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The a to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

The a to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

Dr A. L. Neill
BSc MSc MBBS PhD FACBS medicalamanda@gmail.com

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

Introduction
This is now the fourth in the A to Z series and looks like as I had hoped that it will be part of a greater A to Z project with a website which will have all the images for student and health professional use. Using the positive feedback I have obtained from the A to Z of the Skull, I have enlarged the scope of the book to include all the bones, joints and ligaments of the human body. I have added and changed the presentation to incorporate some of the excellent suggestions I have had from the Skull and other books.

Acknowledgement

Again I would like and need to thank Aspen Pharmacare for their support and assistance in this valuable project particularly Greg Lan. In a day when there is deep concern within the medical and other health care professional bodies that anatomy and other basic sciences are not being taught adequately to new students, this type of resource is even more important. Students are aware of what they need to know and nowadays are extremely resourceful in finding information. Doctors and other Health professionals are on a continuing pathway in the quest to review their knowledge and keep abreast with new and changing factors in medicine and it is hoped this resource will help in these searches of the new and the experienced, of all those interested in health and medicine.

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I am always grateful for the feedback I have received from the other publications.

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Again I have included a feedback page at the end of this book and I hope that from it if there are any suggestions or ideas about the publication that this will be used as a guide to any of you who may have some ideas for this project. However if you just want to write fax, email or other send your suggestions to me, I am always pleased to hear them.

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© A. L. Neill

The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

Dedication

How to use this book

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Occasionally bones or groups of bones are also shown “in situ”, or as an “overview” to relate them to the whole body structure, in other words as they lay in body or cavity anatomically. For example the RIBS together form the RIB CAGE and anatomically this bony structure is the way most of the ribs function most of the time not as individual bones. Capitalization is used to demonstrate the bones involved in several structures including joints of all kinds (e.g. sutures). In other words the parietomastoid suture is listed as ParietoMastoid suture to further remind the reader of the involved bones or bony features involved in the composition of the structure. This helps to further orientate the reader to the structural components of the feature.
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Bones and joints are shown generally from at least 2 aspects, with numbered features on the diagram page and the key or index to these on the opposite page. Numbering is generally started anew with each diagram except where it is obvious the diagrams are related and then the numbering is continued on to the second diagram and the key to the features is the same for both.

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Bones, Joints and Ligaments have been listed alphabetically and cross referenced as much as possible with their common names (e.g. the SHOULDER JOINT is the GLENOHUMERAL JOINT and the COLLAR BONE is the CLAVICLE) preference is made to list them as their proper anatomical names with cross referencing in the index to their common names, but each item may be looked up with either terminology.

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To Ali, Zoe, Mickey, Quentin and Jody for support help and love over the years. In memory of Monkey and Spook. And… hello to Jack.

The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

Note: colour coding on base is regional. Thank you Amanda Neill
BSc MSc MBBS PhD FACBS
ISBN 1 74138 167 5

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It is hoped that this will prove a valuable resource for those examining individual bones and their articulations and support structures to build up the complete joint as in the study of ANATOMY and its many uses such as: archeology, anthropology, chiropractic dentistry, forensics, geology, medicine, orthopaedics, osteology, paleontology, paleobiology, physiotherapy, massage therapy and surgery. Hence any suggestions on format or inclusions will be gratefully received.

R sing. PLL post. b/n British & American spelling between bone marrow blood supply carpal / carpo compared to central nervous system collateral Cerebrospinal fluid connective tissue example extracellular (outside the cell) extensor (as in muscle to extend across a joint) Greek intercarpal / intercarpo interphalangeal intertarsal / intertarso joints = articulations Left lower limb aka leg Latin ligament metacarpal / metacarpo medial metatarsal / metatarso nervous system / nerve supply nervous tissue phalangeal / phalanges / phalango plural posterior longitudinal ligament posterior Right singular spinal cord spinal nerve spinous process transverse process upper limb aka arm vertebral body vertebral column within without ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. IC IP IT jt(s) L LL Lt.The A to Z of Bones. lig MC med MT NS NT P pl.g. aka ALL alt.f. generally referring to the diff. SC SN SP TP UL VB VC w/n w/o = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = actions /movements of a joint anastomosis or anastomoses adjective also known as anterior longitudinal ligament alternative anterior articulation (joint w/o the additional support structures) Alternative Spelling. CSF CT e. Gk. Joints and Ligaments Abbreviations A aa adj. L. ant art AS b/n BM BS C c. CNS collat. EC ext. Neill 4 .

