Computers and Structures, Inc.

Berkeley, California, USA
Version 8
January 2002
ETABS
®
Integrated Building Design Software
Steel Frame Design Manual
 Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2002.
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Computers and Structures, Inc.
1995 University Avenue
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Phone: (510) 845-2177
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DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE
DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE PROGRAM HAS
BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM,
HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY
IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS
ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM.
THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF
STEEL STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE
MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF STEEL DESIGN THAT
THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS.
THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE
PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.
i
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN
Contents
General Steel Frame Design Information
1 General Design Information
Design Codes 1-1
Units 1-1
Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure
for a Steel Frame 1-1
Design Load Combinations 1-2
Analysis Sections and Design Sections 1-3
Second Order P-Delta Effects 1-4
Element Unsupported Lengths 1-6
Effective Length Factor (K) 1-7
Continuity Plates and Doubler Plates 1-9
2 Steel Frame Design Process
Steel Frame Design Procedure 2-1
Automating the Iterative Design Process 2-5
3 Interactive Steel Frame Design
General 3-1
Steel Stress Check Information Form 3-1
Overwrites Button 3-4
Details Button 3-4
4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model
Overview 4-1
Design Input 4-1
Design Output 4-2
Steel Frame Design Manual
ii
Steel Frame Design Specific to UBC97-ASD
5 General and Notation
Introduction to the UBC-ASD Series of
Technical Notes 5-1
Notations 5-3
References 5-6
6 Preferences
General 6-1
Using the Preferences Form 6-1
Preferences 6-2
7 Overwrites
General 7-1
Overwrites 7-1
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 7-3
Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default
Values 7-4
8 Design Load Combinations
9 Classification of Sections
Overview 9-1
10 Calculation of Stresses
11 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
12 Calculation of Stress Ratios
Axial and Bending Stresses 12-1
Shear Stresses 12-3
13 Seismic Requirements
Ordinary Moment Frames 13-1
Special Moment Resisting Frames 13-1
Contents
iii
Braced Frame 13-2
Eccentrically Braced Frames 13-4
Special Concentrically Braced Frames 13-7
14 Joint Design
Beam/Column Plastic Moment Capacity
Ratio 14-1
Evaluation of Beam Connection Shears 14-3
Evaluation of Brace Connection Forces 14-4
15 Continuity Plates
16 Doubler Plates
17 Input Data
Input Data 17-1
Using the Print Design Tables Form 17-5
18 Output Details
Using the Print Design Tables Form 18-4
Steel Frame Design Specific to UBC97-LRFD
19 General and Notation
Introduction to the UBC97-LRFD Series of
Technical Notes 19-1
Notation 19-3
References 19-7
20 Preferences
General 20-1
Using the Preferences Form 20-1
Preferences 20-2
21 Overwrites
General 21-1
Steel Frame Design Manual
iv
Overwrites 21-1
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 21-4
Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default
Values 21-5
22 Design Loading Combinations
Reference 22-2
23 Classification of Sections
24 Calculation of Factored Forces and Mo-
ments
Reference 24-2
25 Calculation of Nominal Strengths 25-1
26 Calculation of Capacity Ratios
Overview 26-1
Axial and Bending Stresses 26-1
Shear Stresses 26-2
27 Seismic Requirements
Ordinary Moment Frames 27-1
Special Moment Resisting Frames 27-1
Braced Frames 27-2
Eccentrically Braced Frames 27-3
Special Concentrically Braced Frames 27-7
28 Joint Design
Weak-Beam / Strong-Column Measure 28-1
Evaluation of Beam Connection Shears 28-3
Evaluation of Brace Connection Forces 28-4
29 Continuity Plates
30 Doubler Plates
Contents
v
31 Input Data
Input Data 31-1
Using the Print Design Tables Form 31-6
32 Output Details
Using the Print Design Tables Form 32-4
Steel Frame Design Specific to AISC-ASD89
33 General and Notation
Introduction to the AISC-ASD89 Series of
Technical Notes 33-1
Notation 33-2
34 Preferences
General 34-1
Using the Preferences Form 34-1
Preferences 34-2
35 Overwrites
General 35-1
Overwrites 35-1
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 35-3
Resetting the Steel Frame Overwrites
to Default Values 35-4
36 Design Load Combinations
37 Classification of Sections
38 Calculation of Stresses
39 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Allowable Stress in Tension 39-1
Allowable Stress in Compression 39-1
Flexural Buckling 39-2
Steel Frame Design Manual
vi
Flexural-Torsional Buckling 39-4
Allowable Stress in Bending 39-8
I-Sections 39-8
Channel Sections 39-12
T Sections and Double Angles 39-13
Box Sections and Rectangular
Tubes 39-13
Pipe Sections 39-14
Round Bars 39-15
Rectangular and Square Bars 39-15
Single-Angle Sections 39-15
General Sections 39-18
Allowable Stress in Shear 39-18
Major Axis of Bending 39-18
Minor Axis of Bending 39-19
40 Calculation of Stress Ratios
Axial and Bending Stresses 40-1
Shear Stresses 40-4
41 Input Data
Input Data 41-1
Using the Print Design Tables Form 41-5
42 Output Details
Using the Print Design Tables Form 42-3
Steel Frame Design Specific to AISC-LRFD93
43 General and Notation
Introduction to the AISC-LRFD93 Series of
Technical Notes 43-1
Notation 43-2
44 Preferences
General 44-1
Contents
vii
Using the Preferences Form 44-1
Preferences 44-2
45 Overwrites
General 45-1
Overwrites 45-1
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 45-4
Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default
Values 45-4
46 Design Load Combinations
Reference 46-2
47 Classification of Sections
48 Calculation of Factored Forces and
Moments
Reference 48-3
49 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Overview 49-1
Compression Capacity 49-2
Flexural Buckling 49-2
Flexural-Torsional Buckling 49-3
Torsional and Flexural-Torsional
Buckling 49-6
Tension Capacity 49-8
Nominal Strength in Bending 49-8
Yielding 49-9
Lateral-Torsional Buckling 49-9
Flange Local Buckling 49-13
Web Local Buckling 49-17
Shear Capacities 49-21
Major Axis of Bending 49-21
Minor Axis of Bending 49-22
50 Calculation of Capacity Ratios
Overview 50-1
Steel Frame Design Manual
viii
Axial and Bending Stresses 50-1
Shear Stresses 50-2
51 Input Data
Input Data 51-1
Using the Print Design Tables Form 51-6
52 Output Details
Using the Print Design Tables Form 52-3
Design Codes Technical Note 1 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN
Technical Note 1
General Design Information
This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts that you
should know before performing steel frame design using this program.
Design Codes
The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Steel
Frame Design command. You can choose to design for any one design code
in any one design run. You cannot design some elements for one code and
others for a different code in the same design run. You can however perform
different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the
analysis.
Units
For steel frame design in this program, any set of consistent units can be
used for input. Typically, design codes are based on one specific set of units.
The documentation in this series of Technical Notes is typically presented in
kip-inch-seconds units.
Again, any system of units can be used to define and design a building in this
program. You can change the system of units that you are using at any time.
Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Steel
Frame
The three procedures possible for steel beam design are:
ƒ Steel frame design
ƒ Composite beam design
ƒ No design
General Design Information Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 1 - 2 Design Load Combinations
By default, steel sections are designed using the steel frame design procedure
or the composite beam design procedure. A steel frame element qualifies for
the Composite Beam Design procedure if it meets all of the following criteria:
ƒ The line type is Beam; that is, the line object is horizontal.
ƒ The frame element is oriented with its positive local 2-axis in the same
direction as the positive global Z-axis (vertical upward).
ƒ The frame element has I-section or channel section properties.
If a steel frame member meets the above criteria for composite beams, it
defaults to the composite beam design procedure. Otherwise, it defaults to
the steel frame design procedure.
A steel frame element can be switched between the Steel Frame Design,
Composite Beam Design (if it qualifies), and the "None" design procedure.
Assign a steel frame element the "None" design procedure if you do not want
it designed by the Steel Frame Design or the Composite Beam Design post-
processor.
Change the default design procedure used for steel frame elements by se-
lecting the beam(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design
Procedure. This change is only successful if the design procedure assigned to
an element is valid for that element. For example, if you select a steel beam
and attempt to change the design procedure to Concrete Frame Design, the
program will not allow the change because a steel frame element cannot be
changed to a concrete frame element.
Design Load Combinations
The program creates a number of default design load combinations for steel
frame design. You can add in your own design load combinations. You can
also modify or delete the program default load combinations. An unlimited
number of design load combinations can be specified.
To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more load cases,
each with its own scale factor. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical
Note 8 Design Load Combinations, UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical
Note 22 Design Load Combinations, AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Techni-
Steel Frame Design General Design Information
Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 - 3
cal Note 36 Design Load Combinations and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 46 Design Load Combinations for more information.
Analysis Sections and Design Sections
Analysis sections are those section properties used for a frame element to
analyze the model when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis com-
mand. The design section is whatever section has most currently been de-
signed and thus designated the current design section.
It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section
to be different. For example, you may have run your analysis using a W18X35
beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. In this
case, the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design
section is the W16X31. Before you complete the design process, verify that
the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same
using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs De-
sign Section command.
The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section
separately. Note the following about analysis and design sections:
ƒ Assigning a line object a frame section property using the Assign
menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns this sec-
tion as both the analysis section and the design section.
ƒ Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis com-
mand (or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis sec-
tion to be the same as the current design section.
ƒ Using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command
to assign an auto select list to a frame section initially sets the analysis
and design section to be the section with the median weight in the
auto select list.
ƒ Unlocking the model deletes design results, but it does not delete or
change the design section.
General Design Information Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 1 - 4 Second Order P-Delta Effects
ƒ Using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Select Design
Combo command to change a design load combination deletes design
results, but it does not delete or change the design section.
ƒ Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change
a design load combination deletes your design results, but it does not
delete or change the design section.
ƒ Using the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design
command to change any of the steel frame design preferences deletes
design results, but it does not delete or change the design section.
ƒ Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design
results for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces.
Typically, static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when
one of the following actions is taken:
9 Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties
command to redefine existing or define new hinges.
9 Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases
command to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load
cases.
9 Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear
Hinges command to add or delete hinges.
Again note that this only deletes results for load combinations that include
static nonlinear forces.
Second Order P-Delta Effects
Typically design codes require that second order P-Delta effects be considered
when designing steel frames. The P-Delta effects come from two sources.
They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local deformation
of elements within the frame.
Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1, which is extracted from a
story level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame
element is indicated by ∆. The local deformation of the element is shown as δ.
Steel Frame Design General Design Information
Second Order P-Delta Effects Technical Note 1 - 5
The total second order P-Delta effects on this frame element are those caused
by both ∆ and δ.
The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. Con-
trols for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set
Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set P-Delta Parameters
button. When you consider P-Delta effects in the analysis, the program does a
good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1,
but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless, in the
model, the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length).
In design codes, consideration of the second order P-Delta effects is generally
achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to
that shown in Equation. 1.
M
CAP
= aM
nt
+ bM
lt
Eqn. 1
where,
M
CAP
= flexural design capacity

δ
Original position of frame
element shown by vertical
line
Position of frame element
as a result of global lateral
translation, ∆, shown by
dashed line
Final deflected position of
frame element that
includes the global lateral
translation, ∆, and the
local deformation of the
element, δ
Figure 1 The total Second Order P-Delta Effects on a Frame Element
Caused by Both ∆ ∆∆ ∆ and δ δδ δ
General Design Information Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 1 - 6 Element Unsupported Lengths
M
nt
= required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is
no translation of the frame (i.e., associated with the δ de-
formation in Figure 1)
M
lt
= required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lat-
eral translation of the frame only (i.e., associated with the ∆
deformation in Figure 1)
a = unitless factor multiplying M
nt
b = unitless factor multiplying M
lt
(assumed equal to 1 by the
program, see below)
When the program performs steel frame design, it assumes that the factor b
is equal to 1 and it uses code-specific formulas to calculate the factor a. That
b = 1 assumes that you have considered P-Delta effects in the analysis, as
previously described. Thus, in general, if you are performing steel frame de-
sign in this program, you should consider P-Delta effects in the analysis be-
fore running the design.
Element Unsupported Lengths
The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slender-
ness effects. The program automatically determines these unsupported
lengths. They can also be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element
basis, if desired, using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites command.
There are two unsupported lengths to consider. They are l
33
and l
22,
as

shown
in Figure 2. These are the lengths between support points of the element in
the corresponding directions. The length l
33
corresponds to instability about
the 3-3 axis (major axis), and l
22
corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis
(minor axis). The length l
22
is also used for lateral-torsional buckling caused
by major direction bending (i.e., about the 3-3 axis).
In determining the values for l
22
and l
33
of the elements, the program recog-
nizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths,
such as member connectivity, diaphragm constraints and support points. The
program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the
corresponding unsupported length.
Steel Frame Design General Design Information
Element Unsupported Lengths Technical Note 1 - 7
It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated
by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. For exam-
ple, assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the
other, at a floor level. In this case, the column is assumed to be supported in
one direction only at that story level, and its unsupported length in the other
direction will exceed the story height.
Effective Length Factor (K)
The program automatically determines K-factors for frame elements. These
K-factors can be overwritten by the user if desired using the Design menu >
Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. See the
bulleted list at the end of this section for some important tips about how the
program calculates the K-factors.
The K-factor algorithm has been developed for building-type structures,
where the columns are vertical and the beams are horizontal, and the behav-
ior is basically that of a moment-resisting nature for which the K-factor cal-
culation is relatively complex. For the purpose of calculating K-factors, the
elements are identified as columns, beams and braces. All elements parallel
Figure 2 Major and Minor Axes of Bending
General Design Information Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 1 - 8 Element Unsupported Lengths
to the Z-axis are classified as columns. All elements parallel to the X-Y plane
are classified as beams. The rest are braces.
The beams and braces are assigned K-factors of unity. In the calculation of
the K-factors for a column element, the program first makes the following
four stiffness summations for each joint in the structural model:
x
c
c c
cx
L
I E
S









=
x
b
b b
bx
L
I E
S









=
y
c
c c
cy
L
I E
S









=
y
b
b b
y
b
L
I E
S









=
where the x and y subscripts correspond to the global X and Y directions and
the c and b subscripts refer to column and beam. The local 2-2 and 3-3 terms
EI
22
/L
22
and EI
33
/L
33
are rotated to give components along the global X and Y
directions to form the (EI/L)
x
and (EI/L)
y
values. Then for each column, the
joint summations at END-I and the END-J of the member are transformed
back to the column local 1-2-3 coordinate system and the G-values for END-I
and the END-J of the member are calculated about the 2-2 and 3-3 directions
as follows:
22
22
22
b
I
c
I
I
S
S
G =
22
22
22
b
J
c
J
J
S
S
G =
33
33
33
b
I
c
I
I
S
S
G =
33
33
33
b
I
c
I
I
S
S
G =
If a rotational release exists at a particular end (and direction) of an element,
the corresponding value is set to 10.0. If all degrees of freedom for a par-
ticular joint are deleted, the G-values for all members connecting to that joint
will be set to 1.0 for the end of the member connecting to that joint. Finally, if
G
I
and G
J
are known for a particular direction, the column K-factor for the
corresponding direction is calculated by solving the following relationship for
α:
α
α α
tan ) ( 6
36
2
=
+

J I
J I
G G
G G
Steel Frame Design General Design Information
Continuity Plates and Doubler Plates Technical Note 1 - 9
from which K = π/α. This relationship is the mathematical formulation for the
evaluation of K-factors for moment-resisting frames assuming sidesway to be
uninhibited. For other structures, such as braced frame structures, the K-
factors for all members are usually unity and should be set so by the user.
The following are some important aspects associated with the column K-factor
algorithm:
ƒ An element that has a pin at the joint under consideration will not en-
ter the stiffness summations calculated above. An element that has a
pin at the far end from the joint under consideration will contribute
only 50% of the calculated EI value. Also, beam elements that have no
column member at the far end from the joint under consideration,
such as cantilevers, will not enter the stiffness summation.
ƒ If there are no beams framing into a particular direction of a column
element, the associated G-value will be infinity. If the G-value at any
one end of a column for a particular direction is infinity, the K-factor
corresponding to that direction is set equal to unity.
ƒ If rotational releases exist at both ends of an element for a particular
direction, the corresponding K-factor is set to unity.
ƒ The automated K-factor calculation procedure can occasionally gener-
ate artificially high K-factors, specifically under circumstances involving
skewed beams, fixed support conditions, and under other conditions
where the program may have difficulty recognizing that the members
are laterally supported and K-factors of unity are to be used.
ƒ All K-factors produced by the program can be overwritten by the user.
These values should be reviewed and any unacceptable values should
be replaced.
ƒ The beams and braces are assigned K-factors of unity.
Continuity Plates and Doubler Plates
When a beam frames into the flange of a column, continuity plates and dou-
bler plates may be required, as illustrated in Figure 3. The design of these
plates is based on the major moment in the beam. If the beam frames into
the column flange at an angle, the doubler and continuity plate design is
General Design Information Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 1 - 10 Continuity Plates and Doubler Plates
based on a component of the beam major moment, rather than the full beam
moment.
The design equations for doubler and continuity plates are described further
in the following Technical Notes:
UBC-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 16 Doubler Plates
UBC-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 30 Doubler Plates
UBC-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 15 Continuity Plates
UBC-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 29 Continuity Plates
Steel Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN
Technical Note 2
Steel Frame Design Process
This Technical Note describes a basic steel frame design process using this
program. Although the exact steps you follow may vary, the basic design pro-
cess should be similar to that described herein. The other Technical Notes in
the Steel Frame Design series provide additional information.
Steel Frame Design Procedure
The following sequence describes a typical steel frame design process for a
new building. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary,
the basic process probably will be essentially the same.
1. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame
Design command to choose the steel frame design code and to review
other steel frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. Note
that default values are provided for all steel frame design preferences, so
it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to change
some of the default values. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical
Note 6 Preferences, UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 20
Preferences, AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 34 Prefer-
ences, and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 44 Prefer-
encesfor more information.
2. Create the building model.
3. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis
command.
4. Assign steel frame overwrites, if needed, using the Design menu > Steel
Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Note that you
must select frame elements first using this command. Also note that de-
fault values are provided for all steel frame design overwrites so it is un-
necessary to define overwrites unless you want to change some of the
default values. Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after
Steel Frame Design Process Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 2 - 2 Steel Frame Design Procedure
the analysis is run. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 7
Overwrites, UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 21 Over-
writes, AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 35 Overwrites,
and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 45 Overwrites for
more information.
5. Designate design groups, if desired, using the Design menu > Steel
Frame Design > Select Design Group command. Note that you must
have already created some groups by selecting objects and clicking the
Assign menu > Group Names command.
6. To use design load combinations other than the defaults created by the
program for your steel frame design, click the Design menu > Steel
Frame Design > Select Design Combo command. Note that you must
have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define
menu > Load Combinations command. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame
Design Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations, UBC97-LRFD Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 22 Design Load Combinations, AISC-ASD89
Steel Frame Design Technical Note 36 Design Load Combinations, and
AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 46 Design Load Combi-
nations for more information.
7. Designate lateral displacement targets for various load cases using the
Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Set Lateral Displacement
Targets command.
8. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check
of Structure command to run the steel frame design.
9. Review the steel frame design results by doing one of the following:
a. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design
Info command to display design input and output information on the
model. See Steel Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted
Directly on the Model.
b. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed
on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the
frame element. Note that while you are in this mode, you can revise
overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design.
Steel Frame Design Steel Frame Design Process
Steel Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 - 3
If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been
run), click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Interactive
Steel Frame Design command and right click a frame element to
enter the interactive design mode for that element. See Steel Frame
Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Steel Frame Design for more in-
formation.
c. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command
to print steel frame design data. If you select frame elements before
using this command, data is printed only for the selected elements.
See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 17 Input Data,
UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 31 Input Data, AISC-
ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 41 Input Data, and AISC-
LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 51 Input Data, and UBC97-
ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 18 Output Details, UBC97-
LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 32 Output Details, AISC-
ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 42 Output Details, and
AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 52 Output Details for
more information.
10. Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Change Design
Section command to change the design section properties for selected
frame elements.
11. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start De-
sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the steel frame design
with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures
described above.
12. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis
command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the
last specified design section properties.
13. Compare your lateral displacements with your lateral displacement tar-
gets.
14. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start De-
sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the steel frame design
with the new analysis results and new section properties. Review the re-
sults using the procedures described in Item 9.
Steel Frame Design Process Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 2 - 4 Steel Frame Design Procedure
Note:
Steel frame design in this program is an iterative process. Typically, the analysis and
design will be rerun multiple times to complete a design.
15. Again use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Change De-
sign Section command to change the design section properties for se-
lected frame elements, if necessary.
16. Repeat the processes in steps 12, 13, 14 and 15 as many times as nec-
essary.
17. Select all frame elements and click the Design menu > Steel Frame
Design > Make Auto Select Section Null command. This removes
any auto select section assignments from the selected frame elements
(if they have the Steel Frame design procedure).
18. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis
command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the
last specified design section properties.
19. Verify that your lateral displacements are within acceptable limits.
20. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start De-
sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the steel frame design
with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures
described in step 9.
21. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs
Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sections
are the same as the last used analysis sections.
22. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command
to print selected steel frame design results if desired. See UBC97-ASD
Steel Frame Design Technical Note 18 Output Details, UBC97-LRFD Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 32 Output Details, AISC-ASD89 Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 42 Output Details, and AISC-LRFD93 Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 52 Output Details for more information.
It is important to note that design is an iterative process. The sections used in
the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end
of the design process. Always run the building analysis using the final frame
Steel Frame Design Steel Frame Design Process
Automating the Iterative Design Process Technical Note 2 - 5
section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that
analysis. Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Verify Analysis
vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are the same
as the analysis sections.
Automating the Iterative Design Process
If frame elements have been assigned as auto select sections, the program
can automatically perform the iterative steel frame design process. To initiate
this process, first use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame
Design command and set the Maximum Auto Iterations item to the maximum
number of design iterations you want the program to run automatically. Next
run the analysis. Then, making sure that no elements are selected, use the
Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure
command to begin the design of the structure. The program will then start a
cycle of (1) performing the design, (2) comparing the last-used Analysis Sec-
tions with the Design Sections, (3) setting the Analysis Sections equal to the
Design Sections, and (4) rerunning the analysis. This cycle will continue until
one of the following conditions has been met:
ƒ the Design Sections and the last-used Analysis Sections are the same
ƒ the number of iterations performed is equal to the number of iterations you
specified for the Maximum Auto Iterations item on the Preferences form
If the maximum number of iterations is reached before the Design Sections
and Analysis Sections match, the program will report any differences on
screen.
General Technical Note 3 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN
Technical Note 3
Interactive Steel Frame Design
General
Interactive steel frame design allows you to review the design results for any
frame element and to interactively change the design overwrites and immedi-
ately review the results.
Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be
available. To run a design, click Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
Start Design/Check of Structure command.
Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to
enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element. If de-
sign results are not currently displayed (and the design has been run), click
the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Interactive Steel Frame De-
sign command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive
design mode for that element and display the Steel Stress Check Information
form.
Steel Stress Check Information Form
Table 1 identifies the features that are included in the Steel Stress Check In-
formation form.
Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form
FEATURE DESCRIPTION
Story ID This is the story level ID associated with the frame element.
Beam This is the label associated with a frame element that is a
beam.
Column This is the label associated with a frame element that is a col-
umn.
Interactive Steel Frame Design Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 3 - 2 Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form
Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form
FEATURE DESCRIPTION
Brace This is the label associated with a frame element that is a
brace.
Tip:
The section property displayed for the Design Section item is used by the
program as the section property for the next analysis run.
Analysis section This is the section property that was used for this frame ele-
ment in the last analysis. Thus, the design forces are based on
a frame element of this section property. For your final design
iteration, the Design Section and the last-used Analysis Section
should be the same.
Design section This is the current design section property. If the frame element
is assigned an auto select list, the section displayed in this form
initially defaults to the optimal section.
If no auto select list has been assigned to the frame element,
the element design is performed for the section property speci-
fied in this edit box.
It is important to note that subsequent analyses use the section
property specified in this list box for the next analysis section
for the frame element. Thus, the forces and moments obtained
in the next analysis will be based on this section.
To change the Design Section, click the Overwrites button.
Stress Details Table
The stress details table shows the stress ratios obtained for each design load combina-
tion at each output station along the frame element. Initially the worst stress ratio is high-
lighted. Following are the headings in the table:
Combo ID This is the name of the design load combination considered.
Station location This is the location of the station considered, measured from
the i-end of the frame element.
Steel Frame Design Interactive Steel Frame Design
Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form Technical Note 3 - 3
Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form
FEATURE DESCRIPTION
Moment Interaction Checks
Ratio This is the total PMM stress ratio for the element. When stress
ratios are reported for this item, they are followed by either (T)
or (C). The (T) item indicates that the axial component of the
stress ratio is tension. The (C) item indicates that the axial
component of the stress ratio is compression. Note that typi-
cally the interaction formulas are different, depending on
whether the axial stress is tension or compression.
Axl This is the axial component of the PMM stress ratio.
B-Maj This is the bending component of the PMM stress ratio for
bending about the major axis.
B-Min This is the bending component of the PMM stress ratio for
bending about the minor axis.
Maj Shr Ratio This is the shear stress ratio for shear acting in the major direc-
tion of the frame element.
Min Shr Ratio This is the shear stress ratio for shear acting in the minor direc-
tion of the frame element.
Overwrites Button
Click this button to access and make revisions to the steel frame overwrites and then
immediately see the new design results. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and
exit both the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form and the Steel Stress Check Information
form by clicking their respective OK buttons, the changes made to the overwrites are
saved permanently.
Exiting the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form by clicking the OK button temporarily
saves changes. Subsequently exiting the Steel Stress Check Information form by clicking
the Cancel button, cancels the changes made. Permanent saving of the overwrites does
not occur until you click the OK button in the Steel Stress Check Information form as well
as the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form.
Interactive Steel Frame Design Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 3 - 4 Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form
Details Button
Clicking this button displays design details for the frame elements. Print this information
by selecting Print from the File menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the
design details.
Overview Technical Note 4 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN
Technical Note 4
Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model
This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted
directly on the model.
Overview
Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info
command to display on-screen output plotted directly on the program model.
If desired, the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu >
Print Graphics command. The on-screen display data provides design input
and output data.
Design Input
Table 1 identifies the types of data that can be displayed directly on the
model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list
on the Display Design Results form. Display this form by selecting the Design
menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info command.
Table 1 Data Displayed Directly on the Model
DATA TYPE DESCRIPTION
Design Sections The current design section property.
Design Type Steel, concrete or other. In this section, steel would be
selected.
Live Load Red Fac-
tors
These reduction factors are used by the program to
automatically reduce the live load in the design post-
processor. They are set using the Options menu >
Preferences command.
Unbraced L Ratios Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length.
Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 4 - 2 Design Output
Table 1 Data Displayed Directly on the Model
DATA TYPE DESCRIPTION
Effective Length K-
Factors
As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2.1 or AISC-LRFD
Table C-C2.1.
Axial Allowables
Bending Allowables
Shear Allowables
Note that you cannot simultaneously display multiple listed items on the
model.
Design Output
Table 2 identifies the types of data that can be displayed directly on the
model after the model has been run by selecting the data type (shown in bold
type) from the drop-down list on the Display Design Results form. Display this
form by selecting he Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display De-
sign Info command.
Table 2 Data Available After a Model Has Been Run
DATA TYPE DESCRIPTION
PM Ratio Colors &
Values
Colors indicating stress ranges for ratio of acting axial
and bending stresses or forces divided by the allowable
numerical values.
PM Colors/Shear
Ratio Values
Colors indicating axial and bending ratio, and numerical
values indicating shear stress ratio.
PM Ratio Color/no
Values
Colors indicating axial and bending ratio only.
To display color-coded P-M interaction ratios with values, use the Design
menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info command. Click the
Design Output check box on the Display Design Results form. Note that a de-
Steel Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model
Table 2 Data Available After a Model Has Been Run Technical Note 4 - 3
sign must have been run for the output selection to be available. Select P-M
Ratios Colors & Values from the drop-down box. Click the OK button and your
selection will display on the model in the active window. Access the other two
display options in the same manner.
Note that you cannot simultaneously display multiple listed items on the
model.
General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 5
General and Notation
Introduction to the UBC97-ASD Series of Technical
Notes
The UBC97-ASD design code in this program implements the International
Conference of Building Officials' 1997 Uniform Building Code: Volume 2:
Structural Engineering Design Provisions, Chapter 22, Division III, "Design
Standard for Specification for Structural Steel BuildingsAllowable Stress De-
sign and Plastic Design" (ICBO 1997).
For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the UBC code, a unique
prefix "UBC" is assigned. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of
the AISC-ASD code, a unique prefix "ASD" is assigned. However, all refer-
ences to the "Specifications for Allowable Stress Design of Single-Angle Mem-
bers" (AISC 1989b) carry the prefix of "ASD SAM." Various notations used in
the Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD series of Technical Notes are described
herein.
When using the UBC97-ASD option, the following Framing Systems are rec-
ognized (UBC 1627, 2213):
ƒ Ordinary Moment Frame (OMF)
ƒ Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF)
ƒ Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF)
ƒ Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF)
ƒ Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF)
By default the frame type is taken as Special-Moment Resisting (SMRF) in the
program. However, the frame type can be overwritten in the Preferences
(Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design) to change the de-
fault values and in the Overwrites (Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 5 - 2 General and Notation
View/Revise Overwrites) on a member-by-member basis. If any member
is assigned with a frame type, the change of the frame type in the Preference
will not modify the frame type of the individual member for which it is as-
signed.
When using the UBC97-LRFD option, a frame is assigned to one of the fol-
lowing five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213, 2214):
ƒ Zone 0
ƒ Zone 1
ƒ Zone 2
ƒ Zone 3
ƒ Zone 4
By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. However, the
frame type can be overwritten in the Preferences to change the default (Op-
tions menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design).
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. To facilitate use,
the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy
requirements for the design of most building type structures. See UCB-ASD
Steel Frame Design Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more in-
formation.
In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station
along the length of the member, first the actual member force/moment com-
ponents and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combi-
nation. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influ-
ence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are de-
fined in this series of Technical Notes. The controlling capacity ratio is then
obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates overstress. Similarly, a
shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. Algorithms for completing
these calculations are described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical
Notes 10 Calculation of Stresses, 11 Calculation of Allowable Stresses, and 12
Calculation of Stress Ratios.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD General and Notation
General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 3
Further information is available from UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Techni-
cal Notes 9 Classification of Sections, 14 Joint Design, 15 Continuity Plates,
and 16 Doubler Plates.
Information about seismic requirements is provided in UBC97-ASD Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 13 Seismic Requirements.
The program uses preferences and overwrites, which are described in UBC97-
ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 6 Preferences and 7 Overwrites. It
also provides input and output data summaries, which are described in
UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 17 Input Data and 18 Output
Details.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code
is based on Kip-Inch-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descrip-
tions presented in this series of Technical Notes correspond to Kip-Inch-
Second units unless otherwise noted.
Notations
A Cross-sectional area, in
2
A
e
Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections, in
2
A
f
Area of flange, in
2
A
g
Gross cross-sectional area, in
2
A
v2
, A
v3
Major and minor shear areas, in
2
A
w
Web shear area, dt
w
, in
2
C
b
Bending Coefficient
C
m
Moment

Coefficient
C
w
Warping constant, in
6
D Outside diameter of pipes, in
E Modulus of elasticity, ksi
General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 5 - 4 General and Notation
F
a
Allowable axial stress, ksi
F
b
Allowable bending stress, ksi
F
b33
, F
b22
Allowable major and minor bending stresses, ksi
F
cr
Critical compressive stress, ksi
'
33 e
F
2
33 33 33
2
) / ( 23
12
r l K
E π
'
22 e
F
2
22 22 22
2
) / ( 23
12
r l K
E π
F
v
Allowable shear stress, ksi
F
y
Yield stress of material, ksi
K Effective length factor
K
33
, K
22
Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions
M
33
, M
22
Major and minor bending moments in member, kip-in
M
ob
Lateral-torsional moment for angle sections, kin-in
P Axial force in member, kips
P
e
Euler buckling load, kips
Q Reduction factor for slender section, = Q
a
Q
s
Q
a
Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements
Q
s
Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements
S Section modulus, in
3
S
33
, S
22
Major and minor section moduli, in
3
S
eff,33
,S
eff,22
Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sec-
tions, in
3
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD General and Notation
General and Notation Technical Note 5 - 5
S
c
Section modulus for compression in an angle section, in
3
V
2
, V
3
Shear forces in major and minor directions, kips
b Nominal dimension of plate in a section, in
longer leg of angle sections,
b
f
— 2t
w
for welded and b
f
— 3t
w
for rolled box sections,
etc.
b
e
Effective width of flange, in
b
f
Flange width, in
d Overall depth of member, in
f
a
Axial stress, either in compression or in tension, ksi
f
b
Normal stress in bending, ksi
f
b33
, f
b22
Normal stress in major and minor direction bending, ksi
f
v
Shear stress, ksi
f
v2
, f
v3
Shear stress in major and minor direction bending, ksi
h Clear distance between flanges for I shaped sections
(d — 2t
f
), in
h
e
Effective distance between flanges, less fillets, in
k Distance from outer face of flange to web toes of fillet, in
k
c
Parameter used for classification of sections,
[ ]
, 70 t h
05 . 4
w
46 . 0
> if
t h
w
1 70 h ≤
w
t if
l
33
, l
22
Major and minor direction unbraced member length, in
l
c
Critical length, in
r Radius of gyration, in
General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 5 - 6 General and Notation
r
33
, r
22
Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions, in
r
z
Minimum radius of gyration for angles, in
t Thickness of a plate in I, box, channel, angle, and T sec-
tions, in
t
f
Flange thickness, in
t
w
Web thickness, in
β
w
Special section property for angles, in
References
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). 1989a. Specification for
Structural Steel Buildings: Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design,
June 1, 1989 with Commentary, 2
nd
Impression. Chicago, Illinois.
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). 1989b. Manual of Steel Con-
struction, Allowable Stress Design, 9
th
Edition. Chicago, Illinois.
International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). 1997. 1997 Uniform
Building Code, Volume 2, Structural Engineering Design Provisions.
Whittier, California.
General Technical Note 6 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 6
Preferences
This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.
General
The steel frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments
that apply to all steel frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-
ences > Steel Frame Design command to access the Preferences form
where you can view and revise the steel frame design preferences.
Default values are provided for all steel frame design preference items. Thus,
it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You
should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items
to make sure they are acceptable to you.
Using the Preferences Form
To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Steel
Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options
are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-
sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet
displays the preference item value.
To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either
the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or
highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select
a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-
ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-
down boxes.
When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences,
click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the
changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit
Preferences Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 6 - 2 Preferences
the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is
closed.
Preferences
For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are
presented in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as fol-
lows:
ƒ Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left
side of the Preferences form.
ƒ Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item
can have.
ƒ Default Value: The built-in default value that ETABS assumes for the as-
sociated preference item.
ƒ Description: A description of the associated preference item.
Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Design Code Any code in
the program
AISC-ASD89 Design code used for design of
steel frame elements.
Time History
Design
Envelopes,
Step-by-Step
Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations
that include a time history designed for
the envelope of the time history, or de-
signed step-by-step for the entire time
history. If a single design load combi-
nation has more than one time history
case in it, that design load combination
is designed for the envelopes of the
time histories, regardless of what is
specified here.
Frame Type Ordinary MRF,
Special MRF,
Braced Frame,
Special CBF,
EBF
Ordinary MRF
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Preferences
Preferences Technical Note 6 - 3
Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Zone Zone 0,
Zone 1,
Zone 2,
Zone 3,
Zone 4
Zone 4 Seismic zone
Omega 0 ≥0
2.8
Stress Ratio
Limit
>0 .95 Program will select members from the
auto select list with stress ratios less
than or equal to this value.
Maximum Auto
Iteration
≥1 1 Sets the number of iterations of the
analysis-design cycle that the program
will complete automatically assuming
that the frame elements have been as-
signed as auto select sections.
General Technical Note 7 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 7
Overwrites
General
The steel frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to
those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes
steel frame design overwrites for UBC97-ASD. To access the overwrites, se-
lect an element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites command.
Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to
specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default
values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When
changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only
to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-
ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.
Overwrites
For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented
in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.
ƒ Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To
save space in the forms, these names are generally short.
ƒ Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item
can have.
ƒ Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associ-
ated overwrite item. If the default value is given in the table with an asso-
ciated note "Program Calculated," the value is shown by the program before
the design is performed. After design, the values are calculated by the pro-
gram and the default is modified by the program-calculated value.
ƒ Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.
Overwrites Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 7 - 2 Overwrites
An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this
Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Current Design
Section
Indicates selected member size used in
current design.
Element Type
Ordinary MRF,
Special MRF,
Braced Frame,
Special CBF,
EBF
From
Preferences
Live Load
Reduction
Factor
≥0
1
(Program
Calculated)
Live load is multiplied by this factor.
Horizontal
Earthquake
Factor
≥0 1 Earthquake loads are multiplied by this
factor.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Major)
≥0 1
(Program
Calculated)
Ratio of unbraced length divided by
total length.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Minor, LTB)
≥0
1
(Program
Calculated)
Ratio of unbraced length divided by
total length.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Major)
≥0 1
(Program
Calculated for
Columns)
As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2.1,
page 5-135.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Minor)
≥0 1
(Program
Calculated for
Columns)
As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2.1,
page 5-135.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Major)
≥0 0.85
(Program
Calculated)
As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Minor)
≥0
0.85
(Program
Calculated)
As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Overwrites
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Technical Note 7 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Bending
Coefficient
(Cb)
≥0
1
(Program
Calculated)
As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-47.
Yield stress, Fy ≥0
0 If zero, yield stress defined for material
property data used.
Omega0 ≥0 From
Preferences
Seismic force amplification factor as
required by the UBC.
Compressive
stress, Fa
≥0 0 If zero, yield stress defined for material
property data used and AISC-ASD
specification Chapter E.
Tensile
stress, Ft
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD Chapter D.
Major Bending
stress, Fb3
≥0
0 If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD specification
Chapter F.
Minor Bending
stress, Fb2
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD specification
Chapter F.
Major Shear
stress, Fv2
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD specification
Chapter F.
Minor Shear
stress, Fv3
≥0
0 If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD specification
Chapter F.
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form
To access the steel frame overwrites, select a frame element and click the
Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-
mand.
The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a
two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the
Overwrites Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 7 - 4 Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values
name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the
overwrites values.
Initially, the check boxes in the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form are all
unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to
indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.
The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the
spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second col-
umn of the spreadsheet if only one frame element was selected before the
overwrites form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values
show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.
After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-
write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to
activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-
umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from
the box. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The overwrite will
reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-down boxes.
When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to
close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose
associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click
the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the
Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-
nored and the form is closed.
Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values
Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites
command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results
will be deleted when this command is executed.
Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the
overwrite items are built into the program. The steel frame overwrite values
that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different
from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites, the pro-
gram resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the values that
were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.
Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 8
Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structural members and joints need to be designed or checked.
For the UBC97-ASD code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live
load (LL), wind load (WL), and earthquake induced load (EL) and considering
that wind and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combina-
tions may need to be defined (UBC 1612.3):
DL (UBC 1612.3.1 12-7)
DL + LL (UBC 1612.3.1 12-8)
DL ± WL (UBC 1612.3.1 12-9)
DL + 0.75LL ± 0.75 WL (UBC 1612.3.1 12-11)
DL ± EL/1.4 (UBC 1612.3.1 12-9)
0.9 DL ± EL/1.4 (UBC 1612.3.1 12-10)
DL + 0.75 LL ± 0.75 EL/1.4 (UBC 1612.3.1 12-11)
These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever
the UBC97-ASD code is used. The user should use other appropriate load
combinations if roof live load is separately treated, if other types of loads are
present, or if pattern live loads are to be considered.
When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads, allow-
able stresses are NOT increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable
value (UBC 1612.3.1, 2209.3).
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live
load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the
live load to the factored loading. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Techni-
cal Note 7 Overwrites for more information.
It is noted here that whenever special seismic loading combinations are
required by the code for special circumstances, the program automatically
generates those load combinations internally. The following additional seismic
Design Load Combinations Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 8 - 2 Design Load Combinations
load combinations are frequently checked for specific types of members and
special circumstances.
1.0 DL + 0.7 LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.1.)
0.85 DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.2)
where Ω
o
is the seismic force amplification factor, which is required to account
for structural overstrength. The default value of Ω
o
is taken as 2.8 in the pro-
gram. However, Ω
o
can be overwritten in the Preferences to change the de-
fault and in the Overwrites on a member-by-member basis. If any member is
assigned a value for Ω
o
, the change of Ω
o
in the Preferences will not modify
the Ω
o
of the individual member for which Ω
o
is assigned, unless the member
had been selected. The guidelines for selecting a reasonable value can be
found in UBC 1630.3.1 and UCB Table 16-N. Other similar special design load
combinations described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 13
Seismic Requirements and 14 Joint Design.
Those special seismic load combinations are internal to program. The user
does NOT need to create additional load combinations for those load combi-
nations. The special circumstances for which the load combinations are addi-
tionally checked are described as appropriate in the other Technical Notes. It
is assumed that any required scaling (such as may be required to scale re-
sponse spectra results) has already been applied to the program load cases.
Classification of Sections Technical Note 9 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 9
Classification of Sections
This Technical Note explains the classification of sections when the user se-
lects the UBC97-ASD design code.
Overview
The allowable stresses for axial compression and flexure depend on the clas-
sification of sections. The sections are classified in UBC97-ASD as either
Compact, Noncompact, Slender or Too Slender in the same way as described
in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 37 Classification of Sec-
tions. The program classifies the individual members according to the limiting
width/thickness ratios given in Table 1 of AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 37 Classification of Sections (UBC 2208, 2212, 2213, ASD
B5.1, F3.1, F5, G1, A-B5-2). The definition of the section properties required
in this table is given in Figure 1 of AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical
Note 37 Classification of Sections and AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Tech-
nical Note 33 General and Notation.
In general the design sections need not necessarily be Compact to satisfy
UBC97-ASD codes (UBC 2213.4.2). However, for certain special seismic cases
they must be Compact and must satisfy special slenderness requirements.
See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 13 Seismic Require-
ments. The sections that do satisfy these additional requirements are classi-
fied and reported as "SEISMIC" in the program. These special requirements
for classifying the sections as "SEISMIC" in the program ("Compact" in UBC)
are given in Table 1 (UBC 2213.7.3, 2213.8.2.5, 2213.9.24, 2213.9.5,
2212.10.2). If these criteria are not satisfied when the code requires them to
be satisfied, the user must modify the section property. In that case, the pro-
gram gives a warning message in the output file.
Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 9 - 2 Classification of Sections
Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections
When Special Seismic Conditions Apply in accordance with
UBC97-ASD
Description
of Section
Width-
Thickness
Ratio λ λλ λ
SEISMIC
(Special requirements in
seismic design)
(λ λλ λp) Section References
bf / 2tf
(beam)
≤ 52 /
y
F
UBC 2213.7.3 (SMRF)
UBC 2213.10.2 (EBF)
I-SHAPE
bf / 2tf
(column)
8.5 for Fy ≤ 36
8.0 for 36 ≤ Fy ≤ 42
7.4 for 42 ≤ Fy ≤ 45
7.0 for 45 ≤ Fy ≤ 50
6.6 for 50 ≤ Fy ≤ 55
6.3 for 55 ≤ Fy ≤ 60
6.0 for Fy > 60
UBC2213.7.3 (SMRF)
UBC 2213.9.5 (SCBF)
ASD N7
b / tf
and
hc / tw
(column)
≤ 110 /
y
F
UBC 2213.7.3 (SMRF)
UBC 2213.9.5 (SCBF)
BOX
b / tf
and
hc / tw
(brace)
≤ 110 /
y
F
UBC 2213.8.2.5 (BF)
UBC 2213.9.2.4 (SCBF)
ANGLE
b / t
(brace)
≤ 52 /
y
F
UBC 2213.8.2.5 (BF)
UBC 2213.9.2.4 (SCBF)
DOUBLE-ANGLE
b / t
(brace)
≤ 52 /
y
F
UBC 2213.8.2.5 (BF)
UBC 2213.9.2.4 (SCBF)
PIPE
D / t
(brace)
≤ 1,300 /
y
F
UBC 2213.8.2.5 (BF)
UBC 2213.9.2.4 (SCBF)
CHANNEL
bf / tf
hc / tw
No special requirement
No special requirement
T-SHAPE
bf / 2tf
d / tw
No special requirement
No special requirement
ROUND BAR  No special requirement
RECTANGULAR  No special requirement
GENERAL  No special requirement
Calculation of Stresses Technical Note 10 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 10
Calculation of Stresses
The axial, flexural, and shear stresses at each of the previously defined sta-
tions for each load combination in UBC97-ASD are calculated in the same way
as described in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 38 Calcula-
tion of Stresses without any exception (UBC 2208, ASD A-B5.2d). For non-
slender sections, the stresses are based on the gross cross-sectional areas
(ASD A-B5.2c); for slender sections, the stresses are based on effective sec-
tion properties (ASD A-B5.2c); and for Single-Angle sections, the stresses are
based on the principal properties of the sections (ASD SAM 6.1.5).
The flexural stresses are calculated based on the properties about the princi-
pal axes. For I, Box, Channel, T, Double-angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular
sections, the principal axes coincide with the geometric axes. For Single-angle
sections, the design considers the principal properties. For general sections, it
is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal di-
rections.
For Single-angle sections, the shear stresses are calculated for directions
along the geometric axes. For all other sections, the program calculates the
shear stresses along the geometric and principle axes.
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 11 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 11
Calculation of Allowable Stresses
The allowable stress in compression, tension, bending, and shear for Com-
pact, Noncompact, and Slender sections in accordance with UBC97-ASD are
calculated in the same way as described in the AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame De-
sign Technical Note 39 Calculation of Allowable Stresses without any excep-
tions (UBC 2208, ASD A-B5.2d). The allowable stresses for Seismic sections
are calculated in the same way as for Compact sections.
The allowable flexural stresses for all shapes of sections are calculated based
on their principal axes of bending. For the I, Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe, T,
Double-angle and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide with their
geometric axes. For the Angle sections, the principal axes are determined and
all computations related to flexural stresses are based on that.
The allowable shear stress is calculated along geometric axes for all sections.
For I, Box, Channel, T, Double-Angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular sections,
the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-Angle sec-
tions, principal axes do not coincide with the geometric axis.
All limitations and warnings related to allowable stress calculations in AISC-
ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 39 Calculation of Allowable
Stresses also apply when the user selects this code in the program.
If the user specifies nonzero allowable stresses for one or more elements in
the Steel Frame Overwrites dialog box (display using the Design menu >
Steel Frame Design > Review/Revise Overwrites command), the
nonzero values will be used rather than the calculated values for those
elements. The specified allowable stresses should be based on the principal
axes of bending.
Calculation of Stress Ratios Technical Note 12 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 12
Calculation of Stress Ratios
This Technical Note explains that the stress ratios in UBC97-ASD are calcu-
lated in the same way as described in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Tech-
nical Note 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios, with some modifications as de-
scribed herein.
In the calculation of the axial and bending stress ratios, first, for each station
along the length of the member, the actual stresses are calculated for each
load combination. Then the corresponding allowable stresses are calculated.
Then, the stress ratios are calculated at each station for each member under
the influence of each of the design load combinations. The controlling stress
ratio is then obtained, along with the associated station and load combination.
A stress ratio greater than 1.0 indicates an overstress. Similarly, a shear ca-
pacity ratio is also calculated separately.
During the design, the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not
considered.
Axial and Bending Stresses
With the computed allowable axial and bending stress values and the factored
axial and bending member stresses at each station, an interaction stress ratio
is produced for each of the load combinations as follows (ASD H1, H2, SAM
6):
ƒ If f
a
is compressive and f
a
/

F
a
, > 0.15, the combined stress ratio is given
by the larger of









+









+
22
22 22
33
33
33 33
'
1
'
1
e
a
b m
b
e
a
b m
a
a
F
f
f C
F
F
f
f C
F
f
, and (ASD H1-1, SAM 6.1)
Calculation of Stress Ratios Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 12 - 2 Calculation of Stress Ratios

22
22
33
33
) 60 . 0 (
b
b
b
b
y
a
F
f
F
f
F Q
f
+ + , where (ASD H1-2, SAM 6.1)
f
a
= axial stress
f
b33
= bending stress about the local 3-axis
f
b22
= bending stress about the local 2-axis
F
a
= allowable axial stress
F
b33
= allowable bending stress about the local 3-axis
F
b22
= allowable bending stress about the local 2-axis
F'
e
=
2
2
) / ( 23
12
r Kl
E π
. (ASD H1)
A factor of 4/3 is NOT applied on F
e
and 0.6F
y
if the load combination in-
cludes any wind load or seismic load (UBC 1612.3.1).
C
m33
and C
m22
are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the
member length. They are calculated as described in AISC-ASD89 Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios.
When the stress ratio is calculated for Special Seismic Load Combinations,
the column axial allowable stress in compression is taken to be 1.7F
a
in-
stead of F
a
(UBC 2213.4.2).
ƒ If f
a
is compressive and f
a
/

F
a
≤ 0.15, a relatively simplified formula is used
for the combined stress ratio.
22
22
33
33
b
b
b
b
a
a
F
f
F
f
F
f
+ + (ASD H1-3, SAM 6.1)
ƒ If f
a
is tensile or zero, the combined stress ratio is given by the larger of

22
22
33
33
b
b
b
b
a
a
F
f
F
f
F
f
+ + , and (ASD H2-1, SAM 6.2)
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Calculation of Stress Ratios
Calculation of Stress Ratios Technical Note 12 - 3
22
22
33
33
b
b
b
b
F
f
F
f
+ , where
f
a
, f
b33
, f
b22
, F
a
, F
b33
, and F
b22
are as defined earlier in this Technical Note.
However, either F
b33
or F
b22
need not be less than 0.6F
y
in the first equation
(ASD H2-1). The second equation considers flexural buckling without any
beneficial effect from axial compression.
When the stress ratio is calculated for Special Seismic Load Combinations,
the column axial allowable stress in tension is taken to be F
y
instead of F
a
(UBC 2213.4.2).
For circular and pipe sections, an SRSS combination is first made of the two
bending components before adding the axial load component, instead of the
simple addition implied by the above formula.
For Single-angle sections, the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the
properties about the principal axis (ASD SAM 5.3, 6.1.5). For I, Box, Channel,
T, Double-angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular sections, the principal axes
coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-angle sections, principal axes
are determined in the program. For general sections, it is assumed that all
section properties are given in terms of the principal directions, and conse-
quently, no effort is made to determine the principal directions.
In contrast to the AISC-ASD code, when designing for combinations involving
earthquake and wind loads, allowable stresses are NOT increased by a factor
of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (UBC 1612.3.1, 2209.3).
Shear Stresses
From the allowable shear stress values and the factored shear stress values
at each station, shear stress ratios for major and minor directions are com-
puted for each of the load combinations as follows:
v
v
F
f
2
, and
v
v
F
f
3
.
Calculation of Stress Ratios Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 12 - 4 Calculation of Stress Ratios
For Single-angle sections, the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions
along the geometric axis. For all other sections, the shear stress is calculated
along the principle axes that coincide with the geometric axes.
In contrast to AISC-ASD code, when designing for combinations involving
earthquake and wind loads, allowable shear stresses are NOT increased by a
factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (UBC 1612.3.1, 2209.3).
Ordinary Moment Frames Technical Note 13 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 13
Seismic Requirements
This Technical Note explains the special seismic requirements checked by the
program for member design. Those requirements are dependent on the type
of framing used and are described below for each type of framing. The re-
quirements checked are based on UBC Section 2213 for frames in Seismic
Zones 3 and 4 and on UBC Section 2214 for frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2
(UBC 2204.2, 2205.2, 2205.3, 2208, 2212, 2213, 2214). No special require-
ment is checked for frames in Seismic Zone 0.
Ordinary Moment Frames
For this framing system, the following additional requirements are checked
and reported:
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, whenever the axial stress, ƒ
a
, in columns
caused by the prescribed loading combinations exceeds 0.3 F
y
, the Special
Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked with respect
to the column axial load capacity only (UBC 2213.5.1).
1.0DL + 0.7 LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.1)
0.85 DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.2)
In this case, column forces are replaced by the column forces for the Spe-
cial Seismic Load Combinations, whereas the other forces are taken as
zeros. For this case, the column axial allowable stress in compression is
taken to be 1.7 F
a
instead of F
a
, and the column axial allowable stress in
tension is taken to be F
y
instead of F
a
(UBC 2213.5.1, 2213.4.2).
Special Moment Resisting Frames
For this framing system, the following additional requirements are checked or
reported:
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, when the axial stress, ƒ
a
, in columns caused by
the prescribed loading combinations exceeds 0.3 F
y
, the Special Seismic
Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 13 - 2 Braced Frames
Load Combinations as described below are checked with respect to the
column axial load capacity only (UBC 2213.5.1).
1.0DL + 0.7 LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.1)
0.85 DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.2)
In this case, column forces are replaced by the column forces for the Spe-
cial Seismic Load Combinations, whereas the other forces are taken as
zeros. For this case, the column axial allowable stress in compression is
taken to be 1.7 F
a
instead of F
a
, and the column axial allowable stress in
tension is taken to be F
y
instead of F
a
(UBC 2213.5.1, 2213.4.2).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, the I-shaped beams, I-shaped columns, and
Box-shaped columns are additionally checked for compactness criteria as
described in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9
Classification of Sections (UBC 2213.7.3). Compact I-shaped beam sec-
tions are also checked for b
f
/2t
f
to be less than 52/
y
F . Compact I-
shaped column sections are additionally checked for b
f
/2t
f
to be less than
the numbers given for plastic sections in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections. Compact box
shaped column sections are also checked for b/t
f
to be less than 110/
y
F .
If this criterion is satisfied, the section is reported as SEISMIC as de-
scribed in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification
of Sections. If this criterion is not satisfied, the user must modify the sec-
tion property
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, the program checks the laterally unsupported
length of beams to be less than 96r
y
. If the check is not satisfied, it is
noted in the output (UBC 2213.7.8).
Braced Frames
For this framing system, the following additional requirements are checked or
reported:
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, when the axial stress, ƒ
a
, in columns resulting
from the prescribed loading combinations exceeds 0.3 F
y
, the Special
Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked with respect
to the column axial load capacity only (UBC 2213.5.1).
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Seismic Requirements
Braced Frames Technical Note 13 - 3
1.0DL + 0.7 LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.1)
0.85 DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.2)
In this case, column forces are replaced by the column forces for the Spe-
cial Seismic Load Combinations, whereas the other forces are taken as
zeros. For this case, the column axial allowable stress in compression is
taken to be 1.7F
a
instead of F
a
,

and the column axial allowable stress in
tension is taken to be F
y
instead of F
a
(UBC 2213.5.1, 2213.4.2).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, the program checks the laterally unsupported
length of beams to be less than 96r
y
. If the check is not satisfied, it is
noted in the output (UBC 2213.8.1, 2213.7.8).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, the maximum l/r ratio of the braces is checked
not to exceed 720/
y
F . If this check is not met, it is noted in the output
(UBC 2213.8.2.1).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, the Angle, Double-angle, Box, and Pipe shaped
braces are additionally checked for compactness criteria, as described in
Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification
of Sections (UBC223.8.2.5). For angles and double-angles, b/t is limited
to 52/
y
F ; for box sections, b/t
f
and d/t
w
is limited to 110/
y
F ; for pipe
sections, D/t is limited to 1,300/F
y
. If this criterion is satisfied, the section
is reported as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design
Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections. If this criterion is not satisfied,
the user must modify the section property.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, the allowable compressive stress for braces is
reduced by a factor of B where
B=
c
C
r Kl
2
/
1
1
+
(UBC 2213.8.2.2)
In Seismic Zones 1 and 2, the allowable compressive stress for braces is
reduced by the same factor B where
B ≥ 0.8 (UBC 2214.6.2.1)
Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 13 - 4 Eccentrically Braced Frames
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, Chevron braces are designed for 1.5 times the
specified load combination (UBC 2213.8.4.1).
Eccentrically Braced Frames
For this framing system, the program looks for and recognizes the eccentri-
cally braced frame configuration shown in Figure 1. The following additional
requirements are checked or reported for the beams, columns and braces as-
sociated with these configurations. Special seismic design of eccentrically
braced frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 is the same as that in Seismic Zones
3 and 4 (UBC 2214.8).
ƒ In all Seismic zones except Zone 0, the I-shaped beam sections are also
checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD
Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections. Compact I-
shaped beam sections are also checked for b
f
/2t
f
to be less than 52/
y
F .
If this criterion is satisfied, the section is reported as SEISMIC as de-
scribed in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification
of Sections. If this criterion is not satisfied, the user must modify the sec-
tion property (UBC 2213.10.2). Other sections meeting this criterion are
also reported as SEISMIC.
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, the link beam strength in shear
V
s
=0.55F
y
dt
w
and moment M
s
=ZF
y
are calculated. If V
s
≤ 2.0M
s
/e, the link
beam strength is assumed to be governed by shear and is so reported. If
the above condition is not satisfied, the link beam strength is assumed to
be governed by flexure and is so reported. When link beam strength is
governed by shear, the axial and flexural properties (area, A and section
modulus, S) for use in the interaction equations are calculated based on
the beam flanges only (UBC 2213.10.3).
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, if the link beam is connected to the
column, the link beam length e is checked not to exceed the following
(UBC 2213.10.12):
e ≤1.6
p
p
V
M
(UBC 2213.10.12)
If the check is not satisfied, it is noted in the output.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Seismic Requirements
Eccentrically Braced Frames Technical Note 13 - 5
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, the link beam rotation θ of the indi-
vidual bay relative to the rest of the beam is calculated as the story drift
delta
M
times bay length divided by the total lengths of link beams in the
a)
L
e
e
L
b)
L
c)
e
2
e
2
Figure 1 Eccentrically Braced Frame Configurations
Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 13 - 6 Eccentrically Braced Frames
bay divided by height of the story. The link beam rotation θ is checked to
be less than the following values (UBC 2213.10.4).
θ ≤ 0.090, where link beam clear length, e ≤ 1.6 M
s
/V
s
θ ≤ 0.030, where link beam clear length, e ≥ 3.0 M
s
/V
s
, and
θ ≤ value interpolated between 0.090 and 0.030 as the link beam clear
length varies from 1.6 M
s
/V
s
to 3.0 M
s
/V
s
.
ƒ In all Seismic zones except Zone 0, the link beam shear under the speci-
fied loading combinations is checked not to exceed 0.8V
s
(UBC
2213.10.5).
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, the brace strength is checked to be at
least 1.5 times the axial force corresponding to the controlling link beam
strength (UBC 2213.10.13). The controlling link beam strength is either
the shear strength, V
s
, as V
s
=0.55F
y
dt
w
, or the reduced flexural strength
M
rs
, whichever produces the lower brace force. The value of M
rs
is taken as
M
rs
= Z(F
y

a
)(UBC 2213.10.3), where ƒ
a
is the lower of the axial stress in
the link beam corresponding to yielding of the link beam web in shear or
the link beam flanges in flexure. The correspondence between brace force
and link beam force is obtained from the associated load cases, whichever
has the highest link beam force of interest.
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, the column is checked to not become
inelastic for gravity loads plus 1.25 times the column forces corresponding
to the controlling link beam strength (UBC 2213.10.14). The controlling
link beam strength and the corresponding forces are as obtained by the
process described above. If this condition governs, the column axial al-
lowable stress in compression is taken to be 1.7F
a
instead of F
a
, and the
column axial allowable stress in tension is taken to be F
y
instead of F
a
.
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, axial forces in the beams are included
in checking of beams (UBC 2211.10.17). The user is reminded that using
a rigid diaphragm model will result in zero axial forces in the beams. The
user must disconnect some of the column lines from the diaphragm to al-
low beams to carry axial loads. It is recommended that only one column
line per eccentrically braced frame be connected to the rigid diaphragm or
a flexible diaphragm model be used.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Seismic Requirements
Special Concentrically Braced Frames Technical Note 13 - 7
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, the beam laterally unsupported length
is checked to be less than 76 b
f
/
y
F . If not satisfied, it is so noted as a
warning in the output file (UBC 2213.10.18).
Note: The beam strength in flexure, of the beam outside the link, is NOT
currently checked to be at least 1.5 times the moment corresponding to the
controlling link beam strength (UBC 2213.10.13). Users need to check for this
requirement.
Special Concentrically Braced Frames
Special seismic design of special concentrically braced frames in Seismic
Zones 1 and 2 is the same as those in Seismic zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2214.7).
For this framing system, the following additional requirements are checked or
reported:
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, when the axial stress f
a
in columns
resulting from the prescribed loading combinations exceeds 0.3F
y
, the
Special Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked with
respect to the column axial load capacity only (UBC 2213.9.5, 2213.5.1).
1.0 DL + 0.7 LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.1)
0.85 DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2213.5.1.2)
In this case, column forces are replaced by the column forces for the Spe-
cial Seismic Load Combinations, whereas the other forces are taken as
zeros. For this case, the column axial allowable stress in compression is
taken to be 1.7 F
a
instead of F
a
, and the column axial allowable stress in
tension is taken to be F
y
instead of F
a
(UBC 2213.5.1, 2213.4.2).
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, the I-shaped and Box-shaped col-
umns are also checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of
UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sec-
tions. Compact I-shaped column sections are also checked for b
f
/2t
f
to be
less than the numbers given for plastic sections in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD
Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections. Compact
Box-shaped column sections also are checked for b/t
f
and d/t
w
to be less
than 110/
y
F . If this criterion is satisfied, the section is reported as
SEISMIC as described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9
Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 13 - 8 Special Concentrically Braced Frames
Classification of Sections. If this criterion is not satisfied, the user must
modify the section property (UBC 2213.9.5, 2213.7.3).
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, bracing members are checked to be
compact and are so reported. The Angle, Box, and Pipe sections used as
braces are also checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of
UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sec-
tions. For angles, b/t is limited to 52/
y
F ; for pipe sections, D/t is limited
to 1,300/F
y
. If this criterion is satisfied, the section is reported as SEIS-
MIC. If this criterion is not satisfied, the user must modify the section
property (UBC 2213.9.2.4).
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, the maximum Kl/r ratio of the braces
is checked not to exceed 1,000/
y
F . If this check is not met, it is noted in
the output (UBC 2213.9.2.1).
Note: Beams intersected by Chevron braces are NOT currently checked to
have a strength to support loads represented by the following loading
combination (UBC 2213.9.14):
1.2 DL + 0.5LL ± P
b
(UBC 2213.9.4.1)
0.9 DL ± P
b
(UBC 2213.9.4.1)
where P
b
is given by the difference of F
y
A for the tension brace and 0.3
times 1.7F
a
A for the compression brace. Users need to check for this re-
quirement (UBC 2213.9.4.1, 2213.4.2).
Joint Design Technical Note 14 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 14
Joint Design
This Technical Note describes how the program checks or designs joints.
When using UBC97-ASD design code, the structural joints are checked or de-
signed for the following:
ƒ Check for the requirement of continuity plate and determination of its area
(see UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 15 Continuity Plates )
ƒ Check for the requirement of doubler plate and determination of its thick-
ness (see Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Technical Note 16 Doubler
Plates)
ƒ Check for ratio of beam flexural strength to column flexural strength
ƒ Reporting the beam connection shear
ƒ Reporting the brace connection force
Beam/Column Plastic Moment Capacity Ratio
In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, the code re-
quires that the sum of beam flexure strengths at a joint should be less than
the sum of column flexure strengths (UBC 2213.7.5). The column flexure
strength should reflect the presence of axial force present in the column. To
facilitate the review of the strong-column/weak-beam criterion, the program
reports a beam/column plastic moment capacity ratio for every joint in the
structure.
For the major direction of any column (top end) the beam-to-column strength
ratio is obtained as:
R
maj
=
pcbx pcax
n
n
n pbn
M M
M
b
+
θ

