transformer that has been sitting idle.
70: Starting at e=0 V is not the same as running continuously in Figure 9. during continuous operation.276 CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ Instant in time when transformer is connected to AC voltage source. Figure 9. e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ Instant in time when voltage is zero.69: Connecting transformer to line at AC volt peak: Flux increases rapidly from zero. same as steadystate operation. . Figure 9.3 These expected waveforms are incorrect– Φ and i should start at zero.
generating the necessary mmf to create this higherthannormal ﬂux. transformers may also exhibit undesirable physical effects.71) Φ e flux peak approximately twice normal height! Instant in time when voltage is zero. However. Noise is primarily a nuisance effect. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 277 start at zero.72) This is the mechanism causing inrush current in a transformer’s primary winding when connected to an AC voltage source. from a "cold start" condition. and so the core will almost certainly saturate during this ﬁrst halfcycle of voltage.8. disproportionate amounts of mmf are needed to generate magnetic ﬂux. During saturation. it will increase from zero upward. most transformers aren’t designed with enough of a margin between normal ﬂux peaks and the saturation limits to avoid saturating in a condition like this.71: Starting at e=0 V. the most notable being the production of heat and noise. In an ideal transformer. increasing to twice the normal value. Figure 9. which creates the mmf to cause ﬂux in the core. Thus. assuming it doesn’t saturate the core.8. If the transformer happens to have some residual magnetism in its core at the moment of connection to the source. Φ starts at initial condition Φ=0. Heating may be minimized by good design. the magnetizing current would rise to approximately twice its normal peak value as well.9. not from a previously negative (magnetized) condition as we would normally have in a transformer that’s been powered for awhile. so as to tolerate current surges such as this without opening the circuit. in a transformer that’s just “starting. will disproportionately rise to a value easily exceeding twice its normal peak: (Figure 9. When the magnetic ﬂux increases in response to a rising voltage. but heat is a potentially serious problem because winding insulation will be damaged if allowed to overheat. 9. transformer overcurrent protection devices are usually of the “slowacting” variety.6 Heat and Noise In addition to unwanted electrical effects. As you can see. Because of this.” the ﬂux will reach approximately twice its normal peak magnitude as it “integrates” the area under the voltage waveform’s ﬁrst halfcycle: (Figure 9. the inrush could be even more severe. the magnitude of the inrush current strongly depends on the exact time that electrical connection to the source is made. This means that winding current. ensuring that the core does .
” transformers are often rated in terms of maximum operating temperature “rise” (temperature increase beyond ambient) according to a letterclass system: A. • Class B: No more than 80o Celsius winding temperature rise. B. at 40o Celsius (maximum) ambient air temperature.72: Starting at e=0 V.278 CHAPTER 9. and that the windings are not overloaded or operated too close to maximum ampacity. F. Current also increases to twice the normal value for an unsaturated core. • Class F: No more than 115o Celsius winding temperature rise. from a "cold start" condition.73) Oilless. These letter codes are arranged in order of lowest heat tolerance to highest: • Class A: No more than 55o Celsius winding temperature rise. and also to displace moisture which would otherwise compromise the integrity of the winding insulation. TRANSFORMERS i Φ e current peak much greater than normal! flux peak approximately twice normal height! Instant in time when voltage is zero. that eddy currents are minimized. or considerably higher in the (designed for) case of saturation. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. • Class H: No more than 150o Celsius winding temperature rise. Large power transformers have their core and windings submerged in an oil bath to transfer heat and mufﬂe noise. The familiar “hum” heard around large power transformers is the sound of the iron core expanding and . at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. or “dry. or H. Figure 9. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. not approach saturation levels. Audible noise is an effect primarily originating from the phenomenon of magnetostriction: the slight change of length exhibited by a ferromagnetic object when magnetized. Heatdissipating “radiator” tubes on the outside of the transformer case provide a convective oil ﬂow path to transfer heat from the transformer’s core to ambient air: (Figure 9.
73: Large power transformers are submerged in heat dissipating insulating oil.9.8. . PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 279 Primary terminals Secondary terminals Heat Core Heat Radiator tube Radiator tube flow Oil Figure 9.
which may cause overheating in large transformers. • REVIEW: • Power transformers are limited in the amount of power they can transfer from primary to secondary winding(s). which can be problematic in signal applications. Again. Another noiseproducing phenomenon in power transformers is the physical reaction force between primary and secondary windings when heavily loaded. physical force between the windings which will tend to make them vibrate. Any ﬂux not involved with transferring energy from one winding to another will store and release energy. these stresses may be great enough to cause audible noise to emanate from the transformer. • Magnetic effects in a transformer’s iron core also contribute to inefﬁciency. which is 60 Hz in the United States) – one cycle of core contraction and expansion for every peak of the magnetic ﬂux waveform – plus noise created by mechanical forces between primary and secondary windings. which becomes counteracted by a “reﬂected” mmf in the primary winding to prevent core ﬂux levels from changing. This capacitance can be signiﬁcant enough to give the transformer a natural resonant frequency. • Both transformers and inductors harbor certain unavoidable amounts of capacitance due to wire insulation (dielectric) separating winding turns from the iron core and from each other. and/or by the presence of a DC current in any of . which explains why ferroresonant transformers – which must operate in saturation for a large portion of the current waveform – operate both hot and noisy. as current will dissipate heat. The presence of harmonics in a power system is a source of frequencies signiﬁcantly higher than normal. If the secondary winding is opencircuited. Transformer designers have to consider these physical forces in the construction of the winding coils. and consequently no magnetomotive force (mmf) produced by it. • Increased frequency results in increased power losses within a power transformer. the winding generates an mmf. when the secondary is “loaded” (current supplied to a load). wasting energy. TRANSFORMERS contracting at 120 Hz (twice the system frequency. though. These opposing mmf ’s generated between primary and secondary windings as a result of secondary (load) current produce a repulsive. operation at too low of a frequency. • Leakage inductance is caused by magnetic ﬂux not being 100% coupled between windings in a transformer. • Magnetic saturation of a transformer core may be caused by excessive primary voltage. Under heavy load (high current) conditions. However. Among the effects are eddy currents (circulating induction currents in the iron core) and hysteresis (power lost due to overcoming the tendency of iron to magnetize in a particular direction). Leakage inductance tends to worsen a transformer’s voltage regulation (secondary voltage “sags” more for a given amount of load current). • Resistance in transformer windings contributes to inefﬁciency. which is how (self) inductance works.280 CHAPTER 9. Large units are typically rated in VA (voltamps) or kVA (kilo voltamps). to ensure there is adequate mechanical support to handle the stresses. there will be no current through it. maintaining low magnetic ﬂux levels in the core is the key to minimizing this effect.
Mitsugi Yamaguchi. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.ieee. http://www. • Transformers often experience signiﬁcant inrush currents when initially connected to an AC voltage source. Bart Anderson (January 2004): Corrected conceptual errors regarding Tesla coil operation and safety. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. CONTRIBUTORS 281 the windings. • Noise is a common phenomenon exhibited by transformers – especially power transformers – and is primarily caused by magnetostriction of the core.9. (4/11/2002).org/organizations/pes/public/2005/mar/peshistory. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. 9. Bibliography [1] Mitsuyoshi Yamamoto. Physical forces causing winding vibration may also generate noise under conditions of heavy (high current) secondary winding load. EDN.9. Saturation may be minimized or avoided by conservative design.9 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. Inrush current is most severe when connection to the AC source is made at the moment instantaneous source voltage is zero. which provides an adequate margin of safety between peak magnetic ﬂux density values and the saturation limits of the core.html . “Electric Power In Japan. from most recent to ﬁrst. Rapid Electriﬁcation a Century Ago”.
TRANSFORMERS .282 CHAPTER 9.
. . . . . .1) is a very simple AC circuit. . . . . . . .7 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we might call this a “power circuit” or “power system” instead of regarding it as just a regular circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10. . .5 10. . . . .3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase rotation . . Harmonics in polyphase power systems Harmonic phase sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 10. Threephase Y and ∆ conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . .8 10. . . but the practical concerns are deﬁnitely not.6 10. . . . .1 Singlephase power systems load #1 load #2 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Singlephase power systems . Depicted above (Figure 10. . .1: Single phase power system schematic diagram shows little about the wiring of a practical power circuit. . . . . . . . . . . Threephase transformer circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 289 296 300 306 313 318 343 345 10. . . . . . . . . . Polyphase motor design . . . . Threephase power systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If the load resistor’s power dissipation were substantial. . 283 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 10 POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Contents 10. .2 10. The distinction between a “power circuit” and a “regular circuit” may seem arbitrary. . . . . . . . . . . . .
we can determine the wiring needs for this particular circuit: (Figure 10.66 amps total circuit current. The advantage would be less current required.33 amps for each load resistor in Figure 10. the wiring for the 20 kW loads at 120 Vac is rather substantial (167 A). POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS One such concern is the size and cost of wiring necessary to deliver power from the AC source to the load.33 A) Itotal = 166.33 A) + (83. One way to do this would be to increase the voltage of the power source and use loads built to dissipate 10 kW each at this higher voltage. would have to have greater resistance values to dissipate the same power as before (10 kW each) at a greater voltage than before.33 A Itotal = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Itotal = (83. and would necessitate copper wire conductors of at least 1/0 gage. permitting the use of smaller. weighing over 300 pounds per thousand feet. This is no small amount of current.67 A Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW 83. I= I= P E 10 kW 120 V (for each load resistor) I = 83.2) 120 V load #1 P = 10 kW load #2 P = 10 kW Figure 10. Bear in mind that copper is not cheap either! It would be in our best interest to ﬁnd ways to minimize such costs if we were designing a power system with long conductor lengths.3) . If we give the source in the above circuit a voltage value and also give power dissipation values to the two load resistors.2: As a practical matter. and cheaper wire: (Figure 10. lighter. Normally. in the real world it can be a major concern. However. of course.284 CHAPTER 10.2 adds up to 166. The loads. we do not give much thought to this type of concern if we’re merely analyzing a circuit for the sake of learning about the laws of electricity. Such wire is well over 1/4 inch (6 mm) in diameter.
33 A Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW Now our total circuit current is 83. porcelain insulators. but it is a very valid concern in the real world.33 amps.10.1. half of what it was before. This tradeoff between efﬁciency and danger is one that European power system designers have decided to . This is a considerable reduction in system cost with no degradation in performance.67 A Itotal = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Itotal = (41. this solution is not without disadvantages.3: Same 10 kW loads at 240 Vac requires less substantial wiring than at 120 Vac (83 A). Power distribution companies tackle this problem by stringing their power lines along high poles or towers. I= I= P E 10 kW 240 V (for each load resistor) I = 41. but it might not always be practical to keep power wiring out of reach at the point of use the way it can be elevated out of reach in distribution systems.67 A) + (41. The gain in efﬁciency realized by stepping up the circuit voltage presents us with increased danger of electric shock. which weighs less than half of what 1/0 gage wire does per unit length.67 A) Itotal = 83. and insulating the lines from the supporting structures with large. especially when large amounts of power are being dealt with. High voltage gives greater system efﬁciency by means of reduced conductor current. this is not usually the sort of thing we concentrate on while learning about the laws of electricity. Again. We can now use number 4 gage wire. SINGLEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 285 240 V load #1 P = 10 kW load #2 P = 10 kW Figure 10. At the point of use (the electric power customer). cheaper wire. Another practical concern with power circuits is the danger of electric shock from high voltages. However. there is still the issue of what voltage to use for powering loads. This is why power distribution system designers elect to transmit electric power using very high voltages (many thousands of volts): to capitalize on the savings realized by the use of smaller. lighter.
this would be expensive and inconvenient for anything but very small loads (where the transformers can be built cheaply) or very large loads (where the expense of thick copper wires would exceed the expense of a transformer). current would stop in the other load as well. For this reason. but the currents are not additive because the loads are in series rather than parallel.5) + 240 V  + 240 V  . just as the American tourist must do while in Europe. Notice the polarity markings (+ and ) for each voltage shown. That is why tourists from America visiting Europe must carry small stepdown transformers for their portable appliances. Mind you. so the safety factor is better.286 CHAPTER 10. Being a series circuit. but each load is operating at a reduced voltage. The current through each load is the same as it was in the simple 120 volt circuit. driven by 240 Vac source at 83. phase relationships will become very important.33 A load +120 V #1 10 kW load +120 V #2 10 kW 83. For the most part. The voltage across each load is only 120 volts.3 A total current.4) 83. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS risk. or being turned off (assuming each load has a series on/off switch to interrupt current) are not good. so I’m introducing this notation early on in the chapter for your familiarity. I’ve avoided labeling “polarities” in the AC circuits we’ve been analyzing.4: Series connected 120 Vac loads. However. to step the 240 VAC (volts AC) power down to a more suitable 120 VAC. An alternative solution would be to use a higher voltage supply to provide power to two lower voltage loads in series. we still have a full 240 volts across the power system wires. the odds are that it will be from coming into contact with the conductors of a particular load rather than from contact across the main wires of a power system. This approach combines the efﬁciency of a highvoltage system with the safety of a lowvoltage system: (Figure 10. as well as the unidirectional arrows for current. not 240. In later sections of this chapter. Is there any way to realize the advantages of both increased efﬁciency and reduced safety hazard at the same time? One solution would be to install stepdown transformers at the endpoint of power use.33 A Figure 10. If anyone is going to get shocked. if either load were to open. all their households and appliances operating at a nominal voltage of 240 volts instead of 120 volts as it is in North America. we need to modify the design a bit: (Figure 10. even though the notation is valid to provide a frame of reference for phase. There’s only one disadvantage to this design: the consequences of one load failing open.
An essential component to a splitphase power system is the dual AC voltage source. with perfectly “balanced” loads consuming equal amounts of power. Notice how the neutral wire is connected to earth ground at the power supply end. the neutral wire carries zero current. the coils can be similarly centertapped for the same effect. The astute observer will note that the neutral wire only has to carry the difference of current between the two loads back to the source. Three smaller wires are still cheaper than the two wires needed with the simple parallel design. so we’re still ahead on efﬁciency. that transformer can be built with a centertapped secondary winding: (Figure 10. This is called a splitphase power system. we use two 120 volt supplies (in phase with each other!) in series to produce 240 volts.10. designing and building one is not difﬁcult.33 A + + 120 V ∠ 0o "hot" "neutral" 0A "hot" 83. This is a common feature in power systems containing “neutral” wires.1. In the above case. The extra expense to include a centertap connection in a . SINGLEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 287 83.33 A load +120 V #1 ∠ 0o load +120 V #2 ∠ 0o  120 V ∠ 0o + 240 V  Figure 10. Fortunately. since grounding the neutral wire ensures the least possible voltage at any given time between any “hot” wire and earth ground.5: Addition of neutral conductor allows loads to be individually driven.33 A (for each load resistor) Instead of a single 240 volt power supply. Since most AC systems receive their power from a stepdown transformer anyway (stepping voltage down from high distribution levels to a userlevel voltage like 120 or 240).6) If the AC power comes directly from a generator (alternator). then run a third wire to the connection point between the loads to handle the eventuality of one load opening. Etotal = (120 V ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 0o) Etotal = 240 V ∠ 0o I= P E Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW 10 kW I= 120 V I = 83.
Here is where the (+) and () polarity markings really become important. which would give 0 volts between the two “hot” conductors. transformer or alternator winding is minimal.7) 120 V 120 V + 240 V  "hot" + + 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 180o + 240 V ∠ 0o "hot" Figure 10. phase relations between multiple AC sources might be very confusing. Note that the splitphase sources in the schematic (each one 120 volts 0o ). To mathematically calculate voltage between “hot” wires. Otherwise. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Stepdown transformer with centertapped secondary winding + + 2. so it is clear whether they are aiding (“boosting”) each other or opposing (“bucking”) each other. This notation is often used to reference the phasings of multiple AC voltage sources.7: Split phase 120/240 Vac source is equivalent to two series aiding 120 Vac sources. because their polarity marks show them to be opposed to each other: Polar 120 ∠ 0o .288 CHAPTER 10. we’d be denoting two voltage sources in direct opposition with each other.120 ∠ 180o 240 ∠ 0o Rectangular 120 + j0 V .6: American 120/240 Vac power is derived from a center tapped utility transformer. we must express their relative phase shifts as being 180o apart. Why am I taking the time to elaborate on polarity marks and phase angles? It will make more sense in the next section! . If not for these polarity markings. with polarity marks (+) to () just like seriesaiding batteries can alternatively be represented as such: (Figure 10. we must subtract voltages.4 kV + Figure 10.(120 + j0) V 240 + j0 V If we mark the two sources’ common connection point (the neutral wire) with the same polarity mark ().
the voltage is: Etotal = (120 V ∠ 0o) . each load must still be dissipating 10 kilowatts of power.85 V ∠ 30o . by the way. or in step. Such systems are usually referred to as threewire systems rather than splitphase because “phase” is a concept restricted to AC. They are used primarily to achieve balance between system efﬁciency (low conductor currents) and safety (low load voltages). with each other. This technique.(120 V ∠ 120o) Etotal = 207. applied to power systems.33 amps. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 289 Power systems in American households and light industry are most often of the splitphase variety. can be put to use to make power systems with even greater conductor efﬁciencies and lower shock hazard than with splitphase. works just as well for DC power systems as it does for singlephase AC systems. The advantages of polyphase power systems are more obvious if one ﬁrst has a good understanding of single phase systems. except that each voltage source was 120o out of phase with the other: (Figure 10. This principle. with more than two wires. providing socalled 120/240 VAC power. this kind of AC power supply is called single phase because both voltage waveforms are in phase. Instead. • REVIEW: • Single phase power systems are deﬁned by having an AC source with only one voltage waveform. The term “splitphase” merely refers to the splitvoltage supply in such a system. and each load resistor is connected directly in parallel with its respective source. • A splitphase power system is one with multiple (inphase) AC voltage sources connected in series. Suppose that we had two sources of AC voltage connected in series just like the splitphase system we saw before.10. But we know from our experience with vectors and complex numbers that AC voltages don’t always add up as we think they would if they are out of phase with each other. voltage between the two “hot” wires is not 240 volts (120 0o .8) Since each voltage source is 120 volts. • Splitphase AC sources can be easily created by centertapping the coil windings of transformers or alternators. Given load currents of 83.2 Threephase power systems Splitphase power systems achieve their high conductor efﬁciency and low safety risk by splitting up the total voltage into lesser parts and powering multiple loads at those lesser voltages. delivering power to loads at more than one voltage. the voltage across each load must be 120 volts as well. Apologies for the long introduction leading up to the titletopic of this chapter. 10.2.120 180o ) because the phase difference between the two sources is not 180o . The term “single phase” is a counterpoint to another kind of power system called “polyphase” which we are about to investigate in detail. In a more general sense. while drawing currents at levels typical of a fullvoltage system. However.
we ﬁnd that it is not zero.33 A ∠ 0o) .Ineutral = 0 .33 A ∠ 240o or 83.33 A ∠ 0o + + "hot" 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 120o "neutral" load +120 V #1 ∠ 0o load 120 V #2 ∠ 120o + + 207.Iload#2 . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 83. and thus the power system voltage is designated as 120/208.33 A ∠ 120o Figure 10.8: Pair of 120 Vac sources phased 120o . Kirchhoff ’s Current Law tells us that the currents entering and exiting the node between the two loads must be zero: (Figure 10.33 A ∠ 120o .Iload#2 Ineutral = .(83.9: Neutral wire carries a current in the case of a pair of 120o phased sources. "hot" Iload#1 .9) 83. Nominally.33 A ∠ 120o Figure 10.(83.33 A ∠ 0o load + 120 V ∠ 0o #1 "neutral" Node Ineutral load o #2 120 V ∠ 120 + "hot" 83.290 CHAPTER 10.85 V ∠ 30o  "hot" 83. even with balanced load resistances.Ineutral = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Ineutral = Iload#1 . similar to splitphase.33 A ∠ 1200) Ineutral = 83. we say that the voltage between “hot” conductors is 208 volts (rounding up). If we calculate the current through the “neutral” conductor.
The fact that the neutral wire is carrying 83. the easiest being the Superposition Theorem. Note that we are still conveying 20 kW of total power to the two loads.33 amps. However. Notice that this circuit has no “neutral” conductor to ensure stable voltage to all loads if one should open. To ensure load voltage stability in the event of another load opening.33 amps.11. powering another load resistor with a third 120 volt source having a phase angle of 240o ? That way. we need a neutral wire to connect the source node and load node together: So long as the loads remain balanced (equal resistance.12) At that current and voltage. What we have here is a situation similar to our splitphase power circuit with no “neutral” conductor: if one load should happen to fail open.33 amps of current raises an interesting possibility: since its carrying current anyway.10.10: With a third load phased 120o to the other two. the currents are the same as for two loads. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 291 So.33 amps as before. It is there just in case one or more load resistors should fail open (or be shut off through a disconnecting switch). Let’s see how this might look: (Figure 10. with (approximately) 208 volts between any two “hot” conductors and conductor currents equal to 83. we get 120 volts across each load resistor. so we haven’t reduced system cost over the splitphase 120/240 system. SPICE listing: 120/208 polyphase power system) Sure enough. because the overall voltage between the two “hot” conductors is 32 volts lower than it was in the splitphase system (208 volts instead of 240 volts).2. we can use SPICE to do the math for us: (Figure 10. each load will be dissipating 10 kW of power. equal currents). with each load’s “hot” wire carrying 83. we must use the same gage copper conductors. just like each “hot” wire. For proof of this.33 A ∠ 240o + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V + ∠ 120o 83. A full mathematical analysis of all the voltages and currents in this circuit would necessitate the use of a network theorem. the voltage drops across the remaining load(s) will change. we ﬁnd that the “neutral” wire is carrying a full 83. drawnout calculations because you should be able to intuitively understand that the three voltage sources at three different phase angles will deliver 120 volts each to a balanced triad of load resistors. . why not use that third wire as another “hot” conductor.33 A ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 0o 83.33 A ∠ 120o load #1 load #3 120 V 10 kW load #2 120 V 10 kW 120 V 10 kW + 208 V ∠ 30o  Figure 10. we could transmit more power (another 10 kW) without having to add any more conductors. (Figure 10.10) 83. I’ll spare you the long. the neutral wire will not have to carry any current at all. This circuit we’ve been analyzing with three voltage sources is called a polyphase circuit. we have realized a gain in safety. With the same amount of current through each “hot” wire.
44 r3 3 4 1.000E+01 1.200E+02 VOLTAGE BETWEEN ‘‘HOT’’ CONDUCTORS freq v(1.000E+01 8.44 r2 2 4 1.11: SPICE circuit: Three 3Φ loads phased at 120o .44 Ω 4 1.end VOLTAGE ACROSS EACH LOAD freq v(1.4) .3) v(3.292 CHAPTER 10.4) 6.44 Ω R2 R1 1 1. 120/208 polyphase power system v1 1 0 ac 120 0 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 240 sin r1 1 4 1.print ac v(1.000E+01 2.2) v(2.078E+02 i(v3) 8.4) v(2.ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(1.4) v(3.print ac i(v1) i(v2) i(v3) .200E+02 v(3.4) v(2.44 Ω 2 120 V ∠ 120o Figure 10.333E+01 .4) 1.1) 2.3) 6.078E+02 2.078E+02 CURRENT THROUGH EACH VOLTAGE SOURCE freq i(v1) i(v2) 6.1) .333E+01 v(3.44 .333E+01 8. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 1 + 0 + 2 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o 3 3 R3 1.200E+02 1.2) v(2.
it is a threephase circuit. If the distance from source to load was 1000 feet.14) Our current is half of what it was with the simple parallel circuit.33 A ∠ 120o 0A "neutral" load #1 load #3 120 V 10 kW load #2 120 V 10 kW 120 V 10 kW Figure 10. and with a considerable price tag attached. More speciﬁcally. we would need over a halfton of copper wire to do the job. which is a great improvement.33 times 3. this is a “polyphase” circuit. (Figure 10.2. A singlephase system with three loads connected directly in parallel would have a very high total current (83. (Figure 10. and “polyatomic” (a substance composed of multiple types of atoms). we could build a splitphase system with two 15 kW. pentagon and hexagon). or 250 amps. at about 510 pounds per thousand feet. Let’s survey the advantages of a threephase power system over a singlephase system of equivalent load voltage and power capacity. the kind used predominantly in large power distribution systems.12: SPICE circuit annotated with simulation results: Three 3Φ loads phased at 120o . We could get away with using number 2 gage copper wire at a total mass of about 600 .10.13: For comparison.33 A ∠ 240o + 120 V "hot" ∠ 240o 120 V + ∠ 120o "hot" 83.” as in “polytheism” (belief in more than one deity). THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 293 83. Since the voltage sources are all at different phase angles (in this case.13) 120V 250 A load #1 10 kW load #2 10 kW load #3 10 kW Figure 10. “polygon” (a geometrical shape made of multiple line segments: for example. three 10 Kw loads on a 120 Vac system draw 250 A. On the other hand. 120 volt loads. The preﬁx “poly” simply means “more than one.33 A ∠ 0o "hot" + 120 V ∠ 0o 83. three different phase angles). This would necessitate 3/0 gage copper wire (very large!).
33 amps versus 125 or 250 amps). since that can only give us voltage waveforms that are either in phase or 180o out of phase. the six “pole” windings of a threephase alternator are connected to comprise three winding pairs. but then those phase shifts would depend on the phase angles of our load impedances as well (substituting a capacitive or inductive load for a resistive load would change everything!). the advantages are quite clear. with the additional beneﬁt that the maximum voltage in the system is lower (208 versus 240). even though each load only receives 120 volts. each pair producing AC voltage with a phase angle 120o shifted from either of the other two winding pairs. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS + + 125 A ∠ 0o "hot" 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 180o "neutral" 0A load #1 load #2 120 V 15 kW 120 V 15 kW + 240 V ∠ 0o  "hot" 125 A ∠ 180o Figure 10.15. the conductor currents are quite a bit less (83. This represents a signiﬁcant cost savings over the splitphase system. each set spaced 120o apart around the circumference of the machine as in Figure 10. pounds. We can use number 4 gage wire at about 125 pounds per thousand feet. First. Perhaps we could ﬁgure out some way to use capacitors and inductors to create phase shifts of 120o . However. The interconnections between pairs of windings (as shown for the singlephase alternator: the jumper wire between windings 1a and 1b) have been omitted from the threephase alternator drawing for simplicity. The best way to get the phase shifts we’re looking for is to generate it at the source: construct the AC generator (alternator) providing the power in such a way that the rotating magnetic ﬁeld passes by three sets of wire windings. we showed the three voltage sources connected together in a “Y” conﬁguration (sometimes called the “star” conﬁguration). ﬁguring about 200 pounds per thousand feet with three runs of 1000 feet each between source and loads. with one lead of each source tied to . there is greater potential for dangerous electric shock to occur. Overall.14: Split phase system draws half the current of 125 A at 240 Vac compared to 120 Vac system. permitting the use of much thinner and lighter wire. which will total 500 pounds (four runs of 1000 feet each) for our example circuit. One question remains to be answered: how in the world do we get three AC voltage sources whose phase angles are exactly 120o apart? Obviously we can’t centertap a transformer or alternator winding like we did in the splitphase system. When we contrast these two examples against our threephase system (Figure 10. Together. we also have to consider the increased safety hazard of having 240 volts present in the system.12).294 CHAPTER 10. In our example circuit.
THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS Threephase alternator (b) Singlephase alternator (a) winding 1a S winding 1b winding 2a winding 1a S winding 3a winding 1b 295 N winding 3b N winding 2b Figure 10.or splitphase systems. a common point (the node where we attached the “neutral” conductor). 180o phaseshifted from each other. + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o Figure 10. The common way to depict this connection scheme is to draw the windings in the shape of a “Y” like Figure 10. • A splitphase power system is one where there are two voltage sources. • A polyphase power system uses multiple voltage sources at different phase angles from each other (many “phases” of voltage waveforms at work).16.16: Alternator ”Y” conﬁguration.10. powering a two seriesconnected loads. but it is probably the easiest to understand at ﬁrst. The “Y” conﬁguration is not the only option open to us. More to come on this subject later in the chapter. • REVIEW: • A singlephase power system is one where there is only one AC voltage source (one source voltage waveform). A polyphase power system can deliver more power at less voltage with smallergage conductors than single. The advantage of this is the ability to have lower conductor currents while maintaining low load voltages for safety reasons.2.15: (a) Singlephase alternator. (b) Threephase alternator. .
the voltage and current magnitudes will all be the same. If the magnet is rotating clockwise. Where we decide to place the windings will dictate the amount of phase shift between the windings’ AC voltage waveforms. then winding 2 will have a phase angle of 120o (120o lagging. winding 2’s waveform will be leading 120o ahead of 1 instead of lagging. Whether 123 or 321. we’ll have 321.296 CHAPTER 10. These winding sets are spaced around the circumference of the rotor’s rotation at the desired angle(s). and 3 will be another 120o ahead of 2. This order keeps repeating itself as long as we continue to rotate the alternator’s shaft. If we make winding 1 our “reference” voltage source for phase angle (0o ). There are some applications of threephase power. the magnet will pass by the pole pairs in the opposite sequence. Instead of 123. winding 2a winding 1a S winding 3a winding 1b winding 3b N winding 2b Figure 10. (Figure 10.18). we . which will hits its peak 120o after winding 1. them winding 2. This sequence of phase shifts has a deﬁnite order.3 Phase rotation Let’s take the threephase alternator design laid out earlier (Figure 10. or 240o leading) and winding 3 an angle of 240o (or 120o leading). 10. Since voltmeters and ammeters would be useless in telling us what the phase rotation of an operating power system is.19) The order of voltage waveform sequences in a polyphase system is called phase rotation or phase sequence. For clockwise rotation of the shaft.18) However. phase rotation will make no difference at all. as we will see shortly. winding 3 will generate its peak instantaneous voltage exactly 120o (of alternator shaft rotation) after winding 2. The magnet passes by each pole pair at different positions in the rotational movement of the shaft. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS • The phaseshifted voltage sources necessary for a polyphase power system are created in alternators with multiple sets of wire windings. then winding 3). Now. the order is 123 (winding 1 peaks ﬁrst. If we’re using a polyphase voltage source to power resistive loads. that depend on having phase rotation being one way or the other.17: Threephase alternator The phase angle shift of 120o is a function of the actual rotational angle shift of the three pairs of windings (Figure 10.17) and watch what happens as the magnet rotates. (Figure 10. if we reverse the rotation of the alternator’s shaft (turn it counterclockwise).
3.2.2.3.3. .2.1.18: Clockwise rotation phase sequence: 123.2.3. phase sequence: 3.2.19: Counterclockwise rotation phase sequence: 321.3.1.3 1 2 3 TIME Figure 10.1. PHASE ROTATION 297 phase sequence: 1.2.1 3 2 1 TIME Figure 10.1.10.
to phase #1 C to phase #2 to phase #3 Figure 10. If the capacitor were to be replaced by a resistor of equal value to the lamps’ resistance.20: Phase sequence detector compares brightness of two lamps. One ingenious circuit design uses a capacitor to introduce a phase shift between voltage and current.21). which is then used to detect the sequence by way of comparison between the brightness of two indicator lamps in Figure 10. The resulting phase shift from the capacitor causes the voltage across phase 1 lamp (between nodes 1 and 4) to fall to 48.21: SPICE circuit for phase sequence detector. the two lamps would glow at equal brightness. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS need to have some other kind of instrument capable of doing the job.20. The following SPICE analysis demonstrates what will happen: (Figure 10. greater than 0o but less than 120o .1 volts and the voltage across phase 2 lamp (between nodes . the circuit being balanced. However. The capacitor is sized to have approximately the same amount of reactance at system frequency as each lamp’s resistance. The two lamps are of equal ﬁlament resistance and wattage. skews the voltage and current values across the two lamps according to their phase shifts relative to phase 3. ”phase rotation detector – sequence = v1v2v3” 1 + 0 + 2 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V ∠ 120o R1 3 3 C1 1 2650 Ω 4 1 µF R2 2 2650 Ω Figure 10. the capacitor introduces a phase shift between voltage and current in the third leg of the circuit equal to 90o . This phase shift.298 CHAPTER 10.
Just the opposite will happen if the phase sequence is reversed: ”phase rotation detector – sequence = v3v2v1 ” phase rotation detector .(”phase rotation detector – sequence = v3v2v1”) the ﬁrst lamp receives 179.print ac v(1. This trick makes more sense if we take another look at a running phase sequence of a threephase voltage source: 123 rotation: 321 rotation: 123123123123123 . We’ve investigated how phase rotation is produced (the order in which pole pairs get passed by the alternator’s rotating magnet) and how it can be changed by reversing the alternator’s shaft rotation.4) 6.610E+02 299 2 and 4) to rise to 179. .ac lin 1 60 60 .4) v(3. There is a much easier way to reverse phase sequence than reversing alternator rotation: just exchange any two of the three “hot” wires going to a threephase load.end freq v(1. PHASE ROTATION phase rotation detector .4) v(2.000E+01 1.4) .sequence = v1v2v3 v1 1 0 ac 120 0 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 240 sin r1 1 4 2650 r2 2 4 2650 c1 3 4 1u .10.5 volts while the second receives only 48.print ac v(1.3. However.4) v(2.4) v(2.sequence = v3v2v1 v1 1 0 ac 120 240 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 0 sin r1 1 4 2650 r2 2 4 2650 c1 3 4 1u . reversal of the alternator’s shaft rotation is not usually an option open to an enduser of electrical power supplied by a nationwide grid (“the” alternator actually being the combined total of all alternators in all power plants feeding the grid).4) v(3. the opposite rotation . 321321321321321 .5 volts.end freq v(1.795E+02 1.4) v(3.000E+01 4.4) v(2.4) v(3. What is commonly designated as a “123” phase rotation could just as well be called “231” or “312.610E+02 Here.ac lin 1 60 60 .795E+02 4. . making the ﬁrst lamp dim and the second lamp bright. .1 volts.4) 6.810E+01 1. .4) .” going from left to right in the number string above. Likewise.810E+01 1.
4 Polyphase motor design Perhaps the most important beneﬁt of polyphase AC power over singlephase is the design and operation of AC motors. we can try all the possibilities for swapping any two of the wires at a time and see what happens to the resulting sequence in Figure 10.22. • REVIEW: • Phase rotation. Original 123 phase rotation 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 End result 2 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 1 (wires 1 and 2 swapped) phase rotation = 213 (wires 2 and 3 swapped) phase rotation = 132 (wires 1 and 3 swapped) phase rotation = 321 Figure 10. (Other AC motor designs are not quite this simple. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS (321) could just as easily be called “213” or “132. 132 or 321. corresponding to the two possible directions of alternator rotation. but we will leave those details to another lesson). For a threephase system. some types of AC motors are virtually identical in construction to their alternator (generator) counterparts.300 CHAPTER 10. • Phase rotation can be reversed by swapping any two of the three “hot” leads supplying threephase power to a threephase load. As we studied in the ﬁrst chapter of this book. or phase sequence. consisting of stationary wire windings and a rotating magnet assembly. there are only two possible phase sequences: 123 and 321. • Phase rotation has no impact on resistive loads. as shown in the operation of a phase rotation detector circuit. No matter which pair of “hot” wires out of the three we choose to swap.22: All possibilities of swapping any two wires. the phase rotation ends up being reversed (123 gets changed to 213. is the order in which the voltage waveforms of a polyphase AC source reach their respective peaks. but it will have impact on unbalanced reactive loads. .” Starting out with a phase rotation of 321. 10. all equivalent).
. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN Step #1 N S N I I + S N S Step #2 N S 301 Step #3 S N N S S N Step #4 S N + I I  Figure 10. clockwise is not the only valid direction for this motor’s shaft to spin.24.4. It could just as easily be powered in a counterclockwise direction by the same AC voltage waveform a in Figure 10.23: Clockwise AC motor operation.23) However. it will continue to be pulled around clockwise.10. Step #1 N S S I I + N N S Step #2 N S Step #3 S N S S N N Step #4 S N + I I  Figure 10. If the rotating magnet is able to keep up with the frequency of the alternating current energizing the electromagnet windings (coils). (Figure 10.24: Counterclockwise AC motor operation.
These supplementary coils are typically connected in series with a capacitor to introduce a phase shift in current between the two sets of windings. and magnetic poles produced by the coils). It is this phase rotation that pulls the rotating magnet around in a deﬁnite direction. Other strings just blink on and off with no apparent motion. and energized with an AC voltage that is out of phase with the main power.26) That phase shift creates magnetic ﬁelds from coils 2a and 2b that are equally out of step with the ﬁelds from coils 1a and 1b. the magnetic rotor can spin in either direction. (Figure 10. Because their supply voltage waveforms already have a deﬁnite rotation sequence. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Notice that with the exact same sequence of polarity cycles (voltage. (Figure 10. The natural question should arise at this point: how can the motor get started in the intended direction if it can run either way just as well? The answer is that these motors need a little help getting started. so do the respective magnetic ﬁelds generated by the motor’s stationary windings. What makes the difference between the two types of bulb strings? Answer: phase shift! Examine a string of lights where every other bulb is lit at any given time as in (Figure 10. The line current and safety advantages of polyphase power over single phase power were discovered later. it comes from an additional set of windings positioned differently from the main set. What can be a confusing concept is made much clearer through analogy. This is a common trait of all singlephase AC “induction” and “synchronous” motors: they have no normal or “correct” direction of rotation. the combination of all three phase winding sets working together creates what is often called a rotating magnetic ﬁeld.27) . current. more efﬁcient motors). Where that “help” comes from for a singlephase AC motor to get going in one direction can vary. Once helped to spin in a particular direction. In fact.25) winding 2’s voltage waveform is 90 degrees out of phase with winding 1’s voltage waveform winding 2a winding 1a S winding 1b N winding 2b winding 2’s voltage waveform is 90 degrees out of phase with winding 1’s voltage waveform Figure 10. Usually. they will continue to spin that way as long as AC power is maintained to the windings.25: Unidirectionalstarting AC twophase motor. It was this concept of a rotating magnetic ﬁeld that inspired Nikola Tesla to design the world’s ﬁrst polyphase electrical systems (simply to make simpler. Polyphase AC motors require no such trickery to spin in a deﬁnite direction. Have you ever seen a row of blinking light bulbs such as the kind used in Christmas decorations? Some strings appear to “move” in a deﬁnite direction as the bulbs alternately glow and darken in sequence. The result is a set of magnetic ﬁelds with a deﬁnite phase rotation.302 CHAPTER 10.
27: Phase sequence 1212: lamps appear to move.4. . Figure 10. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN 303 1a 2a 1b C I 2b I these two branch currents are out of phase with each other Figure 10.26: Capacitor phase shift adds second phase.10.
but which cannot start on its own because its magnetic ﬁeld alternation lacks a deﬁnite “rotation. With polyphase motors. 1 all "1" bulbs lit 1 all "2" bulbs lit 1 all "3" bulbs lit 1 all "1" bulbs lit 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Time 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 phase sequence = 123 bulbs appear to be "moving" from left to right Figure 10. and vice versa. which can run just as easily in either direction.304 CHAPTER 10. the necessary phase shifts are there already. With this blinking sequence. the “2” bulbs are dark.30. and it will run in the opposite direction! • REVIEW: .28)).” Now let’s examine a string of lights where there are three sets of bulbs to be sequenced instead of just two. Now imagine this blinking string of bulbs arranged into a circle as in Figure 10.29. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS When all of the “1” bulbs are lit.28. Now the lights in Figure 10. The blinking pattern will either appear to move clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the phase sequence.29 appear to be “moving” in a clockwise direction because they are arranged around a circle instead of a straight line. Your eyes could follow a “motion” from left to right just as easily as from right to left. It should come as no surprise that the appearance of motion will reverse if the phase sequence of the bulbs is reversed. If the lighting sequence is 123 (the sequence shown in (Figure 10. the direction of shaft rotation for polyphase motors is very easily reversed: just swap any two “hot” wires going to the motor. This is analogous to the singlephase AC motor. the “1” and “2” bulb blinking sequences are 180o out of phase (exactly opposite each other). Plus. the bulbs will appear to “move” from left to right. there is no deﬁnite “motion” to the bulbs’ light. the rotating magnetic ﬁeld necessary for selfstarting must to be created by way of capacitive phase shift. Technically.28: Phase sequence: 123: bulbs appear to move left to right. With singlephase motors. This is analogous to a threephase AC motor with three sets of windings energized by voltage sources of three different phase shifts in Figure 10. and these three sets are equally out of phase with each other in Figure 10. With phase shifts of less than 180o we get true rotation of the magnetic ﬁeld.
29: Circular arrangement. .30: Threephase AC motor: A phase sequence of 123 spins the magnet clockwise.4. winding 2a winding 1a S winding 3a winding 1b winding 3b N winding 2b Figure 10. bulbs appear to rotate clockwise. 321 spins the magnet counterclockwise. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN 305 2 3 all "1" bulbs lit 1 1 3 2 2 3 The bulbs appear to "move" in a clockwise direction all "2" bulbs lit 1 1 3 2 2 3 all "3" bulbs lit 1 1 3 2 Figure 10.10.
the “Y” conﬁguration becomes more obvious in Figure 10. The three conductors leading away from the voltage sources (windings) toward a load are typically called lines. If we draw a circuit showing each voltage source to be a coil of wire (alternator or transformer winding) and do some slight rearranging. a deﬁnite direction of shaft rotation can be established. • Polyphase motors don’t need such measures.33) be a neutral wire attached at the junction point in the middle. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS • AC “induction” and “synchronous” motors work by having a rotating magnet follow the alternating magnetic ﬁelds produced by stationary wire windings.306 CHAPTER 10. 10. thus reversing its shaft rotation.5 Threephase Y and ∆ conﬁgurations Initially we explored the idea of threephase power systems by connecting three voltage sources together in what is commonly known as the “Y” (or “star”) conﬁguration. their direction of rotation is ﬁxed by the phase sequence of the voltage they’re powered by. there may or may not (Figure 10.31: Threephase “Y” connection has three voltage sources connected to a common point. This conﬁguration of voltage sources is characterized by a common connection point joining one side of each source. as discussed earlier. while the windings themselves are typically called phases.32. • Singlephase AC motors of this type need help to get started spinning in a particular direction. • Swapping any two “hot” wires on a polyphase AC motor will reverse its phase sequence.31) 120 V ∠ 0o + + + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V ∠ 120o Figure 10. . • Singlephase induction motors often use an auxiliary winding connected in series with a capacitor to create the necessary phase shift. although it certainly helps alleviate potential problems should one element of a threephase load fail open. (Figure 10. In a Yconnected system. • By introducing a phase shift of less than 180o to the magnetic ﬁelds in such a motor.
5. threewire “Y” connection does not use the neutral wire. THREEPHASE Y AND ∆ CONFIGURATIONS 307 "line" + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o "line" Figure 10. fourwire “Y” connection uses a ”common” fourth wire.32: Threephase. "line" (no "neutral" wire) .10. "line" "neutral" 3phase.33: Threephase. 3wire "Y" connection "line" + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o "line" Figure 10.
the line voltage is roughly 208 volts. Due to the phase angles of these three voltage sources. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage times the square root of 3: For "Y" circuits: Eline = 3 Ephase Iline = Iphase However. Starting with the top winding and progressing counterclockwise.34: Threephase. this is not the case. then there will be no voltage available to push current around and around that loop. One quick check of this is to use Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law to see if the three voltages around the loop add up to zero. Take close notice of the polarity for each winding in Figure 10. and the latter to current through any one component. however.34. The terms line current and phase current follow the same logic: the former referring to current through any one line conductor. Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced threephase system. and line currents equal to phase currents. and consequently there will be no circulating current. our KVL expression looks something like this: "line"  . threewire ∆ connection has no common. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS When we measure voltage and current in threephase systems. For the circuit shown above. With the above circuit. Another conﬁguration is known as the “Delta.308 CHAPTER 10.” for its geometric resemblance to the Greek letter of the same name (∆). Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component (source winding or load impedance) in a balanced threephase source or load. electrons ﬂowing around the triangle with nothing but the internal impedance of the windings to hold them back. we need to be speciﬁc as to where we’re measuring. the phase voltage is 120 volts. "line" 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o + + 120 V ∠ 120o "line" Figure 10. If they do. Yconnected sources and loads always have line voltages greater than phase voltages. At ﬁrst glance it seems as though three voltage sources like this would create a shortcircuit. the “Y” conﬁguration is not the only valid one for connecting threephase voltage source or load elements together. If the Yconnected source or load is balanced.
Another way to verify the fact that these three voltage sources can be connected together in a loop without resulting in circulating currents is to open up the loop at one junction point and calculate voltage across the break: (Figure 10.35: Voltage across open ∆ should be zero. Because each pair of line conductors is connected directly across a single winding in a ∆ circuit. the resulting equations for a ∆ conﬁguration are as follows: . Starting with the right winding (120 V equation looks like this: 120o ) and progressing counterclockwise. because each line conductor attaches at a node between two windings.35) 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o + 120 V ∠ 120o +  Ebreak should equal 0 V Figure 10. our KVL (120 V ∠ 120o) + (120 ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 240o) + Ebreak = 0 0 + Ebreak = 0 Ebreak = 0 Sure enough. they do add up to zero. if we add these three vector quantities together. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage. telling us that no current will circulate within the triangular loop of windings when that connection is made complete. Not surprisingly. THREEPHASE Y AND ∆ CONFIGURATIONS 309 (120 V ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 240o) + (120 V ∠ 120o) Does it all equal 0? Yes! Indeed. there will be zero voltage across the break. the line current will be the vector sum of the two joining phase currents. Having established that a ∆connected threephase voltage source will not burn itself to a crisp due to circulating currents. Conversely.5.10. we turn to its practical use as a source of power in threephase circuits.
One might wonder if we’ve lost all the advantages of threephase power here.36) 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V o ∠ 240 + 120 V ∠ 120o 10 kW +  10 kW 10 kW Figure 10. Although this circuit would require three number 1 gage copper conductors (at 1000 feet of distance between source and load this equates to a little over 750 pounds of copper for the whole system). The answer is no.33 A) Iline = 144. which is substantially more than the line currents in the Yconnected system we looked at earlier. the current in each phase of this circuit will be 83. given the fact that we have such greater conductor currents.34 A So each line current in this threephase power system is equal to 144. With each load resistance receiving 120 volts from its respective phase winding at the source. it is still less than the 1000+ pounds of copper required for a singlephase system delivering the same power (30 kW) at the same voltage (120 volts conductortoconductor). POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS For ∆ ("delta") circuits: Eline = Ephase Iline = 3 Iphase Let’s see how this works in an example circuit: (Figure 10. more costly wire.36: The load on the ∆ source is wired in a ∆.33 A (for each load resistor and source winding) Iline = Iline = 3 Iphase 3 (83.33 amps: I= I= P E 10 kW 120 V I = 83.34 amps.310 CHAPTER 10. necessitating thicker. .
With each load phase element directly connected across a respective source phase winding. THREEPHASE Y AND ∆ CONFIGURATIONS 311 One distinct advantage of a ∆connected system is its lack of a neutral wire. if dual voltages are needed (e.g. A Yconnected load suffers an even worse fate (Figure 10. With a ∆connected load.37: Even with a source winding failure. two of the resistances suffer reduced voltage while one remains at the original line voltage. However. 208 V + 120 V o ∠0 + 120 V ∠ 120o   104 V 104 V winding failed open! Figure 10. Compare this fault tolerance with a Yconnected system suffering an open source winding in Figure 10. the phase voltage will be constant regardless of open failures in the load elements. This is not necessary (or even possible!) in a ∆connected circuit. With a Yconnected system. and load phase voltage is still 120 V. Yconnected systems are . 120/208) or preferred for lower line currents. ∆connected sources are preferred for reliability. The only consequence of a source winding failing open for a ∆connected source is increased phase current in the remaining windings. in order to keep the phase voltages at the load from changing.10.38.38: Open “Y” source winding halves the voltage on two loads of a ∆ connected load.39) with the same winding failure in a Yconnected source In this case.5. the line voltage is still 120 V. 208. two load resistances suffer reduced voltage while the third loses supply voltage completely! For this reason.37) without affecting load voltage or current! 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V winding failed open! 120 V 120 V  Figure 10. a neutral wire was needed in case one of the phase loads were to fail open (or be turned off). It is possible for one of the windings in a ∆connected threephase source to fail open (Figure 10. Perhaps the greatest advantage of the ∆connected source is its fault tolerance. The only difference is extra current in the remaining functional source windings.
• Phase current is the current through any one component comprising a threephase source or load. • REVIEW: • The conductors connected to the three points of a threephase source or load are called lines. • In balanced “Y” circuits. and looses one load entirely. while line current is equal to phase current times the square root of 3. • Line current is the current through any one line between a threephase source and load.312 CHAPTER 10. line voltage is equal to phase voltage. For "Y" circuits: Eline = 3 Ephase • Iline = Iphase • In balanced ∆ circuits. • The three components comprising a threephase source or load are called phases. • Phase voltage is the voltage measured across a single component in a threephase source or load. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS + 120 V o ∠0   + 120 V ∠ 120o 104 V 0V 104 V winding failed open! Figure 10.39: Open source winding of a ”YY” system halves the voltage on two loads. For ∆ ("delta") circuits: Eline = Ephase • Iline = 3 Iphase . line voltage is equal to phase voltage times the square root of 3. the conﬁguration of choice. while line current is equal to phase current. • Line voltage is the voltage measured between any two lines in a threephase circuit.
Secondary • • • • Y Y ∆ ∆ Y ∆ Y ∆ The reasons for choosing a Y or ∆ conﬁguration for transformer winding connections are the same as for any other threephase application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple voltages. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS 313 • ∆connected threephase voltage sources give greater reliability in the event of winding failure than Yconnected sources. . and less weight than their modular counterparts.6 Threephase transformer circuits Since threephase is used so often for power distribution systems. the winding connection options are the same: • Primary . 10. Essentially it looks like three singlephase transformers sharing a joined core as in Figure 10. The various combinations of ways that these windings can be connected together in will be the focus of this section. while ∆ connections enjoy a higher level of reliability (if one winding fails open. less size. special threephase transformers are built for those tasks. A threephase transformer is made of three sets of primary and secondary windings.40.6. each set wound around one leg of an iron core assembly. This is only partially true. and are able to perform with less material requirement. Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or each winding pair is a separate transformer. Yconnected sources can deliver the same amount of power with less line current than ∆connected sources. Threephase transformer core Figure 10. However.10. However.40: Three phase transformer core has three sets of windings. the other two can still maintain full line voltages to the load). eliminating the requirement for a special threephase transformer. as regular singlephase transformers can be ganged together to transform power between two threephase systems in a variety of conﬁgurations. it makes sense that we would need threephase transformers to be able to step voltages up or down. Those sets of primary and secondary windings will be connected in either ∆ or Y conﬁgurations to form a complete unit.