The A to Z of Bones. A= B= C= D= Anterior Aspect from the front Posterior Aspect from the back Lateral Aspect from either side Transverse / Horizontal plane Midsagittal plane = Median plane. limbs moving closer to this plane = adduction E = Coronal plane F = Median ©D 5 rA ma nd a Ne ill . limbs moving away from this direction = abduction. trunk moving away from this plane = lateral flexion or lateral movement moving into this plane medial movement. Joints and Ligaments Guide to Anatomical Planes and Relations This is the anatomical position.

Joints and Ligaments ©D rA ma © A. L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 6 nd a Ne ill .

The A to Z of Bones. Neill Ne ill . L. Joints and Ligaments Anatomical Movements Hip flexion Hip extension Hip lateral and medial rotation rA ©D Knee flexion 7 ma Hip abduction nd a Hip adduction Hip circumduction Knee extension © A.

L. Joints and Ligaments Foot dorsiflexion Foot inversion Fingers extension rA ©D Fingers abduction ma Forearm pronation Forearm supination nd a Foot normal position Fingers flexion Hand deviation radial/laterally ulna/medially Fingers adduction Thumb opposition 8 © A. Neill Ne ill Foot plantar flexion Foot eversion .The A to Z of Bones.

order of illustrations Common terms in Osteology and Skeletal Anatomy Classification and Summary of Bones Bone structure . L. Joints and Ligaments . Neill .anterior / posterior Disarticulated Bones Classification and Summary of Joints Synovial Joint Classification and Summary of Ligaments OVERVIEWS to be found in this book Anterior Chest Arm Carpus / Wrist Ear Bones in situ Fingers Foot (aka Metatarsals) Hand (aka Metacarpals) Leg Pectoral Girdle / Shoulders Pelvic Girdle / Hips Rib Cage / Thoracic Cavity Skull Spine / Vertebral Column ma 1 1 2 2 4 5 7 9 10 15 25 26 27 29 31 32 33 nd a ©D 9 rA Ne ill 43 45 59 85-88 99 103 111-114 139 179 181-184 195 211 249 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Table of contents Introduction Acknowledgement Dedication How to use this book Abbreviations Guide to Anatomical Planes and Relations Anatomical movements Table of contents The Bones.Long Bone Articulated Skeleton .

Bones are listed in BLACK . scaphoid.cervical) BREAST BONE (see Manubriosternum) Calcaneus (aka HEEL) Capitate see also Carpus. L. capitate. Neill 10 also see individual bones ©D rA Acetabular joint (see HIP JOINT) Acromioclavicular articulation & joint ANKLE BONE (see Talus .The A to Z of Bones.(biggest of the Tarsal bones aka Tarsus)) ANKLE JOINT = Talocrual joint = Subtalar joints ANTERIOR CHEST overview ARM = upper limb articulations overview ARM (see Humerus) Atlas (C1 ) . lunate. Hand.(Vertebra . Generally ligaments will be referred to in joint diagrams and not listed demonstrated in separate diagrams. . Joints and Ligaments The Bones.(Vertebra . Carpus . 2nd row . triquetral. Joints and Ligaments Overviews of regions are listed in MAROON (DARK RED).carpal bones wrist (Os Carpus = Wrist bones) overview 1st row .trapezoid.cervical) Atlanto-Axial joints Atlanto-Occipital joint (see Craniovertebral joint) Axial-Occipital joint (see Craniovertebral joint) Auditory Ossicles (aka EAR BONES) Axis (C2) . pisiform. hamate Carpo-Metacarpal joints (see HAND and WRIST joints) CHEEK BONES (see Zygoma ) CHIN (see Mandible) Clavicle (aka COLLAR BONE) Coccyx -Os coccygis Costovertebral articulations & joints (RIB & SPINAL joints) Costovertebral articulations of atypical ribs 1 & 2 © A. Wrist (Os Carpus = Wrist bones) ma nd a Ne ill This is the order of the listing of illustrations in the book (note if beside the title there is a listing to see … it will be listed at that site and hence placed in the book at that point). Joints are listed in DARK YELLOW and ligaments when referred to separately are listed in ORANGE.trapezium.