=1
cos
(UBC 2213.7.5)
Joint Design Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 14 - 2 Joint Design
For the minor direction of any column the beam-to-column strength ratio is
obtained as:
R
min
=
pcby pcay
n
n
n pbn
M M
M
b
+
θ

=1
sin
(UBC 2213.7.5)
where,
R
maj, min
= Plastic moment capacity ratios, in the major and minor di-
rections of the column, respectively
M
pbn
= Plastic moment capacity of n-th beam connecting to col-
umn,
θ
n
= Angle between the n-th beam and the column major direc-
tion,
M
pcax,y
= Major and minor plastic moment capacities, reduced for ax-
ial force effects, of column above story level. Currently, it is
taken equal to M
pcbx,y
if there is a column above the joint. If
there is no column above the joint, M
pcax,y
is taken as zero.
M
pcbx,y
= Major and minor plastic moment capacities, reduced for ax-
ial force effects, of column below story level, and
n
b
= Number of beams connecting to the column.
The plastic moment capacities of the columns are reduced for axial force ef-
fects and are taken as
M
pc
= Z
c
(F
yc
- f
a
), (UBC 2213.7.5)
where,
Z
c
= Plastic modulus of column,
F
yc
= Yield stress of column material, and
f
a
= Maximum axial stress in the column.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Joint Design
Joint Design Technical Note 14 - 3
For the above calculations, the section of the column above is taken to be the
same as the section of the column below assuming that the column splice will
be located some distance above the story level.
Evaluation of Beam Connection Shears
For each steel beam in the structure, the program will report the maximum
major shears at each end of the beam for the design of the beam shear con-
nections. The beam connection shears reported are the maxima of the fac-
tored shears obtained from the loading combinations.
For special seismic design, the beam connection shears are not taken less
than the following special values for different types of framing. The require-
ments checked are based on UBC Section 2213 for frames in Seismic Zones 3
and 4 and on UBC Section 2214 for frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 (UBC
2204.2, 2205.2, 2213, 2214). No special requirement is checked for frames in
Seismic Zone 0.
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, for Ordinary Moment Frames, the
beam connection shears reported are the maximum of the specified load-
ing combinations and the following additional loading combinations (UBC
2213.6.2, 2214.4.2):
1.0 DL + 1.0LL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2213.6.2, 2214.4.2)
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames,
the beam connection shears that are reported allow for the development
of the full plastic moment capacity of the beam (UBC 2213.7.1,
22145.5.1.1). Thus:
V =
LL DL
pb
V
L
CM
+
+ (UBC 2213.7.1.1, 2214.5.1.1)
where,
V = Shear force corresponding to END I and END J of beam
C = 0 if beam ends are pinned or for cantilever beam,
= 1 if one end of the beam is pinned,
Joint Design Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 14 - 4 Joint Design
= 2 if no ends of the beam are pinned,
M
pb
= Plastic moment capacity of the beam, ZF
y
,
L = Clear length of the beam, and
V
DL+LL
= Absolute maximum of the calculated factored beam shears
at the corresponding beam ends from the dead load and live
load combinations only.
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the
beam connection shears reported are the maximum of the specified load-
ing combinations and the following additional loading combination:
1.0 DL + 1.0LL ± Ω
0
EL
Evaluation of Brace Connection Forces
For each steel brace in the structure, the program reports the maximum axial
force at each end of the brace for the design of the brace-to-beam connec-
tions. The brace connection forces reported are the maxima of the factored
brace axial forces obtained from the loading combinations.
For special seismic design, the brace connection forces are not taken less
than the following special values for different types of framing. The require-
ments checked are based on UBC Section 2213 for frames in Seismic Zones 3
and 4 and on UBC 2214 for frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 (UBC 2204.2,
2205.2, 2213, 2214). No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic
Zone 0.
ƒ In all Seismic zones except Zone 0, for Ordinary Braced Frames, the
bracing connection force is reported at least as the smaller of the tensile
strength of the brace (F
y
A) and the following special loading combination
(UBC 2213.8.3.1, 2214.6.3.1).
1.0 DL + 1.0LL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2213.8.3.1, 2214.6.3.1)
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, for Special Concentrically Braced
Frames, the bracing connection force is reported at least as the smaller of
the tensile strength of the brace (F
y
A) and the following special loading
combination (UBC 2213.9.3.1, 2214.7):
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Joint Design
Joint Design Technical Note 14 - 5
1.0 DL + 1.0LL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2213.9.3, 2214.7)
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the
bracing connection force is reported as at least the brace strength in com-
pression that is computed as 1.7F
a
A (UBC 2213.10.6, 2214.8). 1.7F
a
A is
limited not to exceed F
y
A.
Continuity Plates Technical Note 15 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 15
Continuity Plates
This Technical Note describes how this program can be used in the design of
continuity plates.
In a plan view of a beam/column connection, a steel beam can frame into a
column in the following ways:
1. The steel beam frames in a direction parallel to the column major direc-
tion, i.e., the beam frames into the column flange.
2. The steel beam frames in a direction parallel to the column minor direc-
tion, i.e., the beam frames into the column web.
3. The steel beam frames in a direction that is at an angle to both of the
principal axes of the column, i.e., the beam frames partially into the col-
umn web and partially into the column flange.
To achieve a beam/column moment connection, continuity plates such as
shown in Figure 1 are usually placed on the column, in line with the top and
bottom flanges of the beam, to transfer the compression and tension flange
forces of the beam into the column.
For the connection described in conditions 2 and 3 above, the thickness of
such plates is usually set equal to the flange thickness of the corresponding
beam. However, for the connection described by condition 1, where the beam
frames into the flange of the column, such continuity plates are not always
needed. The requirement depends on the magnitude of the beam-flange force
and the properties of the column. This is the condition that the program in-
vestigates. Columns of I-sections only are investigated. The program evalu-
ates the continuity plate requirements for each of the beams that frame into
the column flange (i.e., parallel to the column major direction) and reports
the maximum continuity plate area that is needed for each beam flange. The
continuity plate requirements are evaluated for moment frames only. No
check is made for braced frames.
Continuity Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 15 - 2 Continuity Plates
Figure 1 Elevation and Plan of Doubler Plates for a Column of I-Section
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Continuity Plates
Continuity Plates Technical Note 15 - 3
The continuity plate area required for a particular beam framing into a column
is given by:
A
cp
=
yc
bf
F
P
- t
wc
(t
fb
+ 5k
c
) (ASD K1-9)
If A
cp
≤ 0, no continuity plates are required, provided the following two condi-
tions are also satisfied:
ƒ The depth of the column clear of the fillets, i.e., d
c
- 2k
c
, is less than or
equal to:
bf
yc wc
P
F t
3
100 , 4
(ASD K1-8)
ƒ The thickness of the column flange, t
fc
, is greater than or equal to:
0.4
yc
bf
F
P
, where (ASD K1-1)
P
bf
= f
b
A
bf
.
f
b
is the bending stress calculated from the larger of 5/3 of loading combina-
tions with gravity loads only (5/3)M/[(d-t
f
)A
fb
] and 4/3 of the loading combi-
nation with lateral loads (4/3)M/[(d-t
f
)A
fb
] (ASD K1.2). For special seismic de-
sign, f
a
is specified to be beam flange strength.
If continuity plates are required, they must satisfy a minimum area specifica-
tion defined as follows:
ƒ The thickness of the stiffeners is at least .05 t
fb
, or
min
cp
t = 0.5 t
fb
(ASD K1.8.2)
ƒ The width of the continuity plate on each side plus 1/2 the thickness of
the column web shall not be less than 1/3 of the beam flange width, or
min
cp
b =









2 3
wc fb
t b
(ASD K1.8.1)
Continuity Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 15 - 4 Continuity Plates
ƒ So that the minimum area is given by:
min
cp
A =
min
cp
t
min
cp
b
Therefore, the continuity plate area provided by the program is either zero or
the greater of A
cp
and
min
cp
A .
Where
A
bf
= Area of beam flange
A
cp
= Required continuity plate area
F
yb
= Yield stress of beam material
F
yc
= Yield stress of the column and continuity plate material
t
fb
= Beam flange thickness
t
wc
= Column web thickness
k
c
= Distance between outer face of the column flange and web
toe of its fillet
d
c
= Column depth
d
b
= Beam depth
f
b
= Beam flange depth
t
cp
= Continuity plate thickness
b
cp
= Continuity plate width
f
b
= Bending stress calculated from the larger of 5/3 of loading
combinations with gravity loads only (5/3)M/[(d-t
f
)A
fb
] and
4/3 of the loading combinations with lateral loads (4/3)M/[(d-
t
f
)A
fb
] (ASD K1.2).
The special seismic requirements additionally checked by the program are de-
pendent on the type of framing used and are described below for each type of
framing. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2213 for
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Continuity Plates
Continuity Plates Technical Note 15 - 5
frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and UBC Section 2214 for frames in Seismic
Zones 1 and 2 (UBC 2204.2, 2205.2, 2212, 2214). No special requirement is
checked for frames in Seismic Zone 0.
ƒ In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0, for Ordinary Moment Frames the con-
tinuity plates are checked and designed for a beam flange force, P
bf
.
P
bf
= f
yb
A
bf
(UBC 2213.6.1, 2213.7.1.1, 2214.4.1, 2214.5.1.1)
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, for de-
termining the need for continuity plates at joints resulting from tension
transfer from the beam flanges, the force P
bf
is taken as 1.8 f
yb
A
bf
(UBC
2213.7.4). For design of the continuity plate, the beam flange force is
taken as f
yb
A
bf
(UBC 2213.7.1.1).
In Seismic Zones 1 and 2, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, for de-
termining the need for continuity plates at joints resulting from tension
transfer from the beam flanges, the force P
bf
is taken as f
yb
A
bf
. For design
of the continuity plate, the beam flange force is taken as f
yb
A
bf
(UBC
2214.5.1.1).
ƒ In all Seismic zones except Zone 0, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the
continuity plates are checked and designed for a beam flange force, P
bf
.
P
bf
= f
yb
A
bf
(UBC 2213.10.12, 2213.10.19)
Doubler Plates Technical Note 16 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 16
Doubler Plates
This Technical Note explains how the program can be used in the design of
doubler plates.
One aspect of the design of a steel frame system is an evaluation of the shear
forces that exist in the region of the beam column intersection known as the
panel zone.
Shear stresses seldom control the design of a beam or column member. How-
ever, in a Moment-Resisting frame, the shear stress in the beam-column joint
can be critical, especially in framing systems when the column is subjected to
major direction bending and the joint shear forces are resisted by the web of
the column. In minor direction bending, the joint shear is carried by the col-
umn flanges, in which case the shear stresses are seldom critical, and this
condition is therefore not investigated by the program.
Shear stresses in the panel zone, resulting from major direction bending in
the column, may require additional plates to be welded onto the column web,
depending on the loading and geometry of the steel beams that frame into
the column, either along the column major direction, or at an angle so that
the beams have components along the column major direction. See Figure 1.
The program investigates such situations and reports the thickness of any re-
quired doubler plates. Only columns with I-shapes are investigated for dou-
bler plate requirements. Also doubler plate requirements are evaluated for
moment frames only. No check is made for braced frames.
The shear fore in the panel zone is given by:
V
p
= P - V
c
, or
V
p
=

=

θ
b
n
n
n
f n
n bn
t d
M
1
cos
- V
c
Doubler Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 16 - 2 Doubler Plates
Figure 1 Elevation and Plan of Doubler Plates for a Column of I-Section
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Doubler Plates
Doubler Plates Technical Note 16 - 3
The required web thickness to resist the shear force, V
p
, is given by
t
r
=
yc
c v
p
F
h
d F
V
/ 380
≥ (ASD F4)
The extra thickness, or thickness of the doubler plate is given by
t
dp
= t
r
-t
wc
, where
F
v
= 0.40F
yc
(ASD F4)
F
yc
= Yield stress of the column and doubler plate material
t
r
= Required column web thickness
t
dp
= Required doubler plate thickness
t
fn
= Thickness of flange of the n-th beam connecting to column
t
wc
= Column web thickness
V
p
= Panel zone shear
V
c
= Column shear in column above
P = Beam flange forces
n
b
= Number of beams connecting to column
d
n
= Depth of n-th beam connecting to column
h = d
c
- 2t
fc
if welded, d
c
- 2k
c
if rolled
θ
n
= Angle between n-th beam and column major direction
d
c
= Depth of column
M
bn
= Calculated factored beam moment from the corresponding
loading combination
The largest calculated value of V
p
calculated for any of the load combinations
based on the factored beam moments is used to calculate doubler plate ar-
eas.
Doubler Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 16 - 4 Doubler Plates
The special seismic requirements checked by the program for calculating dou-
bler plate areas are dependent on the type of framing used and are described
below for each type of framing. The requirements checked are based on UBC
Section 2213 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and on UBC Section 2214
for frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 (UBC 2204.2, 2205.2, 2213, 2214). No
special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0, 1 and 2.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, the
panel zone doubler plate requirements that are reported will develop the
lesser of beam moments equal to 0.8 of the plastic moment capacity of
the beam (0.8∑M
pb
), or beam moments caused by gravity loads plus 1.85
times the seismic load (UBC 2213.7.2.1).
The capacity of the panel zone in resisting this shear is taken as (UBC
2213.7.2.1):
V
P
= 0.55F
yc
d
c
t
r








+
r c b
cf c
t d d
t b
2
3
1
(UBC 2213.7.2.1)
giving the required panel zone thickness as
t
r
=
yc
c b
cf c
c yc
p
F
h
d d
t b
d F
V
/ 380
3
55 . 0
2
≥ − (UBC 2213.7.2.1, ASD F4)
and the required doubler plate thickness as
t
dp
= t
r
- t
wc
where
b
c
= width of column flange
h = d
c
-2t
fc
if welded, d
c
-2k
c
if rolled,
t
cf
= thickness of column flange, and
d
b
= depth of deepest beam framing into the major direction of
the column
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, the pro-
gram checks the following panel zone column web thickness requirement:
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Doubler Plates
Doubler Plates Technical Note 16 - 5
t
wc

90
) 2 ( ) 2 (
fb b fc c
t d t d − + −
(UBC 2213.7.2.2)
If the check is not satisfied, it is noted in the output.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the doubler
plate requirements are checked similar to the doubler plate checks for
special Moment-Resisting frames as described previously (UBC
2213.10.19).
Input Data Technical Note 17 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 17
Input Data
This Technical Note describes the steel frame design input data for UBC97-
ASD. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the
File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. A printout of
the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the
parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program
design is based. Further information about using the Print Design Tables
Form is provided at the end of this Technical Note.
Input Data
The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The
column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the
columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Material Property Data
Material Name Steel, concrete or other.
Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.
Design Type Concrete, steel or none. Postprocessor available if steel is
specified.
Material Dir/Plane "All" for isotropic materials; specify axis properties define for
orthotropic.
Modulus of Elasticity
Poisson's Ratio
Thermal Coeff
Shear Modulus
Material Property Mass and Weight
Material Name Steel, concrete or other.
Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 17 - 2 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self mass of the structure.
Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate the self weight of the structure.
Material Design Data for Steel Materials
Material Name Steel.
Steel FY Minimum yield stress of steel.
Steel FU Maximum tensile stress of steel.
Steel Cost ($) Cost per unit weight used in composite beam design if optimum
beam size specified to be determined by cost.
Material Design Data for Concrete Materials
Material Name Concrete.
Lightweight Concrete Check this box if this is a lightweight concrete material.
Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.
Rebar FY Bending reinforcing yield stress.
Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing yield stress.
Lightwt Reduc Fact Define reduction factor if lightweight concrete box checked.
Usually between 0.75 ad 0.85.
Frame Section Property Data
Frame Section Name User specified or auto selected member name.
Material Name Steel, concrete or none.
Section Shape Name
or Name in Section
Database File
Name of section as defined in database files.
Section Depth Depth of the section.
Flange Width Top Width of top flange per AISC database.
Flange Thick Top Thickness of top flange per AISC database.
Web Thick Web thickness per AISC database.
Flange Width Bot Width of bottom flange per AISC database.
Flange Thick Bot Thickness of bottom flange per AISC database.
Section Area
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data Technical Note 17 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Torsional Constant
Moments of Inertia I33, I22
Shear Areas A2, A3
Section Moduli S33, S22
Plastic Moduli Z33, Z22
Radius of Gyration R33, R22
Load Combination Multipliers
Combo Load combination name.
Type Additive, envelope, absolute, or SRSS as defined in Define >
Load Combination.
Case Name(s) of case(s) to be included in this load combination.
Case Type Static, response spectrum, time history, static nonlinear, se-
quential construction.
Factor Scale factor to be applied to each load case.
Beam Steel Stress Check Element Information
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member section assigned.
Framing Type Ordinary MRF, Special MRF, Braced Frame, Special CBF, ERF
RLLF Factor Live load reduction factor.
L_Ratio Major Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
L_Ratio Minor Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
K Major Effective length factor.
K Minor Effective length factor.
Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
CM Major As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 17 - 4 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
CM Minor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Cb Factor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-47.
Beam Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Fa If zero, yield stress defined for material property data used and
AISC-ASD specification Chapter E.
Ft If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD Chapter D.
Fb Major If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fb Minor If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fv Major If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fv Minor If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Column Steel Stress Check Element Information
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Framing Type Ordinary MRF, Special MRF, Braced Frame, Special CBF, ERF
RLLF Factor Live load reduction factor.
L_Ratio Major Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
L_Ratio Minor Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
K Major Effective length factor.
K Minor Effective length factor.
Column Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Input Data
Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 17 - 5
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Column Line Column line identifier.
CM Major As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
CM Minor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Cb Factor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-47.
Column Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Fa If zero, yield stress defined for material property data used and
AISC-ASD specification Chapter E.
Ft If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD Chapter D.
Fb Major If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fb Minor If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fv Major If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fv Minor If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File menu
> Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Input Sum-
mary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send
the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button
to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the
Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print steel frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check box
on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename button to change the
path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 17 - 6 Using the Print Design Tables Form
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing
Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Steel Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box will
be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output Technical Note 18 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 18
Output Details
This Technical Note describes the steel frame design output for UBC97-ASD
that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed
when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design com-
mand and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Further
information about using the Print Design Tables form is provided at the end of
this Technical Note.
The program provides the output data in tables. The column headings for
output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables
are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Beam Steel Stress Check Output
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Moment Interaction Check
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress.
Axl Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress.
B33 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 33 axis.
B22 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 22 axis.
Output Details Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 18 - 2 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Shear22
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 22 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Shear33
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 33 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Beam Special Seismic Requirements
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Section Class Classification of section for the enveloping combo.
Connection Shear
Combo Name of the load combination that provides maximum End-I
connection shear.
END-I Maximum End-I connection shear.
Combo Name of the load combination that provides maximum End-J
connection shear.
END-J Maximum End-J connection shear.
Column Steel Stress Check Output
Story Level Name of the story level.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Output Details
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output Technical Note 18 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Column Line Column line identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Moment Interaction Check
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress.
AXL Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress.
B33 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 33 axis.
B22 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 22 axis.
Shear22
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 22 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Shear33
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 33 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Column Special Seismic Requirements
Story Level Story level name.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Section ID Name of member section assigned.
Output Details Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD
Technical Note 18 - 4 Using the Print Design Tables Form
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Section Class Classification of section for the enveloping combo.
Continuity Plate
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum continuity
plate area.
Area Cross-section area of the continuity plate.
Doubler Plate
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum doubler
plate thickness.
Thick Thickness of the doubler plate.
B/C Ratios
Major Beam/column capacity ratio for major direction.
Minor Beam/column capacity ratio for minor direction.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print steel frame design output data directly to a printer, use the File
menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Out-
put Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button
to send the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK
button to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and
the Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print steel frame design output data to a file, click the Print to File check
box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename button to change the
path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing
Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Output Details
Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 18 - 5
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Steel Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box will
be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
Introduction to the UBC97-LRFD Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 19 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 19
General and Notation
Introduction to the UBC97-LRFD Series of Technical
Notes
The UBC97-LRFD design code in this program implements the International
Conference of Building Officials 1997 Uniform Building Code: Volume 2:
Structural Engineering Design Provisions, Chapter 22, Division II, "Design
Standard for Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural
Steel Buildings (ICBO 1997).
Chapter 22, Division III of UBC adopted the American Institute of Steel Con-
struction's Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural
Steel Buildings (AISC 1993), which has been implemented in the AISC-
LRFD93 code in ETABS.
For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the UBC code, a unique
prefix "UBC" is assigned. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of
the AISC-LRFD code, a unique prefix "LRFD" is assigned. However, all refer-
ences to the "Specifications for Load and Resistance Factored Design of Sin-
gle-Angle Members" (AISC 1994) carry the prefix of "LRFD SAM." Moreover,
all sections of the "Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings June 15,
1992" (AISC 1994) are referred to as Section 2211.4 of the UBC code. In the
UBC97-LRFD Technical Notes, all sections and subsections referenced by "UBC
2211.4" or "UBC 2211.4.x" refer to the LRFD Seismic Provisions after UBC
amendments through UBC Section 2210. Various notations used in the Steel
Frame Design UBC97-LRFD series of Technical Notes are described herein.
When using the UBC97-LRFD option, the following Framing Systems are rec-
ognized (UBC 1627, 2210):
ƒ Ordinary Moment Frame (OMF)
ƒ Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF)
General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 19 - 2 Introduction to the UBC97-LRFD Series of Technical Notes
ƒ Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF)
ƒ Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF)
ƒ Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF)
By default the frame type is taken as Special-Moment Resisting (SMRF) in the
program. However, the frame type can be overwritten in the Preferences
(Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design) to change the de-
fault values and in the Overwrites (Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites) on a member-by-member basis. If any member
is assigned with a frame type, the change of the frame type in the Preference
will not modify the frame type of the individual member for which it is as-
signed.
When using the UBC97-LRFD option, a frame is assigned to one of the fol-
lowing five Seismic Zones (UBC 2210):
ƒ Zone 0
ƒ Zone 1
ƒ Zone 2
ƒ Zone 3
ƒ Zone 4
By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. However, the
frame type can be overwritten in the Preferences to change the default (Op-
tions menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design).
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. To facilitate use,
the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy
requirements for the design of most building type structures. See UBC97-
LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 22 Design Load Combinations for
more information.
In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station
along the length of the member, first the actual member force/moment com-
ponents and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combi-
nation. Then, the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the in-
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD General and Notation
Notation Technical Note 19 - 3
fluence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are
defined in this series of Technical Notes. The controlling capacity ration is
then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit
state. Similarly, a shear capacity ration is also calculated separately. Algo-
rithms for completing these calculations are described in UBC97-LRFD Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 24 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments,
Technical Note 25 Calculation of Nominal Strengths, and Technical Note 26
Calculation of Capacity Ratios.
Further information is available from UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Techni-
cal Notes 23 Classification of Sections, Technical Notes 28 Joint Design, Tech-
nical Notes 29 Continuity Plates, and Technical Notes 30 Doubler Plates.
Information about seismic requirements is provided in UBC97-LRFD Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 27 Seismic Requirements.
The program uses preferences and overwrites, which are described in UBC97-
LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 20 Preferences and Technical Note
21 Overwrites. It also provides input and output data summaries, which are
described in UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 31 Input Data
and Technical Note 32 Output Details.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Kip-Inch-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions
presented in the UBC97-LRFD series of Technical Notes correspond to Kip-
Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted.
Notation
A Cross-sectional area, in
2
A
e
Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections, in
2
A
g
Gross cross-sectional area, in
2
A
v2
,A
v3
Major and minor shear areas, in
2
A
w
Shear area, equal dt
w
per web, in
2
B
1
Moment magnification factor for moments not causing side-
sway
General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 19 - 4 Notation
B
2
Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway
C
b
Bending coefficient
C
m
Moment coefficient
C
w
Warping constant, in
6
D Outside diameter of pipes, in
E Modulus of elasticity, ksi
F
cr
Critical compressive stress, ksi
F
r
Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10.0 for rolled
sections and 16.5 for welded sections, ksi
F
y
Yield stress of material, ksi
G Shear modulus, ksi
I
22
Minor moment of inertia, in
4
I
33
Major moment of inertia, in
4
J Torsional constant for the section, in
4
K Effective length factor
K
33
,K
22
Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions
L
b
Laterally unbraced length of member, in
L
p
Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity, in
L
r
Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional
buckling, in
M
cr
Elastic buckling moment, kip-in
M
lt
Factored moments causing sidesway, kip-in
M
nt
Factored moments not causing sidesway, kip-in
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD General and Notation
Notation Technical Note 19 - 5
M
n33
,M
n22
Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions, kip-
in
M
ob
Elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment for angle sections,
kip-in
M
r33
, M
r22
Major and minor limiting buckling moments, kip-in
M
u
Factored moment in member, kip-in
M
u33
, M
u22
Factored major and minor moments in member, kip-in
P
e
Euler buckling load, kips
P
n
Nominal axial load strength, kip
P
u
Factored axial force in member, kips
P
y
A
g
F
y
, kips
Q Reduction factor for slender section, = Q
a
Q
s

Q
a
Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements
Q
s
Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements
S Section modulus, in
3
S
33
,S
22
Major and minor section moduli, in
3
S
eff,33
,S
eff,22
Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections,
in
3
S
c
Section modulus for compression in an angle section, in
3
V
n2
,V
n3
Nominal major and minor shear strengths, kips
V
u2
,V
v3
Factored major and minor shear loads, kips
Z Plastic modulus, in
3
Z
33
,Z
22
Major and minor plastic moduli, in
3
b Nominal dimension of plate in a section, in
General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 19 - 6 Notation
longer leg of angle sections,
b
f
― 2t
w
for welded and b
f
― 3t
w
for rolled box sections, etc.
b
e
Effective width of flange, in
b
f
Flange width, in
d Overall depth of member, in
d
e
Effective depth of web, in
h
c
Clear distance between flanges less fillets, in
assumed d

― 2k for rolled sections, and d

― 2t
f
for welded
sections
k Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet, in
k
c
Parameter used for section classification,

w
t h 4 , 0.35 ≤ k
c
≤ 0.763
l
33
,l
22
Major and minor directions unbraced member lengths, in
r Radius of gyration, in
r
33
,r
22
Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions, in
t Thickness, in
t
f
Flange thickness, in
t
w
Thickness of web, in
β
w
Special section property for angles, in
λ Slenderness parameter
λ
c

e
Column slenderness parameters
λ
p
Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element
λ
r
Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element
λ
s
Limiting slenderness parameter for seismic element
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD General and Notation
References Technical Note 19 - 7
λ
slender
Limiting slenderness parameter for slender element
ϕ
b
Resistance factor for bending, 0.9
ϕ
c
Resistance factor for compression, 0.85
ϕ
t
Resistance factor for tension, 0.9
ϕ
v
Resistance factor for shear, 0.9
References
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). 1993. Load and Resistance
Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Building. Chicago, Illi-
nois.
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). 1994. Manual of Steel Con-
struction, Load & Resistance Factor Design, 2
nd
Edition. Chicago, Illi-
nois.
International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). 1997. 1997 Uniform
Building Code Volume 2, Structural Engineering Design Provisions.
Whittier, California.
General Technical Note 20 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 20
Preferences
This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.
General
The steel frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments
that apply to all steel frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-
ences > Steel Frame Design command to access the Preferences form
where you can view and revise the steel frame design preferences.
Default values are provided for all steel frame design preference items. Thus,
it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You
should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items
to make sure they are acceptable to you.
Using the Preferences Form
To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Steel
Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options
are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-
sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet
displays the preference item value.
To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either
the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or
highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select
a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-
ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-
down boxes.
When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences,
click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the
changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit
Preferences Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 20 - 2 Preferences
the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is
closed.
Preferences
For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are
presented in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as fol-
lows:
ƒ Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the
left side of the Preferences form.
ƒ Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item
can have.
ƒ Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for
the associated preference item.
ƒ Description: A description of the associated preference item.
Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Design Code Any code in the
program
AISC-ASD89 Design code used for design of
steel frame elements.
Time History
Design
Envelopes,
Step-by-Step
Envelopes Toggle for design load combina-
tions that include a time history
designed for the envelope of the
time history, or designed step-by-
step for the entire time history. If a
single design load combination
has more than one time history
case in it, that design load combi-
nation is designed for the enve-
lopes of the time histories, re-
gardless of what is specified here.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Preferences
Preferences Technical Note 20 - 3
Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Frame Type Ordinary MRF;
Special MRF;
Braced Frame;
Special CBF;
EBF
Ordinary MRF
Zone
Zone 0,
Zone 1,
Zone 2,
Zone 3,
Zone 4
Zone 4 Seismic zone.
Omega0
≥0
2.8
Stress Ratio
Limit
>0 .95 Program will select members from
the auto select list with stress ra-
tios less than or equal to this
value.
Maximum Auto
Iteration
≥1 1 Sets the number of iterations of the
analysis-design cycle that the pro-
gram will complete automatically
assuming that the frame elements
have been assigned as auto select
sections.
General Technical Note 21 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 21
Overwrites
General
The steel frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to
those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes
steel frame design overwrites for UBC97-LRFD. To access the overwrites, se-
lect an element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites command.
Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to
specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default
values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When
changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only
to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-
ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.
Overwrites
For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented
in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.
ƒ Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To
save space in the forms, these names are generally short.
ƒ Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item
can have.
ƒ Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associ-
ated overwrite item. If the default value is given in the table with an asso-
ciated note "Program Palculated," the value is shown by the program before
the design is performed. After design, the values are calculated by the pro-
gram and the default is modified by the program-calculated value.
ƒ Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.
Overwrites Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 21 - 2 Overwrites
An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this
Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Current Design
Section
Indicates selected member size used in
current design.
Element Type Ordinary MRF;
Special MRF;
Braced Frame;
Special CBF;
EBF
From
Preferences
Live Load
Reduction
Factor
≥0
1 Live load is multiplied by this factor.
Horizontal
Earthquake
Factor
≥0 1 Earthquake loads are multiplied by this
factor.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Major)
≥0 1 Ratio of unbraced length divided by
total length.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Minor, LTB)
≥0
1 Ratio of unbraced length divided by
total length.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Major)
≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD Table C-
C2.1, page 6-184.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Minor)
≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD Table C-
C2.1, page 6-184.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Major)
≥0
0.85 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Minor)
≥0 0.85 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Overwrites
Overwrites Technical Note 21 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Bending
Coefficient
(Cb)
≥0
1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter F.
NonSway
Moment
Factor
(B1 Major)
≥0
1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
NonSway
Moment
Factor
(B1 Minor)
≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Sway Moment
Factor
(B2 Major)
≥0
1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Sway Moment
Factor
(B2 Minor)
≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Yield stress, Fy ≥0 0 If zero, yield stress defined for material
property data used.
Omega0 ≥0
From
Preferences
Seismic force amplification factor as
required by the UBC.
Compressive
Capacity,
phi*Pnc
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter E.
Tensile
Capacity,
phi*Pnt
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter D.
Major Bending
Capacity,
phi*Mn3
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter F and G.
Minor Bending
Capacity,
phi*Mn2
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter F and G.
Overwrites Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 21 - 4 Making Changes in the Overwrites Form
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Major Shear
Capacity,
phi*Vn2
≥0
0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter F.
Minor Shear
Capacity,
phi*Vn3
≥0
0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter F.
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form
To access the steel frame overwrites, select a frame element and click the
Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-
mand.
The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a
two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the
name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the
overwrites values.
Initially, the check boxes in the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form are all
unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to
indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.
The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the
spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second col-
umn of the spreadsheet if only one frame element was selected before the
overwrites form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values
show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.
After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-
write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to
activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-
umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from
the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The
overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-
down boxes.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Overwrites
Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values Technical Note 21 - 5
When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to
close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose
associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click
the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the
Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-
nored and the form is closed.
Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values
Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites
command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results
will be deleted when this command is executed.
Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the
overwrite items are built into the program. The steel frame overwrite values
that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different
from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites, the pro-
gram resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the values that
were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.
Reference Technical Note 22 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 22
Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structural members and joints need to be designed or checked.
For the UBC97-LRFD code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live
load (LL), wind load (WL), and earthquake induced load (EL), and considering
that wind and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combina-
tions may need to be defined (UBC 2204.1, 2206, 2207.3, 2210.3, 1612.2.1):
1.4 DL (UBC 1612.2.1 12-1)
1.2 DL + 1.4 LL (UBC 1612.2.1 12-2)
1.2 DL ± 0.8 WL (UBC 1612.2.1 12-3)
0.9 DL ± 1.3 WL (UBC 1612.2.1 12-6)
1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± 1.3 WL (UBC 12.12.2.1 12-4)
1.2 DL ± 1.0 EL (UBC 1612.2.1 12-5)
0.9 DL ± 1.0 EL (UBC 1612.2.1 12-6)
1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± EL (UBC 1612.2.1 12-5)
These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever
the UBC97-LRFD code is used. The user should include other appropriate
loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated, if other types of
loads are present, or if pattern live loads are to be considered.
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live
load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the
live load to the factored loading. See UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Tech-
nical Note 21 Overwrites for more information.
When using the UBC97-LRFD code, the program design assumes that a P-
delta analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for
moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. It is recommended that the
P-delta analysis be completed at the factored load level of 1.2 DL plus 0.5 LL
(White and Hajjar 1991).
Design Load Combinations Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 22 - 2 Reference
It is noted here that whenever special seismic loading combinations are
required by the code for special circumstances, the program automatically
generates those load combinations internally. The following additional seismic
load combinations are frequently checked for specific types of members and
special circumstances.
0.9 DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
where Ω
o
is the seismic force amplification factor that is required to account
for structural overstrength. The default value of Ω
o
is taken as 2.8 in the pro-
gram. However, Ω
o
can be overwritten in the Preferences (Options menu >
Preferences > Steel Frame Design command) to change the default and in
the Overwrites (Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise
Overwrites command) on a member-by-member basis. If any member is
assigned a value for Ω
o
, the change of Ω
o
in the Preferences will not modify Ω
o
of the individual member for which Ω
o
has been assigned. The guidelines for
selecting a reasonable value can be found in UBC 1630.3.1 and UBC Table 16-
N. Other similar special loading combinations are described in UBC97-LRFD
Steel Frame Design Technical Note 27 Seismic Requirements and Technical
Note 28 Joint Design.
The combinations described herein are internal to the program. The user does
NOT need to create additional load combinations for these load combinations.
The special circumstances for which these load combinations are additionally
checked are described in UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 27
Seismic Requirements and Technical Note 28 Joint Design. The special loading
combination factors are applied directly to the program load cases. It is as-
sumed that any required scaling (such as may be required to scale response
spectra results) has already been applied to the progam load cases.
Reference
White, D.W. and J.F. Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analy-
sis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Engineering Journal. American In-
stitute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28. No. 4.
Classification of Sections Technical Note 23 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 23
Classification of Sections
This Technical Note explains the classification of sections when the user se-
lects the UBC97-LRFD design code.
The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure depend on the clas-
sification of the section as Compact, Noncompact, Slender or Too Slender.
The section classification in UBC97-LRFD is the same as described in the
AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 47 Classification of Sections,
with the exceptions described in the next paragraph. The program classifies
individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in
Table 1 and Table 2 of AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 47 Classification of Sec-
tions (UBC 2204.1, 2205, 2206, and 2210; LRFD B5.1, A-G1, and Table A-
F1.1). The definition of the section properties required in these tables is given
in Figure 1 of AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 47 Classification of Sections and
Technical Note 43 General and Notations. The same limitations apply.
In general, the design sections need not necessarily be Compact to satisfy
UBC97-LRFD codes (UBC 2213.2). However, for certain special seismic cases,
they must be Compact and must satisfy special slenderness requirements.
See the UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 27 Seismic Require-
ments. The sections that satisfy the additional requirements are classified and
reported by the program as "SEISMIC." Those special requirements for clas-
sifying the sections as SEISMIC (i.e., "Compact" in UBC) are summarized
herein in Table 1 (UBC 2210.8, 2210.10c, 2211.4.8.4.b, 2211.9.2.d,
2210.10g, 2211.4.10.6.e). If these criteria are not satisfied when the code
requires it, the user must modify the section property. In that case, the pro-
gram gives a warning message in the output file.
Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 23 - 2 Classification of Sections
Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections
When Special Seismic Conditions Apply in Accordance with
UBC97-LRFD
Description of
Section
Width-
Thickness
Ratio λ λλ λ
SEISMIC
(Speical requirements
in seismic design)
(λ λλ λp) Section References
bf / 2tf ≤ 52 /
y
F
UBC 2211.4.8.4.b (SMRF)
UBC 2211.4 Table 8-1 (SMRF)
I-SHAPE
hc / tw
For Pu / ϕbPy ≤ 0.125,

J
J
J
·
'
'
(
|
ϕ

y b
u
y
P
P
F
54 . 1 1
520
For Pu / ϕbPy > 0.125,

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
¦
|

J
J
J
·
'
'
(
|
ϕ

y
y b
u
y
F
P
P
F
253
33 . 2
191
UBC 2211.4.8.4.b (SMRF)
UBC 2211.4 Table 8-1 (SMRF)
b / tf
or
hc / tw
≤ 110 /
y
F (Beam and
column in SMRF, column in
SCBF, Braces in BF)
UBC 2210.8 (SMRF)
UBC 2210.10.g (SCBF)
UBC 2211.4.9.2.d (BF)
BOX
b / tf
or
hc / tw
≤ 100 /
y
F
(Braces in SCBF)
UBC 2210.10.c (SCBF)
CHANNEL
bf / tf
hc / tw
Same as I-Shapes
Same as I-Shapes
UBC 2211.4.8.4.b (SMRF)
UBC 2211.4 Table 8-1 (SMRF)
ANGLE b / t
≤ 52 /
y
F
(Braces in SCBF)
UBC 2210.10.c (SCBF)
UBC 2211.4.9.2.d (SCBF)
DOUBLE-ANGLE b / t
≤ 52 /
y
F
(Braces in SCBF)
UBC 2210.10.c (SCBF)
UBC 2211.4.9.2.d (SCBF)
PIPE D/t ≤ 1,300 / Fy
UBC 2210.10.c (Braces in SCBF)
UBC 2211.4.9.2.d (Braces in BF)
T-SHAPE
bf / 2tf
d / tw
No special requirement
No special requirement
ROUND BAR ÷ No special requirement
RECTANGULAR ÷ No special requirement
GENERAL ÷ No special requirement
Reference Technical Note 24 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 24
Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
This Technical Note explains how the program calculates factored forces and
moments when the user selects the UBC97-LRFD code.
The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are
P
u
, M
u33
, M
u22
, V
u2
and V
u3
corresponding to factored values of the axial load,
the major moment, the minor moment, the major direction shear force and
the minor direction shear force, respectively. These factored loads are calcu-
lated at each of the previously defined stations for each load combination.
They are calculated in the same way as described in the AISC-LRFD93 Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 48 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
without any exception (UBC 2204.1, 2205.2, 2205.3, 2206, 2210).
The bending moments are obtained along the principal directions. For I, Box,
Channel, T, Double-Angle, Pipe, Circular, and Rectangular sections, the prin-
cipal axes coincide with the geometric axes. For the Angle sections, the prin-
cipal axes are determined and all computations related to bending moment
are based on that. For general sections, it is assumed that all section proper-
ties are given in terms of the principal directions and consequently no effort is
made to determine the principal directions.
The shear forces for Single-Angle sections are obtained for directions along
the geometric axes. For all other sections, the shear stresses are calculated
along the geometric/principal axes.
For loading combinations that cause compression in the member, the factored
moment M
u
(M
u33
and M
u22
in the corresponding directions) is magified to con-
sider second order effects. The magnified moment in a particular direction is
given by:
M
u
= B
1
M
nt
+ B
2
M
lt
(LRFD C1-1, SAM 6)
where
B
1
= Moment magnification factor for non-sidesway moments,
Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 24 - 2 Reference
B
2
= Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments,
M
nt
= Factored moments not causing sidesway, and
M
lt
= Factored moments causing sidesway.
B1 is calculated as shown in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note
48 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments.
Similar to AISC-LRFD93, the program design assumes the analysis includes P-
delta effects; therefore, B
2
is taken as unity for bending in both directions. If
the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model
or member, the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of B
1
and
B
2
for any member.
When using UBC97-LRFD code, the program design assumes that a P-delta
analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for mo-
ments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. It is recommended that the P-
delta analysis be performed at the factored load level of 1.2 DL plus 0.5 LL
(White and Hajjar 1991).
The same conditions and limitations as AISC-LRFD93 apply.
Reference
White, D.W. and J. F. Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analy-
sis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Engineering Journal. American In-
stitute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28, No. 4.
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 25 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 25
Calculation of Nominal Strengths
The program calculates the nominal strengths in compression, tension, bend-
ing and shear for Seismic, Compact, Noncompact, and Slender sections in ac-
cordance with UBC97-LRFD the same way as described in the AISC-LRFD93
Steel Frame Design Technical Note 49 Calculation of Nominal Strengths with-
out any exceptions (UBC 2204.1, 2205.2, 2205.3, 2206, 2210.2, 2210.3).
The nominal strengths for Seismic sections are calculated in the same way as
for Compact sections.
The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections, including Single-
Angle sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. For the
I, Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe, T, Double-Angle, and Rectangular sections,
the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For the Angle sections,
the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural
strengths are based on that.
The nominal shear strengths are calculated along the geometric axes for all
sections. For I, Box, Channel, T, Double-Angle, Pipe, Circular, and Rectangu-
lar sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-
Angle sections, principal axes do not coincide with the geometric axes.
If the user specifies nonzero factored strengths for one or more elements in
the Capacity Overwrites (accessed using the Design menu > Steel Frame
Design > Review/Revise Overwrites command), the user-specified values
will override the calculated values described herein for those elements. The
specified factored strengths should be based on the principal axes of bending.
The strength reduction factor, ϕ, is taken as follows (LRFD A5.3):
ϕ
t
= Resistance factor for tension, 0.9 (LRFD D1, H1, SAM 2, 6)
ϕ
c
= Resistance factor for compression, 0.85 (LRFD E2, E3, H1)
ϕ
c
= Resistance factor for compression in angles, 0.90 (LRFD SAM 4,6)
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 25 - 2 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
ϕ
b
= Resistance factor for bending, 0.9 (LRFD F1, H1, A-F1, A-G2, SAM 5)
ϕ
v
= Resistance factor for shear, 0.9 (LRFD F2, A-F2, A-G3, SAM 3)
All limitations and warnings related to nominal strengths calculations in AISC-
LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 49 Calculation of Nominal
Strengths also apply to this code.
Calculation of Capacity Ratios Technical Note 26 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 26
Calculation of Capacity Ratios
This Technical Note describes the calculation of capacity ratios when the user
selects the UBC97-LRFD code, including axial and bending stresses and shear
stresses.
Overview
The capacity ratios in UBC97-LRFD are calculated in the same way as de-
scribed in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 50 Calculation of
Capacity Ratios, with some modifications as described herein.
In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios, first, for
each station along the length of the member, the actual member
force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. Then the
corresponding capacities are calculated. Then the capacity ratios are calcu-
lated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the de-
sign load combinations. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained, along
with the associated station and load combination. A capacity ratio greater
than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state.
During the design, the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not
considered.
Axial and Bending Stresses
The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio
n
u
P
P
ϕ
. If P
u
is tensile, P
n
is the nominal axial tensile strength and ϕ = ϕ
t
= 0.9; and if P
u
is compres-
sive, P
n
is the nominal axial compressive strength and ϕ = ϕ
c
= 0.85, except
for angle sections ϕ = ϕ
c
= 0.9 (LRFD SAM 6). In addition, the resistance
factor for bending, ϕ
b
= 0.9.
For
n
u
P
P
ϕ
≥ 0.2, the capacity ratio is given as
Calculation of Capacity Ratios Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 26 - 2 Calculation of Capacity Ratios








ϕ
+
ϕ
+
ϕ
22
22
33
33
9
8
n b
u
n b
u
n
u
M
M
M
M
P
P
. (LRFD H1-1a, SAM 6-1a)
For
n
u
P
P
ϕ
< 0.2, the capacity ratio is given as








ϕ
+
ϕ
+
ϕ
22
22
33
33
2
n b
u
n b
u
n
u
M
M
M
M
P
P
. (LRFD H1-1b, SAM 6-1a)
For circular sections, an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination
is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load
component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above for-
mulas.
For Single-Angle sections, the combined stress ratio is calculated based on
the properties about the principal axes (LRFD SAM 5.3.6). For I, Box, Chan-
nel, T, Double-Angle, Pipe, Circular, and Rectangular sections, the principal
axes coincides with their geometric axes. For Single-Angles sections, principal
axes are determined in the program. For general sections, it is assumed that
all section properties are given in terms of the principal directions; conse-
quently, no effort is made to determine the principal directions.
Shear Stresses
Similar to the normal stresses, from the factored shear force values and the
nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combina-
tions, shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are calculated as
follows:
,
2
2
n v
u
V
V
ϕ
and
,
3
3
n v
u
V
V
ϕ
where ϕ
v
= 0.9.
For Single-angle sections, the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions
along the geometric axis. For all other sections, the shear stress is calculated
along the principal axes that coincides with the geometric axes.
Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 27
Seismic Requirements
This Technical Note explains the special seismic requirements checked by this
program for member design, which are dependent on the type of framing
used. Those requirements are described herein for each type of framing (UBC
2204.1, 2205.2, 2205.3).
The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2211.4.2.1 for frames in
Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC
2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.1), on UBC Section 2211.4.2.2 for frames in Seismic
Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.2),
and on UBC Section 2211.4.2.3 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC
2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.3). No special requirement is checked for frames in
Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to
1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.1).
Ordinary Moment Frames
For this framing system, the following additional requirements are checked
and reported (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.c, 211.4.2.3.c):
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, whenever P
u
/ϕP
n
> 0.5 in columns resulting from the pre-
scribed load combinations, the Special Seismic Load Combinations as de-
scribed below are checked (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.b, 2211.4.2.3.b,
2210.5, 2211.4.6.1).
0.9DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
1.2DL + 0.5 LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
Special Moment Resisting Frames
For this framing system, the following additional requirements are checked or
reported (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.d, 2211.4.2.3.d):
Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 27 - 2 Seismic Requirements
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, whenever P
u
/ϕP
n
> 0.5 in columns resulting from the pre-
scribed load combinations, the Special Seismic Load Combinations as de-
scribed below are checked (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.d, 2211.4.2.3.d,
2210.5, 2211.4.6.1).
0.9DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
1.2DL + 0.5LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
ƒ In Seismic zones 3 and 4, the I-shaped beams or columns, Channel-
shaped beams or columns, and Box-shaped columns are also checked for
compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame
Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections (UBC 2210.8,
2211.4.8.4.b, Table 2211.4.8-1). Compact I-shaped beam sections are
also checked for b
f
/2t
f
to be less than 52/
y
F . Compact Channel-shaped
beam and column sections are also checked for b
f
/t
f
to be less than
52/
y
F . Compact I-shaped and Channel-shaped column sections are also
checked for web slenderness h/t
w
to be less than the numbers given in
Table 1 of UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classifica-
tion of Sections. Compact box-shaped column sections are also checked
for b/t
f
and d/t
w
to be less than 110/
y
F . If this criterion is satisfied, the
section is reported as SEISMIC as described in Technical Note UBC97-
LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections. If
this criterion is not satisfied, the user must modify the section property
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the program checks the laterally unsupported length of
beams to be less than (2,500/F
y
)r
y
. If the check is not satisfied, it is noted
in the output (UBC 2211.4.8.8).
Braced Frames
For this framing system, the following additional requirements are checked or
reported (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.e, 2211.4.2.3.e):
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, whenever P
u
/ϕP
n
> 0.5 in columns as a result of the pre-
scribed load combinations, the Special Seismic Load Combinations as de-
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Seismic Requirements
Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 - 3
scribed below are checked (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.e, 2211.4.2.3.e,
2210.5, 2211.4.6.1).
0.9DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
1.2DL +0.5LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the maximum l/r ration of the braces is checked not to ex-
ceed 720/
y
F . If this check is not met, it is noted in the output (UBC
2211.4.9.2.a).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the compressive strength for braces is reduced as 0.8ϕ
c
P
n
(UBC 2211.4.9.2.b).
P
u
≤ 0.8ϕ
c
P
n
(UBC 2211.4.9.2.b)
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, all braces are checked to be either Compact or Noncom-
pact according to Table 2 of AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical
Note 47 Classification of Sections (UBC 2211.4.9.2.d). The Box and Pipe-
shaped braces are also checked for compactness criteria as described in
Table 1 of UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classifica-
tion of Sections (UBC 2211.4.9.2.d). For box sections, b/t
f
and d/t
w
are
limited to 110/
y
F ; for pipe sections D/t is limited to 1,300/
y
F . If these
criteria are satisfied, the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in
Technical Note UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classi-
fication of Sections. If these criteria are not satisfied, the user must mod-
ify the section property.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, Chevron braces are designed for 1.5 times the specified
load combinations (UBC 2211.4.9.4.a.1).
Eccentrically Braced Frames
For this framing system, the program looks for and recognizes the eccentri-
cally braced frame configuration shown in Figure 1. The following additional
Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 27 - 4 Seismic Requirements
requirements are checked or reported for the beams, columns and braces as-
sociated with these configurations (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.e, 2211.4.2.3.e).
ƒ In Seismic Zone 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, whenever P
u
/ϕP
n
> 0.5 in columns as a result of the pre-
a)
L
e
e
L
b)
L
c)
e
2
e
2
Figure 1 Eccentrically Braced Frame Configurations
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Seismic Requirements
Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 - 5
scribed load combinations, the Special Seismic Load Combinations as de-
scribed below are checked (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.b, 2211.4.2.3.b,
2210.5, 2211.4.6.1).
0.9DL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
1.2DL +0.5LL ± Ω
o
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the I-shaped and Channel-shaped beams are also checked
for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-LFRD Steel
Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections (UBC
2211.4.10.2.a, 2210.8, 2211.4.8.4.b, Table 2211.4.8-1). Compact I-
shaped and Channel-shaped beam sections are also checked for b
f
/2t
f
to
be less than 52 /
y
F . If this criterion is satisfied, the section is reported
as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical
Note 23 Classification of Sections. If this criterion is not satisfied, the user
must modify the section property.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the link beam yield strength, F
y
, is checked not to exceed
the following (UBC 2211.4.10.2.b):
F
y
≤ 50 ksi (UBC 2211.4.10.2.b)
If the check is not satisfied, it is noted in the output.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the shear strength for link beams is taken as follows (UBC
2210.10.b, 2211.4.12.2.d):
V
u
≤ ϕ
v
V
n
, (UBC 2211.4.10.2.d)
where
ϕV
n
= min (ϕV
pa
, ϕ 2M
pa
/e) (UBC 2211.4.10.2.d)
V
pa
= V
p
2
1
J
J
J
·
'
'
(
|

y
u
P
P
, (UBC 2211.4.10.2.f)
Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 27 - 6 Seismic Requirements
M
pa
= 1.18 M
p
]
]
]
]


y
u
P
P
1 , (UBC 2211.4.10.2.f)
V
p
= 0.6F
y
(d - 2t
f
)t
w
(UBC 2211.4.10.2.d)
M
p
= ZF
y
(UBC 2211.4.10.2.d)
ϕ = ϕ
v
(default is 0.9) (UBC 2211.4.10.2.d, 2211.4.10.2.f)
P
y
= A
g
F
y
(UBC 2211.4.10.2.e)
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, if P
u
> 0.15 A
g
F
y
, the link beam length, e, is checked not
to exceed the following (UBC 2211.4.10.2.f):
]
]
]
]

ρ −
g
w
A
A
5 . 0 15 . 1
]
]
]
]

p
p
V
M
6 . 1
if
3 . 0 ≥ ρ
g
w
A
A
e ≤
]
]
]
]

p
p
V
M
6 . 1
if
3 . 0 < ρ
g
w
A
A
(UBC 2211.4.10.2.f)
where,
A
w
= (d ― 2t
f
)t
w
, and (UBC 2211.4.10.2.f)
ρ = P
u
/V
u
(UBC 2211.4.10.2.f)
If the check is not satisfied, it is noted in the output.
ƒ The link beam rotation, θ, of the individual bay relative to the rest of the
beam is calculated as the story drift delta
m
times bay length divided by
the total lengths of link beams in the bay. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in
Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1, the link beam ro-
tation, θ, is checked as follows (UBC 2211.4.10.2.g):
θ ≤ 0.090, where link beam clear length, e ≤ 1.6 M
s
/V
s
θ ≤ 0.030, where link beam clear length, e ≥ 2.6 M
s
/V
s
and
θ ≤ value interpolated between 0.090 and 0.030 as the link beam clear
length varies from 1.6 M
s
/V
s
to 2.6 M
s
/V
s
.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Seismic Requirements
Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 - 7
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the brace strength is checked to be at least 1.25 times the
axial force corresponding to the controlling link beam strength (UBC
2211.4.10.6.a). The controlling link beam nominal strength is taken as
follows:
min (V
pa
, 2M
pa
/e) (UBC 2211.4.10.2.d)
The values of V
pa
and M
pa
are calculated following the procedures de-
scribed above. The correspondence between brace force and link beam
force is obtained from the associated load cases, whichever has the high-
est link beam force of interest.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the column strength is checked for 1.25 times the column
forces corresponding to the controlling link beam nominal strength (UBC
2211.4.10.8). The controlling link beam strength and the corresponding
forces are as obtained by the process described above.
ƒ Axial forces in the beams are included in checking the beams. The user is
reminded that using a rigid diaphragm model will result in zero axial
forces in the beams. The user must disconnect some of the column lines
from the diaphragm to allow beams to carry axial loads. It is recom-
mended that only one column line per eccentrically braced frame be con-
nected to the rigid diaphragm or that a flexible diaphragm model be used.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the beam laterally unsupported length is checked to be
less than 76 b
f
/
y
F . If not satisfied, it is so noted as a warning in the
output file (UBC 2210.11, 2211.4.10.5).
Note: The program does NOT check that the strength in flexure of the beam
outside the link is at least 1.25 times the moment corresponding to the con-
trolling link beam strength (UBC 2211.4.10.6.b). Users need to check for this
requirement.
Special Concentrically Braced Frames
For this framing system, the following additional requirements are checked or
reported (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.e, 2211.4.2.3.e):
Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 27 - 8 Seismic Requirements
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, whenever P
u
/ϕP
n
> 0.5 in columns as a result of the pre-
scribed load combinations, the Special Seismic Load Combinations as de-
scribed below are checked (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.2.2.e, 2211.4.2.3.e,
2210.5, 2211.4.6.1):
0.9 DL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2210.2, 2211.4.3.1)
1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, all columns are checked to be Compact in accordance with
Table 2 in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 47 Classifica-
tion of Section. Compact box-shaped column sections are also checked for
b/t
f
and d/t
w
to be less than 100/
y
F as described in Table 1 in UBC97-
LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections
(UBC 2211.4.12.5.a). If this criterion is satisfied, the section is reported
as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical
Note 23 Classification of Sections. If this criterion is not satisfied, the user
must modify the section property (UBC 2210.10.g, 2211.4.12.5.a).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, all braces are checked to be Compact in accordance with
Table 2 in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 47 Classifica-
tion of Section (UBC 2210.10.c, 2211.4.12.2.d). The Angle-, Double-
Angle, Box- and Pipe-shaped braces are also checked for compactness
criteria as described in Table 1 in UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Tech-
nical Note 23 Classification of Sections (UBC 2210.10.c, 2211.4.12.2.d).
For box sections b/t
f
and d/t
w
are limited to 100/
y
F ; for pipe sections,
D/t is limited to 1,300/F
y
. If these criteria are satisfied, the section is re-
ported as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Tech-
nical Note 23 Classification of Sections. If these criteria are not satisfied,
the user must modify the section property.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the compressive strength for braces is taken as ϕ
c
P
n
(UBC
2210.10.b, 1122.4.12.2.b). Unlike Braced Frames, no reduction is re-
quired.
P
u
≤ ϕ
c
P
n
(UBC 2211.4.12.2.b)
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Seismic Requirements
Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 - 9
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, the maximum l/r ratio of the braces is checked not to ex-
ceed 1,000/
y
F . If this check is not met, it is noted in the output (UBC
2210.10.a, 2211.4.12.2.a).
Note: Beams intersected by Chevron braces are NOT currently checked to
have a strength to support loads represented by the following combina-
tions (UBC 2213.9.4.1):
1.0DL + 0.7LL ± P
b
(UBC 2210.10.e, 2211.4.12.4.a.3)
0.9DL ± P
b
(UBC 2210.10.e, 2211.4.12.4.a.3)
where P
b
is given by the difference of F
y
A for the tension brace and 0.3ϕ
c
P
n
for the compression brace. Users need to check for this requirement.
Joint Design Technical Note 28 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 28
Joint Design
When using UBC97-LRFD design code, the structural joints are checked or de-
signed for the following:
ƒ Check for the requirement of continuity plate and determination of its area
(see UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 29 Continuity Plates)
ƒ Check for the requirement of doubler plate and determination of its thick-
ness (see UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 30 Doubler
Plates)
ƒ Check for the ratio of beam flexural strength to column flexural strength
ƒ Reporting the beam connection shear
ƒ Reporting the brace connection force
Weak-Beam / Strong-Column Measure
In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, the code re-
quires that the sum of beam flexure strengths at a joint should be less than
the sum of column flexure strengths (UBC 2211.4.8.6). The column flexure
strength should reflect the presence of the axial force present in the column.
To facilitate the review of the strong-column/weak-beam criterion, the pro-
gram reports a beam/column plastic moment capacity ratio for every joint in
the structure.
For the major direction of any column (top end), the beam-to-column
strength ratio is obtained as:
R
maj
=
pcbx pcax
n
n
n pbn
M M
M
b
+
θ

