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APPROXIMATE VALUES OF COEFFICIENTS OF FRICTION Materials Cast iron on cast iron Earth on earth (clay) Earth on earth (clay) Leather on cast iron Steel on graphite Steel on ice Wrought iron on cast iron Condition wet damp wet dry dry dry dry Sliding, θ 17° 29° 10° Friction, f 0.31 0.56 0.09 0.01 0.18 Sliding, θ 45° 17° 17° 1.5° 10.5° Friction, f 1.0 0.31 0.30 0.21 0.027 0.19
UNIT WEIGHT OF MATERIALS Material EARTH Dry loose Dry compact Moist loose Moist compact SAND Dry clean River sand Wet sand GRAVEL Loose Rammed 1,600 Kg/cu.m 1,920 to 2,080 Unit Weight 1,280 Kg/cu.m 1,550 Kg/cu.m 1,440 to 1,600 Kg/cu.m 1,760 to 1,840 Kg/cu.m 1,540 to 1,600 Kg/cu.m 1,840 Kg/cu.m 1,760 to 2,000 Kg/cu.m Material Brick Masonry Stone Masonry Plain Cement Concrete Reinforced Cement Concrete Lime Conrete Cement Cement Mortar Steel Timber (teak) Typical thickness of brick masonry walls 11. 50 cm 23.00 cm Unit Weight 1,920 Kg/cu.m 2,080 to 2,700 Kg/cu.m 2,240 Kg/cu.m 2,400 Kg/cu.m 1,920 Kg/cu.m 1,440 Kg/cu.m 2,080 Kg/cu.m 7,850 Kg/cu.m 625 Kg/cu.m Weight in Kg/m 275.0 500.0
Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International
10.30 6.36 34.m 1. Sheets 24 gauge G.00 cm 53.I.90 7. Brick in line of cement mortar Coursed Rubble in lime mortar a.920 2. 1. 7.5 845.50 cm 38.0 1.18 23.74 8.600 to 1.034 Tensile Strengt h kg/mm² 10. 6.455 1.800 3.410 1.°C 660 651 1.400 1. 4.00 58.400 17 Kg/m² 5 Kg/m² 10 Kg/m² 69 Kg/m² PROPERTIES OF SOME STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Density gm/cm3 2.200 Kg/cu.No Description . 8.12 1.920 Kg/cu.25 0.m 1.m 34.400 2. 5. concrete in lime or cement mortar (hard broken stone) Random rubble in lime or cement mortar (hard broken stone) Ashlar Reinforced cement concrete A. Sheets G.TABLES OF INFORMATION Stone ballast Brick ballast Kg/cu.240 2.0 WEIGHT OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS S. 3.165.240 2. 2.860 Specific Heat cal/gm °C 0.11 0.C.90 4.I.50 19.920 2. Brick jelly concrete in lime or cement mortar b.2240 1.60 Materials Aluminium Magnesium Nickel Stainless steel Titanium Tungsten Zironium Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International .70 25.50 Melting Point.22 0.90 65.50 cm 71.70 1.87 35. 9. Sheets 18 gauge Manglore tiles with battens Weight in Kg/m3 1.
hard or stiff clay in deep bed. the loose soil shall be assumed to exist. Fine sand. III. silt (dry lumps easily pulnerised by the fingers) 9. Residual deposits 4. Soft shale. The Picket shall be pushed vertical into the soil by full weight of a person weighing at least 70 kg. Rocks-hard without lamination and defects (for example. I. 2. Medium clay. dry 12. Moist clay and sand clay and mixture which can be incented with strong thumb pressure 14. If the penetration of the picket exceeds 20 cm. Soft rock Non-cohesive Soils 5. Very soft clay which can be penetrated several centimeters with the thumb 15.No . Fine sand. granite and trap) 2. Rocks 1. dry. readily indented with thum nail. compact and dry 8. Loose gravel or sand gravel mixture. loose and dry Cohesive Soils 11. 10. Maximum Safe Bearing Capacity tones/m² 330 165 90 45 45 45 25 15 25 10 45 25 15 5 15 Types of Rocks and Soils II. Laminater rocks (for example. Coarse sand.TABLES OF INFORMATION SAFE LOADS IN FOUNDATION S. Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International . sandstone and limestone) in sound condition 3. loose coarse to medium sand. Black cotton soil or other shrinkable or expensive clay in day condition (50% saturation) Note: 1. Gravel. Compactness or looseness of non-cohesive materials may be determined by driving a wooden picket of dimensions 5x5x70 cm with a sharp point. Medium sand. compact and dry 7. Peat may occur in a very soft spongy condition or may be quite firm and compact. sand and gravel compact and offering high resistance to penetration when excavated by tools 6. 13.