Innominate) HIP ISCHIUM. Ulna) FOOT BONES (tarsal + metatarsal + phalanges) overview (see also Metatarsals) FOOT JOINTS (aka Intertarsal joints) Frontal bone Glenohumeral joint (see SHOULDER JOINT) Hamate (see also Carpus.medial cuniform . 3rd lateral cuniform . Neill .The A to Z of Bones. Wrist) HAND (and WRIST bones) overview Carpal. Metacarpal bones and Phalanges . EAR BONES (aka Auditory Ossicles) in situ INCUS = anvil. Joints and Ligaments ©D 11 Cranial Fossae (see Skull internal views) Craniovertebral joints (HEAD/SPINE joints aka Atlanto-Occipital joints & Axial-Occipital joints) Cuboid (ankle) Cuniforms (foot) 1st . MALLEUS = hammer. L.articulation. Hand. phalanges) overview FINGER JOINTS = interphalangeal joints FOREARM (see Radius . ILEUM. IC joints HANGING joint (see Atlanto-Axial median joint) HEAD/SPINE JOINTS (see Craniovertebral joints) HEEL (see Calcaneus) Hip (aka Os Coxae . PUBIS overview HIP (also see PELVIC GIRDLE Sacrum + Hip articulations) Humeroulnar joint (see ELBOW JOINT) Humerus = ARM bone (upper arm bone) Hyoid Inferior Nasal Concha (see Nasal bones and cavity) Innominate (see HIP) Intertarsal joints (see FOOT joints) rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. 2nd intermediate cuniform . STAPES = stirrup LABYRINTH = cochlea ELBOW . joint (humeroulnar) Ethmoid bone Femur (upper leg bone) aka thigh bone aka leg bone Fibula (lower leg lateral bone) FINGERS (see also hand.articulations HAND BONES (see Metacarpals individually listed) HAND JOINTS intercarpal joints = IC joints carpometacarpal intercarpal joints = C-MC.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 12 . carpus. hand) Mandible (aka JAW aka CHIN) Mandibular joint (see Temporomandibular joint) Manubriocostal joints (see Sternocostal joints) Manubriosternum = Manubrium + Sternum + Xiphoid process aka BREAST BONE Manubrium (see Manubriosternum) Maxilla (aka UPPER JAW) Metacarpals aka HAND BONES (see wrist/hand) overview Metacarpal fifth (bone to the little finger) first (bone to the thumb) fourth (bone to the ring finger) second (bone to the index finger) third (bone to the middle finger) Metatarsals (bones b/n the ankle & the toes) aka FOOT BONES overview Metatarsals (individual views) first (bone to the big toe) / second (bone to the second toe) third / fourth / fifth (bone to the little toe) Nasal bones and cavity = NOSE Navicular (ankle) NOSE see Nasal bones and cavity Occipital Odontoid Joint (see Atlanto-Axial median joint) Palantine Parietal Patella (KNEE CAP) Pectoral girdle = SHOULDERS overview Pelvic girdle = HIPS (see Hip) Phalanges = FINGERS TOES Pisiform (see also hand. Joints and Ligaments JAW (see Mandible) KNEE CAP (see Patella) KNEE (JOINTS Tibiofemoral + [Tibiofibular]+ Femoropatellar + Tibiopatellar) Lacrimal LEG = lower limb articulations overview Lunate (see also wrist. wrist) Pubic Symphysis part of Hip / Pelvic girdle Radiocarpal joint see WRIST JOINT Radioulnar joints (also see ELBOW) ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. L.