=1
cos
(UBC 2211.4.8.6 8-3)
Joint Design Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 28 - 2 Joint Design
For the minor direction of any column, the beam-to-column-strength ratio is
obtained as:
R
min
=
pcby pcay
n
n
n pbn
M M
M
b
+
θ

=1
cos
(UBC 2211.4.8.6 8-3)
where,
R
maj
,
min
= Plastic moment capacity ratios, in the major and minor
directions of the column, respectively
M
pbn
= Plastic moment capacity of n-th beam connecting to col-
umn
θ
n
= Angle between the n-th beam and the column major di-
rection
M
pcax,y
= Major and minor plastic moment capacities, reduced for
axial force effects, of column above story level
M
pcbx,y
= Major and minor plastic moment capacities, reduced for
axial force effects, of column below story level
n
b
= Number of beams connecting to the column
The plastic moment capacities of the columns are reduced for axial force ef-
fects and are taken as:
M
pc
= Z
c
(F
yc
-
gc uc
A P / ), (UBC 2211.4.8.6 8-3)
where,
Z
c
= Plastic modulus of column
F
yc
= Yield stress of column material
P
uc
= Maximum axial strength in column in compression, P
uc

0, and
A
gc
= Gross area of column
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Joint Design
Joint Design Technical Note 28 - 3
For the above calculations, the section of the column above is taken to be the
same as the section of the column below, assuming that the column splice will
be located some distance above the story level.
Evaluation of Beam Connection Shears
For each steel beam in the structure, the program will report the maximum
major shears at each end of the beam for the design of the beam shear con-
nections. The beam connection shears reported are the maxima of the fac-
tored shears obtained from the load combinations.
For special seismic design, the beam connection shears are not taken less
than the following special values for different types of framing. The require-
ments checked are based on UBC Section 2211.4.2.1 for frames in Seismic
Zones 0 and 1 and Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2,
UBC 2211.4.2.1), on UBC Section 2211.4.2.2 for frames in Seismic Zone 2
with Importance factor greater than 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.2), and on
UBC Section 2211.4.2.3 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2210.2,
UBC 2211.4.2.3). No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic
Zones 0 and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC
2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.1).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, for Ordinary Moment Frames, the beam connection shears
reported are the maximum of the specified load combinations and the fol-
lowing additional load combinations (UBC 2211.4.7.2.a, 2211.4.8.2.b):
0.9DL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
1.2DL + 0.5LL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, the beam connec-
tion shears that are reported allow for the development of the full plastic
moment capacity of the beam. Thus:
V
u
=
L
CM
pb
+1.2V
DL
+ 0.5V
LL
(UBC 2211.4.8.2.b)
where
Joint Design Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 28 - 4 Joint Design
V = Shear force corresponding to END I and END J of beam,
C = 0 if beam ends are pinned, or for cantilever beam,
= 1 if one end of the beam is pinned
= 2 if no ends of the beam are pinned,
M
pb
= Plastic moment capacity of the beam, ZF
y
L = Clear length of the beam,
V
DL
= Absolute maximum of the calculated factored beam
shears at the corresponding beam ends from the dead
load only, and
V
LL
= Absolute maximum of the calculated factored beam
shears at the corresponding beam ends from the live
load only.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the link beam connection
shear is reported as equal to the link beam web shear capacity (UBC
2211.4.10.7).
Evaluation of Brace Connection Forces
For each steel brace in the structure, the program reports the maximum axial
force at each end of the brace for the design of the brace-to-beam connec-
tions. The brace connection forces reported are the maxima of the factored
brace axial forces obtained from the load combinations.
For special seismic design, the brace connection forces are not taken less
than the following special values for different types of framing. The require-
ments checked are based on UBC Section 2211.4.2.1 for frames in Seismic
Zones 0 and 1 and Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2,
UBC 2211.4.2.1), on UBC Section 2211.4.2.2 for frames in Seismic Zone 2
with Importance factor greater than 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.2), and on
UBC 2211.4.2.3 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2210.2, UBC
2211.4.2.3). No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Joint Design
Joint Design Technical Note 28 - 5
and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2,
UBC 2211.4.2.1).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, for ordinary Braced Frames, the bracing connection force
is reported at least as the smaller of the tensile strength of the brace (F
y
A)
(UBC 2211.4.9.3.a.1) and the following special load combinations (UBC
2211.4.9.3.a.2):
0.9 DL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the bracing connection
force is reported as at least the nominal strength of the brace (UBC
221.4.10.6.d).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, for Special Concentrically Braced Frames, the bracing con-
nection force is reported at least as the smaller of the tensile strength of
the brace (F
y
A) (UBC 2210.10, 2211.4.12.3.a.1) and the following special
load combinations (UBC 2211.10, 2211.4.12.3.a.2):
0.9 DL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± Ω
0
EL (UBC 2210.3, 2211.4.3.1)
Continuity Plates Technical Note 29 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 29
Continuity Plates
In a plan view of a beam/column connection, a steel beam can frame into a
column in the following ways:
1. The steel beam frames in a direction parallel to the column major direc-
tion, i.e., the beam frames into the column flange.
2. The steel beam frames in a direction parallel to the column minor direc-
tion, i.e., the beam frames into the column web.
3. The steel beam frames in a direction that is at an angle to both the princi-
pal axes of the column, i.e., the beam frames partially into the column
web and partially into the column flange.
To achieve a beam/column moment connection, continuity plates such as
shown in Figure 1 are usually placed on the column in line with the top and
bottom flanges of the beam to transfer the compression and tension flange
forces from the beam into the column.
For connection conditions described in items 2 and 3 above, the thickness of
such plates is usually set equal to the flange thickness of the corresponding
beam. However, for the connection condition described by item 1 above,
where the beam frames into the flange of the column, such continuity plates
are not always needed. The requirement depends on the magnitude of the
beam-flange force and the properties of the column. This is the condition that
the program investigates. Columns of I-sections only are investigated. The
program evaluates the continuity plate requirements for each of the beams
that frame into the column flange (i.e., parallel to the column major direction)
and reports the maximum continuity plate area that is needed for each beam
flange. The continuity plate requirements are evaluated for moment frames
only. No check is made for braced frames.
Continuity Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 29 - 2 Continuity Plates
Figure 1 Elevation and Plan of Doubler Plates for a Column of I-Section
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Continuity Plates
Continuity Plates Technical Note 29 - 3
The program first evaluates the need for continuity plates. Continuity plates
will be required if any of the following four conditions are not satisfied:
ƒ The column flange design strength in bending must be larger than the
beam flange force, i.e.,
ϕR
n
= (0.9)6.25
2
fc
t F
yc
≥ P
bf
(LRFD K1-1)
ƒ The design strength of the column web against local yielding at the toe of
the fillet must be larger than the beam flange force, i.e.,
ϕR
n
= (1.0)(5.0 k
c
+ t
fb
) F
yc
t
wc
≥ P
bf
(LRFD K1-2)
ƒ The design strength of the column web against crippling must be larger
than the beam flange force, i.e.,
ϕR
n
= (0.75) 68
2
wc
t
bf
wc
fc
yc
fc
wc
c
fb
P
t
t
F
t
t
d
t

]
]
]
]

J
J
J
·
'
'
(
|
J
J
J
·
'
'
(
|
+
5 . 1
3 1 (LRFD K1-5a)
ƒ The design compressive strength of the column web against buckling must
be larger than the beam flange force, i.e.,
ϕR
n
= (0.9) ≥
c
yc wc
d
F t
3
100 , 4
P
bf
(LRFD K1-8)
If any of the conditions above are not met, the program calculates the re-
quired continuity plate area as:
A
cp
=
) 9 . 0 )( 85 . 0 (
yc
bf
F
P
- 12
2
wc
t (LRFD K1.9,E2)
If A
cp
≤ 0, no continuity plates are required.
The formula above assumes the continuity plate plus a width of web equal to
12t
wc
act as a compression member to resist the applied load (LRFD K1.9).
The formula also assumes ϕ = 0.85 and F
cr
= 0.9F
yc
. This corresponds to an
assumption of λ = 0.5 in the column formulas (LRFD E2-2). The user should
choose the continuity plate cross-section such that this is satisfied. As an ex-
ample, when using F
yc
= 50 ksi and assuming the effective length of the stiff-
ener as a column to be 0.75h (LRFD K1.9), the required minimum radius gy-
Continuity Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 29 - 4 Continuity Plates
ration of the stiffener cross-section would be r = 0.02h to obtain λ = 0.5
(LRFD E2-4).
If continuity plates are required, they must satisfy a minimum area specifica-
tion defined as follows:
ƒ The minimum thickness of the stiffeners is taken in the program as fol-
lows:
min
cp
t = max
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
¦
|
fb
y
fb
b
F
t
95
, 5 . 0 (LRFD K1.9.2)
ƒ The minimum width of the continuity plate on each side plus 1/2 the
thickness of the column web shall not be less than 1/3 of the beam flange
width, or:
min
cp
b = 2
J
J
J
·
'
'
(
|

2 3
wc
fp
t
b
(LRFD K1.9.1)
ƒ So that the minimum area is given by:
min
cp
A =
2
cp
t
min
cp
b (LRFD K1.9.1)
Therefore, the continuity plate area provided by the program is either zero or
the greater of A
cp
and
min
cp
A .
In the equations above,
A
cp
= Required continuity plate area
F
yc
= Yield stress of the column and continuity plate material
d
b
= Beam depth
d
c
= Column depth
h = Clear distance between flanges of column less fillets for rolled
shapes
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Continuity Plates
Continuity Plates Technical Note 29 - 5
k
c
= Distance between outer face of the column flange and web toe of
its fillet
M
u
= Factored beam moment
P
bf
= Beam flange force, assumed as Mu / (db - tfb)
R
n
= Nominal strength
t
fb
= Beam flange thickness
t
fc
= column flange thickness
t
wc
= Column web thickness
ϕ = Resistance factor
The program also checks special seismic requirements depending on the type
of frame as described below. The requirements checked are based on UBC
Section 2211.4.2.1 for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and Zone 2 with Im-
portance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.1), on UBC Section
2211.4.2.2 for frames in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than
1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.2), and on UBC Section 2211.4.2.3 for frames
in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.3). No special require-
ment is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2
with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.1).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1 for Ordinary Moment Frames the continuity plates are
checked and designed for a beam flange force, P
bf
= M
pb
/(d
b
-t
fb
) (UBC
2211.4.7.2.a, 2211.4.8.2.a.1).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, for de-
termining the need for continuity plates at joints as a result of tension
transfer from the beam flanges, the force P
bf
is taken as f
yb
A
bf
for all four
checks described above (LRFD K1-1, K1-2, K1-5a, K1-8), except for
checking column flange design strength in bending P
bf
is taken as 1.8 f
yb
A
bf
(UBC 2211.4.8.5, LRFD K1-1). In Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, for determining the
need for continuity plates at joints as a result of tension transfer from the
beam flanges, the force P
bf
is taken as f
yb
A
bf
(UBC 2211.4.8.2.a.1)
Continuity Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 29 - 6 Continuity Plates
P
bf
= 1.8f
yb
A
bf
(Zones 3 and 4) (UBC 2211.4.8.5)
P
bf
= f
yb
A
bf
(Zone 2 with I>1) (UBC 2211.4.8.2.a.1)
For design of the continuity plate, the beam flange force is taken as P
bf
=
M
pb
/(d
b
-t
fb
) (UBC 211.4.8.2.a.1).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor
greater than 1, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the continuity plate re-
quirements are checked and designed for beam flange force of P
bf
= f
yb
A
bg
.
Doubler Plates Technical Note 30 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 30
Doubler Plates
One aspect of the design of a steel framing system is an evaluation of the
shear forces that exist in the region of the beam column intersection known
as the panel zone.
Shear stresses seldom control the design of a beam or column member. How-
ever, in a Moment-Resisting frame, the shear stress in the beam-column joint
can be critical, especially in framing systems when the column is subjected to
major direction bending and the joint shear forces are resisted by the web of
the column. In minor direction bending, the joint shear is carried by the col-
umn flanges, in which case the shear stresses are seldom critical, and this
condition is therefore not investigated by the program.
Shear stresses in the panel zone caused by major direction bending in the
column may require additional plates to be welded onto the column web, de-
pending on the loading and the geometry of the steel beams that frame into
the column, either along the column major direction or at an angle so that the
beams have components along the column major direction. See Figure 1. The
program investigates such situations and reports the thickness of any re-
quired doubler plates. Only columns with I-shapes are investigated for dou-
bler plate requirements. Also, doubler plate requirements are evaluated for
moment frames only. No check is made for braced frames.
The program calculates the required thickness of doubler plates using the
following algorithms. The shear force in the panel zone is given by:
V
p
=



θ
b
n
n
c
fn n
n bn
V
t d
M
1
cos
Doubler Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 30 - 2 Doubler Plates
Figure 1 Elevation and Plan of Doubler Plates for a Column of I-Section
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Doubler Plates
Doubler Plates Technical Note 30 - 3
The nominal panel shear strength is given by
R
v
= 0.6F
y
d
c
t
r
, for P
u
≤ 0.4P
y
or if P
u
is tensile, and (LRFD K1-9)
R
v
= 0.6F
y
d
c
t
r
,
]
]
]
]


y
u
P
P
4 . 1 for P
u
> 0.4P
y
(LRFD K1-10)
By using V
p
= ϕR
v
, with ϕ = 0.9, the required column web thickness, t
r
, can
be found.
The extra thickness, or thickness of the doubler plate is given by
t
dp
= t
r
- t
w

y
F
h
/ 418
(LFRD F2-1)
where,
F
y
= Column and doubler plate yield stress
t
r
= Required column web thickness
t
dp
= Required doubler plate thickness
t
w
= Column web thickness
h = d
c
-2t
fc
if welded, d
c
- 2k
c
if rolled
V
p
= Panel zone shear
V
c
= Column shear in column above
F
y
= Beam flange forces
n
b
= Number of beams connecting to column
d
n
= Depth of n-th beam connecting to column
θ
n
= Angle between n-th beam and column major direction
d
c
= Depth of column clear of fillets, equals d - 2k
M
bn
= Calculated factored beam moment from the corresponding
load combination
Doubler Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 30 - 4 Doubler Plates
R
v
= Nominal shear strength of panel
P
u
= Column factored axial load
P
y
= Column axial yield strength, F
y
A
The program reports the largest calculated value of t
db
for any of the load
combinations based on the factored beam moments and factored column axial
loads.
The special seismic requirements checked by the program for calculating dou-
bler plate areas depend on the type of framing used; the requirements
checked are described herein for each type of framing. The requirements
checked are based on UBC Section 2211.4.2.1 for frames in Seismic Zones 0
and 1 and Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC
2211.4.2.1), on UBC Section 2211.4.2.2 for frames in Seismic Zone 2 with
Importance factor greater than 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.2) and on UBC
Section 2211.4.2.3 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2210.2, UBC
2211.4.2.3). No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0
and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2,
UBC 2211.4.2.1).
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, the panel
zone doubler plate requirements that are reported will develop the lesser
of beam moments equal to 0.9 of the plastic moment capacity of the
beam (0.9∑ϕ
b
M
pb
), or beam moments resulting from specified load combi-
nations involving seismic load (UBC 2211.4.8.3.a).
The capacity of the panel zone in resisting this shear is taken as (UBC
2211.8.3.a):
ϕ
v
V
n
= 0.6ϕ
v
F
y
d
c
t
p
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
+
p c b
cf cf
t d d
t b
2
3
1 (UBC 2211.4.8.3.a)
giving the required panel zone thickness as
t
p
=
y
c b
cf cf
c y v
p
F
h
d d
t b
d F
V
/ 418
3
6 . 0
2
≥ −
ϕ
(UBC 2211.4.8.3, LRFD F2-1)
and the required doubler plate thickness as
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Doubler Plates
Doubler Plates Technical Note 30 - 5
t
dp
= t
p
- t
wc
where,
ϕ
v
= 0.75,
b
cf
= width of column flange
t
cf
= thickness of column flange
t
p
= required column web thickness
h = d
c
- 2t
fc
if welded, d
c
- 2k
c
if rolled, and
d
b
= depth of deepest beam framing into the major direction of
the column.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, the pro-
gram checks the following panel zone column web thickness requirement:
t
wc

90
) 2 ( ) 2 (
fb b fc c
t d t d − + −
(UBC 2211.4.8.3.b)
If the check is not satisfied, it is noted in the output.
ƒ In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the doubler
plate requirements are checked similar to doubler plate checks for Special
Moment-Resisting Frames, as described above (UBC 2211.4.10.7).
Input Data Technical Note 31 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 31
Input Data
This Technical Note describes the steel frame design input data for UBC97-
LRFD. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the
File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. A printout of
the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the
parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program
design is based. Further information about using the Print Design Tables Form
is provided at the end of this Technical Note.
Input Data
The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The
column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the
columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Material Property Data
Material Name Steel, concrete or other.
Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.
Design Type Concrete, steel or none. Postprocessor available if steel is
specified.
Material Dir/Plane "All" for isotropic materials; specify axis properties define for
orthotropic.
Modulus of Elasticity
Poisson's Ratio
Thermal Coeff
Shear Modulus
Material Property Mass and Weight
Material Name Steel, concrete or other.
Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 31 - 2 Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self mass of the structure.
Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate the self weight of the structure.
Material Design Data for Steel Materials
Material Name Steel.
Steel FY Minimum yield stress of steel.
Steel FU Maximum tensile stress of steel.
Steel Cost ($) Cost per unit weight used in composite beam design if optimum
beam size specified to be determined by cost.
Material Design Data for Concrete Materials
Material Name Concrete.
Lightweight Concrete Check this box if this is a lightweight concrete material.
Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.
Rebar FY Bending reinforcing yield stress.
Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing yield stress.
Lightwt Reduc Fact Define reduction factor if lightweight concrete box checked.
Usually between 0.75 ad 0.85.
Frame Section Property Data
Frame Section Name User specified or auto selected member name.
Material Name Steel, concrete or none.
Section Shape Name
or Name in Section
Database File
Name of section as defined in database files.
Section Depth Depth of the section.
Flange Width Top Width of top flange per AISC database.
Flange Thick Top Thickness of top flange per AISC database.
Web Thick Web thickness per AISC database.
Flange Width Bot Width of bottom flange per AISC database.
Flange Thick Bot Thickness of bottom flange per AISC database.
Section Area
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Input Data
Input Data Technical Note 31 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Torsional Constant
Moments of Inertia I33, I22
Shear Areas A2, A3
Section Moduli S33, S22
Plastic Moduli Z33, Z22
Radius of Gyration R33, R22
Load Combination Multipliers
Combo Load combination name.
Type Additive, envelope, absolute, or SRSS as defined in Define >
Load Combination.
Case Name(s) of case(s) to be included in this load combination.
Case Type Static, response spectrum, time history, static nonlinear, se-
quential construction.
Factor Scale factor to be applied to each load case.
Beam Steel Stress Check Element Information
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member section assigned.
Framing Type Ordinary MRF, Special MRF, Braced Frame, Special CBF, ERF
RLLF Factor Live load reduction factor.
L_Ratio Major Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
L_Ratio Minor Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
K Major Effective length factor.
K Minor Effective length factor.
Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
CM Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 31 - 4 Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
CM Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
Cb Factor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
B1 Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B1 Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B2 Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B2 Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
Beam Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier
phi*Pnc If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E.
phi*Pnt If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D.
phi*Mn Major If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.
phi*Mn Minor If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.
phi*Vn Major If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
phi*Vn Minor If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
Column Steel Stress Check Element Information
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Section ID Name of member section assigned.
Framing Type Ordinary MRF, Special MRF, Braced Frame, Special CBF, ERF
RLLF Factor Live load reduction factor.
L_Ratio Major Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
L_Ration Minor Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Input Data
Input Data Technical Note 31 - 5
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
K Major Effective length factor.
K Minor Effective length factor.
Column Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
CM Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
CM Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
Cb Factor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
B1 Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B1 Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B2 Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B2 Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
Column Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
phi*Pnc If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E.
phi*Pnt If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D.
phi*Mn Major If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.
phi*Mn Minor If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.
phi*Vn Major If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
phi*Vn Minor If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 31 - 6 Input Data
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File menu
> Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Input Sum-
mary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send
the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button
to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the
Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print steel frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check box
on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename button to change the
path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing
Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Steel Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box will
be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
Output Details Technical Note 32 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 32
Output Details
This Technical Note describes the steel frame design output for UBC97-LRFD
that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed
when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design com-
mand and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Further
information about using the Print Design Tables form is provided at the end of
this Technical Note.
The program provides the output data in a series of tables. The column
headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns
of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Output Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Beam Steel Stress Check
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Moment Interaction Check
Combo Name of load combination that produces the maximum
load/resistance ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting load to available resistance.
Axl Ratio of acting axial load to available axial resistance.
B33 Ratio of acting bending moment to available bending resistance
about the 33 axis.
Output Details Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 32 - 2 Output Details
Table 1 Steel Frame Output Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
B22 Ratio of acting bending moment to available bending resistance
about the 22 axis.
Shear22
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear divided by available shear resistance.
Shear33
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 33 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear divided by available shear resistance.
Beam Special Seismic Requirements
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Section Class Classification of section for the enveloping combo.
Connection Shear
Combo Name of the load combination that provides maximum End-I
connection shear.
End-I Maximum End-I connection shear.
Combo Name of the load combination that provides maximum End-J
connection shear.
End-J Maximum End-J connection shear.
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Output Details
Output Details Technical Note 32 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Output Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Column Steel Stress Check Output
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Moment Interaction Check
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress.
AXL Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress.
B33 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 33 axis.
B22 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 22 axis.
Shear22
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 22 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Shear33
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 33 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Column Special Seismic Requirements
Story Level Story level name.
Output Details Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD
Technical Note 32 - 4 Output Details
Table 1 Steel Frame Output Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Column Line Column line identifier.
Section ID Name of member section assigned.
Section Class Classification of section for the enveloping combo.
Continuity Plate
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum continuity
plate area.
Area Cross-section area of the continuity plate.
Doubler Plate
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum doubler
plate thickness.
Thick Thickness of the doubler plate.
B/C Ratios
Major Beam/column capacity ratio for major direction.
Minor Beam/column capacity ratio for minor direction.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print steel frame design ouput data directly to a printer, use the File
menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Out-
put Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button
to send the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK
button to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and
the Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print steel frame design output data to a file, click the Print to File check
box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename button to change the
Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Output Details
Output Details Technical Note 32 - 5
path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing
Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Steel Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box will
be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
General and Notation Technical Note 33 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 33
General and Notation
Introduction to the AISC-ASD89 Series of Technical
Notes
The AISC-ASD89 for Steel Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes
the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms used by
the program when the user selects the AISC-ASD89 design code (AISC
1989a). The various notations used in this series are described herein.
For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original ASD code, a
unique prefix “ASD” is assigned. However, all references to the “Specifications
for Allowable Stress Design of Single-Angle Members” (AISC 1989b) carry the
prefix of “ASD SAM.”
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. To facilitate use,
the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy
requirements for the design of most building type structures. See Steel
Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 36 Design Load Combinations for
more information.
In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station
along the length of the member, first the actual member force/moment com-
ponents and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combi-
nation. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influ-
ence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are de-
fined in this series of Technical Notes. The controlling capacity ratio is then
obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates overstress. Similarly, a
shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. Algorithms for completing
these calculations are described in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical
Notes 38 Calculation of Stresses, 39 Calculation of Allowable Stresses, and 40
Calculation of Stress Ratios.
Further information is available from AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Techni-
cal Note 37 Classification of Sections.
General and Notation Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 33 - 2 General and Notation
The program uses preferences and overwrites, which are described in AISC-
ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 34 Preferences and 35 Over-
writes. It also provides input and output data summaries, which are described
in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 41 Input Data and 42
Output Details.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code
is based on Kip-Inch-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descrip-
tions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless
otherwise noted.
Notation
A Cross-sectional area, in
2
A
e
Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections, in
2
A
f
Area of flange, in
2
A
g
Gross cross-sectional area, in
2
A
v2
, A
v3
Major and minor shear areas, in
2
A
w
Web shear area, dt
w
, in
2
C
b
Bending Coefficient
C
m
Moment

Coefficient
C
w
Warping constant, in
6
D Outside diameter of pipes, in
E Modulus of elasticity, ksi
F
a
Allowable axial stress, ksi
F
b
Allowable bending stress, ksi
F
b33
, F
b22
Allowable major and minor bending stresses, ksi
F
cr
Critical compressive stress, ksi
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation
General and Notation Technical Note 33 - 3
'
33 e
F
2
33 33 33
2
) / ( 23
12
r l K
E π
'
22 e
F
2
22 22 22
2
) / ( 23
12
r l K
E π
F
v
Allowable shear stress, ksi
F
y
Yield stress of material, ksi
K Effective length factor
K
33
, K
22
Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions
M
33
, M
22
Major and minor bending moments in member, kip-in
M
ob
Lateral-torsional moment for angle sections, kin-in
P Axial force in member, kips
P
e
Euler buckling load, kips
Q Reduction factor for slender section, = Q
a
Q
s
Q
a
Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements
Q
s
Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements
S Section modulus, in
3
S
33
, S
22
Major and minor section moduli, in
3
S
eff,33
,S
eff,22
Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sec-
tions, in
3
S
c
Section modulus for compression in an angle section, in
3
V
2
, V
3
Shear forces in major and minor directions, kips
b Nominal dimension of plate in a section, in
longer leg of angle sections,
b
f
— 2t
w
for welded and b
f
— 3t
w
for rolled box sections, etc.
General and Notation Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 33 - 4 General and Notation
b
e
Effective width of flange, in
b
f
Flange width, in
d Overall depth of member, in
f
a
Axial stress, either in compression or in tension, ksi
f
b
Normal stress in bending, ksi
f
b33
, f
b22
Normal stress in major and minor direction bending, ksi
f
v
Shear stress, ksi
f
v2
, f
v3
Shear stress in major and minor direction bending, ksi
h Clear distance between flanges for I shaped sections
(d — 2t
f
), in
h
e
Effective distance between flanges, less fillets, in
k Distance from outer face of flange to web toes of fillet, in
k
c
Parameter used for classification of sections,
[ ]
, 70 t h
05 . 4
w
46 . 0
> if
t h
w
1 70 h ≤
w
t if
l
33
, l
22
Major and minor direction unbraced member length, in
l
c
Critical length, in
r Radius of gyration, in
r
33
, r
22
Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions, in
r
z
Minimum radius of gyration for angles, in
t Thickness of a plate in I, box, channel, angle, and T sec-
tions, in
t
f
Flange thickness, in
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation
General and Notation Technical Note 33 - 5
t
w
Web thickness, in
β
w
Special section property for angles, in
Preferences Technical Note 34 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 34
Preferences
This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.
General
The steel frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments
that apply to all steel frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-
ences > Steel Frame Design command to access the Preferences form
where you can view and revise the steel frame design preferences.
Default values are provided for all steel frame design preference items. Thus,
it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You
should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items
to make sure they are acceptable to you.
Using the Preferences Form
To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Steel
Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options
are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-
sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet
displays the preference item value.
To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either
the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or
highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select
a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-
ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-
down boxes.
When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences,
click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the
changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit
the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is
closed.
Preferences Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 34 - 2 Preferences
Preferences
For purposes of explanation, the preference items are presented in Table 1.
The column headings in the table are described as follows:
ƒ Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the
left side of the Preferences form.
ƒ Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item
can have.
ƒ Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for
the associated preference item.
ƒ Description: A description of the associated preference item.
Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Design Code Any code in the
program
AISC-
ASD89
Design code used for design of
steel frame elements.
Time History
Design
Envelopes,
Step-by-Step
Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations
that include a time history designed for
the envelope of the time history, or de-
signed step-by-step for the entire time
history. If a single design load combi-
nation has more than one time history
case in it, that design load combination
is designed for the envelopes of the
time histories, regardless of what is
specified here.
Frame Type Moment Frame,
Braced Frame
Moment
Frame
Stress Ratio
Limit
>0 0.95 Program will select members from the
auto select list with stress ratios less
than or equal to this value.
Maximum Auto
Iteration
≥1 1 Sets the number of iterations of the
analysis-design cycle that the program
will complete automatically assuming
that the frame elements have been as-
signed as auto select sections.
Overwrites Technical Note 35 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 35
Overwrites
General
The steel frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to
those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes
steel frame design overwrites for AISC-ASD89. To access the overwrites, se-
lect an element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites command.
Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to
specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default
values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When
changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only
to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-
ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.
Overwrites
For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented
in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.
ƒ Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To
save space in the forms, these names are generally short.
ƒ Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item
can have.
ƒ Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associ-
ated overwrite item. If the default value is given in the table with an asso-
ciated note "Program Calculated," the value is shown by the program before
the design is performed. After design, the values are calculated by the pro-
gram and the default is modified by the program-calculated value.
ƒ Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.
Overwrites Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 35 - 2 Overwrites
An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this
Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Current Design
Section
Indicates selected member size used in
current design.
Element Type
Moment
Frame,
Braced Frame
From
Preferences
Live Load
Reduction
Factor
≥0 1
Live load is multiplied by this factor.
Horizontal
Earthquake
Factor
≥0 1
Earthquake loads are multiplied by this
factor.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Major)
≥0 1
Ratio of unbraced length divided by
total length.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Minor, LTB)
≥0 1
Ratio of unbraced length divided by
total length.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Major)
≥0 1
As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2.1,
page 5-135.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Minor)
≥0 1
As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2.1,
page 5-135.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Major)
≥0 0.85
As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Minor)
≥0 0.85
As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Bending
Coefficient
(Cb)
≥0 1
As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-47.
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Overwrites
Overwrites Technical Note 35 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Yield stress, Fy
≥0 0
If zero, yield stress defined for material
property data used.
Compressive
stress, Fa ≥0 0
If zero, yield stress defined for material
property data used and AISC-ASD
specification Chapter E.
Tensile
stress, Ft
≥0 0
If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD Chapter D.
Major Bending
stress, Fb3 ≥0 0
If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD specification
Chapter F.
Minor Bending
stress, Fb2 ≥0 0
If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD specification
Chapter F.
Major Shear
stress, Fv2 ≥0 0
If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD specification
Chapter F.
Minor Shear
stress, Fv3
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for material property
data used and AISC-ASD specification
Chapter F.
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form
To access the steel frame overwrites, select a frame element and click the
Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-
mand.
The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a
two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the
name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the
overwrites values.
Initially, the check boxes in the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form are all
unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to
indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.
Overwrites Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 35 - 4 Overwrites
The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the
spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second col-
umn of the spreadsheet if only one frame element was selected before the
overwrites form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values
show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.
After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-
write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to
activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-
umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from
the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The
overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-
down boxes.
When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to
close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose
associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click
the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the
Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-
nored and the form is closed.
Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values
Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites
command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results
will be deleted when this command is executed.
Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the
overwrite items are built into the program. The steel frame overwrite values
that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different
from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites, the pro-
gram resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the values that
were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.
Design Load Combinations Technical Note 36 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 36
Design Load Combinations
This Technical Note describes the default design load combinations in the pro-
gram when the AISC-ASD89 code is selected.
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be checked. For the AISC-ASD89 code, if a
structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live load (LL), wind load (WL), and
earthquake induced load (EL), and considering that wind and earthquake
forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be defined
(ASD A4):
DL (ASD A4.1)
DL + LL (ASD A4.1)
DL ± WL (ASD A4.1)
DL + LL ± WL (ASD A4.1)
DL ± EL (ASD A4.1)
DL + LL ± EL (ASD A4.1)
These are also the default design load combinations in the program when the
AISC-ASD89 code is used. The user should use other appropriate loading
combinations if roof live load is separately treated, if other types of loads are
present, or if pattern live loads are to be considered.
When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads, allow-
able stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value
(ASD A5.2).
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live
load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the
live load to the factored loading. See AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Tech-
nical Note 35 Overwrites for more information.
Classification of Sections Technical Note 37 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 37
Classification of Sections
This Technical Note explains the classification of sections when the user se-
lects the AISC-ASD89 design code.
The allowable stresses for axial compression and flexure are dependent upon
the classification of sections as either Compact, Noncompact, Slender, or Too
Slender. The program classifies the individual members according to the lim-
iting width/thickness ratios given in Table 1 (ASD B5.1, F3.1, F5, G1, A-B5-
2). The definition of the section properties required in this table is given in
Figure 1 and AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 33 General and
Notation.
If the section dimensions satisfy the limits shown in the table, the section is
classified as either Compact, Noncompact, or Slender. If the section satisfies
the criteria for Compact sections, the section is classified as a Compact sec-
tion. If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact sections but sat-
isfies the criteria for Noncompact sections, the section is classified as a Non-
compact section. If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact and
Noncompact sections but satisfies the criteria for Slender sections, the section
is classified as a Slender section. If the limits for Slender sections are not
met, the section is classified as Too Slender. Stress check of "Too Slender"
sections is beyond the scope of this program.
In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes, Box, and Channel sections, it is
assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners (ASD F5, G1). Double an-
gles are conservatively assumed to be separated.
Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 37 - 2 Classification of Sections
Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based
on AISC-ASD
Section
Description
Ratio
Check
Compact
Section
Noncompact
Section
Slender
Section
bf / 2tf
(rolled)
≤ 65 /
y
F ≤ 95 /
y
F
No limit
bf / 2tf
(welded)
≤ 65 /
y
F ≤ 95 /
c
y
k F /
No limit
d / tw
For fa / Fy ≤ 0.16
), 74 . 3 1 (
640
y
a
y
F
f
F
− ≤
For fa / Fy > 0.16
≤ 257 /
y
F
No limit No limit
I-SHAPE
h / tw No limit
If compression only,
≤ 253 /
y
F
otherwise
≤ 760 /
b
F
If compression only,
) 5 . 16 (
000 , 14
+

y y
F F
260 ≤
b / tf
≤ 190 /
y
F ≤ 238 /
y
F
No limit
d / tw As for I-shapes No limit No limit
h / tw No limit As for I-shapes As for I-shapes
BOX
Other tw ≥ tf /2, dw ≤ 6bf None None
b / tf As for I-shapes As for I-shapes No limit
d / tw As for I-shapes No limit No limit
h / tw No limit As for I-shapes As for I-shapes
CHANNEL
Other No limit No limit
If welded
bf / dw ≤ 0.25,
tf / tw ≤ 3.0
If rolled
bf / dw ≤ 0.5,
tf / tw ≤ 2.0
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Classification of Sections
Classification of Sections Technical Note 37 - 3
Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based
on AISC-ASD (continued)
Section
Description
Ratio
Check
Compact
Section
Noncompact
Section
Slender
Section
bf / 2tf
≤ 65 /
y
F ≤ 95 /
y
F No limit
d / tw Not applicable
≤ 127 /
y
F
No limit
T-SHAPE
Other No limit No limit
If welded
bf / dw ≥ 0.5,
tf / tw ≥ 1.25
If rolled
bf / dw ≥ 0.5,
tf / tw ≥ 1.10
DOUBLE
ANGLES
b / t Not applicable
≤ 76 /
y
F
No limit
ANGLE b / t Not applicable
≤ 76 /
y
F No limit
PIPE D / t ≤ 3,300 / Fy ≤ 3,300 / Fy
≤ 3,300 / Fy
(Compression only)
No limit for flexure
ROUND BAR 
Assumed Compact
RECTANGLE 
Assumed Noncompact
GENERAL 
Assumed Noncompact
Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 37 - 4 Classification of Sections
Figure 1 AISC-ASD Definition of Geometric Properties
Calculation of Stresses Technical Note 38 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 38
Calculation of Stresses
This Technical Note explains how the program calculates the stresses at each
defined station. The member stresses for non-slender sections that are cal-
culated for each load combination area, in general, based on the gross cross-
sectional properties, as follows:
f
a
= P/A
f
b33
= M
33
/S
33
f
b22
= M
22
/S
22
f
v2
= V
2
/A
v2
f
v3
= V
3
/A
v3
If the section is slender with slender stiffened elements, such as a slender
web in I, Channel, and Box sections or slender flanges in Box sections, the
program uses effective section moduli based on reduced web and reduced
flange dimensions in calculating stresses, as follows:
f
a
= P/A (ASD A-B5.2d)
f
b33
= M
33
/S
eff,33
(ASD A-B5.2d)
f
b22
= M
22
/S
eff,22
(ASD A-B5.2d)
f
v2
= V
2
/A
v2
(ASD A-B5.2d)
f
v3
= V
3
/A
v3
(ASD A-B5.2d)
The flexural stresses are calculated based on the properties about the princi-
pal axes. For I, Box, Channel, T, Double-angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular
sections, the principal axes coincide with the geometric axes. For Single-angle
sections, the design considers the principal properties. For general sections, it
is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal di-
rections.
For Single-angle sections, the shear stresses are calculated for directions
along the geometric axes. For all other sections, the program calculates the
shear stresses along the geometric and principle axes.
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39
Calculation of Allowable Stresses
This Technical Note explains how the program calculates the allowable
stresses in compression, tension, bending, and shear for Compact, Noncom-
pact, and Slender sections. The allowable flexural stresses for all shapes of
sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. For the I,
Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe, T, Double-angle and Rectangular sections, the
principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For the Angle sections, the
principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural stresses
are based on that.
If the user specifies nonzero allowable stresses for one or more elements in
the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form (display using the Design menu >
Steel Frame Design > Review/Revise Overwrites command), the
nonzero values will be used rather than the calculated values for those
elements. The specified allowable stresses should be based on the principal
axes of bending.
Allowable Stress in Tension
The allowable axial tensile stress value F
a
is assumed to be 0.60 F
y
.
F
a
= 0.6 F
y
(ASD D1, ASD SAM 2)
It should be noted that net section checks are not made. For members
in tension, if l/r is greater than 300, a message to that effect is printed (ASD
B7, ASD SAM 2). For single angles, the minimum radius of gyration, r
z
is used
instead of r
22
and r
33
in computing l/r.
Allowable Stress in Compression
The allowable axial compressive stress is the minimum value obtained from
flexural buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The allowable compressive
stresses are determined according to the following subsections.
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39 - 2 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
For members in compression, if Kl/r is greater than 200, a warning message
is printed (ASD B7, ASD SAM 4). For single angles, the minimum radius of
gyration, r
z
, is used instead of r
22
and r
33
in computing Kl/r.
Flexural Buckling
The allowable axial compressive stress value, F
a
, depends on the slenderness
ratio Kl/r based on gross section properties and a corresponding critical value,
C
c
, where
|
|
|
|
|
|
¦
|

22
22 22
33
33 33
, max
r
l K
r
l K
r
Kl
, and

y
c
F
E
C
2

. (ASD E2, ASD SAM 4)
For single angles, the minimum radius of gyration, r
z
, is used instead of r
22
and r
33
in computing Kl/r.
For Compact or Noncompact sections, F
a
is evaluated as follows:
3
3
2
2
8
) / (
8
) / ( 3
3
5
2
) / (
0 . 1
c
c
y
c
a
C
r Kl
C
r Kl
F
C
r Kl
F
− +
|
|
|
¦
|
|
|
|
|
|

, if
c
C
r
Kl
≤ , (ASD E2-1, SAM 4-1)
2
2
) / ( 23
12
r Kl
E
F
a
π
, if
c
C
r
Kl
> . (ASD E2-2, SAM 4-2)
If Kl/r is greater than 200, the calculated value of F
a
is taken not to exceed
the value of F
a
, calculated by using the equation ASD E2-2 for Compact and
Noncompact sections (ASD E1, B7).
For Slender sections, except slender Pipe sections, F
a
is evaluated as follows:
3
3
2
'
2
' 8
) / (
' 8
) / ( 3
3
5
2
) / (
0 . 1
c
c
y
c
a
C
r Kl
C
r Kl
F
C
r Kl
Q F
− +
|
|
|
¦
|
|
|
|
|
|

, if
c
C
r
Kl
' ≤ (ASD A-B5-11, SAM 4-1)
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 3

2
2
) / ( 23
12
r Kl
E
F
a
π
, if
c
C
r
Kl
' > . (ASD A-B5-12, SAM 4-2)
where,

y
c
QF
E
C
2
2
'
π
. (ASD A-B5.2c, ASD SAM 4)
For slender sections, if Kl/r is greater than 200, the calculated value of F
a
is
taken not to exceed its value calculated by using the equation ASD A-B5-12
(ASD B7, E1).
For slender Pipe sections, F
a
is evaluated as follows:
y a
F
t D
F 40 . 0
/
662
+ (ASD A-B5-9)
The reduction factor, Q, for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as
1. For slender sections, Q is computed as follows:
Q = Q
s
Q
a
, where (ASD A-B5.2.c, SAM 4)
Q
s
= reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements, and(ASD A-B5.2.a)
Q
a
= reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. (ASD A-B5.2.c)
The Q
s
factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table 1
(ASD A-B5.2a, ASD SAM 4). The Q
a
factors for slender sections are calculated
as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional
area.
g
e
a
A
A
Q (ASD A-B5-10)
The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as
follows:


− − t b b A A
e g e
) (
where
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39 - 4 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
b
e
for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b, and b
e
for stiffened elements
is taken equal to or less than b, as given in Table 2 (ASD A-B5.2b). For webs
in I, box, and Channel sections, h
e
is used as b
e
and h is used as b in the
above equation.
Flexural-Torsional Buckling
The allowable axial compressive stress value, F
a
, determined by the limit
states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling, is determined as follows
(ASD E3, C-E3):

3
3
2
2
' 8
) / (
' 8
) / ( 3
3
5
' 2
) / (
0 . 1
c
e
c
e
y
c
e
a
C
r Kl
C
r Kl
F
C
r Kl
Q F
− +
|
|
|
¦
|
|
|
|
|
|

, if
c
C r Kl
e
' ) / ( ≤ (E2-1, A-B5-11)
2
2
) / ( 23
12
e
a
r Kl
E
F
π
, if
c e
C r Kl ' ) / ( > . (E2-2, A-B5-12)
where,
y
c
QF
E
C
2
2
'
π
, and (ASD E2, A-B5.2c, SAM 4)
e
E
e
F
r Kl
2
) / (
π
. (ASD C-E2-2, SAM 4-4)
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 5
Table 1 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements, Q
s
Section
Type
Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements
(Qs)
Equation
Reference
I-SHAPE
1.0 if bf/2tf ≤ 95 /
c y
k F
,
Qs = 1,293 - 0.00309[bf/2tf]
c y
k F
if 95 /
c y
k F
< bf/2tf <195 /
c y
k F
,
26,200kc / {[bf/2tf]
2
Fy} if bf/2tf ≥ 195 /
c y
k F
.
ASD A-B5-3,
ASD A-B5-4
BOX Qs = 1 ASD A-B5.2c
CHANNEL As for I-shapes with bf / 2tf replaced by bf / tf
ASD A-B5-3,
ASD A-B5-4
T-SHAPE
For flanges, as for flanges in I-shapes. For web, see below.
1.0 if b/tw ≤ 127 /
y
F
,
Qs = 1.908-0.00715 [d/tw]
y
F
if 127/
y
F
<d/tw < 176/
y
F
,
20,000 / {[d/tw]
2
Fy} if d/tw ≥ 176/
y
F
.
ASD A-B5-3,
ASD A-B5-4,
ASD A-B5-5,
ASD A-B5-6
DOUBLE-
ANGLE
1.0 if b/t ≤ 76 /
y
F
,
Qs = 1.340-0.00447 [b/t]
y
F
if 76/
y
F
<d/t < 155/
y
F
,
15,500 / {[b/t]
2
Fy} if d/t ≥ 155/
y
F
.
ASD A-B5-1,
ASD A-B5-2,
SAM 4-3
ANGLE
1.0 if b/t ≤ 76 /
y
F
,
Qs = 1.340-0.00447 [d/t]
y
F
if 76/
y
F
< b/t < 155/
y
F
,
15,500 / {[d/t]
2
Fy} if b/t ≥ 155/
y
F
.
ASD A-B5-1,
ASD A-B5-2,
SAM 4-3
PIPE Qs = 1 ASD A-B5.2c
ROUND
BAR
Qs = 1 ASD A-B5.2c
RECTAN-
GULAR
Qs = 1 ASD A-B5.2c
GENERAL Qs = 1 ASD A-B5.2c
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39 - 6 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Table 2 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections
Section
Type
Effective Width for Stiffened Sections
Equation
Reference
I-SHAPE
, h if
f
t
h
w
74 . 195

,
( )
]
]
]
]


f t h f
t
w
w
3 . 44
1
253
, if
f
t
h
w
74 . 195
>
. (compression only )
ASD A-B5-8
BOX
, h if
f
t
h
w
74 . 195

,
( )
]
]
]
]


f t h f
t
w
w
3 . 44
1
253
, if
f
t
h
w
74 . 195
>
. (compression only )
, b if
f
t
b
f
74 . 183

,
( ) ]
]
]
]


f t h f
t
w
w
3 . 50
1
253 , if
f
t
b 74 . 183
>
. (compr. flexure )
ASD A-B5-8
ASD A-B5-7
CHANNEL
, h if
f
t
h
w
74 . 195

,
( )
]
]
]
]


f t h f
t
w
w
3 . 44
1
253
, if
f
t
h
w
74 . 195
>
. (compression only )
ASD A-B5-8
T-SHAPE
b b
e

ASD A-B5.2c
DOUBLE-
ANGLE
b b
e

ASD A-B5.2c
ANGLE
b b
e

ASD A-B5.2c
PIPE
, 1
a
Q (However, special expression for allowable axial stress is given)
ASD A-B5-9
ROUND
BAR
Not applicable ÷
RECTAN-
GULAR
b b
e

ASD A-B5.2C
GENERAL Not applicable ÷
Note: A reduction factor of 3/4 is applied on f for axial-compression-only cases and if the load combination
includes any wind load or seismic load (ASD A-B5.2b).

e
h
g
A
P
f

e
h

e
b

e
h
g
A
P
f
y
F f 6 . 0
g
A
P
f
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 7
ASD Commentary (ASD C-E3) refers to the 1986 version of the AISC-LRFD
code for the calculation of F
e
. The 1993 version of the AISC-LRFD code is the
same as the 1986 version in this respect. F
e
is calculated in the program as
follows:
ƒ For Rectangular, I, Box, and Pipe sections:

( ) 33 22
2
2
1
I I
GJ
l K
EC
F
z z
w
e
+
]
]
]
]

+
π
(LRFD A-E3-5)
ƒ For T-sections and Double-angles:

]
]
]
]

+
− −
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
| +

2
22
22 22
) (
4
1 1
2
ez e
ez e ez e
e
F F
H F F
H
F F
F (LRFD A-E3-6)
ƒ For Channels:
]
]
]
]

+
− −
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
| +

2
33
33 33
) (
4
1 1
2
ez e
ez e ez e
e
F F
H F F
H
F F
F (LRFD A-E3-6)
ƒ For Single-angle sections with equal legs:

]
]
]
]

+
− −
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
| +

2
33
33 33
) (
4
1 1
2
ez e
ez e ez e
e
F F
H F F
H
F F
F (ASD SAM C-C4-1)
ƒ For Single-angle sections with unequal legs, F
e
is calculated as the mini-
mum real root of the following cubic equation (ASD SAM C-C4-2, LRFD A-
E3-7):
(F
e
-F
e33
)(F
3
-F
e22
)(F
e
-F
ez
)-F
e
2
(F
e
-F
e22
),
2
2
o
o
r
x
-F
e
2
(F
e
-F
e33
)
2
2
o
o
r
y
=0,
where,
x
o
, y
o
are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the cen-
troid, x
o
= 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members (y-axis of
symmetry),
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39 - 8 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
g
o o o
A
I I
y x r
33 22 2 2
+
+ + = polar radius of gyration about the shear cen-
ter,
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
+

2
2 2
1
o
o o
r
y x
H , (LRFD A-E3-9)
( )
2
33 33 33
2
33
/ r l K
E
F
e
π
, (LRFD A-E3-10)
( )
2
22 22 22
2
22
/ r l K
E
F
e
π
, (LRFD A-E3-11)
( )
2 2
2
1
o z z
w
ez
Ar
GJ
l K
EC
F
]
]
]
]

+
π
, (LRFD A-E3-12)
K
22
, K
33
are effective length factors in minor and major directions,
K
z
is the effective length factor for torsional buckling, and it is taken equal
to K
22
in the program,
l
22
, l
33
are effective lengths in the minor and major directions,
l
z
is the effective length for torsional buckling, and it is taken equal to l
22
.
For angle sections, the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are
used for computing F
e
(ASD SAM 4). Also, the maximum value of Kl, i.e,
max(K
22
l
22
, K
33
l
33
) , is used in place of K
22
l
22
or K
33
l
33
in calculating F
e22
and
F
e33
in this case.
Allowable Stress in Bending
The allowable bending stress depends on the following criteria: the geometric
shape of the cross-section; the axis of bending; the compactness of the sec-
tion; and a length parameter.
I-Sections
For I-sections the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length,
l
22
, which is compared to a critical length, l
c
. The critical length is defined as
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 9
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
¦
|

y
f
y
f
c
dF
A
F
b
l
000 , 20
,
76
min , where (ASD F1-2)
A
f
is the area of compression flange.
Major Axis of Bending
If l
22
is less than l
c
, the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Non-
compact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or
rolled and whether f
y
is less than or equal to 65 ksi or greater than 65 ksi.
For Compact sections:
F
b33
= 0.66 F
y
if f
y
≤ 65 ksi, (ASD F1-1)
F
b33
= 0.60 F
y
if f
y
> 65 ksi. (ASD F1-5)
For Noncompact sections:
F
b33
=
y y
f
f
F F
t
b
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|

2
002 . 0 79 . 0 if rolled and f
y
≤ 65 ksi, (ASD F1-3)
F
b33
=
y
c
y
f
f
F
k
F
t
b
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|

2
002 . 0 79 . 0 if welded and f
y
≤ 65 ksi, (ASDF1-4)
F
b33
= 0.60 F
y
if f
y
> 65 ksi (ASD F1-5)
If the unbraced length l
22
is greater than l
c
, then for both Compact and Non-
compact I-sections the allowable bending stress depends on the l
22
/r
T
ratio.
For
y
b
T
F
C
r
l 000 , 102
22
≤ ,
F
b33
= 0.60 F
y
, (ASD F1-6)
for
y
b
T y
b
F
C
r
l
F
C 000 , 510 000 , 102
22
≤ < ,
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39 - 10 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
F
b33
=
]
]
]
]


b
T y
C
r l F
000 , 530 , 1
) / (
3
2
2
22
F
y
≤ 0.60 F
y
, and (ASD F1-6)
for
y
b
T
F
C
r
l 000 , 510
22
> ,
F
b33
=
]
]
]
]

2
22
) / (
000 , 170
T
b
r l
C
≤ 0.60 F
y
, (ASD F1-7)
and F
b33
is taken not to be less than that given by the following formula:
F
b33
=
( )
f
b
A d l
C
/
000 , 12
22
≤ 0.60 F
y
(ASD F1-8)
where,
r
T
is the radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange
and 1/3 the compression web taken about an axis in the plane of the web,
C
b
= 1.75 + 1.05
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
b
a
M
M
+ 0.3
2
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
b
a
M
M
≤ 2.3 , where (ASD F1.3)
M
a
and M
b
are the end moments of any unbraced segment of the member and
M
a
is numerically less than M
b
; M
a
/ M
b
being positive for double curvature
bending and negative for single curvature bending. Also, if any moment
within the segment is greater than M
b
, C
b
is taken as 1.0. Also, C
b
is taken as
1.0 for cantilevers and frames braced against joint translation (ASD F1.3).
The program defaults C
b
to 1.0 if the unbraced length, l
22
, of the member is
redefined by the user (i.e., it is not equal to the length of the member). The
user can overwrite the value of C
b
for any member by specifying it.
The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis
is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. Then the follow-
ing additional considerations are taken into account.
If the web is slender, the previously computed allowable bending stress is re-
duced as follows:
F'
b33
= R
PG
R
e
F
b33
, where (ASD G2-1)
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 11
R
PG
= 1.0 - 0.0005
]
]
]
]


33
760
b
f
w
F
t
h
A
A
≤ 1.0, (ASD G2)
R
e
=
f
w
f
w
A
A
A
A
2 12
) 3 ( 12
3
+
α − α +
≤ 1.0, (hybrid girders) (ASD G2)
R
e
= 1.0, (non-hybrid girders) (ASD G2)
A
w
= Area of web, in
2
,
A
f
= Area of compression flange, in
2
,
33
6 . 0
b
y
F
F
α ≤ 1.0 (ASD G2)
F
b33
=Allowable bending stress assuming the section is non-compact, and
F'
b33
=Allowable bending stress after considering web slenderness.
In the above expressions, R
e
is taken as 1, because currently the program
deals with only non-hybrid girders.
If the flange is slender, the previously computed allowable bending stress is
taken to be limited, as follows.
F'
b33
≤ Q
s
(0.6 F
y
), where (ASD A-B5.2a, A-B5.2d)
Q
s
is defined earlier.
Minor Axis of Bending
The minor direction allowable bending stress F
b22
is taken as follows:
For Compact sections:
F
b22
= 0.75 F
y
if f
y
≤ 65 ksi, (ASD F2-1)
F
b22
= 0.60 F
y
if f
y
> 65 ksi. (ASD F2-2)
For Noncompact and Slender sections:
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39 - 12 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
F
b22
=
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|

y
f
f
F
t
b
2
005 . 0 075 . 1 F
y
, if f
y
≤ 65 ksi, (ASD F2-3)
F
b22
= 0.60 F
y
if f
y
> 65 ksi. (ASD F2-2)
Channel Sections
For Channel sections, the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced
length, l
22
, which is compared to a critical length, l
c
. The critical length is de-
fined as
l
c
= min
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
¦
|
y
f
y
f
dF
A
F
b 000 , 20
,
76
, where (ASD F1-2)
A
f
is the area of compression flange.
Major Axis of Bending
If l
22
is less than l
c
, the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Non-
compact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or
rolled and whether f
y
is greater than 65 ksi or not.
For Compact sections:
F
b33
= 0.66 F
y
if f
y
≤ 65 ksi, (ASD F1-1)
F
b33
= 0.60 F
y
if f
y
> 65 ksi. (ASD F1-5)
For Noncompact sections:
F
b33
=
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|

y
f
f
F
t
b
002 . 0 79 . 0 F
y
, if rolled and f
y
≤ 65 ksi, (ASD F1-3)
F
b33
=
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|

c
y
f
f
k
F
t
b
002 . 0 79 . 0 F
y
, if welded and f
y
≤ 65 ksi, (ASD F1-4)
F
b33
= 0.60 F
y
if f
y
> 65 ksi. (ASD F1-5)
If the unbraced length l
22
is greater than l
c
, then for both Compact and Non-
compact Channel sections the allowable bending stress is taken as follows:
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 13
F
b33
=
) / (
000 , 12
22 f
b
A d l
C
≤ 0.60 F
y
(ASD F1-8)
The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis
is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. Then the follow-
ing additional considerations are taken into account.
If the web is slender, the previously computed allowable bending stress is re-
duced as follows:
F'
b33
= R
e
R
PG
F
b33
(ASD G2-1)
If the flange is slender, the previously computed allowable bending stress is
taken to be limited as follows:
F'
b33
= Q
s
(0.60 F
y
) (ASD A-B5.2a, A-B5.2d)
The definitions for r
T
, C
b
, A
f
, A
w
, R
e
, R
PG
, Q
s
, F
b33
, and F'
b33
are given earlier.
Minor Axis of Bending
The minor direction allowable bending stress F
b22
is taken as follows:
F
b22
= 0.60 F
y
(ASD F2-2)
T Sections and Double Angles
For T sections and Double angles, the allowable bending stress for both major
and minor axes bending is taken as,
F
b
= 0.60 F
y
Box Sections and Rectangular Tubes
For all Box sections and Rectangular tubes, the length parameter is taken as
the laterally unbraced length, l
22
, measured compared to a critical length, l
c
.
The critical length is defined as
l
c
= max
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
¦
|
+
y y
b a
F
b
F
b
M M
200 , 1
, ) / 200 , 1 950 , 1 ( (ASD F3-2)
where M
a
and M
b
have the same definition as noted earlier in the formula for
C
b
. If l
22
is specified by the user, l
c
is taken as
y
F
b 200 , 1
in the program.
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39 - 14 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Major Axis of Bending
If l
22
is less than l
c
, the allowable bending stress in the major direction of
bending is taken as:
F
b33
= 0.66 F
y
(for Compact sections) (ASD F3-1)
F
b33
= 0.60 F
y
(for Noncompact sections) (ASD F3-3)
If l
22
exceeds l
c
, the allowable bending stress in the major direction of bend-
ing for both Compact and Noncompact sections is taken as:
F
b33
= 0.60 F
y
(ASD F3-3)
The major direction allowable bending stress for Slender sections is deter-
mined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. Then the following addi-
tional consideration is taken into account. If the web is slender, the previously
computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows:
F'
b33
= R
e
R
PG
F
b33
(ASD G2-1)
The definitions for R
e,
R
PG,
F
b33
and F'
b33
are given earlier.
If the flange is slender, no additional consideration is needed in computing
allowable bending stress. However, effective section dimensions are calcu-
lated and the section modulus is modified according to its slenderness.
Minor Axis of Bending
If l
22
is less than l
c
, the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of
bending is taken as:
F
b22
= 0.66 F
y
(for Compact sections) (ASD F3-1)
F
b22
= 0.60 F
y
(for Noncompact and Slender sections) (ASD F3-3)
If l
22
exceeds l
c
, the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of bend-
ing is taken, irrespective of compactness, as:
F
b22
= 0.60 F
y
(ASD F3-3)
Pipe Sections
For Pipe sections, the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes
of bending is taken as
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 15
F
b
= 0.66 F
y
(for Compact sections), and (ASD F3-1)
F
b
= 0.60 F
y
(for Noncompact and Slender sections). (ASD F3-3)
Round Bars
The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of round
bars is taken as,
F
b
= 0.75 F
y
. (ASD F2-1)
Rectangular and Square Bars
The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of solid
square bars is taken as,
F
b
= 0.75 F
y
. (ASD F2-1)
For solid rectangular bars bent about their major axes, the allowable stress is
given by
F
b
= 0.60 F
y
, and
the allowable stress for minor axis bending of rectangular bars is taken as
F
b
= 0.75 F
y
. (ASD F2-1)
Single-Angle Sections
The allowable flexural stresses for Single-angles are calculated based on their
principal axes of bending (ASD SAM 5.3).
Major Axis of Bending
The allowable stress for major axis bending is the minimum considering the
limit state of lateral-torsional buckling and local buckling (ASD SAM 5.1).
The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of lat-
eral-torsional buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5.1.3):
F
b,major
=
]
]
]
]


y
ob
F
F
10 . 0 55 . 0 F
ob
, if F
ob
≤ F
y
(ASD SAM 5-3a)
F
b,major
=
]
]
]
]


ob
F
F
50 . 0 95 . 0 F
y
,≤ 0.66 F
y
if F
ob
> F
y
(ASD SAM 5-3b)
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39 - 16 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
where, F
ob
is the elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress as calculated below.
The elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress, F
ob
, for equal-leg angles is taken
as
F
ob
= C
b

t l /
250 , 28
(ASD SAM 5-5)
and for unequal-leg angles, F
ob
is calculated as
F
ob
=

