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RIZAL Chapter 15, 16 and 17 nicolopez09.multiply.


Rizal lived in the house of Valentin Ventura at No. 45 Rue Maubeuge where he
polished his annotated edition of Morga’s book

Rizal lived in a little room, his roommates:

• Capitan Justo Trinidad – former gobernadorcillo of Santa Ana, Manila and a
refugee from Spanish tyranny
• Jose Alberto – young student from Manila

Rizal used most of his time in:

• The reading room of Bibliotheque National (National Library) checking up his
historical annotations on Morga’s book
• In his living quarters writing letters to his family and friends
• In gymnasium for his daily physical exercise
• Visiting friends

Rizal’s spare hours:

• He used to dine at the homes of his friends (Pardo de Taveras, Venturas,
Bousteads and Lunas)

Rizal is a good friend of three Pardo de Taveras

• Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera – a physician by vocation and philologist by
• Dr. Felix Pardo de Tavera – a physician by vocation and an artist and sculptor by
• Paz Pardo de Tavera – wife of Juan Luna

These Pardo de Taveras were the children of Don Joaquin Pardo de Tavera – an exile
of 1872 who escaped from Marianas and lived in France

Children of Juan Luna and Paz Pardo de Tavera

• Andres – pet name Luling
• Maria de la Paz, Blanca, Laureana, Hermenegilda Juana Luna y Pardo de Tavera –
second child of Luna and Paz, godfather is Rizal(who gave her name)

Rizal’s letter to his family about his life in Paris:

• One to two hours – gymnasium and fencing
• Three to four hours – in the library
• The rest of the hours – writing and visiting friends
• Every night (8:00 to 11:00) – meet with friends in café and play chess
• Saturdays – invited to eat at Juan Luna’s house
• Sundays – Mrs. Juliana’s house
• Fridays – family of Bousteads, where sometimes he take tea

Rizal’s another letter to his family

• The Filipinos gather 4 times a week and they sing Kundiman, eat sotanghon and
adobo (Wednesdays in the house of Dona Tula, Thursdays in the house of
Hidalgo, Fridays in the house of Madam Bousteads, Saturdays in the house of
Luna, Sundays in the house of Dona Juliana)
RIZAL Chapter 15, 16 and 17

Universal Exposition in Paris

• Greatest attraction is the Eiffel Tower (984 feet high, Alexander Eiffel)
• Ribbon cutting by President Sadi Carnot of the Third French Republic
• Vast crowd of 200,000 persons or more
• One of the feature was the International Art Competition (Felix Hidalgo, Juan
Luna, Felix Pardo de Tavera and Rizal participated)

Hidalgo’s painting – 2nd prize

Juan Luna and Felix Pardo de Tavera – 3rd prize
Rizal entry (a bust) – no prize

Kidlat club
• Organized by Rizal in his paisanos (compatriots), same day when he arrived in
• A social society of temporary nature
• Founded by Rizal to bring together the young Filipinos in French capital so that
they could enjoy their sojourn in city
• Last only during the exposition
• Formed in one hour, and will also disappear like a lightning

• Antonio and Juan Luna
• Gregorio Aguilera
• Fernando Canon
• Lauro Dimayuga
• Julio Llorente
• Guillermo Puatu
• Baldomero Roxas

Indios Bravos (Brave Indians)

• Replaced the ephemeral Kidlat Club
• Pledged to excel in intellectual and physical prowess in order to win the
admiration of foreigners
• Use of sword and pistol, Rizal also taught Judo

RDLM Society
• Redencion de los Malayos (Redemption of the Malays)
• Patterned after Freemansory
• Secret society formed by Rizal

2 letters which mentioned RDLM

• Rizal’s letter to Jose Maria Basa
• Rizal’s letter to Marcelo H. Del Pilar

Dr. Leoncio Lopez-Rizal – grandnephew of Rizal

RIZAL Chapter 15, 16 and 17

RDLM Members:
• Gregorio Aguilera
• Jose Maria Basa
• Julio Llorente
• Marcelo H. del Pilar
• Mariano Ponce
• Baldomero Roxas
• Father Jose Maria Chongco (Filipino Priest)

Aim of RDLM
• Propagation of all useful knowledge (scientific, artistic, literary) in the Philippines
• Redemption of Malay Race

Rizal was inspired by a book Max Havelar written by Multatuli (pseudonym E.D.