Hand) ma nd a Ne ill .posterior Sacroiliac ligaments . T10-12) Typical T2-T9 © A.2 and 10-12 (atypical) Sacroiliac joint Sacroiliac articulation . C2 = Axis) Typical (C3-7) Lumbar Typical L1-5 Thoracic Atypical (see rib articulations T1. Neill rA Radius RIB CAGE overview = Thoracic cavity (see also PECTORAL GIRDLE) Rib typical RIB JOINT see costovertebral joint Rib atypical -ribs1. L. Joints and Ligaments ©D Ulna (aka FOREARM) Vertebrae 13 Cervical Atypical (see C1= Atlas. Triquetral (see also Carpus .The A to Z of Bones.posterior Sacrum (lower BACK BONE) Scaphoid (thumb hand ) Scapula (aka SHOULDER BLADE) SHIN (see Tibia) SHOULDER JOINT (aka Glenohumeral joint) Sinuses overview Skull External Views Internal Views Sphenoid SPINE overiew (see vertebral column overview) SPINAL JOINTS (see vertebro-vertebral joints) Sternoclavicular joints Sternocostal joints Sternum (see Manubriosternum) Talus (aka Tarsus aka ANKLE) Temporal bone Temporomandibular joint Tibia (aka lower leg bone aka SHIN (shin bone)) Tibiofemoral joint (see KNEE which includes this joint) Tibiofibula joints Trapezium Trapezoid. 2 Ribs 1.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 14 nd a Ne ill Vertebral Column overview Vertebro-vertebral joints b/n vertebral bodies Vertebro-vertebral joints b/n vertebral processes and facets (aka SPINAL JOINTS) Vomer Wrist bones (see Carpal bones / Metacarpal bones) Wrist joint (aka radiocarpal joint) Xiphoid (see Manubriosternum) Zygapophyseal joints (see Vertebro-vertebral joints) Zygoma (aka CHEEK BONES) . L. Joints and Ligaments ©D rA ma © A.

To do with joints hence… Inflammation of a joint Diseases of the joints Joint types Joint. hence a wing-like process as in the Ethmoid bone pl. hip joint © A. Joints and Ligaments Common terms in Osteology and Skeletal Anatomy Ablation Acromegaly The removal of part of the body generally a boney part most commonly the teeth A continuation of growth of the ends of cartilage covered bone (after fusion of the long bones) hence a gross change in the features (most noticeable in the jaw and digits) without growth in height. pertaining to the ear.alveolar (as in air filled bone in the maxilla) Annulus fibrosis The peripheral fibrous ring around the intervertebral disc Aperture Appendicular An opening or space between bones or within a bone. limited range of movement e. the limbs upper and lower which hang from the axial skeleton.g. in the skeleton. ma nd a Ankle Bend = angle usually referring to the bend just above the foot.The A to Z of Bones. description of the bone surfaces joining w/o the supporting structures = point of contact b/n 2 opposing bones hence the articulation of humerus and scapula is the articulation of the shoulder joint.e. hence the ankle is the joint b/n the foot and the lower leg Ne ill .alae. Tooth wear and tear Areola ArthArthritis Arthropathy Arthrosis Articulation Attrition Auditory ©D Avulsion Axial 15 Ball and Socket Generally referring to a joint which resembles a ball sitting tightly in a socket . Refers to the appendices of the axial i.tooth socket adj . (Auditory exostosis = a bony growth on the walls of the External Auditory Meatus) Forceable tearing away of a structure or part of a structure as in an avulsed fracture where a fragment bone is torn away from the main bone Refers to the head and trunk (vertebrae.very stable. open spaces as in the areolar part of the Maxilla may lead or develop into sinuses . Neill rA Pertaining to hearing. this also includes the pectoral and pelvic girdles (not the sacrum) Small. L. hence. ribs and sternum) of the body. Ala Alveolus Air filled bone . due mainly to the over activity of the pituitary gland A wing. .