143,100C
b
]
]
]

β + + β
w w
major
r lt
l S
I
2
min
2
2
min
) / ( 052 . 0
, (ASD SAM 5-6)
where,
t = min(t
w
, t
f
),
l = max(l
22
,l
33
),
I
min
= minor principal moment of inertia,
I
max
= major principal moment of inertia,
S
major
= major section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg,
r
min
= radius of gyration for minor principal axis,
β
w
=
o A
z dA z w z
I
2 ) (
1
2 2
max

]
]
]

+ ∫ , (ASD SAM 5.3.2)
z = coordinate along the major principal axis,
w = coordinate along the minor principal axis, and
z
o
= coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with
respect to the centroid.
β
w
is a special section property for angles. It is positive for short leg in com-
pression, negative for long leg in compression, and zero for equal-leg angles
(ASD SAM 5.3.2). However, for conservative design in the program, it is al-
ways taken as negative for unequal-leg angles.
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 17
In the previous expressions, C
b
is calculated in the same way as is done for I
sections, with the exception that the upper limit of C
b
is taken here as 1.5 in-
stead of 2.3.
C
b
= 1.75 + 1.05
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
b
a
M
M
+ 0.3
2
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
b
a
M
M
≤ 1.5 (ASD F1.3, SAM 5.2.2)
The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of lo-
cal buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5.1.1):
F
b,major
= 0.66 F
y
if
y
F
t
b 65
≤ , (ASD SAM 5-1a)
F
b,major
= 0.60 F
y
if
y y
F
t
b
F
76 65
≤ < (ASD SAM 5-1b)
F
b,major
= Q(0.60 F
y
) if
y
F
t
b 76
> (ASD SAM 5-1c)
where,
t = thickness of the leg under consideration,
b = length of the leg under consideration, and
Q = slenderness reduction factor for local buckling.(ASD A-B5-2, SAM 4)
In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state
of local buckling, the allowable stresses are calculated considering the fact
that either of the two tips can be under compression. The minimum allowable
stress is considered.
Minor Axis of Bending
The allowable minor bending stress for Single-angles is given as follows (ASD
SAM 5.1.1, 5.3.1b, 5.3.2b):
F
b,minor
= 0.66 F
y
if
y
F
t
b 65
≤ , (ASD SAM 5-1a)
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 39 - 18 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
F
b,minor
= 0.60 F
y
if
y y
F
t
b
F
76 65
≤ < (ASD SAM 5-1b)
F
b,minor
= Q(0.60 F
y
) if
y
F
t
b 76
> (ASD SAM 5-1c)
In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles, it is assumed
that the sign of the moment is such that both the tips are under compression.
The minimum allowable stress is considered.
General Sections
For General sections, the allowable bending stress for both major and minor
axes bending is taken as,
F
b
= 0.60 F
y
.
Allowable Stress in Shear
The allowable shear stress is calculated along the geometric axes for all sec-
tions. For I, Box, Channel, T, Double angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular
sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-
angle sections, principal axes do not coincide with the geometric axes.
Major Axis of Bending
The allowable shear stress for all sections except I, Box and Channel sections
is taken in the program as:
F
v
= 0.40 F
y
(ASD F4-1, SAM 3-1)
The allowable shear stress for major direction shears in I-shapes, boxes and
channels is evaluated as follows:
F
v
= 0.40 F
y
, if
y
w F
t
h 380
≤ , and (ASD F4-1)
F
v
=
y y
v
F F
C
40 . 0
89 . 2
≤ , if 260
380
≤ <
w
y
t
h
F
. (ASD F4-2)
where,
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses
Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 - 19
2
) / (
000 , 45
w y
v
t h F
k
if
y
v
w
F
k
t
h
250 , 56 ≥
C
v
=
y
v
w
F
k
t h
190
if
y
v
w
F
k
t
h
250 , 56 <
(ASD F4)
4.00+
2
) / (
34 . 5
h a
if 1 ≤
h
a
k
v
=
5.34+
2
) / (
00 . 4
h a
if
1 >
h
a
(ASD F4)
t
w
= Thickness of the web,
a = Clear distance between transverse stiffeners, in. Currently it is
taken conservatively as the length, l
22
, of the member in the pro-
gram,
h = Clear distance between flanges at the section, in.
Minor Axis of Bending
The allowable shear stress for minor direction shears is taken as:
F
v
= 0.40 F
y
(ASD F4-1, SAM 3-1)
Calculation of Stress Ratios Technical Note 40 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 40
Calculation of Stress Ratios
This Technical Note describes how the program calculates stress ratios. In the
calculation of the axial and bending stress ratios, first, for each station along
the length of the member, the actual stresses are calculated for each load
combination. Then the corresponding allowable stresses are calculated. Then,
the stress ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the
influence of each of the design load combinations. The controlling stress ratio
is then obtained, along with the associated station and load combination. A
stress ratio greater than 1.0 indicates an overstress.
During the design, the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not
considered.
Axial and Bending Stresses
With the computed allowable axial and bending stress values and the factored
axial and bending member stresses at each station, an interaction stress ratio
is produced for each of the load combinations as follows (ASD H1, H2, SAM
6):
ƒ If f
a
is compressive and f
a
/

F
a
, > 0.15, the combined stress ratio is given
by the larger of
22
22
22 22
33
33
33 33
'
1
'
1
b
e
a
b m
b
e
a
b m
a
a
F
F
f
f C
F
F
f
f C
F
f









+









+ , and (ASD H1-1, SAM 6.1)

22
22
33
33
) 60 . 0 (
b
b
b
b
y
a
F
f
F
f
F Q
f
+ + , where (ASD H1-2, SAM 6.1)
f
a
= axial stress
f
b33
= bending stress about the local 3-axis
Calculation of Stress Ratios Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 40 - 2 Calculation of Stress Ratios
C
m
=
f
b22
= bending stress about the local 2-axis
F
a
= allowable axial stress
F
b33
= allowable bending stress about the local 3-axis
F
b22
= allowable bending stress about the local 2-axis
C
m33
and C
m22
are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the
member length.
1.00 if length is overwritten,
1.00 if tension member,
0.85 if sway frame,
0.6-0.4 ,
b
a
M
M
if nonsway, no transverse loading (ASD H1)
0.85 if nonsway, trans. load, end restrained,
1.00 if nonsway, trans. load, end unrestrained
For sway frame, C
m
= 0.85; for nonsway frame without transverse load, C
m
= 0.6 - 0.4 M
a
/ M
b
; for nonsway frame with transverse load and end re-
strained compression member, C
m
= 0.85; and for nonsway frame with
transverse load and end unrestrained compression member, C
m
= 1.00
(ASD H1). In these cases, M
a
/ M
b
is the ratio of the smaller to the larger
moment at the ends of the member, M
a
/ M
b
being positive for double cur-
vature bending and negative for single curvature bending. When M
b
is zero,
C
m
is taken as 1.0. The program defaults C
m
to 1.0 if the unbraced length
factor, l, of the member is redefined by either the user or the program, i.e.,
if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member. The user
can overwrite the value of C
m
for any member. C
m
assumes two values,
C
m22
and C
m33
, associated with the major and minor directions.
F'
e
is given by
F'
e
=
2
2
) / ( 23
12
r Kl
E π
. (ASD H1)
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Stress Ratios
Calculation of Stress Ratios Technical Note 40 - 3
A factor of 4/3 is applied on F'
e
and 0.6F
y
if the load combination includes
any wind load or seismic load (ASD H1, ASD A5.2).
ƒ If f
a
is compressive and f
a
/

F
a
≤ 0.15, a relatively simplified formula is used
for the combined stress ratio.
22
22
33
33
b
b
b
b
a
a
F
f
F
f
F
f
+ + (ASD H1-3, SAM 6.1)
ƒ If f
a
is tensile or zero, the combined stress ratio is given by the larger of

22
22
33
33
b
b
b
b
a
a
F
f
F
f
F
f
+ + , and (ASD H2-1, SAM 6.2)
22
22
33
33
b
b
b
b
F
f
F
f
+ , where
f
a
, f
b33
, f
b22
, F
a
, F
b33
, and F
b22
are as defined earlier in this Technical Note.
However, either F
b33
or F
b22
need not be less than 0.6F
y
in the first equation
(ASD H2-1). The second equation considers flexural buckling without any
beneficial effect from axial compression.
For circular and pipe sections, an SRSS combination is first made of the two
bending components before adding the axial load component, instead of the
simple addition implied by the above formulae.
For Single-angle sections, the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the
properties about the principal axis (ASD SAM 5.3, 6.1.5). For I, Box, Channel,
T, Double-angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular sections, the principal axes
coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-angle sections, principal axes
are determined in the program. For general sections, no effort is made to
determine the principal directions.
When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads, allow-
able stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value
(ASD A5.2).
Calculation of Stress Ratios Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 40 - 4 Calculation of Stress Ratios
Shear Stresses
From the allowable shear stress values and the factored shear stress values
at each station, shear stress ratios for major and minor directions are com-
puted for each of the load combinations as follows:
v
v
F
f
2
, and
v
v
F
f
3
.
For Single-angle sections, the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions
along the geometric axis. For all other sections, the shear stress is calculated
along the principle axes that coincide with the geometric axes.
When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads, allow-
able shear stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable
value (ASD A5.2).
Input Data Technical Note 41 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 41
Input Data
This Technical Note describes the steel frame design input data for AISC-
ASD89. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click
the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. A printout
of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review
the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which pro-
gram design is based. Further information about using the Print Design Ta-
bles Form is provided at the end of this Technical Note.
Input Data
The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The
column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the
columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Material Property Data
Material Name Steel, concrete or other.
Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.
Design Type Concrete, steel or none. Postprocessor available if steel is
specified.
Material Dir/Plane "All" for isotropic materials; specify axis properties define for
orthotropic.
Modulus of Elasticity
Poisson's Ratio
Thermal Coeff
Shear Modulus
Material Property Mass and Weight
Material Name Steel, concrete or other.
Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 41 - 2 Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self mass of the structure.
Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate the self weight of the structure.
Material Design Data for Steel Materials
Material Name Steel.
Steel FY Minimum yield stress of steel.
Steel FU Maximum tensile stress of steel.
Steel Cost ($) Cost per unit weight used in composite beam design if optimum
beam size specified to be determined by cost.
Material Design Data for Concrete Materials
Material Name Concrete.
Lightweight Concrete Check this box if this is a lightweight concrete material.
Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.
Rebar FY Bending reinforcing yield stress.
Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing yield stress.
Lightwt Reduc Fact Define reduction factor if lightweight concrete box checked.
Usually between 0.75 ad 0.85.
Frame Section Property Data
Frame Section Name User specified or auto selected member name.
Material Name Steel, concrete or none.
Section Shape Name
or Name in Section
Database File
Name of section as defined in database files.
Section Depth Depth of the section.
Flange Width Top Width of top flange per AISC database.
Flange Thick Top Thickness of top flange per AISC database.
Web Thick Web thickness per AISC database.
Flange Width Bot Width of bottom flange per AISC database.
Flange Thick Bot Thickness of bottom flange per AISC database.
Section Area
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Input Data
Input Data Technical Note 41 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Torsional Constant
Moments of Inertia I33, I22
Shear Areas A2, A3
Section Moduli S33, S22
Plastic Moduli Z33, Z22
Radius of Gyration R33, R22
Load Combination Multipliers
Combo Load combination name.
Type Additive, envelope, absolute, or SRSS as defined in Define >
Load Combination.
Case Name(s) of case(s) to be included in this load combination.
Case Type Static, response spectrum, time history, static nonlinear, se-
quential construction.
Factor Scale factor to be applied to each load case.
Beam Steel Stress Check Element Information
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member section assigned.
Framing Type Moment frame or braced frame.
RLLF Factor Live load reduction factor.
L_Ratio Major Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
L_Ratio Minor Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
K Major Effective length factor.
K Minor Effective length factor.
Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
CM Major As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 41 - 4 Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
CM Minor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Cb Factor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-47.
Beam Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Fa If zero, yield stress defined for material property data used and
AISC-ASD specification Chapter E.
Ft If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD Chapter D.
Fb Major If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fb Minor If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fv Major If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fv Minor If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
CM Major As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
CM Minor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Cb Factor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-47.
Column Steel Stress Check Element Information
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Framing Type Moment Frame or Braced Frame
RLLF Factor Live load reduction factor.
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Input Data
Input Data Technical Note 41 - 5
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
L_Ratio Major Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
L_Ratio Minor Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
K Major Effective length factor.
K Minor Effective length factor.
Column Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
CM Major As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
CM Minor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-55.
Cb Factor As defined in AISC-ASD, page 5-47.
Column Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Fa If zero, yield stress defined for material property data used and
AISC-ASD specification Chapter E.
Ft If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD Chapter D.
Fb Major If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fb Minor If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fv Major If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Fv Minor If zero, as defined for material property data used and AISC-
ASD specification Chapter F.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File menu
> Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Input Sum-
Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 41 - 6 Input Data
mary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send
the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button
to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the
Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print steel frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check box
on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename button to change the
path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing
Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Steel Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box will
be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
Output Details Technical Note 42 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 42
Output Details
This Technical Note describes the steel frame design output for AISC-ASD89
that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed
when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design com-
mand and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Further
information about using the Print Design Tables form is provided at the end of
this Technical Note.
The program provides the output data in a table. The column headings for
output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the table
are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Beam Steel Stress Check Output
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Moment Interaction Check
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress.
Axl Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress.
B33 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 33 axis.
B22 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 22 axis.
Output Details Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 42 - 2 Output Details
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Shear22
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 22 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Shear33
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 33 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Column Steel Stress Check Output
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Moment Interaction Check
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress.
AXL Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress.
B33 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 33 axis.
B22 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 22 axis.
Shear22
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 22 axis.
Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Output Details
Output Details Technical Note 42 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Shear33
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 33 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print steel frame design output data directly to a printer, use the File
menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Out-
put Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button
to send the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK
button to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and
the Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print steel frame design output data to a file, click the Print to File check
box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename button to change the
path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing
Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
Output Details Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89
Technical Note 42 - 4 Output Details
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Steel Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box will
be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
General and Notation Technical Note 43 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 43
General and Notation
Introduction to the AISC-LRFD93 Series of Technical
Notes
The AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes the
details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms used by this
program when the user selects the AISC-LRFD93 design code. The various
notations used in this series are described herein.
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. To facilitate use,
the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy
requirements for the design of most building type structures. See AISC-
LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 46 Design Load Combinations for
more information.
In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station
along the length of the member, first, the actual member force/moment com-
ponents and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combi-
nation. Then, the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the in-
fluence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are
defined in this Technical Note. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained.
A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. Similarly, a
shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. Algorithms for completing
these calculations are described in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Techni-
cal Note 48 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments, Technical Note 49
Calculation of Nominal Strengths, and Technical Note 50 Calculation of Ca-
pacity Ratios.
Further information is available from AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Tech-
nical Note 47 Classification of Sections.
The program uses preferences and overwrites, which are described in AISC-
LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 44 Preferences and Technical Note
45 Overwrites. It also provides input and output data summaries, which are
General and Notation Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 43 - 2 General and Notation
described in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 51 Input Data
and Technical Note 52 Output Details.
Notation
A Cross-sectional area, in
2
A
e
Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections, in
2
A
g
Gross cross-sectional area, in
2
A
v2
,A
v3
Major and minor shear areas, in
2
A
w
Shear area, equal dt
w
per web, in
2
B
1
Moment magnification factor for moments not causing side-
sway
B
2
Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway
C
b
Bending coefficient
C
m
Moment coefficient
C
w
Warping constant, in
6
D Outside diameter of pipes, in
E Modulus of elasticity, ksi
F
cr
Critical compressive stress, ksi
F
r
Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10.0 for rolled
sections and 16.5 for welded sections, ksi
F
y
Yield stress of material, ksi
G Shear modulus, ksi
I
22
Minor moment of inertia, in
4
I
33
Major moment of inertia, in
4
J Torsional constant for the section, in
4
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation
General and Notation Technical Note 43 - 3
K Effective length factor
K
33
,K
22
Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions
L
b
Laterally unbraced length of member, in
L
p
Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity, in
L
r
Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional
buckling, in
M
cr
Elastic buckling moment, kip-in
M
lt
Factored moments causing sidesway, kip-in
M
nt
Factored moments not causing sidesway, kip-in
M
n33
,M
n22
Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions, kip-
in
M
ob
Elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment for angle sections,
kip-in
M
r33
, M
r22
Major and minor limiting buckling moments, kip-in
M
u
Factored moment in member, kip-in
M
u33
, M
u22
Factored major and minor moments in member, kip-in
P
e
Euler buckling load, kips
P
n
Nominal axial load strength, kip
P
u
Factored axial force in member, kips
P
y
A
g
F
y
, kips
Q Reduction factor for slender section, = Q
a
Q
s

Q
a
Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements
Q
s
Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements
S Section modulus, in
3
General and Notation Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 43 - 4 General and Notation
S
33
,S
22
Major and minor section moduli, in
3
S
eff,33
,S
eff,22
Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections,
in
3
S
c
Section modulus for compression in an angle section, in
3
V
n2
,V
n3
Nominal major and minor shear strengths, kips
V
u2
,V
v3
Factored major and minor shear loads, kips
Z Plastic modulus, in
3
Z
33
,Z
22
Major and minor plastic moduli, in
3
b Nominal dimension of plate in a section, in
longer leg of angle sections,
b
f


― 2t
w
for welded and b
f


― 3t
w
for rolled box sections, etc.
b
e
Effective width of flange, in
b
f
Flange width, in
d Overall depth of member, in
d
e
Effective depth of web, in
h
c
Clear distance between flanges less fillets, in
assumed d ― 2k for rolled sections, and d

― 2t
f
for welded
sections
k Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet, in
k
c
Parameter used for section classification,

w
t h 4 , 0.35 ≤ k
c
≤ 0.763
l
33
,l
22
Major and minor directions unbraced member lengths, in
r Radius of gyration, in
r
33
,r
22
Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions, in
t Thickness, in
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation
General and Notation Technical Note 43 - 5
t
f
Flange thickness, in
t
w
Thickness of web, in
β
w
Special section property for angles, in
λ Slenderness parameter
λ
c

e
Column slenderness parameters
λ
p
Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element
λ
r
Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element
λ
s
Limiting slenderness parameter for seismic element
λ
slender
Limiting slenderness parameter for slender element
ϕ
b
Resistance factor for bending, 0.9
ϕ
c
Resistance factor for compression, 0.85
ϕ
t
Resistance factor for tension, 0.9
ϕ
v
Resistance factor for shear, 0.9
Preferences Technical Note 44 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 44
Preferences
This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.
General
The steel frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments
that apply to all steel frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer-
ences > Steel Frame Design command to access the Preferences form
where you can view and revise the steel frame design preferences.
Default values are provided for all steel frame design preference items. Thus,
it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You
should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items
to make sure they are acceptable to you.
Using the Preferences Form
To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Steel
Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options
are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spread-
sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet
displays the preference item value.
To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either
the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or
highlights the current preference value. If the drop-down box appears, select
a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer-
ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop-
down boxes.
When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences,
click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the
changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit
the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is
closed.
Preferences Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 44 - 2 Preferences
Preferences
For purposes of explanation, the preference items are presented in Table 1.
The column headings in the table are described as follows:
ƒ Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the
left side of the Preferences form.
ƒ Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item
can have.
ƒ Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for
the associated preference item.
ƒ Description: A description of the associated preference item.
Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Design Code Any code in the
program
AISC-
ASD89
Design code used for design of
steel frame elements.
Time History
Design
Envelopes,
Step-by-Step
Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations
that include a time history designed for
the envelope of the time history, or de-
signed step-by-step for the entire time
history. If a single design load combi-
nation has more than one time history
case in it, that design load combination
is designed for the envelopes of the
time histories, regardless of what is
specified here.
Frame Type Moment Frame,
Braced Frame
Moment
Frame
Stress Ratio
Limit
>0 0.95 Program will select members from the
auto select list with stress ratios less
than or equal to this value.
Maximum Auto
Iteration
≥1 1 Sets the number of iterations of the
analysis-design cycle that the program
will complete automatically assuming
that the frame elements have been as-
signed as auto select sections.
Overwrites Technical Note 45 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 45
Overwrites
General
The steel frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to
those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes
steel frame design overwrites for AISC-LRFD93. To access the overwrites,
select an element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites command.
Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to
specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default
values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When
changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only
to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele-
ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.
Overwrites
For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented
in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.
ƒ Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To
save space in the forms, these names are generally short.
ƒ Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item
can have.
ƒ Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associ-
ated overwrite item. If the default value is given in the table with an asso-
ciated note "Program Calculated," the value is shown by the program before
the design is performed. After design, the values are calculated by the pro-
gram and the default is modified by the program-calculated value.
ƒ Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.
Overwrites Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 45 - 2 Overwrites
An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this
Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Current Design
Section
Indicates selected member size used in
current design.
Element Type Moment
Frame,
Braced Frame
From
Preferences
Live Load
Reduction
Factor
≥0 1
Live load is multiplied by this factor.
Horizontal
Earthquake
Factor
≥0 1
Earthquake loads are multiplied by this
factor.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Major)
≥0 1
Ratio of unbraced length divided by
total length.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Minor, LTB)
≥0 1
Ratio of unbraced length divided by
total length.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Major)
≥0 1
As defined in AISC-LRFD Table C-
C2.1, page 6-184.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Minor)
≥0 1
As defined in AISC-LRFD Table C-
C2.1, page 6-184.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Major)
≥0 0.85
As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Minor)
≥0 0.85
As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Bending
Coefficient
(Cb)
≥0 1
As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter F.
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites
Overwrites Technical Note 45 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
NonSway
Moment
Factor
(B1 Major)
≥0
1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
NonSway
Moment
Factor
(B1 Minor)
≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Sway Moment
Factor
(B2 Major)
≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Sway Moment
Factor
(B2 Minor)
≥0
1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification
Chapter C.
Yield stress, Fy ≥0 0 If zero, yield stress defined for material
property data used.
Compressive
Capacity,
phi*Pnc
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter E.
Tensile
Capacity,
phi*Pnt
≥0
0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter D.
Major Bending
Capacity,
phi*Mn3
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter F and G.
Minor Bending
Capacity,
phi*Mn2
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter F and G.
Major Shear
Capacity,
phi*Vn2
≥0
0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter F.
Minor Shear
Capacity,
phi*Vn3
≥0 0 If zero, as defined for Material Property
Data used and per AISC-LRFD specifi-
cation Chapter F.
Overwrites Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 45 - 4 Overwrites
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form
To access the steel frame overwrites, select a frame element and click the
Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com-
mand.
The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a
two-column spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the
name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the
overwrites values.
Initially, the check boxes in the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form are all
unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to
indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.
The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the
spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second col-
umn of the spreadsheet if only one frame element was selected before the
overwrites form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values
show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.
After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over-
write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to
activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col-
umn of the spreadsheet. If the drop-down box appears, select a value from
the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The
overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop-
down boxes.
When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to
close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose
associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click
the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the
Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig-
nored and the form is closed.
Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values
Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites
command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results
will be deleted when this command is executed.
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites
Overwrites Technical Note 45 - 5
Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the
overwrite items are built into the program. The steel frame overwrite values
that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different
from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites, the pro-
gram resets the overwrite values to its built-in values, not to the values that
were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.
Design Load Combinations Technical Note 46 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA NOVEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 46
Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be checked. For the AISC-LRFD93 code, if a
structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live load (LL), wind load (WL), and
earthquake induced load (EL), and considering that wind and earthquake
forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be defined
(LRFDA4.1):
1.4DL (LRFD A4-1)
1.2DL + 1.6LL (LRFD A4-2)
0.9DL ± 1.3WL (LRFD A4-6)
1.2DL ± 1.3WL (LRFD A4-4)
1.2DL + 0.5LL ± 1.3WL (LRFD A4-4)
0.9DL ± 1.0 EL (LRFD A4-6)
1.2DL ± 1.0 EL (LRFD A4-4)
1.2DL + 0.5LL ± EL (LRFD A4-4)
These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever
the AISC-LRFD93 code is used. The user should use other appropriate loading
combinations if roof live load is separately treated, if other types of loads are
present, or if pattern live loads are to be considered.
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live
load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the
live load to the factored loading. See AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Tech-
nical Note 45 Overwrites for more information.
When using the AISC-LRFD93 code, the program design assumes that a P-
delta analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for
moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. It is recommended that the
P-delta analysis be performed at the factored load level of 1.2DL plus 0.5LL
(White and Hajjar 1991).
Design Load Combinations Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 46 - 2 Design Load Combinations
Reference
White, D.W. and J.F. Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analy-
sis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Engineering Journal. American In-
stitute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28. No. 4.
Classification of Sections Technical Note 47 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 47
Classification of Sections
This Technical Note explains the classification of sections when the user se-
lects the AISC-LRFD93 design code.
The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on
the classification of the section as Compact, Noncompact, Slender, or Too
Slender. The program classifies individual members according to the limiting
width/thickness ratios given in Table 1 and Table 2 (LRFD B5.1, A-G1, Table
A-F1.1). The definition of the section properties required in these tables is
given in Figure 1 and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 43
General and Notation. Moreover, special considerations are required regarding
the limits of width-thickness ratios for Compact sections in Seismic zones and
Noncompact sections with compressive force as given in Table 2. If the limits
for Slender sections are not met, the section is classified as Too Slender.
Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of this pro-
gram.
In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes, Box, and Channel sections, it is
assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners. Double angles are conser-
vatively assumed to be separated.
Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 47 - 2 Classification of Sections
Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections in
Flexure Based on AISC-LRFD
Description
of Section
Check
λ
COMPACT
(λp)
NONCOMPACT
λr
SLENDER
(λslender)
bf / 2tf
(rolled)
≤ 65 /
y
F
≤ 141 /
0 . 10 −
y
F
No limit
bf / 2tf
(welded)
≤ 65 /
y
F
≤ 162 /
c
y
k
F 5 . 16 −
No limit
I-SHAPE
hc / tw
For Pu / ϕbPy ≤ 0.125,

J
J
J
·
'
'
(
|
ϕ

y b
u
y
P
P
F
75 . 2
1
640
For Pu / ϕbPy > 0.125,
J
J
J
·
'
'
(
|
ϕ

y b
u
y
P
P
F
33 . 2
191

y
F
253

]
]
]
]

ϕ

y b
u
P
P
F
74 . 0 1
970
260
) 5 . 16 (
000 , 14

+
y y
F F
BOX
b / tf
hc / tw
≤ 190 /
y
F
As for I-shapes
≤ 238 /
y
F
As for I-shapes
No limit
≤ 970 /
y
F
CHANNEL
bf / tf
hc / tw
As for I-shapes
As for I-shapes
As for I-shapes
As for I-shapes
No limit
As for I-shapes
T-SHAPE
bf / 2tf
d / tw
As for I-shapes
Not applicable
As for I-shapes
≤ 127 /
y
F
No limit
No limit
ANGLE b / t Not applicable
≤ 76 /
y
F
No limit
DOUBLE-
ANGLE
(Separated)
b / t Not applicable
≤ 76 /
y
F No limit
PIPE D / t ≤ 2,070 / Fy
≤ 8,970 /
y
F
≤ 13,000 / Fy
(Compression only)
No limit for flexure
ROUND
BAR
÷ Assumed Compact
RECTAN-
GULAR
÷ Assumed Compact
GENERAL ÷ Assumed Compact



Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Classification of Sections
Classification of Sections Technical Note 47 - 3
Table 2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections
(Special Cases) Based on AISC-LRFD
Description
of Section
Width-
Thickness
Ratio
λ
NONCOMPACT
(Uniform Compression)
(M22 ≈ ≈≈ ≈ M33 ≈ ≈≈ ≈ 0)
(λr)
bf / 2tf
(rolled)
≤ 95 /
y
F
bf / 2tf
(welded)
≤ 95 /
y
F
I-SHAPE
hc / tw ≤ 253 /
y
F
BOX
b / tf
hc / tw
≤ 238 /
y
F
≤ 253 /
y
F
CHANNEL
bf / tf
hc / tw
As for I-shapes
As for I-shapes
T-SHAPE
bf / 2tf
d / tw
As for I-shapes
≤ 127 /
y
F
ANGLE b / t ≤ 76 /
y
F
DOUBLE-ANGLE
(Separated)
b / t ≤ 76 /
y
F
PIPE D / t ≤ 3,300 /
y
F
ROUND BAR
÷
Assumed Compact
RECTANGULAR
÷
Assumed Noncompact
GENERAL
÷
Assumed Noncompact
Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 47 - 4 Classification of Sections
AISC-LRFD93: Axes Conventions
2-2 is the cross section axis parallel to the webs,
the longer dimension of tubes,
the longer leg of single angles, or
the side by side legs of double angles.
This is the same as the y-y axis.
3-3 is orthogonal to 2-2. This is the same as the
x-x axis.
2, y
2, y
3, x 3, x
Figure 1 AISC-LRFD Definition of Geometric Properties
Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Technical Note 48 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 48
Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
This Technical Note describes how the program calculates factored forces and
moments.
The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are
P
u
, M
u33
, M
u22
, V
u2
, and V
u3
, corresponding to factored values of the axial load,
the major moment, the minor moment, the major direction shear force and
the minor direction force, respectively. These factored loads are calculated at
each of the previously defined stations.
For loading combinations that cause compression in the member, the factored
moment M
u
(M
u33
and M
u22
in corresponding directions) is magnified to con-
sider second order effects. The magnified moment in a particular direction is
given by:
M
u
= B
1
M
nt
+ B
2
M
lt
, where (LRFD C1-1, SAM 6)
B
1
= Moment magnification factor for non-sidesway moments,
B
2
= Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments,
M
nt
= Factored moments not causing sidesway, and
M
lt
= Factored moments causing sidesway.
The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding direc-
tions. The moment magnification factor B
1
for moments not causing sidesway
is given by
B
1
=
) / 1 (
e u
m
P P
C

≥ 1.0, where (LRFD C1-2, SAM 6-2)
P
e
is the Euler buckling load (P
e
=
2
λ
y g
F A
, with )
E
F
r
Kl y
π
= λ , and
C
m33
and C
m22
are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the
member length.
Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 48 - 2 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
1.00 if length is overwritten,
1.00 if tension member,
1.00 if end unrestrained,
0.6-0.4
b
a
M
M
if no transverse loading
0.85 if trans. load, end restrained
1.00 if trans. load, end unrestrained
M
a
/ M
b
is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the
member; M
a
/ M
b
being positive for double curvature bending and nega-
tive for single curvature bending. For tension members, C
m
is assumed as
1.0. For compression members with transverse load on the member, C
m
is
assumed as 1.0 for members with any unrestrained end and as 0.85 for
members with two unrestrained ends. When M
b
is zero, C
m
is taken as 1.0.
The program defaults C
m
to 1.0 if the unbraced length factor, l, of the
member is redefined by either the user or the program, i.e., if the un-
braced length is not equal to the length of the member. The user can
overwrite the value of C
m
for any member. C
m
assumes two values, C
m22
and C
m33
, associated with the major and minor directions.
The magnification factor B
1
must be a positive number. Therefore P
u
must be
less than P
e
. If P
u
is found to be greater than or equal to P
e
, a failure condition
is declared.
The program design assumes the analysis includes P-delta effects; therefore,
B
2
is taken as unity for bending in both directions. It is suggested that the P-
delta analysis be performed at the factored load level of 1.2 DL plus 0.5 LL
(LRFD C2.2). See also White an Hajjar (1991).
For single angles, where the principal axes of bending are not coincident with
the geometric axes (2-2 and 3-3), the program conservatively uses the
maximum of K
22
l
22
and K
33
l
33
for determining the major and minor direction
Euler buckling capacity.
C
m
=
(LRFD C1-3)
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments
Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Technical Note 48 - 3
If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural
model or member, the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of
B
1
and B
2
for any member.
Reference
White, D.W. and J. F. Hajjar. 1991. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analy-
sis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Engineering Journal. American In-
stitute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28, No. 4.
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49
Calculation of Nominal Strengths
This Technical Note describes how the program calculates nominal strengths
in compression, tension, bending, and shear for Compact, Noncompact, and
Slender sections.
Overview
The nominal strengths in compression, tension, bending, and shear are com-
puted for Compact, Noncompact, and Slender sections according to the fol-
lowing subsections. The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections
are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. For the Rectangular,
I, Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe, T, and Double-angle sections, the principal
axes coincide with their geometric axes. For the Angle Sections, the principal
axes are determined and all computations except shear are based on that.
For Single-angle sections, the nominal shear strengths are calculated for di-
rections along the geometric axes. For all other sections, the shear stresses
are calculated along their geometric and principal axes.
The strength reduction factor, ϕ, is taken as follows (LRFD A5.3):
ϕ
t
= Resistance factor for tension, 0.9 (LRFD D1, H1, SAM 2, 6)
ϕ
c
= Resistance factor for compression, 0.85 (LRFD E2, E3, H1)
ϕ
c
= Resistance factor for compression in angles, 0.90 (LRFD SAM 4,6)
ϕ
b
= Resistance factor for bending, 0.9 (LRFD F1, H1, A-F1, A-G2, SAM 5)
ϕ
v
= Resistance factor for shear, 09 (LRFD F2, A-F2, A-G3, SAM 3)
If the user specifies nonzero factored strengths for one or more of the
elements on the Steel Frame Overwrites form, these values will over-
ride the calculated values for those elements. The specified factored
strengths should be based on the principal axes of bending.
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 2 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Compression Capacity
The nominal compression strength is the minimum value obtained from flex-
ural buckling, torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The strengths
are determined according to the following subsections.
For members in compression, if Kl/r is greater than 200, a message to that
effect is printed (LRFD B7, SAM 4). For single angles, the minimum radius of
gyration, r
z
, is used instead of r
22
and r
33
in computing Kl/r.
Flexural Buckling
The nominal axial compression strength, P
n
, depends on the slenderness ra-
tio, Kl/r, and its critical value, λ
c
, where
r
Kl
= max
|
|
|
|
¦
|
22
22 22
33
33 33
,
r
l K
r
l K
, and
λ
c
=
E
F
r
Kl y
π
. (LRFD E2-4, SAM 4)
For single angles, the minimum radius of gyration, r
z
, is used instead of r
22
and r
33
in computing Kl/r.
P
n
for Compact or Noncompact sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as
follows:
P
n
= A
g
F
cr
, where (LRFD E2-1)
F
cr
= (0.658
2
c
λ
)F
y
, for λ
c
≤ 1.5, and (LRFD E2-2)
F
cr
=
y
c
F
]
]
]
]

λ
2
877 . 0
, for λ
c
> 1.5 (LRFD E2-3)
P
n
for Slender sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows:
P
n
= A
g
F
cr
, where (LRFD A-B3d, SAM 4)
F
cr
= Q(0.658
2
c

)F
y
, for λ
c Q
≤ 1.5, and (LRFD A-B5-15, SAM 4-1)
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 3
F
cr
=
y
c
F
]
]
]
]

λ
2
877 . 0
, for λ
c Q
> 1.5 (LRFD E2-3)
The reduction factor, Q, for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as
1. For slender sections, Q is computed as follows:
Q = Q
s
Q
a
, where (LRFD A-B5-17, SAM 4)
Q
s
= reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements, and(LRFD A-B5.3a)
Q
a
= reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. (LRFD A-B5.3c)
The Q
s
factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table 1
(LRFD A-B5.3a). The Q
a
factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio
of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area (LRFD A-
B5.3c).
Q
a
=
s
e
A
A
(LRFD A-B5-14)
The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as
follows:
A
e
= A
g
- ∑(b-b
e
)t
b
e
for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b, and b
e
for stiffened elements
is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table 2 (LRFD A-B5.3b). For webs
in I, Box, and Channel sections, h
e
is used as b
e
and h is used as b in the
above equation.
Flexural-Torsonal Buckling
P
n
for flexural-torsional buckling of Double-angle and T-shaped compression
members whose elements have width-thickness ratios less than λ
r
is given by
P
n
= A
g
F
crft
, where (LRFD E3-1)
F
crft
=
]
]
]
]

+
− −
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
| +
2
2
2 2
) (
4
1 1
2
crz cr
crz cr crz cr
F F
H F F
H
F F
, where (LRFD E3-1)
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 4 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Table 1 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements, Q
s
Section
Type
Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements
(Qs)
Equation
Reference
1.0 if bf/2tf ≤ 95 /
y
F
,
Qs = 1.415 - 0.00437[bf/2tf]
y
F
if 95 /
y
F
< bf/2tf <176 /
y
F
,
20,000 / {[bf/2tf]
2
Fy} if bf/2tf ≥ 176 /
y
F
.
LRFD A-B5-5,
LRFD A-B5-6
I-SHAPE
1.0 if bf/2tf ≤ 109 /
c y
k F
Qs = 1.415 - 0.00381[bf/2tf]
c y
k F
if 109 /
c y
k F
< bf/2tf <200 /
c y
k F
26,200kc / {[bf/2tf]
2
Fy} if bf/2tf ≥ 200 /
c y
k F
.
LRFD A-B5-7,
LRFD A-B5-8
BOX Qs = 1 LRFD A-B5.3d
CHANNEL As for I-shapes with bf / 2tf replaced by bf / tf
LRFD A-B5-5,
LRFD A-B5-6,
LRFD A-B5-7,
LRFD A-B5-8
T-SHAPE
For flanges, as for flanges in I-shapes. For web, see below.
1.0 if d/tw ≤ 127 /
y
F
,
Qs = 1.908 - 0.00715[d/tw]
y
F
if 127 /
y
F
< d/tw <176 /
y
F
,
20,000

/ {[d/t
w
]
2
F
y
} if d/t
w ≥ 176 /
y
F
.
LRFD A-B5-5,
LRFD A-B5-6,
LRFD A-B5-7,
LRFD A-B5-8,
LRFD A-B5-9,
LRFD A-B5-10
DOUBLE-
ANGLE
(Separated)
1.0 if b/t ≤ 76 /
y
F
,
Qs = 1.340 - 0.00447[b/t]
y
F
if 76 /
y
F
< b/t <155 /
y
F
,
15,500 / {[b/t]
2
F
y
} if b/t
≥ 155 /
y
F
.
LRFD A-B5-3
LRFD A-B5-4
ANGLE
1.0 if b/t ≤ 0.446 /
E F
y
/
,
Qs = 1.34 - 0.761[b/t]
E F
y
/
if 0.446
E F
y
/
< b/t <0.910 /
E F
y
/
,
0.534

/ {[b/t]
2
[F
y
/E]} if b/t
≥ 0.910 /
E F
y
/
.
LRFD SAM4-3
PIPE Qs = 1 LRFD A-B5.3d
ROUND
BAR
Qs = 1 LRFD A-B5.3d
RECTAN-
GULAR
Qs = 1 LRFD A-B5.3d
GENERAL Qs = 1 LRFD A-B5.3d
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 5
Table 2 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections
Section
Type
Effective Width for Stiffened Sections
Equation
Reference
I-SHAPE
h if
f
t
h
w
253

,
]
]
]
]


f t h f
t
w
w
) (
2 . 57
1
326
if
f
t
h
w
253
>
LRFD A-B5-12
BOX
h if
f
t
h
w
253

,
]
]
]
]


f t h f
t
w
w
) (
2 . 57
1
326
if
f
t
h
w
253
>
b, if
f
t
h
w
238

,
]
]
]
]


f t b f
t
f
f
) (
9 . 64
1
326
if
f
t
b
f
238
>
LRFD A-B5-12
LRFD A-B5-11
CHANNEL
h if
f
t
h
w
253

,
]
]
]
]


f t h f
t
w
w
) (
2 . 57
1
326
if
f
t
h
w
253
>
LRFD A-B5-12
T-SHAPE be - b LRFD A-B5.3B
DOUBLE-
ANGLE
(Separated)
be - b LRFD A-B5.3B
ANGLE be - b LRFD A-B5.3B
PIPE
1, if
y
F t
D 300 , 3


3
2
) (
100 , 1
+
y
F t D
if
y
F t
D 300 , 3
>
LRFD A-B5-13
ROUND
BAR
Not applicable ÷
RECTAN-
GULAR
be - b LRFD A-B5.3b
GENERAL Not applicable ÷
h
e
=
(compression only, f =
)
g
A
P
(compression only, f =
)
g
A
P
(compr. or flexure, f = Fy)
h
e
=
b
e
=
h
e
=
(compression only, f =
)
g
A
P
(compression only) Q
a
=
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 6 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
F
crz
=
2
o
Ar
GJ
H = 1-
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
+
2
2 2
o
o o
r
y x
,
r
o
= Polar radius of gyration about the shear center,
x
o
, y
o
are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the
centroid, x
o
= 0 for double angle and T-shaped members (y-
axis of symmetry),
F
cr2
is determined according to the equation LRFD E2-1 for flexural
buckling about the minor axis of symmetry for λ
c
=
E
F
r
Kl y
22
π
.
Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling
The strength of a compression member, P
n
, determined by the limit states of
torsional and flexural-torsional buckling, is determined as follows:
P
n
= A
g
F
cr
, where (LRFD A-E3-1)
F
cr
= Q(0.658
2
e

)F
y
, for λ
e
Q ≤ 1.5, and (LRFD A-E3-2)
F
cr
=
]
]
]
]

λ
2
877 . 0
e
F
y
, for λ
e
Q > 1.5. (LRFD A-E3-3)
In the above equations, the slenderness parameter λ
e
is calculated as
λ
e =
e
y
F
F
, (LRFD A-E3-4)
where F
e
is calculated as follows:
ƒ For Rectangular, I, Box and Pipe sections:
F
e
=
33 22
2
2
1
) (
I I
GJ
l K
EC
z z
w
+
]
]
]
]

+
π
(LRFD A-E3-5)
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 7
ƒ For T-sections and Double-angles:
F
e
=
]
]
]
]

+
− −
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
| +
2
22
22 22
) (
4
1 1
2
ez e
ez e ez e
F F
H F F
H
F F
(LRFD A-E3-6)
ƒ For Channels:
F
e
=
]
]
]
]

+
− −
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
| +
2
33
33 33
) (
4
1 1
2
ez e
ez e ez e
F F
H F F
H
F F
(LRFD A-E3-6)
ƒ For Single-angle sections with equal legs:
F
e
=
]
]
]
]

+
− −
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
| +
2
33
33 33
) (
4
1 1
2
ez e
ez e ez e
F F
H F F
H
F F
(LRFD A-E3-6)
ƒ For Single-angle sections with unequal legs, F
e
is calculated as the mini-
mum real root of the following cubic equation (LRFD A-E3-7):
(F
e
- F
e33
)(F
e
- F
e22
)(F
e
- F
ez
) - F
2
e
(F
e
-F
e22
)
2
2
o
o
r
x
-F
2
e
(F
e
- F
e33
)
2
2
o
o
r
y
= 0
where
x
o
,y
o
are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the center-
oid, x
o
= 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members (y-axis sym-
metry),
r
o
=
g
o o
A
I I
y x
33 22 2 2
+
+ + = polar radius of gyration about the shear
center,
H = 1-
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
+
2
2 2
o
o o
r
y x
, (LRFD A-E3-9)
F
e33
=
2
33 33 33
2
) / ( r l K
E π
(LRFD A-E3-10)
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 8 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
F
e22
=
2
22 22 22
2
) / ( r l K
E π
(LRFD A-E3-11)
F
ez
=
2
0
2
2
1
) ( Ar
GJ
l K
EC
z z
w
]
]
]
]

+
π
(LRFD A-E3-12)
K
22
, K
33
are effective length factors in minor and major directions,
K
z
is the effective length factor for torsional buckling, and it is taken equal
to K
22
in this program,
l
22
, l
33
are effective lengths in the minor and major directions,
l
z
is the effective length for torsional buckling and it is taken equal to l
22
.
For angle sections, the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are
used for computing F
e
. Also, the maximum value of Kl, i.e., max (K
22
,l
22
,
K
33
,l
33
), is used in place of K
22
l
22
or K
33
l
33
in calculating F
e22
and F
e33
in this
case.
Tension Capacity
The nominal axial tensile strength value P
n
is based on the gross cross-
sectional area and the yield stress.
P
n
= A
g
F
y
(LRFD D1-1)
It should be noted that no net section checks are made. For members
in tension, if l/r is greater than 300, a message to that effect is printed (LRFD
B7, SAM 2). For single angles, the minimum radius gyration, r
z
, is used in-
stead of r
22
and r
33
in computing Kl/r.
Nominal Strength in Bending
The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geomet-
ric shape of the cross-section; the axis of bending; the compactness of the
section; and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling. The
nominal strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their
principal axes of bending. For the Rectangular, I, Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe,
T, and Double-angle sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric
axes. For the Single-angle sections, the principal axes are determined, and all
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 9
computations related to flexural strengths are based on that. The nominal
bending strength is the minimum value obtained according to the limit states
of yielding, lateral-torsional buckling, flange local buckling, and web local
buckling, as follows:
Yielding
The flexural design strength of beams, determined by the limit state of yield-
ing, is:
M
p
= ZF
y
≤ 1.5 S F
y
(LRFD F1-1)
Lateral-Torsional Buckling
Doubly Symmetric Shapes and Channels
For I, Channel, Box, and Rectangular shaped members bent around the major
axis, the moment capacity is given by the following equation (LRFD F1):
M
p33
if L
b
≤ L
p
M
n33
= C
b

]
]
]
]

J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|


− −
p r
p b
r p p
L L
L L
M M M ) (
33 33 33
≤ M
p33
if L
p
< L
b
≤ L
r
M
cr33
≤ M
p33
if L
b
> L
r
.
(LRFD F1-1, F1-2, F1-12)
where,
M
n33
= Nominal major bending strength
M
p33
= Major plastic moment, Z
33
F
y
≤ 1.5 S
33
F
y
, (LRFD F1.1)
M
r33
= Major limiting buckling moment
(F
y
- F
r
)S
33
for I-shapes and channels, (LRFD F1-7)
and F
y
S
eff,33
for rectangular bars and boxes (LRFD F1-11)
M
cr33
= Critical elastic moment,
w
b b
b
C I
L
E
GJ EI
L
C
22
2
22
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
π
+
π
for I-shapes and
channels and (LRFD F1-13)
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 10 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
22
000 , 57
r L
JA C
b
b
for boxes and rectangular bars (LRFD F1-14)
L
b
= Laterally unbraced length, l
22
L
p
= Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity,
y
F
r
22
300
for I-shapes and channels, and (LRFD F1-4)
JA
M
r
p33
22
750 , 3
for boxes and rectangular bars, (LRFD F1-5)
L
r
= Limiting laterally unbraced length for
inelastic lateral-torsional buckling,
( ) [ ]
2
1
2
1
2
2
1 22
1 1
|
|
|
|
¦
|
− + +

r y
r y
F F X
F F
X r
for I-shapes and
channels, and (LRFD F1-6)
33
22
000 , 57
r
M
JA r
for boxes and rectangular bars, (LRFD F1-10)
X
1
=
2
33
EGJA
S
π
(LRFD F1-8)
X
2
= 4
2
33
22
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
GJ
S
I
C
w
(LRFD F1-9)
C
b
=
c B A
M M M M
M
3 4 3 5 . 2
5 . 12
max
max
+ + +
and (LRFD F1-3)
M
max
, M
A
, M
B
, and M
c
are absolute values of maximum moment, 1/4 point,
center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively, in the member. C
b
should be taken as 1.0 for cantilevers. However, the program is unable to
detect whether the member is a cantilever. The user should overwrite C
b
for cantilevers. The program also defaults C
b
to 1.0 if the minor unbraced
length, l
22
, of the member is redefined by the user (i.e., it is not equal to the
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 11
length of the member). The user can overwrite the value

of C
b
for any mem-
ber.
For I, Channel, Box, and Rectangular shaped members bent about the minor
axis, the moment capacity is given by the following equation:
M
n22
= M
p22
= Z
22
F
y
≤ 1.5S
22
F
y
(LRFD F1)
For pipes and circular bars bent about any axis,
M
n
= M
p
= ZF
y
≤ 1.5SF
y.
(LRFD F1)
T-Sections and Double-Angles
For T-shapes and Double-angles, the nominal major bending strength is given
as,
M
n33
=
]
]
]

+ +
π
2 22
1 B B
L
GJ EI
b
, where (LRFD F1-15)
M
n33
≤ 1.5F
y
S
33
, for positive moment, stem in tension (LRFD F1.2c)
M
n33
≤ F
y
S
33
, for negative positive moment, stem in
tension (LRFD F1.2c)
B = ± 2.3
J
I
L
d
b
22
(LRFD F1-16)
The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the out-
standing legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign ap-
plies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments).
For T-shapes and double-angles the nominal minor bending strength is as-
sumed as:
M
n22
= S
22
F
y.
Single Angles
The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their princi-
pal axes of bending. The nominal major bending strength for Single-angles for
the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling is given as follows (LRFD SAM
5.1.3):
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 12 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
M
n,major
=
]
]
]
]


major y
ob
M
M
,
17 . 0 92 . 0 M
ob
≤ 1.25 M
y,major
, if M
ob
≤ M
y,major
M
n,major
=
]
]
]
]


ob
major y
M
M
,
83 . 0 58 . 1 M
y,major
≤ 1.25 M
y,major
, if M
ob
≤ M
y,major
where,
M
y,major =
yield moment about the major principal axis of bending, con-
sidering the possibility of yielding at the heel and both of the
leg tips,
M
ob
= elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment as calculated below.
The elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment, M
ob
, for equal-leg angles is
taken as
M
ob
= C
b
l
t Eb
2 2
46 . 0
(LRFD SAM 5-5)
and for unequal-leg angles, the M
ob
is calculated as
M
ob
= 4.9EC
b
]
]
]

β + + β
w w
r lt
l
I
2
min
2
2
min
) / ( 052 . 0 (LRFD SAM 5-6)
where,
t = min (t
w
, t
f
)
l = max (l
22
, l
33
)
I
min
= minor principal axis moment of inertia
I
max
= major principal axis moment of inertia,
r
min
= radius of gyration for minor principal axis,
β
w
=
]
]
]

+ ∫ dA z w z
I
A
) (
1
2 2
max
-2z
0
, (LRFD SAM 5.3.2)
z = coordinate along the major principal axis
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 13
w = coordinate along the minor principal axis, and
z
0
= coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis
with respect to the centroid.
β
w
is a special section property for angles. It is positive for short leg in com-
pression, negative for long leg in compression, and zero for equal-leg angles
(LRFD SAM 5.3.2). However, for conservative design in this program, it is al-
ways taken as negative for unequal-leg angles.
General Sections
For General Sections the nominal major and minor direction bending
strengths are assumed as
M
n
= S F
y.
Flange Local Buckling
The flexual design strength, M
n
, of Noncompact and Slender beams for the
limit state of Flange Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1):
For major direction bending,
M
p33
if λ ≤ λ
p,
M
n33
= M
p33
- (M
p33
- M
r33
)
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
λ − λ
λ − λ
p r
p
if λ
p
< λ ≤ λ
r,
(A-F1-3)
M
cr33
≤ M
p33
if λ > λ
r
and for minor direction bending,
M
p22
if λ ≤ λ
p,
M
n22
= M
p22
- (M
p22
- M
r22
)
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
λ − λ
λ − λ
p r
p
if λ
p
< λ ≤ λ
r,
(A-F1-3)
M
cr22
≤ M
p22
if λ > λ
r
.
where,
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 14 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
M
n33
= Nominal major bending strength,
M
n22
= Nominal minor bending strength,
M
p33
= Major plastic moment, Z
33
,F
y
≤ 1.5S
33
F
y
,
M
p22
= Major plastic moment, Z
22
,F
y
≤ 1.5S
22
F
y
,
M
r33
= Major limiting buckling moment,
M
r22
= Minor limiting buckling moment,
M
cr33
= Major buckling moment,
M
cr22
= Minor buckling moment,
λ = Controlling slenderness parameter,
λ
p =
Largest value of λ for which M
n
= M
p
and
λ
r =
Largest value of λ for which buckling is inelastic.
The parameters λ
,
λ
p
,

λ
r
,

M
r33
,M
r22
, M
cr33
, and M
cr22
for flange local buckling for
different types of shapes are given below:
I Shapes, Channels
λ =
f
f
t
b
2
, (for I sections) (LRFD B5.1, Table A-F1.1)
λ =
f
f
t
b
, (for Channel sections) (LRFD B5.1, Table A-F1.1)
λ
p
=
y
F
65
, (LRFD B5.1, Table A-F1.1)
r y
F F −
141
, For rolled shape,
c r y
k F F / ) (
162

, For welded shape,
λ
r
=
(LRFD Table A-F1.1)
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 15
M
r33
= (F
y
- F
r
) S
33
(LRFD Table A-F1.1)
M
r22
= F
y
S
22
(LRFD Table A-F1.1)
2
000 , 20
λ
S
33
For rolled shape
2
200 , 26
λ
c
k
S
33
For welded shape
2
000 , 20
λ
S
22
For rolled shape
2
200 , 26
λ
c
k
S
22
For welded shape
10 ksi For rolled shape
16.5 ksi For welded shape
Boxes
f
w f
t
t b 3 −
, For rolled shape,
f
w f
t
t b 2 −
, For welded shape,
λ
p
=
y
F
190
, (LRFD B5.1, Table A-F1.1)
λ
r
=
y
F
238
, (LRFD B5.1, Table A-F1.1)
M
r33
= (F
y
- F
r
) S
eff,33
(LRFD Table A-F1.1)
M
r22
= (F
y
- F
r
) S
eff,22
(LRFD Table A-F1.1)
M
cr33
= F
y
S
eff,33
(S
eff
,
33
/S
33
) (LRFD Table A-F1.1)
M
cr22
= F
y
S
eff,22
(LRFD Table A-F1.1)
M
cr33
=
(LRFD Table A-F1.1)
M
cr22
=
(LRFD Table A-F1.1)
F
r
=
(LRFD Table A-F1)
λ

=
(LRFD B5.1, Table A-F1.1)
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 16 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
10 ksi For rolled shape
16.5 ksi For welded shape
S
eff,33
= effective major section modulus considering slenderness and
S
eff,22
= effective minor section modulus considering slenderness.
T-Sections and Double Angles
No local buckling is considered for T-sections and Double-angles in this pro-
gram. If special consideration is required, the user is expected to analyze this
separately.
Singles Angles
The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their princi-
pal axes of bending. The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Sin-
gle-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling are given as follows
(LRFD SAM 5.1.1):
1.25F
y
S
c
if
y
F
E
t
b
382 . 0 ≤ ,
F
y
S
c
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

J
J
J
J
J
J
J
`
'
'
'
'
'
'
(
|
− − 1
382 . 0
/
49 . 1 25 . 1
y
F
E
t b
if 0.382
y
F
E
<
t
b
≤ 0.446
y
F
E
QF
y
S
c
if
y
F
E
t
b
446 . 0 >
where,
S
c
= section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg,
t = thickness of the leg under consideration,
b = length of the leg under consideration, and
F
r
=
(LRFD Table A-F1)
M
n
=
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 17
Q = strength reduction factor due to local buckling.
In calculating the bending strengths for single-angles for the limit state of
flange local buckling, the capacities are calculated for both the principal axes
considering the fact that either of the two tips can be under compression. The
minimum capacities are considered.
Pipe Sections
λ =
t
D
(LRFD B Table A-F1.1)
λ
p
=
y
F
070 , 2
, (LRFD Table A-F1.1)
λ
r
=
y
F
970 , 8
, (LRFD Table A-F1.1)
M
r33
= M
r22
= J
J
`
'
(
|
+
y
F
t D /
600
S (LRFD Table A-F1.1)
M
cr33
= M
cr22
= J
J
`
'
(
|
t D /
570 , 9
S (LRFD Table A-F1.1)
Circular, Rectangular, and General Sections
No consideration of local buckling is required for solid circular shapes or rec-
tangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1.1). No local buckling is considered in the
program for circular, rectangular, and general shapes. If special consideration
is required, the user is expected to analyze this separately.
Web Local Buckling
The flexural design strengths are considered in the program for only the ma-
jor axis bending (LRFD Table A-F1.1).
I Shapes, Channels, and Boxes
The flexural design strength for the major axis bending, M
n
, of Noncompact
and Slender beams for the limit state of Web Local Buckling is calculated as
follows (LRFD A-F1-1, A-F1-3, A-G2-2):
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 18 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
M
p33
if λ ≤ λ
p
M
p33
-(M
p33
- M
r33
)
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
λ − λ
λ − λ
p r
p
if λ
p
< λ ≤ λ
r
, (A-F1, A-G1)
S
33
R
PG
R
e
R
cr
if λ > λ
r
where,
M
n33
= Nominal major bending strength,
M
p33
= Major plastic moment, Z
33
F
y
≤1.5S
33
F
y
(LRFD F1.1)
M
r33
= Major limiting buckling moment, R
e
S
33
F
y
(LRFD Table A-F1.1)
λ = Web slenderness parameter,
λ
p
= Largest value of