B2 . A1 B1 C1 T1 A2 B2 C2 Figure 10.43 how all the winding ends marked with dots are connected to their respective phases A. Remember the proper phase relationships between the phase windings of ∆ and Y: (Figure 10. Figure 10. At T2 T3 .42: Inputs A1 .41: (Y) The center point of the “Y” must tie either all the “” or all the “+” winding points together. B3 . A3 may be wired either “∆” or “Y”. Three individual transformers are to be connected together to transform power from one threephase system to another.42.41) + ∠ 0o +  + ∠ 120o o +∠0 o ∠ 240 (Y) ∠ 240 o + ( ∆)  + ∠ 120o Figure 10. B. First. the “dot” side of one winding connected to the “nondot” side of the next. we’ll take a look at a Y∆ conﬁguration: (Figure 10. Getting this phasing correct when the windings aren’t shown in regular Y or ∆ conﬁguration can be tricky. as may outputs B1 . A2 . I’ll show the wiring connections for a YY conﬁguration: Figure 10. Now. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Probably the most important aspect of connecting three sets of primary and secondary windings together to form a threephase transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding phasing (the dots used to denote “polarity” of windings). and C. Having both primary and secondary winding sets connected in “Y” formations allows for the use of neutral conductors (N1 and N2 ) in each power system.44) are connected in a chain.314 CHAPTER 10.43 Note in Figure 10.44) Note how the secondary windings (bottom set. (∆) The winding polarities must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to ). starting with Figure 10. forming the ∆ loop. Let me illustrate. while the nondot ends are connected together to form the centers of each “Y”.
6. T2 T3 Y∆ A1 B1 C1 N1 T1 T2 T3 A2 B2 C2 Figure 10.43: Phase wiring for “YY” transformer. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS 315 YY A1 B1 C1 N1 T1 N2 A2 B2 C2 Figure 10.10.44: Phase wiring for “Y∆” transformer. .
∆Y A1 B1 C1 T1 N2 A2 B2 C2 T2 T3 Figure 10. but the overall size. that with one winding set missing from the ∆ shape. Considering that a ∆ conﬁguration can operate satisfactorily missing one winding. And ﬁnally. being that there is only one large highvoltage insulator protruding from .” Of course. weight. from a source power system having no neutral. and C). Several transformers (green in color) may be seen from this vantage point.45: Phase wiring for “∆Y” transformer. wired together in some form of threephase conﬁguration.45. a connection is made to a line of the second power system (A. B. the load voltage and current would deﬁnitely be affected. Now.46) When there is no need for a neutral conductor in the secondary power system. and cost advantages are often worth it.316 CHAPTER 10. Such a conﬁguration (Figure 10. Bear in mind. some power system designers choose to create a threephase transformer bank with only two transformers. and they are grouped in threes: three transformers per hydroelectric generator. but it appears the secondaries are connected in a Y conﬁguration. each of the two transformers have to be oversized to handle the same amount of power as three in a standard ∆ conﬁguration. The photograph doesn’t reveal the primary winding connections. ∆∆ connection schemes (Figure 10. we turn to the ∆∆ conﬁguration: (Figure 10.48) shows a bank of stepup transformers at the Grand Coulee hydroelectric dam in Washington state. this system no longer provides the fault tolerance of a normal ∆∆ system. If one of the two transformers were to fail. however.46) are preferred because of the inherent reliability of the ∆ conﬁguration.45) would allow for the provision of multiple voltages (linetoline or linetoneutral) in the second power system. let’s examine a ∆Y system in Figure 10.47) This conﬁguration is called “V” or “Open∆. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS every connection point between pairs of windings. representing a ∆∆ conﬁguration with a missing winding in both the primary and secondary sides: (Figure 10. The following photograph (Figure 10.
"Open ∆" A1 B1 C1 T1 T2 A2 B2 C2 Figure 10.6.46: Phase wiring for “∆∆” transformer. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS 317 ∆∆ A1 B1 C1 T1 T2 T3 A2 B2 C2 Figure 10.47: “V” or “open∆” provides 2φ power with only two transformers.10. .
causing nonsinusoidal current waveforms. where the generators and turbines are housed. . when magnetic ﬁelds within the motor’s core operate near saturation levels). we explored the concept of harmonics in AC systems: frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental source frequency.318 CHAPTER 10. Nonlinear components draw current disproportionately with respect to the source voltage. the sloping concrete wall is the downstream face of the dam: Figure 10. there should be no harmonic content . TRIACs). This would be true were it not for nonlinear components. which could only be true in a Y system. Examples of nonlinear components include gasdischarge lamps. ideally.7 Harmonics in polyphase power systems In the chapter on mixedfrequency signals. With AC power systems where the source voltage waveform coming from an AC generator (alternator) is supposed to be a singlefrequency sine wave. Washington state. This suggests the other side of each transformer’s secondary winding is at or near ground potential.49) Most nonlinear loads produce . (Figure 10. . On the right. USA. and electric motors (again. Even incandescent lamps generate slightly nonsinusoidal currents. SCRs. As we learned in the mixedfrequency chapter. as the ﬁlament resistance changes throughout the cycle due to rapid ﬂuctuations in temperature. transformers (primary winding magnetization current is usually nonsinusoidal due to the B/H saturation curve of the core). When the nonsinusoidal waveform in question is symmetrical above and below its average centerline. semiconductor powercontrol devices (diodes. with no even integer multiples. transistors. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS each transformer. 10.48: Stepup transfromer bank at Grand Coulee hydroelectric dam. The building to the left is the powerhouse. the harmonic frequencies will be odd integer multiples of the fundamental source frequency only. any distortion of an otherwise sinewave shaped waveform constitutes the presence of harmonic frequencies. undistorted.
4th. Examples of nonsymmetrical waveforms with even harmonics present are shown for reference in Figure 10. However. we’ll begin our simulation with a very simple AC circuit: a single sinewave voltage source with a purely linear load and all associated resistances: (Figure 10. and it is these problems to which this section is speciﬁcally devoted.10.plot command appears in the SPICE netlist. can occur in any AC power system where there is signiﬁcant harmonic content. I’ve purposely omitted the waveform display for .51) The Rsource and Rline resistances in this circuit do more than just mimic the real world: they also provide convenient shunt resistances for measuring currents in the SPICE simulation: by reading voltage across a 1 Ω resistance. First. 10th. singlephase or otherwise. Transformer overheating due to eddy current losses. See SPICE output “Fourier components of transient response v(2. It is helpful to be able to simulate nonlinear loads in SPICE so as to avoid a lot of complex mathematics and obtain a more intuitive understanding of harmonic effects. Being completely linear in nature. 6th. there are some problems caused by harmonic currents that are speciﬁc to polyphase power systems. Even though half of the possible harmonic frequencies are eliminated by the typically symmetrical distortion of nonlinear loads. 8th. Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only Figure 10. Figure 10. for example. 12th.3)” and Figure 10. A SPICE simulation of this circuit (SPICE listing: “linear load simulation”) with Fourier analysis on the voltage measured across Rline should show us the harmonic content of this circuit’s line current.49: Examples of symmetrical waveforms – odd harmonics only. however. assuming a 60 Hz source.50: Examples of nonsymmetrical waveforms – even harmonics present.52.50.7. and so evennumbered harmonics (2nd. since E = IR. we should expect no harmonics other than the 1st (fundamental) of 60 Hz. the odd harmonics can still cause problems. In this case. you obtain a direct indication of current through it. etc. and normally this would result in a sinewave graph output. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 319 current waveforms like this.) are absent or only minimally present in most AC power systems. A . Some of these problems are general to all power systems.
624 4 2.000000 36.four 60 v(2.691 .51: SPICE circuit with single sinewave source.461 6 3.3) dc component = 4.461 108.376 76.793E12 0.options itl5=0 .028E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000000 4.716E11 0.200E+02 2.000000 34.000000 72. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 120 V 1Ω Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ 3 Rload 0 Figure 10.000000 51.399 7 4.000000 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.407E12 0.600E+02 3.000000 53.000 2 1.3) .200E+02 5.tran 0.056E12 0.400E+02 9.000000 21.320 CHAPTER 10.000000 83.453E11 0.800E+02 4.000E+01 1.324 9 5.000 123.657 125.343 8 4.267 11.691 total harmonic distortion = 0.000000 41.198E01 1.651E11 0.399 30.122 37.800E+02 7.400E+02 3.267 5 3.3) .122 3 1.324 93.338E11 0. linear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k .plot tran v(2.end Fourier components of transient response v(2.000E+02 1.931E11 0.5m 30m 0 1u .
55 and “Fourier components of transient response v(2. Next. I’d like to simulate a nonlinear load so as to generate harmonic currents.9 mA: our 50 mA.1198 amps of 60 Hz (fundamental) current as we did in the ﬁrst simulation. The latter method is often preferred by engineers for simulating harmonics. which is three times the source frequency of 60 Hz. but appearing in the 3rd harmonic row we see 49.198E01) for the “Fourier component” of the 1st harmonic.7. Since we’re letting SPICE do all the math work. brevity’s sake – the . which would ordinarily be a plain sine wave.10. This can be done in two fundamentally different ways. Here we see the same 0. No discrete Fourier transform is perfect. One way is to design a load using nonlinear components such as diodes or other semiconductor devices which are easy to simulate with SPICE. 180 Hz current source at work. In the Fourier analysis.54 just so you can see the effects of this 3rdharmonic current on the total current.53 and SPICE listing: “Nonlinear load simulation”. which is as far as SPICE goes in performing Fourier analysis.52: Frequency domain plot of single frequency component. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 321 Figure 10. given a source voltage of 120 volts and a load resistance of 1 kΩ. In this circuit. We show 0. Why don’t . since current sources of known value lend themselves better to mathematical network analysis than components with highly complex response characteristics. I’ll choose the latter approach shown in Figure 10. or the fundamental frequency. (See Figure 10. and so we see very small harmonic currents indicated (in the picoamp range!) for all frequencies up to the 9th harmonic (in the table ). See SPICE listing: “linear load simulation”. Connected in parallel with the 1 kΩ load resistor. but since current sources can be ﬁnetuned to produce any arbitrary amount of current (a convenient feature).plot command is in the netlist simply to satisfy a quirk of SPICE’s Fourier transform function.1198 amps (1. we have a current source of 50 mA magnitude and a frequency of 180 Hz. its current will add with the resistor’s to make a nonsinusoidal total line current. which is our expected load current: about 120 mA.3)”) the mixed frequencies are unmixed and presented separately. I’ll show the waveform plot in Figure 10. Another is to add some AC current sources in parallel with the load resistor. the complexity of a semiconductor component would cause no trouble for us.
tran 0.54: SPICE timedomain plot showing sum of 60 Hz source and 3rd harmonic of 180 Hz.end Figure 10.3) .5m 30m 0 1u .four 60 v(2.plot tran v(2. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 120 V 60 Hz 1Ω Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ 3 3 Rload 50 mA 180 Hz 0 0 Figure 10.options itl5=0 .53: SPICE circuit: 60 Hz source with 3rd harmonic added. Nonlinear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k i3har 3 0 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) .3) . .322 CHAPTER 10.
000 4 2.071 228.000000 140.000000 156.845 7 4.071 8 4.772 232.074E10 0.000 139.000E+01 1.736E11 0.582 6 3.000000 177.609E11 0.7.000E+02 3.772 9 5.990E02 0.000 97.400E+02 1.871E11 0.200E+02 1.000000 67.000 2 1.546 5 3.10.329E10 0.666663 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.416667 144.000000 169.800E+02 4.407E11 0.400E+02 2.000000 169. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 323 Fourier components of transient response v(2.200E+02 8.845 249.3) dc component = 1.498 Figure 10.000000 72.349E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.582 212.619E10 0.000000 160. .546 241.600E+02 5.55: SPICE Fourier plot showing 60 Hz source and 3rd harmonic of 180 Hz.800E+02 1.198E01 1.570 3 1.498 total harmonic distortion = 41.570 216.
and 9th harmonics present. where one part of the load is “normal” (a resistor) and the other part is imitated by a current source. Two Fourier analyses will be performed: one for the voltage across a line resistor.” we would see further distortion of the line current waveform from the ideal sinewave shape.3) . and 9th harmonics present 3 3 3 3 3 2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 1Ω Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ 120 V 60 Hz Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 0 0 0 0 0 Figure 10.end As you can see from the Fourier analysis.tran 0. (Figure 10. 7th.plot tran v(2. 3rd. 5th.56 and SPICE listing: “Nonlinear load simulation”. so some of its current is shunted through the load and never goes through the line back to the source. So far.58 and SPICE listing “YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics”.324 CHAPTER 10. See Figure 10.options itl5=0 .5m 30m 0 1u . Nonlinear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k i3har 3 0 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har 3 0 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har 3 0 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har 3 0 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) .57) every harmonic current source is equally represented in the line current.9 mA each. 7th. . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS we see the entire 50 mA through the line? Because that current source is connected across the 1 kΩ load resistor. It’s an inevitable consequence of this type of simulation.56: Nonlinear load: 1st. 5th.four 60 v(2. and one for the voltage across the neutral resistor. Things get more interesting when we make it a threephase simulation. Nonlinear load: 1st. reading voltages across ﬁxed resistances of 1 Ω each gives direct indications of current through those resistors. As before. and each of those harmonic currents would appear in the Fourier analysis breakdown.3) . 3rd. at 49. this is just a singlephase power system simulation. See Figure 10. If we were to add more current sources to the “load.
990E02 0.742E09 0.908 3 1.000 8 4.219 144.000 157.416666 144. .57: Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(2.990E02 0.000 total harmonic distortion = 83.873 72.400E+02 4.062 7 4.781 9 5.908 216.000 44.990E02 0.400E+02 5.062 72.200E+02 1.3)”.000 33.469E09 0.200E+02 4.000000 72.333296 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.416667 0.000000 38.271E09 0.416666 72.000 2 1.3) dc component = 6.000000 85.000E+02 4.7.416667 144.000 21.600E+02 6. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 325 Fourier components of transient response v(2.900E09 0.000000 116.000 6 3.990E02 0.299E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.873 5 3.000 4 2.198E01 1.000000 93.000E+01 1.000 Figure 10.10.800E+02 4.800E+02 2.
8) .options itl5=0 .55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 11.plot tran v(2.55555m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.1111m 0) rsource3 5 6 1 * * line and neutral wire resistances rline1 2 8 1 rline2 4 9 1 rline3 6 10 1 rneutral 0 7 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.end .1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .tran 0.55555m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.55555m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.7) .1111m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 11.5m 100m 12m 1u .1111m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 11.four 60 v(0. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 0 sin(0 120 60 5.8) .326 CHAPTER 10.1111m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 11.55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 0 sin(0 120 60 11.7) .plot tran v(0.four 60 v(2.
Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier components of transient response v(2.811 9 5.218E10 0.416666 0. it should come as no surprise that the Fourier analysis for line current in one phase of the 3phase system is nearly identical to the Fourier analysis for line current in the singlephase system: a fundamental (60 Hz) line current of 0.784E10 0. we would expect the neutral current to be zero. Each .985 3 1.800E+02 4.8) dc component = 6.400E+02 4.000 6 3.000E+01 1.415422 0. and odd harmonic currents of approximately 50 mA each.200E+02 4.000000 147.000 2 1. YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics.10. as determined by the voltage drop across the Rneutral resistor between SPICE nodes 0 and 7.990 5 3.146 0.000 4 2.58: SPICE circuit: analysis of “line current” and “neutral current”.990E02 0.236E10 0. See Figure 10.7.877E10 0.209009 percent normalized phase (deg) 0. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 8 9 327 2 Rsource 1 Vsource 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 60 Hz 120 V 240o 1Ω 1Ω 4 Rsource 3 120 V 60 Hz 120o Rneutral 1Ω 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1 kΩ Rload 1Ω 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 7 Vsource 5 Rsource 6 Rline 1Ω 10 Figure 10.000000 166.198E01 1.990E02 0.000E+02 4.000 total harmonic distortion = 83.404E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6. (Figure 10.8)” What should be surprising here is the analysis for the neutral conductor’s current.800E+02 2. each phase identical to the singlephase AC system simulated earlier.975E02 0.200E+02 2.60) In a balanced 3phase Y load.59 and Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(2.400E+02 4.415423 0.600E+02 1.811 0.975E02 0.146 7 4.416667 0. Consequently.000 147.000000 148.985 0.000000 0.000000 172.000 Fourier analysis of neutral current: This is a balanced YY power system.000 148.990 0.1198 amps.000 166.000 8 4.000 172.
337E07 1.963 44.000000 60.136 0.993 8 4.121 59.000 4 2.000 31.434 240.600E+02 3.584 9 5.200E+02 1.396E10 0.018 2 1.000431 91.328 CHAPTER 10.025 24.7638 180.000783 15.882 7 4.400E+02 1. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Figure 10.103 5 3.400E+02 1.257E09 0.264E06 2.493E01 344147.018 81.206 3 1.000E+01 4.981 6 3.017 .869E10 0.819E10 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.080596 119.4889 179.913955 59.188 240.800E+02 5.001378 35.000E+02 9.023E07 2.999 normalized phase (deg) 0.002898 21.59: Fourier analysis of line current in balanced YY system Fourier components of transient response v(0.7) dc component = 1.975E10 0.800E+02 1.493E01 344147.200E+02 1.
The same may be said about the 5th and 7th harmonics. leaving zero current through the neutral conductor. Note that the fundamental frequency (60 Hz. What this means is that the 3rdharmonic waveforms of three 120o phaseshifted fundamentalfrequency waveforms are actually in phase with each other. The phase shift ﬁgure of 120o generally assumed in threephase AC systems applies only to the .62. or the 1st harmonic) current is virtually absent from the neutral conductor. you will ﬁnd exactly two positive halfcycles and one negative halfcycle of the harmonic waveform. it appears our 3rd and 9th harmonic currents in each phase are adding to form the neutral current. Our Fourier analysis shows only 0. though it might not be apparent why this is so. though. In a system with no harmonic currents. this is what happens. with 149. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 329 Figure 10.3 mA (1. See Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(0. or three times the current sources’ values. with a phase sequence of 123.7. what a 3rd harmonic waveform for phase 1 would look like superimposed on the graph in Figure 10. However. the 3rd and 9th harmonics are strongly represented within the neutral conductor.7) ” This is exactly what’s happening. both of those currents having negligible magnitude.61) With the three fundamental waveforms equally shifted across the time axis of the graph. In contrast. Observe how this harmonic waveform has the same phase relationship to the 2nd and 3rd fundamental waveforms as it does with the 1st: in each positive halfcycle of any of the fundamental waveforms. (Figure 10. Examine this plot of balanced phase currents over time. individually.493E01 volts across 1 Ω) each! This is very nearly 150 mA.60: Fourier analysis of neutral current shows other than no harmonics! Compare to line current in Figure 10.4337 µA of 1st harmonic when reading voltage across Rneutral . it is easy to see how they would cancel each other to give a resultant current of zero in the neutral conductor. With three sources per harmonic frequency in the load.59 phase current – which by itself would go through the neutral wire back to the supplying phase on the source Y – should cancel each other in regard to the neutral conductor because they’re all the same magnitude and all shifted 120o apart. Let’s consider. we cannot say the same for harmonic currents in the same system. The key to understanding this is made clear in a timedomain graph of phase currents.10.
330 CHAPTER 10. .1. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS phase sequence: 1.2.2.2.3.61: Phase sequence 123123123 of equally spaced waves.1.62: Third harmonic waveform for phase1 superimposed on threephase fundamental waveforms. 1 2 3 TIME Figure 10.3 1 2 3 TIME Figure 10.3.
A’ and B’ must be in phase with each other: Phase sequence = ABC Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o 3rd harmonic A’ B’ C’ o o 3x0 3 x 120 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o) This characteristic of the 3rd harmonic in a threephase system also holds true for any integer multiples of the 3rd harmonic. etc. When relating waveforms of different frequency. The shift between waveforms is only accurately expressed in terms of phase angle when the same angular velocity is assumed. the most accurate way to represent phase shift is in terms of time. leaving only the oddnumbered multiples (3rd. Thus. the 18th harmonics. the 15th harmonics. 21st. A phase shift of 360o is the same as a phase shift of 0o . this principle may be expressed symbolically. or 360o at the frequency of A’ and B’. because the A’ and B’ waveforms alternate three times as fast as A and B. For the more mathematically inclined. 12th. 18th. but shifted 120o from each other in terms of phase. So. Let’s call the 3rd harmonic of each waveform A’ and B’. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 331 fundamental frequencies. etc. both at the same frequency.7. we would see them precisely overlap and appear as a single. but 3 times that. not only are the 3rd harmonic waveforms of each fundamental waveform in phase with each other. the 9th harmonics. 15th.10. this effect occurs . Since only odd harmonics appear in systems where waveform distortion is symmetrical about the centerline – and most nonlinear loads create symmetrical distortion – evennumbered multiples of the 3rd harmonic (6th. not to their harmonic multiples! If we were to plot all three 3rdharmonic waveforms on the same graph.) are generally not signiﬁcant. Suppose that A represents one waveform and B another. In polyphase power systems with some number of phases other than three. 2.63) 1 2 3 TIME Figure 10. but so are the 6th harmonics. the 12th harmonics. and the timeshift between A’ and B’ is equivalent to 120o at a frequency three times lower. 3 all coincide when superimposed on the fundamental threephase waveforms. uniﬁed waveform (shown in bold in (Figure 10. 9th. the 21st harmonics. respectively. The phase shift between A’ and B’ is not 120o (that is the phase shift between A and B). and so on. which is to say no phase shift at all.63: Third harmonics for phases 1.) to signiﬁcantly contribute to neutral currents.
“3ω ” represents the 3rd harmonic. we see that the triplen harmonic currents (3rd and 9th) all but disappear in the lines connecting load to source. doing so just causes a different problem: the load’s “Y” centerpoint will no longer be at the same potential as the source’s. 16th. the 3rd harmonic and its multiples have their own special name: triplen harmonics. 8th. and thus there is no provision for automatic interruption of these high currents. then they won’t. We’ll rerun the last SPICE simulation without the 1 Ω Rneutral resistor and see what happens: Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of voltage between the two “Y” centerpoints: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Strange things are happening. but the 3rd and 9th harmonic currents are of negligible magnitude. we see that there is substantial harmonic . In power systems containing substantial nonlinear loading. and is mathematically equivalent to 2πf. For instance. All triplen harmonics add with each other in the neutral conductor of a 4wire Yconnected load. So. right? Unfortunately. The symbol “ω” is used to represent angular velocity.332 CHAPTER 10. This is very problematic. as other safety concerns prohibit neutral conductors from having overcurrent protection.64: “YY”Triplen source/load: Harmonic currents add in neutral conductor. meaning that each phase of the load will receive a different voltage than what is produced by the source. “ω” represents the fundamental frequency. 12th. the triplen harmonic currents may be of great enough magnitude to cause neutral conductors to overheat. Due to their abundance and signiﬁcance in threephase power systems. one might be tempted to remove the neutral wire entirely.64) Source ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line line Load ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω neutral 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω Figure 10. If there is no neutral wire in which triplen currents can ﬂow together. the harmonic currents that add in the neutral conductor of a starconnected 4phase system where the phase shift between fundamental waveforms is 90o would be the 4th. indeed. The 5th and 7th harmonic currents are present at their normal levels (approximately 50 mA). POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS with harmonics of the same multiple. In an effort to mitigate these additive triplen currents. and so on: (Figure 10. “5ω” represents the 5th harmonic. First. Second. 20th. and so on. The following illustration shows how triplen harmonic currents created at the load add within the neutral conductor.
7) .5m 100m 12m 1u .7) .1111m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 11.55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 11.55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 0 sin(0 120 60 11.8) .plot tran v(2.10.7) .55555m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 5. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS YY source/load (no neutral) with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 0 sin(0 120 60 5.8) .four 60 v(2.four 60 v(0.1111m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 11.1111m 0) rsource3 5 6 1 * * line resistances rline1 2 8 1 rline2 4 9 1 rline3 6 10 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.options itl5=0 .55555m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.end 333 .plot tran v(0.1111m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 11.tran 0.four 60 v(8.55555m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.plot tran v(8.1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .7) .7.
200E+02 4.023E04 2.000E+01 1.406E07 0.993 8 4.018 81.7879 180.485 179.000000 158.000 31.638 90.000E+01 0.800E+02 8.000E+01 344147.790 8 4.200E+02 6.043467 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.334 CHAPTER 10.000 159.000835 179.423E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.990E02 0.800E+02 3.000000 159.8) dc component = 5.009 111.400E+02 5.136E07 0.121 59.200E+02 2.800E+02 5.747 179.200E+02 4.200E+02 9.198E+02 1.000000 19.800E+02 1.4728 179.000E+01 344147.023E07 0.417499 179.000000 13.126E11 0.565 7 4.000000 111.000E+01 1.963 44.001E07 0.850 13.999 total harmonic distortion = 59.000 19.510 0.093E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.800E+02 2.000783 15.016 90.231E08 0.462 9 5.388E10 0.600E+02 1.000000 90.018 2 1.000E+02 3.000000 0.400E+02 4.000 4 2.000 124.800E+02 5.462 179.400E+02 5.001378 35.991E07 0.999 total harmonic distortion = ************ percent Fourier components of transient response v(8.070E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.009 4 2.416668 0.606E11 0.417500 180.638 9 5.198E01 1.565 0.990E02 0.000832 179.913955 59.416665 0.850 6 3.600E+02 8.600E+02 1.000000 35.263E08 0.016 3 1.025 24.400E+02 9.473 3 1.995E02 0.017 normalized phase (deg) 0.747 5 3.485 7 4.000 90.400E+02 5.400E+02 4.000 4 2.000000 60.000 2 1. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Fourier components of transient response v(2.188 240.000 158.000E+02 9.002898 21.925539 percent Fourier components of transient response v(0.789 35.882 7 4.000431 91.278E07 0.981 6 3.234E04 2.005 normalized phase (deg) 0.000000 124.959E02 0.138E07 0.103 5 3.7) dc component = 6.000 6 3.136 0.080596 119.999 .7) dc component = 6.005 total harmonic distortion = 58.206 3 1.000E+02 4.000E+01 1.584 9 5.000000 0.000008 90.963E11 0.000 2 1.510 5 3.000E+01 0.453E04 1.473 180.434 240.200E+02 6.000 8 4.000003 90.210E07 0.
Let’s try a ∆ source instead of a Y. the voltage as measured across one of the load’s phases (between nodes 8 and 7 in the SPICE analysis) likewise shows strong triplen harmonic voltages of 50 volts each. perhaps switching to a ∆ conﬁguration will.7. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 335 voltage between the two “Y” centerpoints. Finally. In summary. skip this paragraph! When simulating circuits having AC sources of differing frequency and differing phase.65: Threewire “YY” (no neutral) system: Triplen voltages appear between “Y” centers. 60 Hz. Source ω 5ω 7ω line line ω 5ω 7ω Load V ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω 3ω 9ω V 3ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line ω 5ω 7ω Figure 10. the 0o source has these ﬁve specifying ﬁgures: “(0 207. or 1/3 of the full . Nontriplen currents appear in line conductors. there is 50 volts of both 3rd and 9th harmonic frequency between these two points.66) Note: the following paragraph is for those curious readers who follow every detail of my SPICE netlists. between which the neutral conductor used to connect. and source phase current (voltage across Rsource . Yconnected system. the undesirable effect from harmonics was excessive neutral current.10. and see what happens. and also to harmonic load phase voltages of equal magnitude.846 60 5. which means 0 volts DC offset. In the previous simulation where we had a 4wire.65 is a graphical summary of the aforementioned effects. 0 time delay. The 120o phaseshifted source has these ﬁgures: “(0 207. the only way to do it in SPICE is to set up the sources with a delay time or phase offset speciﬁed in seconds. nodes 0 and 8). nodes 1 and 2).846 volts peak amplitude (120 times the square root of three. balanced Y system. Triplen voltages appear across load phases. all the same as the ﬁrst except for the time delay factor of 5. to ensure the load phase voltages remain at 120 volts each). Thus. Since removing the neutral wire didn’t seem to work in eliminating the problems caused by harmonics. The measured parameters will be line current (voltage across Rline .55555m 0)”. and 0 damping factor. but at least each phase of the load received voltage nearly free of harmonics. If you just want to ﬁnd out what happens in the circuit.846 60 0 0)”. According to SPICE.55555 milliseconds. keeping the load in its present Y conﬁguration. removal of the neutral conductor leads to a “hot” centerpoint on the load “Y”. which is deﬁnitely not normal in a linear (no harmonics). all comprised of triplen frequencies. Figure 10. load phase voltage (nodes 8 and 7). 207. (Figure 10.
1111m rsource3 5 0 1 * * line resistances rline1 0 8 1 rline2 2 9 1 rline3 4 10 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 9.72222m 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 9.16666m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 4.plot tran v(0.2777m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 15.5m 100m 16m 1u .846 60 11.16666m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 4. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS DeltaY source/load with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource1 1 0 sin(0 207.2777m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 15.7) v(1.8) v(8.tran 0.options itl5=0 .2777m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 4.2) .846 60 5.end 0 deg) 120 deg) 0) 240 deg) 0) .2777m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 15.846 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource2 3 2 sin(0 207.16666m 0) * * analysis stuff .7) v(1.72222m 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 9.336 CHAPTER 10.2) .8) v(8.72222m 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 15.72222m 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 9.16666m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 4.four 60 v(0.55555m rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource3 5 4 sin(0 207.
and 9. or +330o ). If ∆ source voltages VAC . and VCB are referenced at 0o .16666 milliseconds (90o ). and 240o . Source phase current is a fraction of the line current. which should come as no surprise. which means any mathematical analysis up to that point in time will be in error.1111 milliseconds. equivalent to a fraction of 240/360 of 16. 4.tran transient analysis line to hold off analysis until 16 milliseconds after start. . Otherwise. when I speciﬁed the delay times for the harmonic sources. Both 5th and 7th harmonics are represented there. respectively. VB .7. which gives all sources in the netlist time to engage before any analysis takes place. with negligible triplen harmonics: Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Fourier analysis of source phase current: Really. the load components receive the same harmonicallyrich voltages and the lines see the same currents as in a threewire Y system. One ﬁnal note: when delaying AC sources in SPICE.67) Line currents remain unchanged (the only substantial harmonic content being the 5th and 7th harmonics). and load phase voltages remain unchanged as well.2777 milliseconds (30o . I had to set them at 15. The result of this analysis is almost as disappointing as the last. and VC will have phase angles of 30o . This is for the ∆connected source. the only advantage of the ∆Y conﬁguration from the standpoint of harmonics is that there is no longer a centerpoint at the load posing a shock hazard. The Yconnected load. This is an intrinsic property of all ∆Y circuits and not a quirk of SPICE. Consequently. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 0 Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 8 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 Rsource 5 Vsource 4 4 1 kΩ Rload 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1Ω 60 Hz 120 V 240o 9 337 2 Rsource 120 V 60 Hz o 3 120 1Ω 4 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 1Ω 2 Vsource Rsource 7 Rline 4 1Ω 10 Figure 10.66: DeltaY source/load with harmonics period of 16. then “Y” load voltages VA . with a full 50 volts of triplen harmonic (3rd and 9th) frequencies across each load component. Therefore. The 240o source must be timedelayed twice that amount. VBA . 120o . (Figure 10.10. or 11. requires a different set of timedelay ﬁgures for its harmonic current sources. on the other hand.6667 milliseconds. I set the . and 210o . because the phase voltages in a Y load are not in phase with the phase voltages of a ∆ source. they don’t “turn on” until their delay time has elapsed.72222 milliseconds (210o ).6667 milliseconds for a 60 Hz waveform. 90o . respectively.
000000 66.000 156.200E+02 2.800E+02 5.813 39.400E+02 5.000000 150.200E+02 4.745 179.548 8 4.031969 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.998 4 2.993E02 0.000E+02 4.949E11 0.000E+02 6.002 6 3.600E+02 1.004109 percent Fourier components of transient response v(1.000578 148.995 total harmonic distortion = 58.400E+02 4.000 100.7) dc component = 1.000062 0.400E+02 2.941E07 0.234E11 0.024E11 0.519E07 0.772 5 3.493 179.491E11 0.694 0.006 total harmonic distortion = 59.228 119.996 97.005 4 2.570 5 3.162 7 4.259E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.2) dc component = 3.723 3 1.850E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000000 68.000000 57.603 301.390 179.000E+02 2.998 83.433E07 0.906E02 1.112 6 3.996 4 2.112 81.800E+02 1.000013 0.200 329.200E+02 2.875 9 5.815 110.417221 90.000E+01 1.200E+02 1.000000 49.931E02 0.400E+02 1.998 324.417440 179.883E02 0.453 324.417222 89.000000 0.800E+02 8.600E+02 2.000021 179.400E+02 2.564E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.838 1.000 9.000000 150.267E06 0.800E+02 1.994 8 4.200E+02 1.897 59.600E+02 2.422E06 0.996 6 3.033E11 0.398E07 0.200E+02 6.140E11 0.416682 30.466E02 0.198 179.000540 151.925038 percent Fourier components of transient response v(8.338 CHAPTER 10.897 9 5.000 2 1.000000 156.000000 91.506E06 0. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Fourier components of transient response v(0.000000 39.000000 174.000000 110.883E02 0.000000 159.802 7 4.006 total harmonic distortion = 59.000038 179.693 3 1.998 8 4.198E+02 1.674 3 1.000000 52.200 9 5.998 92.397 5 3.000000 174.000E+01 6.181 2 1.000 2 1.815 91.800E+02 4.8) dc component = 6.525E11 0.926 7 4.995 normalized phase (deg) 0.000E+01 0.417398 179.324E11 0.000E+01 1.416644 29.307 239.400E+02 4.198E01 1.800E+02 2.000E+01 0.722 149.186 .994E02 0.518E06 0.995 normalized phase (deg) 0.
Note the directions that the arrows of the current sources within the load phases are pointing. with negligible harmonic content.67: “∆Y” source/load: Triplen voltages appear across load phases. never reaching the line conductors or the windings of the source. since each load phase would be directly connected in parallel with each source phase.10. and source phase current.7. and “Fourier components of transient response v(2. nor in the load phase voltage. Let’s simulate and observe. The complete lack of any neutral wires or “center points” in a ∆∆ system prevents strange voltages or additive currents from occurring. but where did those currents go? Remember that the triplen harmonics of 120o phaseshifted fundamental frequencies are in phase with each other. This is a major beneﬁt of the ∆∆ system conﬁguration: triplen harmonic currents remain . Nontriplen currents appear in line conductors and in source phase windings.1)”. load phase voltage. the load phase voltage is almost a pure sinewave. analyzing line current. These results may be graphically summarized as such in Figure 10. See SPICE listing: “DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics”.68) that should guarantee that each load component receives nonharmonic voltage. nor in the source phase current! We know that triplen currents exist. and think about what would happen if the 3rd and 9th harmonic sources were DC sources instead. What we would have is current circulating within the loop formed by the ∆connected phases. thanks to the direct connection with the source phases in a ∆∆ system. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS 339 Source ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω line line ω 5ω 7ω Load ω 3ω 5ω ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω 3ω 9ω 7ω 9ω V ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line ω 5ω 7ω Figure 10. This is where the triplen harmonic currents have gone: they stay within the ∆ of the load.69. Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Fourier analysis of source phase current: As predicted earlier.6)”. But what happened to the triplen harmonics? The 3rd and 9th harmonic frequencies don’t appear in any substantial amount in the line current. “Fourier analysis: Fourier components of transient response v(0. If we were to reconﬁgure the system into a ∆∆ arrangement. It would seem to be the ideal solution. (Figure 10. because the 3rd and 9th harmonic current sources are intentionally placed in the phases of the load.
340 CHAPTER 10. Triplen currents are conﬁned to circulate within load phases.68: DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics.69: ∆∆ source/load: Load phases receive undistorted sinewave voltages. Source ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω line line ω 5ω 7ω Load ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω ω V ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω line ω 5ω 7ω Figure 10. Nontriplen currents apprear in line conductors and in source phase windings. . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 0 Rload 1 kΩ 50 mA 180 Hz 50 mA 300 Hz 50 mA 420 Hz 50 mA 540 Hz 2 6 7 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 Rsource 5 Vsource 4 1Ω 60 Hz 120 V 240o Rsource 120 V 60 Hz 120o 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload 1 1Ω 2 Vsource 3 Rsource 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1Ω 4 4 8 Rline 4 1Ω Figure 10.
1111m 0) i9har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 540 11.1) i(3har1) .four 60 v(0.6) v(2.1111m 0) i7har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 420 11.end 341 .tran 0.6) v(7.6) v(7.55555m 0) i9har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.7.options itl5=0 .1111m 0) i5har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 300 11.55555m 0) i5har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 6 8 1k i3har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 180 11.1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .1111m 0) rsource3 5 0 1 * * line resistances rline1 0 6 1 rline2 2 7 1 rline3 4 8 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 7 6 1k i3har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 8 7 1k i3har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.1) . HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 2 sin(0 120 60 5.10.5m 100m 16m 1u .55555m 0) i7har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.6) v(2.55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 4 sin(0 120 60 11.plot tran v(0.
001 213.571 359.001 8 4.877E06 0.760 180.000008 89.499E09 0.000 6 3.001667 180.000 8 4.000000 36.000E+02 1.000000 23.974 36.000000 4.657E11 0.415 359.200E+02 5.578E10 0.000 144.800E+02 3.400E+02 9.385 89.000000 63.000000 31.955 156.961298 percent normalized phase (deg) 0.000 6.194E01 1.800E+02 6.000000 151.800E+02 1.595E11 0.923E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.235702 percent Fourier components of transient response v(2.400E+02 1.800E+02 7.813 300.215E10 0.925538 percent Fourier components of transient response v(7.905 total harmonic distortion = 0.760 7 4.000000 89.368 5 3.940 60.195E+02 1.480E11 0.974 4 2.000000 133.000 2 1.416921 180.600E+02 4.699 89.127 180.749 89.997 0.400E+02 4.991 total harmonic distortion = 58.000 6 3.626E02 0.992E01 0.385E07 0.000 4.400E+02 3.001667 180.759 9 5.999 6 3.680E10 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000003 89.000E+01 1.200E+02 8.000000 8.416669 150.089E10 0.939 202.800E+02 1.000 181.000E+02 8.600E+02 2.992E01 0.200E+02 1.1) dc component = 1.940 9 5.449 89.000000 150.000003 89.000 8 4.200E+02 4.626E02 0.010 141.939 243.385E11 0.013 normalized phase (deg) 0.6) dc component = 6.200E+02 1.000E+01 1.752E06 0.200E+02 2.000 2 1.000000 63.000000 0.990 4 2.569E11 0.6) dc component = 5.911E11 0.187 5 3.416664 149.985 4 2.600E+02 1.997 7 4.039E09 0. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Fourier components of transient response v(0.940 2 1.000 46.000 151.342 CHAPTER 10.400E+02 2.666 60.749 3 1.475 7 4.987 total harmonic distortion = 58.070E01 1.000E+01 2.257E07 0.400E+02 4.000000 179.000000 144.000009 89.905 normalized phase (deg) 0.129E07 0.800E+02 2.000E+02 4.949 .385 9 5.666 3 1.251E06 0.980E02 0.416918 180.000000 89.000000 22.491 3 1.007E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.127 5 3.951E09 0.000000 156.980E02 0.
8. where phases A. B. 12th. we saw how the 3rd harmonic and all of its integer multiples (collectively called triplen harmonics) generated by 120o phaseshifted fundamental waveforms are actually in phase with each other. not evennumbered. we can say that nonlinear components generate harmonic currents. This can be thought of in graphical terms. HARMONIC PHASE SEQUENCES 343 conﬁned in whatever set of components create them. • Triplen harmonic currents in a ∆connected set of components circulate within the loop formed by the ∆. (Figure 10. They are in phase with each other.70: Harmonic currents of Phases A. 9th. and do not “spread” to other parts of the system. In a 60 Hz threephase power system. • REVIEW: • Nonlinear components are those that draw a nonsinusoidal (nonsinewave) current waveform when energized by a sinusoidal (sinewave) voltage. • The 3rd harmonic. and C are 120o apart. .10. B.8 Harmonic phase sequences In the last section. C all coincide. 10.70) and/or in mathematical terms: A B C TIME Figure 10. 15th) are known as triplen harmonics. the only harmonics present will be oddnumbered. triplen harmonic currents add within the neutral conductor. despite the fact that their respective fundamental waveforms are 120o out of phase with each other. and integer multiples of it (6th. no rotation. • When the sinewave distortion is symmetrical above and below the average centerline of the waveform. the thirdharmonic multiples of those frequencies (180 Hz) fall perfectly into phase with each other. • In a 4wire YY system. Since any distortion of an originally pure sinewave constitutes harmonic frequencies. that is.
which “rotate” in the opposite sequence as the fundamental. are called negative sequence.344 CHAPTER 10. are called zero sequence. which “rotate” with the same sequence as the fundamental. are called positive sequence. Harmonics such as the 5th. lending itself to expression in a table like this: . This pattern of positivezeronegativepositive continues indeﬁnitely for all oddnumbered harmonics.240o) CBA (120 ) B’’’ 7 x 120o (840o = 720o + 120o) o (240 ) C’’’ 7 x 240o (1680o = 1440o + 240o) o 7th harmonic ABC 9th harmonic (240 ) C’’’’ no 9 x 240o o o rotation (1080o = 0o) (2160 = 0 ) (120 ) B’’’’ 9 x 120o o o Harmonics such as the 7th. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS Phase sequence = ABC Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o 3rd harmonic A’ B’ C’ o o 3x0 3 x 120 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o) If we extend the mathematical table to include higher oddnumbered harmonics. Triplen harmonics (3rd and 9th shown in this table) which don’t “rotate” at all because they’re in phase with each other. we will notice an interesting pattern develop with regard to the rotation or sequence of the harmonic frequencies: Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o ABC no rotation 3rd harmonic A’ B’ C’ 3 x 0o 3 x 120o 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o) A’’ 5 x 0o (0o) A’’’ 7 x 0o (0o) A’’’’ 9 x 0o (0o) B’’ 5 x 120o (600o = 720o .120o) 5th harmonic C’’ 5 x 240o (1200o = 1440o .
Ed Beroset (May 6. 11th.9 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. . 17th. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. and generally originate with less amplitude anyway. Positivesequence frequencies work to push the rotor in the proper direction.10. and/or 23rd) in the power supplied to a threephase AC motor will result in a degradation of performance and possible overheating. which is 300 Hz in 60 Hz power systems and 250 Hz in 50 Hz power systems. 2002): Suggested better ways to illustrate the meaning of the preﬁx “poly”. An excess of negativesequence harmonics (5th. from most recent to ﬁrst. since the mechanical rotation of the rotor depends on the torque produced by the sequential “rotation” of the applied 3phase power. whereas negativesequence frequencies actually work against the direction of the rotor’s rotation. Since the higherorder harmonics tend to be attenuated more by system inductances and magnetic core losses. Zerosequence frequencies neither contribute to nor detract from the rotor’s torque. CONTRIBUTORS 345 Rotation sequences according to harmonic number + 0 1st 7th 13th 19th 3rd 9th 15th 21st 5th 11th 17th 23rd Rotates with fundamental Does not rotate Rotates against fundamental Sequence especially matters when we’re dealing with AC motors. 10. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.9. the primary harmonic of concern is the 5th. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.
POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS .346 CHAPTER 10.
. . . . . . . .1) 120 V 60 Hz R 60 Ω Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . where a 120 volt. . . . 360 11. . . . . . . . . . 347 . and Apparent power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 11. . . . . . .3 Calculating power factor . . . . . . . . . .4 Practical power factor correction . . . . . Reactive. . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 11 POWER FACTOR Contents 11. .1: Ac source drives a purely resistive load. . .5 Contributors . . . . . .1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 11. . . . . . . . . . . . 347 11. . 60 Hz AC voltage source is delivering power to a resistive load: (Figure 11. .1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits Consider a circuit for a singlephase AC power system. . . . . . . .2 True. . 352 11. . . . . . .
For comparison. As strange as it may seem. This means that power is always being dissipated by the resistive load. and impedance. it would look like Figure 11. and power waveforms for this circuit. the current to the load would be 2 amps. phase relationships constantly change. current. RMS. Because this load is purely resistive (no reactance). the best way to proceed with AC power calculations is to use scalar notation.348 CHAPTER 11. current. never negative for this resistive circuit. Note that the waveform for power is always positive. its frequency is double that of either the voltage or current waveforms.2: Current is in phase with voltage in a resistive circuit. This different frequency prohibits our expression of power in an AC circuit using the same complex (rectangular or polar) notation as used for voltage. the current is in phase with the voltage. If the source were a mechanical generator. it would take 240 watts worth of mechanical energy (about 1/3 horsepower) to turn the shaft. because this form of mathematical symbolism implies unchanging phase relationships. and to handle any relevant phase relationships with trigonometry.3. The power dissipated at the load would be 240 watts. POWER FACTOR ZR = 60 + j0 Ω or 60 Ω ∠ 0o I= I= E Z 120 V 60 Ω I=2A In this example. . Also note that the waveform for power is not at the same frequency as the voltage or current! Rather. e= i= p= + Time  Figure 11. let’s consider a simple AC circuit with a purely reactive load in Figure 11. When frequencies are not the same.2. and never returned to the source as it is with reactive loads. and calculations look similar to that in an equivalent DC circuit. If we were to plot the voltage.
Note that the power alternates equally between cycles of positive and negative. (Figure 11. .5.1. it would take (practically) no net mechanical energy to turn the shaft.4: Power is not dissipated in a purely reactive load. XL = 60.4) This means that power is being alternately absorbed from and returned to the source.319 Ω ZL = 0 + j60.3: AC circuit with a purely reactive (inductive) load. let’s consider an AC circuit with a load consisting of both inductance and resistance in Figure 11. Though it is alternately absorbed from and returned to the source.319 Ω or 60. POWER IN RESISTIVE AND REACTIVE AC CIRCUITS 349 120 V 60 Hz L 160 mH Figure 11. Now.11.319 Ω ∠ 90o I= I= E Z 120 V 60.319 Ω I = 1. The generator shaft would be easy to spin. because no power would be used by the load. If the source were a mechanical generator. and the inductor would not become warm as a resistor would.989 A + e= i= p= Time Figure 11.
152o .319 Ω of inductive reactance. or 85.350 CHAPTER 11.319 Ω. as they equally absorb power from.078 Ω I = 1.410 A At a frequency of 60 Hz.319 Ω or 60. The only thing left to dissipate power here is the . the 160 millihenrys of inductance gives us 60.319 Ω ZL = 0 + j60. POWER FACTOR Load Lload 120 V 60 Hz Rload 160 mH 60 Ω Figure 11. any inductive reactance in this load will likewise dissipate zero power.5: AC circuit with both reactance and resistance. This reactance combines with the 60 Ω of resistance to form a total load impedance of 60 + j60.152o I= I= E Z 120 V 85. Therefore. and return power to.078 Ω 45. If we’re not concerned with phase angles (which we’re not at this point). We already know that reactive components dissipate zero power. our load current is 1.319 Ω or 85. we may calculate current in the circuit by taking the polar magnitude of the voltage source (120 volts) and dividing it by the polar magnitude of the impedance (85.410 amps. XL = 60. With a power supply voltage of 120 volts RMS. the rest of the circuit.078 Ω).319 Ω ∠ 90o ZR = 60 + j0 Ω or 60 Ω ∠ 0o Ztotal = 60 + j60. This is the ﬁgure an RMS ammeter would indicate if connected in series with the resistor and inductor.078 Ω ∠ 45.
or complex quantities of voltage. + e= i= p= Time Figure 11. and total power for this circuit. and reactance than it is to try to derive it from vector. . and impedance that we’ve worked with so far.6: A combined resistive/reactive circuit dissipates more power than it returns to the source. the phase angle for power means something quite different from the phase angle for either voltage or current. no circuit power is dissipated by the load(s). Whereas the angle for voltage or current represents a relative shift in timing between two waves. but the amount of positive power will exceed the amount of negative power. Voltage and current are 90o out of phase with each other. power is alternately absorbed from and returned to the AC source. we see how this combination works in Figure 11. it should be evident that the wave spends more time on the positive side of the center line than on the negative. resistance. Rather. However. In other words. POWER IN RESISTIVE AND REACTIVE AC CIRCUITS 351 resistive portion of the load impedance. indicating that there is more power absorbed by the load than there is returned to the circuit. Mathematically representing power in an AC circuit is a challenge. • In a purely reactive circuit. Voltage and current are in phase with each other. the power waveform will still alternate between positive and negative. What little returning of power that occurs is due to the reactance.6. current.11. because the power wave isn’t at the same frequency as voltage or current. resulting in a net power dissipation of zero. current. Looking at the waveform plot for power. the combined inductive/resistive load will consume more power than it returns back to the source.1. though. the phase angle for power represents a ratio between power dissipated and power returned. • REVIEW: • In a purely resistive circuit. the power alternates between positive and negative instantaneous values over time. the resistor does. If we look at the waveform plot of voltage. the imbalance of positive versus negative power is due to the resistance as it dissipates energy outside of the circuit (usually in the form of heat). Furthermore. current. As with any reactive circuit. In a purely reactive circuit that alternation between positive and negative power is equally divided. it is actually easier to arrive at ﬁgures for power by calculating with scalar quantities of voltage. in circuits with mixed resistance and reactance like this one. the amount of mechanical energy needed to turn the shaft would be the amount of power averaged between the positive and negative power cycles. If the source were a mechanical generator. The reactance dissipates no power. all circuit power is dissipated by the resistor(s). Because of this way in which AC power differs from AC voltage or current.