10.9 Kg/m² 7.10.5 m ii. Spanning over 4.2 Kg/m² 7.4.2 Kg/m² 12.5 m ii.3 Kg/m² 2. Removal of props to slab i.6 .2 Kg/m² 6. its depth and age and the methods used for consolidating it. Removal of props to beams and arches i. The strength of made-up ground depends on the nature of the material.6 MT/M² 32.6 .9 Kg/m² 7.7 MT/M² 65.TABLES OF INFORMATION 3. Beams soffits (props left under) 4. Spanning up to 4.9 Kg/m² 7. Columns and vertical sides of beams 2.7 . Spanning up to 4.5 m 5. Slabs (props left under) 3.4 Kg/m² 3.70 kg/cm² MINIMUM PERIODS-REMOVING SHUTTERING (Ordinary Portland Cement In Normal Weather) Types 1. Spanning over 6 m Duration 24 to 48 hours 3 days 7 days 7 days 14 days 7 days 14 days Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International .9 Kg/m² 3. Walls.8 MT/M² 35. APPROXIMATE WORKING STRES FOR DEAD LOADS Material Structural Steel Rivet Steel Wrought Iron Cast Iron Brick in Cement Granite Sandstone Timber Kind of Stress Tension Compression Stress Tension Compression Shear Tension Compression Shear Compression Compression Compression Tension Allowable Stress 12.
150 micron Fine Aggregates 150 micron : 10 mm.5 Kg/sq. 600 micron. Stiff clay APPROXIMATE SETTING TIME OF VARIOUS TYPE OF CEMENTS: Type Normal Rapid hardening Quick setting High Alumina Initial Setting 30 minutes 5 minutes 1 hour 2 hours Final Setting 10 hours 30 minutes 10 hours 6 hours . 4.TABLES OF INFORMATION Note: For rapid hardening cement.mm (according to thickness) Elongation 16 to 20 percent (according to thickness) on a Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International .36 mm .Grade AA TYPES OF AGGREGATES Coarse Aggregates : 10 mm.5 to 53. 1.Grade A .18 mm. 600 micron. Hard clay 5. BRICK GRADE Minimum compressive strength = 35 kg/cm 25² (standard brick) Bricks with compressive strength not less than 70 kg/cm3 Bricks with compressive strength not less than 70 kg/cm3 TYPES OF CLAY 1.2 to 24 Kg/sq.36 mm.18 mm. beams and columns which should be retained for 24 hours. TENSILE PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL Structural Steel Mild Steel Ultimate Tensile Stress 42. 2. 1. 4. Boulder clay4. 3/7 of the above period will be sufficient in all cases except vertical sides of slabs.75 mm. 200 micron. Soft clay 3.mm Yield Stress 23. Firm clay 2. 200 micron. 2.75 mm.
m m 172. the stress at which the permanent set of the bar reaches a value of 0.80 78. Type Of Surface Forested areas Parks.20 Thickne ss mm 14 16 18 20 Weight Kg/sq. Farmland Garden apartment Asphalt or concrete pavement Commercial and Industrial Run-Off Coefficient (K) 0.20 0.25 219.2 per cent of the original gauge length shall be taken as the yield point stress.90 125. 5.No .0 t0 47.90 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FUELS Fuel Densit Coefficie Melting Specific Thermal Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International .mm gauge length of 8 diameter for round or square bars 26 percent on a gauge length of 8 diameters Note: When no yield point stress is specified. WEIGHT OF PLAIN PLATES Thickne ss mm 6 8 10 12 Weight Kg/sq.20 HYDROLOGY VALUES OF RUN-OFF COEFFICIENTS: S.05 to 0.60 141.05 to 0.50 94. 1. 2.m m 47. 4.30 0.m m 109.9 Kg/sq.80 251. 3.70 196.50 0.85 0.00 Thickne ss mm 22 25 28 32 Weight Kg/sq.30 157.10 62.TABLES OF INFORMATION Rivet Steel (More ductile steel) 39.