λ for which M
n
= M
p
λ
r
= Largest value of

λ for which buckling in inelastic
R
PG
= Plate girder bending strength reduction factor
R
e
= Hybrid girder factor, and
F
cr
= Critical compression flange stress, ksi
The web slenderness parameters are computed as follows, where the value of
P
u
is taken as positive for compression and zero for tension:
λ =
w
c
t
h
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
ϕ

y b
u
y
P
P
F
75 . 2 1
640
for
y b
u
P
P
ϕ
≤ 0.125,
y
y b
u
y
F
P
P
F
253
33 . 2
191

J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
ϕ
for
y b
u
P
P
ϕ
> 0.125, and
M
n33
=
λ
p
=
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 19
λ
r
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|
ϕ

y b
u
y
P
P
F
74 . 0 1
970
.
The parameters R
PG
, R
e
, and F
cr
for slender web sections are calculated in the
program as follows:
R
PG
= 1-
J
J
J
`
'
'
(
|

+
cr
w
c
r
r
F
t
h
a
a 970
300 200 , 1
≤ 1.0 (LRFD A-G2-3)
R
e
=
r
r
a
m m a
12 12
) 2 ( 12
3
+
− +
≤ 1.0 (for hybrid sections) (LRFD A-G2)
R
e
= 1.0 (for non-hybrid section), where (LRFD A-G2)
a
r
= ≤ 1.0 , and (LRFD A-G2)
m =
) , min(
y cr
y
F F
F
, taken as 1.0 (LRFD A-G2)
In the above expression, R
e
is taken as 1, because currently the pro-
gram deals with only non-hybrid girders.
The critical compression flange stress, F
cr
, for slender web sections is calcu-
lated for limit states of lateral-torsional buckling and flange local buckling for
the corresponding slenderness parameter η in the program as follows:
F
y
if η ≤ η
p
C
p
F
y

]
]
]
]

η − η
η − η

p r
p
2
1
1 ≤ F
y
if η
p
< η ≤ η
r
, (LRFD A-G2-4, 5, 6)
2
η
PG
C
if η > η
r
The parameters η, η
p
,

η
r
, and C
PG
for lateral-torsional buckling for slender web
I, Channel and Box sections are given as follows:
η =
T
b
r
L
, (LRFD A-G2-7)
web area
compression flange area
F
cr
=
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 20 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
η
p
=
y
F
300
, (LRFD A-G2-8)
η
r
=
y
F
756
, (LRFD A-G2-9)
C
PG
= 286,000 C
b
, and (LRFD A-G2-10)
r
T
= radius of gyration of the compression flange plus one-third of
the compression portion of the web, and it is taken as b
f
/ 12
in this program.
C
b
= a factor that depends on span moment. It is calculated as fol-
lows:
c B A
M M M M
M
3 4 3 5 . 2
5 . 12
max
max
+ + +
(LRFD F1-3)
The parameters η, η
p
,

η
r
, and C
PG
for flange local buckling for slender web I,
Channel and Box sections are given as follows:
η =
t
b
, (LRFD A-G2-11)
η
p
=
y
F
65
, (LRFD A-G2-12)
η
r
=
c y
k F
230
, (LRFD A-G2-13)
C
PG
= 26,200 k
c
, and (LRFD A-G2-14)
C
b
= 1. (LRFD A-G2-15)
T-Sections and Double-Angles
No local buckling is considered for T-sections and Double-angles in this pro-
gram. If special consideration is required, the user is expected to analyze this
separately.
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 - 21
Single Angles
The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single angles for the limit
state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buck-
ling (LRFD SAM 5.1.1). No additional check is considered in this program.
Pipe Sections
The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Pipe sections for the limit
state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buck-
ling (LRFD Table A-F1.1). No additional check is considered in this program.
Circular, Rectangular, and General Sections
No web local buckling is required for solid circular shapes and rectangular
plates (LRFD Table A-F1.1). No web local buckling is considered in the pro-
gram for circular, rectangular, and general shapes. If special consideration is
required, the user is expected to analyze them separately.
Shear Capacities
The nominal shear strengths are calculated for shears along the geometric
axes for all sections. For I, Box, Channel, T, Double angle, Pipe, Circular and
Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes.
For Single-angle sections, principal axes do not coincide with their geometric
axes.
Major Axis of Bending
The nominal shear strength, V
n2
, for major direction shears in I-shapes, boxes
and channels is evaluated as follows:
For
y
w F
t
h 418
≤ ,
V
n2
= 0.6 F
y
A
w
, (LRFD F2-1)
for
y
w
y
F
t
h
F
523 418
≤ < ,
V
n2
= 0.6 Fy Aw
w
y
t
h
F
/
418
, and (LRFD F2-2)
Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 49 - 22 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
for , 260
523
≤ <
w
y
t
h
F
,
V
n2
= 132,000
[ ]
2
/
w
w
t h
A
(LRFD F2-3 and A-F2-3)
The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as:
V
n2
= 0.6 F
y
A
v2
.
Minor Axis of Bending
The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as:
V
n3
= 0.6 F
y
A
v3
.
Calculation of Capacity Ratios Technical Note 50 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 50
Calculation of Capacity Ratios
This Technical Note describes the calculation of capacity ratios when the user
selects the AISC-LRFD93 code, including axial and bending stresses and shear
stresses.
Overview
In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios, first, for
each station along the length of the member, the actual member
force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. Then the
corresponding capacities are calculated. Then, the capacity ratios are calcu-
lated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the de-
sign load combinations. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained, along
with the associated station and load combination. A capacity ratio greater
than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state.
During the design, the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not
considered. Also, the joints are not designed.
Axial and Bending Stresses
The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio P
u
/(ϕP
n
). If P
u
is tensile,
P
n
is the nominal axial tensile strength and ϕ = ϕ
t
= 0.9; and if Pu is compres-
sive, P
n
is the nominal axial compressive strength and ϕ = ϕ
c
= 0.85, except
for angle sections ϕ = ϕ
c
= 0.90 (LRFD SAM 6). In addition, the resistance
factor for bending, ϕ
b
= 0.9.
For
n
u
P
P
ϕ
≥ 0.2, the capacity ration if given as








ϕ
+
ϕ
+
ϕ
22
22
33
33
9
8
n b
u
n b
u
n
u
M
M
M
M
P
P
(LRFD H1-1a, SAM 6-1a)
Calculation of Capacity Ratios Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 50 - 2 Calculation of Capacity Ratios
For
n
u
P
P
ϕ
< 0.2, the capacity ration if given as








ϕ
+
ϕ
+
ϕ
22
22
33
33
2
n b
u
n b
u
n
u
M
M
M
M
P
P
(LRFD H1-1b, SAM 6-1a)
For circular sections, an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination
is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load
component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above for-
mulas.
For single-angle sections, the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the
properties about the principal axis (LRFD SAM 5.3, 6). For I, Box, Channel, T,
Double angle, Pipe, Circular, and Rectangular sections, the principal axes co-
incide with their geometric axes. For Single-angle sections, principal axes are
determined in the program. For general sections, it is assumed that the sec-
tion properties are given in terms of principal directions.
Shear Stresses
Similar to the normal stresses, from the factored shear force values and the
nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combina-
tions, shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are calculated as
follows:
2
2
n v
u
V
V
ϕ
, and
3
3
n v
u
V
V
ϕ
,
where ϕ
v
= 0.9.
For Single-angle sections, the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions
along the geometric axis. For all other sections, the shear stress is calculated
along the principal axes that coincides with the geometric axes.
Input Data Technical Note 51 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 51
Input Data
This Technical Note describes the steel frame design input data for AISC-
LRFD93. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click
the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. A printout
of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review
the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which pro-
gram design is based. Further information about using the Print Design Ta-
bles Form is provided at the end of this Technical Note.
Input Data
The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The
column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the
columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Material Property Data
Material Name Steel, concrete or other.
Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.
Design Type Concrete, steel or none. Postprocessor available if steel is
specified.
Material Dir/Plane "All" for isotropic materials; specify axis properties define for
orthotropic.
Modulus of Elasticity
Poisson's Ratio
Thermal Coeff
Shear Modulus
Material Property Mass and Weight
Material Name Steel, concrete or other.
Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 51 - 2 Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate self mass of the structure.
Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate the self weight of the structure.
Material Design Data for Steel Materials
Material Name Steel.
Steel FY Minimum yield stress of steel.
Steel FU Maximum tensile stress of steel.
Steel Cost ($) Cost per unit weight used in composite beam design if optimum
beam size specified to be determined by cost.
Material Design Data for Concrete Materials
Material Name Concrete.
Lightweight Concrete Check this box if this is a lightweight concrete material.
Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.
Rebar FY Bending reinforcing yield stress.
Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing yield stress.
Lightwt Reduc Fact Define reduction factor if lightweight concrete box checked.
Usually between 0.75 ad 0.85.
Frame Section Property Data
Frame Section Name User specified or auto selected member name.
Material Name Steel, concrete or none.
Section Shape Name
or Name in Section
Database File
Name of section as defined in database files.
Section Depth Depth of the section.
Flange Width Top Width of top flange per AISC database.
Flange Thick Top Thickness of top flange per AISC database.
Web Thick Web thickness per AISC database.
Flange Width Bot Width of bottom flange per AISC database.
Flange Thick Bot Thickness of bottom flange per AISC database.
Section Area
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Input Data
Input Data Technical Note 51 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Torsional Constant
Moments of Inertia I33, I22
Shear Areas A2, A3
Section Moduli S33, S22
Plastic Moduli Z33, Z22
Radius of Gyration R33, R22
Load Combination Multipliers
Combo Load combination name.
Type Additive, envelope, absolute, or SRSS as defined in Define >
Load Combination.
Case Name(s) of case(s) to be included in this load combination.
Case Type Static, response spectrum, time history, static nonlinear, se-
quential construction.
Factor Scale factor to be applied to each load case.
Code Preferences
Phi_bending Resistance factor for bending.
Phi_tension Resistance factor for tension.
Phi_compression Resistance factor for compression.
Phi_shear Resistance factor for shear.
Beam Steel Stress Check Element Information
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member section assigned.
Framing Type Moment frame or braced frame.
RLLF Factor Live load reduction factor.
L_Ratio Major Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
L_Ratio Minor Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
K Major Effective length factor.
Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 51 - 4 Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
K Minor Effective length factor.
Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
CM Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
CM Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
Cb Factor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
B1 Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B1 Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B2 Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B2 Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
Beam Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier
phi*Pnc If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E.
phi*Pnt If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D.
phi*Mn Major If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.
phi*Mn Minor If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.
phi*Vn Major If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
phi*Vn Minor If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
Column Steel Stress Check Element Information
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Input Data
Input Data Technical Note 51 - 5
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Section ID Name of member section assigned.
Framing Type Moment frame or braced frame.
RLLF Factor Live load reduction factor.
L_Ratio Major Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
L_Ration Minor Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length.
K Major Effective length factor.
K Minor Effective length factor.
Column Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
CM Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
CM Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
Cb Factor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
B1 Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B1 Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B2 Major As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
B2 Minor As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.
Column Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
phi*Pnc If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E.
phi*Pnt If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D.
phi*Mn Major If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.
phi*Mn Minor If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.
Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 51 - 6 Input Data
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
phi*Vn Major If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
phi*Vn Minor If zero, as defined for Material Property Data used and per
AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File menu
> Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Input Sum-
mary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send
the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button
to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the
Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print steel frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check box
on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename button to change the
path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing
Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau-
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Steel Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box will
be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
Output Details Technical Note 52 - 1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 52
Output Details
This Technical Note describes the steel frame design output for AISC-LRFD93
that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed
when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design com-
mand and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Further
information about using the Print Design Tables form is provided at the end of
this Technical Note.
The program provides the output data in a table. The column headings for
output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the table
are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Beam Steel Stress Check Output
Story Level Name of the story level.
Beam Bay Beam bay identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Moment Interaction Check
Combo Name of load combination that produces the maximum
load/resistance ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting load to available resistance.
Axl Ratio of acting axial load to available axial resistance.
B33 Ratio of acting bending moment to available bending resistance
about the 33 axis.
Output Details Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 52 - 2 Output Details
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
B22 Ratio of acting bending moment to available bending resistance
about the 22 axis.
Shear22
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear divided by available shear resistance.
Shear33
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 33 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear divided by available shear resistance.
Column Steel Stress Check Output
Story Level Name of the story level.
Column Line Column line identifier.
Section ID Name of member sections assigned.
Moment Interaction Check
Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio.
Ratio Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress.
AXL Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress.
B33 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 33 axis.
B22 Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress
about the 22 axis.
Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Output Details
Output Details Technical Note 52 - 3
Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Shear22
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 22 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Shear33
Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to
the 33 axis.
Ratio Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print steel frame design output data directly to a printer, use the File
menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Out-
put Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button
to send the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK
button to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and
the Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print steel frame design output data to a file, click the Print to File check
box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename button to change the
path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing
Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out-
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename but-
Output Details Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93
Technical Note 52 - 4 Output Details
ton to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution
box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Steel Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box will
be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

ETABS

®

Integrated Building Design Software

Steel Frame Design Manual

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 8 January 2002

Copyright
The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 845-2177 FAX: (510) 845-4096 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

 Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2002. The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. ETABS is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated

. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF STEEL STRUCTURES. HOWEVER. EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF STEEL DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. IN USING THE PROGRAM. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS. HOWEVER. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED.DISCLAIMER CONSIDERABLE TIME. THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM.

.

. BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN Contents General Steel Frame Design Information 1 General Design Information Design Codes Units Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Steel Frame Design Load Combinations Analysis Sections and Design Sections Second Order P-Delta Effects Element Unsupported Lengths Effective Length Factor (K) Continuity Plates and Doubler Plates 2 Steel Frame Design Process Steel Frame Design Procedure Automating the Iterative Design Process 3 Interactive Steel Frame Design General Steel Stress Check Information Form Overwrites Button Details Button 4 3-1 3-1 3-4 3-4 2-1 2-5 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-6 1-7 1-9 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Overview Design Input Design Output 4-1 4-1 4-2 i .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC.

Steel Frame Design Manual Steel Frame Design Specific to UBC97-ASD 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC-ASD Series of Technical Notes Notations References 6 Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences 7 Overwrites General 7-1 Overwrites 7-1 Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 7-3 Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values 7-4 8 9 Design Load Combinations Classification of Sections Overview 10 11 12 Calculation of Stresses Calculation of Allowable Stresses Calculation of Stress Ratios Axial and Bending Stresses Shear Stresses 13 Seismic Requirements Ordinary Moment Frames Special Moment Resisting Frames 13-1 13-1 12-1 12-3 9-1 6-1 6-1 6-2 5-1 5-3 5-6 ii .

Contents Braced Frame Eccentrically Braced Frames Special Concentrically Braced Frames 14 Joint Design Beam/Column Plastic Moment Capacity Ratio Evaluation of Beam Connection Shears Evaluation of Brace Connection Forces 15 16 17 Continuity Plates Doubler Plates Input Data Input Data Using the Print Design Tables Form 18 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 18-4 17-1 17-5 14-1 14-3 14-4 13-2 13-4 13-7 Steel Frame Design Specific to UBC97-LRFD 19 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC97-LRFD Series of Technical Notes 19-1 Notation 19-3 References 19-7 20 Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences 21 Overwrites General 21-1 20-1 20-1 20-2 iii .

Steel Frame Design Manual Overwrites 21-1 Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 21-4 Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values 21-5 22 Design Loading Combinations Reference 23 24 Classification of Sections Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Reference 25 26 Calculation of Nominal Strengths Calculation of Capacity Ratios Overview Axial and Bending Stresses Shear Stresses 27 Seismic Requirements Ordinary Moment Frames Special Moment Resisting Frames Braced Frames Eccentrically Braced Frames Special Concentrically Braced Frames 28 Joint Design Weak-Beam / Strong-Column Measure Evaluation of Beam Connection Shears Evaluation of Brace Connection Forces 29 30 Continuity Plates Doubler Plates 28-1 28-3 28-4 27-1 27-1 27-2 27-3 27-7 26-1 26-1 26-2 24-2 25-1 22-2 iv .

Contents 31 Input Data Input Data Using the Print Design Tables Form 32 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 32-4 31-1 31-6 Steel Frame Design Specific to AISC-ASD89 33 General and Notation Introduction to the AISC-ASD89 Series of Technical Notes 33-1 Notation 33-2 34 Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences 35 Overwrites General Overwrites Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Resetting the Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values 36 37 38 39 Design Load Combinations Classification of Sections Calculation of Stresses Calculation of Allowable Stresses Allowable Stress in Tension Allowable Stress in Compression Flexural Buckling 39-1 39-1 39-2 35-1 35-1 35-3 35-4 34-1 34-1 34-2 v .

Steel Frame Design Manual Flexural-Torsional Buckling Allowable Stress in Bending I-Sections Channel Sections T Sections and Double Angles Box Sections and Rectangular Tubes Pipe Sections Round Bars Rectangular and Square Bars Single-Angle Sections General Sections Allowable Stress in Shear Major Axis of Bending Minor Axis of Bending 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios Axial and Bending Stresses Shear Stresses 41 Input Data Input Data Using the Print Design Tables Form 42 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 42-3 41-1 41-5 40-1 40-4 39-4 39-8 39-8 39-12 39-13 39-13 39-14 39-15 39-15 39-15 39-18 39-18 39-18 39-19 Steel Frame Design Specific to AISC-LRFD93 43 General and Notation Introduction to the AISC-LRFD93 Series of Technical Notes 43-1 Notation 43-2 44 Preferences General 44-1 vi .

Contents Using the Preferences Form Preferences 45 Overwrites General 45-1 Overwrites 45-1 Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 45-4 Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values 45-4 46 Design Load Combinations Reference 47 48 Classification of Sections Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Reference 49 Calculation of Nominal Strengths Overview Compression Capacity Flexural Buckling Flexural-Torsional Buckling Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling Tension Capacity Nominal Strength in Bending Yielding Lateral-Torsional Buckling Flange Local Buckling Web Local Buckling Shear Capacities Major Axis of Bending Minor Axis of Bending 50 Calculation of Capacity Ratios Overview 50-1 49-1 49-2 49-2 49-3 49-6 49-8 49-8 49-9 49-9 49-13 49-17 49-21 49-21 49-22 48-3 46-2 44-1 44-2 vii .

Steel Frame Design Manual Axial and Bending Stresses Shear Stresses 51 Input Data Input Data Using the Print Design Tables Form 52 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 52-3 51-1 51-6 50-1 50-2 viii .

BERKELEY. any system of units can be used to define and design a building in this program. Again. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 1 General Design Information This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts that you should know before performing steel frame design using this program. Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Steel Frame The three procedures possible for steel beam design are: Steel frame design Composite beam design No design Design Codes Technical Note 1 .. design codes are based on one specific set of units.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.1 . any set of consistent units can be used for input. You can choose to design for any one design code in any one design run. You cannot design some elements for one code and others for a different code in the same design run. Units For steel frame design in this program. You can however perform different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the analysis. Typically. INC. Design Codes The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design command. The documentation in this series of Technical Notes is typically presented in kip-inch-seconds units. You can change the system of units that you are using at any time.

The frame element has I-section or channel section properties. that is. AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Techni- Technical Note 1 . Composite Beam Design (if it qualifies).2 Design Load Combinations . A steel frame element qualifies for the Composite Beam Design procedure if it meets all of the following criteria: The line type is Beam. each with its own scale factor. You can add in your own design load combinations. it defaults to the composite beam design procedure. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations. if you select a steel beam and attempt to change the design procedure to Concrete Frame Design. An unlimited number of design load combinations can be specified. You can also modify or delete the program default load combinations. A steel frame element can be switched between the Steel Frame Design. For example. the line object is horizontal. UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 22 Design Load Combinations. the program will not allow the change because a steel frame element cannot be changed to a concrete frame element. The frame element is oriented with its positive local 2-axis in the same direction as the positive global Z-axis (vertical upward). Change the default design procedure used for steel frame elements by selecting the beam(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design Procedure.General Design Information Steel Frame Design By default. Design Load Combinations The program creates a number of default design load combinations for steel frame design. To define a design load combination. steel sections are designed using the steel frame design procedure or the composite beam design procedure. Otherwise. This change is only successful if the design procedure assigned to an element is valid for that element. it defaults to the steel frame design procedure. If a steel frame member meets the above criteria for composite beams. simply specify one or more load cases. and the "None" design procedure. Assign a steel frame element the "None" design procedure if you do not want it designed by the Steel Frame Design or the Composite Beam Design postprocessor.

It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section to be different. In this case. but it does not delete or change the design section. the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design section is the W16X31. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Analysis sections are those section properties used for a frame element to analyze the model when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 . Using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command to assign an auto select list to a frame section initially sets the analysis and design section to be the section with the median weight in the auto select list. Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command (or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the same as the current design section. Note the following about analysis and design sections: Assigning a line object a frame section property using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns this section as both the analysis section and the design section. you may have run your analysis using a W18X35 beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked.3 . For example. Before you complete the design process. Unlocking the model deletes design results.Steel Frame Design General Design Information cal Note 36 Design Load Combinations and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 46 Design Load Combinations for more information. The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section separately. verify that the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command. The design section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus designated the current design section.

Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases command to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases. The local deformation of the element is shown as δ. Second Order P-Delta Effects Typically design codes require that second order P-Delta effects be considered when designing steel frames. Technical Note 1 . The overall global translation of this frame element is indicated by ∆. static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the following actions is taken: Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties command to redefine existing or define new hinges.4 Second Order P-Delta Effects . Using the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design command to change any of the steel frame design preferences deletes design results. Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces. Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges command to add or delete hinges. Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a design load combination deletes your design results. but it does not delete or change the design section.General Design Information Steel Frame Design Using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Select Design Combo command to change a design load combination deletes design results. Typically. The P-Delta effects come from two sources. but it does not delete or change the design section. They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local deformation of elements within the frame. which is extracted from a story level of a larger structure. Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1. but it does not delete or change the design section. Again note that this only deletes results for load combinations that include static nonlinear forces.

the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length).Steel Frame Design General Design Information ∆ Original position of frame element shown by vertical line Position of frame element as a result of global lateral translation. When you consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. 1 Second Order P-Delta Effects Technical Note 1 . in the model. consideration of the second order P-Delta effects is generally achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to that shown in Equation. Controls for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set P-Delta Parameters button. MCAP = flexural design capacity Eqn. In design codes. shown by dashed line δ Final deflected position of frame element that includes the global lateral translation. δ Figure 1 The total Second Order P-Delta Effects on a Frame Element Caused by Both ∆ and δ The total second order P-Delta effects on this frame element are those caused by both ∆ and δ. MCAP = aMnt + bMlt where. 1. but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless. The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. the program does a good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1. and the local deformation of the element. ∆. ∆.5 .

such as member connectivity. using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. about the 3-3 axis). The length l33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis).. They can also be overwritten by the user on an element-by-element basis. you should consider P-Delta effects in the analysis before running the design. and l22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). in general. if desired.e. the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths.6 Element Unsupported Lengths . diaphragm constraints and support points.e. it assumes that the factor b is equal to 1 and it uses code-specific formulas to calculate the factor a. There are two unsupported lengths to consider. Element Unsupported Lengths The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slenderness effects. That b = 1 assumes that you have considered P-Delta effects in the analysis. as previously described. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported length. They are l33 and l22. see below) Mlt = a b = = When the program performs steel frame design. if you are performing steel frame design in this program. In determining the values for l22 and l33 of the elements.. as shown in Figure 2. associated with the δ deformation in Figure 1) required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral translation of the frame only (i. Technical Note 1 . These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions..General Design Information Steel Frame Design Mnt = required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is no translation of the frame (i.e. The length l22 is also used for lateral-torsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i. associated with the ∆ deformation in Figure 1) unitless factor multiplying Mnt unitless factor multiplying Mlt (assumed equal to 1 by the program. Thus. The program automatically determines these unsupported lengths.

For example. the column is assumed to be supported in one direction only at that story level. The K-factor algorithm has been developed for building-type structures. beams and braces. All elements parallel Element Unsupported Lengths Technical Note 1 . See the bulleted list at the end of this section for some important tips about how the program calculates the K-factors. assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction. In this case.7 . and the behavior is basically that of a moment-resisting nature for which the K-factor calculation is relatively complex. These K-factors can be overwritten by the user if desired using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. at a floor level. and its unsupported length in the other direction will exceed the story height. Effective Length Factor (K) The program automatically determines K-factors for frame elements.Steel Frame Design General Design Information Figure 2 Major and Minor Axes of Bending It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. the elements are identified as columns. For the purpose of calculating K-factors. where the columns are vertical and the beams are horizontal. but not the other.

General Design Information Steel Frame Design to the Z-axis are classified as columns. If all degrees of freedom for a particular joint are deleted.8 Element Unsupported Lengths . The beams and braces are assigned K-factors of unity. the program first makes the following four stiffness summations for each joint in the structural model: Scx = ∑    Ec Ic   Lc  x   Ec Ic   Lc  y  S bx = ∑    Eb Ib   Lb  x   Eb Ib   Lb  y  Scy = ∑   Sb y = ∑   where the x and y subscripts correspond to the global X and Y directions and the c and b subscripts refer to column and beam. the corresponding value is set to 10. The local 2-2 and 3-3 terms EI22/L22 and EI33/L33 are rotated to give components along the global X and Y directions to form the (EI/L)x and (EI/L)y values. In the calculation of the K-factors for a column element. the joint summations at END-I and the END-J of the member are transformed back to the column local 1-2-3 coordinate system and the G-values for END-I and the END-J of the member are calculated about the 2-2 and 3-3 directions as follows: G I 22 = S I c 22 S I b 22 S I c 33 S I b 33 G J 22 = S J c 22 S J b 22 S I c 33 S I b 33 G I 33 = G I 33 = If a rotational release exists at a particular end (and direction) of an element. All elements parallel to the X-Y plane are classified as beams.0. Finally. The rest are braces.0 for the end of the member connecting to that joint. if GI and GJ are known for a particular direction. the G-values for all members connecting to that joint will be set to 1. Then for each column. the column K-factor for the corresponding direction is calculated by solving the following relationship for α: α 2 G I G J − 36 α = I J tan α 6(G + G ) Technical Note 1 .

The automated K-factor calculation procedure can occasionally generate artificially high K-factors. The design of these plates is based on the major moment in the beam. This relationship is the mathematical formulation for the evaluation of K-factors for moment-resisting frames assuming sidesway to be uninhibited. the associated G-value will be infinity. If the beam frames into the column flange at an angle. For other structures. Continuity Plates and Doubler Plates When a beam frames into the flange of a column. as illustrated in Figure 3. If the G-value at any one end of a column for a particular direction is infinity. These values should be reviewed and any unacceptable values should be replaced. An element that has a pin at the far end from the joint under consideration will contribute only 50% of the calculated EI value. the K-factor corresponding to that direction is set equal to unity. will not enter the stiffness summation. such as braced frame structures. the doubler and continuity plate design is Continuity Plates and Doubler Plates Technical Note 1 . The beams and braces are assigned K-factors of unity. fixed support conditions.9 . beam elements that have no column member at the far end from the joint under consideration. continuity plates and doubler plates may be required.Steel Frame Design General Design Information from which K = π/α. the Kfactors for all members are usually unity and should be set so by the user. Also. All K-factors produced by the program can be overwritten by the user. The following are some important aspects associated with the column K-factor algorithm: An element that has a pin at the joint under consideration will not enter the stiffness summations calculated above. such as cantilevers. the corresponding K-factor is set to unity. specifically under circumstances involving skewed beams. and under other conditions where the program may have difficulty recognizing that the members are laterally supported and K-factors of unity are to be used. If rotational releases exist at both ends of an element for a particular direction. If there are no beams framing into a particular direction of a column element.

10 Continuity Plates and Doubler Plates . The design equations for doubler and continuity plates are described further in the following Technical Notes: UBC-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 16 Doubler Plates UBC-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 30 Doubler Plates UBC-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 15 Continuity Plates UBC-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 29 Continuity Plates Technical Note 1 .General Design Information Steel Frame Design based on a component of the beam major moment. rather than the full beam moment.

BERKELEY.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 44 Preferencesfor more information. 2. Note that you must select frame elements first using this command.1 . Use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design command to choose the steel frame design code and to review other steel frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. the basic design process should be similar to that described herein. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 6 Preferences. 4. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 2 Steel Frame Design Process This Technical Note describes a basic steel frame design process using this program. using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. if needed. Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after Steel Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 . Although the exact steps you follow may vary. 3.. AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 34 Preferences. The other Technical Notes in the Steel Frame Design series provide additional information. the basic process probably will be essentially the same. INC. 1. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. Also note that default values are provided for all steel frame design overwrites so it is unnecessary to define overwrites unless you want to change some of the default values. Note that default values are provided for all steel frame design preferences. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary. Assign steel frame overwrites. UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 20 Preferences. Create the building model. so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to change some of the default values. Steel Frame Design Procedure The following sequence describes a typical steel frame design process for a new building.

To use design load combinations other than the defaults created by the program for your steel frame design. 8. and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 45 Overwrites for more information. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the steel frame design. AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 36 Design Load Combinations. Note that while you are in this mode. AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 35 Overwrites. click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Select Design Combo command. you can revise overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design. Technical Note 2 . Designate lateral displacement targets for various load cases using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Set Lateral Displacement Targets command. using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Select Design Group command. b. 6. 7. UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 22 Design Load Combinations. 5. Review the steel frame design results by doing one of the following: a. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 7 Overwrites. if desired. Designate design groups. See Steel Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 21 Overwrites. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the frame element. Note that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define menu > Load Combinations command.2 Steel Frame Design Procedure . Note that you must have already created some groups by selecting objects and clicking the Assign menu > Group Names command.Steel Frame Design Process Steel Frame Design the analysis is run. and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 46 Design Load Combinations for more information. 9.

AISCASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 41 Input Data. c. Steel Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 . click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Interactive Steel Frame Design command and right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element. and UBC97ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 18 Output Details. UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 31 Input Data. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. AISCASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 42 Output Details. Compare your lateral displacements with your lateral displacement targets. UBC97LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 32 Output Details. Review the results using the procedures described in Item 9.Steel Frame Design Steel Frame Design Process If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been run). Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command to print steel frame design data. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the steel frame design with the new section properties. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. 12. If you select frame elements before using this command. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 17 Input Data. See Steel Frame Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Steel Frame Design for more information. data is printed only for the selected elements. 11. 10. 13. and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 52 Output Details for more information. Review the results using the procedures described above. 14. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the steel frame design with the new analysis results and new section properties.3 . and AISCLRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 51 Input Data.

22. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the steel frame design with the new section properties. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 18 Output Details. 18. and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 52 Output Details for more information. Again use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. 16. 17. AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 42 Output Details. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. 20. 15. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.4 Steel Frame Design Procedure . UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 32 Output Details. 14 and 15 as many times as necessary. Verify that your lateral displacements are within acceptable limits. Select all frame elements and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Make Auto Select Section Null command. Always run the building analysis using the final frame Technical Note 2 . Use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command to print selected steel frame design results if desired.Steel Frame Design Process Steel Frame Design Note: Steel frame design in this program is an iterative process. the analysis and design will be rerun multiple times to complete a design. Typically. It is important to note that design is an iterative process. 13. Review the results using the procedures described in step 9. 21. Repeat the processes in steps 12. 19. This removes any auto select section assignments from the selected frame elements (if they have the Steel Frame design procedure). The sections used in the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end of the design process. if necessary. Click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sections are the same as the last used analysis sections.

Steel Frame Design Steel Frame Design Process section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that analysis. making sure that no elements are selected. the program will report any differences on screen. Then. This cycle will continue until one of the following conditions has been met: the Design Sections and the last-used Analysis Sections are the same the number of iterations performed is equal to the number of iterations you specified for the Maximum Auto Iterations item on the Preferences form If the maximum number of iterations is reached before the Design Sections and Analysis Sections match. To initiate this process. (2) comparing the last-used Analysis Sections with the Design Sections. Next run the analysis. and (4) rerunning the analysis.5 . Automating the Iterative Design Process Technical Note 2 . first use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design command and set the Maximum Auto Iterations item to the maximum number of design iterations you want the program to run automatically. the program can automatically perform the iterative steel frame design process. (3) setting the Analysis Sections equal to the Design Sections. Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are the same as the analysis sections. The program will then start a cycle of (1) performing the design. Automating the Iterative Design Process If frame elements have been assigned as auto select sections. use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to begin the design of the structure.

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click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Interactive Steel Frame Design command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element and display the Steel Stress Check Information form. To run a design. Column General Technical Note 3 . click Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command. This is the label associated with a frame element that is a beam.. Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form FEATURE Story ID Beam DESCRIPTION This is the story level ID associated with the frame element. Steel Stress Check Information Form Table 1 identifies the features that are included in the Steel Stress Check Information form. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element. INC. BERKELEY. If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been run). This is the label associated with a frame element that is a column.1 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 3 Interactive Steel Frame Design General Interactive steel frame design allows you to review the design results for any frame element and to interactively change the design overwrites and immediately review the results. Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be available.

the Design Section and the last-used Analysis Section should be the same. Initially the worst stress ratio is highlighted. the forces and moments obtained in the next analysis will be based on this section. DESCRIPTION This is the label associated with a frame element that is a brace. click the Overwrites button. Analysis section This is the section property that was used for this frame element in the last analysis. Stress Details Table The stress details table shows the stress ratios obtained for each design load combination at each output station along the frame element. Thus.Interactive Steel Frame Design Steel Frame Design Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form FEATURE Brace Tip: The section property displayed for the Design Section item is used by the program as the section property for the next analysis run. For your final design iteration. Thus. It is important to note that subsequent analyses use the section property specified in this list box for the next analysis section for the frame element. If the frame element is assigned an auto select list. Following are the headings in the table: Combo ID Station location This is the name of the design load combination considered. measured from the i-end of the frame element. the design forces are based on a frame element of this section property. This is the current design section property. the element design is performed for the section property specified in this edit box. To change the Design Section. Design section Technical Note 3 .2 Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form . This is the location of the station considered. If no auto select list has been assigned to the frame element. the section displayed in this form initially defaults to the optimal section.

the changes made to the overwrites are saved permanently. Note that typically the interaction formulas are different. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not occur until you click the OK button in the Steel Stress Check Information form as well as the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form. This is the bending component of the PMM stress ratio for bending about the major axis. depending on whether the axial stress is tension or compression. Axl B-Maj B-Min Maj Shr Ratio Min Shr Ratio Overwrites Button Click this button to access and make revisions to the steel frame overwrites and then immediately see the new design results. The (T) item indicates that the axial component of the stress ratio is tension. cancels the changes made. Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form Technical Note 3 . This is the axial component of the PMM stress ratio. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and exit both the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form and the Steel Stress Check Information form by clicking their respective OK buttons.Steel Frame Design Interactive Steel Frame Design Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form FEATURE DESCRIPTION Moment Interaction Checks Ratio This is the total PMM stress ratio for the element. The (C) item indicates that the axial component of the stress ratio is compression. This is the shear stress ratio for shear acting in the major direction of the frame element. This is the bending component of the PMM stress ratio for bending about the minor axis. This is the shear stress ratio for shear acting in the minor direction of the frame element. Subsequently exiting the Steel Stress Check Information form by clicking the Cancel button. When stress ratios are reported for this item. Exiting the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form by clicking the OK button temporarily saves changes. they are followed by either (T) or (C).3 .

4 Table 1 Steel Stress Check Information Form . Print this information by selecting Print from the File menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the design details. Technical Note 3 .Interactive Steel Frame Design Steel Frame Design Details Button Clicking this button displays design details for the frame elements.

CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted directly on the model. Overview Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display on-screen output plotted directly on the program model. Design Input Table 1 identifies the types of data that can be displayed directly on the model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display Design Results form. In this section. INC. Table 1 Data Displayed Directly on the Model DATA TYPE Design Sections Design Type DESCRIPTION The current design section property.. the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command. BERKELEY. Steel. Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length. They are set using the Options menu > Preferences command. If desired. These reduction factors are used by the program to automatically reduce the live load in the design postprocessor.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. concrete or other.1 . The on-screen display data provides design input and output data. Live Load Red Factors Unbraced L Ratios Overview Technical Note 4 . Display this form by selecting the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info command. steel would be selected.

1. use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info command. Colors indicating axial and bending ratio. DESCRIPTION As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2. Table 2 Data Available After a Model Has Been Run DATA TYPE PM Ratio Colors & Values DESCRIPTION Colors indicating stress ranges for ratio of acting axial and bending stresses or forces divided by the allowable numerical values. and numerical values indicating shear stress ratio. Click the Design Output check box on the Display Design Results form. Colors indicating axial and bending ratio only. Note that a de- Technical Note 4 .1 or AISC-LRFD Table C-C2. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info command.Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Steel Frame Design Table 1 Data Displayed Directly on the Model DATA TYPE Effective Length KFactors Axial Allowables Bending Allowables Shear Allowables Note that you cannot simultaneously display multiple listed items on the model. Design Output Table 2 identifies the types of data that can be displayed directly on the model after the model has been run by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the drop-down list on the Display Design Results form.2 Design Output . PM Colors/Shear Ratio Values PM Ratio Color/no Values To display color-coded P-M interaction ratios with values.

3 . Click the OK button and your selection will display on the model in the active window. Access the other two display options in the same manner. Select P-M Ratios Colors & Values from the drop-down box. Table 2 Data Available After a Model Has Been Run Technical Note 4 .Steel Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model sign must have been run for the output selection to be available. Note that you cannot simultaneously display multiple listed items on the model.

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the frame type can be overwritten in the Preferences (Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design) to change the default values and in the Overwrites (Design menu > Steel Frame Design > General and Notation Technical Note 5 . BERKELEY." Various notations used in the Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD series of Technical Notes are described herein. the following Framing Systems are recognized (UBC 1627. However. INC. "Design Standard for Specification for Structural Steel BuildingsAllowable Stress Design and Plastic Design" (ICBO 1997). For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the UBC code. all references to the "Specifications for Allowable Stress Design of Single-Angle Members" (AISC 1989b) carry the prefix of "ASD SAM.. Chapter 22. a unique prefix "UBC" is assigned. However. Division III. 2213): Ordinary Moment Frame (OMF) Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF) Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF) Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF) By default the frame type is taken as Special-Moment Resisting (SMRF) in the program. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the AISC-ASD code. When using the UBC97-ASD option. a unique prefix "ASD" is assigned. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC97-ASD Series of Technical Notes The UBC97-ASD design code in this program implements the International Conference of Building Officials' 1997 Uniform Building Code: Volume 2: Structural Engineering Design Provisions.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.1 .

In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. and 12 Calculation of Stress Ratios. 2214): Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. However. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. a frame is assigned to one of the following five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213. When using the UBC97-LRFD option.2 General and Notation . Similarly. 11 Calculation of Allowable Stresses. See UCB-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more information. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. the frame type can be overwritten in the Preferences to change the default (Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design). Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this series of Technical Notes. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. Technical Note 5 . If any member is assigned with a frame type. A capacity ratio greater than 1. To facilitate use.General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD View/Revise Overwrites) on a member-by-member basis.0 indicates overstress. the change of the frame type in the Preference will not modify the frame type of the individual member for which it is assigned. Algorithms for completing these calculations are described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 10 Calculation of Stresses. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained.

dtw. Notations A Ae Af Ag Av2. and 16 Doubler Plates. For simplicity.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD General and Notation Further information is available from UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 9 Classification of Sections. in Modulus of elasticity. ksi General and Notation Technical Note 5 . Information about seismic requirements is provided in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 13 Seismic Requirements. in2 Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections. in6 Outside diameter of pipes. in2 Area of flange. Av3 Aw Cb Cm Cw D E Cross-sectional area. in2 Major and minor shear areas. The program uses preferences and overwrites.3 . which are described in UBC97ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 6 Preferences and 7 Overwrites. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units. 14 Joint Design. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. It also provides input and output data summaries. in2 Web shear area. in2 Bending Coefficient Moment Coefficient Warping constant. all equations and descriptions presented in this series of Technical Notes correspond to Kip-InchSecond units unless otherwise noted. in2 Gross cross-sectional area. which are described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 17 Input Data and 18 Output Details. 15 Continuity Plates.

in3 Major and minor section moduli.General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Fa Fb Fb33. S22 Seff. in3 Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections.22 Technical Note 5 . ksi Yield stress of material.Seff. ksi Critical compressive stress. ksi Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Major and minor bending moments in member. Fb22 Fcr ' Fe33 Allowable axial stress. kip-in Lateral-torsional moment for angle sections.4 General and Notation . ksi 12π 2 E 23(K 33 l 33 / r33 )2 12π 2 E 23(K 22 l 22 / r22 )2 Allowable shear stress. K22 M33. M22 Mob P Pe Q Qa Qs S S33. kin-in Axial force in member. kips Reduction factor for slender section.33. in3 ' Fe22 Fv Fy K K33. ksi Allowable major and minor bending stresses. kips Euler buckling load. ksi Allowable bending stress. = QaQs Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus.

fb22 fv fv2. etc. l22 lc r General and Notation Technical Note 5 . ksi Normal stress in bending. in be bf d fa fb fb33. less fillets. fv3 h he k kc l33.05 if h t w > 70. in Effective distance between flanges. in Parameter used for classification of sections. [h t w ]0. kips Nominal dimension of plate in a section. bf — 2tw for welded and bf — 3tw for rolled box sections. ksi Normal stress in major and minor direction bending. ksi Shear stress.5 . in Flange width.46 1 if h t w ≤ 70 Major and minor direction unbraced member length. in Critical length. in Distance from outer face of flange to web toes of fillet. in Axial stress. V3 b Section modulus for compression in an angle section. in Overall depth of member. 4. either in compression or in tension. ksi Clear distance between flanges for I shaped sections (d — 2tf). Effective width of flange.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD General and Notation Sc V2. in3 Shear forces in major and minor directions. ksi Shear stress in major and minor direction bending. in Radius of gyration. in longer leg of angle sections.

in Flange thickness. 1997 Uniform Building Code. in Special section property for angles. in Thickness of a plate in I. June 1. 1997. Illinois. International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO).General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD r33. and T sections. Chicago. 2nd Impression. Chicago. Manual of Steel Construction. Illinois. in Minimum radius of gyration for angles. Allowable Stress Design. 9th Edition. box. in tf tw βw References American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). Technical Note 5 . Whittier. angle. California. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). r22 rz t Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions. in Web thickness. Volume 2.6 General and Notation . Specification for Structural Steel Buildings: Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design. channel. 1989 with Commentary. Structural Engineering Design Provisions. 1989a. 1989b.

Default values are provided for all steel frame design preference items. You should. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. The preference value will update accordingly. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 6 Preferences This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you. INC. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. click the OK button to close the form.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.1 . You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. To change a preference item. select a new value. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences. The Preferences form will display. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value.. General The steel frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all steel frame elements. BERKELEY. If the drop-down box appears. however. If you click the Cancel button to exit General Technical Note 6 . Thus. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If the cell is highlighted. type in the desired value. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. select the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the steel frame design preferences.

the preference items are presented in Table 1. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it. Ordinary MRF. Description: A description of the associated preference item. or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. Special CBF. any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories. Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences Item Design Code Time History Design Default Value Description AISC-ASD89 Design code used for design of steel frame elements.Preferences Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD the form. EBF Possible Values Any code in the program Envelopes.2 Preferences . Preferences For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note. regardless of what is specified here. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Default Value: The built-in default value that ETABS assumes for the associated preference item. Step-by-Step Frame Type Technical Note 6 . Ordinary MRF Special MRF. Braced Frame. Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history.

Zone 4 ≥0 >0 Default Value Zone 4 Description Seismic zone Omega 0 Stress Ratio Limit Maximum Auto Iteration 2. Zone 2.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Preferences Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences Item Zone Possible Values Zone 0.3 . Zone 3.95 Program will select members from the auto select list with stress ratios less than or equal to this value. ≥1 1 Preferences Technical Note 6 . Sets the number of iterations of the analysis-design cycle that the program will complete automatically assuming that the frame elements have been assigned as auto select sections. Zone 1.8 .

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Default values are provided for all overwrite items. When changes are made to overwrite items. the values are calculated by the program and the default is modified by the program-calculated value. select an element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. This Technical Note describes steel frame design overwrites for UBC97-ASD. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. To access the overwrites. the overwrites are presented in Table 1. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 7 Overwrites General The steel frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. that is." the value is shown by the program before the design is performed. you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. INC. The column headings in the table are described as follows. these names are generally short.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program.. Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. General Technical Note 7 . BERKELEY. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned.1 . Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. Thus. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. If the default value is given in the table with an associated note "Program Calculated. After design. To save space in the forms. However.

Braced Frame. (Program Calculated for Columns) 1 As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2. ≥0 ≥0 ≥0 As defined in AISC-ASD.85 (Program Calculated) As defined in AISC-ASD. 1 page 5-135. ≥0 1 (Program Calculated) 1 (Program Calculated) ≥0 ≥0 As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2. Earthquake loads are multiplied by this factor.1.Overwrites Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note.2 Overwrites . Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites Item Current Design Section Element Type Ordinary MRF. LTB) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) ≥0 From Preferences Possible Values Default Value Description Indicates selected member size used in current design. Calculated for Columns) 0. Technical Note 7 . page 5-55. 1 (Program Calculated) 1 Live load is multiplied by this factor. Special MRF. Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length. Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length. page 5-55.85 (Program Calculated) 0. (Program page 5-135. EBF Live Load ≥0 Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor. Special CBF.1.

yield stress defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter E. Fb3 Minor Bending stress. If zero.3 .Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Overwrites Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites Item Bending Coefficient (Cb) Yield stress. Fv3 Possible Values ≥0 Default Value 1 (Program Calculated) 0 From Preferences 0 Description As defined in AISC-ASD. If zero. yield stress defined for material property data used. Fb2 Major Shear stress. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter F. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter F. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter F. select a frame element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Fv2 Minor Shear stress. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter F. If zero. ≥0 ≥0 ≥0 If zero. Ft Major Bending stress. Fa Tensile stress. page 5-47. If zero. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD Chapter D. If zero. Fy Omega0 Compressive stress. If zero. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Technical Note 7 . Seismic force amplification factor as required by the UBC. ≥0 ≥0 0 0 ≥0 0 ≥0 0 ≥0 0 Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the steel frame overwrites.

If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. When you reset overwrites.4 Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values . type in the desired value. If multiple elements were selected. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. If the drop-down box appears. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.edb file used to initialize the model. The overwrite will reflect the change. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. Technical Note 7 .Overwrites Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD name of the overwrite item. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet. Initially. You cannot change the values of the drop-down boxes. When changes to the overwrites have been completed. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. If the cell is highlighted.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values. The steel frame overwrite values that were in a . the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values. After selecting one or multiple elements. select a value from the box. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one frame element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed. click the OK button to close the form. not to the values that were in the . the check boxes in the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.

2209.1 12-9) (UBC 1612.1 12-10) (UBC 1612. allowable stresses are NOT increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (UBC 1612. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads.3): DL DL + LL DL ± WL DL + 0.1 12-9) (UBC 1612.3. and earthquake induced load (EL) and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.3.75 WL DL ± EL/1. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structural members and joints need to be designed or checked.75LL ± 0.1 .3.1 12-11) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the UBC97-ASD code is used.3.3. BERKELEY.3. live load (LL).. INC. the following load combinations may need to be defined (UBC 1612. the program automatically generates those load combinations internally.1 12-8) (UBC 1612. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL). It is noted here that whenever special seismic loading combinations are required by the code for special circumstances.3. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. if other types of loads are present.3.4 DL + 0.1 12-7) (UBC 1612. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is separately treated.4 0. wind load (WL). The following additional seismic Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8 . or if pattern live loads are to be considered.1 12-11) (UBC 1612. See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information.4 (UBC 1612.9 DL ± EL/1.3).©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. For the UBC97-ASD code.75 EL/1.1.75 LL ± 0.

) (UBC 2213.5.Design Load Combinations Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD load combinations are frequently checked for specific types of members and special circumstances. Those special seismic load combinations are internal to program. the change of Ωo in the Preferences will not modify the Ωo of the individual member for which Ωo is assigned.5. The special circumstances for which the load combinations are additionally checked are described as appropriate in the other Technical Notes.1.1. The guidelines for selecting a reasonable value can be found in UBC 1630. However. Technical Note 8 . 1.8 in the program. Ωo can be overwritten in the Preferences to change the default and in the Overwrites on a member-by-member basis. Other similar special design load combinations described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 13 Seismic Requirements and 14 Joint Design. If any member is assigned a value for Ωo.85 DL ± Ωo EL (UBC 2213.3. The default value of Ωo is taken as 2.7 LL ± Ωo EL 0.1 and UCB Table 16-N.2 Design Load Combinations . It is assumed that any required scaling (such as may be required to scale response spectra results) has already been applied to the program load cases.0 DL + 0.2) where Ωo is the seismic force amplification factor.1. which is required to account for structural overstrength. The user does NOT need to create additional load combinations for those load combinations. unless the member had been selected.

G1. the user must modify the section property.1.8. 2213. The definition of the section properties required in this table is given in Figure 1 of AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 37 Classification of Sections and AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 33 General and Notation.2. In general the design sections need not necessarily be Compact to satisfy UBC97-ASD codes (UBC 2213. Classification of Sections Technical Note 9 . If these criteria are not satisfied when the code requires them to be satisfied. F5. 2213. The program classifies the individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table 1 of AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 37 Classification of Sections (UBC 2208. BERKELEY.1.2). See UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 13 Seismic Requirements. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections This Technical Note explains the classification of sections when the user selects the UBC97-ASD design code.9.10. ASD B5.4.9.3.2). A-B5-2).5. 2212.1 . The sections are classified in UBC97-ASD as either Compact. 2213. the program gives a warning message in the output file. Noncompact.7. The sections that do satisfy these additional requirements are classified and reported as "SEISMIC" in the program. Overview The allowable stresses for axial compression and flexure depend on the classification of sections. However. INC. for certain special seismic cases they must be Compact and must satisfy special slenderness requirements. In that case. 2212. Slender or Too Slender in the same way as described in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 37 Classification of Sections.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.. F3. 2213.5. These special requirements for classifying the sections as "SEISMIC" in the program ("Compact" in UBC) are given in Table 1 (UBC 2213.24.

9.0 SEISMIC (Special requirements in seismic design) (λp) ≤ 52 / for for for for for for for ≤ 110 / Description of Section Section References UBC 2213.8.8.7.2 (EBF) Fy Fy ≤ 36 36 ≤ Fy ≤ 42 42 ≤ Fy ≤ 45 45 ≤ Fy ≤ 50 50 ≤ Fy ≤ 55 55 ≤ Fy ≤ 60 Fy > 60 I-SHAPE bf / 2tf (column) UBC2213.Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections When Special Seismic Conditions Apply in accordance with UBC97-ASD WidthThickness Ratio λ bf / 2tf (beam) 8.3 (SMRF) UBC 2213.300 / Fy Fy Fy No special requirement No special requirement No special requirement No special requirement No special requirement No special requirement No special requirement Technical Note 9 .5 8.4 (SCBF) UBC 2213.3 (SMRF) UBC 2213.2.5 (SCBF) ≤ 110 / Fy UBC 2213.9.8.3 (SMRF) UBC 2213.2 Classification of Sections .2.9.7.2.5 (SCBF) ASD N7 BOX b / tf and h c / tw (column) b / tf and h c / tw (brace) b/t (brace) b/t (brace) D/t (brace) b f / tf h c / tw bf / 2tf d / tw    Fy UBC 2213.2.4 7.4 (SCBF) UBC 2213.2.2.7.9.8.0 7.3 6.5 (BF) UBC 2213.0 6.6 6.5 (BF) UBC 2213.2.4 (SCBF) UBC 2213.5 (BF) UBC 2213.10.4 (SCBF) ANGLE DOUBLE-ANGLE PIPE CHANNEL T-SHAPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL ≤ 52 / ≤ 52 / ≤ 1.9.9.2.5 (BF) UBC 2213.

the stresses are based on effective section properties (ASD A-B5. the stresses are based on the principal properties of the sections (ASD SAM 6.1 . For general sections. Circular and Rectangular sections. T. Channel. Double-angle. flexural. INC.2c). Calculation of Stresses Technical Note 10 . it is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. the stresses are based on the gross cross-sectional areas (ASD A-B5. For Single-angle sections. and for Single-Angle sections. ASD A-B5. For Single-angle sections. For I. and shear stresses at each of the previously defined stations for each load combination in UBC97-ASD are calculated in the same way as described in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 38 Calculation of Stresses without any exception (UBC 2208. For all other sections. The flexural stresses are calculated based on the properties about the principal axes.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. the principal axes coincide with the geometric axes. BERKELEY.2c). CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 10 Calculation of Stresses The axial. the design considers the principal properties. For nonslender sections. Pipe.2d). for slender sections.1. Box. the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes.5).. the program calculates the shear stresses along the geometric and principle axes.

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Pipe. principal axes do not coincide with the geometric axis. ASD A-B5. Channel. INC. For I. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 11 Calculation of Allowable Stresses The allowable stress in compression. and Slender sections in accordance with UBC97-ASD are calculated in the same way as described in the AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 39 Calculation of Allowable Stresses without any exceptions (UBC 2208. For Single-Angle sections. T. bending. BERKELEY. the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural stresses are based on that. Circular.. For the Angle sections. Double-angle and Rectangular sections. The allowable shear stress is calculated along geometric axes for all sections. Circular and Rectangular sections. The allowable stresses for Seismic sections are calculated in the same way as for Compact sections. Double-Angle. Box. Pipe. The allowable flexural stresses for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. If the user specifies nonzero allowable stresses for one or more elements in the Steel Frame Overwrites dialog box (display using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Review/Revise Overwrites command). tension. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Box. the nonzero values will be used rather than the calculated values for those elements. Noncompact.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. For the I. Channel. All limitations and warnings related to allowable stress calculations in AISCASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 39 Calculation of Allowable Stresses also apply when the user selects this code in the program. The specified allowable stresses should be based on the principal axes of bending. Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 11 . T.2d). and shear for Compact.1 .

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BERKELEY.1 . with some modifications as described herein. INC.15. first.. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 12 Calculation of Stress Ratios This Technical Note explains that the stress ratios in UBC97-ASD are calculated in the same way as described in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios. H2. The controlling stress ratio is then obtained. Similarly. During the design. Then the corresponding allowable stresses are calculated. along with the associated station and load combination. and Fa   fa  fa  1 − Fb33 1 −    F ' e33  F ' e22      (ASD H1-1. the stress ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. A stress ratio greater than 1. In the calculation of the axial and bending stress ratios. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. > 0. SAM 6. Axial and Bending Stresses With the computed allowable axial and bending stress values and the factored axial and bending member stresses at each station. the actual stresses are calculated for each load combination. an interaction stress ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows (ASD H1.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. SAM 6): If fa is compressive and fa / Fa. for each station along the length of the member. Then.1) Calculation of Stress Ratios Technical Note 12 . the combined stress ratio is given by the larger of fa C m33 f b33 C m22 f b22 + + . a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately.0 indicates an overstress.

6Fy if the load combination includes any wind load or seismic load (UBC 1612. Q(0.1) If fa is tensile or zero. When the stress ratio is calculated for Special Seismic Load Combinations. Cm33 and Cm22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length. (ASD H1) A factor of 4/3 is NOT applied on Fe and 0.1) = allowable bending stress about the local 3-axis = allowable bending stress about the local 2-axis = 12π 2 E 23(Kl / r )2 . the column axial allowable stress in compression is taken to be 1.2). SAM 6.1).2 Calculation of Stress Ratios . They are calculated as described in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios.3. SAM 6.7Fa instead of Fa (UBC 2213.4. a relatively simplified formula is used for the combined stress ratio. fa f f + b33 + b22 Fa Fb33 Fb22 (ASD H1-3. and Fa Fb33 Fb22 (ASD H2-1. the combined stress ratio is given by the larger of fa f f + b33 + b22 . SAM 6.Calculation of Stress Ratios fa f f + b33 + b22 .60Fy ) Fb33 Fb22 fa fb33 fb22 Fa Fb33 Fb22 F'e = axial stress = bending stress about the local 3-axis = bending stress about the local 2-axis = allowable axial stress Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD where (ASD H1-2.2) Technical Note 12 . If fa is compressive and fa / Fa ≤ 0.15.

where Fb33 Fb22 Calculation of Stress Ratios fa. For circular and pipe sections. and consequently.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD f b33 f + b22 . For Single-angle sections.6Fy in the first equation (ASD H2-1).1. In contrast to the AISC-ASD code.2). Box. Double-angle. either Fb33 or Fb22 need not be less than 0. no effort is made to determine the principal directions. Fv fv 3 . when designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads.1. When the stress ratio is calculated for Special Seismic Load Combinations. the column axial allowable stress in tension is taken to be Fy instead of Fa (UBC 2213. the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (ASD SAM 5.3.3). Pipe. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. The second equation considers flexural buckling without any beneficial effect from axial compression.3 . principal axes are determined in the program. Fv and Calculation of Stress Ratios Technical Note 12 . shear stress ratios for major and minor directions are computed for each of the load combinations as follows: fv 2 . Fb33. Circular and Rectangular sections. Shear Stresses From the allowable shear stress values and the factored shear stress values at each station.3. Channel. 6. T.5). Fa. it is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. allowable stresses are NOT increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (UBC 1612. instead of the simple addition implied by the above formula. However. 2209. fb22. an SRSS combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component. For Single-angle sections.4. For general sections. fb33. and Fb22 are as defined earlier in this Technical Note. For I.

Technical Note 12 .4 Calculation of Stress Ratios . 2209. For all other sections. In contrast to AISC-ASD code.1. the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis.3).Calculation of Stress Ratios Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD For Single-angle sections. the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes that coincide with the geometric axes. when designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads. allowable shear stresses are NOT increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (UBC 1612.3.

the Special Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked with respect to the column axial load capacity only (UBC 2213. in columns caused by the prescribed loading combinations exceeds 0.1. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2213 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and on UBC Section 2214 for frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 (UBC 2204. No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zone 0. For this case. 2213. and the column axial allowable stress in tension is taken to be Fy instead of Fa (UBC 2213. when the axial stress. 2205.3 Fy. 2212.5.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. ƒa. the column axial allowable stress in compression is taken to be 1.0DL + 0. the Special Seismic Ordinary Moment Frames Technical Note 13 .85 DL ± Ωo EL (UBC 2213. 2208.7 Fa instead of Fa. in columns caused by the prescribed loading combinations exceeds 0.3. ƒa. Those requirements are dependent on the type of framing used and are described below for each type of framing. INC. BERKELEY. 1. the following additional requirements are checked or reported: In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.1.1) (UBC 2213. column forces are replaced by the column forces for the Special Seismic Load Combinations.2.5. Ordinary Moment Frames For this framing system.5. 2214). whenever the axial stress.2.4. Special Moment Resisting Frames For this framing system.3 Fy. whereas the other forces are taken as zeros.1 ..1). 2205. 2213.7 LL ± Ωo EL 0.2). the following additional requirements are checked and reported: In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.5. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 13 Seismic Requirements This Technical Note explains the special seismic requirements checked by the program for member design.2) In this case.1.