For instance. The actual amount of power being used. The combination of reactive power and true power is called apparent power. Reactive power is a function of a circuit’s reactance (X).352 CHAPTER 11. and it is the product of a circuit’s voltage and current. without reference to phase angle. or dissipated. current. If I’m calculating apparent power from voltage and impedance. and not merely the “real” or “imaginary” portion of the current. and it is measured in watts (symbolized by the capital letter P. yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power. Apparent power is measured in the unit of VoltAmps (VA) and is symbolized by the capital letter S. reactance. and impedance (all using scalar quantities): . not by real or imaginary rectangular components. usually resistances (R). and Apparent power We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power. but some power will deﬁnitely be dissipated and some will merely be absorbed and returned. The mathematical symbol for reactive power is (unfortunately) the capital letter Q. and impedance must be represented by their polar magnitudes. I must use the polar magnitude for current. as always). This “phantom power” is called reactive power. both of these formerly complex quantities must be reduced to their polar magnitudes for the scalar arithmetic. POWER FACTOR • In a circuit consisting of resistance and reactance mixed. Reactive. any complex starting quantities such as voltage. in a circuit is called true power. There are several power equations relating the three types of power to resistance. there will be more power dissipated by the load(s) than returned. rather than watts. Since we’re dealing with scalar quantities for power calculation.2 True. Voltage and current in such a circuit will be out of phase by a value somewhere between 0o and 90o . true power is a function of a circuit’s dissipative elements. As a rule. if I’m calculating true power from current and resistance. Apparent power is a function of a circuit’s total impedance (Z). 11. and it is measured in a unit called VoltAmpsReactive (VAR).
or the length of one side and an angle. AND APPARENT POWER 353 P = true power P = I2R P= Measured in units of Watts E2 R E2 X Measured in units of VoltAmpsReactive (VAR) Q = reactive power Q = I2X Q= S = apparent power S = I2Z S= E2 Z S = IE Measured in units of VoltAmps (VA) Please note that there are two equations each for the calculation of true and reactive power. Resistive load only: I=2A 120 V 60 Hz R no reactance 60 Ω P = true power = I2R = 240 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 0 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 240 VA Figure 11. Using the laws of trigonometry.8.9.7. REACTIVE. reactive power. . and apparent power for a purely resistive load. a purely reactive load in Figure 11. we can solve for the length of any side (amount of any type of power).7: True power.2. and apparent – relate to one another in trigonometric form. There are three equations available for the calculation of apparent power. reactive. Examine the following circuits and see how these three types of power interrelate for: a purely resistive load in Figure 11. We call this the power triangle: (Figure 11. P=IE being useful only for that purpose. given the lengths of the other two sides. TRUE.11.10). and a resistive/reactive load in Figure 11. Reactive load only: Resistive/reactive load: These three types of power – true.
256 VA Figure 11. and apparent power for a resistive/reactive load.998 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 169.73 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 238. reactive power. .354 CHAPTER 11.319 Ω 60 Ω P = true power = I2R = 119.73 VA Figure 11.8: True power. I = 1. POWER FACTOR I = 1.989 A 120 V 60 Hz no resistance 160 mH XL = 60.410 A Load Lload 120 V 60 Hz Rload 160 mH XL = 60.9: True power.365 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 119. reactive power.319 Ω L P = true power = I2R = 0 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 238. and apparent power for a purely reactive load.
When expressed as a fraction. It also happens to be the same angle as that of the circuit’s impedance in polar form. this ratio between true power and apparent power is called the power factor for this circuit. P = adjacent length. Because true power and apparent power form the adjacent and . and S = hypotenuse length. True power is symbolized by the letter P and is measured in the unit of Watts (W). Q = opposite length. • Power merely absorbed and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to as reactive power. both dissipated and absorbed/returned is referred to as apparent power. The opposite angle is equal to the circuit’s impedance (Z) phase angle. • Total power in an AC circuit.11.3 Calculating power factor As was mentioned before. 11.10: Power triangle relating appearant power to true power and reactive power. • REVIEW: • Power dissipated by a load is referred to as true power. In a right triangle. CALCULATING POWER FACTOR 355 The "Power Triangle" Apparent power (S) measured in VA Reactive power (Q) measured in VAR Impedance phase angle True power (P) measured in Watts Figure 11. the angle of this “power triangle” graphically indicates the ratio between the amount of dissipated (or consumed) power and the amount of absorbed/returned power. Apparent power is symbolized by the letter S and is measured in the unit of VoltAmps (VA). • These three types of power are trigonometrically related to one another. Reactive power is symbolized by the letter Q and is measured in the unit of VoltAmpsReactive (VAR).3.
If there are no dissipative (resistive) components in the circuit. Here. to cancel out the effects of the load’s inductive reactance. The same could be said for a purely capacitive circuit. Using values from the last example circuit: Power factor = True power Apparent power 119.152o = 0. The poor power factor makes for an inefﬁcient power delivery system. paradoxically. because the opposite (reactive power) side would have zero length. then the true power must be equal to zero. Poor power factor can be corrected. to zero). so we have to add a capacitor in parallel to our example circuit as the additional load. we need to calculate the correct capacitor size to produce the same quantity of (capacitive) reactive power. The power triangle for a purely capacitive circuit would again be a vertical line (pointing down instead of up as it was for the purely inductive circuit). making any power in the circuit purely reactive.705 cos 45. Power factor can be an important aspect to consider in an AC circuit. the power triangle would look like a horizontal line. or at least closer.356 CHAPTER 11. because true power equals zero. because any power factor less than 1 means that the circuit’s wiring has to carry more current than what would be necessary with zero reactance in the circuit to deliver the same amount of (true) power to the resistive load. the power factor is 1 (perfect). POWER FACTOR hypotenuse sides of a right triangle. is a unitless quantity. The effect of these two opposing reactances in parallel is to bring the circuit’s total impedance equal to its total resistance (to make the impedance phase angle equal.256 VA Power factor = Power factor = 0. Inductive reactance can only be canceled by capacitive reactance.410 amps of current. the power factor is zero. we’ll use the power formula which starts from voltage and reactance: . For the purely resistive circuit. by adding another load to the circuit drawing an equal and opposite amount of reactive power.705 It should be noted that power factor. we would have been able to deliver a full 169. Here.256 watts to the load with the same 1. like all ratio measurements. the power factor ratio is also equal to the cosine of that phase angle. rather than the mere 119.365 W 169. because the adjacent (true power) side would have zero length. Since we know that the (uncorrected) reactive power is 119. For the purely inductive circuit.998 VAR (inductive). respectively.365 watts that it is presently dissipating with that same current quantity. Since this capacitor will be directly in parallel with the source (of known voltage). the power triangle would look like a vertical line. If our last example circuit had been purely resistive. because the reactive power equals zero.
. .11.3. .002 Ω C= 1 2π(60 Hz)(120.319 Ω 60 Ω 120 V 60 Hz Figure 11. . 1. and 3 are SPICE related. V2 and node numbers: 0.716 mA 1 V1 C 3 0 V2 IC = 995. .257 mA L load 22 µF 2 Rload Load Iload = 1.998 VAR 1 2πfC XC = X= . C= 1 2πfXC X = 120. X= E2 Q (120 V)2 119. . 2. solving for C .11) Itotal = 994.41 A 160 mH XL = 60.11: Parallel capacitor corrects lagging power factor of inductive load. .002 Ω) C = 22. CALCULATING POWER FACTOR 357 Q= E2 X . and may be ignored for the moment. . solving for X . .105 µF Let’s use a rounded capacitor value of 22 µF and see what happens to our circuit: (Figure 11.
appears across the parallel branches of the circuit. The reference is Vtotal .cir power factor”.11) shows total voltage and total current are nearly in phase. Vtotal . we know that the circuit. The Nutmeg plot of the various currents with respect to the applied voltage Vtotal is shown in (Figure 11. is still more inductive than it is capacitive. There is no single current common to all components. See SPICE listing “pf. has been substantially improved. The power factor is much closer to being 1: Power factor = Power factor = True power Apparent power 119.366 VA Power factor = 0.j573. We can compare those currents to Vtotal . If we had added too large of a capacitor in parallel. or purely resistive. we would have ended up with an impedance angle that was negative. overall.9999887 Since the impedance angle is still a positive number.365 W S = apparent power = I2Z = 119. A SPICE simulation of the circuit of (Figure 11.57 Ω ∠ 90o) // (60. POWER FACTOR Ztotal = ZC // (ZL . The main current has been decreased from 1.272o cos 0.64 . This is no coincidence. to which all other measurements are compared.9999887 Impedance (polar) angle = 0.60 Ω ∠ 0o) Ztotal = 120.64 Ω ∠ 0. The SPICE circuit ﬁle has a zero volt voltagesource (V2) in series with the capacitor so that the capacitor current may be measured. Note that the total current (Itotal ) is in phase with the applied voltage (Vtotal ). The start time of 200 msec ( instead of 0) in the transient analysis statement allows the DC conditions to stabilize before collecting data. we would have arrived at an impedance angle of exactly zero.358 CHAPTER 11. If our power factor correction efforts had been perfectly ontarget.7 milliamps.365 watts.2724o P = true power = I2R = 119.ZR) Ztotal = (120.365 W 119.272o = 0.12).366 VA The power factor for the circuit.41 amps to 994. indicating a phase angle of near zero. IL of the inductor would have caused the total current to have a lagging phase somewhere between (Itotal ) . overall.319 Ω ∠ 90o . while the power dissipated at the load resistor remains unchanged at 119. indicating that the circuit was more capacitive than inductive. This is because the applied voltage. Note that the lagging current.58m Ω or 120.
CALCULATING POWER FACTOR 359 pf. . The lagging IL with respect to Vtotal is corrected by a leading IC .12: Zero phase angle due to inphase Vtotal and Itotal .tran 1m .end factor 170 60) stop start 200m 160m Figure 11.3.cir power V1 1 0 sin(0 C1 1 3 22uF v2 3 0 0 L1 1 2 160mH R1 2 0 60 # resolution .11.
the product would have been negative where positive portions of one waveform overlapped negative portions of the other as in Figure 11. will always be positive throughout a 60 Hz cycle.2. you probably won’t have the luxury of knowing the load’s exact inductance in henrys to use for your calculations. Since the total voltage and current are in phase. it does waste power in the resistance of electric lines between load and generator. 11. Thus. though. It cannont be sold. However. there is still circulating current between the capacitor and the inductive load. compensates for the lagging inductor current. we say that its power factor is leading. IC . power. if a circuit is predominantly capacitive. You may be fortunate enough to have an instrument called a power factor meter to tell you what the power factor is (a number between 0 and 1). In less favorable circumstances you may have to use an oscilloscope to compare voltage and current waveforms. Negative power is fed back to the generator. If a circuit is predominantly inductive. our example circuit started out with a power factor of 0. real power as in Figure 11. whose reading you can compare against a calculation of apparent power (from multiplying total voltage and . for continuous AC service.360 CHAPTER 11.4 Practical power factor correction When the need arises to correct for poor power factor in an AC power system. Had the phaseangle not been corrected to zero (PF=1).999 lagging. You must be careful not to overcorrect when adding capacitance to an AC circuit. the product of these two waveforms. If the load’s reactance is inductive in nature (which is almost always will be). Most likely. POWER FACTOR and IL . you will have access to a wattmeter for measuring true power. Moreover. Conversely. measuring phase shift in degrees and calculating power factor by the cosine of that phase shift. It should be noted that too much capacitance in an AC circuit will result in a low power factor just as well as too much inductance.705 lagging. and was corrected to a power factor of 0. that total current (Itotal ) was forced to be inphase with the total applied voltage (Vtotal ). The result is a total current phaseangle somewhere between the inductor and capacitor currents. and the apparent power (which can be ﬁgured by taking a voltmeter reading in volts and multiplying by an ammeter reading in amps). the leading capacitor current. and capable of handling the expected levels of current). by the calculation of an appropriate capacitor value. This is not normally a problem because the power factor correction is applied close to the offending load. The parallel capacitor corrects this problem. like an induction motor. • REVIEW: • Poor power factor in an AC circuit may be “corrected”. we say that its power factor is lagging (because the current wave for the circuit lags behind the applied voltage wave). or reestablished at a value close to 1. by adding a parallel reactance opposite the effect of the load’s reactance.6. Note that reduction of line losses applies to the lines from the generator to the point where the power factor correction capacitor is applied. You must also be very careful to use the proper capacitors for the job (rated adequately for power system voltages and the occasional voltage spike from lightning strikes. parallel capacitance is what is needed to correct poor power factor. In other words.
and from that determine the reactive power of this load: (Figure 11.11.” given the length of the hypotenuse (apparent power) and the length of the adjacent side (true power): . Now. Let’s do an example problem to see how this works: (Figure 11. First.308 kVA is a much larger ﬁgure than 1.5 kW Ammeter reading = 9. From the values of true and apparent power.13) wattmeter P 240 V RMS 60 Hz ammeter A Load Wattmeter reading = 1.5 kW 2.615 A RMS Figure 11.4. we can draw a power triangle.308 kVA As we can see. PRACTICAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION 361 total current measurements).65 Using this value for power factor. product of voltmeter and ammeter readings yields appearant power. which tells us that the power factor in this circuit is rather poor (substantially less than 1).14) To determine the unknown (reactive power) triangle quantity. 2.615 A)(240 V) S = 2. we need to calculate the apparent power in kVA.5 kW. We can do this by multiplying load voltage by load current: S = IE S = (9.13: Wattmeter reads true power.308 kVA Power factor = Power factor = 0. we ﬁgure the power factor of this load by dividing the true power by the apparent power: Power factor = P S 1. you can determine reactive power and power factor. we use the Pythagorean Theorem “backwards.
wired in parallel.(True power)2 Q = 1. POWER FACTOR Apparent power (S) 2.14: Reactive power may be calculated from true power and appearant power. it will have a lagging (inductive) power factor.754 kVAR If this load is an electric motor. or most any other industrial AC load.308 kVA Reactive power (Q) ??? True power (P) 1. which means that we’ll have to correct for it with a capacitor of appropriate size.754 kVAR).362 CHAPTER 11. Now that we know the amount of reactive power (1. Reactive power = (Apparent power)2 . we can calculate the size of capacitor needed to counteract its effects: .5 kW Figure 11.
845 Ω) C = 80. . . the capacitor’s reactive power will directly subtract from the load’s reactive power.737 kVAR (for the capacitor only).1.754 kVAR 1 2πfC XC = X= . C= 1 2πfXC X = 32.737 kVAR = 16. of course.761 µF Rounding this answer off to 80 µF. and of the total current drawn from the 240 Volt source: (Figure 11. . . PRACTICAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION 363 Q= E2 X . .238 amps. will not change the amount of true power consumed by the load.754 kVAR .845 Ω C= 1 2π(60 Hz)(32. .Capacitive kVAR = Total kVAR 1. solving for X .15) wattmeter P 240 V RMS 60 Hz C ammeter A Load 80 µF Figure 11.157 Ω. we can place that size of capacitor in the circuit and calculate the results: (Figure 11. resulting in: Inductive kVAR . and a corresponding reactive power of 1. giving a current of 7. Since the capacitor’s current is 180o out of phase from the the load’s inductive contribution to current draw.16) .4. . but it will result in a substantial reduction of apparent power. An 80 µF capacitor will have a capacitive reactance of 33.15: Parallel capacitor corrects lagging (inductive) load.11. .519 VAR This correction. X= E2 Q (240)2 1. solving for C .
519 VAR Figure 11.5 kW Reactive power (Q) 16.16: Power triangle before and after capacitor correction.308 kVA Reactive power (Q) 1. POWER FACTOR Power triangle for uncorrected (original) circuit Apparent power (S) 2.737 kVAR (capacitive) Power triangle after adding capacitor Apparent power (S) True power (P) 1.754 kVAR (inductive) True power (P) 1. .5 kW 1.364 CHAPTER 11.
615 amps! This lower total current will translate to less heat losses in the circuit wiring. a substantial improvement over the uncorrected value of 9.25 amps.50009 kVA This gives a corrected power factor of (1. using the standard form of the Pythagorean Theorem: Apparent power = (Reactive power)2 + (True power)2 Apparent power = 1.5 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. CONTRIBUTORS 365 The new apparent power can be found from the true and new reactive power values.50009 kVA / 240 Volts). 11. and a new total current of (1. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. . meaning greater system efﬁciency (less power wasted).5009 kVA).99994.11. from most recent to ﬁrst.5kW / 1. or 6.5. or 0. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
366 CHAPTER 11. POWER FACTOR .
just remember that they each act like a oneway valve for electrons to ﬂow: acting as a conductor for one polarity and an insulator for another. . . Without going into elaborate detail over how and why diodes work as they do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . are devices whose motion depends on the polarity of the applied voltage (or. . . . . . . . like permanentmagnet motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . In order to use a DCstyle meter movement such as the D’Arsonval design.5 AC bridge circuits . . . . . Oddly enough. . . (Figure 12. . . .1 AC voltmeters and ammeters AC electromechanical meter movements come in two basic arrangements: those based on DC movement designs. . four diodes will 367 . . . the arrowhead in each diode symbol points against the permitted direction of electron ﬂow rather than with it as one might expect. . . . . . . . .Chapter 12 AC METERING CIRCUITS Contents 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 AC instrumentation transducers . . . . . . . . 367 374 382 385 387 396 406 406 12. . . .7 Contributors . . .4 Power quality measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . Permanentmagnet moving coil (PMMC) meter movements will not work correctly if directly connected to alternating current. . . . . . 12. . . . . Arranged in a bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This is most easily accomplished through the use of devices called diodes. you can think of it in terms of the direction of the current). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Power measurement . . . .2 Frequency and phase measurement 12. . . . . . . . and those engineered speciﬁcally for AC use. . . . . . . .1 AC voltmeters and ammeters . 12. . . We saw diodes used in an example circuit demonstrating the creation of harmonic frequencies from a distorted (or rectiﬁed) sine wave. . . . because the direction of needle movement will change with each halfcycle of the AC. . . . . . . . . . . .1) Permanentmagnet meter movements. . . . . . Bibliography . . . the alternating current must be rectiﬁed into DC. . . 12. . . . . . . . .
AC METERING CIRCUITS 50 0 100 "needle" magnet magnet wire coil Figure 12.1: Passing AC through this D’Arsonval meter movement causes useless ﬂutter of the needle. serve to steer AC through the meter movement in a constant direction throughout all portions of the AC cycle: (Figure 12.2: Passing AC through this Rectiﬁed AC meter movement will drive it in one direction. .368 CHAPTER 12.2) 50 0 "needle" 100 magnet magnet wire coil + Meter movement needle will always be driven in the proper direction. AC source Bridge rectifier Figure 12.
the electrostatic movement is an elegant technology. But. to make voltmeter divider circuits. When a sensitive meter movement needs to be reranged to function as an AC voltmeter. meaning that no current need be drawn from the circuit under test. a single “multiplier” capacitor may be connected in series to give it a greater voltage measuring range. If nothing else. just as poorly! The forces involved are very small. especially if the electron beam is swept sidetoside across the screen . external apparatus. This means avoiding the use of permanent magnets. just as a seriesconnected multiplier resistor gives a movingcoil (inherently resistive) meter movement a greater voltage range: (Figure 12. electrostatic meter movements are capable of measuring very high voltages without need for range resistors or other.12. and thus inherently capacitive in nature.1. or should I say. seriesconnected “multiplier” resistors and/or resistive voltage dividers may be employed just as in DC meter design: (Figure 12. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS 369 Another strategy for a practical AC meter movement is to redesign the movement without the inherent polarity sensitivity of the DC types. This strategy has the advantage of being nondissipative (no true power consumed and no heat produced): (Figure 12.3. This works just as well for AC as it does for DC. for some highvoltage AC applications.6) The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) mentioned in the DC metering chapter is ideally suited for measuring AC voltages. Electrostatic attraction between two metal plates separated by an air gap is an alternative mechanism for generating a needlemoving force proportional to applied voltage.3: Ironvane electromechanical meter movement. much smaller than the magnetic attraction between an energized coil and an iron vane. 50 0 "needle" 100 wire coil iron vane Figure 12. the vane being attracted toward a stationary coil of wire energized by the AC quantity to be measured as in Figure 12. this technology possesses the advantage of extremely high input impedance. and as such these “electrostatic” meter movements tend to be fragile and easily disturbed by physical movement.4) Capacitors may be used instead of resistors. Also. Probably the simplest design is to use a nonmagnetized iron vane to move the needle against spring tension.5) If the meter movement is electrostatic. though.
Sensitive meter movement Voltage to be measured Rmultiplier Figure 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS AC voltmeter Voltage to be measured Sensitive meter movement Rmultiplier Voltage to be measured AC voltmeter Sensitive meter movement Rmultiplier (a) (b) Figure 12.370 CHAPTER 12.4: Multiplier resistor (a) or resistive divider (b) scales the range of the basic meter movement.6: An electrostatic meter movement may use a capacitive multiplier to multiply the scale of the basic meter movement.. .5: AC voltmeter with capacitive divider. Electrostatic meter movement Cmultiplier Voltage to be measured Figure 12.
and PeaktoPeak values for sine. Average.7) RMS = 0. Note that for triangle waves. signiﬁcant power consumption. the meter movement will be calibrated to indicate approximately 1.637 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak) RMS = Peak AVG = Peak PP = 2 (Peak) RMS = 0. This is the issue of RMS measurement. A graphical representation of the AC wave shape and not just a measurement of magnitude can easily be had with such a device. For sine waves we see that RMS is equal to 0.12. there is another factor crucially important for the designer and user of AC metering instruments to be aware of.109: 0. and electromechanical meter movements naturally deliver average measurements rather than RMS. so we can divide one ﬁgure by the other to obtain an averagetoRMS conversion factor of 1. For these reasons. and then the meter movement scale is altered by the appropriate multiplication factor. As we already know. It must be stressed that this “cheat” only works well when the meter is used to measure pure sine wave sources. AC measurements are often cast in a scale of DC power equivalence. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS 371 of the tube while the measured AC voltage drives the beam up and down. ironvane.1.5 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak) Figure 12. and triangle waves. However.11 times higher than it would ordinarily (naturally) indicate with no special accommodations. especially for power systems). With some of the advantages and disadvantages of these meter movement technologies having been discussed already.707 0. square. although many times it is mistaken as such. None of the meter movement technologies so far discussed inherently measure the RMS value of an AC quantity. the ratio between RMS and Average is not the same as for sine waves: . electromechanical AC meter movements still have a place in practical usage. This average value is not necessarily the same as RMS.707 times the peak value while Average is 0. what are AC meter designers to do? Cheat.577 (Peak) AVG = 0.637 = 1.707 (Peak) AVG = 0. Since RMS seems to be the kind of measurement most people are interested in obtaining with an instrument. of course! Typically the assumption is made that the waveform shape to be measured is going to be sine (by far the most common.7: RMS. and fragility (being made of evacuated glass) working against them.1099 In other words. Meter movements relying on the motion of a mechanical needle (“rectiﬁed” D’Arsonval. size.637 times the peak. CRT’s have the disadvantages of weight. called RMS (RootMeanSquare) for the sake of meaningful comparisons with DC and with other AC waveforms of varying shape. and electrostatic) all tend to mechanically average the instantaneous values into an overall average value for the waveform. Average and RMS values rate against each other as such for these three common waveform shapes: (Figure 12.
With harmonics becoming an everpresent phenomenon in large AC power systems. the concept illustrated is very sound. AC METERING CIRCUITS 0. This includes triangle waves.8: Direct reading thermal RMS voltmeter accommodates any wave shape. triangle. The system’s mass works to average these values by the principle of thermal inertia. and the heat output of that resistor is measured with a device like a thermocouple. the RMS and Average values are identical! An AC meter calibrated to accurately read RMS voltage or current on a pure sine wave will not give the proper value while indicating the magnitude of anything other than a perfect sine wave. Calibrating AC voltmeters and ammeters for different fullscale ranges of operation is much .8) sensitive meter movement AC voltage to be measured thermocouple bonded with resistive heating element Figure 12. a similar problem arises: how do you determine the RMS value of a waveform from it? Conversion factors between Peak and RMS only hold so long as the waveform falls neatly into a known category of shape (sine. One answer is to design the meter movement around the very deﬁnition of RMS: the effective heating value of an AC voltage/current as it powers a resistive load. effectively squaring the values in realtime. square waves.577 0. or any kind of distorted sine wave. The astute reader will note that I have omitted the CRT “movement” from the RMS/Average discussion. Still. and square are the only examples with Peak/RMS/Average conversion factors given here!). one major instrument manufacturer has implemented this technique into its highend line of handheld electronic multimeters for “trueRMS” capability. this matter of accurate RMS measurement is no small matter.154 With square waves.5 = 1. for it will work with ANY waveform shape whatsoever: (Figure 12. This would provide a far more direct measurement means of RMS than any conversion factor could.372 CHAPTER 12. While the device shown above is somewhat crude and would suffer from unique engineering problems of its own. and then the meter scale itself is calibrated to give an indication based on the squareroot of the thermal measurement: perfect RootMeanSquare indication all in one device! In fact. The resistor converts the AC voltage or current quantity into a thermal (heat) quantity. Suppose that the AC source to be measured is connected across a resistor of known value. This is because a CRT with its practically weightless electron beam “movement” displays the Peak (or PeaktoPeak if you wish) of an AC waveform rather than Average or RMS.
1. Shown here is a voltage and current meter panel from a threephase AC system. and parallel “shunt” resistors are used to allow ammeter movements to measure currents beyond their natural range. Potential Transformers (PT’s) and Current Transformers (CT’s) are precision instrument devices manufactured to produce very precise ratios of transformation between primary and secondary windings. they are not used to scale AC meters for any applications other than high voltage and high current. As this panel has been removed from service. They can allow small. there are no currentcarrying conductors threaded through the center of the CT “donuts” anymore: (Figure 12. For scaling a milliamp or microamp movement to a range of 120 volts or 5 amps. However.8 kV load fuse fuse precision stepdown ratio PT V 0120 V AC movement range Figure 12. • REVIEW: . simple AC meter movements to indicate extremely high voltages and currents in power systems with accuracy and complete electrical isolation (something multiplier and shunt resistors could never do): (Figure 12.9: (CT) Current transformer scales current down. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS 373 the same as with DC instruments: series “multiplier” resistors are used to give voltmeter movements higher range.9) 05 A AC movement range A CT precision stepup ratio highvoltage power source 13. just as with DC.” sometimes far beyond what resistors would have practically allowed for. meter ranges can be electromagnetically rather than resistively “stepped up” or “stepped down.10) Because of the expense (and often large size) of instrument transformers. normal precision resistors (multipliers and shunts) are used. Three AC ammeters (rated 5 amps fullscale deﬂection each) on the front of the panel indicate current through each conductor going through a CT. The three “donut” current transformers (CT’s) can be seen in the rear of the panel.12. we are not limited to these techniques as we were with DC: because we can use transformers with AC. (PT) Potential transformer scales voltage down.
Frequency measurement is very important in many applications of alternating current. 12. especially in AC power systems designed to run efﬁciently at one frequency and one frequency only. These instruments may be ranged to indicate RMS value.10: Toroidal current transformers scale high current levels down for application to 5 A fullscale AC ammeters. Every physical object possessing the property of elasticity (springiness) has an inherent frequency at which it will prefer to vibrate.374 CHAPTER 12.2 Frequency and phase measurement An important electrical quantity with no equivalent in DC circuits is frequency. If the AC is being generated by an electromechanical alternator. . AC METERING CIRCUITS Figure 12. naturally provide the average value of a measured AC quantity. other means of measurement will be necessary. If frequency needs to be measured at some distance from the alternator. whether electromagnetic or electrostatic. though. Longer tuning forks have lower resonant frequencies: their tones will be lower on the musical scale than shorter forks. The tuning fork is a great example of this: strike it once and it will continue to vibrate at a tone speciﬁc to its length. the frequency will be directly proportional to the shaft speed of the machine. • Polarized (DC) meter movements must use devices called diodes to be able to indicate AC quantities. One simple but crude method of frequency measurement in power systems utilizes the principle of mechanical resonance. but only if the shape of the AC waveform is precisely known beforehand! • Socalled true RMS meters use different technology to provide indications representing the actual RMS (rather than skewed average or peak) of an AC waveform. • Electromechanical meter movements. and frequency could be measured simply by measuring the speed of the shaft.
FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT 375 Imagine a row of progressivelysized tuning forks arranged sidebyside.12: Vibrating reed frequency meter front panel. They are all mounted on a common base.2. Frequency Meter 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 120 Volts AC Figure 12.12. Whichever tuning fork is closest in resonant frequency to the frequency of that vibration will tend to shake the most (or the loudest). and you have the vibrating reed frequency meter: (Figure 12. looking something like Figure 12. If the forks’ tines were ﬂimsy enough. The user of this meter views the ends of all those unequal length reeds as they are collectively shaken at the frequency of the applied AC voltage to the coil. we could see the relative motion of each by the length of the blur we would see as we inspected each one from an endview perspective. Well.11) sheet metal reeds shaken by magnetic field from the coil to AC voltage Figure 12.12. make a collection of “tuning forks” out of a strip of sheet metal cut in a pattern akin to a rake. and that base is vibrated at the frequency of the measured AC voltage (or current) by means of an electromagnet. The one closest in resonant frequency to the applied AC will vibrate the most. .11: Vibrating reed frequency meter diagram.
This deformation is very. especially because it doesn’t require direct connection to the circuit. then measurement of any unknown frequency by comparison should be relatively easy. or at least a more modern variation of it called the quartz crystal. we turn our attention back to the tuning fork. One or both components are made adjustable. Sensitive AC meter movement variable capacitor with adjustment knob calibrated in Hertz. and a meter is placed in the circuit to indicate maximum amplitude of voltage across the two components. but it does exist. the most accurate means of measurement are usually those where an unknown quantity is compared against a known standard. AC METERING CIRCUITS Vibrating reed meters. They are often found on small enginedriven generator sets for the purpose of setting engine speed so that the frequency is somewhat close to 60 (50 in Europe) Hertz. So long as the inductor and/or capacitor can intercept enough stray ﬁeld (magnetic or electric. Quartz is a naturally occurring mineral possessing a very interesting property called piezoelectricity. but they are very simple and therefore easy to manufacture to be rugged. For that frequency standard. and the frequency is read from them after the device has been adjusted for maximum indication on the meter. their operational principle is not.13: Resonant frequency meter “peaks” as LC resonant frequency is tuned to test frequency. While reedtype meters are imprecise. See Figure 12. This is the basic principle behind the DC (Wheatstone) bridge circuit and it is a sound metrological principle applied throughout the sciences.376 CHAPTER 12. and will physically deform when an external voltage is applied across their lengths. If we have access to an accurate frequency standard (a source of AC voltage holding very precisely to a single frequency). Figure 12. . we may substitute electrical resonance and design a frequency meter using an inductor and capacitor in the form of a tank circuit (parallel inductor and capacitor). This technique is a popular one for amateur radio operators (or at least it was before the advent of inexpensive digital frequency instruments called counters). are not precision instruments. obviously. the basic instrument doing nothing more than indicating when the two quantities are equal to each other. respectively) from the circuit under test to cause the meter to indicate. Piezoelectric materials produce a voltage across their length when physically stressed. The adjustment knob(s) are calibrated to show resonant frequency for any given setting. this is a tunable ﬁlter circuit which is adjusted and then read in a manner similar to a bridge circuit (which must be balanced for a “null” condition and then read). In lieu of mechanical resonance. very slight in most cases.13. Essentially. it will work. In frequency as in other types of electrical measurement.
. it will “ring” with its own unique frequency determined by the length of the chip. the quartz chip will tend to vibrate most when it is “excited” by an applied AC voltage at precisely the right frequency. crystal or xtal Figure 12. In other words. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT 377 Quartz rock is elastic (springy) within that small range of bending which an external voltage would produce. The schematic symbol is shown in Figure 12.15: Quartz crystal equivalent circuit.15) The dielectric properties of quartz contribute an additional capacitive element to the equivalent circuit.2. and that chip mounted securely inside a protective shell with wires extending for connection to an external electric circuit. just like the reeds on a vibratingreed frequency meter. if a chip of quartz is struck. In reciprocal manner. (Figure 12.14. Chips of quartz rock can be precisely cut for desired resonant frequencies. that quartz chip is equivalent to a series LC resonant circuit. C capacitance C caused by wire connections across quartz characteristics of the quartz L Figure 12. When packaged as such. the resulting device is simply called a crystal (or sometimes “xtal”).12.14: Crystal (frequency determing element) schematic symbol. which means that it will have a mechanical resonant frequency of its own capable of being manifested as an electrical voltage signal. Electrically. and that resonant oscillation will produce an equivalent voltage across multiple points of the quartz chip which can be tapped into by wires ﬁxed to the surface of the chip.
the resonant frequency variation over time with a quartz crystal is very. very low. and broadcast frequency signals based on those atoms’ vibrations for scientists and technicians to tune in and use for frequency calibration purposes. a straight line will not be formed. which uses an atom of mercury (or cesium) suspended in a vacuum. Cathode Ray Tubes typically have means of deﬂecting the electron beam in the horizontal as well as the vertical axis. nothing discovered thus far surpasses the accuracy of a single resonating atom. how do we compare that against an unknown frequency to obtain a measurement? One way is to use a CRT as a frequencycomparison device. The ﬁrst picture is of the Lissajous ﬁgure formed by two AC voltages perfectly in phase with each other: (Figure 12. mechanically). principally due to the relative absence of stray resistance. and if their amplitudes are equal: . If the two frequencies are the same. known frequency. If metal plates are used to electrostatically deﬂect the electrons. the crystal in question may be placed in a temperature stabilized environment (usually an oven). Because the resonant frequency is solely dependent on the physical properties of quartz (a very stable substance. the Lissajous ﬁgure will take on the appearance of an oval. as resonant elements. we will obtain a simple ﬁgure on the screen of the CRT. Here is a sampling of Lissajous ﬁgures for two sinewave signals of equal frequency. but what needs to be understood about crystals is this resonant circuit equivalence and how it can be exploited within an oscillator circuit to achieve an output voltage with a stable. For laboratory applications. If we allow one AC signal to deﬂect the beam up and down (connect that AC voltage source to the “vertical” deﬂection plates) and another AC signal to deﬂect the beam left and right (using the other pair of deﬂection plates). there will be a pair of plates to the left and right of the beam as well as a pair of plates above and below the beam as in Figure 12. A full discussion on crystal dynamics is not necessary here. excited by outside energy to resonate at its own unique frequency. The capacitance shown in parallel due to the wire connections across the dielectric (insulating) quartz body is real. Crystals. The resulting frequency is detected as a radiowave signal and that forms the basis for the most accurate clocks known to humanity. This is how quartz movement watches obtain their high accuracy: by means of an electronic oscillator stabilized by the resonant action of a quartz crystal. For the ultimate in a frequency standard though.378 CHAPTER 12. National standards laboratories around the world maintain a few of these hyperaccurate clocks. the shape of that ﬁgure being dependent upon the phase shift between the two AC signals. thus eliminating frequency errors due to thermal expansion and contraction of the quartz. AC METERING CIRCUITS The “capacitance” and “inductance” shown in series are merely electrical equivalents of the quartz’s mechanical resonance properties: they do not exist as discrete components within the crystal. patterns will be produced on the screen of the CRT indicative of the ratio of these two AC frequencies. and it has an effect on the resonant response of the whole system. typically have much higher “Q” (quality) values than tank circuits built from inductors and capacitors. shown as they would appear on the face of an oscilloscope (an AC voltagemeasuring instrument using a CRT as its “movement”). though. even greater frequency stability may be desired. becoming perfectly circular if the phase shift is exactly 90o between the two signals.16. Rather. making their resonant frequencies very deﬁnite and precise. Now we get to the practical part: once we have a source of accurate frequency.17) If the two AC voltages are not in phase with each other. This is the principle of the socalled atomic clock. These patterns are called Lissajous ﬁgures and are a common means of comparative frequency measurement in electronics. To achieve this.
2.12. OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12.16: Cathode ray tube (CRT) with vertical and horizontal deﬂection plates. zero degrees phase shift. .17: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT 379 electron "gun" horizontal deflection plates (vacuum) electrons electrons vertical deflection plates viewscreen light Figure 12.
Finally. the more complex the Lissajous ﬁgure.21) . Consider the following illustration of a 3:1 frequency ratio between horizontal and vertical: (Figure 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12.18) CHAPTER 12. and a 3:2 frequency ratio (horizontal = 3. . 180 degrees phase shift. . 90 or 270 degrees phase shift. only this time it will be oriented in the opposite direction: (Figure 12. Lissajous ﬁgures get quite a bit more complex.19: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. the Lissajous ﬁgure will appear to “move. In cases where the frequencies of the two AC signals are not exactly a simple ratio of each other (but close). When we are faced with signal frequencies that are not the same.22.380 (Figure 12. Consider the following examples and their given vertical/horizontal frequency ratios: (Figure 12.20) The more complex the ratio between horizontal and vertical frequencies. we will end up with a line again.18: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. vertical = 2) in Figure 12.” slowly changing orientation as the .19) OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12. if the two AC signals are directly opposing one another in phase (180o shift).
21: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal frequency is three times that of vertical. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT 381 OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12.20: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal frequency is twice that of vertical.12. .2. OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Figure 12.
the Lissajous ﬁgure will be stable on the viewscreen of the CRT. 3:4. Despite this limitation. Reference frequency signals can be made with a high degree of accuracy by oscillator circuits using quartz crystals as resonant devices. and a sensitive meter is read for maximum voltage or current at the point of resonance. 12. as is the case when using a CRT to generate Lissajous ﬁgures. 2:3. 1:2. 1:3. If the two frequencies are locked in an exact integer ratio between each other. Lissajous ﬁgures are a popular means of frequency comparison wherever an accessible frequency standard (signal generator) exists. atomic clock signal standards (based on the resonant frequencies of individual atoms) can be used. phase angle between the two waveforms rolls between 0o and 180o .). etc. usually) to indicate frequency. • Other frequency meters use electric resonant circuits (LC tank circuits. One or both components is made to be adjustable. with an accurately calibrated adjustment knob. • REVIEW: • Some frequency meters work on the principle of mechanical resonance.382 CHAPTER 12. The physics of Lissajous ﬁgures limits their usefulness as a frequencycomparison technique to cases where the frequency ratios are simple integer values (1:1. AC METERING CIRCUITS OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger DC GND AC timebase X s/div DC GND AC Lissajous figure: Horizontal/Vertical frequency ratio is 3:2 Figure 12. For ultra precision.22: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal/vertical frequency ratio is 3:2. • Frequency can be measured in a comparative fashion. indicating frequency by relative oscillation among a set of uniquely tuned “reeds” shaken at the measured frequency.3 Power measurement Power measurement in AC circuits can be quite a bit more complex than with DC circuits for the simple reason that phase shift complicates the matter beyond multiplying voltage by .
12.3. POWER MEASUREMENT
383
current ﬁgures obtained with meters. What is needed is an instrument able to determine the product (multiplication) of instantaneous voltage and current. Fortunately, the common electrodynamometer movement with its stationary and moving coil does a ﬁne job of this. Three phase power measurement can be accomplished using two dynamometer movements with a common shaft linking the two moving coils together so that a single pointer registers power on a meter movement scale. This, obviously, makes for a rather expensive and complex movement mechanism, but it is a workable solution. An ingenious method of deriving an electronic power meter (one that generates an electric signal representing power in the system rather than merely move a pointer) is based on the Hall effect. The Hall effect is an unusual effect ﬁrst noticed by E. H. Hall in 1879, whereby a voltage is generated along the width of a currentcarrying conductor exposed to a perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld: (Figure 12.23)
voltage
S current N current
S N
Figure 12.23: Hall effect: Voltage is proportional to current and strength of the perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld. The voltage generated across the width of the ﬂat, rectangular conductor is directly proportional to both the magnitude of the current through it and the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. Mathematically, it is a product (multiplication) of these two variables. The amount of “Hall Voltage” produced for any given set of conditions also depends on the type of material used for the ﬂat, rectangular conductor. It has been found that specially prepared “semiconductor” materials produce a greater Hall voltage than do metals, and so modern Hall Effect devices are made of these. It makes sense then that if we were to build a device using a Halleffect sensor where the current through the conductor was pushed by AC voltage from an external circuit and the magnetic ﬁeld was set up by a pair or wire coils energized by the current of the AC power circuit, the Hall voltage would be in direct proportion to the multiple of circuit current and
384
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
voltage. Having no mass to move (unlike an electromechanical movement), this device is able to provide instantaneous power measurement: (Figure 12.24)
voltage
Rmultiplier
AC power source
Load
Figure 12.24: Hall effect power sensor measures instantaneous power. Not only will the output voltage of the Hall effect device be the representation of instantaneous power at any point in time, but it will also be a DC signal! This is because the Hall voltage polarity is dependent upon both the polarity of the magnetic ﬁeld and the direction of current through the conductor. If both current direction and magnetic ﬁeld polarity reverses – as it would ever halfcycle of the AC power – the output voltage polarity will stay the same. If voltage and current in the power circuit are 90o out of phase (a power factor of zero, meaning no real power delivered to the load), the alternate peaks of Hall device current and magnetic ﬁeld will never coincide with each other: when one is at its peak, the other will be zero. At those points in time, the Hall output voltage will likewise be zero, being the product (multiplication) of current and magnetic ﬁeld strength. Between those points in time, the Hall output voltage will ﬂuctuate equally between positive and negative, generating a signal corresponding to the instantaneous absorption and release of power through the reactive load. The net DC output voltage will be zero, indicating zero true power in the circuit. Any phase shift between voltage and current in the power circuit less than 90o will result in a Hall output voltage that oscillates between positive and negative, but spends more time positive than negative. Consequently there will be a net DC output voltage. Conditioned through a lowpass ﬁlter circuit, this net DC voltage can be separated from the AC mixed with it, the ﬁnal output signal registered on a sensitive DC meter movement. Often it is useful to have a meter to totalize power usage over a period of time rather than instantaneously. The output of such a meter can be set in units of Joules, or total energy
12.4. POWER QUALITY MEASUREMENT
385
consumed, since power is a measure of work being done per unit time. Or, more commonly, the output of the meter can be set in units of WattHours. Mechanical means for measuring WattHours are usually centered around the concept of the motor: build an AC motor that spins at a rate of speed proportional to the instantaneous power in a circuit, then have that motor turn an “odometer” style counting mechanism to keep a running total of energy consumed. The “motor” used in these meters has a rotor made of a thin aluminum disk, with the rotating magnetic ﬁeld established by sets of coils energized by line voltage and load current so that the rotational speed of the disk is dependent on both voltage and current.
12.4
Power quality measurement
It used to be with large AC power systems that “power quality” was an unheardof concept, aside from power factor. Almost all loads were of the “linear” variety, meaning that they did not distort the shape of the voltage sine wave, or cause nonsinusoidal currents to ﬂow in the circuit. This is not true anymore. Loads controlled by “nonlinear” electronic components are becoming more prevalent in both home and industry, meaning that the voltages and currents in the power system(s) feeding these loads are rich in harmonics: what should be nice, clean sinewave voltages and currents are becoming highly distorted, which is equivalent to the presence of an inﬁnite series of highfrequency sine waves at multiples of the fundamental power line frequency. Excessive harmonics in an AC power system can overheat transformers, cause exceedingly high neutral conductor currents in threephase systems, create electromagnetic “noise” in the form of radio emissions that can interfere with sensitive electronic equipment, reduce electric motor horsepower output, and can be difﬁcult to pinpoint. With problems like these plaguing power systems, engineers and technicians require ways to precisely detect and measure these conditions. Power Quality is the general term given to represent an AC power system’s freedom from harmonic content. A “power quality” meter is one that gives some form of harmonic content indication. A simple way for a technician to determine power quality in their system without sophisticated equipment is to compare voltage readings between two accurate voltmeters measuring the same system voltage: one meter being an “averaging” type of unit (such as an electromechanical movement meter) and the other being a “trueRMS” type of unit (such as a highquality digital meter). Remember that “averaging” type meters are calibrated so that their scales indicate volts RMS, based on the assumption that the AC voltage being measured is sinusoidal. If the voltage is anything but sinewaveshaped, the averaging meter will not register the proper value, whereas the trueRMS meter always will, regardless of waveshape. The rule of thumb here is this: the greater the disparity between the two meters, the worse the power quality is, and the greater its harmonic content. A power system with good quality power should generate equal voltage readings between the two meters, to within the rated error tolerance of the two instruments. Another qualitative measurement of power quality is the oscilloscope test: connect an oscilloscope (CRT) to the AC voltage and observe the shape of the wave. Anything other than a clean sine wave could be an indication of trouble: (Figure 12.25)
386
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12.25: This is a moderately ugly “sine” wave. Deﬁnite harmonic content here! Still, if quantitative analysis (deﬁnite, numerical ﬁgures) is necessary, there is no substitute for an instrument speciﬁcally designed for that purpose. Such an instrument is called a power quality meter and is sometimes better known in electronic circles as a lowfrequency spectrum analyzer. What this instrument does is provide a graphical representation on a CRT or digital display screen of the AC voltage’s frequency “spectrum.” Just as a prism splits a beam of white light into its constituent color components (how much red, orange, yellow, green, and blue is in that light), the spectrum analyzer splits a mixedfrequency signal into its constituent frequencies, and displays the result in the form of a histogram: (Figure 12.26)
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Total distortion = 43.7 % Power Quality Meter
Figure 12.26: Power quality meter is a low frequency spectrum analyzer.
12.5. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
387
Each number on the horizontal scale of this meter represents a harmonic of the fundamental frequency. For American power systems, the “1” represents 60 Hz (the 1st harmonic, or fundamental), the “3” for 180 Hz (the 3rd harmonic), the “5” for 300 Hz (the 5th harmonic), and so on. The black rectangles represent the relative magnitudes of each of these harmonic components in the measured AC voltage. A pure, 60 Hz sine wave would show only a tall black bar over the “1” with no black bars showing at all over the other frequency markers on the scale, because a pure sine wave has no harmonic content. Power quality meters such as this might be better referred to as overtone meters, because they are designed to display only those frequencies known to be generated by the power system. In threephase AC power systems (predominant for large power applications), evennumbered harmonics tend to be canceled out, and so only harmonics existing in signiﬁcant measure are the oddnumbered. Meters like these are very useful in the hands of a skilled technician, because different types of nonlinear loads tend to generate different spectrum “signatures” which can clue the troubleshooter to the source of the problem. These meters work by very quickly sampling the AC voltage at many different points along the waveform shape, digitizing those points of information, and using a microprocessor (small computer) to perform numerical Fourier analysis (the Fast Fourier Transform or “FFT” algorithm) on those data points to arrive at harmonic frequency magnitudes. The process is not much unlike what the SPICE program tells a computer to do when performing a Fourier analysis on a simulated circuit voltage or current waveform.
12.5
AC bridge circuits
As we saw with DC measurement circuits, the circuit conﬁguration known as a bridge can be a very useful way to measure unknown values of resistance. This is true with AC as well, and we can apply the very same principle to the accurate measurement of unknown impedances. To review, the bridge circuit works as a pair of twocomponent voltage dividers connected across the same source voltage, with a nulldetector meter movement connected between them to indicate a condition of “balance” at zero volts: (Figure 12.27) Any one of the four resistors in the above bridge can be the resistor of unknown value, and its value can be determined by a ratio of the other three, which are “calibrated,” or whose resistances are known to a precise degree. When the bridge is in a balanced condition (zero voltage as indicated by the null detector), the ratio works out to be this:
In a condition of balance: R1 R2 = R3 R4
One of the advantages of using a bridge circuit to measure resistance is that the voltage of the power source is irrelevant. Practically speaking, the higher the supply voltage, the easier it is to detect a condition of imbalance between the four resistors with the null detector, and thus the more sensitive it will be. A greater supply voltage leads to the possibility of increased measurement precision. However, there will be no fundamental error introduced as a result of a lesser or greater power supply voltage unlike other types of resistance measurement schemes.
388
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
R1
R3
null
R2
R4
Figure 12.27: A balanced bridge shows a “null”, or minimum reading, on the indicator. Impedance bridges work the same, only the balance equation is with complex quantities, as both magnitude and phase across the components of the two dividers must be equal in order for the null detector to indicate “zero.” The null detector, of course, must be a device capable of detecting very small AC voltages. An oscilloscope is often used for this, although very sensitive electromechanical meter movements and even headphones (small speakers) may be used if the source frequency is within audio range. One way to maximize the effectiveness of audio headphones as a null detector is to connect them to the signal source through an impedancematching transformer. Headphone speakers are typically lowimpedance units (8 Ω), requiring substantial current to drive, and so a stepdown transformer helps “match” lowcurrent signals to the impedance of the headphone speakers. An audio output transformer works well for this purpose: (Figure 12.28)
Press button To test
Null detector for AC bridge made from audio headphones Headphones
Test leads
1 kΩ
8Ω
Figure 12.28: “Modern” lowOhm headphones require an impedance matching transformer for use as a sensitive null detector.
12.5. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
389
Using a pair of headphones that completely surround the ears (the “closedcup” type), I’ve been able to detect currents of less than 0.1 µA with this simple detector circuit. Roughly equal performance was obtained using two different stepdown transformers: a small power transformer (120/6 volt ratio), and an audio output transformer (1000:8 ohm impedance ratio). With the pushbutton switch in place to interrupt current, this circuit is usable for detecting signals from DC to over 2 MHz: even if the frequency is far above or below the audio range, a “click” will be heard from the headphones each time the switch is pressed and released. Connected to a resistive bridge, the whole circuit looks like Figure 12.29.