Bornean Colonization – Rizal’s colonization project in Borneo

• Right of the colonists to buy the lands
• Free use of the seashore
• Long term of lease for 999 years

Publication of Rizal’s annotated edition of Morga’s Sucesos – Rizal’s outstanding

achievement in Paris
• He wrote in the British Museum
• Printed by Garnier Freres
• The prologue was written by Professor Blumentritt

Rizal’s errors accdg. To Blumentritt

• Rizal commits the error of many historians in appraising the events of the past in
the light of the present standard
• Rizal’s attacks on the Church were unfair and unjustified because of the abuses of
the friars should not mean that Catholicism is bad

Rizal annotated and published Morga’s Sucesos because it was the best of the many
histories of the Philippines written by early Spanish writers

Rizal dedicated his new edition of Morga to the Filipino people

Historical heresies of the Spanish writers

• They claimed that Filipinos were savages and were of low mentality

“Paris, Libreria de Garnier Hermanos, 1890” – title page of Rizal’s annotated edition
of Morga

3 letters – evidence to show that Rizal’s edition came off the press in 1889 not 1890
• Letter of Blumentritt to Rizal
• Letter of Rizal to Dr. Baldomero Roxas
• Letter of Mariano Ponce to Rizal

Rizal research studies in

• British Museum (London)
• Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris)
RIZAL Chapter 15, 16 and 17

Readings of Rizal (different language)

• First Voyage around the world by Pigafetta (Italian)
• Historical works of Marsden, Raffles, Lord Stanley and Wallace (English)
• Writings of Blumentritt, Jagor, and Virhow (German)
• Books of M. Jacquet, J. Mallat and A. Marche (French)
• Works of T.H. Pardo de Tavera, Pedro Paterno, Miguel Morayta and Pi y Margall

Other writings of Rizal

• Two historical commentaries written in London (Mayi and Tawalisi of Ibn Batuta)
• Filipinas dentro de Cien Años (The Phillippines within a Century)
• Sobre In Indolencia de los Filipinos (The Indolence of the Filipinos
• La Politica Colonial on Filipinas (Colonial Policy in the Philippines)
• Manila en el mes de Diciembre, 1872 (Manila in the month of December, 1872)
• Historia de la Familia Rizal de Calamba (History of the Rizal Family of Calamba)
• Los Pueblos del Archipelago (The peoples of the Indian Archipelago)

The Filipinos are active in:

• Agriculture
• Industries
• Commerce

Causes of decline in economic life of Filipinos

• Native revolts and other internal disorders which followed the establishment of
Spanish rule
• Wars which Filipino fought for Spain against Dutch, Portuguese, English and other
• Frightful raids on the coastal towns and village of Christian Philippines by Muslims
pirates of Mindanao and Sulu
• Force labor which compelled thousands of Filipino laborers
• Lack of stimulus to work harder bec. The people could not enjoy the fruits of their
• Government neglect and indifference to agriculture, industry and commerce
• The bad example shown by Spaniards in despising manual labor
• Teaching of Spanish missionaries that it is easier for a poor man to enter heaven
that for a rich man
• Encouragement and propagation of education gambling by Spanish authorities
• System of Spanish education did not promote economic enterprise and activity

International Association of Filipinologist – an organization proposed by Rizal, he first

submitted this idea to Blumentritt

• Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt – president
• Mr. Edmund Plauchut – Vice President
• Dr. Reinhold Rost – Counselor
• Dr, Antonio Ma. Regidor – counselor
• Dr. Jose Rizal – secretary

Modern College in Hong Kong – another project of Rizal

Mariano Cunanan – a rich Filipino resident in Paris, from Mexico Pampanga, promised
to help Rizal raise P40,000 as initial capital for the college
RIZAL Chapter 15, 16 and 17

Por Telofono
• Reply to Fr. Salvador Font
• Published in booklet form in Barcelona
• Under penname of Dimas Alang

Fr. Salvador Font – mastermind of the banning of Noli

Marconi – received the first radio-telegraph signals across Atlantic

Rizal’s purpose on brief visit to London after New Year

• To check up his annotated edition of Morga’s Sucesos with the original copy in
British Museum
• To see Gertrude Beckett for the last time

Brussels – capital of Belgium

Rizal left Paris because:

• The cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition
• The gay social life of the city hampered his writings, especially his second novel El

Jose Albert – kasama ni Rizal na pumuntang Brussels, they lived in 38 Rue Philippe

Jaceby Sisters (Suzanne and Marie) – owner of the boarding house

Jose Alejandro – an engineering student, the new roommate of Rizal when Jose Albert
left Brussels