ƒa.1).1) (UBC 2213.8).1.1).5. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.3 Fy.5.2) In this case.5. Technical Note 13 . 1.1.7. the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections. Compact Ishaped column sections are additionally checked for bf/2tf to be less than the numbers given for plastic sections in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections.4. I-shaped columns. in columns resulting from the prescribed loading combinations exceeds 0. it is noted in the output (UBC 2213. If this criterion is not satisfied. If this criterion is satisfied. the I-shaped beams.0DL + 0. Braced Frames For this framing system.3).5.7. when the axial stress. the following additional requirements are checked or reported: In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.5.1.2 Braced Frames . and the column axial allowable stress in tension is taken to be Fy instead of Fa (UBC 2213.7 LL ± Ωo EL 0.2). If the check is not satisfied. Compact box shaped column sections are also checked for b/tf to be less than 110/ Fy . the program checks the laterally unsupported length of beams to be less than 96ry.7 Fa instead of Fa. whereas the other forces are taken as zeros. the Special Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked with respect to the column axial load capacity only (UBC 2213. the user must modify the section property In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. the column axial allowable stress in compression is taken to be 1. and Box-shaped columns are additionally checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections (UBC 2213. For this case. column forces are replaced by the column forces for the Special Seismic Load Combinations. 2213. Compact I-shaped beam sections are also checked for bf/2tf to be less than 52/ Fy .85 DL ± Ωo EL (UBC 2213.Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Load Combinations as described below are checked with respect to the column axial load capacity only (UBC 2213.

7.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Seismic Requirements 1.8).8. it is noted in the output (UBC 2213. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. If this check is not met.1. the maximum l/r ratio of the braces is checked not to exceed 720/ Fy . 2213. the Angle.8.7 LL ± Ωo EL 0.2) In this case.1) Braced Frames Technical Note 13 . the user must modify the section property.1.2. for pipe sections.5.5. for box sections.2. Box.2.1. If this criterion is satisfied.2) In Seismic Zones 1 and 2.1) (UBC 2213. as described in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections (UBC223.8 (UBC 2214.4. the column axial allowable stress in compression is taken to be 1. 2213.6.0DL + 0.7Fa instead of Fa. b/tf and d/tw is limited to 110/ Fy . the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections.2.5).2). and Pipe shaped braces are additionally checked for compactness criteria. it is noted in the output (UBC 2213. the allowable compressive stress for braces is reduced by a factor of B where B= 1 Kl / r 1+ 2C c (UBC 2213. whereas the other forces are taken as zeros.1). and the column axial allowable stress in tension is taken to be Fy instead of Fa (UBC 2213. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. Double-angle. For this case. the program checks the laterally unsupported length of beams to be less than 96ry.1. D/t is limited to 1.3 .85 DL ± Ωo EL (UBC 2213. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. column forces are replaced by the column forces for the Special Seismic Load Combinations. For angles and double-angles.5. the allowable compressive stress for braces is reduced by the same factor B where B ≥ 0.8. If this criterion is not satisfied. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. If the check is not satisfied.8. b/t is limited to 52/ Fy .300/Fy.

3). A and section modulus. Compact Ishaped beam sections are also checked for bf/2tf to be less than 52/ Fy . the I-shaped beam sections are also checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections. the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections. it is noted in the output. If Vs ≤ 2.55Fydtw and moment Ms=ZFy are calculated.10.8).2).10. the user must modify the section property (UBC 2213. columns and braces associated with these configurations. Eccentrically Braced Frames For this framing system. If the above condition is not satisfied. Chevron braces are designed for 1. the link beam strength is assumed to be governed by shear and is so reported. the program looks for and recognizes the eccentrically braced frame configuration shown in Figure 1.10.4 Eccentrically Braced Frames . If this criterion is not satisfied. Technical Note 13 .12) If the check is not satisfied. the link beam strength is assumed to be governed by flexure and is so reported.4. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0.10.12): e ≤1.5 times the specified load combination (UBC 2213. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0. Special seismic design of eccentrically braced frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 is the same as that in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2214. The following additional requirements are checked or reported for the beams. If this criterion is satisfied. if the link beam is connected to the column. Other sections meeting this criterion are also reported as SEISMIC.0Ms/e. In all Seismic zones except Zone 0. the link beam length e is checked not to exceed the following (UBC 2213.1). the link beam strength in shear Vs=0. the axial and flexural properties (area. S) for use in the interaction equations are calculated based on the beam flanges only (UBC 2213.8. When link beam strength is governed by shear.6 Mp Vp (UBC 2213.Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.

5 .Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Seismic Requirements e a) L e b) L c) e 2 e 2 L Figure 1 Eccentrically Braced Frame Configurations In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0. the link beam rotation θ of the individual bay relative to the rest of the beam is calculated as the story drift deltaM times bay length divided by the total lengths of link beams in the Eccentrically Braced Frames Technical Note 13 .

the column axial allowable stress in compression is taken to be 1. the brace strength is checked to be at least 1. In all Seismic zones except Zone 0.030 as the link beam clear length varies from 1.6 Ms/Vs θ ≤ 0. Technical Note 13 .030. the link beam shear under the specified loading combinations is checked not to exceed 0. whichever produces the lower brace force.0 Ms/Vs.17). It is recommended that only one column line per eccentrically braced frame be connected to the rigid diaphragm or a flexible diaphragm model be used. e ≤ 1. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0.5). and the column axial allowable stress in tension is taken to be Fy instead of Fa. and θ ≤ value interpolated between 0.10.090.6 Ms/Vs to 3.0 Ms/Vs. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0. e ≥ 3.10.55Fydtw. The correspondence between brace force and link beam force is obtained from the associated load cases. If this condition governs.10.090 and 0.10. The link beam rotation θ is checked to be less than the following values (UBC 2213. axial forces in the beams are included in checking of beams (UBC 2211. whichever has the highest link beam force of interest.14).Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD bay divided by height of the story. where link beam clear length.8Vs (UBC 2213. or the reduced flexural strength Mrs. The value of Mrs is taken as Mrs = Z(Fy-ƒa)(UBC 2213. The user is reminded that using a rigid diaphragm model will result in zero axial forces in the beams.5 times the axial force corresponding to the controlling link beam strength (UBC 2213. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0. as Vs=0.4).25 times the column forces corresponding to the controlling link beam strength (UBC 2213.10. where link beam clear length. The controlling link beam strength and the corresponding forces are as obtained by the process described above.6 Eccentrically Braced Frames .13).3).10. where ƒa is the lower of the axial stress in the link beam corresponding to yielding of the link beam web in shear or the link beam flanges in flexure. the column is checked to not become inelastic for gravity loads plus 1. θ ≤ 0. Vs.7Fa instead of Fa. The controlling link beam strength is either the shear strength. The user must disconnect some of the column lines from the diaphragm to allow beams to carry axial loads.

85 DL ± ΩoEL (UBC 2213. whereas the other forces are taken as zeros. Note: The beam strength in flexure.7).2). the beam laterally unsupported length is checked to be less than 76 bf/ Fy . and the column axial allowable stress in tension is taken to be Fy instead of Fa (UBC 2213.5. is NOT currently checked to be at least 1. the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Special Concentrically Braced Frames Technical Note 13 .13).7 Fa instead of Fa.1. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0.18).1.3Fy. the following additional requirements are checked or reported: In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0.5.4.9. the Special Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked with respect to the column axial load capacity only (UBC 2213.0 DL + 0.5. the I-shaped and Box-shaped columns are also checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections. For this framing system.7 LL ± ΩoEL 0.10. Compact I-shaped column sections are also checked for bf/2tf to be less than the numbers given for plastic sections in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections.1) (UBC 2213. If this criterion is satisfied.5. If not satisfied. it is so noted as a warning in the output file (UBC 2213. when the axial stress fa in columns resulting from the prescribed loading combinations exceeds 0.5.7 .1. For this case. of the beam outside the link.10. the column axial allowable stress in compression is taken to be 1.5 times the moment corresponding to the controlling link beam strength (UBC 2213. Compact Box-shaped column sections also are checked for b/tf and d/tw to be less than 110/ Fy . 1. Special Concentrically Braced Frames Special seismic design of special concentrically braced frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 is the same as those in Seismic zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2214. 2213. 2213. column forces are replaced by the column forces for the Special Seismic Load Combinations.1).Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Seismic Requirements In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0. Users need to check for this requirement.2) In this case.

4).8 Special Concentrically Braced Frames . the maximum Kl/r ratio of the braces is checked not to exceed 1. bracing members are checked to be compact and are so reported. 2213. If this criterion is satisfied. the user must modify the section property (UBC 2213.4. b/t is limited to 52/ Fy .1).5.4. For angles.2).000/ Fy .9.1) where Pb is given by the difference of FyA for the tension brace and 0.9.4.9.9.2. Technical Note 13 . for pipe sections. it is noted in the output (UBC 2213.7.Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Classification of Sections. If this criterion is not satisfied.9.1. and Pipe sections used as braces are also checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 9 Classification of Sections. 2213. The Angle.1) (UBC 2213. Note: Beams intersected by Chevron braces are NOT currently checked to have a strength to support loads represented by the following loading combination (UBC 2213. the user must modify the section property (UBC 2213.3 times 1. If this check is not met. the section is reported as SEISMIC.2 DL + 0. Box.14): 1. D/t is limited to 1.7FaA for the compression brace.3).4. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0.9.9 DL ± Pb (UBC 2213.2.9.300/Fy.5LL ± Pb 0. If this criterion is not satisfied. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0. Users need to check for this requirement (UBC 2213.

CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 14 Joint Design This Technical Note describes how the program checks or designs joints.5). INC..©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY. The column flexure strength should reflect the presence of axial force present in the column. the structural joints are checked or designed for the following: Check for the requirement of continuity plate and determination of its area (see UBC97-ASD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 15 Continuity Plates ) Check for the requirement of doubler plate and determination of its thickness (see Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Technical Note 16 Doubler Plates) Check for ratio of beam flexural strength to column flexural strength Reporting the beam connection shear Reporting the brace connection force Beam/Column Plastic Moment Capacity Ratio In Seismic Zones 3 and 4. the program reports a beam/column plastic moment capacity ratio for every joint in the structure. the code requires that the sum of beam flexure strengths at a joint should be less than the sum of column flexure strengths (UBC 2213. for Special Moment-Resisting Frames. When using UBC97-ASD design code. For the major direction of any column (top end) the beam-to-column strength ratio is obtained as: Rmaj = n =1 ∑M nb pbn cos θ n (UBC 2213.7. To facilitate the review of the strong-column/weak-beam criterion.1 .5) M pcax + M pcbx Joint Design Technical Note 14 .7.

If there is no column above the joint. it is taken equal to Mpcbx. in the major and minor directions of the column. = Major and minor plastic moment capacities.fa). reduced for axial force effects. Mpcax. of column below story level. θn Mpcax. = Zc(Fyc . of column above story level. and = Number of beams connecting to the column.2 Joint Design . reduced for axial force effects.5) M pcay + M pcby Rmaj. respectively Mpbn = Plastic moment capacity of n-th beam connecting to column. (UBC 2213. = Angle between the n-th beam and the column major direction.y if there is a column above the joint.7. Currently. min = Plastic moment capacity ratios.y is taken as zero. = Major and minor plastic moment capacities.5) Technical Note 14 .Joint Design Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD For the minor direction of any column the beam-to-column strength ratio is obtained as: Rmin = where.y nb The plastic moment capacities of the columns are reduced for axial force effects and are taken as Mpc where. = Yield stress of column material. Zc Fyc fa = Plastic modulus of column.y Mpcbx. and = Maximum axial stress in the column.7. n =1 ∑M nb pbn sin θ n (UBC 2213.

for Ordinary Moment Frames.2) In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0. the beam connection shears that are reported allow for the development of the full plastic moment capacity of the beam (UBC 2213.1) Joint Design Technical Note 14 . V C = Shear force corresponding to END I and END J of beam = 0 if beam ends are pinned or for cantilever beam. the beam connection shears reported are the maximum of the specified loading combinations and the following additional loading combinations (UBC 2213. CM pb L + VDL + LL (UBC 2213.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Joint Design For the above calculations.1.3 . Thus: V= where. For special seismic design.6. Evaluation of Beam Connection Shears For each steel beam in the structure.1). 2214).5.7.7. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2213 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and on UBC Section 2214 for frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 (UBC 2204. 22145.4. the section of the column above is taken to be the same as the section of the column below assuming that the column splice will be located some distance above the story level.6. for Special Moment-Resisting Frames. the beam connection shears are not taken less than the following special values for different types of framing.0LL ± Ω0 EL (UBC 2213.1.0 DL + 1.2): 1.1.5.1. 2214.2. 2214.4. = 1 if one end of the beam is pinned. 2213. 2214.2. the program will report the maximum major shears at each end of the beam for the design of the beam shear connections. 2205.1. No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zone 0.2. The beam connection shears reported are the maxima of the factored shears obtained from the loading combinations.2.

8.0 DL + 1. for Special Concentrically Braced Frames.1. No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zone 0. the brace connection forces are not taken less than the following special values for different types of framing. Mpb L = Plastic moment capacity of the beam. the bracing connection force is reported at least as the smaller of the tensile strength of the brace (FyA) and the following special loading combination (UBC 2213. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0. 2214.1.0LL ± Ω0 EL Evaluation of Brace Connection Forces For each steel brace in the structure.6.8.3. 2205. the bracing connection force is reported at least as the smaller of the tensile strength of the brace (FyA) and the following special loading combination (UBC 2213. In all Seismic zones except Zone 0.3.2. 2213. ZFy. 2214. The brace connection forces reported are the maxima of the factored brace axial forces obtained from the loading combinations. the beam connection shears reported are the maximum of the specified loading combinations and the following additional loading combination: 1.0LL ± Ω0 EL (UBC 2213.4 Joint Design .1).6. for Ordinary Braced Frames. for Eccentrically Braced Frames. and VDL+LL = Absolute maximum of the calculated factored beam shears at the corresponding beam ends from the dead load and live load combinations only. 1. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2213 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and on UBC 2214 for frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 (UBC 2204.7): Technical Note 14 .1. 2214.3.1) In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0.0 DL + 1. = Clear length of the beam.2. For special seismic design. the program reports the maximum axial force at each end of the brace for the design of the brace-to-beam connections.3. 2214).9.3.Joint Design Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD = 2 if no ends of the beam are pinned.

7) In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0.10. 2214.0 DL + 1. the bracing connection force is reported as at least the brace strength in compression that is computed as 1.8).7Fa A is limited not to exceed Fy A.3.7Fa A (UBC 2213.9.6. for Eccentrically Braced Frames. 2214.5 .0LL ± Ω0 EL (UBC 2213. 1. Joint Design Technical Note 14 .Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Joint Design 1.

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. to transfer the compression and tension flange forces of the beam into the column.e. i. The steel beam frames in a direction parallel to the column major direction. parallel to the column major direction) and reports the maximum continuity plate area that is needed for each beam flange. such continuity plates are not always needed.. No check is made for braced frames. The steel beam frames in a direction that is at an angle to both of the principal axes of the column.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. i. for the connection described by condition 1.. i. In a plan view of a beam/column connection. The steel beam frames in a direction parallel to the column minor direction. Continuity Plates Technical Note 15 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 15 Continuity Plates This Technical Note describes how this program can be used in the design of continuity plates. This is the condition that the program investigates.e. where the beam frames into the flange of the column. continuity plates such as shown in Figure 1 are usually placed on the column.. Columns of I-sections only are investigated. the beam frames into the column web.1 . 3. The requirement depends on the magnitude of the beam-flange force and the properties of the column. the beam frames partially into the column web and partially into the column flange. The program evaluates the continuity plate requirements for each of the beams that frame into the column flange (i. To achieve a beam/column moment connection.e. the beam frames into the column flange. INC.e. The continuity plate requirements are evaluated for moment frames only. However. a steel beam can frame into a column in the following ways: 1. 2. the thickness of such plates is usually set equal to the flange thickness of the corresponding beam.. BERKELEY. in line with the top and bottom flanges of the beam. For the connection described in conditions 2 and 3 above.

Continuity Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Figure 1 Elevation and Plan of Doubler Plates for a Column of I-Section Technical Note 15 .2 Continuity Plates .

dc . where Fyc (ASD K1-1) Pbf = fbAbf.4 Pbf . no continuity plates are required. is less than or equal to: 3 4.e.2). fb is the bending stress calculated from the larger of 5/3 of loading combinations with gravity loads only (5/3)M/[(d-tf)Afb] and 4/3 of the loading combination with lateral loads (4/3)M/[(d-tf)Afb] (ASD K1.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Continuity Plates The continuity plate area required for a particular beam framing into a column is given by: Acp = Pbf . For special seismic design. or t  b min bcp =  fb − wc   3 2    (ASD K1. provided the following two conditions are also satisfied: The depth of the column clear of the fillets..5 tfb (ASD K1.3 .2kc.twc (tfb + 5kc) Fyc (ASD K1-9) If Acp ≤ 0. or min t cp = 0.1) Continuity Plates Technical Note 15 .2) The width of the continuity plate on each side plus 1/2 the thickness of the column web shall not be less than 1/3 of the beam flange width. i. If continuity plates are required. fa is specified to be beam flange strength. tfc.100t wc Fyc Pbf (ASD K1-8) The thickness of the column flange. is greater than or equal to: 0. they must satisfy a minimum area specification defined as follows: The thickness of the stiffeners is at least .8.05 tfb.8.

dc db fb tcp bcp fb The special seismic requirements additionally checked by the program are dependent on the type of framing used and are described below for each type of framing.Continuity Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD So that the minimum area is given by: min min min Acp = t cp bcp Therefore. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2213 for Technical Note 15 .4 Continuity Plates . Where Abf Acp Fyb Fyc tfb twc kc = Area of beam flange = Required continuity plate area = Yield stress of beam material = Yield stress of the column and continuity plate material = Beam flange thickness = Column web thickness = Distance between outer face of the column flange and web toe of its fillet = Column depth = Beam depth = Beam flange depth = Continuity plate thickness = Continuity plate width = Bending stress calculated from the larger of 5/3 of loading combinations with gravity loads only (5/3)M/[(d-tf)Afb] and 4/3 of the loading combinations with lateral loads (4/3)M/[(dtf)Afb] (ASD K1. the continuity plate area provided by the program is either zero or min the greater of Acp and Acp .2).

2214. the force Pbf is taken as fybAbf. For design of the continuity plate. the continuity plates are checked and designed for a beam flange force. 2213.6. 2213. for Special Moment-Resisting Frames. for Eccentrically Braced Frames.1). In Seismic Zones 1 and 2.12. the beam flange force is taken as fybAbf (UBC 2213.1).1. the beam flange force is taken as fybAbf (UBC 2214.8 fybAbf (UBC 2213. for determining the need for continuity plates at joints resulting from tension transfer from the beam flanges.4).5 .1.5. No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zone 0.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Continuity Plates frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and UBC Section 2214 for frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 (UBC 2204. for Ordinary Moment Frames the continuity plates are checked and designed for a beam flange force. Pbf.7.10.2.1.19) Continuity Plates Technical Note 15 .4. for Special Moment-Resisting Frames.7. 2212.2.1. the force Pbf is taken as 1. In all Seismic Zones except Zone 0.1. 2205. In all Seismic zones except Zone 0.10. For design of the continuity plate. Pbf = fybAbf (UBC 2213. 2214.5. for determining the need for continuity plates at joints resulting from tension transfer from the beam flanges.1) In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.7.1. Pbf = fybAbf (UBC 2213. Pbf. 2214).1.

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or at an angle so that the beams have components along the column major direction. INC.. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 16 Doubler Plates This Technical Note explains how the program can be used in the design of doubler plates. in a Moment-Resisting frame. depending on the loading and geometry of the steel beams that frame into the column. No check is made for braced frames. The program investigates such situations and reports the thickness of any required doubler plates.1 . One aspect of the design of a steel frame system is an evaluation of the shear forces that exist in the region of the beam column intersection known as the panel zone. especially in framing systems when the column is subjected to major direction bending and the joint shear forces are resisted by the web of the column. Shear stresses seldom control the design of a beam or column member.Vc d n − t fn n =1 ∑ nb Doubler Plates Technical Note 16 . and this condition is therefore not investigated by the program. resulting from major direction bending in the column. In minor direction bending. See Figure 1. BERKELEY. or Vp = M bn cos θ n . the joint shear is carried by the column flanges. Also doubler plate requirements are evaluated for moment frames only. may require additional plates to be welded onto the column web. However.Vc. in which case the shear stresses are seldom critical. either along the column major direction. the shear stress in the beam-column joint can be critical. Shear stresses in the panel zone. Only columns with I-shapes are investigated for doubler plate requirements.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The shear fore in the panel zone is given by: Vp = P .

2 Doubler Plates .Doubler Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Figure 1 Elevation and Plan of Doubler Plates for a Column of I-Section Technical Note 16 .

where Fv Fyc tr tdp tfn twc Vp Vc P nb dn h = 0. Doubler Plates Technical Note 16 . or thickness of the doubler plate is given by tdp = tr -twc. Vp. is given by tr = Vp Fv d c ≥ h 380 / Fyc (ASD F4) The extra thickness.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Doubler Plates The required web thickness to resist the shear force. dc .40Fyc = Yield stress of the column and doubler plate material = Required column web thickness = Required doubler plate thickness = Thickness of flange of the n-th beam connecting to column = Column web thickness = Panel zone shear = Column shear in column above = Beam flange forces = Number of beams connecting to column = Depth of n-th beam connecting to column = dc .2kc if rolled = Angle between n-th beam and column major direction = Depth of column = Calculated factored beam moment from the corresponding loading combination (ASD F4) θn dc Mbn The largest calculated value of Vp calculated for any of the load combinations based on the factored beam moments is used to calculate doubler plate areas.2tfc if welded.3 .

8 of the plastic moment capacity of the beam (0. for Special Moment-Resisting Frames.7.1): 2  3bc t cf VP = 0. tcf = thickness of column flange. and db = depth of deepest beam framing into the major direction of the column In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 for Special Moment-Resisting Frames.2.7.Doubler Plates Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD The special seismic requirements checked by the program for calculating doubler plate areas are dependent on the type of framing used and are described below for each type of framing.55Fyc d c − 2 3bc t cf h ≥ d b dc 380 / Fyc (UBC 2213. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2213 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and on UBC Section 2214 for frames in Seismic Zones 1 and 2 (UBC 2204. The capacity of the panel zone in resisting this shear is taken as (UBC 2213. 2213. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.55Fycdctr 1 +  db dc t r      (UBC 2213.2.twc where bc = width of column flange h = dc-2tfc if welded.7.85 times the seismic load (UBC 2213.1) giving the required panel zone thickness as tr = Vp 0. No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0. or beam moments caused by gravity loads plus 1.7. 2214).2.1).4 Doubler Plates . ASD F4) and the required doubler plate thickness as tdp = tr . the panel zone doubler plate requirements that are reported will develop the lesser of beam moments equal to 0. dc-2kc if rolled.2.2.2. the program checks the following panel zone column web thickness requirement: Technical Note 16 .1.8∑Mpb). 1 and 2. 2205.

In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.10.2) If the check is not satisfied. for Eccentrically Braced Frames. Doubler Plates Technical Note 16 . the doubler plate requirements are checked similar to the doubler plate checks for special Moment-Resisting frames as described previously (UBC 2213.2.7.19). it is noted in the output.5 .Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD (d c − 2t fc ) + (d b − 2t fb ) 90 Doubler Plates twc ≥ (UBC 2213.

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steel or none. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Material Dir/Plane Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Steel.1 . Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 17 Input Data This Technical Note describes the steel frame design input data for UBC97ASD. "All" for isotropic materials. concrete or other. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Further information about using the Print Design Tables Form is provided at the end of this Technical Note. specify axis properties define for orthotropic. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Steel..©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Concrete. Input Data Technical Note 17 . INC. BERKELEY. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. concrete or other. Isotropic or orthotropic. Postprocessor available if steel is specified.

Steel. User specified or auto selected member name. Used to calculate the self weight of the structure. Concrete compressive strength. Maximum tensile stress of steel. Material Design Data for Steel Materials Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Frame Section Property Data Frame Section Name Material Name Section Shape Name or Name in Section Database File Section Depth Flange Width Top Flange Thick Top Web Thick Flange Width Bot Flange Thick Bot Section Area Depth of the section.85. Bending reinforcing yield stress. Minimum yield stress of steel. Check this box if this is a lightweight concrete material. Define reduction factor if lightweight concrete box checked. Usually between 0. Cost per unit weight used in composite beam design if optimum beam size specified to be determined by cost. Steel. Name of section as defined in database files. Technical Note 17 . Thickness of bottom flange per AISC database. Concrete. Web thickness per AISC database.2 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data . Thickness of top flange per AISC database.Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Steel FY Steel FU Steel Cost ($) DESCRIPTION Used to calculate self mass of the structure. Width of top flange per AISC database. Shear reinforcing yield stress. Width of bottom flange per AISC database. concrete or none.75 ad 0.

Beam bay identifier. envelope. Braced Frame. Special MRF. static nonlinear. Name of member section assigned. Effective length factor. Z22 R33.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Input Data Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Torsional Constant Moments of Inertia Shear Areas Section Moduli Plastic Moduli Radius of Gyration Combo Type Case Case Type Factor Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor I33. absolute. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. Additive. sequential construction. As defined in AISC-ASD. or SRSS as defined in Define > Load Combination. S22 Z33. Static. Scale factor to be applied to each load case. R22 Load combination name. response spectrum. page 5-55. time history. DESCRIPTION Load Combination Multipliers Beam Steel Stress Check Element Information Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites Story Level Beam Bay CM Major Name of the story level. Name of the story level. I22 A2. Effective length factor. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data Technical Note 17 .3 . ERF Live load reduction factor. Ordinary MRF. A3 S33. Special CBF. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. Name(s) of case(s) to be included in this load combination. Beam bay identifier.

Braced Frame. page 5-55.4 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data . ERF Live load reduction factor. If zero. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. If zero. Special MRF. If zero. Effective length factor. Column Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites Story Level Name of the story level. Special CBF. If zero. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD Chapter D. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. Name of member sections assigned. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. If zero. Technical Note 17 . yield stress defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter E. As defined in AISC-ASD. page 5-47.Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING CM Minor Cb Factor DESCRIPTION As defined in AISC-ASD. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. Column Steel Stress Check Element Information Story Level Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor Name of the story level. Column line identifier. Effective length factor. Ordinary MRF. If zero. Beam Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites Story Level Beam Bay Fa Ft Fb Major Fb Minor Fv Major Fv Minor Name of the story level. Beam bay identifier.

click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Input Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form. As defined in AISC-ASD. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. If zero. If zero. If zero. As defined in AISC-ASD. If zero. page 5-55. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD Chapter D.5 . Column line identifier. page 5-55. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Click the Filename button to change the path or filename. As defined in AISC-ASD. if necessary. yield stress defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter E.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Input Data Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Column Line CM Major CM Minor Cb Factor DESCRIPTION Column line identifier. If zero. To print steel frame design input data to a file. If zero. page 5-47. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 17 . Column Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites Story Level Column Line Fa Ft Fb Major Fb Minor Fv Major Fv Minor Name of the story level.

xls. . and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form.g. Technical Note 17 .Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD (e. click Yes to replace the existing file. Or use the Filename button to locate another file. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. the Selection Only check box will be checked. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.doc). . Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.6 Using the Print Design Tables Form .txt.. Data will be added to this file. . If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output Technical Note 18 . The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. The program provides the output data in tables.1 . Name of member sections assigned. BERKELEY. Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 33 axis. Beam bay identifier.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is provided at the end of this Technical Note. Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress. Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 22 axis. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam Steel Stress Check Output Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Name of the story level.. Moment Interaction Check Combo Ratio Axl B33 B22 Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio. INC. Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-ASD Technical Note 18 Output Details This Technical Note describes the steel frame design output for UBC97-ASD that can be printed to a printer or to a text file.

DESCRIPTION Ratio Shear33 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 33 axis. Technical Note 18 . Classification of section for the enveloping combo. Name of the story level. END-I Combo END-J Column Steel Stress Check Output Story Level Name of the story level. Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress. Name of member sections assigned.2 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output . Maximum End-J connection shear. Maximum End-I connection shear.Output Details Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING Shear22 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 22 axis. Name of the load combination that provides maximum End-J connection shear. Beam bay identifier. Ratio Beam Special Seismic Requirements Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Section Class Connection Shear Combo Name of the load combination that provides maximum End-I connection shear. Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.

Name of member section assigned. Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress. Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output Technical Note 18 . B22 Shear22 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 22 axis. Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress. Moment Interaction Check Combo Ratio AXL B33 Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio. Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 22 axis.3 . Name of member sections assigned. Column line identifier. Ratio Column Special Seismic Requirements Story Level Column Line Section ID Story level name. Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 33 axis. Ratio Shear33 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 33 axis.Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Output Details Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING Column Line Section ID DESCRIPTION Column line identifier. Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.

click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. if necessary.doc). Cross-section area of the continuity plate. Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design output data directly to a printer. To print steel frame design output data to a file. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Thickness of the doubler plate. . DESCRIPTION Classification of section for the enveloping combo.xls.4 Using the Print Design Tables Form . Click the Filename button to change the path or filename.txt. .. Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. Thick B/C Ratios Major Minor Beam/column capacity ratio for major direction. use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Output Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. . Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. Beam/column capacity ratio for minor direction.g. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.Output Details Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING Section Class Continuity Plate Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum continuity plate area. Technical Note 18 . Area Doubler Plate Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum doubler plate thickness.

Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 18 .Steel Frame Design UBC97-ASD Output Details Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. click Yes to replace the existing file. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Or use the Filename button to locate another file.5 . Data will be added to this file. the Selection Only check box will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command.

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which has been implemented in the AISCLRFD93 code in ETABS. 2210): Ordinary Moment Frame (OMF) Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF) Introduction to the UBC97-LRFD Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 19 .4 of the UBC code. Various notations used in the Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD series of Technical Notes are described herein. When using the UBC97-LRFD option.x" refer to the LRFD Seismic Provisions after UBC amendments through UBC Section 2210. 1992" (AISC 1994) are referred to as Section 2211. In the UBC97-LRFD Technical Notes. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 19 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC97-LRFD Series of Technical Notes The UBC97-LRFD design code in this program implements the International Conference of Building Officials 1997 Uniform Building Code: Volume 2: Structural Engineering Design Provisions. a unique prefix "LRFD" is assigned. all sections and subsections referenced by "UBC 2211. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the AISC-LRFD code. However. Chapter 22.4" or "UBC 2211. Chapter 22. a unique prefix "UBC" is assigned. the following Framing Systems are recognized (UBC 1627. "Design Standard for Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ICBO 1997). Division III of UBC adopted the American Institute of Steel Construction's Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 1993).4." Moreover. BERKELEY.1 . all references to the "Specifications for Load and Resistance Factored Design of Single-Angle Members" (AISC 1994) carry the prefix of "LRFD SAM.. all sections of the "Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings June 15.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the UBC code. Division II. INC.

When using the UBC97-LRFD option. the change of the frame type in the Preference will not modify the frame type of the individual member for which it is assigned. However. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. See UBC97LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 22 Design Load Combinations for more information.2 Introduction to the UBC97-LRFD Series of Technical Notes . Then.General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF) Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF) Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF) By default the frame type is taken as Special-Moment Resisting (SMRF) in the program. the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the in- Technical Note 19 . the frame type can be overwritten in the Preferences to change the default (Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design). a frame is assigned to one of the following five Seismic Zones (UBC 2210): Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. To facilitate use. the frame type can be overwritten in the Preferences (Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design) to change the default values and in the Overwrites (Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites) on a member-by-member basis. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. However. If any member is assigned with a frame type. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.

and Technical Notes 30 Doubler Plates. in2 Major and minor shear areas. Notation A Ae Ag Av2.Av3 Aw B1 Cross-sectional area. a shear capacity ration is also calculated separately. equal dtw per web. A capacity ratio greater than 1. The controlling capacity ration is then obtained. Information about seismic requirements is provided in UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 27 Seismic Requirements. in2 Shear area. Technical Notes 28 Joint Design. in2 Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Notation Technical Note 19 . in2 Gross cross-sectional area. Technical Notes 29 Continuity Plates. The code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units. Algorithms for completing these calculations are described in UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 24 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments. It also provides input and output data summaries. in2 Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections. which are described in UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 31 Input Data and Technical Note 32 Output Details. For simplicity. and Technical Note 26 Calculation of Capacity Ratios. Technical Note 25 Calculation of Nominal Strengths.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD General and Notation fluence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this series of Technical Notes. all equations and descriptions presented in the UBC97-LRFD series of Technical Notes correspond to KipInch-Second units unless otherwise noted. Similarly. which are described in UBC97LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 20 Preferences and Technical Note 21 Overwrites.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. The program uses preferences and overwrites. Further information is available from UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 23 Classification of Sections.3 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.

in4 Torsional constant for the section.5 for welded sections. ksi Critical compressive stress. kip-in Fy G I22 I33 J K K33. in6 Outside diameter of pipes.4 Notation . kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway. ksi Shear modulus. ksi Minor moment of inertia. in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity. ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10.0 for rolled sections and 16.General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD B2 Cb Cm Cw D E Fcr Fr Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant. in Modulus of elasticity.K22 Lb Lp Lr Mcr Mlt Mnt Technical Note 19 . kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway. in Elastic buckling moment. in4 Major moment of inertia. in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. ksi Yield stress of material. in4 Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member.

= QaQs Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus. in3 Nominal major and minor shear strengths.Z22 b Notation Technical Note 19 .Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD General and Notation Mn33. kip-in Euler buckling load. kips Reduction factor for slender section. kips Nominal axial load strength. in3 Major and minor plastic moduli. in3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section.22 Sc Vn2. Mu22 Pe Pn Pu Py Q Qa Qs S S33.Mn22 Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions. kipin Elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment for angle sections.Vn3 Vu2. kips AgFy. kips Factored major and minor shear loads. kips Plastic modulus. in3 Major and minor section moduli. in Mob Mr33. Mr22 Mu Mu33. kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member. kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments.33.Vv3 Z Z33. in3 Nominal dimension of plate in a section. kip-in Factored moment in member. kip Factored axial force in member.S22 Seff. in3 Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections.Seff.5 .

in Flange thickness. in Thickness of web. in Parameter used for section classification. etc. in Effective depth of web.r22 t tf tw h t w . 0. in Overall depth of member. in Clear distance between flanges less fillets. in Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameters Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for seismic element βw λ λc. bf ― 2tw for welded and bf ― 3tw for rolled box sections.General and Notation Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD longer leg of angle sections. in assumed d ― 2k for rolled sections.λe λp λr λs Technical Note 19 . and d ― 2tf for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet.35 ≤ kc ≤ 0. in Flange width.6 Notation . in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions.l22 r r33. in Thickness. in Radius of gyration. be bf d de hc Effective width of flange.763 k kc Major and minor directions unbraced member lengths. in Special section property for angles. 4 l33.

Illinois. References Technical Note 19 . Manual of Steel Construction.9 References American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). Chicago.7 . American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). Whittier. 2nd Edition. 1997. International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). 1997 Uniform Building Code Volume 2. 1993. Load & Resistance Factor Design. 0.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD General and Notation λslender ϕb ϕc ϕt ϕv Limiting slenderness parameter for slender element Resistance factor for bending.9 Resistance factor for compression.85 Resistance factor for tension. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Building. Structural Engineering Design Provisions. Illinois. 0. 0. 0. California. Chicago. 1994.9 Resistance factor for shear.

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You should. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet.. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you. To change a preference item. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the steel frame design preferences. The Preferences form will display. Default values are provided for all steel frame design preference items.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. Thus. type in the desired value. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. If the cell is highlighted. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences. General The steel frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all steel frame elements. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. BERKELEY. however. INC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 20 Preferences This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form. The preference value will update accordingly.1 . If you click the Cancel button to exit General Technical Note 20 . select the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design. If the drop-down box appears. select a new value. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences. click the OK button to close the form. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name.

Description: A description of the associated preference item. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it. Preferences For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form.2 Preferences . or designed step-bystep for the entire time history. Step-by-Step Default Value AISC-ASD89 Envelopes Description Design code used for design of steel frame elements. any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed.Preferences Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD the form. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Technical Note 20 . the preference items are presented in Table 1. regardless of what is specified here. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item. Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences Item Design Code Time History Design Possible Values Any code in the program Envelopes. Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history.

8 . Omega0 Stress Ratio Limit 2. Zone 3. Zone 1. Zone 2. EBF Zone 0. Zone 4 ≥0 >0 Default Value Ordinary MRF Description Zone Zone 4 Seismic zone. Maximum Auto Iteration ≥1 1 Preferences Technical Note 20 .95 Program will select members from the auto select list with stress ratios less than or equal to this value. Braced Frame. Sets the number of iterations of the analysis-design cycle that the program will complete automatically assuming that the frame elements have been assigned as auto select sections.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Preferences Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences Item Frame Type Possible Values Ordinary MRF. Special MRF. Special CBF.3 .

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To access the overwrites.. BERKELEY. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 21 Overwrites General The steel frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. When changes are made to overwrite items. Thus. This Technical Note describes steel frame design overwrites for UBC97-LRFD. After design.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. these names are generally short. that is. select an element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. To save space in the forms. the overwrites are presented in Table 1. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. If the default value is given in the table with an associated note "Program Palculated. General Technical Note 21 .1 . The column headings in the table are described as follows." the value is shown by the program before the design is performed. However. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. the values are calculated by the program and the default is modified by the program-calculated value. Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. INC. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.

As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. ≥0 1 Earthquake loads are multiplied by this factor. 1 Live load is multiplied by this factor. Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length. As defined in AISC-LRFD Table CC2. page 6-184. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.1. LTB) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) ≥0 From Preferences Possible Values Default Value Description Indicates selected member size used in current design. EBF Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor. page 6-184. Braced Frame. As defined in AISC-LRFD Table CC2.2 Overwrites .Overwrites Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note.85 Technical Note 21 . ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 0. Special CBF. Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length.1.85 ≥0 0. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites Item Current Design Section Element Type Ordinary MRF. Special MRF.

≥0 1 ≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Overwrites Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites Item Bending Coefficient (Cb) NonSway Moment Factor (B1 Major) NonSway Moment Factor (B1 Minor) Sway Moment Factor (B2 Major) Sway Moment Factor (B2 Minor) Yield stress. phi*Pnt Major Bending Capacity. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. If zero. ≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. yield stress defined for material property data used. phi*Pnc Tensile Capacity. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D.3 . ≥0 1 ≥0 ≥0 ≥0 0 From Preferences 0 ≥0 0 ≥0 0 ≥0 0 Overwrites Technical Note 21 . Seismic force amplification factor as required by the UBC. If zero. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. If zero. If zero. phi*Mn2 Possible Values ≥0 Default Value 1 Description As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. If zero. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. phi*Mn3 Minor Bending Capacity. Fy Omega0 Compressive Capacity.

4 Making Changes in the Overwrites Form . The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one frame element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed. select a value from the box. If multiple elements were selected. If the drop-down box appears. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. If the cell contents is highlighted. After selecting one or multiple elements. Initially. the check boxes in the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.Overwrites Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites Item Major Shear Capacity. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet. select a frame element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. If zero. Technical Note 21 . The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet. type in the desired value. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. phi*Vn2 Minor Shear Capacity. The overwrite will reflect the change. ≥0 0 Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the steel frame overwrites. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. phi*Vn3 Possible Values ≥0 Default Value 0 Description If zero. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.

5 . the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values Technical Note 21 . not to the values that were in the . The steel frame overwrite values that were in a . Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed.edb file used to initialize the model. Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. click the OK button to close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Overwrites When changes to the overwrites have been completed. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. When you reset overwrites. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program.

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INC.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.1 12-6) (UBC 1612.3 WL 1.2. wind load (WL).4 LL 1. live load (LL).0 EL 0. The user should include other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.5 LL (White and Hajjar 1991). if other types of loads are present.2.12.1): 1. or if pattern live loads are to be considered. the program design assumes that a Pdelta analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity.2.1. Reference Technical Note 22 . and earthquake induced load (EL). 2207.0 EL 1..2 DL ± 1.5 LL ± 1.2 DL + 0. For the UBC97-LRFD code.1 12-3) (UBC 1612.1 12-1) (UBC 1612.2 DL ± 0.8 WL 0.9 DL ± 1.4 DL 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.9 DL ± 1. See UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 21 Overwrites for more information.2 DL + 1.2. When using the UBC97-LRFD code. It is recommended that the P-delta analysis be completed at the factored load level of 1.1 . 2206.1 12-6) (UBC 12. 1612. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 22 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structural members and joints need to be designed or checked. BERKELEY.2.1 12-4) (UBC 1612.1 12-5) (UBC 1612.1 12-5) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the UBC97-LRFD code is used.2.3. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).2.2 DL plus 0.2. 2210. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.1 12-2) (UBC 1612. the following load combinations may need to be defined (UBC 2204.5 LL ± EL (UBC 1612.2 DL + 0.3.3 WL 1.

8 in the program. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice.2 Reference . 0.2 DL + 0. 28. Reference White. Engineering Journal. 4. Vol. The special circumstances for which these load combinations are additionally checked are described in UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 27 Seismic Requirements and Technical Note 28 Joint Design. Hajjar.3. Inc.W.1) (UBC 2210.Design Load Combinations Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD It is noted here that whenever special seismic loading combinations are required by the code for special circumstances. the change of Ωo in the Preferences will not modify Ωo of the individual member for which Ωo has been assigned. Other similar special loading combinations are described in UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 27 Seismic Requirements and Technical Note 28 Joint Design. D. 2211.3. Technical Note 22 . The combinations described herein are internal to the program. 1991.1) where Ωo is the seismic force amplification factor that is required to account for structural overstrength.4. It is assumed that any required scaling (such as may be required to scale response spectra results) has already been applied to the progam load cases. However.9 DL ± Ωo EL 1. The following additional seismic load combinations are frequently checked for specific types of members and special circumstances. No.3. the program automatically generates those load combinations internally. The default value of Ωo is taken as 2. Ωo can be overwritten in the Preferences (Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design command) to change the default and in the Overwrites (Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command) on a member-by-member basis.3.4.3. The special loading combination factors are applied directly to the program load cases. 2211.1 and UBC Table 16N.F. The user does NOT need to create additional load combinations for these load combinations. If any member is assigned a value for Ωo. and J. American Institute of Steel Construction. The guidelines for selecting a reasonable value can be found in UBC 1630.5 LL ± Ωo EL (UBC 2210.

2206.10g. The definition of the section properties required in these tables is given in Figure 1 of AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 47 Classification of Sections and Technical Note 43 General and Notations.e). and Table AF1.e. LRFD B5.1 . 2205.8. In that case.10.10c.. The same limitations apply..©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. In general. Slender or Too Slender. Noncompact.4." Those special requirements for classifying the sections as SEISMIC (i. 2211.2). "Compact" in UBC) are summarized herein in Table 1 (UBC 2210. INC.1). The section classification in UBC97-LRFD is the same as described in the AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 47 Classification of Sections. they must be Compact and must satisfy special slenderness requirements. The sections that satisfy the additional requirements are classified and reported by the program as "SEISMIC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections This Technical Note explains the classification of sections when the user selects the UBC97-LRFD design code. The program classifies individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table 1 and Table 2 of AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 47 Classification of Sections (UBC 2204. 2211. However. for certain special seismic cases. the user must modify the section property. A-G1. the program gives a warning message in the output file. and 2210. The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure depend on the classification of the section as Compact. 2210. Classification of Sections Technical Note 23 .4. the design sections need not necessarily be Compact to satisfy UBC97-LRFD codes (UBC 2213.d. 2210.2. 2211.b.1.8. If these criteria are not satisfied when the code requires it. with the exceptions described in the next paragraph.1.9.4.6. See the UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 27 Seismic Requirements. BERKELEY.

4.Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections When Special Seismic Conditions Apply in Accordance with UBC97-LRFD WidthThickness Ratio λ bf / 2tf SEISMIC (Speical requirements in seismic design) (λp) λ ≤ 52 / Description of Section Section References UBC 2211.b (SMRF) UBC 2211.c (Braces in SCBF) UBC 2211.10.g (SCBF) UBC 2211.b (SMRF) UBC 2211.4. column in SCBF.10.2.4.c (SCBF) UBC 2211.4 Table 8-1 (SMRF) UBC 2210.4.d (BF) UBC 2210.2 Classification of Sections .4.9.c (SCBF) UBC 2211.8.8.4.4.10.33 − Pu  ϕ b Py  UBC 2211.4.c (SCBF) UBC 2211.4 Table 8-1 (SMRF) BOX b / tf or h c / tw b / tf or h c / tw ≤ 110 / Fy (Beam and column in SMRF.b (SMRF) UBC 2211.8 (SMRF) UBC 2210.2.9.4.4 Table 8-1 (SMRF) Fy For Pu / ϕbPy ≤ 0.9.8.125.10. Braces in BF) ≤ 100 / UBC 2210.d (Braces in BF) Fy (Braces in SCBF) Same as I-Shapes Same as I-Shapes ≤ 52 / ≤ 52 / CHANNEL ANGLE b f / tf h c / tw b/t Fy Fy (Braces in SCBF) DOUBLE-ANGLE PIPE T-SHAPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL b/t D/t bf / 2tf d / tw    (Braces in SCBF) ≤ 1.d (SCBF) UBC 2210. I-SHAPE h c / tw ≤   ≤ 520 1 − 1.   191   Fy    2.54 Pu  Fy   ϕ b Py    253   ≥   Fy    For Pu / ϕbPy > 0.2.d (SCBF) UBC 2210.4.125.9.10.300 / Fy No special requirement No special requirement No special requirement No special requirement No special requirement Technical Note 23 .2.

Circular. For I.2.1. respectively. For loading combinations that cause compression in the member. Vu2 and Vu3 corresponding to factored values of the axial load. Box. They are calculated in the same way as described in the AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 48 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments without any exception (UBC 2204. and Rectangular sections.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. the minor moment. BERKELEY. the shear stresses are calculated along the geometric/principal axes. The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: Mu = B1Mnt + B2Mlt where B1 = Moment magnification factor for non-sidesway moments. Channel.. The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu.3.1 . INC. The bending moments are obtained along the principal directions. the factored moment Mu (Mu33 and Mu22 in the corresponding directions) is magified to consider second order effects. Mu22. For all other sections. the major direction shear force and the minor direction shear force. For general sections. the principal axes coincide with the geometric axes. The shear forces for Single-Angle sections are obtained for directions along the geometric axes. 2206. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations for each load combination. (LRFD C1-1. 2205. it is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal directions and consequently no effort is made to determine the principal directions. T. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 24 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments This Technical Note explains how the program calculates factored forces and moments when the user selects the UBC97-LRFD code. Pipe. SAM 6) Reference Technical Note 24 . the major moment. Mu33. the principal axes are determined and all computations related to bending moment are based on that. Double-Angle. 2210). 2205. For the Angle sections.

American Institute of Steel Construction.2 DL plus 0. B2 is taken as unity for bending in both directions. therefore. 4. Reference White. D. Engineering Journal. It is recommended that the Pdelta analysis be performed at the factored load level of 1.5 LL (White and Hajjar 1991). 1991. 28. Hajjar.W. When using UBC97-LRFD code.Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD B2 Mnt Mlt = Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments. Vol. Similar to AISC-LRFD93. the program design assumes the analysis includes Pdelta effects. Inc. F. and = Factored moments causing sidesway. Technical Note 24 .2 Reference . The same conditions and limitations as AISC-LRFD93 apply. the program design assumes that a P-delta analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. and J. the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of B1 and B2 for any member. = Factored moments not causing sidesway. B1 is calculated as shown in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 48 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member. No. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice.

Pipe. and Rectangular sections. Channel. INC. E3. is taken as follows (LRFD A5. including SingleAngle sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural strengths are based on that. and Slender sections in accordance with UBC97-LRFD the same way as described in the AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 49 Calculation of Nominal Strengths without any exceptions (UBC 2204. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. T. Channel. Double-Angle. Box. The specified factored strengths should be based on the principal axes of bending.1 .90 Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 25 . the user-specified values will override the calculated values described herein for those elements. For I. 0.2. ϕ. tension.9 ϕc = Resistance factor for compression. Double-Angle. Circular.1.6) ϕc = Resistance factor for compression in angles. and Rectangular sections.3): ϕt = Resistance factor for tension.3). 2210. 2210. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 25 Calculation of Nominal Strengths The program calculates the nominal strengths in compression. BERKELEY. The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections. T. Circular. H1) (LRFD SAM 4. If the user specifies nonzero factored strengths for one or more elements in the Capacity Overwrites (accessed using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Review/Revise Overwrites command). SAM 2. Noncompact. Compact.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. 2205. 2205..2. The nominal shear strengths are calculated along the geometric axes for all sections. H1. For the Angle sections. Box.85 (LRFD D1. For the I. The nominal strengths for Seismic sections are calculated in the same way as for Compact sections. Pipe. 0. 2206. 6) (LRFD E2. 0. The strength reduction factor.3. For SingleAngle sections. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. bending and shear for Seismic. principal axes do not coincide with the geometric axes.

Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD ϕb = Resistance factor for bending. H1. Technical Note 25 . 0. SAM 3) All limitations and warnings related to nominal strengths calculations in AISCLRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 49 Calculation of Nominal Strengths also apply to this code. 0.9 (LRFD F1. A-F1.2 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . A-G2.9 ϕv = Resistance factor for shear. A-G3. SAM 5) (LRFD F2. A-F2.

A capacity ratio greater than 1.1 . ϕb = 0. the resistance factor for bending. Overview The capacity ratios in UBC97-LRFD are calculated in the same way as described in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 50 Calculation of Capacity Ratios.85. the capacity ratio is given as ϕPn Calculation of Capacity Ratios Technical Note 26 .9. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. Pn is the nominal axial compressive strength and ϕ = ϕc = 0. In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. During the design. Then the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. Pn ϕPn is the nominal axial tensile strength and ϕ = ϕt = 0. In addition. with some modifications as described herein.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. BERKELEY. first. INC.2. for each station along the length of the member.9 (LRFD SAM 6). CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 26 Calculation of Capacity Ratios This Technical Note describes the calculation of capacity ratios when the user selects the UBC97-LRFD code. Axial and Bending Stresses The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio Pu ..9. except for angle sections ϕ = ϕc = 0. For Pu ≥ 0. including axial and bending stresses and shear stresses. along with the associated station and load combination. the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. and if Pu is compressive. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. If Pu is tensile.

  (LRFD H1-1a. from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations. Double-Angle. the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axes (LRFD SAM 5. For Single-angle sections. and Rectangular sections.6).Calculation of Capacity Ratios Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Pu 8 + ϕPn 9 For  M u33 M u22  + ϕ M ϕ b M n22  b n33  . an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas. the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis. Box. Circular. and ϕ v Vn2 Vu3 . ϕ v Vn3 where ϕv = 0. For all other sections.   (LRFD H1-1b. Channel. For Single-Angles sections. For Single-Angle sections. T. consequently. it is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. Technical Note 26 . Pipe. no effort is made to determine the principal directions.9. SAM 6-1a) Pu < 0. the capacity ratio is given as ϕPn  M u33 Pu M u22 + + 2ϕPn  ϕ b M n33 ϕ b M n22   . SAM 6-1a) For circular sections. For general sections.2 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . principal axes are determined in the program. the shear stress is calculated along the principal axes that coincides with the geometric axes. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are calculated as follows: Vu2 .2.3. For I. the principal axes coincides with their geometric axes. Shear Stresses Similar to the normal stresses.

1. the following additional requirements are checked and reported (UBC 2210.2. 2211. UBC 2211.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC.2.2..2. 2211.1 for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210. whenever Pu/ϕPn > 0.c. 2205. UBC 2211. Those requirements are described herein for each type of framing (UBC 2204.4.2 for frames in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1 (UBC 2210.4.2.1) (UBC 2210.2.4. the following additional requirements are checked or reported (UBC 2210.4.5. on UBC Section 2211.3. which are dependent on the type of framing used. 2210.4.4. UBC 2211.3).1).2. UBC 2211. Ordinary Moment Frames For this framing system. BERKELEY.2.2). 2211.b.3.c): In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1. and on UBC Section 2211. 211. 2211. 2211.4.1).4. 2205.5 in columns resulting from the prescribed load combinations.b.2. 2211. No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210. 2211.4.2.2.2.4.2.2.4.2.1) Special Moment Resisting Frames For this framing system.3 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2210.2. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2211.3.2.3. 2211.5 LL ± Ωo EL (UBC 2210.d.3.4.2.2.4.1 .3.2DL + 0.4.3.2. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 27 Seismic Requirements This Technical Note explains the special seismic requirements checked by this program for member design.2.3).2.1).9DL ± Ωo EL 1.4.2. 0.2.6.d): Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 . the Special Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked (UBC 2210.4.

1).e.8. whenever Pu/ϕPn > 0.3.2. the user must modify the section property In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1. If the check is not satisfied. the following additional requirements are checked or reported (UBC 2210.d.500/Fy)ry.4.e): In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.d.3. the Special Seismic Load Combinations as de- Technical Note 27 . If this criterion is satisfied.2.4. Channelshaped beams or columns. 2211.4.4.2DL + 0. 2211.8. the I-shaped beams or columns. 2211.5 in columns resulting from the prescribed load combinations. Compact box-shaped column sections are also checked for b/tf and d/tw to be less than 110/ Fy .2.4.4. Braced Frames For this framing system. If this criterion is not satisfied. 2211.4. 0.8.4. it is noted in the output (UBC 2211.8). whenever Pu/ϕPn > 0.3.4.9DL ± Ωo EL 1. and Box-shaped columns are also checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections (UBC 2210.1) In Seismic zones 3 and 4.5.5LL ± Ωo EL (UBC 2210.2. 2211. 2210.2. the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in Technical Note UBC97LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections. Compact I-shaped and Channel-shaped column sections are also checked for web slenderness h/tw to be less than the numbers given in Table 1 of UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections.4.2.3.1) (UBC 2210.b. 2211.6.3. Table 2211.5 in columns as a result of the prescribed load combinations. the Special Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked (UBC 2210. 2211.3. the program checks the laterally unsupported length of beams to be less than (2.4.8-1). Compact I-shaped beam sections are also checked for bf/2tf to be less than 52/ Fy . 2211.2 Seismic Requirements .Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.2. Compact Channel-shaped beam and column sections are also checked for bf/tf to be less than 52/ Fy .2.

Eccentrically Braced Frames For this framing system.a.b) In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.4.9.2.4.8ϕcPn (UBC 2211.e.3 .d).4.5LL ± Ωo EL (UBC 2210.3.3.4. for pipe sections D/t is limited to 1.d). the maximum l/r ration of the braces is checked not to exceed 720/ Fy . 2211.4.9. the program looks for and recognizes the eccentrically braced frame configuration shown in Figure 1. the user must modify the section property. 2211.3.b). For box sections. the compressive strength for braces is reduced as 0.4.1) (UBC 2210.4. the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in Technical Note UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections.4. 2211.9. 2211.9.3.3.6.4.2. all braces are checked to be either Compact or Noncompact according to Table 2 of AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 47 Classification of Sections (UBC 2211.e.4. The following additional Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 . 2211.2.300/ Fy .1) In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.5 times the specified load combinations (UBC 2211.1).2.9. If these criteria are satisfied.9DL ± Ωo EL 1. If this check is not met. Chevron braces are designed for 1. The Box and Pipeshaped braces are also checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections (UBC 2211.a).9. 2210.1). Pu ≤ 0.2.4.2.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Seismic Requirements scribed below are checked (UBC 2210. If these criteria are not satisfied.2.2.5.8ϕcPn (UBC 2211.4. b/tf and d/tw are limited to 110/ Fy .2.2DL +0. it is noted in the output (UBC 2211. 0.

5 in columns as a result of the pre- Technical Note 27 .2. columns and braces associated with these configurations (UBC 2210. 2211. whenever Pu/ϕPn > 0. e a) L e b) L c) e 2 e 2 L Figure 1 Eccentrically Braced Frame Configurations In Seismic Zone 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.e.2.4.Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD requirements are checked or reported for the beams.3.4 Seismic Requirements .e).4.2.2. 2211.

2.2.10.d): Vu ≤ ϕvVn.5LL ± Ωo EL (UBC 2210. 2210.2. 2211. ϕ 2Mpa/e) Vpa P = Vp 1 −  u  Py    . the Special Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked (UBC 2210.3.b) ϕVn = min (ϕVpa.4.d) (UBC 2211. 2211. 2211. the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections.4.2.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Seismic Requirements scribed load combinations.4.4.3. 2211.b. Table 2211.8.10.4.2DL +0.1).4.4.4.8-1).b.b.4.4.10.10. 2210. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.1) (UBC 2210. the shear strength for link beams is taken as follows (UBC 2210.6.2. it is noted in the output. where (UBC 2211.3.4.8.4. the I-shaped and Channel-shaped beams are also checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 of UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections (UBC 2211.2. 2211.4. Fy.1) In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.10.b.9DL ± Ωo EL 1. 2211.2.5 .2.f) Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 . the user must modify the section property. If this criterion is satisfied.2. the link beam yield strength. is checked not to exceed the following (UBC 2211.2. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.3.4. Compact Ishaped and Channel-shaped beam sections are also checked for bf/2tf to be less than 52 / Fy .3. If this criterion is not satisfied.a.5.2.10. 2211. 0.   2 (UBC 2211.4.d) (UBC 2211.b): Fy ≤ 50 ksi If the check is not satisfied.10.12.

Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Mpa Vp Mp  P  = 1. Aw = (d ― 2tf)tw.4. e.d) (UBC 2211. is checked not to exceed the following (UBC 2211.f) e≤ if A ρ w < 0.10.4. it is noted in the output.6 Ms/Vs.15 AgFy.10.10.030.2. the link beam rotation.4. if Pu > 0.6Fy(d . the link beam length.10.10.4.f) (UBC 2211.15 − 0.4. The link beam rotation. where link beam clear length.3 Ag (UBC 2211.4.g): θ ≤ 0.090.10.2.2. θ.030 as the link beam clear length varies from 1.6  Ag   Vp        Mp  1.6 Seismic Requirements .f):  Mp  Aw   1.18 Mp 1 − u  .2.4.090 and 0.4.f) Technical Note 27 .2. (UBC 2211.2.6 Ms/Vs to 2.4. where link beam clear length.2.2.f) (UBC 2211.10.10.3 Ag where.10. and ρ = Pu/Vu If the check is not satisfied.9) = Ag Fy (UBC 2211.e) ϕ Py In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.2.10.d) (UBC 2211.4.5ρ  1.f) (UBC 2211. Py     = 0. is checked as follows (UBC 2211. e ≤ 1.d. e ≥ 2. 2211. θ. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.2tf)tw = ZFy = ϕv (default is 0.6  Vp     if ρ Aw ≥ 0.10.4.6 Ms/Vs θ ≤ 0.2. of the individual bay relative to the rest of the beam is calculated as the story drift deltam times bay length divided by the total lengths of link beams in the bay.6 Ms/Vs and θ ≤ value interpolated between 0.2.