Headphones
R1
R3
R2
R4
Figure 12.29: Bridge with sensitive AC null detector. Listening to the headphones as one or more of the resistor “arms” of the bridge is adjusted, a condition of balance will be realized when the headphones fail to produce “clicks” (or tones, if the bridge’s power source frequency is within audio range) as the switch is actuated. When describing general AC bridges, where impedances and not just resistances must be in proper ratio for balance, it is sometimes helpful to draw the respective bridge legs in the form of boxshaped components, each one with a certain impedance: (Figure 12.30) For this general form of AC bridge to balance, the impedance ratios of each branch must be equal:
Z1 Z = 3 Z2 Z4
Again, it must be stressed that the impedance quantities in the above equation must be complex, accounting for both magnitude and phase angle. It is insufﬁcient that the impedance magnitudes alone be balanced; without phase angles in balance as well, there will still be voltage across the terminals of the null detector and the bridge will not be balanced. Bridge circuits can be constructed to measure just about any device value desired, be it capacitance, inductance, resistance, or even “Q.” As always in bridge measurement circuits, the unknown quantity is always “balanced” against a known standard, obtained from a highquality, calibrated component that can be adjusted in value until the null detector device indicates a condition of balance. Depending on how the bridge is set up, the unknown component’s value may be determined directly from the setting of the calibrated standard, or derived from
390
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Z1 null Z2
Z3
Z4
Figure 12.30: Generalized AC impedance bridge: Z = nonspeciﬁc complex impedance. that standard through a mathematical formula. A couple of simple bridge circuits are shown below, one for inductance (Figure 12.31) and one for capacitance: (Figure 12.32)
unknown inductance Lx null Ls standard inductance
R
R
Figure 12.31: Symmetrical bridge measures unknown inductor by comparison to a standard inductor. Simple “symmetrical” bridges such as these are so named because they exhibit symmetry (mirrorimage similarity) from left to right. The two bridge circuits shown above are balanced by adjusting the calibrated reactive component (Ls or Cs ). They are a bit simpliﬁed from their reallife counterparts, as practical symmetrical bridge circuits often have a calibrated, variable resistor in series or parallel with the reactive component to balance out stray resistance in the unknown component. But, in the hypothetical world of perfect components, these simple bridge
12.5. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
391
unknown capacitance Cx Cs null standard capacitance
R
R
Figure 12.32: Symmetrical bridge measures unknown capacitor by comparison to a standard capacitor. circuits do just ﬁne to illustrate the basic concept. An example of a little extra complexity added to compensate for realworld effects can be found in the socalled Wien bridge, which uses a parallel capacitorresistor standard impedance to balance out an unknown series capacitorresistor combination. (Figure 12.33) All capacitors have some amount of internal resistance, be it literal or equivalent (in the form of dielectric heating losses) which tend to spoil their otherwise perfectly reactive natures. This internal resistance may be of interest to measure, and so the Wien bridge attempts to do so by providing a balancing impedance that isn’t “pure” either: Being that there are two standard components to be adjusted (a resistor and a capacitor) this bridge will take a little more time to balance than the others we’ve seen so far. The combined effect of Rs and Cs is to alter the magnitude and phase angle until the bridge achieves a condition of balance. Once that balance is achieved, the settings of Rs and Cs can be read from their calibrated knobs, the parallel impedance of the two determined mathematically, and the unknown capacitance and resistance determined mathematically from the balance equation (Z1 /Z2 = Z3 /Z4 ). It is assumed in the operation of the Wien bridge that the standard capacitor has negligible internal resistance, or at least that resistance is already known so that it can be factored into the balance equation. Wien bridges are useful for determining the values of “lossy” capacitor designs like electrolytics, where the internal resistance is relatively high. They are also used as frequency meters, because the balance of the bridge is frequencydependent. When used in this fashion, the capacitors are made ﬁxed (and usually of equal value) and the top two resistors are made variable and are adjusted by means of the same knob. An interesting variation on this theme is found in the next bridge circuit, used to precisely measure inductances. This ingenious bridge circuit is known as the MaxwellWien bridge (sometimes known plainly as the Maxwell bridge), and is used to measure unknown inductances in terms of calibrated resistance and capacitance. (Figure 12.34) Calibrationgrade inductors are more
392
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Cx Rx Cs null Rs
R
R
Figure 12.33: Wein Bridge measures both capacitive Cx and resistive Rx components of “real” capacitor.
Lx Rx R
null Cs R Rs
Figure 12.34: MaxwellWein bridge measures an inductor in terms of a capacitor standard.
12.5. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
393
difﬁcult to manufacture than capacitors of similar precision, and so the use of a simple “symmetrical” inductance bridge is not always practical. Because the phase shifts of inductors and capacitors are exactly opposite each other, a capacitive impedance can balance out an inductive impedance if they are located in opposite legs of a bridge, as they are here. Another advantage of using a Maxwell bridge to measure inductance rather than a symmetrical inductance bridge is the elimination of measurement error due to mutual inductance between two inductors. Magnetic ﬁelds can be difﬁcult to shield, and even a small amount of coupling between coils in a bridge can introduce substantial errors in certain conditions. With no second inductor to react with in the Maxwell bridge, this problem is eliminated. For easiest operation, the standard capacitor (Cs ) and the resistor in parallel with it (Rs ) are made variable, and both must be adjusted to achieve balance. However, the bridge can be made to work if the capacitor is ﬁxed (nonvariable) and more than one resistor made variable (at least the resistor in parallel with the capacitor, and one of the other two). However, in the latter conﬁguration it takes more trialanderror adjustment to achieve balance, as the different variable resistors interact in balancing magnitude and phase. Unlike the plain Wien bridge, the balance of the MaxwellWien bridge is independent of source frequency, and in some cases this bridge can be made to balance in the presence of mixed frequencies from the AC voltage source, the limiting factor being the inductor’s stability over a wide frequency range. There are more variations beyond these designs, but a full discussion is not warranted here. Generalpurpose impedance bridge circuits are manufactured which can be switched into more than one conﬁguration for maximum ﬂexibility of use. A potential problem in sensitive AC bridge circuits is that of stray capacitance between either end of the null detector unit and ground (earth) potential. Because capacitances can “conduct” alternating current by charging and discharging, they form stray current paths to the AC voltage source which may affect bridge balance: (Figure 12.35) While reedtype meters are imprecise, their operational principle is not. In lieu of mechanical resonance, we may substitute electrical resonance and design a frequency meter using an inductor and capacitor in the form of a tank circuit (parallel inductor and capacitor). One or both components are made adjustable, and a meter is placed in the circuit to indicate maximum amplitude of voltage across the two components. The adjustment knob(s) are calibrated to show resonant frequency for any given setting, and the frequency is read from them after the device has been adjusted for maximum indication on the meter. Essentially, this is a tunable ﬁlter circuit which is adjusted and then read in a manner similar to a bridge circuit (which must be balanced for a “null” condition and then read). The problem is worsened if the AC voltage source is ﬁrmly grounded at one end, the total stray impedance for leakage currents made far less and any leakage currents through these stray capacitances made greater as a result: (Figure 12.36) One way of greatly reducing this effect is to keep the null detector at ground potential, so there will be no AC voltage between it and the ground, and thus no current through stray capacitances. However, directly connecting the null detector to ground is not an option, as it would create a direct current path for stray currents, which would be worse than any capacitive path. Instead, a special voltage divider circuit called a Wagner ground or Wagner earth may be used to maintain the null detector at ground potential without the need for a direct connection to the null detector. (Figure 12.37) The Wagner earth circuit is nothing more than a voltage divider, designed to have the volt
Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray Figure 12.394 CHAPTER 12. .35: Stray capacitance to ground may introduce errors into the bridge. AC METERING CIRCUITS Cstray Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray Cstray Figure 12.36: Stray capacitance errors are more severe if one side of the AC supply is grounded.
but the null detector is also guaranteed to be at zero potential with respect to ground. Because the midpoint of the Wagner divider is directly grounded. . (Figure 12. • Null detectors for AC bridges may be sensitive electromechanical meter movements. and powered by the same AC voltage source. or any other device capable of registering very small AC voltage levels. oscilloscopes (CRT’s). the Wagner earth divider forces the null detector to be at ground potential. Thus.12. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS 395 Cstray Wagner earth Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray Cstray Figure 12. When the null detector registers zero signal in both switch positions. Like DC null detectors. headphones (ampliﬁed or unampliﬁed). There is often a provision made in the null detector connection to conﬁrm proper setting of the Wagner earth divider circuit: a twoposition switch. without a direct connection between the detector and ground. the bridge is not only guaranteed to be balanced. any other divider circuit (including either side of the bridge) having the same voltage proportions and phases as the Wagner divider. age ratio and phase shift as each side of the bridge. its only required point of calibration accuracy is at zero.5. thus eliminating any errors due to leakage currents through stray detectortoground capacitances: • REVIEW: • AC bridge circuits work on the same basic principle as DC bridge circuits: that a balanced ratio of impedances (rather than resistances) will result in a “balanced” condition as indicated by the nulldetector device. will be at ground potential as well.37: Wagner ground for AC supply minimizes the effects of stray capacitance to ground on the bridge.38) so that one end of the null detector may be connected to either the bridge or the Wagner earth.
A simple and easy way to do this is with a potentiometer: (Figure 12. This is especially true in the ﬁelds of automated machine tool control and robotics. Or. they can be “nonsymmetrical.). or even capacitances balancing out inductances. special devices have been made that do the same with AC. pH probes. • Some impedance bridge circuits are frequencysensitive while others are not. • AC bridge circuits can be of the “symmetrical” type where an unknown impedance is balanced by a standard impedance of similar type on the same side (top or bottom) of the bridge. AC METERING CIRCUITS Cstray Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray Cstray Figure 12. The frequencysensitive types may be used as frequency measurement devices if all component values are accurately known.” using parallel impedances to balance series impedances.39) . • A Wagner earth or Wagner ground is a voltage divider circuit added to AC bridges to help reduce errors due to stray capacitance coupling the null detector to ground.38: Switchup position allows adjustment of the Wagner ground. 12. • AC bridge circuits often have more than one adjustment. It is often necessary to be able to detect and transmit the physical position of mechanical parts via electrical signals.396 CHAPTER 12. etc.6 AC instrumentation transducers Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities and repeat that information in the form of DC electrical signals (thermocouples. since both impedance magnitude and phase angle must be properly matched to balance. strain gauges.
40) Obviously. If the potentiometer is to be operated in an environment where combustible vapor or dust is present.6. which means they suffer the effects of physical wear over time. and two secondary windings connected in seriesbucking fashion. potentiometers have their own unique problems. Zero volts means that the core is centered. However. The AC voltage output by an LVDT indicates the position of the movable core. but it is a possibility to be considered. but slides in and out within a nonconducting tube. Also. You might have already experienced this effect when adjusting the volume control on an old radio: when twisting the knob. which stands for Linear Variable Differential Transformers. With most potentiometer circuits. the LVDT does not “wear” like a potentiometer. For one. When the core is centered and both windings are outputting the same voltage. Those noises are the result of poor wiper contact in the volume control potentiometer. this device is a transformer: it has a single primary winding powered by an external source of AC voltage. Thus. It is variable because the core is free to move between the windings. you might hear “scratching” sounds coming out of the speakers. The further away the core is from center position. The phase of the output voltage relative to the excitation voltage indicates which direction from center the core is offset. they rely on physical contact between the “wiper” and the resistance strip. their proportional output versus shaft position becomes less and less certain.12. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS 397 potentiometer shaft moved by physical motion of an object + V  voltmeter indicates position of that object Figure 12. this physical contact between wiper and strip creates the possibility of arcing (sparking) between the two as the wiper is moved. at frequencies ranging from power . the greater percentage of input (“excitation”) voltage will be seen at the output. nor is there the possibility of creating an arc. this potential for arcing translates into a potential for an explosion! Using AC instead of DC. we are able to completely avoid sliding contact between parts if we use a variable transformer instead of a potentiometer. It is called linear because the core’s freedom of motion is straightline.39: Potentiometer tap voltage indicates position of an object slaved to the shaft. The design of an LVDT looks like this: (Figure 12. It is differential because of the way the two secondary windings are connected. the net result at the output terminals will be zero volts. Excitation of the LVDT is typically 10 volts RMS or less. the current is so low that wiper arcing is negligible. As potentiometers wear. Devices made for this purpose are called LVDT’s. Being arranged to oppose each other (180o out of phase) means that the output of this device will be the difference between the voltage output of the two secondary windings. The core does not contact the wire windings. The primary advantage of an LVDT over a potentiometer for position sensing is the absence of physical contact between the moving and stationary parts.
or Rotary Variable Differential Transformer. RVDT’s can be constructed for limited motion of 360o (fullcircle) motion. This device works on almost the same principle. Continuing with this principle. A resolver produces sine and cosine outputs which indicate shaft position. The stator windings are usually in the form of a threephase Y. The output of this LVDT wouldn’t even look like a sine wave because the core would be moved throughout its range of motion before the AC source voltage could complete a single cycle! It would be almost impossible to determine instantaneous core position if it moves faster than the instantaneous source voltage does. the frequency must be higher to allow whatever voltagesensing circuits enough cycles of AC to determine voltage level as the core is moved. If the rotor were energized with DC current rather than AC and the shaft spun continuously. A variation on the LVDT is the RVDT. although synchros with more than three phases have been built. we have what is known as a Synchro or Selsyn.40: AC output of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) indicates core position. AC METERING CIRCUITS AC output voltage AC "excitation" voltage movable core Figure 12. On the rotor is a single winding connected to a source of AC voltage. (Figure 12. this is a positionsensing device much like an RVDT. But this is not how a synchro is designed to be operated.41) A device with a twophase stator is known as a resolver. Rather. One potential disadvantage of the LVDT is its response time. With the rotor energized by AC. imagine this exaggerated scenario: an LVDT powered by a 60 Hz voltage source. much like the primary winding of an LVDT.398 CHAPTER 12. which is a device constructed a lot like a woundrotor polyphase AC motor or generator. To illustrate the potential problem here. just like a motor. except that the core revolves on a shaft instead of moving in a straight line. with the core being moved in and out hundreds of times per second. then the voltages would be true threephase. line to the high audio (20 kHz) range. If very quick response times are desired. except that its output signal is much more deﬁnite. the stator winding voltages will be proportional in magnitude to the angular position . Voltages induced in the stator windings from the rotor’s AC excitation are not phaseshifted by 120o as in a real threephase generator. The rotor is free to revolve a full 360o . which is mostly dependent on the frequency of the AC voltage source.
and a rotating ﬁeld. A resolver has a twophase stator. like a regular LVDT or RVDT. Figure 12. each secondary winding oriented at a unique angle. Synchros are often used in pairs. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS Synchro (a. of the rotor.42: Synchro shafts are slaved to each other. Such “transmitter/receiver” pairs have been used on ships to relay rudder position. phase either 0o or 180o shifted.42) Synchro "transmitter" Synchro "receiver" The receiver rotor will turn to match position with the transmitter rotor so long as the two rotors remain energized. Rotating one moves the other.a "Selsyn") Resolver 399 AC voltage source rotor winding threephase stator winding rotor winding twophase stator winding stator connections rotor connections stator connections rotor connections modern schematic symbol Figure 12.6.k. As the rotor is slowly turned. each winding in turn will line up directly with the rotor. producing full voltage.12. You could think of it as a transformer with one primary winding and three secondary windings.41: A synchro is wound with a threephase stator winding. their shafts will match position to a high degree of accuracy: (Figure 12. With their rotors connected in parallel and energized by the same AC voltage source. or to . while the other windings will produce something less than full voltage.
AC METERING CIRCUITS relay navigational gyro position over fairly long distances. This can be thought of almost as a sort of bridge circuit that achieves balance only if the receiver shaft is brought to one of two (matching) positions with the transmitter shaft.44) threephase AC voltage source (can be Y or Delta) Synchro voltage signal output Figure 12. the rotor coil will progressively align with each stator coil. One rather ingenious application of the synchro is in the creation of a phaseshifting device.43) Synchro "transmitter" Synchro "receiver" AC voltmeter Figure 12. .400 CHAPTER 12. generating an AC voltage at the rotor if the shaft is anything other than 90o or 270o shifted from the shaft position of the transmitter. The only difference between the “transmitter” and the “receiver” is which one gets turned by an outside force. The receiver rotor will no longer generate any torque and consequently will no longer automatically match position with the transmitter’s: (Figure 12.43: AC voltmeter registers voltage if the receiver rotor is not rotated exactly 90 or 270 degrees from the transmitter rotor. these phaseshifted ﬁelds will mix to produce a rotor voltage somewhere between 0o . provided that the stator is energized by threephase AC: (Figure 12.44: Full rotation of the rotor will smoothly shift the phase from 0o all the way to 360o (back to 0o ). In between those positions. it will act as a positionerror detector. The “receiver” can just as easily be used as the “transmitter” by forcing its shaft to turn and letting the synchro on the left match position. their respective magnetic ﬁelds being 120o phaseshifted from one another. As the synchro’s rotor is turned. If the receiver’s rotor is left unpowered.
The practical result is a device capable of providing an inﬁnitely variablephase AC voltage with the twist of a knob (attached to the rotor shaft).45: Inductosyn: (a) Fixed serpentine winding. Resolution of 25 microinches is achievable. A linear Inductosyn has a transformer ratio of 100:1. the ﬁne position. This low signal level is converted to to a 12bit digital format by a resolver to digital converter (RDC). However. we really mean a high frequency carrier is amplitude modulated as the slider moves. An Inductosyn R is a linear version of the resolver. This is an incremental encoder. This constitutes an absolute encoder. A linear movement of a few inches (or cm) resulting in multiple revolutions of the synchro (resolver) generates a train of sinewaves. It outputs signals like a resolver.12. though. (b) movable slider 2phase windings. How many pitches has the slider moved? The sine and cosine signals’ relationship does not reveal that.45) The slider has a pair of windings having the same pitch as the ﬁxed winding. it bears slight resemblance. A synchro or a resolver may measure linear motion if geared with a rack and pinion mechanism. and a movable winding known as a slider. (Figure 12. The 2phase windings provide direction information in the phasing of the sine and cosine waves. Movement by one pitch produces a cycle of sine and cosine waves. Compare this to the 1:1 ratio for a resolver. an auxiliary resolver geared for one revolution per length gives a coarse position. but provides no direction information. If absolute position must be known regardless of the starting point. P θ fixed slider fixed slider sin(θ) (a) cos(θ) (b) Figure 12. Adapted from ﬁg 6.6. or 240o shift. .1 in or 2 mm pitch. One slider winding is adequate for counting pulses.16 [1] When we say sine and cosine waves are produces as a function of linear movement. The slider windings are offset by a quarter pitch so both sine and cosine waves are produced by movement. The two slider AC signals must be measured to determine position within a pitch. multiple pitches produce a train of waves. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS 401 120o . The Inductosyn consists of two parts: a ﬁxed serpentine winding having a 0. the number of pitches (number of waves) may be counted from a known starting point yielding coarse position. A few volts AC excitation into an Inductosyn yields a few millivolts out.
However. the distance between them. Here are a few examples of differential capacitive transducers: (Figure 12. a German researcher named H. capacitance being measured between the metal probe and the body of the subject. recording respiratory and cardiac action by means of capacitance changes. and the dielectric constant of the material in between the surfaces. better that 1 arc second resolution is achievable. Transducers with greater sensitivity and immunity to changes in other variables can be obtained by way of differential design. not just the pumping action but also the sounds of the active heart may be readily interpreted. Alternatively. If two out of three of these variables can be ﬁxed (stabilized) and the third allowed to vary.46: Variable capacitive transducer varies. Counting of pitches from a known starting point is necessary to determine absolute position. unlike the direct physiological examples described above. When used with a 12bit resolver to digital converter. [1] So far the transducers discussed have all been of the inductive variety. it is possible to make transducers which operate on variable capacitance as well.47) . (b) distance between plates. Medical researchers have long made use of capacitive sensing to detect physiological changes in living bodies. Cremer placed two metal plates on either side of a beating frog heart and measured the capacitance changes resulting from the heart alternately ﬁlling and emptying itself of blood. AC being used to sense the change in capacitance and generate a variable output voltage. Some transducers work by making one of the capacitor plates movable. much like the concept behind the LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). either in such a way as to vary the overlapping area or the distance between the plates.46) (a) (b) (c) Figure 12. This is an incremental encoder. capacitive transducers can also be made to be selfcontained units. then any measurement of capacitance between the surfaces will be solely indicative of changes in that third variable. Like inductive transducers. a resolver may determine coarse absolute position. For more precise capacitive measurements of organ activity. As early as 1907. metal probes have been inserted into organs (especially the heart) on the tips of catheter tubes.402 CHAPTER 12. (c) amount of dielectric between plates. Remember that the capacitance between two conductive surfaces varies with three major factors: the overlapping area of those two surfaces. AC METERING CIRCUITS There is also a rotary version of the Inductosyn having 360 pattern pitches per revolution. (a) area of overlap. With a sufﬁciently high AC excitation frequency and sensitive enough voltage detector. Similar measurements have been performed on human beings with metal plates placed on the chest and back. Other transducers work by moving a dielectric material in and out between two ﬁxed plates: (Figure 12.
Because of this.47: Differential capacitive transducer varies capacitance ratio by changing: (a) area of overlap. As with the LVDT. Given the small capacitances provided by typical capacitive transducers. typically in the picofarad range. (b) distance between plates. Good conductor shielding is essential for reliable and accurate capacitive transducer circuitry! The bridge circuit is not the only way to effectively interpret the differential capacitance output of such a transducer.12. As you can see. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS 403 (a) (b) (c) Figure 12. Capacitive transducers provide relatively small capacitances for a measurement circuit to operate with.6. stray capacitances have the potential of being major sources of measurement error. and the direction of offset will be indicated by phase . but it is one of the simplest to implement and understand. high power supply frequencies (in the megahertz range!) are usually required to reduce these capacitive reactances to reasonable levels.48) Pictoral diagram capacitive sensor Schematic diagram V Figure 12.48: Differential capacitive transducer bridge measurement circuit. (c) dielectric between plates. This kind of transducer lends itself very well to implementation in a bridge circuit: (Figure 12. all of the differential devices shown in the above illustration have three wire connections rather than two: one wire for each of the “end” plates and one for the “common” plate. the capacitance between the other “end” plate and the “common” plate is such to change in the opposite direction. As the capacitance between one of the “end” plates and the “common” plate changes. the voltage output of the bridge is proportional to the displacement of the transducer action from its center position.
50) R + C1 R Rload + C2 Figure 12. This circuit might be better understood if redrawn to resemble more of a bridge conﬁguration: (Figure 12. while C2 is charged during every negative halfcycle. This kind of bridge circuit is similar in function to the kind used with strain gauges: it is not intended to be in a “balanced” condition all the time. An interesting alternative to the bridge circuit for interpreting differential capacitance is the twinT. While one capacitor is being charged. and C2 a negative DC voltage with respect to . C1 maintains a positive DC voltage with respect to ground.50: Differential capacitor transducer “TwinT” measurement circuit redrawn as a bridge.49) R R C1 + + C2 Rload Eout Figure 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS shift. but rather the degree of imbalance represents the magnitude of the quantity being measured.404 CHAPTER 12. As a consequence. Capacitor C1 is charged by the AC voltage source during every positive halfcycle (positive as measured in reference to the ground point). It requires the use of diodes. the other capacitor discharges (at a slower rate than it was charged) through the threeresistor network. those “oneway valves” for electric current mentioned earlier in the chapter: (Figure 12.49: Differential capacitive transducer “TwinT” measurement circuit.Output is across Rload .
Furthermore. This has little effect on the peak voltage charge of each capacitor. a measurement circuit incorporating complementary diodes requires the selection of “matched” diodes for good accuracy. If the capacitive transducer is displaced from center position. transducer displacement is indicated by a simple DC voltage. If desired. Another important advantage is that all important circuit elements have one terminal directly connected to ground: the source. a lowpass ﬁlter may be added to the output of this circuit to block the AC. not an AC voltage whose magnitude and phase must be interpreted to tell which capacitance is greater. this DC output signal may be strong enough to directly drive an electromechanical meter movement. the load resistor will drop a voltage proportional to the difference between these voltages. and both capacitors are all groundreferenced. If. As a measurement circuit for differential capacitive sensors. the twinT conﬁguration enjoys many advantages over the standard bridge conﬁguration. Not so with . on the other hand.51) R Lowpass filter R C1 + + C2 Rload Rfilter Cfilter Eout Figure 12. Thus. leaving only a DC signal to be interpreted by measurement circuitry: (Figure 12. The load resistor (Rload ). This circuit is also easy to specify parts for. there is both AC and DC voltage present. the capacitor with the greater capacitance value will hold its charge longer. differential capacitance is translated into a DC voltage across the load resistor.12. connected at one end to the point between the two equalvalue resistors (R) and at the other end to ground. will drop no DC voltage if the two capacitors’ DC voltage charges are equal in magnitude. the load resistor. Across the load resistor. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS 405 ground.51: Addition of lowpass ﬁlter to “twinT” feeds pure DC to measurement indicator. likewise eliminating the need for compensatory measures such as the Wagner earth. with only the DC voltage being signiﬁcant to the difference in capacitance. However. one capacitor will increase in capacitance while the other will decrease. given the proper component values and power supply output. resulting in a greater average DC voltage over time than the lesservalue capacitor. when it comes time to discharge through the resistors. one capacitor maintains a greater DC voltage charge than the other due to a difference in capacitance. First and foremost. resulting in a very short time constant (τ ).6. eliminating the need for an ampliﬁer circuit. Normally. This helps minimize the ill effects of stray capacitance commonly plaguing bridge measurement circuits. as there is negligible resistance in the charging current path from source to capacitor.
of course. assuming a 50% duty cycle (equal positive and negative halfcycles). supply frequency variations have a relatively low impact on gain (how much output voltage is developed for a given amount of transducer displacement). the effects of mismatch are minimal and contribute little to measurement error. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. Not only is it easy to prototype and test.406 CHAPTER 12. Furthermore. Bibliography [1] Waltt Kestler. and squarewave supply voltage works as well as sinewave. but its relative insensitivity to stray capacitance and its high output voltage as compared to traditional bridge circuits makes it a very robust alternative. 12. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. from most recent to ﬁrst. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.PDF . AC METERING CIRCUITS this circuit! So long as the power supply voltage is signiﬁcantly greater than the deviation in voltage drop between the two diodes.analog. Personal experience with using this circuit has conﬁrmed its impressive performance.com/UploadedFiles/Associated Docs/ vices. 324695618448506532114843952501435805318549066180119988Fsect6.7 Contributors Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. Analog Dehttp://www. “Position and Motion Sensors”.
. . . .1 Speed control . . .1 Synchronous reluctance . . 13. . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.9 Singlephase induction motors . . . . . 408 410 412 420 421 421 422 424 426 426 428 431 435 438 442 443 445 454 455 459 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 407 . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . .7. . .7 Tesla polyphase induction motors . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electronic driven variable reluctance motor 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. 13. . . . . .2 Capacitorstart induction motor . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Brushless DC motor . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . .3 Induction motor alternator . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Characteristics . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . .3 Synchronous condenser . . .2 Theory of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Linear induction motor . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Reluctance motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Motor starting and speed control . . . . . . . . . .1 Hysteresis and Eddy Current . . . 13.5.3 Permanent magnet stepper . .7. . .4 Hybrid stepper motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . 13. .Chapter 13 AC MOTORS Contents 13. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Doublyfed induction generator . . 13. . . . . .5 Stepper motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Variable reluctance stepper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Switched reluctance . .2 Synchronous Motors . 13. 13. . 13. . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . 13.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Permanentsplit capacitor motor . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Construction . . . . . . . .8 Wound rotor induction motors .4. . .3 Capacitorrun motor induction motor . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission of electrical energy covered longer distances at lower loss with alternating current. . 13. .4 Repulsion motor . . . . . . . . . . . . AC MOTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Eddy current clutch . . .12. . . . . . . . . However. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2phase servo motor . .5 Repulsion start induction motor . . . . . . .10. .1 Shaded pole induction motor . . . . 13. . .3 Control transformer . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . .1 Single phase series motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Compensated series motor . . . . . . . . .12 AC commutator motors . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . .10. 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Other specialized motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Resolver . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . 13. . .9. . . . CHAPTER 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lighting worked as well on AC as on DC. . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Transmitter . . . . . . 13. . . . . . .receiver . . . . . . . AC . . . . .408 13. . . motors were a problem with alternating current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initially. . . . . . . . . . . 13.11. . .11 Selsyn (synchro) motors . . . 13. . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction After the introduction of the DC electrical distribution system by Edison in the United States. .2 Differential transmitter . . . . . . .1: Conductors of squirrel cage induction motor removed from rotor. . . . . . . . . .5 Nola power factor corrrector . Bibliography . . . . . . . . .4 Resistance splitphase motor induction motor 13. .10. . . . .receiver . . . . . . . . . . a gradual transition to the more economical AC system commenced. .12. . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . 465 466 467 467 468 468 469 469 470 471 474 476 477 478 478 479 479 480 480 Original author: Dennis Crunkilton Figure 13. . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hysteresis motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11. . . 13. . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Universal motor .
INTRODUCTION Electric motor family tree Electric motor AC DC Figure 13.13. Asynchronous AC brushed Universal Synchronous Other DC motors Polyphase Single phase Sine wave Stepper Brushless Reluctance Squirrel cage Permanent split capacitor Split phase Wound rotor Variable reluctance Synchronous reluctance Wound rotor Capacitor start Shaded pole PM rotor PM Switched reluctance Synchros & resolvers Capacitor run Variable reluctance Synchronous condenser Hybrid 409 .2: AC electric motor family diagram.1.
AC MOTORS motors were constructed like DC motors. The brushless DC motor. similar to the DC variety. electric motors are not 100% efﬁcient. Yet small brushed AC motors. Such has been the case with dieselelectric locomotives on a smaller scale for many years. one goal is to maximize motor efﬁciency. Cruise ships and other large vessels replace reduction geared drive shafts with large multimegawatt generators and motors. generated by solid state circuitry. Numerous problems were encountered due to changing magnetic ﬁelds.3) a motor takes in electrical energy in terms of a potential difference and a current ﬂow. His new type of motor. AC motors also have some losses not encountered by DC motors: hysteresis and eddy currents. the Tesla motor reigns supreme. 13. Though few AC motors today bear any resemblance to DC motors. persist in small appliances along with small Tesla induction motors. (Figure 13. as compared to the static ﬁelds in DC motor motor ﬁeld coils. a digital version of motor.1 Hysteresis and Eddy Current Early designers of AC motors encountered problems traced to losses unique to alternating current magnetics. It must be removed from the motor and may adversely affect longevity. is the workhorse of industry to this day. And.410 CHAPTER 13. Modern solid state electronic circuits drive brushless DC motors with AC waveforms generated from a DC source. The heat is an undesired byproduct of the conversion. .1) make for long life. high reliability. Mechanical enegy Electrical energy Heat Figure 13.1. is replacing the conventional brushed DC motor in many applications. and low maintenance. Nikola Tesla envisioned an entirely new type of motor when he visualized a spinning turbine. due to I2 R losses in the motor windings. The laminations are coated with insulating varnish before stacking and bolting into the ﬁnal form. Above one horsepower (750 W). (Figure 13.3: Motor system level diagram. the AC induction motor. is driven by alternating current square waves. Both rotor and stator cores of AC motors are composed of a stack of insulated laminations.2 shows the family tree of the AC motors described in this chapter. Some of the electric energy is lost to heat. again. Charles P. Steinmetz contributed to solving these problems with his investigation of hysteresis losses in iron armatures. reducing the heat loss. but by a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. Alas. Its ruggedness and simplicity (Figure 13. Thus. actually an AC motor. Figure 13. another form of energy. converting it to mechanical work. At the system level. the stepper motor. These problems were encountered when adapting DC motors to AC operation. Eddy currents are minimized by breaking the potential conductive loop into smaller less lossy segments. not spun by water or steam. these problems had to be solved before AC motors of any type could be properly designed before they were built.4) The current loops look like shorted transformer secondary turns.
let alone in the opposite direction. solid core laminated core Figure 13. a small amount of residual magnetization. 4% silicon. Silicon grain oriented steel. If a soft iron nail is temporarily magnetized by a solenoid. B Teslas BR HC H Aturns/m B H HC BR low hysteresis loss high loss Figure 13. Hc the coercive force.5) An alternating current has to expend energy. Magnetic hysteresis is a lagging behind of magnetic ﬁeld strength as compared to magnetizing force. has still lower losses. the silicon (a semiconductor) added to the alloy used in the laminations increases electrical resistance which decreases the magnitude of eddy currents. However. hysteresis losses are minimized. “Soft” iron alloys have lower losses than “hard” high carbon steel alloys. Hysteresis loss is encountered each time the polarity of the AC reverses.13.1. rolled to preferentially orient the grain or crystalline structure. one would expect the nail to lose the magnetic ﬁeld once the solenoid is deenergized. Once Steinmetz’s Laws of hysteresis could predict iron core losses.4: Eddy currents in iron cores. Also.5: Hysteresis curves for low and high loss alloys. If the laminations are made of silicon alloy grain oriented steel. (Figure 13. Br due to hysteresis remains. it was possible to design . INTRODUCTION 411 The thin isolated laminations break these loops. in overcoming this residual magnetization before it can magnetize the core back to zero. The loss is proportional to the area enclosed by the hysteresis loop on the BH curve.
Since motors and generators are similar in construction. conversely. Large synchronous motors are a few percent more efﬁcient than the more common induction motors.6: Synchronous motor running in step with alternator. (clocks) and tape players. (2) drive both alternators at the same rotational rate.412 CHAPTER 13. it could be two motors. if an external power source were connected. This is due to power plant operators purposely maintaining the long term accuracy of the frequency of the AC distribution system. Above 10 Horsepower (10 kW) the higher efﬁciency and leading powerfactor make large synchronous motors useful in industry. Though battery powered quartz regulated clocks are widely available. Today this is but a minor category of AC motors. (4) close the switch before they drift out of phase. This knowledge of eddy current and hysteresis was ﬁrst applied to building AC commutator motors similar to their DC counterparts. they will make up the lost cycles of AC so that clocks lose no time. The point is that in either case the rotors must run at the same nominal frequency. the alternators will be locked to each other. (3) advance or retard the phase of one unit until both AC outputs are in phase. Others invented new types of AC motors bearing little resemblance to their DC kin. 13. the AC line operated variety has better long term accuracy−− over a period of months. requiring considerable torque to break one unit loose (out of synchronization) from the other. Though. Or. they must be synchronized. Once synchronized. torque angle N S N S 1 S S N N 2 S S N N 3 Figure 13. If it falls behind by a few cycles. use a motor as a generator. That is. AC MOTORS AC motors which performed as designed. it should be possible to use a generator as a motor.6 could either be two paralleled and synchronized alternators driven by a mechanical energy sources. The procedure for synchronizing two alternators is to (1) open the switch. A synchronous motor is similar to an alternator with a rotating ﬁeld. If more torque in the direction of rotation is applied to the rotor of one of the above rotating . The ﬁgure below shows small alternators with a permanent magnet rotating ﬁeld.2 Synchronous Motors Single phase synchronous motors are available in small sizes for applications requiring precise timing such as time keeping. and be in phase with each other. This ﬁgure 13. the synchronous motor is more complex. or an alternator driving a synchronous motor. This was akin to being able to design a bridge ahead of time that would not collapse once it was actually built.
Note. the lower south coil pushes the south rotor pole. the angle of the rotor will lag the stator ﬁeld as at (3). At (4) the sinewave reaches a negative peak with holding torque again at a maximum. Assuming that the motor is up to synchronous speed.7: Sinewave drives synchronous motor. The process repeats for a new cycle of sine wave. the lower north coil pushes the north rotor pole. As the sine wave changes from negative to 0 VDC to positive.2. as the sine wave changes to positive in Figure 13. the angle of the rotor will advance (opposite of (3)) with respect to the magnetic ﬁeld in the stator coils while still synchronized and the rotor will deliver energy to the AC line like an alternator.7 (1). If a load such as a brake is applied to one of the above units. the synchronous motor will maintain synchronism with the AC power source and develop torque. the synchronous motor is not self starting and must still be brought up to the approximate alternator electrical speed before it will lock (synchronize) to the generator rotational rate. α S N N 1 2 1 3 4 S S N S S N 2 N N N S N S 3 S 4 Figure 13. The current in the coils of a single phase synchronous motor pulsates while alternating . Synchronization and torque are lost beyond this angle. it is not necessary to go through the elaborate synchronization procedure for alternators. the above ﬁgure illustrates the rotor position for a noload condition (α=0o ). In the case of a small synchronous motor in place of the alternator Figure 13. loading the rotor will cause the rotor to lag the positions shown by angle α. By the time that the sine wave reaches a peak at (2). like a motor. the rotor will exceed the maximum torque angle advancing or lagging so much that synchronization is lost. In a similar manner the rotor south pole is repelled by the upper south coil and attracted to the lower north coil. If excessive torque or drag is applied. In a similar manner the rotor north pole is repelled by the upper north coil and attracted to the lower south coil. The rotor will also be advanced with respect to the rotor in the other alternator. This angle increases with loading until the maximum motor torque is reached at α=90o electrical. Torque is developed only when synchronization of the motor is maintained. However.6 right. while the upper south coil attracts that rotor north pole. In actual practice. extracting energy from the AC line. Once up to speed. As the sine wave changes to negative between (3&4). SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 413 alternators. while attracting rotor north rotor pole.13. the torque holding the north pole of the rotor up is at a maximum. This torque decreases as the sine wave decreases to 0 VDC at (3) with the torque at a minimum.
Pole pieces route the south ﬂux from the bottom and outside of the coil to the top. Rather than wind 12coils for a 12pole motor.8) is for illustration. A lower speed motor may be constructed by adding more pole pairs. the bottom south. Though the polarity of the coil alternates due to the appplied AC. it synchronizes to this alternation. a permanent magnet rotor bar will encounter 6pole pairs corresponding to 6cycles of AC in one physical rotation of the bar magnet. A 2pole (pair of NS poles) alternator will generate a 60 Hz sine wave when rotated at 3600 rpm (revolutions per minute). it is necessary to bring the permanent magnet rotor up to speed with an auxiliary motor. A similar 2pole permanent magnet synchronous motor will also rotate at 3600 rpm. If the permanent magnet rotor speed is close to the frequency of this alternation. wind a single coil with twelve interdigitated steel poles pieces as shown in Figure 13. or 600 rpm for a 12pole motor.10) shows a 12pole Westclox synchronous clock motor. The style of construction shown (Figure 13.8: Addition of ﬁeld poles decreases speed.9. Thus. Higher efﬁciency higher torque multipole stator synchronous motors actually have multiple poles in the rotor. Figure 13. The rotation speed will be 1/6 of the electrical speed of the AC. The stator (Figure 13.414 CHAPTER 13. A 4pole motor would rotate at 1800 rpm. The 3600 rpm corresponds to 60 revolutions per second. N S Figure 13. Construction is similar to the previous ﬁgure with a single coil. AC MOTORS polarity. The one coil style of construction is . These 6souths are interleaved with 6north tabs bent up from the top of the steel pole piece of the coil. assume that the top is temporarily north. Rotor speed will be 1/6 of that experienced with a 2pole synchronous motor. Since the coil ﬁeld pulsates and does not rotate. Example: 60 Hz would rotate a 2pole motor at 3600 rpm.9: Onewinding 12pole synchronous motor. This is a small induction motor similar to those in the next section. a 12pole motor at 600 rpm.
The synchronous motor bar rotating within the pole tabs keeps accurate time. This 600 rpm motor drives reduction gears moving clock hands.11: Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www. If the Westclox motor were to run at 600 rpm from a 50 Hz power source. It would rotate at 50/5 = 10 rotations per second or 600 rpm (10 s−1 x 60 s/minute.13.10: Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www. At one time nonselfstarting motors without the induction motor cup were manufactured.) Figure 13.com The rotor (Figure 13. The induction motor cup outside of the bar magnet ﬁts outside and over the tabs for self starting.clockHistory.com economical for low torque motors. A 3phase synchronous motor as shown in Figure 13.12 generates an electrically rotating ﬁeld in the stator.clockHistory. Such motors are not self starting if started from a ﬁxed frequency power . how many poles would be required? A 10pole motor would have 5pairs of NS poles. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 415 Figure 13.2.11) consists of a permanent magnet bar and a steel induction motor cup.
Since the sine waves actually overlap. but smoothly. where f is the power line frequency. Large industrial synchronous motors are self started by embedded squirrel cage conductors in the armature. For rotor speed in rpm. Only 3phase is shown above. Having a leading power factor. φ2. The three phases of stator excitation add vectorially to produce a single resultant magnetic ﬁeld which rotates f/2n times per second. The multiphase drive signals are generated by electronic circuits. AC MOTORS source such as 50 or 60 Hz as found in an industrial setting. φ3.12) will rotate at 1800 rpm with 60 Hz power or 1500 rpm with 50 Hz power. The electromagnetic armature is only energized after the rotor is brought up to near synchronous speed.416 CHAPTER 13. Furthermore. the ﬁeld will be at a peak pointing between these poles. The number of poles is n. 4pole synchronous motor Small multiphase synchronous motors (Figure 13. the rotor is not a permanent magnet as shown below for the multihorsepower (multikilowatt) motors used in industry. . the resultant ﬁeld will rotate. These will be slip ring fed electromagnets in large industrial motors. Large industrial synchronous motors are more efﬁcient than induction motors. when the φ1 and φ2 sinewaves coincide. Such motors are known as brushless DC motors. Two or three phase drive may be used by supplying the appropriate number of windings in the stator. and will be square waves in all but the most demanding applications. They are used when constant speed is required.12) may be started by ramping the drive frequency from zero to the ﬁnal running frequency. True synchronous motors are driven by sine waveforms. but an electromagnet. acting like an induction motor. they can correct the AC line for a lagging power factor. multiply by 60. If the coils are energized one at a time in the sequence φ1. S = f120/n where: S = rotor speed in rpm f = AC line frequency n = number of poles per phase The 3phase 4pole (per phase) synchronous motor (Figure 13. The rotor with multiple magnet poles (below right) is used in any efﬁcient motor driving a substantial load.12: Three phase. not in steps. 50 or 60 Hz for industrial power line operated motors. The bar magnet rotor shown is only appropriate for small motors. φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2 φ3 N S S N S N φ3 Figure 13. the rotor should point to the corresponding poles in turn. For example.
This type of motor has higher ripple torque torque variation through a shaft revolution than a sine wave driven motor.14) This tachometer signal. Would ripple torque be a problem for a motor used in a tape player? Yes. This is analogous to the mechanical situation. If a motor is driven by sinewaves of current synchronous with the motor back emf. Would ripple torque be a problem for a fan motor? No. we do not want the motor to alternately speed and slow as it moves audio tape past a tape playback head. is fed back to a phase locked loop.2. The PM rotor may be rotated by hand but will encounter attraction to the pole pieces when near them. If constant and accurate speed of rotation is required. Ripple torque. inductosyn (magnetic encoder).13. (Figure 13. a pulse train proportional to motor speed. (as for a disk drive) a tachometer and phase locked loop may be included. is known as a brushless DC motor. as proviced by simple hall effect sensors. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS waveform gen & power drive φ1 φ2 φ3 motor torque output 417 hall effect Figure 13.15) Note that there are no stator coils.14: Phase locked loop controls synchronous motor speed. The position sensor could be as simple as as solid state magnetic ﬁeld sensors such as Hall effect devices providing commutation (armature current direction) timing to the drive electronics The position sensor could be a high resolution angular sensor such as a resolver. Though. A motor driven by square waves of current. not even a motor. we are primarily interested in synchronous motors in this section.13) shows the drive electronics associated with a low voltage (12 VDC ) synchronous motor. This is not a problem for many applications. (Figure 13. which provides a low level signal with a frequency proportional to the speed of rotation of the motor. A synchronous motor will generate a sinusoidal back emf if the stator .13: Electronic synchronous motor The block diagram (Figure 13. or cogging is caused by magnetic attraction of the rotor poles to the stator pole pieces. it is classiﬁed as a synchronous AC motor. reference frequency phase locked loop waveform gen & power drive φ1 φ2 φ3 motor torque output position sensor tachometer Figure 13. These motors have a position sensor integrated within the motor. which compares the tachometer frequency and phase to a stable reference frequency source such as a crystal oscillator. regardless of whether the drive waveforms are generated by electronic means. or an optical encoder.
3φ distributed winding Single phase belt Figure 13.16: Windings distributed in a belt produce a more sinusoidal ﬁeld.15: Motor ripple torque and mechanical analog.418 CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS N S Ripple torque mechanical analog Figure 13. .
17) Each phase requires drive electronics for this wave form phaseshifted by the appropriate amount per phase. The synchronous motor can also be smaller. or optical or magnetic encoder provides resolution of hundreds to thousands of parts (pulses) per revolution. A resolver.16) across many slots instead of concentrated on one large pole (as drawn in most of our simpliﬁed illustrations). The high temperature superconducting version of this motor is one ﬁfth to one third the weight of a copper wound motor. PWM Figure 13. makes it attractive for such applications.2.13. especially if high energy permanent magnets are used in the rotor. Winding belts may take on an alternate concentric form as shown in Figure 13. a small synchronous motor. In all these applications the electronic variable speed drive is essential. Synchronous motor efﬁciency is higher than that of induction motors. the torque is constant throughout a revolution by the trigonometric identity: sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 The generation and synchronization of the drive waveform requires a more precise rotor position indication than provided by the hall effect sensors used in brushless DC motors. The advent of modern solid state electronics makes it possible to drive these motors at variable speed. A resolver provides analog angular position signals in the form of signals proportional to the sine and cosine of shaft angle. For a 2phase motor. The sine wave drive may actually be from a PWM.17: PWM approximates a sinewave.76. a high efﬁciency method of approximating a sinewave with a digital waveform. Encoders provide a digital angular position indication in either serial or parallel format. Slots having fewer windings at the edge of the phase winding may share the space with other phases. Pulse Width Modulator. driven by a sinewave. which mounts inside a drive wheel. . It will be more sinusoidal if pole windings are distributed in a belt (Figure 13. However. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 419 magnetic ﬁeld has a sinusoidal distribution. This arrangement cancels many of the stator ﬁeld odd harmonics. (Figure 13.[1] The largest experimental superconducting synchronous motor is capable of driving a naval destroyer class ship. Induction motors are mostly used in railway traction.
This enhances power line voltage regulation. Thus. More real power may be transmitted through a ﬁxed size line if the power factor is brought closer to unity by synchronous condensers absorbing reactive power. the rotor needs to lag the stator ﬁeld direction by 90o . the windage loss for a hydrogen ﬁlled unit is 7% of that encountered in air. by absorbing or supplying reactive power to the line. the leading power factor can be adjusted by varying the ﬁeld excitation. a hydrogen ﬁlled synchronous condenser can be driven harder than an air cooled unit. This type of control is known as vector phase control. or it may be physically smaller for a given capacity. Thus. and controlled.[2] A larger version of the linear synchronous motor with a movable carriage containing high energy NdBFe permanent magnets is being developed to launch aircraft from naval aricraft carriers. Originally. large industrial synchronous motors came into wide use because of this ability to correct the lagging power factor of induction motors.420 CHAPTER 13. It is implemented with a fast microprocessor driving a pulse width modulator for the stator phases. There is no explosion hazard as long as the hydrogen concentration is maintained above 70%. If the rotor and stator of a conventional rotary synchronous motor are unrolled. AC MOTORS The variable speed drive must also reduce the drive voltage at low speed due to decreased inductive reactance at lower frequency. Much less results in reduced torque. This type of motor is applied to precise high speed linear positioning. Any more. Since a synchronous condenser does not supply a torque. the output shaft may be dispensed with and the unit easily enclosed in a gas tight shell. Such a device is known as a synchronous condenser. Furthermore.3 Synchronous condenser Synchronous motors load the power line with a leading power factor. Since the density of hydrogen is 7% of that of air. The stator of a synchronous motor is the same as that of the more popular induction motor. As a result. A synchronous condenser is operated in a borderline condition between a motor and a generator with no mechanical load to fulﬁll this function. typically above 91%. As a result the industrial grade electronic speed control used with induction motors is also applicable to large industrial synchronous motors. the thermal conductivity of hydrogen is ten times that of air. the position of the rotor needs to be known accurately. heat removal is ten times more efﬁcient. This leading power factor can be exaggerated by removing the mechanical load and over exciting the ﬁeld of the synchronous motor. To develop maximum torque. It can compensate either a leading or lagging power factor.[3] 13. it loses synchronization. Furthermore. The synchronous condenser may then be ﬁlled with hydrogen to aid cooling and reduce windage losses. a synchronous linear motor results. The efﬁciency of long power transmission lines may be increased by placing synchronous condensers along the line to compensate lagging currents caused by line inductance. And the position of the rotor with respect to the stator ﬁeld needs to be calculated. This is often usefull in cancelling out the more commonly encountered lagging power factor caused by induction motors and other inductive loads. This makes it possible to nearly cancel an arbitrary lagging power factor to unity by paralleling the lagging load with a synchronous motor. .
An iron core would saturate at 2 Teslas in the rotor air gap. The superconducting wire carries 160 times the current of comparable copper wire.4. (Figure 13. Such a synchronous condenser has a higher power density (smaller physically) than a switched capacitor bank. Generator Voltage 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 20% 40% 60% Line current 80% 100% sync w/o hronous cond syn ense chr r ono us con den ser Figure 13.18) A capacitor bank does not have this ability. The manufacturer describes it as being a “reactive power shock absorber”. RELUCTANCE MOTOR 421 The ability of synchronous condensers to absorb or produce reactive power on a transient basis stabilizes the power grid against short circuits and other transient fault conditions. The capacity of a synchronous condenser can be increased by replacing the copper wound iron ﬁeld rotor with an ironless rotor of high temperature superconducting wire.4.18: Synchronous condenser improves power line voltage regulation.13. is of no more use than air. approximate µr =1000.4 Reluctance motor The variable reluctance motor is based on the principle that an unrestrained piece of iron will move to complete a magnetic ﬂux path with minimum reluctance. in the rotor. (Figure 13. or any other material with a relative permeability µr =1. Such a machine is said to have considerable additional transient ability to supply reactive power to troublesome loads like metal melting arc furnaces. it will still develop 10 or 15% of synchronous torque. The ability to absorb or produce reactive power on a transient basis stabilizes the overall power grid against fault conditions. 13. which increases generator excitation thereby restoring line voltage. while producing a ﬂux density of 3 Teslas or higher. an iron core. Thus. This supplements longer response times of quick acting voltage regulation and excitation of generating equipment. Transient sags and dips of milliseconds duration are stabilized.1 Synchronous reluctance If the rotating ﬁeld of a large synchronous motor with salient poles is deenergized. The synchronous condenser aids voltage regulation by drawing leading current when the line voltage sags. This is due to variable reluctance throughout . which must be cooled to the liquid nitrogen boiling point of 77o K (196o C).19) 13. the magnetic analog of electrical resistance.