The A to Z of Bones. lightweight with bone spicules or trabeculae parallel to lines of force found at the ends of long bones (epiphyses) with surrounding BM.small canal) Caput / Kaput Carotid Carpo Cavity ©D Cavum Cephalic Cervico Clinoid Clivus rA Wrist A cave. cavernous). junction between the coronal and sagittal sutures which in the infant is not closed and can be felt pulsating – site of the anterior fontanelle. This refers to bony points related to the Carotid vessels An open area or sinus within a bone or formed by two or more bones (adj. Neill nd a Calotte The calotte consists of the calvaria from which the base has been removed. decapitate) To put to sleep. A slope hence in the anterior cranial fossa referring to a slope on the base of the cavity. porous bone. Tunnel / extended foramen as in the carotid canal at the base f the skull adj canular (canicular . L. ma Pertaining to the head Pertaining to the Neck Cancellous bone = Trabecular bone A spongy. compression of the common or internal carotid artery causes coma. adj. Joints and Ligaments Basilar Basiocranium Boss Bregma Relating to the base or bottom of structures Bones of the base of the skull A smooth round broad eminence . may be used interchangeably with fossa. found sandwiched b/n lamellae of compact bone.f.. 16 © A. part of a four poster bed so that clinoid process looks like a bed post (generally with other posts) as in the Sphenoid bone.capitate = having a head (c.mainly in the frontal bone female > male Refers to a junction of more than 2 bones in a joint as in the Bregma of the skull. Ne ill . Pertaining to the cheek Buccal Callus Hard tissue formed in the osteogenic layer of the periosteum as a fracture repair tissue replaced over time with compact bone Calvaria Canal The calvaria refers to the cranium without the facial bones attached. Cavity tends to be more enclosed fossa a shallower bowl like space (Orbital fossa-Orbital cavity). Like a bed-post. in the vertebral bodies and in areas of increased bone thickness The head or of a head.

Cuneate /Cuneus A wedge / wedge-shaped Dens A tooth hence dentine and dental relating to teeth. Neill ma nd a A crown. coronoid or coronal. chonchoid) old term for this turbinate. conchae adj. endocranial divided into the 3 major fossae anterior (for the Frontal lobes) middle (containing Temporal lobes) and posterior (for the containment of the Cerebellum). hence snail-like shape relating to the Organ of Corti in the ear. adj. adj.= diaphyses adj. © A. usually referring to the joint b/n the arm and the forearm A smooth projection or elevation on a bone as in iliopubic eminence. Refers to the interior of the “braincase” adj.. L. hence a coronal plane is parallel to the main arch of a crown which passes from ear to ear (c. In the young this is the region b/n the growth plates and is composed of compact bone.coronary. pl. Prominent sharp thin ridge of bone formed by the attachment of muscles particularly powerful ones eg Temporalis/Sagittal crest Crest Cribiform /Ethmoid A sieve or bone with small sieve-like holes. coronal suture).diploic. Condyle Cornu Corona A rounded enlargement or process possessing an articulating surface.The A to Z of Bones. denticulate having tooth-like projections adj dentate See odontoid Depression Diaphysis Diploë Edentulous Elbow ©D Eminence Endocranium 17 rA Without teeth A concavity on a surface The shaft or body of a long bone.= diaphyseal The cancellous bone between the inner and outer tables of the skull. Concha A shell shaped bone as in the ear or nose (pl. Ne ill Compact bone = Cortical bone = Dense bone Bone found in the shafts and on external bone surfaces highly structured in concentric circles or Haversian systems constantly changing and remodeling depending upon the lines of force. often enclosing the lighter trabecula bone. Joints and Ligaments Cochlea A snail. A horn (as in the Hyoid) Cost Cranium Pertaining to the rib The cranium of the skull comprises all of the bones of the skull except for the mandible.f. .. Any angular bend often in the arm.