The controlling link beam strength and the corresponding forces are as obtained by the process described above.d) The values of Vpa and Mpa are calculated following the procedures described above.2. Special Concentrically Braced Frames For this framing system.2. Users need to check for this requirement.4.10.2.a). the following additional requirements are checked or reported (UBC 2210.7 .Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Seismic Requirements In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.5).4. Axial forces in the beams are included in checking the beams. it is so noted as a warning in the output file (UBC 2210.4.25 times the moment corresponding to the controlling link beam strength (UBC 2211.10. Note: The program does NOT check that the strength in flexure of the beam outside the link is at least 1. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1. 2211.25 times the axial force corresponding to the controlling link beam strength (UBC 2211. the beam laterally unsupported length is checked to be less than 76 bf/ Fy . In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.3. The user must disconnect some of the column lines from the diaphragm to allow beams to carry axial loads. If not satisfied.e. 2211.b).4. 2211. 2Mpa/e) (UBC 2211.4.10.11.4.25 times the column forces corresponding to the controlling link beam nominal strength (UBC 2211. the column strength is checked for 1.2.10. It is recommended that only one column line per eccentrically braced frame be connected to the rigid diaphragm or that a flexible diaphragm model be used.4.8).2. whichever has the highest link beam force of interest. The user is reminded that using a rigid diaphragm model will result in zero axial forces in the beams.10.6. The correspondence between brace force and link beam force is obtained from the associated load cases.6.e): Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 . the brace strength is checked to be at least 1. The controlling link beam nominal strength is taken as follows: min (Vpa.

2211. 2211. the user must modify the section property.b). all columns are checked to be Compact in accordance with Table 2 in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 47 Classification of Section.2.4.6.12. the compressive strength for braces is taken as ϕcPn (UBC 2210. the Special Seismic Load Combinations as described below are checked (UBC 2210.5. Compact box-shaped column sections are also checked for b/tf and d/tw to be less than 100/ Fy as described in Table 1 in UBC97LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections (UBC 2211. 2211.2. all braces are checked to be Compact in accordance with Table 2 in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 47 Classification of Section (UBC 2210.b) Technical Note 27 .4.3.e.1) In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1. D/t is limited to 1.5. If these criteria are satisfied. the user must modify the section property (UBC 2210.2.2.2.12.4.4. 2211.5 LL ± Ω0EL (UBC 2210.300/Fy.e.5 in columns as a result of the prescribed load combinations.5. 2210. DoubleAngle.Seismic Requirements Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.12. no reduction is required.2 DL + 0.3. Pu ≤ ϕcPn (UBC 2211. the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections.10.10.10.d). the section is reported as SEISMIC as described in UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections.4. If these criteria are not satisfied. Box.2. 2211.3. If this criterion is satisfied.2. For box sections b/tf and d/tw are limited to 100/ Fy . 2211. If this criterion is not satisfied. 1122.12.a).4.and Pipe-shaped braces are also checked for compactness criteria as described in Table 1 in UBC97-LFRD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 23 Classification of Sections (UBC 2210.8 Seismic Requirements . for pipe sections. 2211.9 DL ± Ω0EL 1. whenever Pu/ϕPn > 0. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.1): 0. 2211.b.g.3.4.4.12.4.12. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.c. The Angle-. Unlike Braced Frames.4.1) (UBC 2210.10.2.c.2.a).4.d).

4. Seismic Requirements Technical Note 27 .4.10.7LL ± Pb 0.12.e. 2211.12.9 . Users need to check for this requirement.9DL ± Pb (UBC 2210.12.2.4.3) where Pb is given by the difference of FyA for the tension brace and 0.a.9. the maximum l/r ratio of the braces is checked not to exceed 1.e.a. 2211. 2211.1): 1.4.a).4.4. If this check is not met. Note: Beams intersected by Chevron braces are NOT currently checked to have a strength to support loads represented by the following combinations (UBC 2213.10. it is noted in the output (UBC 2210.3) (UBC 2210.0DL + 0.10.a.3ϕcPn for the compression brace.000/ Fy .Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Seismic Requirements In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.

.

To facilitate the review of the strong-column/weak-beam criterion. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 28 Joint Design When using UBC97-LRFD design code. the program reports a beam/column plastic moment capacity ratio for every joint in the structure.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.6). the beam-to-column strength ratio is obtained as: Rmaj = n =1 ∑M nb pbn cos θ n (UBC 2211.1 .8..4.8. For the major direction of any column (top end). the structural joints are checked or designed for the following: Check for the requirement of continuity plate and determination of its area (see UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 29 Continuity Plates) Check for the requirement of doubler plate and determination of its thickness (see UBC97-LRFD Steel Frame Design Technical Note 30 Doubler Plates) Check for the ratio of beam flexural strength to column flexural strength Reporting the beam connection shear Reporting the brace connection force Weak-Beam / Strong-Column Measure In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.4.6 8-3) M pcax + M pcbx Joint Design Technical Note 28 . for Special Moment-Resisting Frames. BERKELEY. the code requires that the sum of beam flexure strengths at a joint should be less than the sum of column flexure strengths (UBC 2211. The column flexure strength should reflect the presence of the axial force present in the column. INC.

the beam-to-column-strength ratio is obtained as: Rmin where. of column above story level Major and minor plastic moment capacities.Joint Design Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD For the minor direction of any column.8. (UBC 2211.y = nb = The plastic moment capacities of the columns are reduced for axial force effects and are taken as: Mpc where. Puc ≥ 0. reduced for axial force effects. and Gross area of column = Zc (Fyc .4. reduced for axial force effects.Puc / Agc ).6 8-3) M pcay + M pcby Rmaj. of column below story level Number of beams connecting to the column Mpbn = θn Mpcax.6 8-3) Agc = Technical Note 28 . = n =1 ∑M nb pbn cos θ n (UBC 2211.2 Joint Design .min = Plastic moment capacity ratios. in the major and minor directions of the column. respectively Plastic moment capacity of n-th beam connecting to column Angle between the n-th beam and the column major direction Major and minor plastic moment capacities. Zc Fyc Puc = = = Plastic modulus of column Yield stress of column material Maximum axial strength in column in compression.4.8.y = = Mpcbx.

2.2.5LL ± Ω0 EL (UBC 2210. UBC 2211.4.3 .2 for frames in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1 (UBC 2210.3.4. assuming that the column splice will be located some distance above the story level.5VLL (UBC 2211. 2211. No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.1) In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.4.2.2).4. Evaluation of Beam Connection Shears For each steel beam in the structure. For special seismic design. the beam connection shears that are reported allow for the development of the full plastic moment capacity of the beam.3.1).8. 2211.2.4. UBC 2211.7.2.4.4.2. on UBC Section 2211. Thus: Vu = where CM pb L +1. The beam connection shears reported are the maxima of the factored shears obtained from the load combinations.3).4.2.8.4.a. UBC 2211. 2211.4.9DL ± Ω0 EL 1.1) (UBC 2210.2. for Ordinary Moment Frames.3. the beam connection shears reported are the maximum of the specified load combinations and the following additional load combinations (UBC 2211.2.2.b): 0.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Joint Design For the above calculations.3.2.1). In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.b) Joint Design Technical Note 28 .2DL + 0.3 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2210.1 for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2211.2.4. for Special Moment-Resisting Frames. the section of the column above is taken to be the same as the section of the column below. the beam connection shears are not taken less than the following special values for different types of framing. UBC 2211.2. and on UBC Section 2211. the program will report the maximum major shears at each end of the beam for the design of the beam shear connections.4.2VDL + 0.2.

2. ZFy Clear length of the beam. UBC 2211. the program reports the maximum axial force at each end of the brace for the design of the brace-to-beam connections. No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0 Technical Note 28 .2).4. and Absolute maximum of the calculated factored beam shears at the corresponding beam ends from the live load only.2. or for cantilever beam.2. Mpb L VDL = = = VLL = In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1. for Eccentrically Braced Frames.2.4.4.1).7). Evaluation of Brace Connection Forces For each steel brace in the structure. 0 if beam ends are pinned.4.10. and on UBC 2211.2. the link beam connection shear is reported as equal to the link beam web shear capacity (UBC 2211.2. Absolute maximum of the calculated factored beam shears at the corresponding beam ends from the dead load only. Plastic moment capacity of the beam. The brace connection forces reported are the maxima of the factored brace axial forces obtained from the load combinations.4.4.1 for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210. the brace connection forces are not taken less than the following special values for different types of framing. UBC 2211.Joint Design Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD V C = = = = Shear force corresponding to END I and END J of beam.2 for frames in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1 (UBC 2210.4.2. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2211. on UBC Section 2211. UBC 2211. 1 if one end of the beam is pinned 2 if no ends of the beam are pinned.2.4 Joint Design .3 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2210.3). For special seismic design.2.

4.1) and the following special load combinations (UBC 2211.2): 0. for Eccentrically Braced Frames.4.d).1) (UBC 2210.12.6.3.10.9.2. the bracing connection force is reported at least as the smaller of the tensile strength of the brace (FyA) (UBC 2210.3.a.10.4.2.4.2 DL + 0.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Joint Design and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210. 2211.4. the bracing connection force is reported as at least the nominal strength of the brace (UBC 221.12.3.3. for Special Concentrically Braced Frames.a. 2211.a.3. for ordinary Braced Frames. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.4.a.9 DL ± Ω0 EL 1. 2211.2): 0.3.3.1) (UBC 2210. 2211.9 DL ± Ω0 EL 1.5 .4.4.1) In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.4.3.4.5 LL ± Ω0 EL (UBC 2210.3. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1.3.5 LL ± Ω0 EL (UBC 2210.1). 2211.1) Joint Design Technical Note 28 .3.3. the bracing connection force is reported at least as the smaller of the tensile strength of the brace (FyA) (UBC 2211. UBC 2211.1) and the following special load combinations (UBC 2211.9.10. 2211.2 DL + 0.

.

. BERKELEY. for the connection condition described by item 1 above. For connection conditions described in items 2 and 3 above.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.. a steel beam can frame into a column in the following ways: 1. 2. The steel beam frames in a direction parallel to the column major direction. The program evaluates the continuity plate requirements for each of the beams that frame into the column flange (i. To achieve a beam/column moment connection. The steel beam frames in a direction parallel to the column minor direction.e. i.e. where the beam frames into the flange of the column. parallel to the column major direction) and reports the maximum continuity plate area that is needed for each beam flange.. No check is made for braced frames. i. the thickness of such plates is usually set equal to the flange thickness of the corresponding beam. the beam frames into the column flange. the beam frames partially into the column web and partially into the column flange. 3. Continuity Plates Technical Note 29 . the beam frames into the column web. Columns of I-sections only are investigated.. The continuity plate requirements are evaluated for moment frames only. This is the condition that the program investigates. INC.e. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 29 Continuity Plates In a plan view of a beam/column connection. such continuity plates are not always needed. However. i. The steel beam frames in a direction that is at an angle to both the principal axes of the column..e. continuity plates such as shown in Figure 1 are usually placed on the column in line with the top and bottom flanges of the beam to transfer the compression and tension flange forces from the beam into the column.1 . The requirement depends on the magnitude of the beam-flange force and the properties of the column.

Continuity Plates

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD

Figure 1 Elevation and Plan of Doubler Plates for a Column of I-Section

Technical Note 29 - 2

Continuity Plates

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD

Continuity Plates

The program first evaluates the need for continuity plates. Continuity plates will be required if any of the following four conditions are not satisfied: The column flange design strength in bending must be larger than the beam flange force, i.e.,
2 ϕRn = (0.9)6.25 t fc Fyc ≥ Pbf

(LRFD K1-1)

The design strength of the column web against local yielding at the toe of the fillet must be larger than the beam flange force, i.e., ϕRn = (1.0)(5.0 kc + tfb) Fyctwc ≥ Pbf (LRFD K1-2)

The design strength of the column web against crippling must be larger than the beam flange force, i.e., ϕRn = (0.75) 68
2 t wc

 t 1 + 3 fb d   c 

 t wc   t  fc

   

1.5 

t  Fyc fc ≥ Pbf t wc  

(LRFD K1-5a)

The design compressive strength of the column web against buckling must be larger than the beam flange force, i.e., ϕRn = (0.9)
3 4,100t wc Fyc

dc

≥ Pbf

(LRFD K1-8)

If any of the conditions above are not met, the program calculates the required continuity plate area as: Acp = Pbf 2 - 12 t wc (0.85)(0.9Fyc ) (LRFD K1.9,E2)

If Acp ≤ 0, no continuity plates are required. The formula above assumes the continuity plate plus a width of web equal to 12twc act as a compression member to resist the applied load (LRFD K1.9). The formula also assumes ϕ = 0.85 and Fcr = 0.9Fyc. This corresponds to an assumption of λ = 0.5 in the column formulas (LRFD E2-2). The user should choose the continuity plate cross-section such that this is satisfied. As an example, when using Fyc = 50 ksi and assuming the effective length of the stiffener as a column to be 0.75h (LRFD K1.9), the required minimum radius gy-

Continuity Plates

Technical Note 29 - 3

Continuity Plates

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD

ration of the stiffener cross-section would be r = 0.02h to obtain λ = 0.5 (LRFD E2-4). If continuity plates are required, they must satisfy a minimum area specification defined as follows: The minimum thickness of the stiffeners is taken in the program as follows:   Fy   min t cp = max 0.5t fb , bfb  95     (LRFD K1.9.2)

The minimum width of the continuity plate on each side plus 1/2 the thickness of the column web shall not be less than 1/3 of the beam flange width, or:  bfp t  min − wc  bcp = 2   3 2    So that the minimum area is given by:
min 2 min Acp = t cp bcp

(LRFD K1.9.1)

(LRFD K1.9.1)

Therefore, the continuity plate area provided by the program is either zero or
min the greater of Acp and Acp .

In the equations above, Acp Fyc db dc h = Required continuity plate area = Yield stress of the column and continuity plate material = Beam depth = Column depth = Clear distance between flanges of column less fillets for rolled shapes

Technical Note 29 - 4

Continuity Plates

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD

Continuity Plates

kc

= Distance between outer face of the column flange and web toe of its fillet = Factored beam moment = Beam flange force, assumed as Mu / (db - tfb) = Nominal strength = Beam flange thickness = column flange thickness = Column web thickness = Resistance factor

Mu Pbf Rn tfb tfc twc ϕ

The program also checks special seismic requirements depending on the type of frame as described below. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2211.4.2.1 for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.1), on UBC Section 2211.4.2.2 for frames in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.2), and on UBC Section 2211.4.2.3 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.3). No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.1). In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1 for Ordinary Moment Frames the continuity plates are checked and designed for a beam flange force, Pbf = Mpb/(db-tfb) (UBC 2211.4.7.2.a, 2211.4.8.2.a.1). In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, for determining the need for continuity plates at joints as a result of tension transfer from the beam flanges, the force Pbf is taken as fybAbf for all four checks described above (LRFD K1-1, K1-2, K1-5a, K1-8), except for checking column flange design strength in bending Pbf is taken as 1.8 fybAbf (UBC 2211.4.8.5, LRFD K1-1). In Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, for determining the need for continuity plates at joints as a result of tension transfer from the beam flanges, the force Pbf is taken as fybAbf (UBC 2211.4.8.2.a.1)

Continuity Plates

Technical Note 29 - 5

Continuity Plates

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD

Pbf Pbf

= 1.8fybAbf (Zones 3 and 4) = fybAbf (Zone 2 with I>1)

(UBC 2211.4.8.5) (UBC 2211.4.8.2.a.1)

For design of the continuity plate, the beam flange force is taken as Pbf = Mpb/(db-tfb) (UBC 211.4.8.2.a.1). In Seismic Zones 3 and 4 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the continuity plate requirements are checked and designed for beam flange force of Pbf = fybAbg.

Technical Note 29 - 6

Continuity Plates

Also. depending on the loading and the geometry of the steel beams that frame into the column. The shear force in the panel zone is given by: Vp = M bn cos θ n − Vc d n − t fn n =1 ∑ nb Doubler Plates Technical Note 30 . the joint shear is carried by the column flanges. INC. Shear stresses seldom control the design of a beam or column member.. The program calculates the required thickness of doubler plates using the following algorithms. However. in which case the shear stresses are seldom critical. In minor direction bending. See Figure 1. the shear stress in the beam-column joint can be critical. doubler plate requirements are evaluated for moment frames only.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The program investigates such situations and reports the thickness of any required doubler plates. and this condition is therefore not investigated by the program. Shear stresses in the panel zone caused by major direction bending in the column may require additional plates to be welded onto the column web. BERKELEY. No check is made for braced frames. in a Moment-Resisting frame. Only columns with I-shapes are investigated for doubler plate requirements.1 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 30 Doubler Plates One aspect of the design of a steel framing system is an evaluation of the shear forces that exist in the region of the beam column intersection known as the panel zone. either along the column major direction or at an angle so that the beams have components along the column major direction. especially in framing systems when the column is subjected to major direction bending and the joint shear forces are resisted by the web of the column.

Doubler Plates

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD

Figure 1 Elevation and Plan of Doubler Plates for a Column of I-Section

Technical Note 30 - 2

Doubler Plates

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD

Doubler Plates

The nominal panel shear strength is given by Rv = 0.6Fydctr, for Pu ≤ 0.4Py or if Pu is tensile, and  P  Rv = 0.6Fydctr, 1.4 − u  for Pu > 0.4Py Py     (LRFD K1-9) (LRFD K1-10)

By using Vp = ϕRv, with ϕ = 0.9, the required column web thickness, tr, can be found. The extra thickness, or thickness of the doubler plate is given by tdp = tr - tw ≥ h 418 / Fy (LFRD F2-1)

where, Fy tr tdp tw h Vp Vc Fy nb dn θn dc Mbn = = = = = = = = = = = = = Column and doubler plate yield stress Required column web thickness Required doubler plate thickness Column web thickness dc-2tfc if welded, dc - 2kc if rolled Panel zone shear Column shear in column above Beam flange forces Number of beams connecting to column Depth of n-th beam connecting to column Angle between n-th beam and column major direction Depth of column clear of fillets, equals d - 2k Calculated factored beam moment from the corresponding load combination

Doubler Plates

Technical Note 30 - 3

Doubler Plates

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD

Rv Pu Py

= = =

Nominal shear strength of panel Column factored axial load Column axial yield strength, FyA

The program reports the largest calculated value of tdb for any of the load combinations based on the factored beam moments and factored column axial loads. The special seismic requirements checked by the program for calculating doubler plate areas depend on the type of framing used; the requirements checked are described herein for each type of framing. The requirements checked are based on UBC Section 2211.4.2.1 for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.1), on UBC Section 2211.4.2.2 for frames in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor greater than 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.2) and on UBC Section 2211.4.2.3 for frames in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.3). No special requirement is checked for frames in Seismic Zones 0 and 1 and in Seismic Zone 2 with Importance factor equal to 1 (UBC 2210.2, UBC 2211.4.2.1). In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, the panel zone doubler plate requirements that are reported will develop the lesser of beam moments equal to 0.9 of the plastic moment capacity of the beam (0.9∑ϕbMpb), or beam moments resulting from specified load combinations involving seismic load (UBC 2211.4.8.3.a). The capacity of the panel zone in resisting this shear is taken as (UBC 2211.8.3.a):
2  3bcf t cf ϕvVn = 0.6ϕvFydctp 1 +  db dc t p 

   

(UBC 2211.4.8.3.a)

giving the required panel zone thickness as tp = Vp 0.6ϕv Fy d c −
2 3bcf t cf h ≥ db dc 418 / Fy

(UBC 2211.4.8.3, LRFD F2-1)

and the required doubler plate thickness as

Technical Note 30 - 4

Doubler Plates

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD

Doubler Plates

tdp = tp - twc where, ϕv bcf tcf tp h db = = = = = = 0.75, width of column flange thickness of column flange required column web thickness dc - 2tfc if welded, dc - 2kc if rolled, and depth of deepest beam framing into the major direction of the column.

In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, the program checks the following panel zone column web thickness requirement: twc ≥ (d c − 2t fc ) + (d b − 2t fb ) 90 (UBC 2211.4.8.3.b)

If the check is not satisfied, it is noted in the output. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4, for Eccentrically Braced Frames, the doubler plate requirements are checked similar to doubler plate checks for Special Moment-Resisting Frames, as described above (UBC 2211.4.10.7).

Doubler Plates

Technical Note 30 - 5

"All" for isotropic materials. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Material Dir/Plane Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Steel. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 31 Input Data This Technical Note describes the steel frame design input data for UBC97LRFD. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. INC. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. concrete or other. BERKELEY. specify axis properties define for orthotropic.. Concrete. Postprocessor available if steel is specified. Isotropic or orthotropic.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Steel. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. Further information about using the Print Design Tables Form is provided at the end of this Technical Note. concrete or other.1 . Input Data Technical Note 31 . steel or none.

Shear reinforcing yield stress.2 Input Data . Concrete. Cost per unit weight used in composite beam design if optimum beam size specified to be determined by cost. Thickness of top flange per AISC database. Used to calculate the self weight of the structure. Steel.85. Concrete compressive strength. Width of bottom flange per AISC database. Name of section as defined in database files. concrete or none. Minimum yield stress of steel.75 ad 0. Usually between 0. Web thickness per AISC database.Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Steel FY Steel FU Steel Cost ($) DESCRIPTION Used to calculate self mass of the structure. Material Design Data for Steel Materials Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Frame Section Property Data Frame Section Name Material Name Section Shape Name or Name in Section Database File Section Depth Flange Width Top Flange Thick Top Web Thick Flange Width Bot Flange Thick Bot Section Area Depth of the section. Maximum tensile stress of steel. Steel. Check this box if this is a lightweight concrete material. Bending reinforcing yield stress. Width of top flange per AISC database. User specified or auto selected member name. Define reduction factor if lightweight concrete box checked. Technical Note 31 . Thickness of bottom flange per AISC database.

Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Input Data Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Torsional Constant Moments of Inertia Shear Areas Section Moduli Plastic Moduli Radius of Gyration Combo Type Case Case Type Factor Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor I33. Static. R22 Load combination name. envelope. static nonlinear.3 . Ordinary MRF. Name(s) of case(s) to be included in this load combination. absolute. Effective length factor. time history. Input Data Technical Note 31 . or SRSS as defined in Define > Load Combination. sequential construction. S22 Z33. Effective length factor. Additive. I22 A2. Special MRF. DESCRIPTION Load Combination Multipliers Beam Steel Stress Check Element Information Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites Story Level Beam Bay CM Major Name of the story level. Name of member section assigned. Z22 R33. ERF Live load reduction factor. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. Special CBF. response spectrum. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. Braced Frame. Beam bay identifier. A3 S33. Name of the story level. Beam bay identifier. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. Scale factor to be applied to each load case.

Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. Braced Frame. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. If zero. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.4 Input Data . If zero. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. Ordinary MRF. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. Special MRF. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. Column line identifier. If zero. ERF Live load reduction factor. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. Technical Note 31 . If zero. Beam Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites Story Level Beam Bay phi*Pnc phi*Pnt phi*Mn Major phi*Mn Minor phi*Vn Major phi*Vn Minor Name of the story level. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E.Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING CM Minor Cb Factor B1 Major B1 Minor B2 Major B2 Minor DESCRIPTION As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. Name of member section assigned. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. Beam bay identifier If zero. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D. If zero. Special CBF. Column Steel Stress Check Element Information Story Level Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ration Minor Name of the story level. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.

As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D. Input Data Technical Note 31 . As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Input Data Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING K Major K Minor DESCRIPTION Effective length factor. Column Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites Story Level Column Line CM Major CM Minor Cb Factor B1 Major B1 Minor B2 Major B2 Minor Name of the story level. Column line identifier. Effective length factor. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.5 . as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. If zero. If zero. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. Column line identifier. If zero. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E. Column Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites Story Level Column Line phi*Pnc phi*Pnt phi*Mn Major phi*Mn Minor phi*Vn Major phi*Vn Minor Name of the story level. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. If zero. If zero. If zero. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.

click Yes to replace the existing file. Or use the Filename button to locate another file. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. Data will be added to this file. . and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Click the Filename button to change the path or filename. Technical Note 31 . the Selection Only check box will be checked. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Input Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form.txt.6 Input Data .xls. Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. .doc).g. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. To print steel frame design input data to a file.. . if necessary.Input Data Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.

Table 1 Steel Frame Output Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam Steel Stress Check Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Name of the story level. Ratio of acting bending moment to available bending resistance about the 33 axis. Beam bay identifier. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is provided at the end of this Technical Note. Name of member sections assigned.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. BERKELEY. Ratio of acting load to available resistance. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN UBC97-LRFD Technical Note 32 Output Details This Technical Note describes the steel frame design output for UBC97-LRFD that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. Ratio of acting axial load to available axial resistance.1 . The program provides the output data in a series of tables. Moment Interaction Check Combo Name of load combination that produces the maximum load/resistance ratio. Ratio Axl B33 Output Details Technical Note 32 . The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note..

2 Output Details . Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio. DESCRIPTION Ratio of acting bending moment to available bending resistance about the 22 axis. Beam bay identifier.Output Details Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Table 1 Steel Frame Output Data COLUMN HEADING B22 Shear22 Combo Ratio Shear33 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 33 axis. Name of the story level. Name of member sections assigned. Ratio of acting shear divided by available shear resistance. Ratio of acting shear divided by available shear resistance. Name of the load combination that provides maximum End-J connection shear. Classification of section for the enveloping combo. Maximum End-J connection shear. Ratio Beam Special Seismic Requirements Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Section Class Connection Shear Combo Name of the load combination that provides maximum End-I connection shear. End-I Combo End-J Technical Note 32 . Maximum End-I connection shear.

Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 33 axis.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Output Details Table 1 Steel Frame Output Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Column Steel Stress Check Output Story Level Column Line Section ID Name of the story level. Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress. Moment Interaction Check Combo Ratio AXL B33 Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio. Name of member sections assigned. Ratio Shear33 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 33 axis. Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress. Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 22 axis. Ratio Column Special Seismic Requirements Story Level Story level name. Output Details Technical Note 32 . Column line identifier. Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress. Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress. B22 Shear22 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 22 axis.3 .

Output Details Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Table 1 Steel Frame Output Data COLUMN HEADING Column Line Section ID Section Class Continuity Plate Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum continuity plate area. Classification of section for the enveloping combo. Area Doubler Plate Combo Name of load combination that produces maximum doubler plate thickness. Click the Filename button to change the Technical Note 32 . Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. DESCRIPTION Column line identifier. use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Output Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Name of member section assigned. Cross-section area of the continuity plate. Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design ouput data directly to a printer. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Beam/column capacity ratio for minor direction. Thickness of the doubler plate. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form.4 Output Details . Thick B/C Ratios Major Minor Beam/column capacity ratio for major direction. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. To print steel frame design output data to a file. if necessary.

The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.txt. click Yes to replace the existing file.5 .. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears.xls. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.Steel Frame Design UBC97-LRFD Output Details path or filename. Output Details Technical Note 32 .doc). Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form.g. . Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. . If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. the Selection Only check box will be checked. . Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename button to locate another file.

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Algorithms for completing these calculations are described in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 38 Calculation of Stresses. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this series of Technical Notes.1 . Similarly. BERKELEY. General and Notation Technical Note 33 . The various notations used in this series are described herein. However. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. Further information is available from AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 37 Classification of Sections.0 indicates overstress. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 33 General and Notation Introduction to the AISC-ASD89 Series of Technical Notes The AISC-ASD89 for Steel Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms used by the program when the user selects the AISC-ASD89 design code (AISC 1989a). a unique prefix “ASD” is assigned. INC.” The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. To facilitate use. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. See Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 36 Design Load Combinations for more information. 39 Calculation of Allowable Stresses. all references to the “Specifications for Allowable Stress Design of Single-Angle Members” (AISC 1989b) carry the prefix of “ASD SAM.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately.. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original ASD code. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. A capacity ratio greater than 1. and 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios.

in2 Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections. which are described in AISCASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 34 Preferences and 35 Overwrites.2 General and Notation . in6 Outside diameter of pipes. in2 Gross cross-sectional area. in Modulus of elasticity.General and Notation Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 The program uses preferences and overwrites. which are described in AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Notes 41 Input Data and 42 Output Details. dtw. ksi Allowable bending stress. It also provides input and output data summaries. ksi Critical compressive stress. in2 Bending Coefficient Moment Coefficient Warping constant. Notation A Ae Af Ag Av2. in2 Major and minor shear areas. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units. Av3 Aw Cb Cm Cw D E Fa Fb Fb33. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted. ksi Technical Note 33 . For simplicity. in2 Area of flange. ksi Allowable major and minor bending stresses. ksi Allowable axial stress. Fb22 Fcr Cross-sectional area. in2 Web shear area.

M22 Mob P Pe Q Qa Qs S S33. = QaQs Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus. S22 Seff. in3 Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections.33. kips Euler buckling load. ksi Yield stress of material. bf — 2tw for welded and bf — 3tw for rolled box sections.22 Sc V2. kin-in Axial force in member. kips Nominal dimension of plate in a section. etc. kip-in Lateral-torsional moment for angle sections. V3 b General and Notation Technical Note 33 . ksi Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Major and minor bending moments in member. K22 M33.Seff. kips Reduction factor for slender section.3 .Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation ' Fe33 12π 2 E 23(K 33 l 33 / r33 )2 12π 2 E 23(K 22 l 22 / r22 )2 Allowable shear stress. in3 Major and minor section moduli. in3 Shear forces in major and minor directions. ' Fe22 Fv Fy K K33. in3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section. in longer leg of angle sections.

4. r22 rz t tf Technical Note 33 . ksi Shear stress in major and minor direction bending. ksi Clear distance between flanges for I shaped sections (d — 2tf).46 1 if h t w ≤ 70 Major and minor direction unbraced member length. [h t w ]0. in Overall depth of member. in Flange width.General and Notation Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 be bf d fa fb fb33. box. ksi Normal stress in major and minor direction bending. channel. ksi Normal stress in bending.05 if h t w > 70. in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions. ksi Shear stress. and T sections. less fillets. fv3 h Effective width of flange. either in compression or in tension. in Distance from outer face of flange to web toes of fillet. fb22 fv fv2. in Critical length. in Flange thickness. in Thickness of a plate in I. l22 lc r r33. in Effective distance between flanges. in Radius of gyration. in Minimum radius of gyration for angles.4 General and Notation . angle. in he k kc l33. in Parameter used for classification of sections. in Axial stress.

5 . in βw General and Notation Technical Note 33 .Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation tw Web thickness. in Special section property for angles.

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If the drop-down box appears. You should. however. To change a preference item.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The Preferences form will display. type in the desired value. If the cell is highlighted. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. select a new value. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences. The preference value will update accordingly. any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. BERKELEY. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. select the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. Preferences Technical Note 34 .1 . You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the steel frame design preferences. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. Thus. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences. click the OK button to close the form.. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 34 Preferences This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form. INC. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. General The steel frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all steel frame elements. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. Default values are provided for all steel frame design preference items.

Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences Item Design Code Time History Design Possible Values Any code in the program Envelopes. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. the preference items are presented in Table 1. ≥1 Technical Note 34 . 1 Sets the number of iterations of the analysis-design cycle that the program will complete automatically assuming that the frame elements have been assigned as auto select sections. or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. Braced Frame >0 Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item.2 Preferences .Preferences Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Preferences For purposes of explanation. Step-by-Step Default Value AISCASD89 Description Design code used for design of steel frame elements. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it. Description: A description of the associated preference item.95 Program will select members from the auto select list with stress ratios less than or equal to this value. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories. regardless of what is specified here. Moment Frame 0. Frame Type Stress Ratio Limit Maximum Auto Iteration Moment Frame.

Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. the values are calculated by the program and the default is modified by the program-calculated value. The column headings in the table are described as follows. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. BERKELEY. After design. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. When changes are made to overwrite items. these names are generally short. If the default value is given in the table with an associated note "Program Calculated. select an element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. To save space in the forms. To access the overwrites.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. INC. that is. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. the overwrites are presented in Table 1.." the value is shown by the program before the design is performed. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. This Technical Note describes steel frame design overwrites for AISC-ASD89. Thus.1 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 35 Overwrites General The steel frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. However. you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. Overwrites Technical Note 35 . Default values are provided for all overwrite items.

As defined in AISC-ASD. page 5-47.85 As defined in AISC-ASD. Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length. page 5-55. Braced Frame ≥0 From Preferences Live load is multiplied by this factor. page 5-55. page 5-135.Overwrites Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites Item Current Design Section Element Type Moment Frame. ≥0 1 Possible Values Default Value Description Indicates selected member size used in current design.85 As defined in AISC-ASD. As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2.1.2 Overwrites . As defined in AISC-ASD Table C-C2. LTB) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) Bending Coefficient (Cb) ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 1 Technical Note 35 . Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor. 1 Earthquake loads are multiplied by this factor. ≥0 0. page 5-135. Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length.1. ≥0 0.

Overwrites Technical Note 35 . Initially. 0 0 0 ≥0 0 ≥0 ≥0 0 0 Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the steel frame overwrites. yield stress defined for material property data used. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter F. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD Chapter D. If zero. the check boxes in the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed. Fb2 Major Shear stress.3 . If zero. Ft Major Bending stress. If zero. If zero. Fy Compressive stress. select a frame element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values. If zero. If zero. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. yield stress defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter E. Fv3 Possible Values ≥0 ≥0 ≥0 ≥0 Default Value 0 Description If zero. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter F. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter F. Fb3 Minor Bending stress. Fa Tensile stress. Fv2 Minor Shear stress. as defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter F.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Overwrites Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites Item Yield stress. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet.

not to the values that were in the . Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet.Overwrites Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet. The overwrite will reflect the change. If multiple elements were selected. Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. When changes to the overwrites have been completed. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. The steel frame overwrite values that were in a . Technical Note 35 . click the OK button to close the form. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one frame element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes. If the cell contents is highlighted. When you reset overwrites.4 Overwrites . select a value from the box. type in the desired value.edb file used to initialize the model.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. If the drop-down box appears. the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values. After selecting one or multiple elements.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1 . if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL). and earthquake induced load (EL).2). wind load (WL). the following load combinations may need to be defined (ASD A4): DL DL + LL DL ± WL DL + LL ± WL DL ± EL DL + LL ± EL (ASD A4.1) (ASD A4. if other types of loads are present. or if pattern live loads are to be considered..1) (ASD A4. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads. The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. See AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 35 Overwrites for more information. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 36 . INC. live load (LL).1) (ASD A4.1) These are also the default design load combinations in the program when the AISC-ASD89 code is used. allowable stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5.1) (ASD A4. BERKELEY. For the AISC-ASD89 code.1) (ASD A4. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 36 Design Load Combinations This Technical Note describes the default design load combinations in the program when the AISC-ASD89 code is selected.

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G1).©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The definition of the section properties required in this table is given in Figure 1 and AISC-ASD89 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 33 General and Notation. BERKELEY.1 . Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated. F5. the section is classified as Too Slender. or Slender. Noncompact. or Too Slender. If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact and Noncompact sections but satisfies the criteria for Slender sections.. the section is classified as a Slender section. Slender. Classification of Sections Technical Note 37 . If the section satisfies the criteria for Compact sections. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 37 Classification of Sections This Technical Note explains the classification of sections when the user selects the AISC-ASD89 design code. the section is classified as either Compact. If the limits for Slender sections are not met. it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners (ASD F5. If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact sections but satisfies the criteria for Noncompact sections. The allowable stresses for axial compression and flexure are dependent upon the classification of sections as either Compact. Box. INC. and Channel sections. If the section dimensions satisfy the limits shown in the table.1. The program classifies the individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table 1 (ASD B5. G1. the section is classified as a Compact section. A-B52). Noncompact.1. the section is classified as a Noncompact section. F3. Stress check of "Too Slender" sections is beyond the scope of this program. In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes.

5) ≤ 260 No limit No limit As for I-shapes None No limit No limit As for I-shapes ≤ 760 / Fb b / tf BOX d / tw h / tw Other b / tf d / tw h / tw CHANNEL Other No limit No limit ≤ 190 / Fy ≤ 238 / Fy No limit As for I-shapes No limit tw ≥ tf /2.16 ≤ 257 / F y If compression only. ≤ 253 / F y h / tw No limit otherwise ≤ 14. dw ≤ 6bf As for I-shapes As for I-shapes No limit As for I-shapes None As for I-shapes No limit As for I-shapes If welded bf / dw ≤ tf / tw ≤ If rolled bf / dw ≤ tf / tw ≤ 0. Fy ≤ 95 / ≤ 95 / Fy Fy / k c For fa / Fy ≤ 0.16 ≤ I-SHAPE d / tw (1− 3.2 Classification of Sections .0 0. If compression only.5.Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based on AISC-ASD Section Description Ratio Check bf / 2tf (rolled) bf / 2tf (welded) Compact Section Noncompact Section Slender Section No limit No limit ≤ 65 / ≤ 65 / 640 Fy Fy Fy fa ).25.0 Technical Note 37 .74 No limit No limit For fa / Fy > 0.000 F y ( F y + 16. 3. 2.

3 .300 / Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure Classification of Sections Technical Note 37 .10 DOUBLE ANGLES ANGLE PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL b/t b/t D/t    Not applicable Not applicable ≤ 76 / ≤ 76 / Fy Fy No limit No limit ≤ 3.300 / Fy Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact ≤ 3.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Classification of Sections Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based on AISC-ASD (continued) Section Description Ratio Check bf / 2tf d / tw T-SHAPE Other No limit No limit Compact Section Noncompact Section Slender Section No limit No limit If welded bf / dw ≥ tf / tw ≥ If rolled bf / dw ≥ tf / tw ≥ ≤ 65 / Fy ≤ 95 / ≤ 127 / Fy Fy Not applicable 0. 1.5.25 0.5.300 / Fy ≤ 3. 1.

4 Classification of Sections .Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Figure 1 AISC-ASD Definition of Geometric Properties Technical Note 37 .

The member stresses for non-slender sections that are calculated for each load combination area. For general sections. Channel. the program uses effective section moduli based on reduced web and reduced flange dimensions in calculating stresses. the program calculates the shear stresses along the geometric and principle axes.2d) A-B5. Pipe. BERKELEY. the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes. the design considers the principal properties.2d) A-B5. Box.2d) The flexural stresses are calculated based on the properties about the principal axes. it is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. Calculation of Stresses Technical Note 38 . as follows: fa fb33 fb22 fv2 fv3 = = = = = P/A M33/Seff. INC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 38 Calculation of Stresses This Technical Note explains how the program calculates the stresses at each defined station. in general. For Single-angle sections. Double-angle. For Single-angle sections. For I.2d) A-B5. based on the gross crosssectional properties. as follows: fa fb33 fb22 fv2 fv3 = = = = = P/A M33/S33 M22/S22 V2/Av2 V3/Av3 If the section is slender with slender stiffened elements.2d) A-B5. T. the principal axes coincide with the geometric axes. Channel.33 M22/Seff.1 .22 V2/Av2 V3/Av3 (ASD (ASD (ASD (ASD (ASD A-B5. such as a slender web in I.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. For all other sections. Circular and Rectangular sections. and Box sections or slender flanges in Box sections..

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tension. ASD SAM 2). The specified allowable stresses should be based on the principal axes of bending. T.60 Fy. For the Angle sections. a message to that effect is printed (ASD B7. The allowable compressive stresses are determined according to the following subsections. Noncompact. the minimum radius of gyration. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes.1 . Allowable Stress in Compression The allowable axial compressive stress is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. BERKELEY. and shear for Compact. Double-angle and Rectangular sections. Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 . bending. and Slender sections. For single angles. For the I. Allowable Stress in Tension The allowable axial tensile stress value Fa is assumed to be 0. the nonzero values will be used rather than the calculated values for those elements. Fa = 0.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Circular. INC.6 Fy (ASD D1. For members in tension. If the user specifies nonzero allowable stresses for one or more elements in the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form (display using the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Review/Revise Overwrites command). CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 39 Calculation of Allowable Stresses This Technical Note explains how the program calculates the allowable stresses in compression. the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural stresses are based on that.. The allowable flexural stresses for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. Box. Pipe. if l/r is greater than 300. Channel. ASD SAM 2) It should be noted that net section checks are not made. rz is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing l/r.

r (ASD E2-2. SAM 4-2) If Kl/r is greater than 200. if Kl/r is greater than 200. ASD SAM 4) For single angles. 22 22  . except slender Pipe sections. rz. For single angles. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl/r. where K l K l  Kl  = max 33 33 . r r33 r22    Cc = 2π2 E . Fa is evaluated as follows:  (Kl / r )2    1. if 3 r 5 3(Kl / r ) (Kl / r ) + − 3 8C 'c 8C '3 c (ASD A-B5-11. if Kl ≤ Cc . calculated by using the equation ASD E2-2 for Compact and Noncompact sections (ASD E1. depends on the slenderness ratio Kl/r based on gross section properties and a corresponding critical value. For Slender sections. if Kl > Cc .0 − Fy 2  2C ' c  Kl   ≤ C 'c Fa = Q . SAM 4-1) Technical Note 39 . Fa. r (ASD E2-1. B7). the calculated value of Fa is taken not to exceed the value of Fa. Flexural Buckling The allowable axial compressive stress value. Fy and (ASD E2. a warning message is printed (ASD B7. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl/r. Fa is evaluated as follows:  (Kl / r )2    1. For Compact or Noncompact sections. the minimum radius of gyration.2 Calculation of Allowable Stresses .Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 For members in compression. SAM 4-1) Fa = .0 − Fy 2 2C c     Fa = 5 3(Kl / r ) (Kl / r ) + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 12π 2 E 23(Kl / r ) 2 3 . ASD SAM 4). Cc. rz. the minimum radius of gyration.

Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses Fa = where.c.2. if Kl/r is greater than 200. the calculated value of Fa is taken not to exceed its value calculated by using the equation ASD A-B5-12 (ASD B7. for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1. ASD SAM 4).2.2. Q is computed as follows: Q = QsQa. Fa is evaluated as follows: Fa = 662 + 0. For slender Pipe sections.40Fy D /t (ASD A-B5-9) The reduction factor. SAM 4) Qs = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements. SAM 4-2) 2π 2 E . E1). Qa = Ae Ag (ASD A-B5-10) The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae = Ag − where ∑ (b − b e )t Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 . C 'c = 12π 2 E 23(Kl / r ) 2 . and(ASD A-B5. Q.3 .a) Qa = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. (ASD A-B5. where (ASD A-B5. For slender sections. if Kl > C 'c . The Qa factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area.2c.2a.c) The Qs factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table 1 (ASD A-B5. QFy (ASD A-B5. ASD SAM 4) For slender sections. r (ASD A-B5-12.

Fe (ASD E2. C-E3): 2  (Kl / r )e    1. C 'c = 23(Kl / r )e 2 if (Kl / r )e > C ' c . A-B5. and be for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b.2c. as given in Table 2 (ASD A-B5. he is used as be and h is used as b in the above equation.0 −  Fy 2 2C ' c     Fa = Q 5 3(Kl / r )e (Kl / r )e + − 3 8C ' c 8C '3 c 12π 2 E .4 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . SAM 4) (Kl / r )e = (ASD C-E2-2. and Channel sections. if (Kl / r ) e ≤ C 'c (E2-1. box. SAM 4-4) Technical Note 39 . is determined as follows (ASD E3. A-B5-11) Fa = where. Flexural-Torsional Buckling The allowable axial compressive stress value. A-B5-12) 2π 2 E .2b). (E2-2. 3 . determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling.Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 be for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b. and QFy π 2E . For webs in I. Fa.

500 / {[d/t]2Fy} PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL ASD A-B5-1. as for flanges in I-shapes. ASD A-B5-4 ASD A-B5. SAM 4-3 ASD A-B5.5 . ASD A-B5-2.2c Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 .00309[bf/2tf] Fy k c Equation Reference Fy k c .0 Qs = 1.340-0.2c ASD A-B5. 1.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses Table 1 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements.0 DOUBLEANGLE Qs = 1. .00447 [b/t] Fy .0 if b/tw ≤ 127 / Fy . . T-SHAPE Qs = 1. ASD A-B5-4.340-0. . .2c Qs = 1 Qs = 1 ASD A-B5. . ASD A-B5-2.000 / {[d/tw]2Fy} 1. 20.00447 [d/t] ANGLE Fy Fy < b/t < 155/ b/t ≥ 155/ Fy Fy 15. . ASD A-B5-4 ASD A-B5-3. ASD A-B5-5. ASD A-B5-6 ASD A-B5-1. SAM 4-3 if 95 / if Fy k c < bf/2tf <195 / bf/2tf ≥ 195 / Fy k c Fy k c 26.500 / {[b/t]2Fy} 1.2c ASD A-B5-3.0 if bf/2tf ≤ 95 / Qs = 1.293 .200kc / {[bf/2tf]2Fy} BOX CHANNEL Qs = 1 As for I-shapes with bf / 2tf replaced by bf / tf For flanges. For web.0. Qs Section Type I-SHAPE Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements (Qs) 1. .2c ASD A-B5.00715 [d/tw] Fy if 127/ if if if 76/ if if if 76/ if Qs = 1 Qs = 1 Fy < d/tw < 176/ d/tw ≥ 176/ b/t ≤ 76 / Fy Fy Fy .908-0. . Fy < d/t < 155/ d/t ≥ 155/ b/t ≤ 76 / Fy Fy Fy 15. ASD A-B5-3. see below.

1 −  f  (h t w ) f    if h > 195.74 .74 . 1 −  f  (h t w ) f    if f h 195. special expression for allowable axial stress is given) Not applicable ASD A-B5. 1 −  (h t w ) f  f    (compr. tw f he = 253t w  44. Technical Note 39 . (compression only f = P ) > Ag tw f ASD A-B5-8 T-SHAPE DOUBLEANGLE ANGLE PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL be = b be = b be = b Qa = 1.74 . > t f be = 253tw  50. (However. if h ≤ 195. CHANNEL if h ≤ 195.74 .2C  be = b Not applicable Note: A reduction factor of 3/4 is applied on f for axial-compression-only cases and if the load combination includes any wind load or seismic load (ASD A-B5.2b). if if b 183.3  .2c ASD A-B5. ≤ tf f b 183. I-SHAPE if h ≤ 195.74 .74 . tw he = 253t w  44.74 .74 . tw f (compression only f = P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 h. flexure f = 0.3  . 1 −  f  (h t w ) f    if h > 195. tw f he = BOX 253t w  44. (compression only tw f f = P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 b.Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Table 2 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Section Type Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Equation Reference h.2c ASD A-B5.3  .2c ASD A-B5-9  ASD A-B5.3  .6 Calculation of Allowable Stresses .6Fy ) ASD A-B5-7 h.

Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (ASD SAM C-C4-2. The 1993 version of the AISC-LRFD code is the same as the 1986 version in this respect. and Pipe sections:  π 2 EC w  1 + GJ  Fe =  2  (K z l z )  I 22 + I 33   For T-sections and Double-angles: + Fez F Fe =  e22  2H  For Channels: + Fez F Fe =  e33  2H  4Fe33 Fez H     1 − 1 −  (Fe33 + Fez )2     (LRFD A-E3-6) 4Fe22 Fez H   1 − 1 −  (Fe22 + Fez )2       (LRFD A-E3-6) (LRFD A-E3-5) For Single-angle sections with equal legs: + Fez F Fe =  e33  2H  4Fe33 Fez H   1 − 1 −  (Fe33 + Fez )2       (ASD SAM C-C4-1) For Single-angle sections with unequal legs. Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 . where. LRFD AE3-7): (Fe-Fe33)(F3-Fe22)(Fe-Fez)-Fe2(Fe-Fe22). xo = 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members (y-axis of symmetry). 2 xo 2 ro -Fe2(Fe-Fe33) 2 yo 2 ro =0. xo.7 . I. Fe is calculated in the program as follows: For Rectangular.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses ASD Commentary (ASD C-E3) refers to the 1986 version of the AISC-LRFD code for the calculation of Fe. yo are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. Box.

I-Sections For I-sections the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length. lc. max(K22l22. the axis of bending. lz is the effective length for torsional buckling. l33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions.Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 ro = 2 2 xo + y o + I 22 + I 33 = polar radius of gyration about the shear cenAg ter. K33l33) . For angle sections. the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe (ASD SAM 4). The critical length is defined as Technical Note 39 . (LRFD A-E3-11)  π 2 EC w  1 Fez =  + GJ  . K33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions. (LRFD A-E3-9) (K 33 l33 / r33 )2 (K 22 l22 / r22 )2 π2 E (LRFD A-E3-10) Fe22 = . l22. Also. Allowable Stress in Bending The allowable bending stress depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section. and it is taken equal to l22. and it is taken equal to K22 in the program. the compactness of the section.  x2 + y2 H =1− o 2 o  r o  Fe33 = π2 E  . the maximum value of Kl.8 Calculation of Allowable Stresses .   . i. Kz is the effective length factor for torsional buckling. is used in place of K22l22 or K33l33 in calculating Fe22 and Fe33 in this case.e. l22. which is compared to a critical length. and a length parameter. 2 2  (K z l z )  Aro   (LRFD A-E3-12) K22.

Major Axis of Bending If l22 is less than lc.60 Fy For Noncompact sections:  b Fb33 =  0. (ASD F1-1) (ASD F1-5) if welded and fy ≤ 65 ksi. for 102.66 Fy Fb33 = 0.000C b . then for both Compact and Noncompact I-sections the allowable bending stress depends on the l22 /rT ratio. the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Noncompact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or rolled and whether fy is less than or equal to 65 ksi or greater than 65 ksi. For l 22 ≤ rT 102.60 Fy. if fy > 65 ksi.000C b l < 22 ≤ Fy rT Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 . dFy Fy      .002 f  2t f   b Fb33 =  0.9 .60 Fy  F y  Fy   Fy  F y kc   if rolled and fy ≤ 65 ksi.000 A  f f l c = min . Fy Fb33 = 0.79 − 0. where   (ASD F1-2) Af is the area of compression flange.002 f  2t f  Fb33 = 0.000C b . (ASDF1-4) if fy > 65 ksi (ASD F1-5) If the unbraced length l22 is greater than lc. Fy (ASD F1-6) 510. For Compact sections: Fb33 = 0. (ASD F1-3) if fy ≤ 65 ksi.79 − 0.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses  76b 20.

Cb is taken as 1. The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. The program defaults Cb to 1. l22. if any moment within the segment is greater than Mb. Also. where   2 12. Also.0 if the unbraced length.e.Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89  2 Fy (l 22 / rT )2   Fy ≤ 0. Ma / Mb being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending.0 for cantilevers and frames braced against joint translation (ASD F1.3). it is not equal to the length of the member). If the web is slender.60 Fy. M Cb = 1. Then the following additional considerations are taken into account.3  a M   b    ≤ 2.000C b    for l 22 > rT 510.3) Ma and Mb are the end moments of any unbraced segment of the member and Ma is numerically less than Mb. and Fb33 =  −  3 1.75 + 1. where (ASD G2-1) Technical Note 39 . The user can overwrite the value of Cb for any member by specifying it.000C b .60 Fy l 22 (d / Af ) (ASD F1-8) (ASD F1.3 . 2  (l 22 / rT )    (ASD F1-7) and Fb33 is taken not to be less than that given by the following formula: Fb33 = where..000C b  Fb33 =   ≤ 0.530.60 Fy . of the member is redefined by the user (i.05  a M  b M   + 0. Fy (ASD F1-6) 170.0.10 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: F'b33 = RPGReFb33. rT is the radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange and 1/3 the compression web taken about an axis in the plane of the web.000C b ≤ 0. Cb is taken as 1.

and F'b33=Allowable bending stress after considering web slenderness.0.2a.0.0. In the above expressions. (ASD F2-1) (ASD F2-2) For Noncompact and Slender sections: Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 .6 Fy). because currently the program deals with only non-hybrid girders. the previously computed allowable bending stress is taken to be limited. (hybrid girders) (ASD G2) Re = 1. where Qs is defined earlier.2d) Minor Axis of Bending The minor direction allowable bending stress Fb22 is taken as follows: For Compact sections: Fb22 = 0. α= 0.0 (ASD G2) Fb33=Allowable bending stress assuming the section is non-compact. A-B5.6Fy Fb33 ≤ 1. (ASD A-B5.0005 Aw  h 760   −  ≤ 1. If the flange is slender. Re is taken as 1. in2. (non-hybrid girders) (ASD G2) Af = Area of compression flange. F'b33 ≤ Qs (0. Af  t Fb33    Aw Af (ASD G2) 12 + (3α − α 3 ) Re = A 12 + 2 w Af ≤ 1. as follows. if fy > 65 ksi.60 Fy if fy ≤ 65 ksi. in2.75 Fy Fb22 = 0.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses RPG = 1.0 . Aw = Area of web.0.11 .

002 f  tf  Fb33 = 0. if fy > 65 ksi.60 Fy For Noncompact sections:  b Fb33 =  0.12 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . if fy > 65 ksi. lc = min  dFy Fy      . (ASD F1-4) if fy > 65 ksi.   if fy ≤ 65 ksi. l22. the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Noncompact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or rolled and whether fy is greater than 65 ksi or not.075 − 0. For Compact sections: Fb33 = 0. which is compared to a critical length.002 f  tf   b Fb33 =  0.66 Fy Fb33 = 0. The critical length is defined as  76b 20. y kc   if rolled and fy ≤ 65 ksi.Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89  b Fb22 = 1.   Fy   F.000 A  f f . (ASD F1-5) If the unbraced length l22 is greater than lc. then for both Compact and Noncompact Channel sections the allowable bending stress is taken as follows: Technical Note 39 . Major Axis of Bending If l22 is less than lc. (ASD F1-3) if fy ≤ 65 ksi.60 Fy  F y  F y.005 f  2t f  Fb22 = 0. lc.79 − 0. the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length.79 − 0.60 Fy  F y  F y. (ASD F2-3) (ASD F2-2) Channel Sections For Channel sections. (ASD F1-1) (ASD F1-5) if welded and fy ≤ 65 ksi. where   (ASD F1-2) Af is the area of compression flange.

60 Fy) (ASD A-B5.60 Fy (ASD F2-2) T Sections and Double Angles For T sections and Double angles. Af. The critical length is defined as   b 1. Cb. lc = max (1. Fb = 0.950 + 1. the previously computed allowable bending stress is taken to be limited as follows: F'b33 = Qs (0.13 . lc. If l22 is specified by the user. Qs. Re.200b   . and F'b33 are given earlier.200b in the program. RPG. measured compared to a critical length. lc is taken as Fy Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 . If the web is slender. the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length.60 Fy Box Sections and Rectangular Tubes For all Box sections and Rectangular tubes. Then the following additional considerations are taken into account.200M a / M b )  Fy Fy     (ASD F3-2) where Ma and Mb have the same definition as noted earlier in the formula for 1.2a. A-B5.2d) The definitions for rT.60 Fy l 22 (d / Af ) Calculation of Allowable Stresses Fb33 = (ASD F1-8) The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section.000C b ≤ 0.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 12. l22. the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes bending is taken as. Minor Axis of Bending The minor direction allowable bending stress Fb22 is taken as follows: Fb22 = 0. Cb. Aw. the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: F'b33 = ReRPGFb33 (ASD G2-1) If the flange is slender. Fb33.

the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: F'b33 = ReRPGFb33 The definitions for Re. effective section dimensions are calculated and the section modulus is modified according to its slenderness. the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes of bending is taken as Technical Note 39 .60 Fy (ASD F3-3) Pipe Sections For Pipe sections.Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Major Axis of Bending If l22 is less than lc. Fb33 and F'b33 are given earlier. the allowable bending stress in the major direction of bending is taken as: Fb33 = 0. If the flange is slender. irrespective of compactness.66 Fy Fb22 = 0. However. RPG.60 Fy (ASD F3-3) The major direction allowable bending stress for Slender sections is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. the allowable bending stress in the major direction of bending for both Compact and Noncompact sections is taken as: Fb33 = 0.14 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of bending is taken as: Fb22 = 0. no additional consideration is needed in computing allowable bending stress. (ASD G2-1) Minor Axis of Bending If l22 is less than lc. as: Fb22 = 0.66 Fy Fb33 = 0. the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of bending is taken. Then the following additional consideration is taken into account. If the web is slender.60 Fy (for Compact sections) (for Noncompact and Slender sections) (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) If l22 exceeds lc.60 Fy (for Compact sections) (for Noncompact sections) (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) If l22 exceeds lc.

1).≤ 0. (ASD F2-1) For solid rectangular bars bent about their major axes.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses Fb = 0.60 Fy.60 Fy (for Compact sections). and (for Noncompact and Slender sections).major = 0. the allowable stress is given by Fb= 0.66 Fy Fb = 0.75 Fy. Fy      F Fb.1. Fb= 0.75 Fy.10 ob  Fob.15 .3):  F  Fb. Fb= 0.95 − 0. and the allowable stress for minor axis bending of rectangular bars is taken as Fb= 0. The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5. (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) Round Bars The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of round bars is taken as. (ASD F2-1) Rectangular and Square Bars The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of solid square bars is taken as.75 Fy.50 Fob     Fy. (ASD F2-1) Single-Angle Sections The allowable flexural stresses for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending (ASD SAM 5.major = 0.55 − 0.3).66 Fy   if Fob ≤ Fy (ASD SAM 5-3a) if Fob > Fy (ASD SAM 5-3b) Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 . Major Axis of Bending The allowable stress for major axis bending is the minimum considering the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling and local buckling (ASD SAM 5.

for equal-leg angles is taken as Fob = Cb 28. It is positive for short leg in compression.100Cb  β 2 + 0.Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 where. = minor principal moment of inertia. Technical Note 39 .3. = major principal moment of inertia.2)  1  βw =  ∫ A z(w 2 + z 2 )dA − 2 z o . = max(l22. for conservative design in the program. t l Imin Imax = min(tw. βw is a special section property for angles.  I max  z = coordinate along the major principal axis.2).250 l /t (ASD SAM 5-5) and for unequal-leg angles. tf). Smajor = major section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg. However. and zo = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid.l33). it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles. rmin = radius of gyration for minor principal axis. min w w   S major l 2  I min (ASD SAM 5-6) where. w = coordinate along the minor principal axis. negative for long leg in compression.3. Fob is the elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress as calculated below. The elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress. Fob.16 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . and zero for equal-leg angles (ASD SAM 5. (ASD SAM 5.052(lt / r )2 + β  . Fob is calculated as Fob = 143.

≤ t Fy (ASD SAM 5-1a) Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 . 5.1): Fb. b = length of the leg under consideration.(ASD A-B5-2. with the exception that the upper limit of Cb is taken here as 1.1.66 Fy if b 65 .75 + 1.66 Fy if b 65 ≤ . the allowable stresses are calculated considering the fact that either of the two tips can be under compression. t Fy 65 Fy < b 76 ≤ t Fy b 76 > t Fy (ASD SAM 5-1a) Fb. Cb is calculated in the same way as is done for I sections.3. t = thickness of the leg under consideration.2b): Fb.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses In the previous expressions.60 Fy) if (ASD SAM 5-1c) where.3.major = 0.2. and Q = slenderness reduction factor for local buckling.1.3.minor = 0.2) The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of local buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5.60 Fy if (ASD SAM 5-1b) Fb.5 (ASD F1.3  a M   b      2 ≤ 1. SAM 4) In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of local buckling.major = 0.major = Q(0.05  a M  b M   + 0.3.1b. M Cb = 1. 5.1.17 . SAM 5.5 instead of 2. The minimum allowable stress is considered. Minor Axis of Bending The allowable minor bending stress for Single-angles is given as follows (ASD SAM 5.