4. Sine wave drive (d) may be generated by a pulse width modulator (PWM). If one end of each 3phase winding of the switched reluctance motor is brought out via a common lead wire. corresponding to the stator slots. low pullout torque. The mangetic ﬂux seeks the path of least reluctance. That is. we can explain operation as if it were a stepper motor. (Figure 13.20) of the stator phases moves the rotor from one position to the next. The reluctance of the rotor to stator ﬂux path varies with the position of the rotor. It starts like an induction motor but runs with a small amount of synchronous torque. 13. a switched reluctance motor. a synchronous reluctance motor results.19: Reluctance is a function of rotor position in a variable reluctance motor. and low efﬁciency are characteristics of the direct power line driven variable reluctance motor. one which only switches in one direction. There is no practical application for a large synchronous reluctance motor. but requires a bipolar switch.19) A switched reluctance motor is also known as a variable reluctance motor. (Figure 13. When a stator coil pole pair is energized. Sequential switching (Figure 13. Such was the status of the variable reluctance motor for a century before the development of semiconductor power control.20) The other coil connections are successively pulled to ground. However. in a wave drive pattern. requiring only a single ended unipolar switch. is ﬁtted to a multiphase stator. but without any conductors. If slots are cut into the conductorless rotor of an induction motor. it is practical in small sizes. Waveforms (a & b) are applicable to the stepper motor version of the variable reluctance motor. This motor is an inexpensive means of developing a moderate synchronous torque. capable of synchronizing with the stator ﬁeld results. Various waveforms may drive variable reluctance motors.2 Switched reluctance If an iron rotor with poles. or drawn from the power line. the magnetic analog of electric resistance. (Figure 13. This attracts the rotor to the clockwise rotating magnetic ﬁeld in 60o increments. More torque is provided by the bipolar drive (b).422 CHAPTER 13. φ3 S S φ3 N high reluctance N low reluctance Figure 13. The synchronous torque is due to changes in reluctance of the magnetic path from the stator through the rotor as the slots align. AC MOTORS a rotor revolution. The power driver must pull alternately high and low.21) Wave drive (a) is simple. Low power factor. . For smooth vibration free operation the 6step approximation of a sine wave (c) is desirable and easy to generate. This is an over simpliﬁed rotor and waveforms to illustrate operation. the rotor will move to the lowest magnetic reluctance path. one at a time.
φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 (b) (a) φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 (d) (c) Figure 13.4. (b) bipolar full step (c) sinewave (d) bipolar 6step. RELUCTANCE MOTOR 423 V+ φ3 φ2 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 φ1 φ2 φ3 Figure 13. .21: Variable reluctance motor drive waveforms: (a) unipolar wave drive.20: Variable reluctance motor. oversimpliﬁed operation.13.
13. covered in another section. an electronic feedback system. A variable reluctance motor driven by a servo. this is offset by the cost of the electronic control. If smooth rotation is the goal. Though difﬁcult to control. The relationship between torque and stator current is highly nonlinear– difﬁcult to control. Rather than a stepper. Figure 13.22: Electronic driven variable reluctance motor.23) resembles a brushless DC motor without a permanent magnet rotor. it is difﬁcult to control. While the variable reluctance motor is simple. minimizing ripple torque. this motor is easy to spin. A variable reluctance motor intended to move in discrete steps. An electronic driven variable reluctance motor (Figure 13. This makes the motor simple and inexpensive. controls torque and speed. stop. However. or derive this from monitoring the stator back EMF. AC MOTORS Doubling the number of stator poles decreases the rotating speed and increases torque. It is necessary to measure the rotor position with a rotary position sensor like an optical or magnetic encoder. This must be done precisely to minimize audible noise and ripple . microprocessors and solid state power drive makes this motor an economical high performance solution in some high volume applications. there is an electronic driven version of the switched reluctance motor.22.424 CHAPTER 13. Sequential switching of the ﬁeld coils creates a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which drags the irregularly shaped rotor around with it as it seeks out the lowest magnetic reluctance path.3 Electronic driven variable reluctance motor Variable reluctance motors are poor performers when direct power line driven. a variable reluctance motor is optimized for continuous high speed rotation with minimum ripple torque. φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ3 φ1 φ2 Figure 13.23 This is the opposite of the high ripple torque desired in stepper motors. Variable reluctance motors or steppers actually use rotors like those in Figure 13. Electronic control solves this problem and makes it practical to drive the motor well above and below the power line frequency. and start is a variable reluctance stepper motor. This might eliminate a gear reduction drive.4. However. even more so than an induction motor. which is not nearly as simple as that for a brushless DC motor. A microprocessor performs complex calculations for switching the windings at the proper time with solid state devices.
fan motors. no rotor windings.13.4. RELUCTANCE MOTOR 425 µprocessor control stator drive variable reluctance motor stator current rotor position Figure 13. which is only justiﬁed for large manufacturing volumes. The strict drive requirements make this motor only practical for high volume applications like energy efﬁcient vacuum cleaner motors. One such vacuum cleaner uses a compact high efﬁciency electronic driven 100. or pump motors.000 rpm fan motor. • Cost effective compared to bushless DC motor in high volumes. • High starting torque. it requires considerable optimization. or permanent magnets. commutator. But. torque. no Cu or Al in the rotor. No brushes.23: Electronic driven variable reluctance motor. For lowest ripple torque. winding current must be monitored and controlled. • Adaptable to very high ambient temperature. The efﬁciency of this electronic driven motor can be high. The simplicity of the motor compensates for the drive electronics cost.no brushes. no permanent magnets. Disadvantages • Current versus torque is highly nonlinear • Phase switching must be precise to minimize ripple torque • Phase current must be controlled to minimize ripple torque • Acoustic and electrical noise • Not applicable to low volumes due to complex control issues . • High efﬁciency and reliability compared to conventional AC or DC motors. • Low cost accurate speed control possible if volume is high enough. no commutator. using specialized design techniques. simpliﬁes motor manufacture. Advantages • Simple construction.
the default is the stepper due to low cost. rather than rotating continuously like a conventional motor. being either “on” or “off ”. (Figure 13. The rotor moves in discrete steps as commanded. The servo ampliﬁer is a linear ampliﬁer with some difﬁcult to integrate discrete components. Otherwise. High acceleration or unusually high accuracy still requires a servo motor.5 Stepper motors A stepper motor is a “digital” version of the electric motor. Today this is a higher cost solution to high performance motion control applications. Thus.5. we treat stepper motors as a class of AC synchronous motor. Modern solid state driver electronics was a key to its success. Drive waveforms of bipolar (±) square waves of 224V are more common these days. the predecessor of the stepper motor was the servo motor. When stopped but energized. good torque. Thus.24: Stepper motor vs servo motor. The expense and complexity of a servomotor is due to the additional system components: position sensor and error ampliﬁer. a stepper motor controller is less complex and costly than a servo motor controller.426 CHAPTER 13. simple drive electronics. And. Slosyn synchronous motors can run from AC line voltage like a singlephase permanentcapacitor induction motor. and low cost. The rotor is a cylindrical solid. The capacitor generates a 90o second phase. Wide spread acceptance of the stepper motor within the last two decades was driven by the ascendancy of digital electronics. As the windings are energized in sequence. Application wise. They were once used for the same purpose in harddrives. The stepper motor drivers are less complex solid state switches. we have a 2phase drive. The bipolar magnetic ﬁelds may also be generated from unipolar (one polarity) voltages applied to alternate ends of a center tapped winding. However. With the direct line voltage. 13. AC MOTORS 13. (Figure 13. microprocessors readily interface to stepper motor driver circuits. good accuracy. A stepper motor positions the readwrite heads in a ﬂoppy drive. or commutator. moderate speed. the high speed and accuracy required of modern harddrive head positioning dictates the use of a linear servomotor (voice coil).1 Characteristics Stepper motors are rugged and inexpensive because the rotor contains no winding slip rings.25) In other words. the rotor synchronizes with the consequent stator magnetic ﬁeld. a stepper (short for stepper motor) holds its load steady with a holding torque. DC can be switched to the motor so that it sees AC. A considerable design effort is required to optimize the servo ampliﬁer gain vs phase response to the mechanical components.24) It is still the way to position heavy loads beyond the grasp of lower power steppers. which may also have either salient poles or . command stepper motor load command error servo motor load position sensor Figure 13.
26: Stepper speed characteristics. There may be as few as two winding phases or as many as ﬁve. number of poles. Drive electronics may halve the step angle by moving the rotor in halfsteps. Determine that the rotor is a permanent magnet by unpowered hand rotation showing detent torque. STEPPER MOTORS V+ V V V+ Vbipolar + 427 unipolar Figure 13. emulates AC current in single coil at (a). there is no horsepower rating. (Figure 13. Most steppers are a few inches in diameter with a fraction of a nm or a few inoz torque. load torque. and drive electronics as illustrated on the speed vs torque curve. corresponding to 4 to 500 steps per revolution. a 4pole stepper motor may have two phases composed of inline pairs of poles spaced 90o apart. This speed is frequently not attainable due to mechanical resonance of the motor load combination. number of teeth. the step angle. holding stepper has a relatively high holding torque rating.26) An energized. Torque maximum speed holding torque cutoff speed Speed Figure 13. Steppers cannot achieve the speeds on the speed torque curve instantaneously. The torque available is a function of motor speed. It can be from 90o to 0. except for can stack construction. For example a 12pole stepper has 6pairs of poles. when the drive waveforms are changed. ﬁne teeth.25: Unipolar drive of center tapped coil at (b). Since stepper motors do not necessarily rotate continuously. If they do rotate continuously. The maximum start frequency is the highest rate at which a stopped and unloaded stepper can be . The step angle is related to motor construction details: number of coils. Stepper motors move one step at a time. load inertia. They are truly small low power devices compared to other motors. There may also be multiple pole pairs per phase. These phases are frequently split into pairs.75o . torque pulsations. A small “dime” size stepper has a torque of a hundredth of a newtonmeter or a few inchounces. There is less torque available for a running motor.13.5. decreasing to zero at some high speed. They have torque ratings to a thousand inoz (inchounces) or ten nm (newtonmeters) for a 4 kg size unit. they do not even approach a subfractional hp rated capability. three pairs per phase. Thus. More often than not the rotor is a permanent magnet. Stepper motor coils are wound within a laminated stator.
angle NS = number stator poles. and hybrid. the rotor moves less than the stator angle for each step. The drive for a 4φ stepper is shown in Figure 13. the step rate is ramped up during starting from well below the maximum start frequency. AC MOTORS started. The maximum torque at which a stepper can start and stop is the pullin torque. This torque load on the stepper is due to frictional (brake) and inertial (ﬂywheel) loads on the motor shaft. Any load will make this parameter unattainable. There are three types of stepper motors in order of increasing complexity: variable reluctance. the step rate may be decreased before stopping. The drive waveforms for the 3φ stepper can be seen in the “Reluctance motor” section. The permanent magnet stepper has a cylindrical permanent magnet rotor. φ3 V+ φ2 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 30o step φ3 15o step φ4 φ1 V+ φ2 φ1 φ4 φ2 φ3 Figure 13. due to the lesser number of rotor poles.27: Three phase and four phase variable reluctance stepper motors. In practice.ΘS where: ΘS = stator angle. When stopping a stepper motor. The hybrid stepper has soft steel teeth added to the permanent magnet rotor for a smaller step angle.428 CHAPTER 13. This means that an irregularly shaped soft magnetic rotor will move to complete a magnetic circuit. The stator typically has three windings distributed between pole pairs . pullout torque is the maximum sustainable torque without losing steps. For a variable reluctance stepper motor. the step angle is given by: ΘS = 360o /NS ΘR = 360o /NR ΘST = ΘR . ΘST = step .28. Sequentially switching the stator phases produces a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which the rotor follows. yielding a 30o step angle. minimizing the length of any high reluctance air gap. However. 13. The variable reluctance stepper has s solid soft steel rotor with salient poles. NP = number rotor poles ΘR = Rotor angle. the rotor four salient poles.2 Variable reluctance stepper A variable reluctance stepper motor relies upon magnetic ﬂux seeking the lowest reluctance path through a magnetic circuit. Once the motor is up to speed.5.27) A deenergized stepper with no detent torque when hand rotated is identiﬁable as a variable reluctance type stepper.(Figure 13. permanent magnet.
step rate. The driver is not a linear ampliﬁer. The controller could be a microprocessor or a specialized integrated circuit. it does not know the position of the carriage. three pulses are required (φ2 . The rotor moves counterclockwise (CCW). Both driver and controller may be combined into a single integrated circuit accepting a direction command and step pulse. clockwise φ3 Figure 13. and 8stator teeth.5. Instead. However. but it aligns with a CW by 30o stator tooth. as used in a ﬂoppy disk drive is such an application. it can drive the carriage toward the optical interrupter. the driver could be a relay or even a toggle switch for each phase. A screw drive. The rotor has protruding poles so that they may be attracted to the rotating stator ﬁeld as it is switched. the actual step angle is the difference between a stator angle of 45o and a rotor angle of 30o . 24pulses or steps move the rotor through 360o . By reversing the sequence of pulses. but a simple onoff switch capable of high enough current to energize the stepper. calibrating the . the stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates clockwise. moving from φ1 to φ2 . The shaft is frequently ﬁtted with a drive screw. is much longer than our simpliﬁed illustration. Variable reluctance stepper motors are applied when only a moderate level of torque is required and a coarse step angle is adequate. Disassemble a reluctance stepper to view the internal components. (Figure 13.28.30) This may move the heads of a ﬂoppy drive upon command by the ﬂoppy drive controller. the driver is either discrete transistor switches or an integrated circuit. which is 45o . In principle..13. and number of steps are controlled by a stepper motor controller feeding a driver or ampliﬁer. This could be combined into a single circuit board. the direction of rotation is reversed above right. we show the internal construction of a variable reluctance stepper motor in Figure 13. With 3pulses per stator tooth. φ4 ) to align the “dotted” rotor tooth to the next CCW stator Tooth. It outputs current to the proper phases in sequence. Thus. An actual motor. In Figure 13. which is a smaller angle (15o ) than the stator angle of 30o . The rotor tooth angle of 45o enters into the calculation by the above equation. STEPPER MOTORS φ1 S 429 φ3 S Ν S Ν S φ2 Ν φ4 Ν φ1 V+ φ4 φ2 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 counterclockwise 15o step φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 reverse step. etc.29. φ3 . Note what does not happen! The dotted rotor tooth does not move to the next stator tooth. Otherwise.28: Stepping sequence for variable reluctance stepper. How far would the stepper rotate if the rotor and stator had the same number of teeth? Zero– no notation. When the controller powersup. In practice. Starting at rest with phase φ1 energized. The direction. the φ2 stator ﬁeld attracts a different tooth in moving the rotor CCW. The rotor moved CCW to the next rotor tooth at 45o .
AC MOTORS Figure 13.30: Variable reluctance stepper drives lead screw. .29: Variable reluctance stepper motor.430 CHAPTER 13. optical interrupter stepper motor guide rails carriage knife edge Figure 13.
13. As long as the load torque does not exceed the motor torque. The timing of the bipolar or unipolar wave is wave drive. If the detent angle is large. A bipolar drive of alternating polarity is required to power windings without the center tap. (c) φ1 . (d) φ2 .3 Permanent magnet stepper A permanent magnet stepper motor has a cylindrical permanent magnet rotor.5. In practice. • The only type stepper with no detent torque in hand rotation of a deenergized motor shaft. • Large step angle • A lead screw is often mounted to the shaft for linear stepping motion. say. Permanent magnet stepper motors require phased alternating currents applied to the two (or more) windings. Bipolar drive is square waves alternating between (+) and () polarities. it is likely a permanent magnet stepper rather than a hybrid stepper (next subsection). Wave drive φ−1 φ−1 φ−1 φ−1 S N + − − N S N S N S S N φ−2 Wave drive a b + S N S c N S N − φ−2 + φ−2 + φ−2 − d Figure 13. the controller will know the carriage position. The stator usually has two windings.31: PM wave drive sequence (a) φ1 + . Summary: variable reluctance stepper motor • The rotor is a soft iron cylinder with salient (protruding) poles. most inexpensive stepper motor. Unipolar drive supplies a (+) and () alternating magnetic ﬂux to the coils developed from a pair of positive square waves applied to opposite ends of a center tapped coil. (b) φ2 + . STEPPER MOTORS 431 position at which the knife edge cuts the interrupter as “home”.13. full step.5 V.5o to 90o . . +2. say 7. The windings could be center tapped to allow for a unipolar driver circuit where the polarity of the magnetic ﬁeld is changed by switching a voltage from one end to the other of the winding.5 V to 2. The controller counts step pulses from this position. this is almost always square waves generated from DC by solid state electronics. A pure permanent magnet stepper usually has a large step angle..5. Rotation of the shaft of a deenergized motor exhibits detent torque. • This is the least complex. or half step.
33: Waveforms: unipolar wave drive.33) waveforms are unipolar because only one polarity is required. However. The waveforms (Figure 13. There are twice as many waveforms because a pair of (+) waves is required to produce an alternating magnetic ﬁeld by application to opposite ends of a center tapped coil. (+) and () drive the stepper. While simple. Permanent magnet stepper motors are manufactured with various leadwire conﬁgurations.31) The rotation sequence left to right is positive φ1 points rotor north pole up. the simplest drive is wave drive. but requires twice as many drivers. The 4wire motor can only be driven by bipolar waveforms. The motor requires alternating magnetic ﬁelds.32: Waveforms: bipolar wave drive.34: Stepper motor wiring diagrams. These may be produced by either unipolar or bipolar waves. The (Figure 13. this does not produce as much torque as other drive techniques. negative φ1 attracts rotor north down. AC MOTORS Conceptually. The 6wire motor.32) are bipolar because both polarities . The wave drive waveforms below show that only one coil is energized at a time. φ1 + + a b c d φ2 φ2’ φ1 φ2 φ1’ Figure 13. motor coils must have center taps for unipolar drive. This simpliﬁes the drive electronics. (Figure 13.432 CHAPTER 13. The coil magnetic ﬁeld reverses because the polarity of the drive current reverses. (+) φ2 points rotor north right. φ1 φ2 φ1’ φ2’ V+ φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 6wire φ1’ Figure 13. () φ2 points rotor left.34) φ2 φ2’ φ1 V+ φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 φ2a φ2a’ φ2b’ φ2b’ φ1a φ1a’ φ1b φ1’ 2wire bipolar 6wire unipolar φ1’ 5wire unipolar φ1’ 8wire bipolar or unipolar φ1b’ Figure 13. the most . (Figure 13.
The rotor aligns with the ﬁeld poles as for wave drive and between the poles as for full step drive. The 8wire conﬁguration is rare. Unipolar drive uses a less complex.35: Full step. often a red and green enamelled wire. yielding twice as many steps. Full step drive Full step drive provides more torque than wave drive because both coils are energized at the same time. A biﬁlar winding is produced by winding the coils with two wires in parallel. It may be wired for unipolar drive as for the 6wire or 5wire motor.35) φ−1 S φ−1 S φ−1 N S φ−1 + N + N S S − S N S − S − N − a N N + φ−1 0 + φ−2 0  N φ−2 b S φ−2 N S + b N + c S N N S d + a − − + − φ−2 + + φ−2 − c d Figure 13. (Figure 13. Though.36) Half stepping provides greater resolution in positioning of the motor shaft. less expensive driver circuit. (Figure 13. Half step drive is a combination of wave drive and full step drive with one winding energized. it may be driven by bipolar waves if the center taps are ignored. but provides maximum ﬂexibility. . This winding method is applicable to all but the 4wire arrangement above. STEPPER MOTORS 433 common arrangement. For example. half stepping the motor moving the print head across the paper of an inkjet printer would double the dot density.13. or in parallel for low voltage high current drive. as the common center tap interferes if both windings are energized simultaneously. Half step drive The step angle for a given stepper motor geometry is cut in half with half step drive. This method produces exact 1:1 turns ratios for center tapped windings. The additional cost of bipolar drive is justiﬁed when more torque is required.5. A pair of coils may be connected in series for high voltage bipolar low current drive. followed by both windings energized. bipolar drive. The 5wire motor can only be driven by unipolar waves. The unipolar waveforms for half step drive are shown above. is intended for unipolar drive because of the center taps. This corresponds to twice as many step pulses per revolution. This attracts the rotor poles midway between the two ﬁeld poles.35 has the same step angle as wave drive. Full step bipolar drive as shown in Figure 13. Unipolar drive (not shown) would require a pair of unipolar waveforms for each of the above bipolar waveforms applied to the ends of a center tapped winding.
434
φ−1 φ−1 φ−1
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
φ−1
S N S N φ−2 a
S
+ −
+
N
−
S N S N S
N
S
−
N
N
S φ−2
+ 0 + 0 
−
+
b +
−
φ−2
+
c
N
S
+
N
S
−
φ−2
+
d
a
b
c d
Half step
Figure 13.36: Half step, bipolar drive. Microstepping is possible with specialized controllers. By varying the currents to the windings sinusoidally many microsteps can be interpolated between the normal positions. Construction The contruction of a permanent magnet stepper motor is considerably different from the drawings above. It is desirable to increase the number of poles beyond that illustrated to produce a smaller step angle. It is also desirable to reduce the number of windings, or at least not increase the number of windings for ease of manufacture.
N
S
north south
ceramic permanent magnet rotor φ1 coil φ2 coil
Figure 13.37: Permanent magnet stepper motor, 24pole canstack construction. The permanent magnet stepper (Figure 13.37) only has two windings, yet has 24poles in each of two phases. This style of construction is known as can stack. A phase winding is wrapped with a mild steel shell, with ﬁngers brought to the center. One phase, on a transient basis, will have a north side and a south side. Each side wraps around to the center
13.5. STEPPER MOTORS
435
of the doughnut with twelve interdigitated ﬁngers for a total of 24 poles. These alternating northsouth ﬁngers will attract the permanent magnet rotor. If the polarity of the phase were reversed, the rotor would jump 360o /24 = 15o . We do not know which direction, which is not usefull. However, if we energize φ1 followed by φ2, the rotor will move 7.5o because the φ2 is offset (rotated) by 7.5o from φ1. See below for offset. And, it will rotate in a reproducible direction if the phases are alternated. Application of any of the above waveforms will rotate the permanent magnet rotor. Note that the rotor is a gray ferrite ceramic cylinder magnetized in the 24pole pattern shown. This can be viewed with magnet viewer ﬁlm or iron ﬁlings applied to a paper wrapping. Though, the colors will be green for both north and south poles with the ﬁlm.
φ−1 coil
x’
x’
x
90° offset
φ−1 coil
PM rotor dust cover φ−2 coil
φ−2 coil
x
Can stack permanent magnet stepper
Figure 13.38: (a) External view of can stack, (b) ﬁeld offset detail. Canstack style construction of a PM stepper is distinctive and easy to identify by the stacked “cans”. (Figure 13.38) Note the rotational offset between the two phase sections. This is key to making the rotor follow the switching of the ﬁelds between the two phases. Summary: permanent magnet stepper motor • The rotor is a permanent magnet, often a ferrite sleeve magnetized with numerous poles. • Canstack construction provides numerous poles from a single coil with interleaved ﬁngers of soft iron. • Large to moderate step angle. • Often used in computer printers to advance paper.
13.5.4
Hybrid stepper motor
The hybrid stepper motor combines features of both the variable reluctance stepper and the permanent magnet stepper to produce a smaller step angle. The rotor is a cylindrical perma
436
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
nent magnet, magnetized along the axis with radial soft iron teeth (Figure 13.39). The stator coils are wound on alternating poles with corresponding teeth. There are typically two winding phases distributed between pole pairs. This winding may be center tapped for unipolar drive. The center tap is achieved by a biﬁlar winding, a pair of wires wound physically in parallel, but wired in series. The northsouth poles of a phase swap polarity when the phase drive current is reversed. Bipolar drive is required for untapped windings.
N
S
rotor pole detail
N
permanent magnet rotor, 96pole 8pole stator
S
Figure 13.39: Hybrid stepper motor. Note that the 48teeth on one rotor section are offset by half a pitch from the other. See rotor pole detail above. This rotor tooth offset is also shown below. Due to this offset, the rotor effectively has 96 interleaved poles of opposite polarity. This offset allows for rotation in 1/96 th of a revolution steps by reversing the ﬁeld polarity of one phase. Two phase windings are common as shown above and below. Though, there could be as many as ﬁve phases. The stator teeth on the 8poles correspond to the 48rotor teeth, except for missing teeth in the space between the poles. Thus, one pole of the rotor, say the south pole, may align with the stator in 48 distinct positions. However, the teeth of the south pole are offset from the north teeth by half a tooth. Therefore, the rotor may align with the stator in 96 distinct positions. This half tooth offset shows in the rotor pole detail above, or Figure 13.30. As if this were not complicated enough, the stator main poles are divided into two phases (φ1, φ2). These stator phases are offset from one another by onequarter of a tooth. This detail is only discernable on the schematic diagrams below. The result is that the rotor moves in steps of a quarter of a tooth when the phases are alternately energized. In other words, the rotor moves in 2×96=192 steps per revolution for the above stepper. The above drawing is representative of an actual hybrid stepper motor. However, we provide a simpliﬁed pictorial and schematic representation (Figure 13.40) to illustrate details not obvious above. Note the reduced number of coils and teeth in rotor and stator for simplicity. In the next two ﬁgures, we attempt to illustrate the quarter tooth rotation produced by the two stator phases offset by a quarter tooth, and the rotor half tooth offset. The quarter tooth stator offset in conjunction with drive current timing also deﬁnes direction of rotation. Features of hybrid stepper schematic (Figure 13.40)
13.5. STEPPER MOTORS
1/4 tooth offset alignment stator North PM South PM North
437
N φ1
φ2′
1/2 tooth offset alignment Stator South
φ2
S φ1′
Figure 13.40: Hybrid stepper motor schematic diagram. • The top of the permanent magnet rotor is the south pole, the bottom north. • The rotor northsouth teeth are offset by half a tooth. • If the φ1 stator is temporarily energized north top, south bottom. • The top φ1 stator teeth align north to rotor top south teeth. • The bottom φ1’ stator teeth align south to rotor bottom north teeth. • Enough torque applied to the shaft to overcome the holdin torque would move the rotor by one tooth. • If the polarity of φ1 were reversed, the rotor would move by onehalf tooth, direction unknown. The alignment would be south stator top to north rotor bottom, north stator bottom to south rotor. • The φ2 stator teeth are not aligned with the rotor teeth when φ1 is energized. In fact, the φ2 stator teeth are offset by onequarter tooth. This will allow for rotation by that amount if φ1 is deenergized and φ2 energized. Polarity of φ1 and ¡phi2¿ drive determines direction of rotation. Hybrid stepper motor rotation (Figure 13.41) • Rotor top is permanent magnet south, bottom north. Fields φ1, φ2 are switchable: on, off, reverse. • (a) φ1=on=northtop, φ2=off. Align (top to bottom): φ1 statorN:rotortopS, φ1’ statorS: rotorbottomN. Start position, rotation=0. • (b) φ1=off, φ2=on. Align (right to left): φ2 statorNright:rotortopS, φ2’ statorS: rotorbottomN. Rotate 1/4 tooth, total rotation=1/4 tooth.
438
N φ1 φ1
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
off S φ1
off off φ2′ φ2 S φ2′ N φ2
off off φ2′ φ2
S φ1′ align top
(a)
off align right
φ1′
(b)
N φ1′ align bottom
(c)
Figure 13.41: Hybrid stepper motor rotation sequence. • (c) φ1=reverse(on), φ2=off. Align (bottom to top): φ1 statorS:rotorbottomN, φ1’ statorN:rotortopS. Rotate 1/4 tooth from last position. Total rotation from start: 1/2 tooth. • Not shown: φ1=off, φ2=reverse(on). Align (left to right): Total rotation: 3/4 tooth. • Not shown: φ1=on, φ2=off (same as (a)). Align (top to bottom): Total rotation 1tooth. An unpowered stepper motor with detent torque is either a permanent magnet stepper or a hybrid stepper. The hybrid stepper will have a small step angle, much less than the 7.5o of permanent magnet steppers. The step angle could be a fraction of a degree, corresponding to a few hundred steps per revolution. Summary: hybrid stepper motor • The step angle is smaller than variable reluctance or permanent magnet steppers. • The rotor is a permanent magnet with ﬁne teeth. North and south teeth are offset by half a tooth for a smaller step angle. • The stator poles have matching ﬁne teeth of the same pitch as the rotor. • The stator windings are divided into no less than two phases. • The poles of one stator windings are offset by a quarter tooth for an even smaller step angle.
13.6
Brushless DC motor
Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors with the availability of solid state power semiconductors. So, why do we discuss brushless DC motors in a chapter on AC motors? Brushless DC motors are similar to AC synchronous motors. The major
13.6. BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR
439
difference is that synchronous motors develop a sinusoidal back EMF, as compared to a rectangular, or trapezoidal, back EMF for brushless DC motors. Both have stator created rotating magnetic ﬁelds producing torque in a magnetic rotor. Synchronous motors are usually large multikilowatt size, often with electromagnet rotors. True synchronous motors are considered to be single speed, a submultiple of the powerline frequency. Brushless DC motors tend to be small– a few watts to tens of watts, with permanent magnet rotors. The speed of a brushless DC motor is not ﬁxed unless driven by a phased locked loop slaved to a reference frequency. The style of construction is either cylindrical or pancake. (Figures 13.42 and 13.43)
Stator Stator
Rotor Rotor
(a)
(b)
Figure 13.42: Cylindrical construction: (a) outside rotor, (b) inside rotor. The most usual construction, cylindrical, can take on two forms (Figure 13.42). The most common cylindrical style is with the rotor on the inside, above right. This style motor is used in hard disk drives. It is also possible the put the rotor on the outside surrounding the stator. Such is the case with brushless DC fan motors, sans the shaft. This style of construction may be short and fat. However, the direction of the magnetic ﬂux is radial with respect to the rotational axis.
Rotor Stator
(a) (b)
Stator Rotor Stator
Figure 13.43: Pancake motor construction: (a) single stator, (b) double stator. High torque pancake motors may have stator coils on both sides of the rotor (Figure 13.43b). Lower torque applications like ﬂoppy disk drive motors sufﬁce with a stator coil on one side
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CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
of the rotor, (Figure 13.43a). The direction of the magnetic ﬂux is axial, that is, parallel to the axis of rotation. The commutation function may be performed by various shaft position sensors: optical encoder, magnetic encoder (resolver, synchro, etc), or Hall effect magnetic sensors. Small inexpensive motors use Hall effect sensors. (Figure 13.44) A Hall effect sensor is a semiconductor device where the electron ﬂow is affected by a magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to the direction of current ﬂow.. It looks like a four terminal variable resistor network. The voltages at the two outputs are complementary. Application of a magnetic ﬁeld to the sensor causes a small voltage change at the output. The Hall output may drive a comparator to provide for more stable drive to the power device. Or, it may drive a compound transistor stage if properly biased. More modern Hall effect sensors may contain an integrated ampliﬁer, and digital circuitry. This 3lead device may directly drive the power transistor feeding a phase winding. The sensor must be mounted close to the permanent magnet rotor to sense its position.
V+ H1
A1
V+ V+ H1 V+ S N
V+ NC H3
H2 H3 V+ H2
A2
A3
V+
Figure 13.44: Hall effect sensors commutate 3φ brushless DC motor. The simple cylindrical 3φ motor Figure 13.44 is commutated by a Hall effect device for each of the three stator phases. The changing position of the permanent magnet rotor is sensed by the Hall device as the polarity of the passing rotor pole changes. This Hall signal is ampliﬁed so that the stator coils are driven with the proper current. Not shown here, the Hall signals may be processed by combinatorial logic for more efﬁcient drive waveforms. The above cylindrical motor could drive a harddrive if it were equipped with a phased locked loop (PLL) to maintain constant speed. Similar circuitry could drive the pancake ﬂoppy disk drive motor (Figure 13.45). Again, it would need a PLL to maintain constant speed. The 3φ pancake motor (Figure 13.45) has 6stator poles and 8rotor poles. The rotor is a ﬂat ferrite ring magnetized with eight axially magnetized alternating poles. We do not show that the rotor is capped by a mild steel plate for mounting to the bearing in the middle of the stator. The steel plate also helps complete the magnetic circuit. The stator poles are also mounted atop a steel plate, helping to close the magnetic circuit. The ﬂat stator coils are trapezoidal to more closely ﬁt the coils, and approximate the rotor poles. The 6stator coils comprise three winding phases. If the three stator phases were successively energized, a rotating magnetic ﬁeld would be generated. The permanent magnet rotor would follow as in the case of a synchronous motor. A
13.6. BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR
φ−1 φ−2 φ−3
441
S N S N
N S N S
Stator
Rotor φ−1′ Hall effect sensor
Figure 13.45: Brushless pancake motor two pole rotor would follow this ﬁeld at the same rotation rate as the rotating ﬁeld. However, our 8pole rotor will rotate at a submultiple of this rate due the the extra poles in the rotor. The brushless DC fan motor (Figure 13.46) has these feature:
S N S H2
N N S
S
N S
H1 N N
S
2φ brushless fan motor
Figure 13.46: Brushless fan motor, 2φ. • The stator has 2phases distributed between 4poles • There are 4salient poles with no windings to eliminate zero torque points. • The rotor has four main drive poles. • The rotor has 8poles superimposed to help eliminate zero torque points. • The Hall effect sensors are spaced at 45o physical. • The fan housing is placed atop the rotor, which is placed over the stator. The goal of a brushless fan motor is to minimize the cost of manufacture. This is an incentive to move lower performance products from a 3φ to a 2φ conﬁguration. Depending on how it is driven, it may be called a 4φ motor.
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CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
You may recall that conventional DC motors cannot have an even number of armature poles (2,4, etc) if they are to be selfstarting, 3,5,7 being common. Thus, it is possible for a hypothetical 4pole motor to come to rest at a torque minima, where it cannot be started from rest. The addition of the four small salient poles with no windings superimposes a ripple torque upon the torque vs position curve. When this ripple torque is added to normal energizedtorque curve, the result is that torque minima are partially removed. This makes it possible to start the motor for all possible stopping positions. The addition of eight permanant magnet poles to the normal 4pole permanent magnet rotor superimposes a small second harmonic ripple torque upon the normal 4pole ripple torque. This further removes the torque minima. As long as the torque minima does not drop to zero, we should be able to start the motor. The more successful we are in removing the torque minima, the easier the motor starting. The 2φ stator requires that the Hall sensors be spaced apart by 90o electrical. If the rotor was a 2pole rotor, the Hall sensors would be placed 90o physical. Since we have a 4pole permanent magnet rotor, the sensors must be placed 45o physical to achieve the 90o electrical spacing. Note Hall spacing above. The majority of the torque is due to the interaction of the inside stator 2φ coils with the 4pole section of the rotor. Moreover, the 4pole section of the rotor must be on the bottom so that the Hall sensors will sense the proper commutation signals. The 8poles rotor section is only for improving motor starting.
V+
A1
N V+
A2
S V+ V+ H1
A3
H1 H2
V+ V+ H2
A2
Figure 13.47: Brushless DC motor 2φ pushpull drive. In Figure 13.47, the 2φ pushpull drive (also known as 4φ drive) uses two Hall effect sensors to drive four windings. The sensors are spaced 90o electrical apart, which is 90o physical for a single pole rotor. Since the Hall sensor has two complementary outputs, one sensor provides commutation for two opposing windings.
13.7
Tesla polyphase induction motors
Most AC motors are induction motors. Induction motors are favored due to their ruggedness and simplicity. In fact, 90% of industrial motors are induction motors. Nikola Tesla conceived the basic principals of the polyphase induction motor in 1883, and had a half horsepower (400 watt) model by 1888. Tesla sold the manufacturing rights to George
13.7. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
443
Westinghouse for $65,000. Most large ( > 1 hp or 1 kW) industrial motors are polyphase induction motors. By polyphase, we mean that the stator contains multiple distinct windings per motor pole, driven by corresponding time shifted sine waves. In practice, this is two or three phases. Large industrial motors are 3phase. While we include numerous illustrations of twophase motors for simplicity, we must emphasize that nearly all polyphase motors are threephase. By induction motor, we mean that the stator windings induce a current ﬂow in the rotor conductors, like a transformer, unlike a brushed DC commutator motor.
13.7.1
Construction
An induction motor is composed of a rotor, known as an armature, and a stator containing windings connected to a polyphase energy source as shown in Figure 13.48. The simple 2phase induction motor below is similar to the 1/2 horsepower motor which Nikola Tesla introduced in 1888.
Rotor Stator
Figure 13.48: Tesla polyphase induction motor. The stator in Figure 13.48 is wound with pairs of coils corresponding to the phases of electrical energy available. The 2phase induction motor stator above has 2pairs of coils, one pair for each of the two phases of AC. The individual coils of a pair are connected in series and correspond to the opposite poles of an electromagnet. That is, one coil corresponds to a Npole, the other to a Spole until the phase of AC changes polarity. The other pair of coils is oriented 90o in space to the ﬁrst pair. This pair of coils is connected to AC shifted in time by 90o in the case of a 2phase motor. In Tesla’s time, the source of the two phases of AC was a 2phase alternator. The stator in Figure 13.48 has salient, obvious protruding poles, as used on Tesla’s early induction motor. This design is used to this day for subfractional horsepower motors (<50 watts). However, for larger motors less torque pulsation and higher efﬁciency results if the
444
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
coils are embedded into slots cut into the stator laminations. (Figure 13.49)
Figure 13.49: Stator frame showing slots for windings. The stator laminations are thin insulated rings with slots punched from sheets of electrical grade steel. A stack of these is secured by end screws, which may also hold the end housings.
φ−3
φ−1 φ−2
(a)
φ−1
(b)
φ−2
Figure 13.50: Stator with (a) 2φ and (b) 3φ windings. In Figure 13.50, the windings for both a twophase motor and a threephase motor have been installed in the stator slots. The coils are wound on an external ﬁxture, then worked into the slots. Insulation wedged between the coil periphery and the slot protects against abrasion. Actual stator windings are more complex than the single windings per pole in Figure 13.50. Comparing the 2φ motor to Tesla’s 2φ motor with salient poles, the number of coils is the
and remachining of the commutator. it will follow the motion of the magnet. The laminations are coated with insulating oxide or varnish to minimize eddy current losses. graphite dust. in the conductive disk.51: Laminated rotor with (a) embedded squirrel cage. In actual large motors. (b) conductive cage removed from rotor. This is shown in the synchronous motor section. As compared to a DC motor armature.13. The slots at the edge of the pole may have fewer turns than the other slots. a steel laminated rotor. That is. 13. shown at (b) removed from the rotor. brush adjustment and replacement.51). a pole winding. The distributed coils of the phase belt cancel some of the odd harmonics.2 Theory of operation A short explanation of operation is that the stator creates a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which drags the rotor around. If the moving magnetic lines of ﬂux cut a conductive disk. . This eliminates the brushes. Both rotor and stator cores are composed of a stack of insulated laminations. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 445 same. twisted. The polarity of the electromagnet is such that it pulls against the permanent magnet. the phase belts overlap. (a) (b) Figure 13. The disk follows with a little less speed than the permanent magnet. The alloy used in the laminations is selected for low hysteresis losses.7. The key to the popularity of the AC induction motor is simplicity as evidenced by the simple rotor (Figure 13. This group is called a phase belt.52. sparking. The misalignment with the stator slots reduces torque pulsations. and an embedded copper or aluminum squirrel cage. and consequent current ﬂow. Edge slots may contain windings from two phases. with respsect to the shaft. This current ﬂow creates an electromagnet whose polarity opposes the motion of the permanent magnet– Lenz’s Law. The theory of operation of induction motors is based on a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. arcing. is divided into identical coils inserted into many smaller slots than above. See Figure 13. The lines of ﬂux cutting the conductor will induce a voltage.16. One means of creating a rotating magnetic ﬁeld is to rotate a permanent magnet as shown in Figure 13. The squirrel cage conductors may be skewed. The rotor consists of a shaft.7. there is no commutator. producing a more sinusoidal magnetic ﬁeld distribution across the pole.
The combination of 90o phased sine waves and right angle deﬂection. This should not be surprising if you are familiar with oscilloscope Lissajous patterns. and on back to (a). The torque developed by the disk is proportional to the number of ﬂux lines cutting the disk and the rate at which it cuts the disk. With maximum negative “X” and minimum “Y” deﬂection. completing one cycle. no torque.707. slowing it. Torque is proportional to slip. the disk speed will always fall behind that of the rotating permanent magnet. there would be no ﬂux cutting the disk. the trace moves to (c). A rotating magnetic ﬁeld is created by two coils placed at right angles to each other. no induced current ﬂow.707 Vpk at 45o . create an electromagnetic ﬁeld in the disk. the degree to which the disk falls behind the rotating magnet. With the disk restrained by a spring. This point (0.446 CHAPTER 13. so that lines of ﬂux cut the disk induce a current. Figure 13. disk and needle deﬂection is proportional to magnet rotation rate. AC MOTORS Figure 13. no electromagnet ﬁeld. In Figure 13. results in a two dimensional pattern– a circle. 0. a one dimensional line would display. a circular Lissajous is produced by driving the horizontal and vertical oscilloscope inputs with 90o out of phase sine waves. it moves to (d).52: Rotating magnetic ﬁeld produces torque in conductive disk. If a load is applied to the disk. Between (a) and (b) the two waveforms are equal to 0. developing more torque. This circle is traced out by a counterclockwise rotating .54 shows the two 90o phase shifted sine waves applied to oscilloscope deﬂection plates which are at right angles in space. the trace moves up and left toward (b). If the disk were to spin at the same rate as the permanent magnet. Then with minimum “X” and maximum negative “Y”. More slip corresponds to more ﬂux cutting the conductive disk. driven by currents which are 90o out of phase.53. which follows the permanent magnet.707) falls on the radius of the circle between (a) and (b) The trace moves to (b) with minimum “X” and maximum “Y” deﬂection. An analog automotive eddy current speedometer is based on the principle illustrated above. Thus. If this were not the case. Starting at (a) with maximum “X” and minimum “Y” deﬂection. more torque will be developed as more lines of ﬂux cut the disk.
. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 447 OSCILLOSCOPE b vertical Y V/div c a trigger DC GND AC a horiz’tl X a’ b c d a timebase d s/div DC GND AC Figure 13.13.7.53: Out of phase (90o ) sine waves produce circular Lissajous pattern. b a’ c a a’ a b c a d a’ b a d horizontal deflection verticall deflection c d a Figure 13.54: Xaxis sine and Yaxis cosine trace circle.
55: No circular motion from inphase waveforms. y=x is a straight line. φ−1 φ−1 φ−2 φ−1 φ−2 a φ−1 φ−2 a’ b φ−2 a a’ b c d φ−1 φ−1 φ−2 c d φ−2 Figure 13. .56: Rotating magnetic ﬁeld from 90o phased sinewaves.down left to (1. The line is produced by equal deﬂections along both axes. AC MOTORS electron beam.1) at (b). By analogy three windings placed 120o apart in space. and fed with corresponding 120o phased currents will also produce a rotating magnetic ﬁeld.1) at (d). back down left to origin at (c). If a pair of 90o out of phase sine waves produces a circular Lissajous. and back up right to origin. For reference. Equal “X” and “Y” deﬂection moves the illuminated spot from the origin at (a) up to right (1. a similar pair of currents should be able to produce a circular rotating magnetic ﬁeld.55shows why inphase sine waves will not produce a circular pattern.448 CHAPTER 13. OSCILLOSCOPE vertical b V/div a trigger c timebase d s/div horiz’tl X DC GND AC Y DC GND AC a a’ b c d a Figure 13. Figure 13. Such is the case for a 2phase motor.
progress from points (a) through (d). φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ3 full speed half speed Figure 13. φ2 maximum • (c) φ1 maximum negative. φ2 maximum negative Motor speed The rotation rate of a stator rotating magnetic ﬁeld is related to the number of pole pairs per stator phase. φ2 zero • (d) φ1 zero.57: Doubling the stator poles halves the synchronous speed.7.there is but one pole pair per phase– the number we need. the synchronous speed is cut in half because the magnetic ﬁeld rotates 180o in space for 360o of electrical sine wave. Though the rotor of an induction motor never achieves this speed.56. φ2 zero • (a’) φ1 70%. or 3000 rpm. the ﬁeld rotates at 60 times per second or 3600 revolutions per minute (rpm). TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 449 As the 90o phased sinewaves. In the case of 60 Hz power. Figure 13. The magnetic ﬁeld will rotate once per sine wave cycle.57 has a total of six poles or three polepairs and three phases. the magnetic ﬁeld rotates counterclockwise (ﬁgures ad) as follows: • (a) φ1 maximum. However. are the synchronous speed of the motor. The 3600 and 3000 rpm. The “full speed” Figure 13. Hz P = total number of poles per phase. a multiple of 2 . φ2 70% • (b) φ1 zero. it certainly is an upper limit. The synchronous speed is given by: Ns = 120·f/P Ns = synchronous speed in rpm f = frequency of applied power. it rotates at 50 rotations per second. For 50 Hz power. If we double the number of motor poles.13.
The current induced in the rotor shorted turns is maximum. a loaded motor will slip in proportion to the mechanical load. The rotating stator magnetic ﬁeld interacts with this rotor ﬁeld. Rotor frequency is given by: fr = s·f where: s = slip.N)/Ns where: Ns = synchronous speed. The rotor ﬁeld attempts to align with the rotating stator ﬁeld. as is the frequency of the current. As the rotor speeds up. the line frequency.N). no ﬂux will cut the rotor at all.58 graph shows that starting torque known as locked rotor torque (LRT) is higher than 100% of the full load torque (FLT). The Figure 13.57 has four poles per phase (3phase). If there were no mechanical motor torque load. the frequency of the induced current in the rotor fr = 0.05·50 = 2. If the rotor spins a little faster. Torque When power is ﬁrst applied to the motor. no current induced in the rotor. AC MOTORS Example: The “half speed” Figure 13. Thus for f = 50 Hz line frequency. The ratio of actual ﬂux cutting the rotor to synchronous speed is deﬁned as slip: s = (Ns . The locked . while the stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates at the synchronous speed Ns . the safe continuous torque rating. f = stator power line frequency Slip at 100% torque is typically 5% or less in induction motors.5 Hz.5 Hz is the difference between the synchronous speed and the actual rotor speed. The result is rotation of the squirrel cage rotor. the rotor is at rest. It is the magnetic ﬂux cutting the rotor conductors as it slips which develops torque. This induced rotor current in turn creates a magnetic ﬁeld. at the synchronous speed. fr = 0. or other losses. N = rotor speed The frequency of the current induced into the rotor conductors is only as high as the line frequency at motor start. The stator ﬁeld is cutting the rotor at the synchronous speed Ns . the rate at which stator ﬂux cuts the rotor is the difference between synchronous speed Ns and actual rotor speed N. no torque. The rotating magnetic ﬁeld is only cutting the rotor at 2. The 2. Thus. windage. The synchronous speed for 50 Hz power is: S = 120·50/4 = 1500 rpm The short explanation of the induction motor is that the rotating magnetic ﬁeld produced by the stator drags the rotor around with it. If the rotor were to run at synchronous speed. there would be no stator ﬂux cutting the rotor. The rotor speed is 5% less. decreasing as the rotor approaches synchronous speed. or (Ns . Why is it so low? The stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates at 50 Hz. However. The longer more correct explanation is that the stator’s magnetic ﬁeld induces an alternating current into the rotor squirrel cage conductors which constitutes a transformer secondary. no bearing. the rotor would rotate at the synchronous speed. the slip between the rotor and the synchronous speed stator ﬁeld develops torque.5 Hz.450 CHAPTER 13.
NEMA design classes Various standard classes (or designs) for motors. The motor load determines the operating point on the torque curve. There are several basic induction motor designs (Figure 13. and D to meet these . The torque. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) has speciﬁed motor classes A. the safe running current. B. The different designs are optimized for starting and running different types of loads. Starting current or locked rotor current (LRC) can range from 500% to 1400% of full load current (FLC). but will decrease rapidly beyond this point. As the rotor gains 80% of synchronous speed. This current draw can present a starting problem for large induction motors. While the motor torque and current may exceed 100% for a few seconds during starting.7.59) showing consideable variation from the torque curve above. Slip will be only a few percent during normal operation. As the rotor accelerates to within a few percent of synchronous speed.59) have been developed to better drive various type loads. torque increases from 175% up to 300% of the full load torque. This condition is analogous to an open secondary transformer. As the rotor starts to rotate the torque may decrease a bit for certain classes of motors to a value known as the pull up torque. The current has decreased only slightly at this point. slip.58: Torque and speed vs %Slip. C. The locked rotor torque (LRT) for various motor designs and sizes ranges from 60% to 350% of full load torque (FLT). Any motor torque load above the breakdown torque will stall the motor.13. and current will approach zero for a “no mechanical torque” load condition. The current is high because this is analogous to a shorted secondary on a transformer. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 500% %full load torque & current locked rotor current 400% 300% 200% 100% qu e 451 curre nt tor breakdown torque pullup torque full load torque/ current locked rotor torque 80 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns 100 0 Figure 13. This breakdown torque is due to the larger than normal 20% slip. corresponding to the torque curves (Figure 13. rotor torque is about 175% of FLT for the example motor graphed above. This is the lowest value of torque ever encountered by the starting motor. For a running motor. Starting current known as locked rotor current (LRC) is 500% of full load current (FLC). %Ns =%Synchronous Speed. any portion of the torque curve below 100% rated torque is normal. both torque and current will decrease substantially. continuous operation above 100% can damage the motor.