Generally develops as a secondary ossification centre.a break which has to do with a disease generally thinning of the bone for example in osteoporosis or weakening due to a tumour as in osteosarcoma or from other causes as in osteomalacia (Paget' disease) and causes the bone to break with little or no force © A. A face.as in the fovea of the occlusal surface of the molar tooth. foramina).= epiphyses adj.break of a bone where the bone is exposed to the air Incomplete = Greenstick fracture . Neill 18 rA An arch ma A fountain.(pl.The A to Z of Bones. nd a Ne ill . Llifting of the endostium causes cancellous bone to be laid down to fill the gap b/n the bone and the cellular layer and this device may be used to encourage bone growth/repair. Shallower and more like a “bowl” than a cavity A small pit (usually smaller than a fossa). L. A natural hole in a bone usually for the transmission of blood vessels and/or nerves.bone break due to a tearing away of part of a bone under stress Complete fracture . These soft spots on the skull are cartilagenous connective tissue coverings “joints” which allow for skull cranial expansion and then become the mould for the bone development and shape joining long the sutural lines. Pathological fracture . There are 2 epiphyses to each long bone. or formed from several bones as in temporomandibular fossa. In a long bone the shafts are generally compact bone and the ends = epiphyses are trabecular bone pl. A pit.= epiphyseal External Auditory Meatus Ear hole Exostosis A bony outgrowth from a bony surface. often due to irritation (as in Swimmers ear) and may involve ossification of surrounding tissues such as muscles or ligaments.complete break b/n in 1 or more bones Compound fracture . relating to shapes that are in a sickle shape so falciform ligaments curve around and and in a sharp point A narrow slit or gap from cleft.where there is an incomplete break along with bending or changing of the bone shape it is generally seen in in young bones. associated with the palpable pulsation of the brain as in the anterior fontanelle of an infant. Epiphysis = Metaphysis The end of a long bone beyond the growth plate or epiphyseal plate. a small bony surface (occlusal facet on the chewing surfaces of the teeth) seen in planar joints. on a bone. Facet Falciform Fissure Fontanelle Foramen Fornix Fossa Fovea ©D Fracture = break hence … Avulsed fracture . depression. later becoming the Bregma. or concavity. Joints and Ligaments Endostium A mesodermal CT which lines the inner surface of all bones and is the conduit for the NS and BS of the bone.

g. Joints and Ligaments Gallus /Galli Genu /genio Gigantism A cock. Ns and Lymph anastomosing in the centre of the circle nd a A hook hence the term used for bones which “hook around other bones or where other structures are able to attach by hooking hamulus = a small hook. Related to tears and tear drops. Ne ill .The A to Z of Bones. A bridge between 2 halves of a bone pl. mangled or torn eg foramen lacerum small sharp hole at the base of the skull often ripping tissue in trauma. the cock’s comb (i e possessive form of gallus). hence. Between Within Articulation Abnormal bone growth generally overgrowth or ectopic growth An orifice or point of entry to a cavity or space. L. the second component of bone U-shaped ©D Kyphosis Lacerum Lacrimal 19 rA A notch. Neill ma Haversian canals = secondary osteons = lamellar bone See structure of bone the system of concentric circles of bone matrix and osteocytes laying down rings of compact bone and collagen fibres with central BVs.( juga) as in Sphenoid . Collapse of vertebral body(ies) causing sharp convexity of the spine Something lacerated.gomphoses Long pit or furrow Gomphosis Groove Gyrus Hallux Hamus A circle. (noun lacrima) © A. The big toe = the first toe Harris lines Lines of increased bone density due to assault they may occur across the growth plate and arrest growth of the length of the long bone Hinge joint Hydroxyapetite Hyoid Hyperostosis Incisura Inter Intra Introitus Joint = Jugum Joint with movement in one plane e. crista galli. hence a coil of brain cortex. elbow or knee A dense organic filling. Knee adj referring to the knee Overgrowth of the length of the long bones due to excess growth hormone before the fusion of the long bones (if this occurs after it is acromegaly) Joint b/n the roots of the teeth and the jaw bones pl .

