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# Lecture 5 Time-domain analysis: Convolution

(Lathi 2.4)

Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London URL: www.ee.imperial.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/ee2_signals E-mail: p.cheung@imperial.ac.uk
PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 1

Convolution Integral
Convolution Integral:

y (t ) = x(t ) * h(t ) = ∫ x(τ )h(t − τ )dτ
−∞

System output (i.e. zero-state response) is found by convolving input x(t) with System’s impulse response h(t).
y (t ) = x(t ) * h(t )

LTI System Impulse Response h(t)

PYKC 9-Mar-08

E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

Lecture 5 Slide 2

5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 3 Convolution Table (2) PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 4 .4 p177 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.Convolution Table (1) Use table to find convolution results easily: L2.

4 p178 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 6 .Convolution Table (3) L2.6: when all The input is: Therefore the response is: L2. We have seen in slide 4.5 that the system equation is: The impulse response h(t) was obtained in 4.4 p177 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 5 Example (1) Find the loop current y(t) of the RLC circuits for input the initial conditions are zero.

4 p178 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2. but is complex? If x(t) = xr(t) + jxi(t).Example (2) Using distributive property of convolution: Use convolution table pair #4: L2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 8 . L2. where xr(t) and xi(t) are the real and imaginary part of x(t). we can consider the convolution on the real and imaginary components separately.4 p179 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 7 When input is complex …… What happens if input x(t) is not real. then That is.

Remember: variable of integration is τ. x(τ) h(t. not t L2.τ) (i. L2.τ)) for the shaded pulse. PLUS the contribution from all the previous pulses of x(τ).5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 9 Convolution using graphical method (1) Determine graphically y(t) = x(t)*h(t) for x(t) = e-tu(t) and h(t) = e-2tu(t). The summation of all these weighted inputs is the convolution integral.Intuitive explanation of convolution Assume the impulse response delays linearly from t=0 to zero at t=1.4-2 p191 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2. Divide input x(τ) into pulses.4-1 p183 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 10 . The system response at t is then determined by x(τ) weighted by h(t.e.

Convolution using graphical method (2) PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 12 .5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 11 Interconnected Systems Parallel connected system x(t ) y (t ) = h1 (t ) * x (t ) + h2 (t ) * x(t ) Cascade systems & Commutative property x(t ) y (t ) = [h1 (t ) * h2 (t )]* x(t ) L2.4-3 p192 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.

Interconnected Systems Integration: Also true for differentiation: Let Then g(t).4-3 p193 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.4-5 p197 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2. and h(t) is the impulse response of the system) L2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 13 Total Response Let us put everything together. using our RLC circuit as an example. we have shown that L2. y (0) = −5 In earlier slides. y (0) = 0.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 14 . Let us assume x(t ) = 10e −3t u (t ). the step response is: ( x(t) is an impulse.

The remaining e-3t which is NOT a characteristic mode is the FORCED response.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 16 . and call these the NATURAL response.4-5 p197 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 5 Slide 15 Additional Example * PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.Natural vs Forced Responses Note that characteristic modes also appears in zero-state response (because it has an impact on h(t)). L2. We can collect the e-t and e-2t terms together.

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