• Class C (IEC Class H) has higher starting torque than class A and B at LRT = 200% of FLT. Speed regulation is poor. It typically drives pumps. LRT. . shears. fans. except class D. Power factor Induction motors present a lagging (inductive) power factor to the power line. This motor handles transient overloads as encountered in injection molding machines. • Class B (IEC Class N) motors are the default motor to use in most applications. AC MOTORS drive requirements. Applications include punch presses. and machine tools. the motor excels at driving highly variable speed loads like those requiring an energy storage ﬂywheel. However. Efﬁciency and power factor are high. it can start most loads. and reciprocating pumps and compressors. • Class A starting torque is the same as class B. 400% %full load torque 300% 200% 100% D C A B 100 0 80 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns Figure 13. • Class F motors have much lower LRC. and elevators. without excessive starting current (LRT). crushers. All motors. Drop out torque and starting current (LRT)are higher. This motor is applied to hardstarting loads which need to be driven at constant speed like conveyors. The high slip results in lower speed. With a starting torque of LRT = 150% to 170% of FLT. • Class E motors are a higher efﬁciency version of class B.59: Characteristics for NEMA designs. • Class D motors have the highest starting torque (LRT) coupled with low starting current due to high slip ( 5% to 13% at FLT). Similar International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classes N and H correspond to NEMA B and C designs respectively.452 CHAPTER 13. and break down torque than class B. They drive constant easily started loads.The power factor in large fully loaded high speed motors can be as favorable as 90% for large high speed motors. operate at %5 slip or less at full load.
13. If a polyphase motor is loaded at less than 75% of rated torque where efﬁciency peaks. An unloaded motor is analogous to a transformer with no resistive load on the secondary. Large induction motor efﬁciency can be as high as 95% at full load. Thus the power line sees a reactive load. Efﬁciency Large three phase motors are more efﬁcient than smaller 3phase motors.60). rising as the rotor achieves speed. the power factor can be in the range of 10% to 25%. As the torque load is increased. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 453 At 3/4 full load the largest high speed motor power factor can be 92%. Efﬁciency for a lightly load or noloaded induction motor is poor because most of the current is involved with maintaining magnetizing ﬂux. Efﬁciency is decreased a few percent at 50% FLT. though 90% is more common. power factor 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 20 40 60 80 100 % load efficiency power factor Figure 13. Efﬁciency only becomes poor below 25% FLT. the voltage to a partially loaded motor may be reduced to decrease the energy required to maintain the magnetic ﬁeld. . As the rotor is loaded an increasing resistive component is reﬂected from rotor to stator.7. At starting. Thus. while current associated with magnetizing remains ﬁxed. The variation of efﬁciency with loading is shown in Figure 13. increasing the power factor. While there is nothing to be saved in a fully loaded motor. This will increase power factor and efﬁciency.60: Induction motor power factor and efﬁciency. and most all single phase motors. Efﬁciency at 75% FLT can be slightly higher than that at 100% FLT. The power factor for small low speed motors can be as low as 50%. Nola power factor corrrector Frank Nola of NASA proposed a power factor corrector (PFC) as an energy saving device for single phase induction motors in the late 1970’s. as low as 10% PF. efﬁciency suffers only slightly down to 25% FLT. more current is consumed in generating torque. Little resistance is reﬂected from the secondary (rotor) to the primary (stator). there is energy to be saved in partially loaded motors.60 Induction motors are typically oversized to guarantee that their mechanical load can be started and driven under all operating conditions. 1φ motors in particular. This was a good concept for the notoriously inefﬁcient single phase motors for which it was intended. The energy consumed in maintaining the stator magnetic ﬁeld is relatively ﬁxed with respect to load changes. 100% efficience. It is based on the premise that a less than fully loaded induction motor is less efﬁcient and has a lower power factor than a fully loaded motor. Power factor (PF) varies considerably with the motor mechanical load (Figure 13. and decreased a few more percent at 25% FLT.
Because of their high efﬁciency (90%+). Such an induction generator must be excited by a “live” source of 50 or 60 Hz power. AC MOTORS This concept is not very applicable to large 3phase motors. 500% %full load torque & current 400% 300% 200% 100% 20 120 100 80 0 20 Motor mode 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns 100% 200% tor qu e qu e curre nt tor Generator mode 40 60 140 160 80 180 100 % slip 200 % Ns %full load torque & current 300% 400% curre nt 500% Figure 13. This type of alternator appears to be unsuited as a standby power source. the rotor induces a voltage into the stator feeding electrical energy back into the power line. Since the rotor is cutting the stator magnetic ﬁeld in the opposite direction (leading). (Figure 13. Moreover.61) This corresponds to a few % of “negative” slip.61: Negative torque makes induction motor into generator. . like a punch press. It is failsafe. It normally lags by 1% in a motor. say 1% slip. This is not 5% of the full load wattage but 5% of the wattage at the reduced load.3 Induction motor alternator An induction motor may function as an alternator if it is driven by a torque at greater than 100% of the synchronous speed. it has the advantage of not requiring an automatic power failure disconnect switch to protect repair crews. there is not much energy to be saved. The potential energy savings in going from 100% FLT to 25% FLT is the difference in efﬁciency 95% .454 CHAPTER 13. As an auxiliary power wind turbine generator. [7] 13.7. the rotor is advancing 1% faster than the stator rotating magnetic ﬁeld. This means that as we are rotating the motor faster than the synchronous speed. No power can be generated in the event of a power company power failure. Though. a 95% efﬁcient motor is still 94% efﬁcient at 50% full load torque (FLT) and 90% efﬁcient at 25% FLT.90% = 5%. The payback period for the expensive electronic controller has been estimated to be unattractive for most applications. it might be economical as part of an electronic motor starter or speed Control. The Nola power factor corrector might be applicable to a 3phase motor which idles most of the time (below 25% FLT).
reversing the normal direction of the electric kilowatthour meter. the current ﬂow increases to supply a magnetizing current to the stator. a few hundred percent is more common.7. this allowable speed variation only amounts to about 1%. An induction alternator is better able to cope with these variations due to the inherent slip. followed by application of full line voltage as in Figure 13. The S contacts open and the R contacts close after starting. The load may be applied at this point.7. As the generator is brought up to full speed. Synchronous alternators are also more efﬁcient. Any wind induced turbine speed in excess of synchronous speed will develop negative torque. Motors over 50 kW use motor starters to reduce line current from several hundred to a few hundred percent of full load current. An intermittent duty autotarnsformer may reduce the stator voltage for a fraction of a minute during the start interval. If the load is removed residual magnetism may generate a small amount of current ﬂow.62. This reduces starting current to. Small motors of a few kilowatts or smaller can be started by direct connection to the power line. This breaker accepts high overcurrent for the duration of starting.13. 13. Motorstart rated circuit breakers (analogous to slow blow fuses) should replace standard circuit breakers for starting motors of a few kilowatts. a direct line connected induction generator is considered to be ﬁxedspeed in a wind turbine. Starting larger motors can cause line voltage sag. Closure of the S contacts applies reduced voltage during the start interval. it may be sized considerably smaller than a continuous duty unit.[6] Start up procedure is to bring the wind turbine up to speed in motor mode by application of normal power line voltage to the stator. Since the autotransformer is only used for the short start interval. Induction generators are not widely used in conventional power plants. The speed of a wind turbine is difﬁcult to control. An induction motor may be converted to a selfexcited generator by the addition of capacitors. See Doublyfed induction generator for a true variable speed alternator. Sometimes 3phase motors are purchased for use on single phase if threephase power is anticipated. Running 3phase motors on 1phase Threephase motors will run on single phase as readily as single phase motors. The speed of the steam turbine drive is steady and controllable as required by synchronous alternators. Multiple generators or multiple windings on a common shaft may be switched to provide a high and low speed to accomodate variable wind conditions. Whereas an induction motor presents a lagging power factor to the power line.4 Motor starting and speed control Some induction motors can draw over 1000% of full load current during starting. However. Voltage regulation is poor. This stresses the gear train and mechanical components less than a synchronous genertor. Single phase is applied . feeding power back into the power line. This current is allowed to ﬂow by the capacitors without dissipating power. 200% of full load current. The only problem for either motor is starting. affecting other loads. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 455 Small remote (from the power grid) installations may be make selfexciting by placing capacitors in parallel with the stator phases. though. The power rating needs to be 50% larger than for a comparable single phase motor to make up for one unused winding. Thus. an induction alternator presents a leading power factor. say. and subject to wind speed variation by gusts.
R= run optional run capacitor start capacitor φ1 φ1 φ2 M1 φsynthetic φ1’ synthetic 3φ φ3 standard 3φ Figure 13. AC MOTORS R S R M1 S Figure 13. our induction motor may run at multiple speeds. Thus. to a pair of windings simultanous with a start capacitor in series with the third winding. Only the wiring for one phase is shown above for clarity. φ1 R φsynthetic S φ1’ R return S = start. R= run CHAPTER 13. When switching the above 60 Hz motor from 4 poles to 2 poles . If the ﬁeld is segmented with leads brought out.63 upon motor start. Energizing one ﬁeld or the other is less complex than rewiring the stator coils in Figure 13.62: Autotransformer induction motor starter.64. The 22. The start switch is opened in Figure 13. it may be rewired (or switched) from 4pole to 2pole as shown above for a 2phase motor. “Add a phase” supplies a phase approximately midway 90o between the 180o single phase power source terminals. The circuit for running a threephase motor on single phase is known as “add a phase” or various other brand names.456 φ3 T1 φ1 S T2 S φ2 S = start. Multiple ﬁelds Induction motors may contain multiple ﬁeld windings.63: Starting a threephase motor on single phase. for example a 4pole and an 8pole winding corresponding to 1800 and 900 rpm synchronous speeds.5o segments are switchable to 45o segments. Sometimes a smaller capacitor than the start capacitor is retained while running.
65) 100% % torque 75% 50% 25% 100 0 80 20 motor torque 100% V reduced speed 50% V load to 60 40 rque 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns Figure 13. the synchronous speed of the motor may be . the synchronous speed increases from 1800 rpm to 3600 rpm.64: Multiple ﬁelds allow speed change. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS φ1 φ1 457 4pole 2pole Figure 13. what would be the corresponding 4pole and 2pole synchronous speeds? Ns = 120f/P = 120*50/4 = 1500 rpm (4pole) Ns = 3000 rpm (2pole) Variable voltage The speed of small squirrel cage induction motors for applications such as driving fans.7.65: Variable voltage controls induction motor speed. (Figure 13.13. may be changed by reducing the line voltage. Electronic speed control Modern solid state electronics increase the options for speed control. This reduces the torque available to the load which reduces the speed. If the motor is driven by 50 Hz. By changing the 50 or 60 Hz line frequency to higher or lower values.
• Three phase currents ﬂowing within the stator create a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which induces a current. the voltage to the motor needs to be decreased when frequency is decreased. Conversely. AC MOTORS changed. • Vector Control Also known as vector phase control. This may cause the stator magnetic circuit to saturate with disastrous results. the drive frequency may be increased to increase the synchronous speed of the motor. . • Direct Torque Control An elaborate adaptive motor model allows more direct control of ﬂux and torque without feedback. • Unlike single phase motors. varying from the simple to complex: Summary: Speed control • Scaler Control Low cost method described above to control only voltage and frequency. high or low. without feedback. The ﬂux and torque producing components of stator current are measured or estimated on a realtime basis to enhance the motor torquespeed curve.eps¡x1¿) approximates sinewaves to the motor with pulse width modulation outputs. decreasing the frequency of the current fed to the motor also decreases reactance XL which increases the stator current.458 CHAPTER 13. the percentage of “on” time corresponds to the instantaneous sine wave voltage. However. • Motor starters minimize loading of the power line while providing a larger starting torque than required during running. • Multiple ﬁeld windings can be rewired for multiple discrete motor speeds by changing the number of poles. the voltage needs to be increased to overcome increasing reactance to keep current up to a normal value and maintain torque. Summary: Tesla polyphase induction motors • A polyphase induction motor consists of a polyphase winding embedded in a laminated stator and a conductive squirrel cage embedded in a laminated rotor. Once electronics is applied to induction motor control. Rotor torque is developed as the rotor slips a little behind the rotating stator ﬁeld. Inverter. However. This method quickly responds to load changes. polyphase induction motors are selfstarting. This is a chopped waveform which is either on or off. This is computation intensive.66: Electronic variable speed drive. The inverter (Figure¡ref¿02480. many control methods are available. Starters are only required for large motors. variable frequency & voltage AC line speed M1 Figure 13. and consequent magnetic ﬁeld in the rotor. In practice.
Note that this torque peak is much higher than the starting torque available with no rotor resistance (R0 ) Slip is proportional to rotor resistance. φ1 φ2 M1 φ3 Stator Rotor Start resistance Figure 13.13. the linear induction motor is scheduled to replace steam driven catapult aircraft launch systems on the next generation of naval aircraft carrier. but a rotor with insulated windings brought out via slip rings and brushes. WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS 459 13. A shorted rotor operates like a squirrel cage rotor. The complication and maintenance associated with brushes and slip rings is a disadvantage of the wound rotor as compared to the simple squirrel cage rotor. locked rotor torque (LRT). But that resistance is shorted out by the time the rotor is started. However. Their sole purpose is to allow resistance to be placed in series with the rotor windings while starting.68 shows that by increasing the rotor resistance from R0 to R1 to R2 . Placing resistance in series with the rotor windings not only decreases start current.7. . However. Thus. the linear induction motor with the accompanying magnetic repulsion levitation system required for a smooth ride has been too costly for all but experimental installations. no power is applied to the slip rings. CVNX1. Figure 13.8. The direction of linear travel is controlled by the sequence of the drive to the stator phases. While this is not a severe problem for small motors. This will increase efﬁciency and reduce maintenance. high torque is produced while starting. the breakdown torque peak is shifted left to zero speed. Heat generated during starting is mostly dissipated external to the motor in the starting resistance. and pullout torque is proportional to slip. but also increases the starting torque. Up to this time. (Figure 13. locked rotor current (LRC). it is for large (10’s of kW) motors.67: Wound rotor induction motor. Why put resistance in series with the rotor? Squirrel cage induction motors draw 500% to over 1000% of full load current (FLC) during starting.5 Linear induction motor The wound stator and the squirrel cage rotor of an induction motor may be cut at the circumference and unrolled into a linear induction motor. The linear induction motor has been proposed as a drive for high speed passenger trains. The resistance decreases the torque available at full running speed. in 2013.67) This resistance is shorted out once the motor is started to make the rotor look electrically like the squirrel cage counterpart.8 Wound rotor induction motors A wound rotor induction motor has a stator like the squirrel cage induction motor.[4] [5] 13.
1 Speed control Motor speed may be varied by putting variable resistance back into the rotor circuit. See R2 curve at 90% Ns. R2 1.68: Breakdown torque peak is shifted to zero speed by increasing rotor resistance. Speed control works well with variable speed loads like elevators and printing presses.460 400% 300% 200% 100% R2 CHAPTER 13. Resistors R0 R1 R2 R3 increase in value from zero.69: Rotor resistance controls speed of wound rotor induction motor. This motor is suited for starting high inertial loads. This speed control technique is only usefull over a range of 50% to 100% of full speed. . 2. is not available at high speed. a squirrel cage rotor only exhibits pull out (peak) torque at 80% of its’ synchronous speed. This reduces rotor current and speed. 3 = motor torque R1 R0 %full load torque rque load to 100 80 0 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns Figure 13. For comparison. Figure 13.69.8. the down shifted break down torque. 13. A high starting resistance makes the high pull out torque available at zero speed. Speed regulation is poor with respect to changing torque loads. AC MOTORS breakdown torque R1 R0 %full load torque 100 0 80 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns Figure 13. 400% 300% 200% 100% R3 speed reduction R0. A higher resistance at R3 reduces the speed further. The high starting torque available at zero speed.
WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS 461 13. we can vary the speed of a doubly fed induction generator by ±50% from the synchronous speed.70) In the case of underspeed.70: Rotor resistance allows overspeed of doublyfed induction generator. The singlyfed induction generator only had a useable slip range of 1% when driven by troublesome wind torque. still allowing the stator to feed the power line with 60 Hz power. (Figure 13.8. Since there are connections to both the stator and rotor. (See Induction motor alternator) This is a singlyfed induction generator.71) ab .71: Converter recovers energy from rotor of doublyfed induction generator. such a machine is known as a doublyfed induction generator (DFIG). In actual practice. we may expect the same of the doublyfed induction generator. we can also overspeed it by 50%. resistance placed in the rotor circuit will absorb excess energy while the stator feeds constant 60 Hz to the power line.8. Overspeed torqure Rotor Stator φ1 φ2 100% Torque energy Converter 70% φ1 Electric energy φ3 φ2 φ3 30% Electric energy Figure 13. Overspeed torqure Rotor Stator φ1 φ2 100% Torque energy 70% Electric energy φ3 30% Waste heat Figure 13. In actual practice. ±30% is more practical. A wound rotor induction motor may also act as a generator when driven above the synchronous speed. having electrical connections only to the stator windings.13. That is.2 Doublyfed induction generator We previously described a squirrel cage induction motor acting like a generator if driven faster than the synchronous speed. negative resistance inserted into the rotor circuit can make up the energy deﬁcit. Since the speed of a wound rotor induction motor may be controlled over a range of 50100% by inserting resistance in the rotor. If the generator overspeeds. the rotor resistance may be replaced by a converter (Figure 13. Not only can we slow the rotor by 50%.
allowing it to function well under synchronous speed. a variable speed machine.72) The borrowed power. • Low starting current compared to squirrel cage induction motor.462 CHAPTER 13. • Speed is resistance variable over 50% to 100% full speed. The converter may “borrow” power from the line for the underspeed rotor. but a pulsating ﬁeld reaching maximum intensity at 0o and 180o electrical.74) Another view is that the single coil excited by a single phase current produces two counter rotating magnetic ﬁeld phasors. It will only develop 2/3 of the 3φ power rating because one winding is not used.9 Singlephase induction motors A three phase motor may be run from a single phase power source. At 45o and 45o (ﬁgure c) they are partially additive along the +x axis and cancel along the y axis. 13. passes to the stator which is connected to the power line. (Figure 13. When the phasors rotate to 90o and 90o they cancel in ﬁgure b. • The generator version of the wound rotor machine is known as a doublyfed induction generator. which passes it on to the stator. Overspeed torqure Rotor Stator φ1 φ2 100% Torque energy Converter 130% φ1 Electric energy φ3 φ2 φ3 30% Electric energy Figure 13. it will not selfstart.72: Converter borrows energy from power line for rotor of doubly fed induction generator. It may be hand started in either direction. This improves the efﬁciency of the generator. Keep in mind that the rotor “borrows” 30%. • Excellent starting torque for high inertia loads. leaving. coinciding twice per revolution at 0o (Figure 13. The single coil of a single phase induction motor does not produce a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. An analogous . Wound rotor induction motor qualities. along with the larger shaft energy.73) However.74a) and 180o (ﬁgure e). The stator appears to be supplying 130% of power to the line. (Figure 13. AC MOTORS sorbing power from the rotor. • Higher maintenance of brushes and slip rings compared to squirrel cage motor. (Figure 13. coming up to speed in a few seconds. leaving the line with 100% for the theoretical lossless DFIG. and feeding power into the power line instead of dissipating it.
It will develop maximum torque at 10% slip with respect to the forward rotating phasor. no starting torque is developed. 1φ powered Figure 13.10% slip with respect to the counter rotating magnetic ﬁeld phasor.9. once the rotor is started. However. Less torque will be developed above or below 10% slip. fed with two phases of current displaced 90o in time. The rotor will see 200% . ∠90o ∠180o ∠0o ∠90o a b c d e Figure 13. typical of polyphase induction motors.9. but alternating polarity in time. .13. with torque pulsations at full speed. the single phase coil will develop torque. This type of motor suffers increased current magnitude and backward time shift as the motor comes up to speed. it will develop a similar large torque as it nears the speed of the backward rotating phasor. This requires a motor with two windings spaced apart 90o electrical. deriving 2phase power from single phase. Thus. if the rotor is rotated forward at a bit less than the synchronous speed. Single phase induction motors have a copper or aluminum squirrel cage embedded in a cylinder of steel laminations. Little torque (see torque vs slip curve) other than a double freqency ripple is developed from the counter rotating phasor. pulsating magnetic ﬁeld. but does not start. The solution is to keep the capacitor (impedance) small to minimize losses. Thus.75. 13. This is called a permanentsplit capacitor motor in Figure 13.74: Single phase stator produces a nonrotating. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 463 open nostart 1φ motor 3φ motor. The sum of these two phasors is a phasor stationary in space. The losses are less than for a shaded pole motor. If the rotor is started in the reverse direction. situation exists in ﬁgure d.1 Permanentsplit capacitor motor One way to solve the single phase problem is to build a 2phase motor.73: 3φmotor runs from 1φ power.
though. This type of motor can be adapted for use as a servo motor. This motor conﬁguration works so well that it is available in multihorsepower (multikilowatt) sizes. Figure 13. Single phase induction motors may have coils embedded into the stator as shown in Figure 13. usually applied to smaller motors. AC MOTORS Figure 13.2 Capacitorstart induction motor In Figure 13.464 CHAPTER 13. The direction of the motor is easily reversed by switching the capacitor in series with the other winding. described elsewhere is this chapter. 13.75: Permanentsplit capacitor induction motor. . The result is that more starting torque is available for heavy loads like air conditioning compressors.9. the auxiliary winding may be many more turns of heavier wire than used in a resistance splitphase motor to mitigate excessive temperature rise.76: Single phase induction motor with embedded stator coils. the smaller sizes use less complex to build concentrated windings with salient poles.76 for larger size motors.77 a larger capacitor may be used to start a single phase induction motor via the auxiliary winding if it is switched out by a centrifugal switch once the motor is up to speed. This motor conﬁguration works well up to 1/4 horsepower (200watt). Though. Moreover.
13.78) is to start the motor with a relatively large capacitor for high starting torque.79) With lower inductance and higher resistance. it can start a single phase induction motor.3 Capacitorrun motor induction motor A variation of the capacitorstart motor (Figure 13.9.9. A motor starting capacitor may be a doubleanode nonpolar electrolytic capacitor which could be two + to + (or . the current will experience less phase shift than the main winding. which is disconnected by a centrifugal switch at 3/4 of synchronous speed. The additional complexity of the capacitorrun motor is justiﬁed for larger size motors. 60 seconds off) like motor starting. This coil produces a moderate starting torque.78: Capacitorrun motor induction motor. but not as much as a two phase motor built from the same parts.13. . SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 465 Figure 13. 13. About 30o of phase difference may be obtained.77: Capacitorstart induction motor.4 Resistance splitphase motor induction motor If an auxiliary winding of much fewer turns of smaller wire is placed at 90o electrical to the main winding. but a lower loss polymer type. A capacitor for motor running must not be of electrolytic construction. Figure 13. The current density in the auxiliary winding is so high during starting that the consequent rapid temperature rise precludes frequent restarting or slow starting loads.9. This simple (no capacitor) arrangement serves well for motors up to 1/3 horsepower (250 watts) driving easily started loads. (Figure 13.to ) series connected polarized electrolytic capacitors. This motor has more starting torque than a shaded pole motor (next section). Such AC rated electrolytic capacitors have such high losses that they can only be used for intermittent duty (1 second on. but leave a smaller value capacitor in place after starting to improve running characteristics while not drawing excessive current.
improving the power factor and efﬁciency. It should be easier to pay for it by a factor of three as compared to the more efﬁcient 3φmotor. single phase induction motor is a candidate for a PFC. The higher the initial line voltage. This ﬁxed current is a larger proportion of total motor current as motor load is decreased. 13. And the more time it idles. Of course. That means that it is not fully loaded when operated at greater than 104 VAC. punch press. or conveyor. 25% FLC or less.466 CHAPTER 13. as in a lumber saw. The less than unity power factor is due to magnetizing current required by the stator. there is potential energy savings for 1φ motors. There is no savings for a fully loaded motor since all the stator magnetizing current is required. as low as 104 VAC. It is based on the premise that induction motors are inefﬁcient at less than full load. a 117 VAC refrigerator.5 Nola power factor corrrector Frank Nola of NASA proposed a power factor corrector for improving the efﬁciency of AC induction motors in the mid 1970’s.79: Resistance splitphase motor induction motor. AC MOTORS IT VT IStart φ IRun φ ≅ 30ο VT IR IS I Run tar t IT IX IS tar t Figure 13.9. This inefﬁciency correlates with a low power factor. for example. [7] Summary: Singlephase induction motors • Singlephase induction motors are not selfstarting without an auxiliary stator winding . But there is potential savings from a less than fully loaded motor. Since singlephase motors are about 2 to 4 times as inefﬁcient as threephase motors. thus restoring a higher power factor and decreasing losses. and decreases motor voltage. It could be reduced by decreasing the applied voltage. The power factor corrector senses power factor. It is safe for the power factor controller to lower the line voltage to 104110 VAC. Though. A nominal 117 VAC motor is designed to work at as high as 127 VAC. it needs to operate a large number of hours per year. the motor will operate more efﬁciently without any addon device. The cost of a PFC cannot be recovered for a motor operating only a few hours per day. Any substantially idle. the full magnetizing current is not required. the greater the potential savings. if the power company delivers closer to 110 VAC. At light load. The voltage cannot be reduced. the greater the possibility of paying for the controller in a few years operation.
80: Shaded pole induction motor.10.10. (b) smaller single coil version. • The auxiliary winding of a permanentsplit capacitor motor has a capacitor in series with it during starting and running. shorting bars rotor (a) stator coils (b) Figure 13.1 Other specialized motors Shaded pole induction motor An easy way to provide starting torque to a single phase motor is to embed a shorted turn in each pole at 30o to 60o to the main winding. Motor speed can be lowered by switching reactance in series to limit current and torque. Starting torque is so low that shaded pole motors are only manufactured in smaller sizes. below 50 watts. This lagging ﬂux with the undamped main component. (Figure 13. or by switching motor coil taps as in Figure 13. • A capacitorstart induction motoronly has a capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding during starting. These shading coils produce a time lagging damped ﬂux spaced 30o to 60o from the main ﬁeld.13. produces a rotating ﬁeld with a small torque to start the rotor. Low cost and simplicity suit this motor to small fans. and other low torque applications.81. • A capacitorrun motor typically has a large nonpolarized electrolytic capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding for starting. OTHER SPECIALIZED MOTORS 467 driven by an out of phase current of near 90o . • The auxiliary winding of a resistance splitphase motor develops a phase difference versus the main winding during starting by virtue of the difference in resistance. air circulators. 13. Once started the auxiliary winding is optional. then a smaller nonelectrolytic capacitor during running.10 13.80) Typically 1/3 of the pole is enclosed by a bare copper strap. (a) dual coil design. .
The servo loop is a means of controlling the motion of an object via the motor.10. This variable sine wave is the output of an error ampliﬁer. Aircraft control surfaces may be positioned by 400 Hz 2φ servo motors.10. The other winding is driven by a variable amplitude sine wave to control motor speed. One of the windings is driven by a 90o phase shifted waveform. The phase of the waveform may invert (180o phase shift) to reverse the direction of the motor.3 Hysteresis motor If the low hysteresis Sisteel laminated rotor of an induction motor is replaced by a slotless windingless cylinder of hardened magnet steel. the construction is typical of a two phase motor. To reduce acceleration robbing inertial. See synchro CT section for example. One phase is connected to the single phase line. the iron core is removed from the rotor leaving only a shaft mounted aluminum cup to rotate. φ−1 φ−2 rotor cup iron core φ−1 φ−2 rotor cup Figure 13. hysteresis. 13.2 2phase servo motor A servo motor is typically part of a feedback loop containing electronic. this is accomplished by a series capacitor in the power line winding.82: High acceleration 2φ AC servo motor.82) The iron core is reinserted within the cup as a static (nonrotating) component to complete the magnetic circuit. (Figure 13. and electrical components. AC MOTORS L1 Figure 13. Otherwise. or lagging behind of rotor magneti .468 CHAPTER 13.81: Speed control of shaded pole motor. In the above ﬁgure. 13. A requirement of many such systems is fast response. The low mass rotor can accelerate more rapidly than a squirrel cage rotor. the other is driven by an ampliﬁer. mechanical.
During starting. However there is a substantial synchronizing torque.10. which is an abbreviation for “self synchronous”. The resulting low torque synchronous motor develops constant torque from stall to synchronous speed. and formerly. The higher the resistance during starting. phonograph turntables. • The eddy current clutch provides an adjustable torque. (Figure 13. The squirrel cage rotor is attached to the driving motor. and is only used for constant speed applications like clock drives. 13.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors Normally. If these windings are connected to a common starting resistance.83) This is usefull for printing presses and draw bridges. used in under 50 watt low torque applications. The drive motor is started with no DC excitation to the clutch.11. resistance may be placed in series with the rotor windings to limit starting current. where two motors need to be synchronized during starting. the synchronizing torque is absent. there is no starting torque. If the starting resistors are removed. the two rotors will remain synchronized during starting. Summary: Other specialized motors • The shaded pole induction motor. This is a selsyn. φ1 φ3 M1 φ2 Stator Rotor Start resistance Rotor Stator M2 φ2 φ3 φ1 Figure 13. is greatly accentuated. SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS 469 zation. the higher the synchronizing torque for a pair of motors. • Hysteresis motors are a small low torque synchronous motor once used in clocks and phonographs. . develops a second phase from shorted turns in the stator. but the rotors still paralleled. and the rotors are shorted.13. Because of the low torque. the hysteresis motor is only available in very small sizes.4 Eddy current clutch If the stator of an induction motor or a synchronous motor is mounted to rotate independently of the rotor. The DC excitation is adjusted from zero to the desired ﬁnal value providing a continuously and smoothly variable torque. The coils are excited with DC and attached to the mechanical load. Once started. an eddy current clutch results.83: Starting wound rotor induction motors from common resistors. The operation of the eddy current clutch is similar to an analog eddy current automotive speedometer. 13. the rotor windings of a wound rotor induction motor are shorted out after starting.
84) They are not intended to be self rotating. a single phase powered rotor is sufﬁcient as shown in Figure 13.84: Selsyns without starting resistance. If the rotors of both the torque transmitter (TX) and torque receiver (RX) are at the same angle. If drag is applied to one selsyn.85.receiver Small instrumentation selsyns. Note that a common source of three phase power is applied to both stators. which are not externally energized. 13. φ1 φ3 M1 φ2 Stator θ Rotor θ Rotor Stator M2 φ2 φ3 φ1 Figure 13. Either the transmitter or receiver shaft may be rotated to turn the opposite unit. If one rotor is moved through an angle θ. While multihorsepower (multikilowatt) selsyns exist. this will be felt when attempting to rotate the other shaft. The receiver shaft is electrically slaved to the transmitter shaft. Since the rotors are not shorted out nor resistor loaded. use single phase paralleled. However.85) Synchros function as rotary transformers. no starting torque is developed. The single rotor winding of a torque transmitter or receiver is brough out by brushed slip rings. S3 M1 S1 R1 60 Hz R2 RX R1 S3 S1 M2 R2 S2 Rotor Stator Torque receiver . the main appplication is small units of a few watts for instrumentation applications– remote position indication.TX Figure 13. retaining the 3phase paralleled stators. Should one rotor be displaced from the other. AC energized rotors. and no current will ﬂow.85: Synchros have single phase powered rotors. manual rotation of one shaft will produce an unbalance in the rotor currents until the parallel unit’s shaft follows. (Figure 13. AC MOTORS The rotors may be stationary. the phases of the induced stator voltages will be identical for both. Synchro stators are wound with 3phase windings brought out to external terminals. (Figure 13. the stator phase voltages will differ between transmitter and receiver. . also known as sychros. Stator current will ﬂow developing torque. Instrumentation selsyns have no use for starting resistors. Though we show three phase rotors above.1 Transmitter .11. the other selsyn shaft will move through an angle θ.RX Alternate abreviated symbols R1 TX S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 R1 RX R2 R2 TX S2 Stator Rotor Torque transmitter .470 CHAPTER 13.
regardless of ship’s heading. However. Remote position sensing is the main synchro application. displays antenna postion on an RX relative to true north. For example. This stator electrical angle may be displayed by sending it to an RX. (Figure 13.88) It is desired to display the antenna position with respect to true north. and 26 Vac 400 Hz power. 115 Vac 400 Hz. A shipboard radar antenna coupled to a synchro transmitter encodes the antenna angle with respect to ship’s bow. We need to add the ships heading from a gyrocompass to the bowrelative antenna position to display antenna angle with respect to true north. SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS 471 Synchro transmitters and receivers are electrically identical. a synchro transmitter coupled to a radar antenna indicates antenna position on an indicator in a control room. A synchro torque transmitter may be substituted for a torque receiver.2 Differential transmitter . N W S transmitter receiver E Figure 13.receiver A synchro differential transmitter (TDX) has both a three phase rotor and stator.86) For example.11. a synchro receiver displays the position of a radar antenna relative to a ship’s bow. 115 Vac 60 Hz.86: Synchro application: remote position indication.11. a synchro receiver has inertial damping built in.13. outputting the sum on the stator outputs. 13. The addition of a ship’s compass heading by a synchro differential transmitter. A synchro transmitter coupled to a weather vane indicates wind direction at a remote console.87) A synchro differential transmitter adds a shaft angle input to an electrical angle input on the rotor inputs. (Figure 13. antenna + gyro antennaN = antenna + gyro rx = tx + gy . Synchros are available for use with 240 Vac 50 Hz. Reversing the S1S3 pair of stator leads between a TX and TDX subtracts angular positions. (Figure 13.
rx transmitter . .tx ∠rx = ∠tx + ∠gy gyrocompass .87: Torque differential transmitter (TDX).472 CHAPTER 13. differential transmitter N W ∠tx ∠gy ∠rx E S receiver .gy Figure 13.88: Torque differential transmitter application: angular addition. AC MOTORS S3 S3 S1 R3 TDX Torque Differential Transmitter R2 S1 S3 S1 R1 R1 M2 R2 M3 R1 M1 R2 S2 TX Torque Transmitter S2 ∠Μ3 = ∠Μ1 + ∠Μ2 S2 TR Torque Receiver Figure 13.
ship’s heading is 30o .13. antennaN is: rx = tx + gy 30o = 30o + 0o Example. The torque output angular difference is TDR. The torque inputs in Figure 13. The difference between a TDX and a TDR is that the TDX is a torque transmitter and the TDR a torque receiver. The TDX has a torque angle input on the shaft. SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS 473 For example. The angle output is a torque on the TDR shaft.11. The torque inputs in Figure 13. The torque output angular difference is TR. . R1 TX R2 S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 TDX R1 R2 R3 S1 S2 S3 R1 TR R2 TDX subtraction: ∠TX . The TDR has electrical angle inputs on both the stator and rotor. R1 TX R2 S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 TDX R1 R2 R3 S1 S2 S3 R1 TR R2 TDX addition: ∠TX + ∠TDX = ∠TR Figure 13.90 are TX and TDX.89: TDX subtraction. ship’s heading is 30o . The torque output angular sum is TR. antenna position relative to ship’s bow is 15o .91 are TX1 and TX2 . The torque inputs in Figure 13. an electrical angle input on the three stator connections.∠TDX = ∠TR Figure 13. antennaN is: 45o = 30o + 15o Addition vs subtraction For reference we show the wiring diagrams for subtraction and addition of shaft angles using both TDX’s (Torque Differential transmitter) and TDR’s (Torque Differential Receiver).89 are TX and TDX. antenna position relative to ship’s bow is 0o . and an electrical angle output on the three rotor connections.90: TDX Addition.
output to be ampliﬁed. . AC MOTORS R1 TX1 R2 S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 TDR R1 R2 R3 S1 S2 S3 R1 TX2 R2 TDR subtraction: ∠TDR = ∠TX1 . R1 TX1 R2 S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 TDR R1 R2 R3 S1 S2 S3 R1 TX2 R2 TDR addition: ∠TDR = ∠TX1 + ∠TX2 Figure 13. The CT (Control Transformer) rotor output is zero when it is oriented at a angle right angle to the stator magnetic ﬁeld vector. Unlike a TX or RX.3 Control transformer A variation of the synchro transmitter is the control transformer.92: TDR addition. the CT neither transmits nor receives torque. Its rotor is wound with more turns than a transmitter or receiver to make it more sensitive at detecting a null as it is rotated. no CT. 13.92 are TX1 and TX2 . The control transformer compares the shaft angle to the the stator magnetic ﬁeld angle. sent by the TX stator. The torque inputs in Figure 13.94) seeks to minimize the error between a commanded and measured variable due to negative feedback. When the control transformer rotor detects a null at 90o to the axis of the stator ﬁeld. It has three equally spaced stator windings like a TX. The servo system will cause the servo motor to drive the antenna to the commanded position. stops rotating. The torque output angular sum is TDR. The CT compares the commanded to actual position and signals the servo ampliﬁer to drive the motor until that commanded angle is achieved. control transformer.∠TX2 Figure 13.11. A servo (Figure 13. or null. When it measures a minimum. a 2phase motor. there is no rotor output. It is simply a sensitive angular position detector. Any rotor displacement produces an AC error voltage proportional to displacement.474 CHAPTER 13. In Figure 13. However.91: TDR subtraction. the shaft of the TX is set to the desired position of the radar antenna.93. by a servo system. The servo motor. typically. the servo has driven the antenna and control transformer rotor to the commanded position. There is no error between measured and commanded position.
SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS 475 an ten na input angle W AC servo motor φ2 φ1 S1 S2 S3 R2 N S E CT R1 − + TX R1 R2 120 Vac Figure 13. mechanical coupling 2φ servo motor φ1 M3 S3 S1 R1 S3 S1 M2 CT φ2 S2 R1 R2 R2 M1 TX S2 − + Figure 13.11.13.93: Control transformer (CT) detects servo null.94: Servo uses CT to sense antenna position null .
11. they can be controlled to some extent by varying the voltage to one phase with line voltage on the other phase. For example. Summary: Selsyn (synchro) motors . A resolver is used for polar to rectangular conversion. There is also a linear version of the resolver known as an inductosyn. (Figure 13. The sine wave is fed to the rotor of a resolver. Therefore. The three TX outputs.95: Resolver converts shaft angle to sine and cosine of angle. Airborne applications use 400Hz components– TX. a blackbox within a radar encodes the distance to a target as a sine wave proportional voltage V. and a single rotor winding driven by alternating current. CT. Heavy loads are more efﬁciently driven by large DC servo motors. Convert to X and Y coordinates. They are also difﬁcult to control since they are constant speed devices. θ φ2 = sinθ φ1 φ1 = cosθ Figure 13. A TX (torque transmitter) may be adapted for service as a resolver. are processed by a ScottT transformer into a pair of quadrature components.4 Resolver A resolver (Figure 13. and servo motor. 13. Y) may be plotted on a map display. 3phases. use of 400 Hz components for aircraft applications. the poor efﬁciency of AC servo motors limits them to smaller loads. Size and weight of the AC magnetic components is inversely proportional to frequency. See ScottT chapter 9 for details. with the bearing angle as a shaft angle. The rotary version of the inductosyn has a ﬁner resolution than a resolver. The bearing angle shaft is coupled to the resolver shaft.476 CHAPTER 13. The servo motor may drive a reduction gear train and be large compared to the TX and CT synchros. However. like moving control surfaces.95) has two stator winding placed at 90o to each other. Y) are available on the resolver stator coils: X=V(cos( bearing)) Y=V(sin( bearing)) The Cartesian coordinates (X.96) It is possible to derive resolverlike quadrature angular components from a synchro transmitter by using a ScottT transformer. This corresponds to the servo system having driven the antenna coupled CT to match the angle commanded by the TX. An angle input at the rotor shaft produces rectangular coordinates sinθ and cosθ proportional voltages on the stator windings. The coordinates (X. However. AC MOTORS any CT detected error drives the ampliﬁer which drives the motor until the error is minimized. saves size and weight.
control transformer.6% Vsin(θ+120°) Y3 TX synchro ScottT transformer S2 V1 =Vsin(θ) Y2 ct R1 V1 =Vsin(θ) R2 V’2 = Vsin(θ+90°) =Vcos(θ) R4 V3 = M2 Vsin(θ+240°) Figure 13. • A TX. The success or failure of a motor design was not known until after it was actually built at great expense and tested. 13. accepts a threephase electrical representation of an angular input for conversion to a torque output at its shaft. AC COMMUTATOR MOTORS 477 R3 Y1 S1 R1 R2 θ S3 V2 = 86. A CT is typically a component of a servo– feedback system.12. torque receiver. also known as a selsyn. • A Resolver outputs a quadrature sinθ and cosine(theta) representation of the shaft angle input instead of a threephase output. TX transmits a torque form an input shaft to a remote RX output shaft.96: ScottT converts 3φ to 2φ enabling TX to perform resolver function. The situation was so bad that motors could not be designed ahead of the actual construction. • The threephase output of a TX is converted to a resolver style output by a ScottT transformer. sums an electrical angle input with a shaft angle input producing an electrical angle output • A TDR. He formlated the laws of magnetic hysteresis in ﬁnding a solution. torque transmitter. sums two electrical angle inputs producing a shaft angle output • A CT.12 AC commutator motors Charles Proteus Steinmetz’s ﬁrst job after arriving in America was to investigate problems encountered in the design of the alternating current version of the brushed commutator motor. Thus. • A synchro.13. is a rotary transformer used to transmit shaft torque. • A TDX. . • An RX. torque differential transmitter. detects a null when the rotor is positioned at a right angle to the stator angle input. accepts a torque input at its shaft for transmission on threephase electrical outputs. torque differential receiver.
The singlephase AC version suffers a double line frequency torque pulsation.97) field field Figure 13.2 Compensated series motor The arcing and sparking is mitigated by placing a compensating winding the stator in series with the armature positioned so that its magnetomotive force (mmf) cancels out the armature AC mmf. While such a motor will rotate. 13.97: Uncompensated series AC motor. This results in considerable arcing and sparking at the brushes as the armature begins to turn. the lagging reactance of the ﬁeld coil will considerably reduce the ﬁeld current. due to brush and commutator wear. use compensated stator windings. or larger. Since a commutator motor can operate at much higher speed than an induction motor. AC commutator motors. AC MOTORS Hysteresis is a lagging behind of the magnetic ﬁeld strength as compared to the magnetizing force.1 Single phase series motor If a DC series motor equipped with a laminated ﬁeld is connected to AC. All but very small AC commutator motors employ compensating windings. This is less of a problem as speed increases. which shares the arcing and sparking between commutator segments The lagging reactance and arcing brushes are only tolerable in very small uncompensated series AC motors operated at high speed. . The series motor operates well above the synchronous speed of a conventional AC motor. have higher starting torque and higher speed than AC induction motors.98) A smaller motor air gap and fewer ﬁeld turns reduces lagging reactance in series with the armature improving the power factor. However commutator motors are not as maintenance free as induction motors. (Figure 13. AC commutator motors may be either singlephase or polyphase.12. it can output more power than a similar size induction motor. like comparable DC motors. Low hysteresis alloys and breaking the alloy into thin insulated laminations made it possible to accurately design AC commutator motors before building. (Figure 13. operation is marginal. Motors as large as those employed in a kitchen mixer. While starting.478 CHAPTER 13. 13. This produces a loss not present in DC magnetics. not present in polyphase motor.12. armature windings connected to commutator segments shorted by the brushes look like shorted transformer turns to the ﬁeld. Series AC motors smaller than hand drills and kitchen mixers may be uncompensated.
the peaks of the sine waves saturate the magnetic path reducing total ﬂux below the DC value.98: Compensated series AC motor. 13. Speed can be conrolled by rotating the brushes with respect to the ﬁeld axis. Very small universal motors may be uncompensated.4 Repulsion motor A repulsion motor (Figure 13. vacuum cleaners. shorting brushes field compensating winding Figure 13. Though. the offsetting effects result in a nearly constant speed from DC to 60 Hz. 13.12. Low starting current produces high starting torque.12. the development of solid state rectiﬁers and inexpensive permanent magnets is making the DC permanent magnet motor a viable alternative. inferior commutation above synchronous speed.99) consists of a ﬁeld directly connected to the AC line voltage and a pair of shorted brushes offset by 15o to 25o from the ﬁeld axis. Thus. A motor will run slower on AC than DC due to the reactance encountered with AC.3 Universal motor It is possible to design small (under 300 watts) universal motors which run from either DC or AC. requiring 3000 to 10.12. . increasing the speed of the “series” motor. and mixers.99: Repulsion AC motor.000 rpm use universal motors. The ﬁeld induces a current ﬂow into the shorted armature whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes that of the ﬁeld coils. such as drills. This motor has superior commutation below synchronous speed. AC COMMUTATOR MOTORS 479 compensating winding field Figure 13. However.13. Larger higher speed universal motors use a compensating winding. Small line operated appliances.
giving the effect of a squirrel cage rotor . Most AC commutator motors are this type. [3] Linear motor outperforms steampiston catapults. This is known as a repulsion start induction motor.lmphotonics.com/news/energytech04zzn. Navy Matters. At high speed this motor provides more power than a samesize induction motor.com/index.O. • The AC line is directly connected to the stator of a repulsion motor with the commutator shorted by the brushes.html [2] “Linear motor applications guide”.” M Photonics Ltd.com/cvf32. New Zealand at http://www. a centrifugal switch shorts out all commutator segments. www.aerotech. The brushes may also be lifted to prolong bush life. (4/11/2002).pdf as generators”. overcoming excessive commutator sparking. at PA) Pittsburg.designnews. At near running speed.beedall.htm . www. P.edn. “Electronics poised to replace steampowered aircraft launch system”. Design News.com/article/CA207108. http://navymatters.pdfopt txt Ship motor.5 Repulsion start induction motor When an induction motor drives a hard starting load like a compressor.480 CHAPTER 13. • The addition of a compensating winding yields the compensated series motor.CVF. Christchurch.com/energy. • It is possible to produce small appliance motors powered by either AC or DC. • Retractable shorted brushes may start a wound rotor induction motor. Inc. Summary: AC commutator motors • The single phase series motor is an attempt to build a motor like a DC commutator motor. This is known as a universal motor. (Aerotech.spacedaily.htm [5] Bill Schweber.12. EDN. Starting torque is 300% to 600% of the full speed value as compared to under 200% for a pure induction motor. AC MOTORS 13.html?pubdate=04%2F11%2F2002 [6] “Operating 60 cycle motors www.asp?layout=article&articleid=CA151563&cfd=1 [4] Future Aircraft Carrier . the high starting torque of the repulsion motor may be put to use. The induction motor rotor windings are brought out to commutator segments for starting by a pair of shorted brushes. Red Rock Energy [7] “Energy Saver systems for Induction motors. www.com/cimtext.redrok.. The resulting motor is only practical in the smallest sizes. Box 13 076. but is not maintenance free.com/products/PDF/LMAppGuide. Bibliography [1] American Superconductor achieves full power of 5MW www.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I came across a length of coaxial cable with the label “50 ohms” printed along its outer sheath. . . . . . . 481 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 14 TRANSMISSION LINES Contents 14. . .4 14. . . . Standing waves and resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unbroken lengths of wire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Characteristic impedance . . . . have 50 ohms of resistance between them? Measuring resistance between the outer and inner conductors with my ohmmeter. . . (Figure 14. . . . . . Circuits and the speed of light . . . How could two conductors. . . . . . . . . .7 14. . . .8 A 50ohm cable? . . . . . . . . . . . coaxial cable is a twoconductor cable made of a single conductor surrounded by a braided wire jacket. . . . . . . Measuring each of the two conductors’ resistances from one end of the cable to the other indicated nearly zero ohms of resistance: again. . . . . . the outer (braided) conductor completely surrounds the inner (single wire) conductor. . Nowhere was I able to measure 50 Ω of resistance on this cable. . . . regardless of which points I connected my ohmmeter between. . This type of cabling is often used to conduct weak (lowamplitude) voltage signals. . . exactly what I would have expected from continuous. . . due to its excellent ability to shield such signals from external interference. . . . . . . . . . . Impedance transformation . Waveguides . . I was mystiﬁed by the “50 ohms” label on this coaxial cable.3 14. . . . “Long” and “short” transmission lines . . . . . . . . . . .1) Now. . .5 14. . . . . . . . . insulated from each other by a relatively thick layer of plastic. . Finitelength transmission lines . . . . I found it to be inﬁnite (opencircuit). . 481 482 484 491 497 500 520 527 14.6 14. . . . . . with a plastic insulating material separating the two. . . . . . . . . . . . the two conductors insulated from each other for the entire length of the cable.1 14. .2 14. . . just as I would have expected from two insulated conductors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 A 50ohm cable? Early in my explorations of electricity. As such.