Channel. Cv Fy ≤ 0. General Sections For General sections.40 Fy (ASD F4-1.Calculation of Allowable Stresses Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Fb. 2. the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes bending is taken as.minor = Q(0. Major Axis of Bending The allowable shear stress for all sections except I.60 Fy. For I. Allowable Stress in Shear The allowable shear stress is calculated along the geometric axes for all sections. Double angle. tw (ASD F4-1) Fv = if (ASD F4-2) where. Pipe. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For Singleangle sections. Technical Note 39 .minor = 0.18 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . Box. T. SAM 3-1) The allowable shear stress for major direction shears in I-shapes. principal axes do not coincide with the geometric axes. The minimum allowable stress is considered. Box and Channel sections is taken in the program as: Fv = 0.60 Fy) if (ASD SAM 5-1c) In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles.40Fy . and ≤ tw Fy 380 Fy < h ≤ 260 . boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: Fv = 0. Circular and Rectangular sections.89 if h 380 . it is assumed that the sign of the moment is such that both the tips are under compression. Fb = 0.40 Fy.60 Fy if 65 Fy < b 76 ≤ t Fy b 76 > t Fy (ASD SAM 5-1b) Fb.

Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses 45. Currently it is taken conservatively as the length.250 v tw Fy a ≤1 h a >1 h (ASD F4) (ASD F4) kv = tw = Thickness of the web. Minor Axis of Bending The allowable shear stress for minor direction shears is taken as: Fv = 0.250 v tw Fy k h < 56. a = Clear distance between transverse stiffeners.00 (a / h) 2 2 if if if if k h ≥ 56. SAM 3-1) Calculation of Allowable Stresses Technical Note 39 . in.40 Fy (ASD F4-1.19 . l22. of the member in the program.34 (a / h)2 4. h = Clear distance between flanges at the section.34+ kv Fy 5.00+ 5.000kv Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 190 h tw 4. in.

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0 indicates an overstress. the combined stress ratio is given by the larger of fa C m33 f b33 C m22 f b22 + .1) (ASD H1-2.60Fy ) Fb33 Fb22 fa fb33 = axial stress = bending stress about the local 3-axis where (ASD H1-1. and + Fa   fa  fa  1 − Fb33 1 − Fb22   F ' e33  F ' e22      fa f f + b33 + b22 . for each station along the length of the member. Q(0. The controlling stress ratio is then obtained. INC. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. H2. In the calculation of the axial and bending stress ratios. first. SAM 6. Then the corresponding allowable stresses are calculated. > 0.15. Axial and Bending Stresses With the computed allowable axial and bending stress values and the factored axial and bending member stresses at each station. the stress ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations.1 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios This Technical Note describes how the program calculates stress ratios. along with the associated station and load combination.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.. A stress ratio greater than 1. BERKELEY. the actual stresses are calculated for each load combination. an interaction stress ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows (ASD H1. SAM 6.1) Calculation of Stress Ratios Technical Note 40 . Then. SAM 6): If fa is compressive and fa / Fa. During the design.

The user can overwrite the value of Cm for any member. if nonsway.85.4 Ma / Mb.00 (ASD H1). Cm assumes two values. associated with the major and minor directions.. Cm = 0.e. Cm is taken as 1.85. l. end restrained.0 if the unbraced length factor.85 if length is overwritten. In these cases.85 1.0. load.4 0. i. The program defaults Cm to 1. for nonsway frame without transverse load. if sway frame.6 . end unrestrained (ASD H1) Cm = 0. if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member. Ma / Mb is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member. 1. F'e is given by F'e = 12π 2 E 23(Kl / r )2 . When Mb is zero. Ma . Cm = 0. trans. and for nonsway frame with transverse load and end unrestrained compression member. load.00 0.6-0. for nonsway frame with transverse load and end restrained compression member. no transverse loading if nonsway.Calculation of Stress Ratios Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 fb22 Fa Fb33 Fb22 = bending stress about the local 2-axis = allowable axial stress = allowable bending stress about the local 3-axis = allowable bending stress about the local 2-axis Cm33 and Cm22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length. trans. Mb if nonsway. Cm = 0. Cm22 and Cm33. of the member is redefined by either the user or the program.00 1. Cm = 1.0. Ma / Mb being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending.00 For sway frame. (ASD H1) Technical Note 40 . if tension member.2 Calculation of Stress Ratios .

the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes.2). either Fb33 or Fb22 need not be less than 0.1. the combined stress ratio is given by the larger of fa f f + b33 + b22 . a relatively simplified formula is used for the combined stress ratio. Box.1) If fa is tensile or zero. principal axes are determined in the program. the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (ASD SAM 5.3.3 . where Fb33 Fb22 fa. fb33. Fa. and Fb22 are as defined earlier in this Technical Note.2) Calculation of Stress Ratios Technical Note 40 . and Fa Fb33 Fb22 f b33 f + b22 . For general sections.5). Fb33. If fa is compressive and fa / Fa ≤ 0. instead of the simple addition implied by the above formulae. The second equation considers flexural buckling without any beneficial effect from axial compression. For I.6Fy if the load combination includes any wind load or seismic load (ASD H1. SAM 6. SAM 6. Channel. Double-angle. For Single-angle sections.6Fy in the first equation (ASD H2-1).15. Pipe.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Stress Ratios A factor of 4/3 is applied on F'e and 0. T. For Single-angle sections. allowable stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5. no effort is made to determine the principal directions. ASD A5. For circular and pipe sections. an SRSS combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component. However. fb22. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads. fa f f + b33 + b22 Fa Fb33 Fb22 (ASD H1-3. Circular and Rectangular sections. (ASD H2-1.2). 6.

the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes that coincide with the geometric axes.2). allowable shear stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5.4 Calculation of Stress Ratios . and Technical Note 40 . Fv For Single-angle sections. the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads.Calculation of Stress Ratios Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Shear Stresses From the allowable shear stress values and the factored shear stress values at each station. Fv fv 3 . For all other sections. shear stress ratios for major and minor directions are computed for each of the load combinations as follows: fv 2 .

The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. Further information about using the Print Design Tables Form is provided at the end of this Technical Note. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Material Dir/Plane Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Steel. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Steel.. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. Input Data Technical Note 41 . INC. "All" for isotropic materials. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 41 Input Data This Technical Note describes the steel frame design input data for AISCASD89.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. concrete or other. concrete or other. Isotropic or orthotropic. Concrete. Postprocessor available if steel is specified.1 . specify axis properties define for orthotropic. steel or none. BERKELEY.

Thickness of top flange per AISC database.2 Input Data . Web thickness per AISC database. Steel. Thickness of bottom flange per AISC database. Material Design Data for Steel Materials Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Frame Section Property Data Frame Section Name Material Name Section Shape Name or Name in Section Database File Section Depth Flange Width Top Flange Thick Top Web Thick Flange Width Bot Flange Thick Bot Section Area Depth of the section. Bending reinforcing yield stress. concrete or none. Minimum yield stress of steel. Usually between 0. Check this box if this is a lightweight concrete material. Shear reinforcing yield stress. Define reduction factor if lightweight concrete box checked. Used to calculate the self weight of the structure.Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Steel FY Steel FU Steel Cost ($) DESCRIPTION Used to calculate self mass of the structure.75 ad 0. Width of bottom flange per AISC database. Technical Note 41 . Name of section as defined in database files. User specified or auto selected member name. Concrete. Cost per unit weight used in composite beam design if optimum beam size specified to be determined by cost. Concrete compressive strength. Maximum tensile stress of steel. Steel. Width of top flange per AISC database.85.

Input Data Technical Note 41 . page 5-55. S22 Z33.3 . Name(s) of case(s) to be included in this load combination. Effective length factor. sequential construction. Effective length factor. I22 A2. Name of member section assigned. response spectrum. Live load reduction factor. Name of the story level. static nonlinear. envelope. Scale factor to be applied to each load case. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. or SRSS as defined in Define > Load Combination. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. Static. DESCRIPTION Load Combination Multipliers Beam Steel Stress Check Element Information Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites Story Level Beam Bay CM Major Name of the story level. Beam bay identifier. Beam bay identifier. absolute. As defined in AISC-ASD. time history. Z22 R33. Moment frame or braced frame. A3 S33. R22 Load combination name. Additive.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Input Data Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Torsional Constant Moments of Inertia Shear Areas Section Moduli Plastic Moduli Radius of Gyration Combo Type Case Case Type Factor Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor I33.

4 Input Data . Beam bay identifier. If zero. If zero. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. page 5-55. Technical Note 41 . If zero. As defined in AISC-ASD. As defined in AISC-ASD. page 5-55. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. yield stress defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter E. Beam Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites Story Level Beam Bay Fa Ft Fb Major Fb Minor Fv Major Fv Minor Name of the story level. If zero. If zero. If zero. As defined in AISC-ASD. Moment Frame or Braced Frame Live load reduction factor. page 5-47. Name of member sections assigned. Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites Story Level Beam Bay CM Major CM Minor Cb Factor Name of the story level. page 5-55. Beam bay identifier. Column line identifier. page 5-47. Column Steel Stress Check Element Information Story Level Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor Name of the story level.Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING CM Minor Cb Factor DESCRIPTION As defined in AISC-ASD. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD Chapter D. As defined in AISC-ASD.

As defined in AISC-ASD. page 5-55. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. yield stress defined for material property data used and AISC-ASD specification Chapter E. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. As defined in AISC-ASD. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. If zero. If zero. If zero. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD Chapter D. use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Input Sum- Input Data Technical Note 41 . Column line identifier. Column Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites Story Level Column Line Fa Ft Fb Major Fb Minor Fv Major Fv Minor Name of the story level. Effective length factor. If zero. If zero.5 .Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Input Data Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor DESCRIPTION Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. Column line identifier. Column Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites Story Level Column Line CM Major CM Minor Cb Factor Name of the story level. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. If zero. page 5-47. Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer. as defined for material property data used and AISCASD specification Chapter F. page 5-55. Effective length factor. As defined in AISC-ASD.

The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. the Selection Only check box will be checked. . Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. if necessary.6 Input Data .doc). Click the OK button to send the print to your printer.xls. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Technical Note 41 . .txt. . Click the Filename button to change the path or filename. Data will be added to this file.. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears.g. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 mary check box on the Print Design Tables form. click Yes to replace the existing file. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. Or use the Filename button to locate another file. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. To print steel frame design input data to a file. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file.

Moment Interaction Check Combo Ratio Axl B33 B22 Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio. INC. Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is provided at the end of this Technical Note. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam Steel Stress Check Output Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Name of the story level. Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 22 axis. Beam bay identifier. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 42 Output Details This Technical Note describes the steel frame design output for AISC-ASD89 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 33 axis. Name of member sections assigned.. BERKELEY. Output Details Technical Note 42 . The program provides the output data in a table.1 . The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the table are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress.

Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 22 axis. Ratio Column Steel Stress Check Output Story Level Column Line Section ID Name of the story level.2 Output Details . DESCRIPTION Ratio Shear33 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 33 axis. B22 Shear22 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 22 axis. Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 33 axis. Moment Interaction Check Combo Ratio AXL B33 Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio. Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress. Name of member sections assigned. Technical Note 42 . Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress. Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress.Output Details Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING Shear22 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 22 axis. Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress. Column line identifier.

To print steel frame design output data to a file. use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Output Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print..xls. DESCRIPTION Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers.g. . if necessary. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file.3 .txt. Click the Filename button to change the path or filename. . Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress. click Yes to replace the existing file. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. Output Details Technical Note 42 . Data will be added to this file.Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 Output Details Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING Ratio Shear33 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 33 axis. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. . The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. Ratio Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design output data directly to a printer. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer.doc). click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form.

the Selection Only check box will be checked.Output Details Steel Frame Design AISC-ASD89 If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command.4 Output Details . Technical Note 42 . The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.

the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. Then. which are General and Notation Technical Note 43 . Technical Note 49 Calculation of Nominal Strengths. Further information is available from AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 47 Classification of Sections. To facilitate use. INC. Algorithms for completing these calculations are described in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 48 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments. It also provides input and output data summaries. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. and Technical Note 50 Calculation of Capacity Ratios.1 . The various notations used in this series are described herein. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 43 General and Notation Introduction to the AISC-LRFD93 Series of Technical Notes The AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms used by this program when the user selects the AISC-LRFD93 design code. The program uses preferences and overwrites. which are described in AISCLRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 44 Preferences and Technical Note 45 Overwrites.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. Similarly.. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. first. BERKELEY. the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this Technical Note. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. See AISCLRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 46 Design Load Combinations for more information. A capacity ratio greater than 1.

0 for rolled sections and 16. ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10. in4 Torsional constant for the section. in Modulus of elasticity.2 General and Notation . Notation A Ae Ag Av2.Av3 Aw B1 Cross-sectional area. ksi Minor moment of inertia. ksi Shear modulus. equal dtw per web.General and Notation Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 described in AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 51 Input Data and Technical Note 52 Output Details. in2 Gross cross-sectional area. in6 Outside diameter of pipes. in2 Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant. ksi Critical compressive stress. in2 Shear area. in4 B2 Cb Cm Cw D E Fcr Fr Fy G I22 I33 J Technical Note 43 . in2 Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections. in4 Major moment of inertia. ksi Yield stress of material. in2 Major and minor shear areas.5 for welded sections.

in Elastic buckling moment. in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity. kipin Elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment for angle sections. kip-in Factored moment in member.3 . kips Reduction factor for slender section. = QaQs Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus. kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway. in3 Mcr Mlt Mnt Mn33. in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. kip-in Euler buckling load. Mu22 Pe Pn Pu Py Q Qa Qs S General and Notation Technical Note 43 .Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation K K33. kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member. Mr22 Mu Mu33. kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway. kips Nominal axial load strength.Mn22 Mob Mr33. kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments. kip-in Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions.K22 Lb Lp Lr Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member. kip Factored axial force in member. kips AgFy.

bf ― 2tw for welded and bf ― 3tw for rolled box sections. in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions.S22 Seff. in Effective depth of web. in Parameter used for section classification. in Clear distance between flanges less fillets. and d ― 2tf for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet. 4 h t w . in Radius of gyration.22 Major and minor section moduli.Seff. Effective width of flange. in Overall depth of member. in3 Nominal major and minor shear strengths. in3 Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections. in longer leg of angle sections. etc. kips Factored major and minor shear loads. kips Plastic modulus.Vn3 Vu2. in assumed d ― 2k for rolled sections. in3 Major and minor plastic moduli.35 ≤ kc ≤ 0.763 Sc Vn2.Vv3 Z Z33. in Flange width.Z22 b be bf d de hc k kc l33. in Technical Note 43 . in Thickness.33. 0. in3 Nominal dimension of plate in a section.General and Notation Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 S33.4 General and Notation .r22 t Major and minor directions unbraced member lengths. in3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section.l22 r r33.

0.5 . in Thickness of web.9 βw λ λc.9 Resistance factor for compression. in Special section property for angles. 0.λe λp λr λs λslender ϕb ϕc ϕt ϕv General and Notation Technical Note 43 . 0.Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation tf tw Flange thickness.85 Resistance factor for tension. in Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameters Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for seismic element Limiting slenderness parameter for slender element Resistance factor for bending. 0.9 Resistance factor for shear.

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type in the desired value. Preferences Technical Note 44 . Use the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the steel frame design preferences. The preference value will update accordingly. General The steel frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all steel frame elements. If the cell is highlighted. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. select a new value. You should. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. To change a preference item. INC.. The Preferences form will display. BERKELEY.1 . any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences. The preference options are displayed in a two-column spreadsheet. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 44 Preferences This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form. select the Options menu > Preferences > Steel Frame Design. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. click the OK button to close the form. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. Thus. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you. however. If the drop-down box appears. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Default values are provided for all steel frame design preference items.

Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories. regardless of what is specified here. Table 1: Steel Frame Preferences Item Design Code Time History Design Possible Values Any code in the program Envelopes. Step-by-Step Default Value AISCASD89 Description Design code used for design of steel frame elements.95 Program will select members from the auto select list with stress ratios less than or equal to this value.2 Preferences . Moment Frame 0. ≥1 Technical Note 44 . or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. 1 Sets the number of iterations of the analysis-design cycle that the program will complete automatically assuming that the frame elements have been assigned as auto select sections. Braced Frame >0 Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Description: A description of the associated preference item. the preference items are presented in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it. Frame Type Stress Ratio Limit Maximum Auto Iteration Moment Frame.Preferences Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Preferences For purposes of explanation.

.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. This Technical Note describes steel frame design overwrites for AISC-LRFD93. you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites." the value is shown by the program before the design is performed. that is. To access the overwrites. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. select an element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. the values are calculated by the program and the default is modified by the program-calculated value. BERKELEY. The column headings in the table are described as follows. To save space in the forms. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. the overwrites are presented in Table 1. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus. If the default value is given in the table with an associated note "Program Calculated. When changes are made to overwrite items. these names are generally short. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. However. Overwrites Technical Note 45 . the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item.1 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 45 Overwrites General The steel frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. After design. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed.

As defined in AISC-LRFD Table CC2.2 Overwrites . Braced Frame ≥0 From Preferences Live load is multiplied by this factor. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. LTB) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) Bending Coefficient (Cb) ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 1 ≥0 0.85 ≥0 0. page 6-184.Overwrites Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length. As defined in AISC-LRFD Table CC2.1. 1 Earthquake loads are multiplied by this factor. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites Item Current Design Section Element Type Moment Frame. Ratio of unbraced length divided by total length. Possible Values Default Value Description Indicates selected member size used in current design.85 ≥0 1 Technical Note 45 . page 6-184.1. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor.

as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. phi*Pnc Tensile Capacity. If zero. yield stress defined for material property data used.3 . Fy Compressive Capacity. phi*Mn3 Minor Bending Capacity. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. phi*Mn2 Major Shear Capacity. phi*Vn3 Possible Values ≥0 Default Value 1 Description As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. If zero. phi*Vn2 Minor Shear Capacity. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D. If zero. ≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E. If zero. phi*Pnt Major Bending Capacity. If zero. If zero. ≥0 1 As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites Table 1 Steel Frame Design Overwrites Item NonSway Moment Factor (B1 Major) NonSway Moment Factor (B1 Minor) Sway Moment Factor (B2 Major) Sway Moment Factor (B2 Minor) Yield stress. If zero. ≥0 1 ≥0 ≥0 0 0 ≥0 0 ≥0 0 ≥0 0 ≥0 0 ≥0 0 Overwrites Technical Note 45 . As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G.

no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a drop-down box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. Initially. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one frame element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected. select a value from the box. If the drop-down box appears. type in the desired value. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. select a frame element and click the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. After selecting one or multiple elements. click the OK button to close the form. If the cell contents is highlighted. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet. Technical Note 45 . Resetting Steel Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Steel Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites.4 Overwrites .Overwrites Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the steel frame overwrites. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. the check boxes in the Steel Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. When changes to the overwrites have been completed. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. The overwrite will reflect the change. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet.

edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. When you reset overwrites.edb file used to initialize the model. Overwrites Technical Note 45 . The steel frame overwrite values that were in a .Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. not to the values that were in the . the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values.5 .

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if other types of loads are present.1 . For the AISC-LRFD93 code. It is recommended that the P-delta analysis be performed at the factored load level of 1. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 46 .5LL (White and Hajjar 1991).0 EL 1. live load (LL). and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. See AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 45 Overwrites for more information.5LL ± 1.3WL 0. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.9DL ± 1.3WL 1. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. the program design assumes that a Pdelta analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity.6LL 0.3WL 1.2DL ± 1.2DL plus 0.9DL ± 1. or if pattern live loads are to be considered.. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).2DL ± 1.0 EL 1.1): 1. the following load combinations may need to be defined (LRFDA4.4DL 1.2DL + 0.5LL ± EL (LRFD A4-1) (LRFD A4-2) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the AISC-LRFD93 code is used. and earthquake induced load (EL).2DL + 1.2DL + 0. BERKELEY. wind load (WL). When using the AISC-LRFD93 code. CALIFORNIA NOVEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 46 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. INC.

Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice.Design Load Combinations Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Reference White.F. Technical Note 46 . Inc. 4.2 Design Load Combinations . 28. Vol. and J. 1991. No. Engineering Journal. D.W. Hajjar. American Institute of Steel Construction.

1. the section is classified as Too Slender. If the limits for Slender sections are not met. Box. BERKELEY. Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of this program. The definition of the section properties required in these tables is given in Figure 1 and AISC-LRFD93 Steel Frame Design Technical Note 43 General and Notation. Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated. or Too Slender. INC. The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Compact. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 47 Classification of Sections This Technical Note explains the classification of sections when the user selects the AISC-LRFD93 design code. Classification of Sections Technical Note 47 . and Channel sections. it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners. Moreover. Table A-F1. Noncompact. A-G1. The program classifies individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table 1 and Table 2 (LRFD B5.1 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. special considerations are required regarding the limits of width-thickness ratios for Compact sections in Seismic zones and Noncompact sections with compressive force as given in Table 2.1).. Slender. In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes.

33 − Pu ϕ b Py Fy   ≤ Pu  970  1 − 0.75Pu    Fy   ϕ b Py       For Pu / ϕbPy > 0.000 / Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure D/t    ≤ 2.74  ϕ b Py  F    14.970 / Fy Assumed Compact Assumed Compact Assumed Compact Technical Note 47 . I-SHAPE h c / tw ≤ 640 1 − 2.2 Classification of Sections .070 / Fy ≤ 8.125.000 ≤ Fy (Fy + 16.5) ≤ 260 ≥ 253 Fy BOX CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL b / tf h c / tw b f / tf h c / tw bf / 2tf d / tw b/t b/t ≤ 190 / Fy ≤ 238 / Fy As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes ≤ 127 / Fy ≤ 76 / ≤ 76 / Fy Fy No limit ≤ 970 / Fy No limit As for I-shapes No limit No limit No limit No limit ≤ 13.Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections in Flexure Based on AISC-LRFD Description of Section Check λ bf / 2tf (rolled) bf / 2tf (welded) COMPACT (λp) ≤ 65 / ≤ 65 / Fy Fy NONCOMPACT λr ≤ 141 / Fy − 10.125.5 kc SLENDER (λslender) No limit No limit For Pu / ϕbPy ≤ 0. ≤ 191   2.0 ≤ 162 / Fy − 16.

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Classification of Sections Table 2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections (Special Cases) Based on AISC-LRFD WidthThickness Ratio λ bf / 2tf (rolled) bf / 2tf (welded) h c / tw BOX b / tf h c / tw b f / tf h c / tw bf / 2tf d / tw b/t b/t D/t    NONCOMPACT (Uniform Compression) (M22 ≈ M33 ≈ 0) (λr) ≤ 95 / ≤ 95 / ≤ 253 / ≤ 238 / ≤ 253 / Description of Section Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy I-SHAPE CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLE-ANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes ≤ 127 / ≤ 76 / ≤ 76 / ≤ 3.300 / Fy Fy Fy Fy Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact Classification of Sections Technical Note 47 .3 .

4 Classification of Sections . x 3. 3-3 is orthogonal to 2-2. This is the same as the x-x axis.Classification of Sections Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 AISC-LRFD93: Axes Conventions 2-2 is the cross section axis parallel to the webs. 2. This is the same as the y-y axis. x 2. the longer dimension of tubes. y 3. y Figure 1 AISC-LRFD Definition of Geometric Properties Technical Note 47 . or the side by side legs of double angles. the longer leg of single angles.

Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Technical Note 48 .1 . the major direction shear force and the minor direction force. the major moment. where (1 − Pu / Pe ) Ag F y λ 2 (LRFD C1-2. where = = = = (LRFD C1-1. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. Factored moments not causing sidesway. and Vu3. SAM 6) Moment magnification factor for non-sidesway moments. Vu2.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. and Cm33 and Cm22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length. The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu. the factored moment Mu (Mu33 and Mu22 in corresponding directions) is magnified to consider second order effects. The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: Mu B1 B2 Mnt Mlt = B1Mnt + B2Mlt. respectively.. with λ = Kl rπ ) . corresponding to factored values of the axial load. The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding directions. Mu33. Mu22. Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 48 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments This Technical Note describes how the program calculates factored forces and moments. For loading combinations that cause compression in the member. BERKELEY.0. SAM 6-2) Fy E Pe is the Euler buckling load (Pe = . and Factored moments causing sidesway. the minor moment. The moment magnification factor B1 for moments not causing sidesway is given by B1 = Cm ≥ 1. INC.

Ma Mb if no transverse loading if trans. For single angles. For compression members with transverse load on the member. end unrestrained Cm = 0. Cm22 and Cm33. end restrained if trans.e. See also White an Hajjar (1991). of the member is redefined by either the user or the program. where the principal axes of bending are not coincident with the geometric axes (2-2 and 3-3). Therefore Pu must be less than Pe.00 (LRFD C1-3) Ma / Mb is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member. Cm is taken as 1. Ma / Mb being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. It is suggested that the Pdelta analysis be performed at the factored load level of 1. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to Pe. load.. For tension members. Technical Note 48 . The magnification factor B1 must be a positive number. l. if tension member. the program conservatively uses the maximum of K22l22 and K33l33 for determining the major and minor direction Euler buckling capacity. The program design assumes the analysis includes P-delta effects. The user can overwrite the value of Cm for any member.6-0. a failure condition is declared.85 1. therefore. if end unrestrained. if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member. The program defaults Cm to 1.2 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments . load. i. Cm is assumed as 1.4 0. Cm assumes two values. Cm is assumed as 1.00 1.0.00 if length is overwritten.Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 1.00 1. B2 is taken as unity for bending in both directions.5 LL (LRFD C2.0 for members with any unrestrained end and as 0.0.85 for members with two unrestrained ends. associated with the major and minor directions. When Mb is zero.2 DL plus 0.2).0 if the unbraced length factor.

Reference White. 1991. Engineering Journal. and J. the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of B1 and B2 for any member.W. F. Vol.3 . D. Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Hajjar.Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member. Inc. 4. American Institute of Steel Construction. Calculation of Factored Forces and Moments Technical Note 48 . 28. No.

.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93

Technical Note 49 Calculation of Nominal Strengths
This Technical Note describes how the program calculates nominal strengths in compression, tension, bending, and shear for Compact, Noncompact, and Slender sections.

Overview
The nominal strengths in compression, tension, bending, and shear are computed for Compact, Noncompact, and Slender sections according to the following subsections. The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. For the Rectangular, I, Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe, T, and Double-angle sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For the Angle Sections, the principal axes are determined and all computations except shear are based on that. For Single-angle sections, the nominal shear strengths are calculated for directions along the geometric axes. For all other sections, the shear stresses are calculated along their geometric and principal axes. The strength reduction factor, ϕ, is taken as follows (LRFD A5.3): ϕt ϕc ϕc ϕb ϕv = = = = = Resistance Resistance Resistance Resistance Resistance factor factor factor factor factor for for for for for tension, 0.9 (LRFD D1, H1, SAM 2, 6) compression, 0.85 (LRFD E2, E3, H1) compression in angles, 0.90 (LRFD SAM 4,6) bending, 0.9 (LRFD F1, H1, A-F1, A-G2, SAM 5) shear, 09 (LRFD F2, A-F2, A-G3, SAM 3)

If the user specifies nonzero factored strengths for one or more of the elements on the Steel Frame Overwrites form, these values will override the calculated values for those elements. The specified factored strengths should be based on the principal axes of bending.

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Technical Note 49 - 1

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93

Compression Capacity
The nominal compression strength is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling, torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The strengths are determined according to the following subsections. For members in compression, if Kl/r is greater than 200, a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7, SAM 4). For single angles, the minimum radius of gyration, rz, is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl/r.

Flexural Buckling
The nominal axial compression strength, Pn, depends on the slenderness ratio, Kl/r, and its critical value, λc, where K l K l  Kl = max  33 33 , 22 22  , and r r33 r22  

λc =

Kl rπ

Fy E

.

(LRFD E2-4, SAM 4)

For single angles, the minimum radius of gyration, rz, is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl/r. Pn for Compact or Noncompact sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn Fcr Fcr = AgFcr, where = (0.658 λ c )Fy, =  0.877   2  Fy ,  λc   
2

(LRFD E2-1) for λc ≤ 1.5, and for λc > 1.5 (LRFD E2-2) (LRFD E2-3)

Pn for Slender sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn Fcr = AgFcr, where = Q(0.658 Qλc )Fy, for λc
2

(LRFD A-B3d, SAM 4) Q ≤ 1.5, and (LRFD A-B5-15, SAM 4-1)

Technical Note 49 - 2

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Fcr

=

 0.877   2  Fy ,  λc   

for λc

Q > 1.5

(LRFD E2-3)

The reduction factor, Q, for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1. For slender sections, Q is computed as follows: Q = Qs Qa, where (LRFD A-B5-17, SAM 4)

Qs = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements, and(LRFD A-B5.3a) Qa = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. (LRFD A-B5.3c)

The Qs factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table 1 (LRFD A-B5.3a). The Qa factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area (LRFD AB5.3c). Qa = Ae As (LRFD A-B5-14)

The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae = Ag - ∑(b-be)t

be for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b, and be for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table 2 (LRFD A-B5.3b). For webs in I, Box, and Channel sections, he is used as be and h is used as b in the above equation.

Flexural-Torsonal Buckling
Pn for flexural-torsional buckling of Double-angle and T-shaped compression members whose elements have width-thickness ratios less than λr is given by Pn Fcrft = AgFcrft, where =  Fcr 2 + Fcrz   2H  4Fcr 2 Fcrz H   1 − 1 −  (Fcr 2 + Fcrz )2     , where   (LRFD E3-1) (LRFD E3-1)

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Technical Note 49 - 3

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93

Table 1 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements, Qs
Section Type Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements (Qs) 1.0 if bf/2tf ≤ 95 / Qs = 1.415 - 0.00437[bf/2tf] 20,000 / {[bf/2tf]2Fy} I-SHAPE 1.0 Qs = 1.415 - 0.00381[bf/2tf]
Fy k c

Equation Reference
Fy Fy Fy

, , . LRFD A-B5-5, LRFD A-B5-6

Fy

if if if

95 /

Fy

< bf/2tf <176 / bf/2tf ≥ 176 / bf/2tf ≤ 109 / < bf/2tf <200 / bf/2tf ≥ 200 /

Fy k c Fy k c Fy k c

if 109 / if Qs = 1

Fy k c

26,200kc / {[bf/2tf]2Fy} BOX

.

LRFD A-B5-7, LRFD A-B5-8 LRFD A-B5.3d LRFD A-B5-5, LRFD A-B5-6, LRFD A-B5-7, LRFD A-B5-8

CHANNEL

As for I-shapes with bf / 2tf replaced by bf / tf For flanges, as for flanges in I-shapes. For web, see below. 1.0 if d/tw ≤ 127 /

Fy Fy

,

T-SHAPE

Qs = 1.908 - 0.00715[d/tw] 20,000 / 1.0 Qs = 1.340 - 0.00447[b/t]

Fy

if

127 /

Fy

< d/tw <176 / d/tw ≥ 176 / b/t ≤ 76 /
Fy Fy

,

{[d/tw]2Fy}

if
if

Fy

.

LRFD A-B5-5, LRFD A-B5-6, LRFD A-B5-7, LRFD A-B5-8, LRFD A-B5-9, LRFD A-B5-10 LRFD A-B5-3 LRFD A-B5-4 , LRFD SAM4-3

DOUBLEANGLE (Separated)

, ,

Fy

if

76 /

Fy

< b/t <155 / b/t ≥ 155 /

15,500 / {[b/t]2Fy} 1.0 Qs = 1.34 - 0.761[b/t] 0.534 /

if
if if 0.446
Fy / E

Fy

.
,

b/t ≤ 0.446 / < b/t <0.910 / b/t ≥ 0.910 /

Fy / E Fy / E

ANGLE

Fy / E

{[b/t]2[Fy /E]}

if
Qs = 1 Qs = 1 Qs = 1 Qs = 1

Fy / E

.
LRFD A-B5.3d LRFD A-B5.3d LRFD A-B5.3d LRFD A-B5.3d

PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL

Technical Note 49 - 4

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Table 2 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections
Section Type h I-SHAPE Effective Width for Stiffened Sections if if if if if
   

Equation Reference
P ) Ag

he =

253 , h ≤ tw f

326t w  57.2   1 − (h t w ) f  f   

253 h > tw f
253 , h ≤ tw f

(compression only, f =

LRFD A-B5-12

h

he =
BOX

326t w  57.2   1 − (h t w ) f  f   

253 h > tw f
h 238 , ≤ tw f

(compression only, f =

P ) Ag

LRFD A-B5-12 LRFD A-B5-11
(compr. or flexure, f = Fy)

b,

be =

326t f  64.9 1 − f  (b t f ) f 

if if if

238 b > tf f
253 , h ≤ tw f

h CHANNEL

he =

326t w  57.2   1 − (h t w ) f  f   

253 h > tw f

(compression only, f =

P ) Ag

LRFD A-B5-12

T-SHAPE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) ANGLE 1, PIPE if if

be - b be - b be - b D 3,300 ≤ t Fy D 3,300 > t Fy
(compression only)

LRFD A-B5.3B LRFD A-B5.3B LRFD A-B5.3B

Qa =

1,100 2 + (D t )Fy 3

LRFD A-B5-13

ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL

Not applicable be - b Not applicable

 LRFD A-B5.3b 

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Technical Note 49 - 5

yo  x2 + y2 = 1.658 = Qλ2 e (LRFD A-E3-1) for λe Q ≤ 1.6 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .5. determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling. and for λe Q > 1. Pn. buckling about the minor axis of symmetry for λc = πr22 E Fcr2 Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling The strength of a compression member. o 2 o  ro   . are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid.  λe    In the above equations. (LRFD A-E3-2) (LRFD A-E3-3) )Fy. (LRFD A-E3-4) where Fe is calculated as follows: For Rectangular. is determined as follows: Pn Fcr Fcr = AgFcr. the slenderness parameter λe is calculated as λe = Fy Fe . is determined according to the equation LRFD E2-1 for flexural Fy Kl .   = Polar radius of gyration about the shear center.5.  0. I. xo = 0 for double angle and T-shaped members (yaxis of symmetry).Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Fcrz = GJ 2 Aro H ro xo. Box and Pipe sections: Fe =  π2 EC w  1 + GJ   2  (K z l z )  I 22 + I 33   (LRFD A-E3-5) Technical Note 49 . where = Q(0.877   2  F y.

Fez) . H  x2 + y2 = 1.Fe33) e 2 yo 2 ro =0 ro = I 22 + I33 = polar radius of gyration about the shear Ag center.Fe33)(Fe . o 2 o  ro  π2 E (K 33 l33 / r33 )2  . 2 2 xo + yo + 2 xo 2 ro -F 2 (Fe . xo = 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members (y-axis symmetry).yo are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centeroid.Fe22)(Fe .F 2 (Fe-Fe22) e where xo.7 .   (LRFD A-E3-9) Fe33= (LRFD A-E3-10) Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 .Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths For T-sections and Double-angles: Fe =  Fe22 + Fez   2H  4Fe22 Fez H   1 − 1 −  (Fe22 + Fez )2       (LRFD A-E3-6) For Channels: Fe =  Fe33 + Fez   2H  4Fe33 Fez H   1 − 1 −  (Fe33 + Fez )2       (LRFD A-E3-6) For Single-angle sections with equal legs: Fe =  Fe33 + Fez   2H  4Fe33 Fez H   1 − 1 −  (Fe33 + Fez )2       (LRFD A-E3-6) For Single-angle sections with unequal legs. Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (LRFD A-E3-7): (Fe .

For angle sections.e. K33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions. Kz is the effective length factor for torsional buckling. I. Tension Capacity The nominal axial tensile strength value Pn is based on the gross crosssectional area and the yield stress. the axis of bending. The nominal strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. if l/r is greater than 300. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Also. Nominal Strength in Bending The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section.8 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . i. and all Technical Note 49 . rz. Box. the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe. max (K22. lz is the effective length for torsional buckling and it is taken equal to l22. For members in tension. Channel. SAM 2).Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Fe22= π2 E (K 22 l22 / r22 )2 (LRFD A-E3-11)  π2 EC w  1 Fez =  + GJ  2 2  (K z l z )  Ar0   (LRFD A-E3-12) K22. the compactness of the section. l33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions.l22. Pn = AgFy (LRFD D1-1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made.l33). the principal axes are determined. T. is used in place of K22l22 or K33l33 in calculating Fe22 and Fe33 in this case.. Circular. the minimum radius gyration. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl/r. a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7. and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling. and Double-angle sections. and it is taken equal to K22 in this program. Pipe. For single angles. l22. the maximum value of Kl. For the Rectangular. For the Single-angle sections. K33.

9 . if (LRFD F1-1.33 for rectangular bars and boxes = Critical elastic moment. Channel.5 S33Fy. = Major limiting buckling moment (Fy . is: Mp = ZFy ≤ 1. F1-12) where. as follows: Yielding The flexural design strength of beams.Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths computations related to flexural strengths are based on that.  πE  Cbπ  EI 22 GJ +   L  I 22 C w for I-shapes and Lb  b channels and (LRFD F1-13) 2 (LRFD F1. Box.Fr)S33 for I-shapes and channels. Mn33 Mp33 Mr33 = Nominal major bending strength = Major plastic moment.5 S Fy (LRFD F1-1) Lateral-Torsional Buckling Doubly Symmetric Shapes and Channels For I. Z33Fy ≤ 1. and Rectangular shaped members bent around the major axis.1) (LRFD F1-7) (LRFD F1-11) Mcr33 Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 . and FySeff. flange local buckling. and web local buckling. The nominal bending strength is the minimum value obtained according to the limit states of yielding. determined by the limit state of yielding. the moment capacity is given by the following equation (LRFD F1): Mp33 Mn33 =   Lb − Lp   ≤ Mp33 Cb M p33 − (M p33 − M r 33 )  Lr − Lp      Mcr33 ≤ Mp33 if if Lb ≤ Lp Lp < Lb ≤ Lr Lb > Lr. lateral-torsional buckling. F1-2.

5Mmax and 2.e.5Mmax + 3M A + 4M B + 3M c (LRFD F1-3) Mmax.Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 57.000r22 JA for boxes and rectangular bars. l22. of the member is redefined by the user (i. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever.000C b JA for boxes and rectangular bars Lb r22 Lb Lp = Laterally unbraced length. and (LRFD F1-4) for boxes and rectangular bars. MA. The user should overwrite Cb for cantilevers.0 for cantilevers. center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively. 300r22 Fy 3. However.750r22 M p33 JA for I-shapes and channels.0 if the minor unbraced length. in the member. MB. r22 X 1 F y − Fr  1 + 1 + X 2 Fy − Fr  [ ( ) 2 ] 1 2 1 2   for I-shapes and channels. l22 (LRFD F1-14) = Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity. 1/4 point.. Cb should be taken as 1. (LRFD F1-5) Lr = Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. and (LRFD F1-6) 57. it is not equal to the Technical Note 49 . M r 33 X1 = π S33 Cw I 22 EGJA 2  S33   GJ      2 (LRFD F1-10) (LRFD F1-8) X2 = 4 (LRFD F1-9) Cb = 12. and Mc are absolute values of maximum moment. The program also defaults Cb to 1.10 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .

Channel.1. Box.5FyS33. and Rectangular shaped members bent about the minor axis.5SFy. where   Lb   1.5S22Fy (LRFD F1) For pipes and circular bars bent about any axis. Mn = Mp = ZFy ≤ 1.2c) for negative positive moment. the nominal major bending strength is given as. The user can overwrite the value of Cb for any member. Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. (LRFD F1) T-Sections and Double-Angles For T-shapes and Double-angles. The nominal major bending strength for Single-angles for the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling is given as follows (LRFD SAM 5.3 The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments).2c) d Lb I 22 J (LRFD F1-16) B = ± 2. For T-shapes and double-angles the nominal minor bending strength is assumed as: Mn22 = S22Fy. Mn33 Mn33 Mn33 = ≤ ≤ π EI 22 GJ  B + 1 + B 2  . for positive moment. For I.Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths length of the member). stem in tension (LRFD F1. the moment capacity is given by the following equation: Mn22 = Mp22 = Z22Fy ≤ 1. (LRFD F1-15) (LRFD F1. stem in tension FyS33.11 .3): Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 .

Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Mn.major. tf) = max (l22. Mob = elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment as calculated below. t l Imin Imax rmin βw z = min (tw.92 − 0.major ≤ 1. the Mob is calculated as Mob where.9ECb I min  2 βw + 0.major M y .   Imax  (LRFD SAM 5.3. l33) = minor principal axis moment of inertia = major principal axis moment of inertia. major      M y .17  Mob ≤ 1. The elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment.major = where.25 My.major = yield moment about the major principal axis of bending.25 My. =  1  ∫ A z(w 2 + z 2 )dA -2z0.2) = 4.12 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .46Eb 2 t 2 l (LRFD SAM 5-5) and for unequal-leg angles.major. major 1. if Mob ≤ My.052(lt / rmin )2 + βw     l2  (LRFD SAM 5-6) = coordinate along the major principal axis Technical Note 49 . Mob.major =  M ob  0. for equal-leg angles is taken as Mob = Cb 0.major   Mn. if Mob ≤ My. = radius of gyration for minor principal axis.83 M ob     My. considering the possibility of yielding at the heel and both of the leg tips. My.58 − 0.

βw is a special section property for angles.Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths w z0 = coordinate along the minor principal axis.Mr22)   λr − λ p  Mcr22 ≤ Mp22 where.13 . Flange Local Buckling The flexual design strength. and = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid.         if if if λ ≤ λp. However. (A-F1-3) λ > λr if if if λ ≤ λp.2).(Mp22 . λp < λ ≤ λr. (A-F1-3) λ > λr. Mp22 Mn22 =  λ − λp Mp22 . General Sections For General Sections the nominal major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as Mn = S Fy. negative for long leg in compression. it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles. λp < λ ≤ λr. of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Flange Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1): For major direction bending. for conservative design in this program.Mr33)   λr − λ p  Mcr33 ≤ Mp33 and for minor direction bending. Mp33 Mn33 =  λ − λp Mp33 .(Mp33 . and zero for equal-leg angles (LRFD SAM 5. Mn. It is positive for short leg in compression. Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 .3.

For welded shape.1. (LRFD Table A-F1. Mcr22 = Minor buckling moment. = = Largest value of λ for which Mn = Mp and Largest value of λ for which buckling is inelastic.1) λ = (LRFD B5. Z33. (for I sections) 2t f bf . Table A-F1. λ λp λr = Controlling slenderness parameter.1.1) λp = (LRFD B5.1) . λr. Table A-F1.14 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . Mcr33 = Major buckling moment. (LRFD B5. Z22.Fy ≤ 1.5S22Fy. Mp33 = Major plastic moment.1) 141 Fy − Fr . Table A-F1. Mn22 = Nominal minor bending strength. Mr33. For rolled shape.5S33Fy. (for Channel sections) tf 65 Fy .Mr22.Fy ≤ 1. Mr22 = Minor limiting buckling moment. Channels λ = bf . Mp22 = Major plastic moment. Mcr33. λr = 162 (Fy − Fr ) / k c Technical Note 49 . λp. and Mcr22 for flange local buckling for different types of shapes are given below: I Shapes. Mr33 = Major limiting buckling moment.Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Mn33 = Nominal major bending strength. The parameters λ.1.

tf Boxes For rolled shape.200k c S22 For rolled shape (LRFD Table A-F1.200k c S22 For welded shape For rolled shape For welded shape Fr = (LRFD Table A-F1) 16.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.15 .1) S33 For welded shape 26.Fr) S33 Mr22 = Fy S22 20.Fr) Seff.1. (LRFD B5. λp (LRFD B5.33 (Seff.1) Mcr33 = (LRFD Table A-F1. Table A-F1.1) For welded shape.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1) Mr33 = (Fy .1) λr = .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. Table A-F1. tf = 190 Fy 238 Fy .Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Calculation of Nominal Strengths Mr33 = (Fy .1) Calculation of Nominal Strengths Technical Note 49 .5 ksi bf − 3t w .000 λ2 λ2 20.33 Mr22 = (Fy .Fr) Seff.22 Mcr33 = Fy Seff. λ = bf − 2tw .22 (LRFD Table A-F1. Table A-F1.1.33/S33) Mcr22 = Fy Seff.000 λ2 λ2 10 ksi S33 For rolled shape (LRFD Table A-F1. (LRFD B5.1) Mcr22 = 26.

t Fy Mn =          b /t FySc 1. = length of the leg under consideration.1): 1. The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling are given as follows (LRFD SAM 5.382     Fy    QFySc if 0. Sc = section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg.Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 10 ksi For rolled shape For welded shape Fr = (LRFD Table A-F1) 16. t b = thickness of the leg under consideration.1.5 ksi Seff.446 Fy t E Fy if b E > 0.25 − 1.33 = effective major section modulus considering slenderness and Seff. Singles Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending.382 E b < ≤ 0. the user is expected to analyze this separately. If special consideration is required.25FySc if b E ≤ 0.49 − 1    E   0. T-Sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T-sections and Double-angles in this program.22 = effective minor section modulus considering slenderness.382 .446 t Fy where. and Technical Note 49 .16 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Q

= strength reduction factor due to local buckling.

In calculating the bending strengths for single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling, the capacities are calculated for both the principal axes considering the fact that either of the two tips can be under compression. The minimum capacities are considered.

Pipe Sections
λ = = D t 2,070 , Fy 8,970 , Fy (LRFD B Table A-F1.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1)

λp

λr

=

(LRFD Table A-F1.1)

 600  Mr33 = Mr22 =  + Fy  S D /t    9,570  Mcr33 = Mcr22 =  S  D /t 

(LRFD Table A-F1.1)

(LRFD Table A-F1.1)

Circular, Rectangular, and General Sections
No consideration of local buckling is required for solid circular shapes or rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1.1). No local buckling is considered in the program for circular, rectangular, and general shapes. If special consideration is required, the user is expected to analyze this separately.

Web Local Buckling
The flexural design strengths are considered in the program for only the major axis bending (LRFD Table A-F1.1).

I Shapes, Channels, and Boxes
The flexural design strength for the major axis bending, Mn, of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Web Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1-1, A-F1-3, A-G2-2):

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Technical Note 49 - 17

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93

Mp33

if     if if

λ ≤ λp λp < λ ≤ λr, (A-F1, A-G1) λ > λr

Mn33 =

 λ − λp Mp33 -(Mp33 - Mr33)   λr − λ p  S33RPGReRcr

where, Mn33 = Nominal major bending strength, Mp33 = Major plastic moment, Z33Fy≤1.5S33Fy Mr33 = Major limiting buckling moment, ReS33Fy λ = Web slenderness parameter, = Largest value of λ for which Mn = Mp = Largest value of λ for which buckling in inelastic = Plate girder bending strength reduction factor = Hybrid girder factor, and = Critical compression flange stress, ksi (LRFD F1.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1)

λp λr
RPG Re Fcr

The web slenderness parameters are computed as follows, where the value of Pu is taken as positive for compression and zero for tension:

λ

=

hc tw 640  1 − 2.75 Pu ϕ b Py Fy   191   2.33 Pu ϕ b Py Fy       for Pu ≤ 0.125, ϕ b Py Pu > 0.125, and ϕ b Py

λp =

 253 ≥  Fy 

for

Technical Note 49 - 18

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

λr

970  1 − 0.74 Pu ϕ b Py Fy  

 .  

The parameters RPG, Re, and Fcr for slender web sections are calculated in the program as follows: RPG = 1h  ar  c − 970  ≤ 1.0 1,200 + 300ar  t w Fcr    (LRFD A-G2-3)

Re Re ar m

=

12 + ar (2m − m3 ) ≤ 1.0 (for hybrid sections) 12 + 12ar (for non-hybrid section), ≤ 1.0 , and

(LRFD A-G2) where (LRFD A-G2) (LRFD A-G2) (LRFD A-G2)

= 1.0 = =

web area compression flange area Fy min(Fcr , Fy ) , taken as 1.0

In the above expression, Re is taken as 1, because currently the program deals with only non-hybrid girders. The critical compression flange stress, Fcr, for slender web sections is calculated for limit states of lateral-torsional buckling and flange local buckling for the corresponding slenderness parameter η in the program as follows: Fy if if η ≤ ηp ηp < η ≤ ηr, (LRFD A-G2-4, 5, 6)

Fcr =

 1 η − ηp  CpFy 1 −  ≤ Fy 2 ηr − η p     C PG η2

if

η > ηr

The parameters η, ηp, ηr, and CPG for lateral-torsional buckling for slender web I, Channel and Box sections are given as follows:

η

=

Lb , rT

(LRFD A-G2-7)

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Technical Note 49 - 19

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93

ηp

=

300 Fy 756 Fy

,

(LRFD A-G2-8)

ηr

=

,

(LRFD A-G2-9)

CPG rT

= 286,000 Cb, and

(LRFD A-G2-10)

= radius of gyration of the compression flange plus one-third of the compression portion of the web, and it is taken as bf/ 12 in this program.

Cb

= a factor that depends on span moment. It is calculated as follows: 12.5Mmax 2.5Mmax + 3M A + 4M B + 3M c (LRFD F1-3)

The parameters η, ηp, ηr, and CPG for flange local buckling for slender web I, Channel and Box sections are given as follows:

η ηp

= =

b , t 65 Fy ,

(LRFD A-G2-11) (LRFD A-G2-12)

ηr

=

230 Fy k c

,

(LRFD A-G2-13)

CPG Cb

= 26,200 kc, and = 1.

(LRFD A-G2-14) (LRFD A-G2-15)

T-Sections and Double-Angles
No local buckling is considered for T-sections and Double-angles in this program. If special consideration is required, the user is expected to analyze this separately.

Technical Note 49 - 20

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Single Angles
The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single angles for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD SAM 5.1.1). No additional check is considered in this program.

Pipe Sections
The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Pipe sections for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD Table A-F1.1). No additional check is considered in this program.

Circular, Rectangular, and General Sections
No web local buckling is required for solid circular shapes and rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1.1). No web local buckling is considered in the program for circular, rectangular, and general shapes. If special consideration is required, the user is expected to analyze them separately.

Shear Capacities
The nominal shear strengths are calculated for shears along the geometric axes for all sections. For I, Box, Channel, T, Double angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-angle sections, principal axes do not coincide with their geometric axes.

Major Axis of Bending
The nominal shear strength, Vn2, for major direction shears in I-shapes, boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: For h 418 , ≤ tw Fy Vn2 = 0.6 FyAw, for 418 Fy < h 523 , ≤ tw Fy 418 Fy / h , and tw (LRFD F2-2) (LRFD F2-1)

Vn2 = 0.6 Fy Aw

Calculation of Nominal Strengths

Technical Note 49 - 21

6 FyAv2.000 [h / tw ]2 The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as: Vn2 = 0.22 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .6 FyAv3. .Calculation of Nominal Strengths Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 for 523 Fy < h ≤ 260. Minor Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as: Vn3 = 0. tw Aw (LRFD F2-3 and A-F2-3) Vn2 = 132. Technical Note 49 .

9. If Pu is tensile. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. In addition. Overview In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. BERKELEY. the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 50 Calculation of Capacity Ratios This Technical Note describes the calculation of capacity ratios when the user selects the AISC-LRFD93 code. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. Also.1 . along with the associated station and load combination. For Pu ≥ 0. for each station along the length of the member. A capacity ratio greater than 1. and if Pu is compressive. the resistance factor for bending.90 (LRFD SAM 6).. including axial and bending stresses and shear stresses. the capacity ration if given as ϕPn Pu M u22 8  M u33 +  + ϕ M 9  b n33 ϕPn ϕ b M n22     (LRFD H1-1a. first.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.9. Pn is the nominal axial compressive strength and ϕ = ϕc = 0.0 indicates exceeding a limit state.85. ϕb = 0. Pn is the nominal axial tensile strength and ϕ = ϕt = 0.2. Then. INC. the joints are not designed. During the design. SAM 6-1a) Calculation of Capacity Ratios Technical Note 50 . Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. Axial and Bending Stresses The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio Pu/(ϕPn). except for angle sections ϕ = ϕc = 0.

T. the shear stress is calculated along the principal axes that coincides with the geometric axes. the capacity ration if given as ϕPn  M u33 Pu M u22 + + ϕ M ϕ b M n22 2ϕPn  b n33     Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 For (LRFD H1-1b. ϕ v Vn3 where ϕv = 0.3. from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations. Box. 6). the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (LRFD SAM 5. For general sections.Calculation of Capacity Ratios Pu < 0. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. and ϕ v Vn2 Vu3 . an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas. principal axes are determined in the program.2. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are calculated as follows: Vu2 . Shear Stresses Similar to the normal stresses.2 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . it is assumed that the section properties are given in terms of principal directions. Pipe. Circular. For I. the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis. For Single-angle sections. Channel. For all other sections.9. For single-angle sections. For Single-angle sections. Technical Note 50 . Double angle. SAM 6-1a) For circular sections. and Rectangular sections.

Concrete. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. specify axis properties define for orthotropic. concrete or other. Isotropic or orthotropic. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Material Dir/Plane Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Steel. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. "All" for isotropic materials.1 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. BERKELEY. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. Input Data Technical Note 51 . Further information about using the Print Design Tables Form is provided at the end of this Technical Note. steel or none. concrete or other. Postprocessor available if steel is specified. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 51 Input Data This Technical Note describes the steel frame design input data for AISCLRFD93. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Steel.

Bending reinforcing yield stress. Name of section as defined in database files. Maximum tensile stress of steel. Thickness of top flange per AISC database. Used to calculate the self weight of the structure. Check this box if this is a lightweight concrete material. Concrete. Technical Note 51 . Minimum yield stress of steel. User specified or auto selected member name. Shear reinforcing yield stress. Concrete compressive strength. Define reduction factor if lightweight concrete box checked.85. Width of bottom flange per AISC database. Steel.2 Input Data . Steel.Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Steel FY Steel FU Steel Cost ($) DESCRIPTION Used to calculate self mass of the structure. Thickness of bottom flange per AISC database. Usually between 0. Cost per unit weight used in composite beam design if optimum beam size specified to be determined by cost. Web thickness per AISC database. Width of top flange per AISC database. concrete or none. Material Design Data for Steel Materials Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Frame Section Property Data Frame Section Name Material Name Section Shape Name or Name in Section Database File Section Depth Flange Width Top Flange Thick Top Web Thick Flange Width Bot Flange Thick Bot Section Area Depth of the section.75 ad 0.

Name(s) of case(s) to be included in this load combination. Resistance factor for tension. I22 A2. R22 Load combination name. response spectrum. or SRSS as defined in Define > Load Combination. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. A3 S33. Z22 R33. sequential construction. Beam bay identifier. Resistance factor for shear. Name of member section assigned. Scale factor to be applied to each load case. S22 Z33. Static. Moment frame or braced frame.Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Input Data Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Torsional Constant Moments of Inertia Shear Areas Section Moduli Plastic Moduli Radius of Gyration Combo Type Case Case Type Factor I33. DESCRIPTION Load Combination Multipliers Code Preferences Phi_bending Phi_tension Phi_compression Phi_shear Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major Beam Steel Stress Check Element Information Input Data Technical Note 51 . Live load reduction factor. Resistance factor for compression. Effective length factor. envelope. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. static nonlinear. Resistance factor for bending. absolute. Additive.3 . Name of the story level. time history.

Beam bay identifier. If zero. If zero. Column line identifier. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING K Minor DESCRIPTION Effective length factor. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.4 Input Data . Column Steel Stress Check Element Information Story Level Column Line Name of the story level. If zero. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. If zero. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. Beam bay identifier If zero. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. Technical Note 51 . As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. Beam Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites Story Level Beam Bay CM Major CM Minor Cb Factor B1 Major B1 Minor B2 Major B2 Minor Name of the story level. If zero. Beam Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites Story Level Beam Bay phi*Pnc phi*Pnt phi*Mn Major phi*Mn Minor phi*Vn Major phi*Vn Minor Name of the story level.

If zero. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. Moment frame or braced frame. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. Column Steel Allowables & Capacities Overwrites Story Level Column Line phi*Pnc phi*Pnt phi*Mn Major phi*Mn Minor Name of the story level. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter D.Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Input Data Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ration Minor K Major K Minor DESCRIPTION Name of member section assigned. Column line identifier. Effective length factor. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. Input Data Technical Note 51 . As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. If zero. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F and G. Column Steel Moment Magnification Overwrites Story Level Column Line CM Major CM Minor Cb Factor B1 Major B1 Minor B2 Major B2 Minor Name of the story level. Ratio of unbraced length divided by the total member length. Effective length factor. If zero. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter E. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C.5 . Column line identifier. As defined in AISC-LRFD specification Chapter C. If zero. Live load reduction factor.

Click the Filename button to change the path or filename.Input Data Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING phi*Vn Major phi*Vn Minor DESCRIPTION If zero.xls. the Selection Only check box will be checked. use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Input Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form. if necessary. Or use the Filename button to locate another file.g. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F. Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer. click Yes to replace the existing file.6 Input Data .. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. If zero. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command. . Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.txt. Technical Note 51 . Data will be added to this file. . Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. To print steel frame design input data to a file.doc). The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. . Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. as defined for Material Property Data used and per AISC-LRFD specification Chapter F.

Ratio of acting axial load to available axial resistance. Ratio Axl B33 Output Details Technical Note 52 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Beam bay identifier. Moment Interaction Check Combo Name of load combination that produces the maximum load/resistance ratio.1 . Ratio of acting bending moment to available bending resistance about the 33 axis. Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam Steel Stress Check Output Story Level Beam Bay Section ID Name of the story level.. The program provides the output data in a table. BERKELEY. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is provided at the end of this Technical Note. Name of member sections assigned. The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the table are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 STEEL FRAME DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 52 Output Details This Technical Note describes the steel frame design output for AISC-LRFD93 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. INC. Ratio of acting load to available resistance.

Ratio of acting stress to allowable stress. DESCRIPTION Ratio of acting bending moment to available bending resistance about the 22 axis.2 Output Details . Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 22 axis. Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio. Ratio of acting axial stress to allowable axial stress. Name of member sections assigned. B22 Technical Note 52 . Ratio Column Steel Stress Check Output Story Level Column Line Section ID Name of the story level.Output Details Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING B22 Shear22 Combo Ratio Shear33 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 33 axis. Moment Interaction Check Combo Ratio AXL B33 Name of load combination that produces maximum stress ratio. Ratio of acting shear divided by available shear resistance. Ratio of acting shear divided by available shear resistance. Column line identifier. Ratio of acting bending stress to allowable bending stress about the 33 axis.

Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Click the Filename button to change the path or filename.xls.doc). Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress. . Ratio of acting shear stress divided by allowable shear stress.txt. DESCRIPTION Ratio Shear33 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 33 axis. . click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. Ratio Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design output data directly to a printer. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. . Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename but- Output Details Technical Note 52 .Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 Output Details Table 1 Steel Frame Design Output COLUMN HEADING Shear22 Combo Load combination that produces the maximum shear parallel to the 22 axis. To print steel frame design output data to a file. Click the Save buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.3 . if necessary. use the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command and click the Output Summary check box on the Print Design Tables form.. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer.g. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.

click Yes to replace the existing file.Output Details Steel Frame Design AISC-LRFD93 ton to locate another file. the Selection Only check box will be checked. Technical Note 52 . and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.4 Output Details . If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Steel Frame Design command.

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