60 0 1.Wd L²/10 .50 Point in °C Heat in k cal/kg °C Conductivi ty k cal/m-hr°C 26.50 0.Ws L²/9 + Ws L²/2 Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International .60 0 13.80 20.6 Natural Uranium Uranium Oxide UO2 Uranium Carbide 19.078 - REINFORCED CEMENT CONCRETE DESIGN VALUE OF SPAN TO DEPTH RATIO MAXIMUM VALUE OF SPAN/DEPTH RATIO 20 25 20 BEAM Simply supported beams Continuous beams Cantilever beams CONTINUOUS BEAMS. LOADING MOMENT Position Near middle of end span At the middle of interior spans At support next to the end support At other interior supports Moment Due To Dead Load +Wd L²/12 + Wd L²/24 .00 0 10.80 10.Wd L²/12 Moment Due To Superimposed Load + Ws L²/10 + Ws L²/12 .50 23.3 1.00 27.20 12.037 0.TABLES OF INFORMATION y nt of Linear Expansio n 10-6/°C 18.129.
VALUE OF SPAN/DEPTH RATIO 30 33 12 35 40 SLAB Simply supported slabs spanning in one direction Continuous slabs spannng in one direction Cantilever slab Simply supported slab spanning in two directions Continuous slab spanning in two directions ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING POLLUTANTS AND THEIR SOURCES POLLUTANT Carbon monoxide Sulphur dioxide Nitric oxide Nitrogen dioxide Ozone Methane Ethylene Acetylene Olefins Ammonia Hydroge Sulphide Formaldehyde PRINCIPAL SOURCES Auto exhaust Oil burners Combustion Combustion Atmospheric photo chemical reactions Natural gas.TABLES OF INFORMATION Where Wd = dead load per meter span Ws = superimposed load per metre span L = effective span LIMITS OF STIFNESS OF SLABS MAX. decaying organic matter Auto exhaust Auto exhaust Auto exhaust Decaying organic matter Decaying organic matter Incomplete combustion Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International .
06 to 2.65 0.75 0.TABLES OF INFORMATION SOIL MECHANICS CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS BASED ON PARTICULAR SIZES: PARTICLE SIZE (mm) (Most of parts) Less than 0.0 to 60 Between 60 to 75 Between 80 to 200 Above 200 SOIL TYPE Clay Silt Sand Gravels Pebbles Cobbles Boulder SELF CLEANING VELOCITY OF SEWER PIPE DIAMETER OF SEWER Round pebbles (10 – 15 mm) Fine gravel Coarse and Angular stone Fine sand and clay Fine clay and silt 150 to 250 300 to 550 600 above SURVEYING METRIC SCALES for Survey Planes.075 1.0 0.5 . Buildings and Architectural Drawings: Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International SELF CLEANING VELOCITY (m/s) 0.06 Between 0.002 Between 0.0 Between 2.15 0.3 0.60 .002 and 0.0.2 1.0 0.
5 cm or 1/2.5 km or 1/250.000 1 cm = 1 km or 1/100.000 or 1/10.000 TOWN SURVEYS: 1 cm = 0.10 km or 1/50.000 or 1/25.000 Large Scale Surveys and Layouts 1 cm = 20 m 1 cm = 10 m 1 cm = 5 m or 1/2. ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS: 1 cm = 2 m or 1/200 1 cm = 1 m or 1/100 1 cm = 50 cm or 1/50 ENLARGED DETAILS: 1 1 1 1 1 cm cm cm cm cm = = = = = 10 cm or 1/10 5 cm or 1/5 2.000 1 cm = 0.TABLES OF INFORMATION IS : 965 Topographical Map MAP: 1 cm = 2.000 or 1/1.25 km 1 cm = 0.5 km or 1/50.50 km 1 cm = 0. PLANS.5 2 cm or ½ 1 cm or full size Advanced Pocket Book of CIVIL ENGINEERING Published in Malaysia by Synergy Books International .000 or 1/500 PRELIMINARY SKETCH OR DRAWINGS: 1 cm = 5 m or 1/500 1 cm = 2m or 1/200 1 cm = 1m or 1/100 WORKING DRAWINGS.
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