482 CHAPTER 14. What I didn’t understand at the time was the cable’s response to shortduration voltage “pulses” and highfrequency AC signals. 14. with nearly inﬁnite resistance between the two. However. This chapter explores transmission line behavior. When the switch is closed.1: Coaxial cable contruction. the lamp immediately lights. in circuits involving high frequencies and/or extremely long cable lengths. Many transmission line effects do not appear in signiﬁcant measure in AC circuits of powerline frequency (50 or 60 Hz). an incandescent lamp takes a short time for its ﬁlament to warm up and emit light after receiving an electric current of sufﬁcient magnitude to power it. and in lowfrequency circuits subject to voltage transients (“surges”) such as lightning strikes on power lines. When the switch is opened.2 Circuits and the speed of light Suppose we had a simple onebattery. Practical applications of transmission line effects abound in radiofrequency (“RF”) communication circuitry.eps¡x1¿) Actually. so the effect is not RG 58 /U . When expressing such properties. TRANSMISSION LINES Inner conductor Outer conductor (wire braid) 50 Ω Insulation (polyethylene) Protective jacket (polyvinyl chloride) Figure 14. the effects are very signiﬁcant. the cable’s response to rapidlychanging voltages is such that it acts as a ﬁnite impedance. or in continuous DC circuits. Continuous direct current (DC) – such as that used by my ohmmeter to check the cable’s resistance – shows the two conductors to be completely insulated from each other. the lamp immediately darkens: (Figure¡ref¿02352. What we would normally dismiss as being just a pair of wires becomes an important circuit element in the presence of transient and highfrequency AC signals. including computer networks. However. and so we haven’t had to concern ourselves with them in our study of electric circuits thus far. drawing current proportional to an applied voltage. we refer to the wire pair as a transmission line. due to the effects of capacitance and inductance distributed along the length of the cable. onelamp circuit controlled by a switch. with characteristic properties all its own.
the lamp will continue to receive power for one second of time after the switch opens. Thus. lamp responds after 1 second. a set of very long wires should introduce a time delay into the circuit. Figure 14. resulting in a much faster transfer of motion from the left end of the train (circuit) to the right end than . When the switch is opened again. CIRCUITS AND THE SPEED OF LIGHT 483 Switch Lamp Battery Figure 14. it is theoretically possible.000 miles long? Since we know the effects of electricity do have a ﬁnite speed (albeit very fast)..14. not the response time of the lamp ﬁlament. However.. Although electrons move through wires very slowly. though. What would happen. For all practical purposes..2: Lamp appears to immediately respond to switch. and no resistance along the 372. if the wires carrying power to the lamp were 186.eps¡x1¿) 186. the lamp would light up approximately one second after the switch closure.000 mile length of both wires.. delaying the switch’s action on the lamp: (Figure¡ref¿02353. and so this “thought experiment” is valid. motion is transferred from car to car (from electron to electron) at a maximum velocity limited by the coupling slack. then it will deenergize. Although the construction and operation of superconducting wires 372. instant. what I’d like to focus on is the immediacy of the electric current itself.2. but not before the slack is relieved from the couplings.000 miles in length would pose enormous practical problems.000 miles per second!). Assuming no warmup time for the lamp ﬁlament. When one rail car (electron) begins to move. the overall effect of electrons pushing against each other happens at the speed of light (approximately 186. it pushes on the one ahead of it and pulls on the one behind it. the effect of switch action is instant at the lamp’s location. One way of envisioning this is to imagine the electrons within a conductor as rail cars in a train: linked together with a small amount of “slack” or “play” in the couplings. Switch Lamp Battery .000 miles .3: At the speed of light.
14.eps¡x1¿) Likewise. is that of waves in water. . so as to produce a wave ahead of it. wallshaped object is suddenly moved horizontally along the surface of water.484 CHAPTER 14. electron motion “coupling” travels approximately at the speed of light.eps¡x1¿) First car begins to move . TRANSMISSION LINES the actual speed of the cars (electrons): (Figure¡ref¿02354. . The wave will travel as water molecules bump into each other. perhaps more ﬁtting for the subject of transmission lines.4: Motion is transmitted sucessively from one car to next. this “coupling” speed would become noticeable to a human observer in the form of a short time delay between switch action and lamp action. . though. What would happen when we close the switch? Being that there is no longer a load at the end of the wires. Would there be no current at all? (Figure¡ref¿02356. then the second car moves . Suppose a ﬂat. • REVIEW: • In an electric circuit. .eps¡x1¿) . and then the last car moves! Figure 14.3 Characteristic impedance Suppose. that we had a set of parallel wires of inﬁnite length. . In a very long circuit. Another analogy. . with no lamp at the end. transferring wave motion along the water’s surface far faster than the water molecules themselves are actually traveling: (Figure¡ref¿02355. . although electrons within the conductors do not travel anywhere near that velocity. the effects of electron motion travel approximately at the speed of light. this circuit is open. although the electrons themselves don’t move that quickly.
14.5: Wave motion in water.. Figure 14.3. infinite length ... Switch Battery .6: Driving an inﬁnite transmission line. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE 485 Object water surface water molecule wave wave wave Figure 14.. .
and in so doing drops voltage according to the inductance equation e = L(di/dt). when the switch is closed. No longer are the wires merely conductors of electrical current and carriers of voltage. ¡ref¿02362.. Energy is stored in this magnetic ﬁeld. the capacitance between conductors will react against the sudden voltage increase by charging up and drawing current from the source. an instant rise in applied voltage (as produced by perfect switch closure) gives rise to an inﬁnite charging current.eps¡x1¿) The end result of these interactions is a constant current of limited magnitude through the battery source. like this: (Figures¡ref¿02360. Any pair of conductors separated by an insulating medium creates capacitance between those conductors: (Figure¡ref¿02359.eps¡x1¿) infinite length . their distributed capacitance will never fully charge to the source voltage. In other words.eps¡x1¿. which tells us that current will be drawn proportional to the voltage’s rate of change over time.” we cannot eliminate capacitance along the wires’ lengths. and this storage of energy results in an opposition to change in voltage. behaving as a constant load. ¡ref¿02363. Since the wires are inﬁnitely long. ... (Figure 14. but now constitute a circuit component in themselves.eps¡x1¿. Each wire develops a magnetic ﬁeld as it carries charging current for the capacitance between the wires. According to the equation. preventing the current from ever reaching an inﬁnite magnitude: Because the electrons in the two wires transfer motion to and from each other at nearly the speed of light. This voltage drop limits the voltage rateofchange across the distributed capacitance. The reaction of a capacitance against changes in voltage is described by the equation i = C(de/dt). the current drawn by a pair of parallel wires will not be inﬁnite. TRANSMISSION LINES Despite being able to avoid wire resistance through the use of superconductors in this “thought experiment.eps¡x1¿. However. and their distributed inductance will never allow unlimited charging current.. Energy is stored in this electric ﬁeld.8) Remember that current through any conductor develops a magnetic ﬁeld of proportional magnitude. the “wave front” of voltage and current change will propagate down the length of the wires at that same velocity. Figure 14.7: Equivalent circuit showing stray capacitance between conductors. Switch Battery . resulting in the distributed capacitance and inductance progressively charging to full voltage and current. respectively. this pair of wires will draw current from the source so long as the switch is closed. because there exists series impedance along the wires due to inductance. Thus. ¡ref¿02361. Voltage applied between two conductors creates an electric ﬁeld between those conductors. (Figure 14.9) and this storage of energy results in an opposition to change in current.486 CHAPTER 14.
magnetic field Figure 14....3..8: Equivalent circuit showing stray capacitance and inductance. Figure 14.14... CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE 487 infinite length . Figure 14.10: Uncharged transmission line. Switch electric field Battery .... Switch Battery . . current charges inductance.. . ..9: Voltage charges capacitance.. infinite length .
TRANSMISSION LINES Switch closes! .. .13: Propagate at speed of light.. + + + + .....488 CHAPTER 14. Figure 14.. + + . + + + + + + . . Speed of light (approximately) Figure 14.12: Continue wave propagation... Figure 14..11: Begin wave propagation.. ..
CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE 489 with unique characteristics. but rather a transmission line. the transmission line’s response to applied voltage is resistive rather than reactive. The impedance (resistance) of this line in ohms is called the characteristic impedance. despite being comprised purely of inductance and capacitance (assuming superconducting wires with zero resistance). If the insulating material is other than air (or a vacuum). Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line d1 = Inside diameter of outer conductor d2 = Outside diameter of inner conductor k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors In both equations. identical units of measurement must be used in both terms of the fraction. No longer are the two wires merely a pair of conductors. both the characteristic impedance . As a constant load. and it is ﬁxed by the geometry of the two conductors. Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line d = Distance between conductor centers r = Conductor radius k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors If the transmission line is coaxial in construction. We can say this because there is no difference from the battery’s perspective between a resistor eternally dissipating energy and an inﬁnite transmission line eternally absorbing energy.14.3. the characteristic impedance may be calculated as such: d r d Z0 = 276 log r k Where. the characteristic impedance follows a different equation: d1 d2 d Z0 = 138 log 1 d2 k Where. For a parallelwire line with air insulation.
v = Velocity of wave propagation c = Velocity of light in a vacuum k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors Characteristic impedance is also known as natural impedance... The ratio of a transmission line’s true propagation velocity and the speed of light in a vacuum is called the velocity factor of that line...Velocity factor = Where. Velocity factor is purely a factor of the insulating material’s relative permittivity (otherwise known as its dielectric constant). equating to a lesser impedance. Barring any dissipative effects such as dielectric “leakage” and conductor resistance.... and it refers to the equivalent resistance of a transmission line if it were inﬁnitely long.. Less parallel capacitance and more series inductance results in a smaller current drawn by the line for any given amount of applied voltage. If the conductors are moved away from each other. which by deﬁnition is a greater impedance.. bringing the two conductors closer together increases the parallel capacitance and decreases the series inductance.. Both changes result in a larger current drawn for a given applied voltage. Conversely.. and the distributed inductance will increase (less cancellation of the two opposing magnetic ﬁelds).. owing to distributed capacitance and inductance as the voltage and current “waves” propagate along its length at a propagation velocity equal to some large fraction of light speed. the distributed capacitance will decrease (greater spacing between capacitor “plates”). the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is equal to the square root of the ratio of the line’s inductance per unit length divided by the line’s capacitance per unit length: v = c 1 k Z0 = Where..490 CHAPTER 14... deﬁned as the ratio of a material’s electric ﬁeld permittivity to that of a pure vacuum. TRANSMISSION LINES and the propagation velocity will be affected... The velocity factor of any cable type – coaxial or otherwise – may be calculated quite simply by the following formula: ++++++++++++++++++++++ Velocity of wave propagation . It can be seen in either of the ﬁrst two equations that a transmission line’s characteristic impedance (Z0 ) increases as the conductor spacing increases.. L C Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line L = Inductance per unit length of line C = Capacitance per unit length of line ...
If the end of a transmission line is opencircuited – that is. and would exist even if the dielectric were perfect (inﬁnite parallel resistance) and the wires superconducting (zero series resistance).4 Finitelength transmission lines A transmission line of inﬁnite length is an interesting abstraction. causing the one behind it to come to a stop as soon as the ﬁrst coupling slack is taken up. Characteristic impedance is purely a function of the capacitance and inductance distributed along the line’s length. I actually would have been able to measure 50 Ω worth of resistance between the inner and outer conductors. 14. both a voltage “wave” and a current “wave” propagate along the line at nearly light speed. The train does not come to a halt together. the line will draw current from the DC source as though it were a constant resistance. For any cable type. • The characteristic impedance (Z0 ) of a transmission line is the resistance it would exhibit if it were inﬁnite in length. Ohm’s Law relationship between current and voltage will hold true for a limited period of time. and as such do not behave precisely the same as an inﬁnite line. is surge impedance. This simple. it is equal to the reciprocal (1/x) of the square root of the relative permittivity of the cable’s insulation. If a transient voltage (a “surge”) is applied to the end of a transmission line. Values range between 0. but not indeﬁnitely. since electrons cannot ﬂow where there is no continuing path. Nonetheless. which I like for its descriptive value. and the metallic resistance of the wires themselves. This is entirely different from leakage resistance of the dielectric separating the two conductors. This abrupt cessation of current at the line’s end causes a “pileup” to occur along the length of the transmission line. but physically impossible. All transmission lines have some ﬁnite length. If that piece of 50 Ω “RG58/U” cable I measured with an ohmmeter years ago had been inﬁnitely long. but rather in sequence from ﬁrst car to last: (Figure¡ref¿02364.14. as the electrons successively ﬁnd no place to go. left unconnected – the current “wave” propagating down the line’s length will have to stop at the end. the characteristic impedance rating of a transmission line is important even when dealing with limited lengths. it will come to a stop. and so it measured as “open” (inﬁnite resistance). But it was not inﬁnite in length. which causes the next rail car to stop as soon as the next coupling’s slack is taken up. • Velocity factor is a fractional value relating a transmission line’s propagation speed to the speed of light in a vacuum.eps¡x1¿) . the line will draw a current proportional to the surge voltage magnitude divided by the line’s surge impedance (I=E/Z). and so on until the last rail car stops. • When a voltage is suddenly applied to one end of a transmission line.66 and 0. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES • REVIEW: 491 • A transmission line is a pair of parallel conductors exhibiting certain characteristics due to distributed capacitance and inductance along its length.80 for typical twowire lines and coaxial cables. An older term for characteristic impedance. • If a DC voltage is applied to one end of an inﬁnitely long transmission line.4. Imagine a train traveling down the track with slack between the rail car couplings: if the lead car suddenly crashes into an immovable barricade.
TRANSMISSION LINES First car stops . it takes only 1/122. All this happens very quickly for transmission lines of reasonable length. This technique may also be used for determining the presence and location of a break in one or both of the cable’s conductors.760 miles per second).146 microseconds) for a signal to travel from one end to the other. A similar phenomenon takes place if the end of a transmission line is shortcircuited: when the voltage wavefront reaches the end of the line. it is reﬂected back to the source. The propagation of a signal from loadend to sourceend (such as what happened in this example with current encountering the end of an opencircuited transmission line) is called a reﬂected wave. . or 16. Highspeed measurement instruments are able to detect this transit time from source to lineend and back to source again. A signal propagating from the sourceend of a transmission line to the loadend is called an incident wave. because voltage cannot exist between two electrically common points. and the line acts as a simple open circuit.14: Reﬂected wave. For a milelong cable with a velocity factor of 0. For the current signal to reach the line’s end and “reﬂect” back to the source. the roundtrip time is twice this ﬁgure. .492 CHAPTER 14. . then the second car stops . The basic principle is identical to that of sonar rangeﬁnding: generating a sound pulse and measuring the time it takes for the echo to return. or 122.760 of a second (8. and may be used for the purpose of determining a cable’s length. .66 (signal propagation velocity is 66% of light speed. and so an ohmmeter measurement of the line never reveals the brief time period where the line actually behaves as a resistor. When this electron “pileup” propagates back to the battery.292 µs. Instruments designed for such purposes are called timedomain reﬂectometers (TDRs). . current at the battery ceases. . . When this reﬂected wave reaches . and then the last car stops! Figure 14. since a current will “reﬂect” off the wire break just as it will off the end of an opencircuited cable.
14.4. the source sees the entire transmission line as a shortcircuit. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES 493 the source. Take a length of rope by one end and “whip” it with a rapid upanddown motion of the wrist.15: Lossy transmission line. This is analogous to a long transmission line with internal loss: the signal steadily grows weaker as it propagates down the line’s length. However. A wave may be seen traveling down the rope’s length until it dissipates entirely due to friction: (Figure¡ref¿02365.eps¡x1¿) wave wave wave Figure 14. A simple experiment illustrates the phenomenon of wave reﬂection in transmission lines. Again. if the far end of the rope is secured to a solid object at a point prior to the incident wave’s total . never reﬂecting back to the source. this happens as quickly as the signal can propagate roundtrip down and up the transmission line at whatever velocity allowed by the dielectric material between the line’s conductors.
since reﬂected energy is energy not delivered to the end device.494 CHAPTER 14. Usually. there will be no reﬂected energy. Even if the signals are intended for information only. the purpose of a transmission line is to convey electrical energy from one point to another.eps¡x1¿) wave wave wave wave Figure 14. a second wave will be reﬂected back to your hand: (Figure¡ref¿02366. However. as are reﬂected waves. A transmission line of 50 Ω characteristic impedance and inﬁnite length behaves exactly like a 50 Ω resistance as measured from one end.16: Reﬂected wave. all signal energy being dissipated by the resistor.17) If we cut this line to . the ideal situation would be for all of the original signal energy to travel from the source to the load. and not to power some signiﬁcant load device. (Figure 14. “loss” along the length of a transmission line is undesirable. This makes perfect sense if we return to our hypothetical. For example. if a 50 Ω resistor is connected at the end of the cable. and then be completely absorbed or dissipated by the load for maximum signaltonoise ratio. Reﬂections may be eliminated from the transmission line if the load’s impedance exactly equals the characteristic (“surge”) impedance of the line. a 50 Ω coaxial cable that is either opencircuited or shortcircuited will reﬂect all of the incident energy back to the source. inﬁnitelength transmission line example. TRANSMISSION LINES dissipation. Thus.
depending on what condition we leave the cut end of the line: open (Figure 14.19) However. Reﬂected waves will also manifest if the terminating resistance isn’t precisely equal to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES 495 some ﬁnite length.or a shortcircuit. Switch Battery 1 mile open 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0.292 µs. then like an open (infinite resistance) Figure 14.. but then behave like an open. it will be partial. Though the energy reﬂection will not be total with a terminating impedance of slight mismatch. indeﬁnitely: the same as if it were of inﬁnite length again: (Figure 14. .. it will behave as a 50 Ω resistor to a constant source of DC voltage for a brief time.66 Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Like a 50 Ω resistor for 16. if we terminate the line with a 50 Ω resistor. because a resistor has the ability to eternally dissipate energy in the same way a transmission line of inﬁnite length is able to eternally absorb energy. the line will once again behave as a 50 Ω resistor. 50 Ω coaxial cable Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Exactly like a 50 Ω resistor Figure 14.20) Switch Battery infinite length . This happens whether or not the terminating resistance is greater or less than the line’s characteristic impedance.18: One mile transmission.18) or shorted. not just if the line is left unconnected (open) or jumpered (shorted).14.4. In essence. a terminating resistor matching the natural impedance of the transmission line makes the line “appear” inﬁnitely long from the perspective of the source.17: Inﬁnite transmission line looks like resistor. (Figure 14.
TRANSMISSION LINES Switch Battery 1 mile shorted 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0.19: Shorted transmission line. Switch Battery 1 mile 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0. .66 Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Like a 50 Ω resistor for 16.292 µs. then like a short (zero resistance) Figure 14.20: Line terminated in characteristic impedance.496 CHAPTER 14.66 50 Ω Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Exactly like a 50 Ω resistor Figure 14.
often employed to protect weak voltage signals from being corrupted by induced “noise” caused by stray electric and magnetic ﬁelds. After that time (a brief 16. This type of reﬂection may be particularly troublesome. 14. and “shorted” when its end is shortcircuited. “LONG” AND “SHORT” TRANSMISSION LINES 497 Rereﬂections of a reﬂected wave may also occur at the source end of a transmission line. a signal “bounced” off the end of a transmission line. • REVIEW: • Characteristic impedance is also known as surge impedance.5. . if a transmission line is connected to a DC voltage source. it will behave as a resistor equal in value to the line’s characteristic impedance only for as long as it takes the incident pulse to reach the end of the line and return as a reﬂected pulse. at least partially. • A transient (“surge”) signal applied to one end of an openended or shortcircuited transmission line will “reﬂect” off the far end of the line as a secondary wave. This includes the use of coaxial cables in instrument circuits. Therefore.292 µs for the milelong coaxial cable of the last example). then as whatever impedance the line is terminated with. • A reﬂected wave may become rereﬂected off the sourceend of a transmission line if the source’s internal impedance does not match the line’s characteristic impedance. as it makes it appear that the source has transmitted another pulse. an openended cable simply reads “open” when measured with an ohmmeter. whatever that may be. A signal traveling on a transmission line from source to load is called an incident wave. like another pulse signal transmitted from the source. This rereﬂected wave will appear. • A ﬁnitelength transmission line may be made to appear inﬁnite in length if terminated by a resistor of equal value to the line’s characteristic impedance. • Reﬂected waves will also appear in transmission lines terminated by resistors not precisely matching the characteristic impedance. back to the source. This is due to the relatively short timespans in which reﬂections take place in the line. if the source’s internal impedance (Thevenin equivalent impedance) is not exactly equal to the line’s characteristic impedance. the characteristic impedance of parallel wires is usually ignored.14. A reﬂected wave returning back to the source will be dissipated entirely if the source impedance matches the line’s. is called a reﬂected wave. due to the temporarily resistive behavior of any length transmission line.5 “Long” and “short” transmission lines In DC and lowfrequency AC circuits. as compared to the period of the waveforms or pulses of the signiﬁcant signals in the circuit. traveling from load to source. if the source impedance does not match the line. This eliminates all signal reﬂections. • A ﬁnitelength transmission line will appear to a DC voltage source as a constant resistance for some short time. but will be reﬂected back toward the line end like another incident wave. the source “sees” only the terminating impedance. As we saw in the last section. of course.
000 m/s).66). the distance is still a very long 2046 miles! Whatever distance we calculate for a given frequency is called the wavelength of the signal. A simple formula for calculating wavelength is as follows: λ= Where. the propagation velocity will be less than 186. At light speed (186. an electrically long line is one where the propagation time is a large fraction or even a multiple of the signal period. and the distance less by the same factor. we can say that the transmission lines in question are electrically short. then wavelength in miles.498 CHAPTER 14. but will be less if the transmission line has a velocity factor less than 1. By contrast. Up until this chapter in the Lessons In Electric Circuits book series. For all practical purposes. A “long” line is generally considered to be one where the source’s signal waveform completes at least a quartercycle (90o of “rotation”) before the incident signal reaches line’s end. all connecting lines were assumed to be electrically short. v f λ = Wavelength v = Velocity of propagation f = Frequency of signal The lowercase Greek letter “lambda” (λ) represents wavelength. Even though we know that signal magnitudes along the line’s length are not equal at any given time due to signal propagation at (nearly) the speed of light. If the velocity factor of the transmission line is less than 1. To put this into perspective. we need to express the distance traveled by a voltage or current signal along a transmission line in relation to its source frequency.65 miles in length before line reﬂections would signiﬁcantly impact a 10 kHz . If a “long” line is considered to be one at least 1/4 wavelength in length. Velocity of propagation is usually the speed of light when calculating signal wavelength in open air or in a vacuum.000 miles per second. In these cases. TRANSMISSION LINES If the circuit in question handles lowfrequency AC power.66 ms. then wavelength in meters). because linelength propagations occur within a very small fraction of the AC waveform’s period. An AC waveform with a frequency of 60 Hz completes one cycle in 16.” For a 60 Hz AC power system. But even if we used the coaxial cable’s velocity factor from the last example (0. power lines would have to exceed 775 miles in length before the effects of propagation time became signiﬁcant. the actual phase difference between startofline and endofline signals is negligible. twoconductor line are equal and inphase with each other at any given point in time. such short time delays introduced by a transmission line between when the AC source outputs a voltage peak and when the source “sees” that peak loaded by the terminating impedance (roundtrip time for the incident wave to reach the line’s end and reﬂect back to the source) are of little consequence. Cables connecting an audio ampliﬁer to speakers would have to be over 4. this equates to a distance of 3100 miles that a voltage or current signal will propagate in that time. we can say that voltage along all respective points on a lowfrequency. you can see why all connecting lines in the circuits discussed thusfar have been assumed “short. because their propagation effects are much quicker than the periods of the conducted signals. in whatever unit of length used in the velocity ﬁgure (if miles per second. if meters per second.
and will have the exact same amount of current drawn from it. Consider our hypothetical 50 Ω cable of inﬁnite length. current drawn from the source is a function primarily of the line and not the load. then any signal source connected to the other end of the line will “see” the exact same impedance. perfect matching of line and load impedances is not always practical or possible. its own characteristic impedance is of little consequence to the circuit’s behavior. and we only register the terminating (load) impedance. We see this when testing a coaxial cable with an ohmmeter: the cable reads “open” from center conductor to outer conductor if the cable end is left unterminated.8202 feet. In other words. the cable is considered “electrically short” and its impedance is irrelevant to circuit function. Taking the same length of cable.000 m/s). If the load impedance is equal to the line impedance. line impedance exclusively deﬁnes circuit behavior.66. when the line is short. The next section discusses the effects of “long” transmission lines. even at the full propagation velocity of light (186. “LONG” AND “SHORT” TRANSMISSION LINES 499 audio signal! When dealing with radiofrequency systems. nearly any physical length of cable would be considered “short” from the standpoint of characteristic impedance and reﬂected waves. Note how the electrical “shortness” of a cable is relative to the application: in a DC circuit where voltage and current values change slowly. it immediately thereafter behaves as a simple “open circuit:” the impedance of the line’s open end. It is the extreme speed of the propagated signal that makes us unable to detect the cable’s 50 Ω transient impedance with an ohmmeter. A transmission line carrying this signal would not have to be more than about 21/2 feet in length to be considered “long!” With a cable velocity factor of 0. the line’s own characteristic impedance dominates over load impedance in determining circuit behavior. the load’s impedance dominates the circuit. and no component in the circuit is capable of measuring or responding quickly enough to “notice” a reﬂected wave. line length only affects the amount of time delay from signal departure at the source to signal arrival at the load. Consider a 100 MHz radio signal: its wavelength is a mere 9.62 feet.5. With a source connected to one end of the cable and a load to the other. though. especially when line length happens to match speciﬁc fractions or multiples of signal wavelength. and using it to conduct a highfrequency AC signal could result in a vastly different assessment of that cable’s “shortness!” When a source is connected to a load via a “long” transmission line. Since the combined response time of an ohmmeter and the human being using it greatly exceeds the roundtrip propagation time up and down the cable. surely the ultimate example of a “long” transmission line: no matter what kind of load we connect to one end of this line. rendering the load completely irrelevant. If we use a coaxial cable to conduct a DC voltage or current to a load. its own characteristics overshadowing the load’s. This is increasingly true the longer the transmission line is. regardless of line length. it is “electrically short” for this application. because the line’s inﬁnite length prevents the signal from ever reaching the end where the load is connected. transmission line length is far from trivial. this critical length shrinks to 1. an electrically “long” line acts as the principal component in the circuit. When an electrical source is connected to a load via a “short” transmission line. In this condition of perfect impedance matching. though. Though the line acts as a resistor for a very brief period of time after the meter is connected (about 50 Ω for an RG58/U cable).14. The most effective way to minimize the impact of transmission line length on circuit behavior is to match the line’s characteristic impedance to the load impedance. In this scenario. . This is to say. However. the source (connected to the other end) will only see 50 Ω of impedance.
thick line rather than a pair of wires. in fact. Conversely. The transmission line in this illustrative sequence is shown as a single. being the representative sum of incident and reﬂected voltage waves. It oscillates in instantaneous magnitude. the line is considered electrically long. The incident wave is shown traveling from left to right. represents the only voltage along the line. If the incident signal is a continuous AC waveform. barring any resistive losses in the transmission line. • When the period of a transmitted voltage or current signal greatly exceeds the propagation time for a transmission line. when the propagation time is a large fraction or multiple of the signal’s period.” • In a circuit with a “short” line. stationary waveform is created along the line’s length: (Figure 14. reﬂections will occur. The ultimate example of this is a transmission line of inﬁnite length: since the signal will never reach the load impedance. we ﬁnd that a third. where “λ” is the wavelength. and “f ” is the signal frequency.21) If we add the two waveforms together. the line’s own characteristic impedance dominates circuit behavior. “v” is the propagation velocity. • A signal’s wavelength is the physical distance it will propagate in the timespan of one period. the line is considered electrically short. “standing” wave. The following illustration shows how a triangleshaped incident waveform turns into a mirrorimage reﬂection upon reaching the line’s unterminated end. the source only “sees” the cable’s characteristic impedance. • When a transmission line is terminated by a load precisely matching its impedance.500 • REVIEW: CHAPTER 14. these reﬂections will mix with more of the oncoming incident waveform to produce stationary waveforms called standing waves. for simplicity’s sake. The source effectively sees nothing but the load’s impedance. TRANSMISSION LINES • Coaxial cabling is sometimes used in DC and lowfrequency AC circuits as well as in highfrequency circuits. 14. Wavelength is calculated by the formula λ=v/f. for the excellent immunity to induced “noise” that it provides for signals. • A ruleofthumb for transmission line “shortness” is that the line must be at least 1/4 wavelength before it is considered “long. there are no reﬂected waves and thus no problems with line length.6 Standing waves and resonance Whenever there is a mismatch of impedance between transmission line and load. Note the dots along the line length marking the “zero” points of the standing wave .22) This third. • In a circuit with a “long” line. the terminating (load) impedance dominates circuit behavior. while the reﬂected wave travels from right to left: (Figure 14. but does not propagate down the cable’s length like the incident or reﬂected waveforms causing it.
14.21: Incident wave reﬂects off end of unterminated transmission line... STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 501 Direction of propagation Source . . Unterminated line Incident wave Reflected wave Time Incident wave Reflected wave Figure 14.6.
22: The sum of the incident and reﬂected waves is a stationary wave.. .. TRANSMISSION LINES Direction of propagation Source .502 CHAPTER 14. Unterminated line Incident wave Reflected wave Time Incident wave Reflected wave Figure 14.
while the free end (if there is any) must be an antinode. moving downward): (Figure 14.23: The standing wave does not propgate along the transmission line. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 503 (where the incident and reﬂected waves cancel each other). while an open tube end must be an antinode. Unterminated line Time Figure 14.14. Plucked strings exhibit the same “standing wave” behavior.24) Both the nodes (points of little or no vibration) and the antinodes (points of maximum vibration) remain ﬁxed along the length of the string or rope. shaken at one end. this time. and tied down at the other (only one halfcycle of hand motion shown..23) Source .25) Wind blowing across an openended tube also produces standing waves. The major difference between a plucked string and a shaken string is that the plucked string supplies its own “correct” frequency of vibration to maximize the standingwave effect: (Figure 14. Standing waves are quite abundant in the physical world. with “nodes” of maximum and minimum vibration along their length.6. and how those points never change position: (Figure 14. Consider a string or rope. the anchored end of a vibrating string must be a node.. the waves are vibrations of air molecules (sound) within the tube rather than vibrations of a solid object. The effect is most pronounced when the free end is shaken at just the right frequency.26) A closed tube end must be a wave node. Note how there is more than one wavelength suitable for producing standing waves of . By analogy. Whether the standing wave terminates in a node (minimum amplitude) or an antinode (maximum amplitude) depends on whether the other end of the tube is open or closed: (Figure 14.
.24: Standing waves on a rope.504 CHAPTER 14. Plucked string Figure 14.25: Standing waves on a plucked string. TRANSMISSION LINES Figure 14.
STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 505 Standing sound waves in openended tubes 1/4 wave 1/2 wave 3/4 wave 1 wave 5/4 waves 3/2 waves 7/4 waves 2 waves 9/4 waves 5/2 waves Figure 14.26: Standing sound waves in open ended tubes.14. .6.
506 CHAPTER 14. is a bit more complex than resonance of strings or of air in tubes. the type commonly used for cable television distribution – with a velocity factor of 0.27) 1/4 wave 1st harmonic 3/4 wave 3rd harmonic 5/4 waves 5th harmonic 7/4 waves 7th harmonic 9/4 waves 9th harmonic Fundamental 1/2 wave 1st harmonic 1 wave 2nd harmonic 3/2 waves 3rd harmonic 2 waves 4th harmonic 5/2 waves 5th harmonic 1st overtone 2nd overtone 3rd overtone 4th overtone Figure 14. and load. Since 1 µs is the period of a . If this were a real 75 Ω cable – perhaps a type “RG59B/U” coaxial cable. it would be about 648 feet long. they also exhibit resonance at frequencies determined by physical length and propagation velocity. Because transmission lines support standing waves. This complexity is made easier to understand by way of computer simulation.66. let’s examine a perfectly matched source. All components have an impedance of 75 Ω: (Figure 14. Transmission line resonance. The sequential progression of harmonics from one resonant frequency to the next deﬁnes the overtone frequencies for the system: (Figure 14. transmission line. because we must consider both voltage waves and current waves. This is true for all standingwave systems: standing waves will resonate with the system for any frequency (wavelength) correlating to the node/antinode points of the system. TRANSMISSION LINES vibrating air within a tube that precisely match the tube’s end points. we’ll specify the transmission line (t1) with a 75 Ω characteristic impedance (z0=75) and a propagation delay of 1 microsecond (td=1u). which is the speed of sound in air. All higher frequencies are integermultiples of the lowest (fundamental) frequency for the system.27: Harmonics (overtones) in open ended pipes The actual frequencies (measured in Hertz) for any of these harmonics or overtones depends on the physical length of the tube and the waves’ propagation velocity. This is a convenient method for expressing the physical length of a transmission line: the amount of time it takes a wave to propagate down its entire length. and force these waves to possess nodes and antinodes according to the type of termination impedance at the load end. To begin. though.28) Using SPICE to simulate the circuit. Another way of saying this is that there are multiple resonant frequencies for any system supporting standing waves.
we see that the source voltage – shown as vm(1) (voltage magnitude between node 1 and the implied ground point of node 0) on the graphic plot – registers a steady 1 volt.6. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 507 1 Esource 0 Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0 3 Rload 0 75 Ω Figure 14. (Figure 14. and the load voltage. let’s change the load impedance to 999 MΩ. to simulate an openended transmission line. there can be no standing waves.29) In a system where all impedances are perfectly matched. The other voltages dip and peak at different frequencies along the sweep range of 1 . the line’s sourceend voltage. Here is the SPICE netlist for the circuit shown above: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 75 .30) We should deﬁnitely see some reﬂections on the line now as the frequency is swept from 1 mHz to 1 MHz: (Figure 14. and therefore no resonant “peaks” or “valleys” in the Bode plot. I’ll choose to sweep the frequency of the AC source from (nearly) zero to that ﬁgure.28: Perfectly matched transmission line. 1 MHz signal. Now. to see how the system reacts when exposed to signals ranging from DC to 1 wavelength.14.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . both the supply voltage vm(1) and the line’s loadend voltage vm(3) remain steady at 1 volt.end Here.end Running this simulation and plotting the source impedance drop (as an indication of current).31) Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 999meg . the source voltage.5 volts: (Figure 14. while every other voltage registers a steady 0.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis .
.29: No resonances on a matched transmission line.30: Open ended transmission line.508 CHAPTER 14. 1 Esource 0 Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0 3 Rload 999 MΩ (open) 0 Figure 14. TRANSMISSION LINES Figure 14.
and full source voltage present at the sourceend of the transmission line (voltage measured between node 2 and node 0: vm(2)). we see zero voltage and maximum current at the sourceend of the transmission line. 750 kHz. I=0. 500 kHz. and 1 MHz. mHz to 1 MHz. With a source frequency of 250 kHz. the line’s length is precisely right for .14. how can this be? How can we get full source voltage at the line’s open end while there is zero voltage at its entrance? The answer is found in the paradox of the standing wave.33) You might be wondering. as indicated by zero voltage drop across the source impedance (Zsource : vm(1.2)). and the circuit behaves much as it would given a 1volt DC battery source. the signal is practically DC.32) 0V=0A Zsource 75 Ω Esource 1V Transmission line (75 Ω) 1V Figure 14. There is no circuit current.31: Resonances on open transmission line. There are ﬁve points of interest along the horizontal axis of the analysis: 0 Hz. yet still full voltage at the loadend: (Figure 14. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 509 Figure 14. end: V=1.6. 250 kHz. We will investigate each one with regard to voltage and current at different points of the circuit. (Figure 14. At 250 kHz.32: At f=0: input: V=1. At 0 Hz (actually 1 mHz). I=0.
and here we see another point in the analysis where the source current drops off to nothing and the sourceend voltage of the transmission line rises again to full voltage: (Figure 14. a full standing wave exists on the transmission line. exactly onehalf of a standing wave rests on the transmission line.33 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω 0V Transmission line (75 Ω) 1V Figure 14. end: V=1 I=0. the plot looks a lot like it was at 250 kHz: zero sourceend voltage (vm(2)) and maximum current (vm(1. At 500 kHz. there will be zero voltage (node) and maximum current (antinode). resulting in the source “seeing” a shortcircuit where it connects to the transmission line. Therefore. (Figure 14. This is due to 3/4 of a wave poised along the transmission line. there can be no current. With the line’s load end opencircuited.39 at resonances) at all the interesting frequencies: 0 Hz (Figure¡ref¿02388. but there will be voltage. the loadend of an opencircuited transmission line is a current node (zero point) and a voltage antinode (maximum amplitude): (Figure¡ref¿02383.38 and illustrations of what happens (Figure 14.2)).33 mA. even though the other end of the line is opencircuited: (Figure 14. the source “sees” an open circuit at the point where it connects to the transmission line. In essence. voltage antinode at open end. 250 kHz .510 CHAPTER 14. the sourceend of the line experiences the same voltage and current amplitudes as the loadend: full voltage and zero current. 1/4 wavelength to ﬁt from end to end.34: Open end of transmission line shows current node. although the node and antinode assignments for voltage and current are reversed: at the shorted end of the line. I=13. a shortcircuited transmission line generates standing waves.35) At 750 kHz. TRANSMISSION LINES 1 V = 13.37) In a similar fashion.eps¡x1¿) .33: At f=250 KHz: input: V=0.eps¡x1¿) Zero E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E Maximum I Zero I Figure 14. At this point. What follows is the SPICE simulation (circuit Figure 14.36) When the supply frequency sweeps up to 1 MHz.
37: Double standing waves on full wave open transmission line. Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum E Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I Zero I Figure 14.14.35: Full standing wave on half wave open transmission line. . Zero E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Zero I Figure 14.6.36: 1 1/2 standing waves on 3/4 wave open transmission line. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 511 Maximum E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω Zero E Maximum E Maximum I Zero I Zero I Figure 14.
The shortcircuit jumper is simulated by a 1 µΩ load impedance: (Figure 14. 500 kHz (Figure¡ref¿02389.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . 750 kHz (Figure¡ref¿02390.38: Shorted transmission line.eps¡x1¿).39: Resonances on shorted transmission line .eps¡x1¿). Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 1u .eps¡x1¿).40).38) 1 Esource 0 Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0 3 Rload 0 1 µΩ (shorted) Figure 14.end Figure 14. TRANSMISSION LINES (Figure 14. and 1 MHz (Figure¡ref¿02391.512 CHAPTER 14.
41: Half wave standing wave pattern on 1/4 wave shorted transmission line. I=13. end: V=0.33 mA.40: At f=0 Hz: input: V=0.42: Full wave standing wave pattern on half wave shorted transmission line.33 mA Zsource Esource 0 Hz 75 Ω 0V Transmission line (75 Ω) 0V Figure 14.14.33 mA. Zero E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E Zero E Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Figure 14. . STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 513 1 V = 13. Maximum E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Zero E Maximum I Zero I Figure 14.6. I=13.
TRANSMISSION LINES Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Zero E Zero I Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Figure 14.514 CHAPTER 14.43: 1 1/2 standing wavepattern on 3/4 wave shorted transmission line. Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum I Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I Figure 14.44: Double standing waves on full wave shorted transmission line. .
we can discover exactly what is happening at all the interesting frequencies: (DC. 250 kHz. and 1 MHz. . however. remains steady at 1 volt.6. the source voltage. Figure 14. However.48. v(3).49.50). this time printing numerical results rather than plotting them. as it should. (Figure 14.end If we run another SPICE analysis.ac lin 5 1m 1meg . but at a lesser voltage: 0. If. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 515 In both these circuit examples. 500 kHz. Figure 14.print ac v(1. Figure 14. Figure 14. Figure 14.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . the transmission line is terminated in some impedance other than an open or a short.45) Examine the results of the corresponding SPICE analysis to see the effects of impedance mismatch at different source frequencies: (Figure 14.2). as will be the difference between minimum and maximum values of voltage and current along the line.46) 1 Esource 0 Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0 3 Rload 0 100 Ω Figure 14. both the line input voltage (v(2)) and the voltage dropped across the source’s 75 Ω impedance (v(1. Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 100 . indicating current drawn from the source) vary with frequency. v(1). also remains steady. Suppose we were to terminate our example line with a 100 Ω resistor instead of a 75 Ω resistor. 750 kHz.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) .47. the energy reﬂection is total: 100% of the incident wave reaching the line’s end gets reﬂected back toward the source.14.45: Transmission line terminated in a mismatch Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 100 .47. the reﬂections will be less intense. an opencircuited line and a shortcircuited line.end At all frequencies. The load voltage.5714 volts.
714E01 5.714E01 5.500E+05 5.714E01 4.5714 V 0.000E+00 v(2) 5.714E01 4.000E+00 1.714E01 0.4286 V = 5.714E01 4.000E03 2.000E+00 1.286E01 5.286E01 5.714E01 5.715 mA.2) 4. .516 CHAPTER 14.714E01 v(3) 5.714E01 5.286E01 5.46: Weak resonances on a mismatched transmission line freq 1. I=5.000E+00 1.000E+05 7. end: V=0.5714.715 mA.500E+05 1.47: At f=0 Hz: input: V=0.715 mA Zsource Esource 0 Hz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.286E01 v(1) 1.000E+06 v(1.5714 V 100 Ω Figure 14.000E+00 1. TRANSMISSION LINES Figure 14.286E01 5.57.14.714E01 4. I=5.
I=7.715 mA.5714. I=5.14. .51: At f=1 MHz: input: V=0.619 mA Zsource Esource 750 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.6.4286.5715 mA.714.715 mA.5714 V 0.5714. end: V=0. 0. 0.5714.4286 V 0.619 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.5714 V 100 Ω Figure 14. I=7. I=7.619 mA.5714 V = 7.715 mA Zsource Esource 500 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.619 mA.48: At f=250 KHz: input: V=0. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 517 0.5714 V 0.4286 V = 5. I=5.5714 V = 7.5714 V 100 Ω Figure 14.619 mA.4286 V 0.50: At f=750 KHz: input: V=0.5714. I=0. end: V=0.715 mA Zsource Esource 1 MHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.5714 V 100 Ω Figure 14. I=7. I=5. end: V=5. end: V=0. 0.4286.5714 V 100 Ω Figure 14.4286 V = 5.49: At f=500 KHz: input: V=0.619 mA.5714.715 mA.
One way of expressing the severity of standing waves is as a ratio of maximum amplitude (antinode) to minimum amplitude (node). copper tubes with ceramic insulator caps at . not only because reﬂected waves constitute energy not delivered to the load. and any ﬁnite value divided by zero results in an inﬁnite (actually. Also. Unlike the opencircuited and shortcircuited transmission line examples. as the radiated energy may “couple” with nearby conductors. respectively. SWR = Emaximum Eminimum = Imaximum Iminimum SWR = Zload Z0 or Z0 Zload which ever is greater A perfectly terminated transmission line will have an SWR of 1. The following photograph (Figure 14. radiating electromagnetic energy away from the line. “undeﬁned”) quotient. (Figure 14. An interesting footnote to this point is that antenna structures – which typically resemble open. In this example. since voltage at any location along the line’s length will be the same. Figure 14. producing signal interference. but we still have points of “minimum” and “maximum” voltage.52) shows a set of transmission lines at a junction point in a radio transmitter system. TRANSMISSION LINES At odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency (250 kHz. and likewise for current.5714 volts) and dividing by the minimum line voltage (0.4286 volts). rather than channeling all of it to the load. a transmission line with a high SWR tends to act as an antenna. The large. corresponding to the standing current wave’s nodes and antinodes. with a 75 Ω line terminated by a 100 Ω impedance.48 and 750 kHz. In this example. or SWR is valued at inﬁnity. we will have points of minimum and maximum current at certain ﬁxed locations on the line. matching the previous calculation very closely. the terminating impedance of 100 Ω divided by the characteristic impedance of 75 Ω yields a quotient of exactly 1. since the minimum amplitude will be zero.46) The same holds true for current: if the line’s terminating impedance is mismatched to the line’s characteristic impedance. Again.or shortcircuited transmission lines – are often designed to operate at high standing wave ratios. Figure 14. the SWR will be ﬁnite: 1.333. and dividing the larger of the two values by the smaller. When a line is terminated by an open or a short. because at those frequencies the standing waves terminate at one end in a node and at the other end in an antinode. for voltage or for current.518 CHAPTER 14. respectively. this is usually considered ideal. for the very reason of maximizing signal radiation and reception. the maximum and minimum voltage levels along this transmission line do not reach the same extreme values of 0% and 100% source voltage.50) we see differing levels of voltage at each end of the transmission line.333. but because the high values of voltage and current created by the antinodes of standing waves may overstress the transmission line’s insulation (high voltage) and conductors (high current). This is usually undesirable. this standing wave ratio. calculated by taking the maximum line voltage at either 250 kHz or 750 kHz (0. Standing wave ratio may also be calculated by taking the line’s terminating impedance and the line’s characteristic impedance.
In a perfectly terminated line. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 519 the ends are rigid coaxial transmission lines of 50 Ω characteristic impedance. • REVIEW: • Standing waves are waves of voltage and current which do not propagate (i. but are the result of interference between incident and reﬂected waves along a transmission line. the phenomenon of standing waves in transmission lines is not always undesirable. which would be a deﬁnite problem for a coaxial line. The white. These lines carry RF power from the radio transmitter circuit to a small. copper “straps” used as jumper wires to connect the conductors of the ﬂexible coaxial cables to the conductors of the rigid lines. these are operated at low SWR conditions. Flexible coaxial cable connected to the rigid lines (also of 50 Ω characteristic impedance) conduct the RF power to capacitive and inductive “phasing” networks inside the shelter. wooden shelter at the base of an antenna structure.14. Why ﬂat straps of copper and not round wires? Because of the skin effect. though.e. as it may be exploited to perform a useful function: impedance transformation. . there are no reﬂected waves. • An antinode is a point on a standing wave of maximum amplitude.52: Flexible coaxial cables connected to rigid lines.6. • A node is a point on a standing wave of minimum amplitude. Note the ﬂat. and therefore no standing waves at all. As we will see in the next section. and from that shelter on to other shelters with other antenna structures: Figure 14. • Standing waves can only exist in a transmission line when the terminating impedance does not match the line’s characteristic impedance. Like many transmission lines. they are stationary). The lines are gasﬁlled to avoid collecting moisture inside them. plastic tube joining two of the rigid lines together carries “ﬁlling” gas from one sealed line to the other. which renders most of the crosssectional area of a round conductor useless at radio frequencies.
520 CHAPTER 14. same as end of half wavelength line. there is maximum voltage and minimum current at either end of the line. In either case. or SWR. so that the source “sees” an open circuit where it connects to the transmission line.53: Source sees open. is the ratio of maximum standing wave amplitude to minimum standing wave amplitude. A line with no standing waves (perfectly matched: Zload to Z0 ) has an SWR equal to 1. Resonant points exist at every harmonic (integermultiple) frequency of the fundamental (quarterwavelength). TRANSMISSION LINES • At certain frequencies. That is to say. 14. and current nodes at both ends. which ever yields the greatest quotient. and current antinodes may overheat conductors. the source “sees” the load impedance as it is. The fact that this condition exists at both ends of the line tells us that the line faithfully reproduces its terminating impedance at the source end.7 Impedance transformation Standing waves at the resonant frequency points of an open. The following pair of illustrations shows an opencircuited line operating at 1/2 (Figure 14. . • Standing wave ratio.53) and 1 wavelength (Figure 14. • Transmission lines may be damaged by the high maximum amplitudes of standing waves. the line has voltage antinodes at both ends. or vice versa. When the signal frequency is such that exactly 1/2 wave or some multiple thereof matches the line’s length. • The lowestfrequency resonant point on a transmission line is where the line is one quarterwavelength long.or shortcircuited transmission line produce unusual effects. Voltage antinodes may break down insulation between conductors. It may also be calculated by dividing termination impedance by characteristic impedance.54) frequencies: Maximum E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω Zero E Maximum E Maximum I Zero I Zero I Figure 14. just as if it were directly opencircuited. the nodes and antinodes of standing waves will correlate with the ends of a transmission line. which corresponds to the condition of an open circuit. resulting in resonance.
60) At these frequencies.57) Line opencircuited. transforming an inﬁnite impedance into zero impedance. at threequarter wavelength line (Figure 14. However. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION 521 Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum E Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I Zero I Figure 14. with minimum voltage and maximum current present at the connection points between source and transmission line: Zero E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E Zero E Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Figure 14. The same is true if the transmission line is terminated by a short: at signal frequencies corresponding to 1/2 wavelength (Figure¡ref¿02390a. the source will “see” a shortcircuit at the point where it connects to the line. and if the line is shortcircuited. the source will “see” the exact opposite of the termination impedance. Of course. the source will “see” an open circuit: (Figure 14. That is. same as end of full wavelength (2x half wavelength line). if the line is opencircuited.eps¡x1¿ below) thereof.59).14. . source “sees” an open circuit: at quarter wavelength line (Figure 14. source “sees” a short circuit: at quarter wavelength line (Figure 14. or vice versa.eps¡x1¿ below) or some multiple (Figure¡ref¿02392a.57). if the signal frequency is such that the line resonates at 1/4 wavelength or some multiple thereof. same as end of half wave length line.58) Line shortcircuited.55: Source sees short.54: Source sees open.7. the transmission line is actually functioning as an impedance transformer. the source “sees” a short circuit. at threequarter wavelength line (Figure 14.
Zero E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E Maximum I Zero I Figure 14. TRANSMISSION LINES Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum I Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I Figure 14.522 CHAPTER 14. same as end of full wavelength line (2x half wavelength). reﬂected from open at end of threequarter wavelength line. Zero E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Zero I Figure 14.58: Source sees short. . reﬂected from open at end of quarter wavelength line.56: Source sees short.57: Source sees short.
14.60: Source sees open. reﬂected from short at end of threequarter wavelength line. Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Zero E Zero I Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Figure 14.59: Source sees open. . reﬂected from short at end of quarter wavelength line.7. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION 523 Maximum E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Zero E Maximum I Zero I Figure 14.
halfwave length (Figure 14.25 Ω 7.4286 V = 56. but if the signal frequency is known and unchanging. Take for instance the example circuit from the last section where a 75 Ω source connects to a 75 Ω transmission line. .62: Source sees 100 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of half wavelength line. .619 mA 100 Ω Figure 14. threequarter wavelength (Figure 14. . 9/4 .5714 V 1/2 λ 0.5714 V = 100 Ω Source "sees" 5.61).4286 V = 5.). 7/4. this phenomenon may be used to match otherwise unmatched impedances to each other. From the numerical ﬁgures obtained via SPICE.64) 0.715 mA 100 Ω Figure 14.61: Source sees 56.62).715 mA Zsource Esource 500 kHz 2nd harmonic Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.5714 V 0.5714 V 1/4 λ Source "sees" 0. terminating in a 100 Ω load impedance.5714 V = 7. 5/4.63) full wavelength (Figure 14. TRANSMISSION LINES this only occurs at resonant points resulting in a standing wave of 1/4 cycle (the line’s fundamental. 0.619 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz Fundamental frequency (1st harmonic) Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0. resonant frequency) or some odd multiple (3/4.4286 V 0. let’s determine what impedance the source “sees” at its end of the transmission line at the line’s resonant frequencies: quarter wavelength (Figure 14.524 CHAPTER 14.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of quarter wavelength line.