Pansit – pagkain nina Rizal at Jose Alejandro for two days dahil nagkamali si Rizal sa
calculations ng ingredients kaya sumobra ung pansit! (WOW penge! ehehe)

Articles of Rizal in La Solidaridad

• A La Defensa (To La Defensa) – reply to an anti-Filipino writing of a Spanish
author Patricio De La Escosura published by LA DEFENSA
• La Verdad Parn Todos (The Truth for All) – Rizal’s defense against the Spanish
• Vicente Barrantes’ Teatro Tagalo – Rizal exposes Barrantes’ ignorance on the
Tagalog theatrical art
• Una Profanacion (A Profanation) – bitter attack against the friars for denying
Christian Burial to Mariano Herbosa because he was Rizal’s brother-in-law
• Verdades Nuevas (New Truths) – reply to Vicente Belloc Sanchez’ Letter published
• Crueldad (Cruelty) – brilliant defense of Blumentritt from the scurrilous attacks of
his enemies
• Differencias (Differences) – reply to a biased article OLD TRUTHS
• Inconsequencias (Inconsequence) – defense of Antonio Luna against the attack of
Pablo Mir Deas in Barcelona Newspaper EL PUEBLO SOBERANO
• Llanto y Risas (Tears and Laughter) – a denunciation of Spanish racial prejudice
against brown Filipinos
• Ingratitudes (Ingratitude) – reply to Governor General Valerino Weyler

Filipinization of Tagalog Orthography – letter “C” to “K” and Letter “O” to “W”
RIZAL Chapter 15, 16 and 17

Sobre La Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagala (The New Orthography of the Tagalog
Language) – sa article na ito isinulat ni Rizal and rules of the new Tagalog

Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera – author of El Sanscrito en la Lengua Tagala (Sanskrit

in the Tagalog Language)

Gambling – bisyo ng mga Madrid Filipinos sa Brussels

Papa (Pope) – instead of PEPE, ito ang tinawag ng mga gambling Filipino in Madrid
kay Rizal

Bad News from home

• Calamba agrarian trouble was getting worse
• Paciano and brothers in law (Antonio Lopez, Silvestre Ubaldo) were deported in
• Mauel Hidalgo – banished for a second time in Bohol

Bad dreams of Rizal – napanaginipan nya ang DEATH, pero ayaw pa nya mamatay
kasi hindi pa niya natatapos ang El Filibusterismo

Laong Laan – another pen name of Rizal

Rizal planned to go home because he worries about his family

Nagworry sa pag-uwi ni Rizal (wow concern.. ehehe)

• Blumentritt
• Jose Maria Basa
• Mariano Ponce

Rizal changed his mind not to go home instead he will go to Madrid

• He want to supervise the handling of the case of his family

To My Muse (A Mi…)
• Pathetic poem na sinulat ni Rizal during his sad days about his family
• This poem lacks the exquisiteness of “to the flowers of Heidelberg” and is less
polished than “to the Filipino youth”

2 things brought cheer to Rizal

• Summertime festival in Belgium
• Romance with Petite Jacoby

Petite Jacoby – pretty niece of Rizal’s landladies

Hinigan ng tulong ni Rizal for the case of his family

• Asociacion Hispano Filipina
• Liberal Spanish Newspaers (La Justicia, El Globo, La Republica, El Resumen)

Marcelo H. Del Pilar – lawyer ni Rizal’s family

Dr. Dominador Gomez – secretary of Asociacion Hispano Filipina

Senor Fabie – minister of colonies

RIZAL Chapter 15, 16 and 17

Statesmen na hiningan din ng tulong ni Rizal

• Becerra
• Maura

Duel of Rizal
• Antonio Luna – nalasing siya, nabasted kay Nellie Boustead at sinisisi niya si Rizal,
hinamon siya ni Rizal to duel
• Wenceslao E. Retana – isa syang press agent of friars in Spain

La Epoca – anti Filipino Newspaper

Gold watch chain – nawala ni Rizal nung manood sila ng play sa Teatri Apolo, nandun
sa locket ung picture ni Leonor Rivera

Leonor Rivera – married to an Englishman (broken hearted si RIZAL)

Pablo Rianzares – first proprietor of La Solidaridad


IT3, pasensya na sa mga typo! Ehehe

Di ko na sya natripple check!
It’s already 11:30 PM!
Anyways! Good luck!
God bless!

Nico Lopez, IT3-1