619 mA Zsource Esource 750 kHz 3rd harmonic Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0. Taking the square root of 22.619 mA 100 Ω Figure 14.715 mA 100 Ω Figure 14. load impedance (Zload ). All we need to do is calculate the proper transmission line impedance (Z0 ).25 Ω 7.5714 V 1λ 0.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of fullwavelength line (same as halfwavelength).4286 V = 5. calculating the line impedance: taking the 75 Ω we desire the source to “see” at the sourceend of the transmission line.7. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION 525 0. we obtain a ﬁgure of 22. and multiplying by the 300 Ω load resistance.64: Source sees 56.5714 V = 7. and length so that exactly 1/4 of a wave will “stand” on the line at a frequency of 50 MHz. and input impedance (Zinput ) for an unmatched transmission line operating at an odd harmonic of its fundamental frequency: Z0 = Zinput Zload One practical application of this principle would be to match a 300 Ω load to a 75 Ω signal source at a frequency of 50 MHz.63: Source sees 56. 0.5714 V 3/4 λ Source "sees" 0.715 mA Zsource Esource 1 MHz 4th harmonic Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.4286 V 0.14.500 yields 150 Ω for a characteristic line .4286 V = 56. First. A simple equation relates line impedance (Z0 ).5714 V 0.500.5714 V = 100 Ω Source "sees" 5.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of threequarter wavelength line (same as quarter wavelength).
526 CHAPTER 14. receives a full 1 volt.000E01 v(3) 1.000E+07 v(1. TRANSMISSION LINES impedance. according to the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. the requisite cable length is 4.end freq 5.695 feet. or 20 nanoseconds (20 ns).333 mW of power: the same as dissipated by 1 volt across the 300 Ω load.000E01 v(1) 1.65: Quarter wave section of 150 Ω transmission line matches 75 Ω source to 300 Ω load. Onequarter of that time (5 ns) will be the time delay of a transmission line onequarter wavelength long: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=150 td=5n rload 3 0 300 .1738 feet. Here is a schematic diagram for the circuit.100 miles per second.2) 5. the source is dissipating 3.ac lin 1 50meg 50meg .000E+00 At a frequency of 50 MHz.000 miles per second.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) . . however. the signal period will be the reciprocal of that. the velocity of propagation will be 158. showing node numbers for the SPICE analysis we’re about to run: (Figure¡ref¿02403. This means the source “thinks” it is powering a 75 Ω load. Now.eps¡x1¿) 1 Esource 50 MHz 0 Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line Z0 = 150 Ω 0 150 = (75)(300) 3 Zload 0 300 Ω Figure 14. to calculate the necessary line length: assuming that our cable has a velocity factor of 0. our 1volt signal source drops half of its voltage across the series 75 Ω impedance (v(1.2)) and the other half of its voltage across the input terminals of the transmission line (v(2)). and using a speedoflight ﬁgure of 186. We can specify the cable length in SPICE in terms of time delay from beginning to end.5 volt dropped across 75 Ω.print ac v(1. Since the frequency is 50 MHz.85. Since we only need onequarter of this length for the cable to support a quarterwave. The 1/4wavelength. or 16.003162 miles. 150 Ω. The actual load impedance. as indicated by the 1.000E+00 v(2) 5. transmission line segment has successfully matched the 300 Ω load to the 75 Ω source. Taking this velocity and dividing by the signal frequency gives us a wavelength of 0.000 ﬁgure at v(3). With 0. indicating a perfect match of impedance.
33 µW. while the empty space between the tube walls provide distributed capacitance: Figure 14.500E01 Here.8 Waveguides A waveguide is a special form of transmission line consisting of a hollow. For any other signal frequency to receive the same beneﬁt of matched impedances. that this only works for 50 MHz and its oddnumbered harmonics.14.ac lin 1 50meg 50meg . This 0. • When operated at a frequency corresponding to a standing wave of 1/4wavelength along the transmission line. Strangely enough. indicating that the load “appears” as a 300 Ω impedance from the source’s perspective where it connects to the transmission line.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) . twowinding transformer: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 300 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=150 td=5n rload 3 0 75 .print ac v(1. the exact same line can also match a 75 Ω load to a 300 Ω source.25 volts across the 75 Ω load. metal tube. (Figure 14.end freq 5.67 . we see the 1volt source voltage equally split between the 300 Ω source impedance (v(1.000E+00 v(2) 5. 14.2) 5.2)) and the line’s input (v(2)). of course. demonstrating how this phenomenon of impedance transformation is fundamentally different in principle from that of a conventional. WAVEGUIDES 527 Bear in mind. as indicated by voltage ﬁgure v(3). This technique of impedance matching is often used to match the differing impedance values of transmission line and antenna in radio transmitter systems. the same as the 0. The tube wall provides distributed inductance. the impedance values of source and load have been matched by the transmission line segment.000E+07 v(1.000E01 v(1) 1. The use of an impedance “transformer” 1/4 wavelength in length provides impedance matching using the shortest conductor length possible.66) • REVIEW: • A transmission line with standing waves may be used to match different impedance values if operated at the correct frequency(ies).8.5 volt drop across the source’s 300 Ω internal impedance yields a power ﬁgure of 833. because the transmitter’s frequency is generally wellknown and unchanging. the 150 Ω line would have to lengthened or shortened accordingly so that it was exactly 1/4 wavelength long. Once again.000E01 v(3) 2. the line’s characteristic impedance necessary for impedance transformation must be equal to the square root of the product of the source’s impedance and the load’s impedance.
67: Wave guides conduct microwave energy at lower loss than coaxial cables. Z0 = 150 Ω Dipole antenna 300 Ω Impedance "transformer" Figure 14.. TRANSMISSION LINES 1/4 λ Radio Transmitter . Z0 = 75 Ω . Waveguide Waveguide Wave propagation Figure 14..66: Quarter wave 150 Ω transmission line section matches 75 Ω line to 300 Ω antenna..528 CHAPTER 14.. .
though. WAVEGUIDES 529 Waveguides are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency.8. twoconductor transmission lines of any substantial length operating in standard TEM mode become impractical. waveguides are considerably simpler than twoconductor cables – especially coaxial cables – in their manufacture and maintenance. or of the consistency of the dielectric material. Lines small enough in crosssectional dimension to maintain TEM mode signal propagation . waveguides are useless as electrical transmission lines. In a sense.14. However. Figure 14. either. and it is the dominant mode of wave propagation where the crosssectional dimensions of the transmission line are small compared to the wavelength of the signal. but perpendicular to each other. because waveguides are singleconductor elements. and so waveguides are often spared the necessity of gas “ﬁlling. (Figure 14.68: Twin lead transmission line propagation: TEM mode. At microwave signal frequencies (between 100 MHz and 300 GHz). This mode of wave propagation can exist only where there are two conductors. since the only dielectric in a waveguide is air.68) TEM mode Magnetic field Wave propagation Electric field Magnetic field Both field planes perpendicular (transverse) to direction of signal propagation. All electromagnetic waves consist of electric and magnetic ﬁelds propagating in the same direction of travel. Moisture is not as severe a problem in waveguides as it is within coaxial cables. Below such frequencies. When functioning as transmission lines. or TEM (Transverse Electric and Magnetic) mode.” Waveguides may be thought of as conduits for electromagnetic energy. both electric and magnetic ﬁelds are perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of wave travel. directing the waves as the banks of a river direct a tidal wave. there are no concerns with proper conductortoconductor spacing. all transmission lines function as conduits of electromagnetic energy when transporting pulses or highfrequency waves. the waveguide itself acting as nothing more than a “director” of the energy rather than as a signal conductor in the normal sense of the word. This is known as the principal mode. With only a single conductor (the waveguide’s “shell”). the propagation of electrical energy down a waveguide is of a very different nature than the propagation of electrical energy down a twoconductor transmission line. where the wavelength approaches the crosssectional dimensions of the waveguide. Along the length of a normal transmission line.
When an electromagnetic wave propagates down a hollow tube. and a full discussion of this is subject well beyond the scope of this book. TRANSMISSION LINES for microwave signals tend to have low voltage ratings. Fortunately. or a short loop of wire terminated on the inside surface of the waveguide: (Figure 14. only one of the ﬁelds – either electric or magnetic – will actually be transverse to the wave’s direction of travel. Signals are typically introduced to and extracted from waveguides by means of small antennalike coupling devices inserted into the waveguide.69: Waveguide (TE) transverse electric and (TM) transverse magnetic modes.eps¡x1¿ below) Just as transmission lines are able to function as resonant elements in a circuit. the coupler is a single stub (a halfdipole. and suffer from large.69) Magnetic field Magnetic field Electric field TE mode Electric field Wave propagation TM mode Magnetic flux lines appear as continuous loops Electric flux lines appear with beginning and end points Figure 14. a deadended waveguide may also res .530 CHAPTER 14.70) In some cases. The other ﬁeld will “loop” longitudinally to the direction of travel. especially when terminated by a shortcircuit or an opencircuit. having no contact with the beam itself: (Figure¡ref¿02408. Sometimes these coupling elements take the form of a dipole. similar in principle to a “whip” antenna. such as a class of vacuum tube devices called inductive output tubes (the socalled klystron tube falls into this category). a “cavity” formed of conductive material may intercept electromagnetic energy from a modulated beam of electrons. though. at these short wavelengths there exist other modes of propagation that are not as “lossy. which is nothing more than two openended stub wires of appropriate length. (Figure 14. It is at these high frequencies that waveguides become practical.” if a conductive tube is used rather than two parallel conductors. but still be perpendicular to the other ﬁeld. Whichever ﬁeld remains transverse to the direction of travel determines whether the wave propagates in TE mode (Transverse Electric) or TM (Transverse Magnetic) mode. Other times. Many variations of each mode exist for a given waveguide. parasitic power losses due to conductor “skin” and dielectric effects. 1/4λ in physical length).
8.14.71: Klystron inductive output tube. WAVEGUIDES 531 Waveguide Waveguide Coupling "stub" Coaxial cable Coupling loop Coaxial cable Figure 14.70: Stub and loop coupling to waveguide. The inductive output tube (IOT) coaxial output cable RF signal input electron beam toroidal cavity RF power output DC supply Figure 14. .
screws. but functions as a physical barrier to prevent rain.4 GHz signal in an “802. “Real” waveguide antennae use similar barriers to physically enclose the tube. The following photograph shows a homemade waveguide formed from a tin can. If a resonant cavity is made open on one end. used as an antenna for a 2. the device is called a cavity resonator. and other mechanical elements for tuning are manufactured to provide coarse resonant frequency adjustment. yet allow electromagnetic energy to pass unimpeded. The coupling element is a quarterwave stub: nothing more than a piece of solid copper wire about 11/4 inches in length extending from the center of a coaxial cable connector penetrating the side of the can: (Figure 14. and other physical contaminants from entering the waveguide. Inductive output tubes use toroidshaped cavity resonators to maximize the power transfer efﬁciency between the electron beam and the output cable. • REVIEW: • Waveguides are metal tubes functioning as “conduits” for carrying electromagnetic waves. it functions as a unidirectional antenna. snow. one of them a “Pringles” potato chip can. TRANSMISSION LINES onate at particular frequencies. They are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency.11b” computer communication network. Some of the cans in the background still have their plastic lids in place. dust.72: Cantenna illustrates stub coupling to waveguide. cavities with movable plates. When used as such. To this end. does not interfere with the RF signal. its metallic inner lining provides the necessary conductivity to function as a waveguide. where the signal wavelength approaches the crosssectional dimensions of the waveguide. Although this can is of cardboard (paper) construction. The plastic.532 CHAPTER 14. .72) Figure 14. being nonconductive. A few more tincan antennae may be seen in the background. A cavity’s resonant frequency may be altered by changing its physical dimensions.
WAVEGUIDES 533 • Wave propagation through a waveguide may be classiﬁed into two broad categories: TE (Transverse Electric). twoconductor transmission line is of the TEM (Transverse Electric and Magnetic) mode. • A cavity resonator with an open end functions as a unidirectional antenna. depending on which ﬁeld (electric or magnetic) is perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of wave travel.8. or TM (Transverse Magnetic). • A deadended waveguide serving as a resonant element in a microwave circuit is called a cavity resonator. sending or receiving RF energy to/from the direction of the open end.14. TEM mode is only possible with two conductors and cannot exist in a waveguide. Wave travel along a standard. . where both ﬁelds are oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel.
TRANSMISSION LINES .534 CHAPTER 14.
1 Purpose They say that necessity is the mother of invention. . whose fame is growing even as I write). and I resolved to ﬁnd an alternative text. paving the way for a rewarding career and fascinating hobby. If only I could extend the gift of their help by giving to other people what they gave to me . but the really good books seemed a bit too heavy on the math and the less intimidating books omitted a lot of information I felt was important. My request to review the draft for the next edition of their book was met with disinterest on their part. As an industrial electronics instructor. highquality information into the hands of my students. Worse yet were the many incorrect answers in the back of the book to selected problems. Finding a suitable alternative was more difﬁcult than I had imagined. that adage is true. It was out of frustration that I compiled Lessons in Electric Circuits from notes and ideas I had been collecting for years. At least in the case of this book. Over the years. but a secondary goal was to make the book as affordable as possible.Appendix A1 ABOUT THIS BOOK A1. Adding insult to injury was the $100+ price. there were plenty of texts in print. having spent much time at home struggling to comprehend the material within. they claimed my complaint was the ﬁrst they’d ever heard. . The goal was to copyright the text – so as to protect my authorship – but expressly allow anyone to distribute and/or modify the text to suit their own needs with a minimum of legal encumbrance. and the Linux operating system. including several teachers of mine in elementary and high school. This willful and formal revoking of 535 . My students were daily frustrated with the many typographical errors and obscure explanations in this book. Sure. I decided to make it “open” following the same development model used in the making of free software (most notably the various UNIX utilities released by the Free Software Foundation. and those that were still being printed were quite expensive. I was forced to use a substandard textbook during my ﬁrst year of teaching. I decided to make the book freely available. So. Contacting the publisher proved to be an exercise in futility. Their selﬂess assistance played a key role in my own studies. I had experienced the beneﬁt of receiving free instruction and encouragement in my pursuit of learning electronics from many people. More than that. Some of the best books were out of print. My primary goal was to put readable. Even though the particular text I was using had been in print and in popular use for a couple of years.
less speciﬁc copyleft Licenses began appearing within the free software community. and anyone else whose modiﬁcations are contained in your version). etc. and although its introductory language is broad enough to cover works of text. and deserves the utmost respect. For the instructor or electronics professional. rather than to allow the student to learn on their own through a truly exploratory process. I guaranteed that no instructor would be limited by a text insufﬁcient for their needs. labwork is the traditionally accepted venue for this type of learning. but several Licenses already exist. then apply those principles to speciﬁc instances that the student may or may not be able to explore by themselves. the subject matter is broad and harbors many potential dangers. its wording is not as clear as it could be for that application. and when things go wrong there’s no one to ask for help. is intended to copyleft works of computer software. Then. if you pass it on to someone else. learn what you can from this book.2 The use of SPICE One of the best ways to learn how things work is to follow the inductive approach: to observe speciﬁc instances of things working and derive general conclusions from those observations. The inductive approach. For the beginning student of electronics. and you must ensure that whoever you give the text to is aware of their freedom to similarly share and edit the text. ﬁre. The next chapter covers this process in more detail. Having taught myself most of the electronics that I know. you will be giving them something better than what you received. The only “catch” is this: if you plan to distribute your modiﬁed version of this text. I chose one of them (the Design Science License. or DSL) as the ofﬁcial notice for my project. is . although in many cases labs are designed by educators to reinforce principles previously learned through lecture or textbook reading. Anyone can “copyleft” their creative work simply by appending a notice to that effect on their work. The ﬁrst such License I applied to my work was the GPL – General Public License – of the Free Software Foundation (GNU). feel free to use this as a reference manual. Highpower electric circuits should be left to the care of trained professionals! The Design Science License clearly states that neither I nor any contributors to this book bear any liability for what is done with its contents. explosion. In science education. ABOUT THIS BOOK standard distribution limitations under copyright is whimsically termed copyleft. the original author. When other. covering the ﬁne legal points in great detail. In “copylefting” this text. I’m sure this book in its initial form will not satisfy everyone. as I had been with errorridden textbooks from major publishers. I strongly encourage experimentation on the part of the reader. leveraging my efforts to suit variant and individual requirements. A1. It must be mentioned that although I strive to maintain technical accuracy in all of this book’s content. Most textbooks seem to approach the task of education from a deductive perspective: tell the student how things are supposed to work. Electricity maims and kills without provocation. you must give credit where credit is due (to me. but only with circuits powered by small batteries where there is no risk of electric shock.536 APPENDIX A1. as useful as it is. The GPL. adding or editing to your heart’s content. not everyone has the means or opportunity to set up a laboratory in their own homes. Although electronic components are typically inexpensive. editing it as you feel necessary if you come across a useful piece of information. however. I appreciate the sense of frustration students may have in teaching themselves from books. but anyone has the freedom to change it.
however. the readers could learn the concepts inductively (by interpreting SPICE’s output) as well as deductively (by interpreting my explanations). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 537 hard to ﬁnd in the pages of a book. and the respective programmers: • GNU/Linux Operating System – Linus Torvalds. computer simulation is an excellent alternative. However. . This way. • Nutmeg postprocessor program for SPICE – Wayne Christopher. are liable to err and/or communicate poorly. SPICE is introduced early in volume I (DC) of this book series. I wish to thank my wife. a virtue complementing the charitable philosophy of this book very nicely. • Vim text editor – Bram Moolenaar and others. and hopefully in a gentle enough way that it doesn’t create confusion. The problem with faith. current. they should be able to understand how to use it themselves. textbooks don’t have to be this way. A1. The following is a list of various free computer software used to make this book. Furthermore. In learning how to use this powerful tool. Without demonstrations. It is a textbased piece of software intended to model circuits and provide analyses of voltage. frequency.A1. Although nothing is quite as good as building real circuits to gain knowledge in electronics. I made a discovery: SPICE could be used within a textbook to present circuit simulations to allow students to “observe”the phenomena for themselves. • SPICE circuit simulation program – too many contributors to mention. the reader can immediately see for themselves that what the author describes is indeed true. I also wish to thank those whose opensource software development efforts have made this endeavor all the more affordable and pleasurable. is that it is only as good as the authority in which it is placed and the accuracy of interpretation through which it is understood. the reader is left to take the author’s statements on faith. I discovered this when I started to learn a computer program called SPICE. • TEX text processing system – Donald Knuth and others. whose patience during those many and long evenings (and weekends!) of typing has been extraordinary. etc.3 Acknowledgements First. but SPICE is free. There may be more ﬂashy (graphic) circuit simulation programs in existence.3. like all human beings. Demonstrations also serve to clarify the meaning of the text with concrete examples. a chapter in the Reference volume (volume V) contains an overview of SPICE with many example circuits. With demonstrations. and a host of others too numerous to mention. Another advantage to including computer analyses in a textbook is the empirical veriﬁcation it adds to the concepts presented. in seeing SPICE used over and over again. Richard Stallman. trusting that what has been written is indeed accurate. • Xcircuit drafting program – Tim Edwards. of course. providing a perfectly safe means of experimentation on their own computers with circuit simulations of their own design. Authors. For those wishing to learn more.
• Gimp image manipulation program – too many contributors to mention. Boylestad. and Forrest Mims’ original Engineer’s Notebook. Thanks to Michael Stutz for drafting his Design Science License.com)) for providing encouragement. many thanks to my parents and those teachers of mine who saw in me a desire to learn about electricity. and to make the ﬁrst effort in contributing to its form and content. and to Richard Stallman for pioneering the concept of copyleft. (Free for personal and academic use. and who kindled that ﬂame into a passion for discovery and intellectual adventure.) Appreciation is also extended to Robert L.538 APPENDIX A1. Bernard Grob’s second edition of Introduction to Electronics I. Thanks to the staff of the Bellingham Antique Radio Museum. I wish to speciﬁcally thank Jeffrey Elkner and all those at Yorktown High School for being willing to host my book as part of their Open Book Project. constructive criticism. whose ﬁrst edition of Introductory Circuit Analysis taught me more about electric circuits than any other book.lightandmatter. Constantin Zeldovich.andamooka. and a wider audience for the online version of this book. Washington for a very informative tour of their expanded (50 kW) facilities as well as their vintage transmitter equipment.org)) and Ben Crowell (website: (http://www. who were generous enough to let me terrorize their establishment with my camera and ﬂash unit. Other important texts in my electronics studies include the 1939 edition of The “Radio” Handbook. I honor you by helping others as you have helped me. Last but certainly not least. • Winscope signal analysis software – Dr. Tony Kuphaldt. ABOUT THIS BOOK • Texinfo document formatting system – Free Software Foundation. Thanks also to David Sweet (website: (http://www. A • LTEX document formatting system – Leslie Lamport and others. April 2002 “A candle loses nothing of its light when lighting another” Kahlil Gibran . Similar thanks to Jim Swartos and KARI radio in Blaine.
Here is a sample from the Design Science License: The Work is copyright the Author. and to distribute the derivative work under the terms described in the section for distribution above. this book is open to revision and expansion by any interested parties. just as you would any copyrighted material under copyright law. you may refer to the Work. because the Work comes WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY . 539 . perform. talk about it.1 How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work.see Section 7 (‘‘NO WARRANTY’’) below. however. producing a derivative work. the Design Science License: Permission is granted to modify or sample from a copy of the Work. If you wish to modify this book in any way.Appendix A2 CONTRIBUTOR LIST A2. and (as dictated by ‘‘fair use’’) quote from it. you must document the nature of those modiﬁcations in the “Credits” section along with your name. read or otherwise interpret and/or execute the Work is unrestricted. Your right to operate. information concerning how you may be contacted. In addition. you do so at your own risk. distribute and modify copies of the Work. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. and ideally. This License describes the terms and conditions under which the Author permits you to copy. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other copyrighted work. Again. All rights to the Work are reserved by the Author. The only “catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. except as specifically described below.
2 Jason Starck • Date(s) of contribution(s): MayJune 2000 • Nature of contribution: HTML formatting. Given the complexities and security issues surrounding the maintenance of ﬁles comprising this book. derivative work is published under the terms of this License.” it is in no way inferior to the effort or value of a “major” contribution. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as “minor. and resources to make this a better book! A2. (c) Appropriate authorship credit is given: for the differences between the Work and the new derivative work. some error corrections. it is recommended that you submit any revisions or expansions to the original author (Tony R. Kuphaldt). so that its name or title can not be confused with the Work. Minor contributions (typo corrections. You are. of course. in any way.tux. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted.org . • Contact at: liec0@lycos. while the material sampled or used from the Work remains attributed to the original Author. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). or with a version of the Work. Kuphaldt • Date(s) of contribution(s): 1996 to present • Nature of contribution: Original author. (b) The derivative work is given a new name. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. etc. CONTRIBUTOR LIST provided that the following terms are met: (a) The new. time.1 Tony R. but we would all stand to beneﬁt from your contributions if your ideas were incorporated into the online “master copy” where all the world can see it. authorship is attributed to you. contact info. welcome to modify this book directly by editing your own personal copy. etc.540 APPENDIX A2. appropriate notice must be included with the new work indicating the nature and the dates of any modifications of the Work made by you.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity.2 Credits All entries arranged in alphabetical order of surname. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. date.2.2. • Contact at: jstarck@yhslug.com A2. A2.
• Ed Beroset (May 2002) Suggested better ways to illustrate the meaning of the preﬁx “poly” in chapter 10. gnuplot Fourier plots chapters 6.com.clockHistory. Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www. • The students of Bellingham Technical College’s Instrumentation program.pdf. ScottT and LVDT subsections inserted. chapter 13 • Contact at: bill(at)billsclockworks(dot)com A2. 10. CREDITS 541 A2.2. (s/visaversa/vice versa/). 9. added to Air core transformers subsections chapter 9.4 Bill Stoddard. 7. 09/2005.3.2.6 Typo corrections and other “minor” contributions • lineallaboutcircuits.3 Dennis Crunkilton • Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2005 to present • Nature of contribution: SpiceNutmeg plots.2. www. • Contact at: my email@provider. 06/2006. • Nature of contribution: Mini table of contents.5 Your name here • Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution • Nature of contribution: Insert text here. • Nature of contribution: Chapters: all.2. See Devel/tutorial. ps.2. 04/2005. various chapters.net A2.html.billsclockworks.2. all chapters except appedicies. Incremented edition number to 6 for major format change. 01/2006.com (June 2005) Typographical error correction in Volumes 1. .A2. • Nature of contribution: Broke “Special transformers and applications” section into subsections. • Bart Anderson (January 2004) Corrected conceptual and safety errors regarding Tesla coils. • Nature of contribution: Chapter 13: AC motors. Added DoublyFed Induction Generator subsection.5. describing how you contributed to the book. 8. html. pdf. 01/2006. • Contact at: liecibiblio(at)gmail(dot)com A2. Added ﬂoating captioned LaTeX ﬁgures for more booklike appearance of . latex.com • Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005 • Nature of contribution: Granted permission to reprint synchronous westclox motor jpg’s. CH 13.
eps.eps. (from others in within mixedfrequency signals.eps.Typographical error correction in “Other waveshapes” section. Chapter 5: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. 02516. added graph to “Calculating factor correction” section. (If we were restrict ourselves /If we were to restrict ourselves). Chapter 3: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE “Voltage and current” section. s/because we can to use/because we can use/.eps.eps opendelta image./ which only allow the passage of current in one direction. Chapter 8: FILTERS. s/capcitive/capacitive.Typographical error correction in “ Parallel R. 02258. s/it’s/its. L.18). 02074.eps. (corrected for the skin effect/corrected for the skin effect). s/phase shift makes complicates/phase shift complicates/. • Jeff DeFreitas (March 2006)Improve appearance: replace ”/” and ”/” various chapters. text: s/(Figure 8. • Colin Creitz (May 2007) Chapters: several. / from others within mixedfrequency signals. • Sean Donner (January 2005) Typographical error correction in “Series resistorinductor circuits” section. More on the “skin effect” section. • Duane Damiano (February 2003) Pointed out magnetic polarity error in DC generator illustration. (January 2005). • Richard Cooper (December 2005) Clariﬁcation of 02206. (which only allow passage current in one direction. s/positive negative/positive or negative. 02515. CONTRIBUTOR LIST • anonymous (September 2007) Typo correction in Basic AC chapter. change Vic to Vir above resistor in image) (January 2005). 02053.).eps “Mutual inductance and basic operation” section.eps. L. 02263.eps. s/dividing it my the/dividing it by the/. 02209. . changed image 02305. Chapter 7: MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS. 02056. (Across voltage across the resistor/ Voltage across the resistor). • Kieran Clancy (August 2006) Ch 4.eps.Typographical error correction in “What is a ﬁlter?” section. • Steven Jones (November 2006) Suggested content addition in Power factor chapter.eps. 02516. 02068. (dropping most of the voltage gets across series resistor / dropping most of the voltage across series resistor) • Brendan Finley (March 2007) Suggested content change in Transformers chapter. (02083. s/will be drive it/will drive it/. 02257. clariﬁed text. 02062. Correction of 02210.eps.18/(Figure 8. (January 2005). s/over 50 Kw use/over 50 kW use/.¡/itemi¿ • Michiel van Bolhuis (April 2007).) (January 2005).eps.542 APPENDIX A2. Chapter 4: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE (calculate the phase angle of the inductor’s reactive opposition / calculate the phase angle of the capacitor’s reactive opposition).Typographical error correction in “AC capacitor circuits” section.eps. Corrections numerous chapters. AND C.eps.eps. images: 12008. s/750 kiloWatt/750 Watt. and C” section.eps 3phase transformer images. s/in an open ended/in open ended/. s/Alterantor/Alternator.
com (Oct 2007) Ch 1 . • Devin Bayer (September 2007) Correction to sml2html. • stacymckenna@allaboutcircuits.eps.com (Sept 2007) Ch 1 . • Joseph Teichman (June 2002) Suggestion and technical help regarding use of PNG images instead of JPEG.com (Aug 2007) Ch . “AC Phase” image 02022.3 .000. CREDITS 543 • Harvey Lew (February 2003) Typo correction in Basic AC chapter: word “circuit” should have been “circle”.com (Feb 2008) Ch 9 . s/100/180 trigonometric sin function table. image: 12081. s/Vary/Very/ .com (April 2007) Resonance. s/by/be in ”More on AC polarity” section. ¨ • Elmo Mantynen (August 2006) Numerous corrections in chapters: Resonance. ¡backslash¿} to } in <tabular>.2. added to Ch12“AC metering”.com (May 2007) Pointed out error in Form Factor deﬁnition and calculation. missing formula.com (Nov 2007) Ch 13 .com (July 2007) Ch 1. • jut@allaboutcircuits. • Jim Palmer (May 2002) Typo correction on complex number math. Corrected error concerning Tesla’s sale of AC induction motor.com (Feb 2008) Ch 2.png not displayed in html. Polyphase AC Circuits.A2. s/as a the/as the/. • Unregistered@allaboutcircuits. 3plcs Ch 1. • Don Stalkowski (June 2002) Technical help with PostScripttoPDF ﬁle format conversion. AC Motors.” • Puddy Tat@allaboutcircuits.sed. • rrgibbs@allaboutcircuits. • Mark D. Change one million to to $65. s/eight white/seven white/ . Power Factor. Zarella (April 2002) Suggested an improved explanation for the “average” value of a waveform. • Bob Schmid (April 20027) Suggested we add Inductosyn. . • earsintraining@allaboutcircuits.eps. • machan@allaboutcircuits. image: 12105.com (April 2007) Transformer voltage regulation example error. Parallel. • mike@allaboutcircuits. • Dave@allaboutcircuits. Clariﬁcation of light load as refering to less current. • John Symonds (March 2002) Suggested an improved explanation of the unit “Hertz. • recca02@allaboutcircuits.
CONTRIBUTOR LIST • Timothy Kingman (Feb 2008) Changed default roman font to newcent. LVDT section. s/V13/V31. • theamber@allaboutcircuits. s/use use/use .com (June 2008) Ch 9 . s/254.40/145/04 . • ShaunManners@allaboutcircuits. 1206[0123678].image 02415. s/V32/V23.png. Error in the sign of value in sine table.png. • Imranullah Syed (Feb 2008) Suggested centering of uncaptioned schematics.png.images 12058.com (Feb 2008) Ch 1 .com (July 2008) Ch 1. s/V2/V3 2plcs. • Miguel Rodriguez Yepes (June 2008) Ch 5 . . • trunks14@allaboutcircuits.544 APPENDIX A2.
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503 Antiresonance. 120 Analysis. 30 Analysis. symbol for capacitance. 332 Antenna. stepper motor. 246 Average amplitude. 202 Bandstop ﬁlter. 461 Ammeter. Wien. symbol for susceptance. 403 Bridge. 294 Alternator. 166 Analysis. vector. 85. 24. MaxwellWien. twisted pair. symbol for wavelength. 188 Capacitive reactance. transformer connection. 119 B. 162 Analysis. aircraft. 376 Bridge. 202 Bandpass ﬁlter. AC voltage sources. 12 Amplitude. transformer connection. shielded. induction. 83 Cable. 3 Brushless DC motor. mechanical. 130. 190 Boosting. 12 Amplitude. 391 Brush. 138 Antiresonance. spectrum. 154 Calculus. 83 Can stack. 120 AC motor. 200 Autotransformer. symmetrical. AC. 199 Bandreject ﬁlter. series. 83 Capacitive coupling. 433. 42 Artifact. seriesparallel. 14 Amplitude. 288 Bucking. 83. peaktopeak. 37 AC. 481 Cable. 417. 154 Cable. 110. 166 Angle. 378 Attenuation. 219 Ampliﬁer. 166. peak.Index λ. vector. 12 Amplitude. with complex numbers. 438 Bucking. time domain. frequency domain. 120 Analysis. vector. 288 Boosting. 265 Amplitude. 37 Angular velocity. 166 Analyzer. 270 Absolute value. resonant circuit. 2. symbol for angular velocity. 367 Ampturn. RMS. 175 Atomic clock. 434 Capacitance. 101 Analysis. 387. measurement. AC motor. parallel. 119 Bandelimination ﬁlter. 14. 1 AC circuit analysis. AC circuit. 84 . average. 202 Bandwidth. 455 Admittance. 144 549 Arithmetic. 61. 435 Bode plot. 16 Amplitude. 78 Antinode. coaxial. 332 400 Hz AC power. 59. AC voltage sources. unit. Wheatstone. 391 Bridge. 408 addaphase. 246 C. 498 ω. 262 Ampliﬁer. stepper motor. magnetic. 61. 1 Alternator. 246 Bridge circuit. 85. 371 B. 454. 145 Biﬁlar winding. 119 Alternating current. 153. 390 Bridge. symbol for magnetic ﬂux density. generator. Fourier. 106 Analysis.
445 Eddy current clutch. 83 Capacitor. Tesla. inductor current. 65. 21. 469 Eddy current loss. 23. 221 Coil. 88 ECG. 376 Coupling. 224 f. time. 164. transformer. symbol for frequency. 278 Clock. 213 Chord. 417 Encoder. 24 Electrostatic meter movement. unit. 168. 16. multiplier. 195 Degree vs. 169. synchro. symbol for voltage. null. 351 Complex number arithmetic. 59. 83 Fast Fourier Transform. signal. 9 Electrolytic capacitor. 372 CT. power. 369 Capacitor. magnetic. 119 Conservation of Energy. line. 237 Complex number. 165 Equivalent. 61. variable. 220. frequency. 17 Crossover network. 387 Dielectric “loss”. 490 Dielectric heating. 367 DC. 142. 28. 410. 461 Duty cycle. 124 Equalizer. 61 Delta conﬁguration. 75. 166 Domain. 189 Equalizer. 445 Effective resistance. graphic. 1 DC equivalent. 193. 124 Energy. symbol for instantaneous voltage. 221 Coil. 12 Crest factor. 166 Dot convention. 371 Encoder. 474 Core loss. 8 Crest. 85 Factor. 157 Commonmode voltage. 121 Electrocardiograph. radian. 260 Color (musical). unit. decoupling. Law of. AC measurement. 8 Centigrade. form. 195 Capacitor. crest. 16 Exciting current. 81. 481 Coil. 8 D’Arsonval meter movement. 474 Current transformer. 142 Counter. 376 CT. 17 Factor. potential. optical. 9 Electric ﬁeld. 417 Energy. 17 Factor. 489 choke. 306 Cutoff frequency. 405 e. 378 Coaxial cable. 273 Detector. 57. music. synchro. 96 Electromagnetic induction. 24 Direct current. 257. 257. 219 Domain. 156 Class. 153. 306 INDEX Derivative. AC to DC. phase. swinging. kinetic. 9 Eddy current. 269 Eddy current speedometer. 2 Electromagnetic wave. 234 Control transformer. 369 Celsius. 196 Cycle. 372 Current. 188 CPS. unit. primary. 8 Characteristic impedance. 16 Decoupling capacitor. calculus. secondary. 402 Cathode Ray Tube. 306 Current.550 Capacitor. 76 EKG. 189 CRT. 42 Conductance. 96 Diode. 367 Dipole antenna. atomic. 347 Farad. 96 Dielectric constant. 369 Crystal. 387 . transformer heat rating. 83 E. control transformer. 1 Distortion. 241 Doubly fed induction generator.
87. 202 Filter. 343 Headphones. 250 FFT. 164. symbol for instantaneous current. notch. cutoff. NEMA designs. 171 Function. 294 Generator. 181. as sensitive null detector. imaginary operator. bandpass. 162 Fourier Transform. polyphase. 453 Induction motor power factor corrector. 459 Induction. 165 Ground. symbol for instantaneous voltage. 59 Imaginary number. 38 I. 190 Filter. 6 Fundamental frequency. Lissajous. 2phase. 387 Field. linear. 457. 344 Harmonic. 189 Filter “selectivity”. 318 Harmonics. 388 Heating. 506 Harmonic sequence. power factor. trigonometry. 188 Inductive heating. symbol for conductance. 59. inductive. 318 Harmonics and waveform symmetry. 378 Filter. 229. 461 Graphic equalizer. 454. speed control. bandstop. characteristic. 383 Harmonic. 23. 121 Figure. 271 551 i. highpass. 65. 8. 461 Induction motor efﬁciency. 193. 75 Inductive reactance. wound rotor. 271 Induction alternator. electric. calculus. 196 Hot conductor. 273 . 435 Hyperbolic function. 81. 156. 3. 8 Highpass ﬁlter. 506 Fullwave rectiﬁcation.INDEX Ferrite. lowpass. 374 Frequency meter. 64. 135. 59 Inductosyn. 459 Induction motor. 205 Filter. 27. 101. 96 Heating. 454. 196 Filter. 252. 466 Induction motor slip. 450 Induction motor speed. 480 Induction motor. 17 Fourier analysis. 452 Induction motor. bandelimination. single phase. repulsion start. mutual. 61 Inductor. 442 Induction motor. 119 Impedance matching. 88 i. 449 Induction motor torque. 4 Inductive coupling. 23. 202 Filter. 156. 169 Hall effect. 83 i. 202 Filter. 43 Hysteresis. odd. 286 Hybrid stepper motor. leakage. unit. 253 Impedance. resonant. fundamental. 153. 204 Form factor. 318. 491 Inductance. 32 Halfwave rectiﬁcation. 59 Hertz. sine. electromagnetic. 162 Frequency. 506 G. 119 Generator. transformer. 156. 454. 76 Ferroresonant transformer. 461 Induction generator. 199 Filter. 462 Induction motor. 442 Induction motor. 450 Induction motor. 449. triplen. bandreject. 57. 451 Induction motor. induction. 81 Integral. dielectric. 59 Inductance. 460 Induction motor. 489 Incident wave. magnetic. 456 Induction motor starting. 332. even vs. 227. 38 Impedance. 202 Filter. 121 Field. 455 Induction motor synchronous speed. 196 Frequency. symbol for current. 401 Inrush current. 181. 2 Induction. 275 Instantaneous value. 374 Frequency. 75 Henry. 57.
83. 421 Motor/generator set. 478 Motor. 221 Mutual induction. 219 Magnetostriction. 227. 302 Magnetizing current. 49. 479 Motor. imaginary operator. 83. 59 Lagging phase shift. repulsion. 479 Motor. splitphase. AC commutator. 465 Motor. 460 Motor. 360 Laminated iron core. nonlinear. 459 linear variable differential transformer. 367 Meter. 101 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law. polyphase system. induction. 449 Motor. 306 Linear induction motor. 474 Motor. AC. permanentsplit capacitor. 229. permanent magnet. 267 Lissajous ﬁgure. 529 INDEX MMF. 408 Motor. torque. transformer. 190 LVDT. 267. starting. 75 Load. 463 Motor. 449. 38 Joule. induction. 478 Motor. AC. 466 Motor. 490 . 302. hybrid. AC. symbol for inductance. 452 Motor. servo. DC. 435 motor. variable reluctance. AC series. 421 Motor. 23. 397 M. 239 Isolation. 101 L. 438 Motor. 428 motor. stepper. 4 Natural impedance. 277 Magnitude. synchronous. induction. 464 Motor. brushless. AC. 234 Multiplier. 417 Magnetic ﬁeld. 450 Motor. 465 Motor. 412 Motor. induction. 384 Joule’s Law. 369 Mutual inductance. 378 Litz wire. power factor. 101 Klystron tube. 49 KCL. AC servo. 119 Microwaves. 21. synchronous speed. piano. 16. 412 Motor. 253 MaxwellWien bridge circuit. capacitorstart. 300 Motor. 269 Leading phase shift. 467 Motor. 21. 468 Motor. 59. NEMA designs. 391 Meter movement. 121 Magnetic ﬁeld. induction. variable reluctance. synchronous. induction. reluctance. universal. 302 Motor. AC. vector. power factor corrector. 19. 468 Motor. 19. 24 Lowpass ﬁlter. slip. 417. 49. capacitorrun. 456 Motor. induction. 101 Keyboard. 221 Magnetic ampliﬁer. variable reluctance. hysteresis. unit. wound rotor. 10 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law. stepper. 59. 451 Motor. shaded pole. induction. induction. 271 Lenz’s Law. 457. 360 Mho. 59. 19. 477 Motor. repulsion start induction. 431 Motor. 385 Loop antenna. 19. compensated series motor. 421 Motor. 265 Magnetic encoder. power factor. induction. rotating. 530 KVL. 480 Motor. speed. 421 Motor. 371 Isolation transformer. 237 j. 219 Magnetomotive force. stepper. 450 Motor. 219 Modulus. induction. 455 Motor. 445 Line. switched reluctance. 12 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. speed control. symbol for mutual inductance. 453. 459 Motor. 37 Motor. efﬁciency. 453 Motor.552 Ironvane meter movement. 360 Leakage inductance. stepper.
symbol for resistance. 53. 101 Ohm’s Law . 387 Null detector. 344 NEMA induction motor designs. 19. 82 P. 256. 37 Polarity. relative. 387. resonant circuit. antinode. 353 Power. 76 Quartz crystal. 360 Power factor. imaginary. vs. 347 Power factor meter. 119 Radian. AC. 87. rectangular. 466 Nonsinusoidal. 202 Null detector. 506 p. 4 Principal mode. 58. 431 Permittivity. 30 Phase. 119 Optical encoder. 23. 378 Overtone. 270 Power factor. 417 Oscillation. 128 PCB. 27. complex. 253 Notation. 21. 352 Parallel analysis. 10 Ohm’s Law. 195 Peak. 367 Polar notation. “crossover”. 20 Phase rotation. 503 Noise. 61. 352 Power. 396 Powdered iron core. 38 Number. AC bridge. 277 Nola power factor corrector. 8 Permanent magnet moving coil. 376 Pitch (musical). 76 Q. 59 Power. 296 Phase sequence. 64 Ohm. 38 Number. reactive. 168. 189 Neutral conductor. 156. 85 Radio. symbol for reactive power. 351 Octave. symbol for true power. 451 Network. 20 Phase shift. 124 Oscillator. 344 Potential transformer. 286 Node. true. 452 Power quality. 10 Piezoelectricity. 385 Power triangle. negative. 88. 387 Null meter. 490 Phase. 385 Nonsinusoidal. 135 Oscilloscope. 352 Power. angular measurement. 121 Period. 9. 318. 106 Parallel circuit rules. 385 Power quality meter. 12 Peaking transformer. 9 PMMC. unit. 372 Potentiometer. 12 Peaktopeak. 256. 10 Nonlinear components. 376 R. 387 Number. transformer. 221 Primary transformer coil. 294 Polyphase induction motor. 378 Q. apparent. real. 49. transformer. 296 Phase shift. 286 Pole. 153 Norton’s Theorem. alternator. 372 Pythagorean Theorem. 289. 351 Number. symbol for instantaneous power. 44. 272 Pendulum. 64. scalar. polar. 239 Piano. 101 Parallel LC resonance. 291 Positive sequence. symbol for quality factor. 367 Permanent magnet stepper motor. 28. 352 Primary coil. 37 Notch ﬁlter. 352 Quality factor. 442 Polyphase. 37 Notation. vector. 529 Printed circuit board. 41 Q. induction motor. 453. 145 Q. quality factor. 78 553 .INDEX Negative sequence. 195 PT.
385 Speed control. shunt. 126 Resonant frequency meter. 52 RF: Radio Frequency. 476 SCR. 142. 128 Resonance. 77 Resistance. 110. 385 Spectrum. 283. 59. 119 Resistance. 260. AC. 101 Rules. 128 Splitphase. 101 RVDT. capacitive. 417 RMS. 491 Reﬂectometer. fullwave. 74. receiver. unit. 166. effective. 169 Rectiﬁer. 168 Simple Harmonic Motion. 262 Sawtooth wave. 204 Resonant frequency formula. 181 Scalar number. 469 Selsyn. series LC. 519. 369. parallel LC. 344 Sequence. 37 Rectiﬁcation. 371 RootMeanSquare. 168 Reﬂected wave. 23 Ratio. 302 Rules. 27. 518 Standing waves. harmonic. mechanical. siliconcontrolled. 120 Servo motor. 288 Sinusoidal. DC. 171 Rectiﬁcation. series circuits. 76 Resistor. 372 Resistor. 287 Square wave. 351 ScottT transformer. transformer. 125 Sine function. halfwave. AC. 4 Selectivity. frequency. 51 SPICE simulation. synchro. 101 Series LC resonance. 482 Ripple torque. 136 Resonance. 10 Sawtooth wave . 470 Sequence. 77 Resistance. 126 Resonance. transmitter.induction motor. 500 . 471 Selsyn. 154 Shielded cable. 6 Sine wave. 126. 78. 144. 219 Reluctance motor. multiplier. 10. 221 Secondary transformer coil. inductive. 445 SPICE. 470 Selsyn. 376 Resonate. 205 Selfinductance. 480 Resistance. 296 Series analysis. 125 Siemens. 479 Repulsion start induction motor. 352 Saturable reactor. 421 Repulsion motor. 376 Standing wave ratio. parallel circuits. 398 INDEX S. 476 Resonance. 83. 77. 10. 126 Resultant vector. 153 Skin effect. induction motor. 119 Reactance. phase. 417 Resolver. 398. 271 Resonant ﬁlter. 16. 131 Seriesparallel analysis. measurement. seriesparallel. differential transmitter. 474 Shield grounding. 529 Sound waves. 398. 16. 457 Speed control. 492 Relative permittivity. 6 Singlephase. 158 Standard. 154 SHM. 61 Real number. symbol for apparent power. 503 Resonance. 372 Resolver. transformer and inductor. 371 Rotating magnetic ﬁeld. 265. 84 Reactance. 367 Rectiﬁer. parallel. 168 Secondary coil. 232 Reactance. eddy current. 460 Speedometer. 131 Resonance. 38 Rectangular notation. 374 Resonance. 119 Siliconcontrolled rectiﬁer. 490 Reluctance. 219 Selsyn.554 Radio wave. timedomain. 101 Series circuit rules. 9 Spectrum analyzer.
352 Unit. 384 Unit. watt. 250 Tap switch. 435 Stepper motor. 302. 232 Transformer. henry. 81 . voltamp. 491 Susceptance. 185. 275 Transformer isolation.INDEX Star conﬁguration. ScottT. 530 Transducer. 57. 243 Tuner circuit. peaking. tap. Pythagorean. 162 Transformer. 157 Timedomain reﬂectometer. 270 Transformer inrush current. 83 Unit. 119 Unit. stepup. 59. 404 Twisted pair cable. 268. Thevenin’s. 8 Unit. 529 Tesla Coil. control transformer. powdered iron. 420 Synchronous motor. stepdown. 291 Theorem. 260. ScottT. 119 Unit. joule. 135. 530 TEM mode. hybrid. 232 Transformer. 306 Stepper motor. 4. 245 Switched reluctance motor. 119 Unit. 250 Transformer. 421 SWR. 181 Triangle. 434 Stepper motor. power. 168 Transmission line. Fourier. 253 Thevenin’s Theorem. 245 TE mode. 272 Transformer. Nikola. 16 Tube. 332. 426 Stepper motor. 476 Synchro. ampturn. 8 Unit. radio. 10 Triangle wave . voltampreactive. transmitter. 253 Theorem. 244. symbol for instantaneous voltage. 207 TwinT circuit. receiver. differential transmitter. 59 Unit. ohm. 119 swinging choke. instantaneous. farad. 213 Switch. 470 Synchronous condenser. variable reluctance. 479 v. 289. 125. 449 Tank circuit. mho. 352 Vacuum tube. 469 Synchro. 433. 243 Value. 476 transformer. 265 Transformer. siemens. vacuum. 470 Synchro. 237 Transformer ratio. 398 Synchro (selsyn). 352 Unit. 289 Timbre. Maximum Power Transfer. 428 Superposition Theorem. Norton’s. 253 Threephase. 343 TrueRMS meter. induction motor. Centigrade. 8 Unit. 518 Synchro. 8 Unit. 471 Synchro. 492 TM mode. variable. resolver. 408. biﬁlar winding. CPS. 474 Synchro. ferroresonant. Superposition. permanent magnet. 421. 396 Transductor. 41 Theorem. 83 VA. 219 Unit. 481 Triangle wave. 185. 291 Surge impedance. 442 Theorem. 253 Theorem. 4 Transformer core. 154 Unit. laminated. 269 Transformer core. 353 Triplen harmonics. 291 Threewire DC system. 265 Transform. 397 Transistor. differential capacitance. Celsius. unit. primary and secondary. 232 Transformer. 294. Hertz. 431 Stepper motor. 352 Universal AC motor. 224 555 Transformer coils. 435 stepper motor. 412 Synchronous speed. can stack. 260 Tesla.
nonsinusoidal. 64. 87. 119 Xtal. 30 Vector sum. 153 Waveguide. symbol for reactance. 88. unit. 391 Winding. 37 Vector magnitude. 37 Vector modulus. primary. sinusoidal. triangle. 181 Wave. sawtooth.” AC. 119 Z. 37 Vector phase shift. 244. 30 Vector angle. transmission line. 53. 374 Voltamp. 16 Wheatstone bridge. 421 Variable reluctance stepper motor. 24 Wave. unit. Litz . 376 Wien bridge circuit. 10. 158 Wave. 225 Winding. 402 Variable reluctance motor. symbol for admittance. 459 INDEX X. 498 Weston meter movement. 153 Waveform. 61. 84. 367 Wagner earth. 421. 397 Variac. 352 Wave. 352 Voltage “polarity. 377 Y conﬁguration. absolute value. sine. 527 Wavelength. 318 Waveform. 247 Vector. 489 Vibrating reed frequency meter. 248 Voltage. 268 Voltamp. commonmode. square. 64. 306 Voltage. 181. 52 Vector. 44. 237 Voltage. 10. 37 Velocity factor. 352 Voltampreactive. unit. 119 Zero sequence. electromagnetic. 28. line. 286 Voltage regulation. 294. 225 Wire. 10. 6 Wave. symbol for impedance. 65. 351 Vector amplitude. secondary.556 VAR. 352 Variable capacitor. 306 Voltmeter. 306 Y. 87. 75 Wound rotor induction motor. 344 . 37 Vector length. phase. 428 Variable transformer. 393 Watt. unit. 181 Waveform symmetry and harmonics.
557 .INDEX .