may interfere with joint movement A place (c. adj. crescent ma Large pl magna Hammer (as in the ear ossicle) From the verb to chew. the movable lower jaw. The jaw-bone. Neill 20 . A line as in the Nuchal lines of the Occitipum Pertaining to the tongue Linea Lingual Lipping Locus Lordosis Magnum Malleus Mandible Mastoid Maxilla Bone projecting over the usual margin.f. laminae) A band of tissue which connects bones (articular ligaments) or viscera organs (visceral ligaments). excessive production generally pathological as in osteoarthritis. nd a Ne ill © A.. now used only for the upper jaw.. Joints and Ligaments Lambda From the Greek letter a capital ‘L’ and written as an inverted V.meatal as in external acoustic meatus connecting the outer ear with the middle ear. Increased cervical and/ or lumbar curve also called sway back Meatus Meniscus Mental Meta ©D Metaphysis = Neurocranium Notch Nucha rA Gk. Relating to the chin (mentum = chin not mens = mind). The neurocranium refers only to the braincase of the skull. (adj. The nape or back of the neck adj..nuchal. A short passage.maxillary. locate. hence. location. lambdoid) and used to name the point of connection b/n the 3 skull bones Occipital and Temporals. An extension of: cf. adj. L. metacarpal = extension of the wrist Epiphysis The slightly expanded end of the shaft of a bone. ligamentum pl ligamenta from ligate or to tie up generally composed of collagen fibres. A Ligament is a tie or a connection Originally sing. An indentation in the margin of a structure. adj.mastoid process of the Temporal bone.mandibular. dislocate). A breast or teat shape .The A to Z of Bones. Lamellar bone = Haversian system Bone with sheets of concentric collagen fibres around Haversian canals in compact bone Lamina Ligament A plate as in the lamina of the vertebra a plate of bone connecting the vertical and transverse spines (pl.

osseus A small bone as in the ear ossicles: stapes(stirrup).e. an opening. A bone or pertaining to bones adj. toothlike see Dens The development of an individual growth pattern A circle. Neill ma nd a Ne ill . from one tissue to another as in cartilagneous ossification from cartilage into bone Two other forms are primary ossification (in the shaft of the long bone where the bone forms from CT) and secondary ossification where the bone has formed and secondary centeres devlop as at the ends of the long bones). the name given to the bony socket in which the eyeball rotates.The A to Z of Bones. adj. incus (anvil) and malleus (hammer). An opening. L. Joints and Ligaments Ossification = the process of turning into bone this happens in the body in several ways hence … endochondral ossification The process where bone develops after a cartilage model of the shape is first laid down Occiput Occulus Odontoid Ontogeny Orbit Orifice Os Ossicle Ossification The prominent convexity of the back of the head Occipitum = Occipital bone adj. The process of turning something into bone. © A. common and asymptomatic Multinuclear cells which resorb or phagocytose bone = resorption of bone Bone cells incapable of dividing but maintin the extracelluarl matrix of the bone Formation and growth of bone Tumour of the bone tissue Disease of softening of the bones / Paget’s disease Inflammatory disease of the bone due to infection A thinning of the bones due to age and/or calcium deficiency Malignant tumor of bone tissue A door. an orifice. i.. occipital An eye Relating to teeth. Inflammation of the bone Osteitis Osteoblasts Bone cells capable of dividing and laying down matrix Osteoclasts Osteocytes Osteogenesis Osteoma ©D Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Osteoporosis Osteosarcoma Ostium 21 rA Osteochondroma Bone and cartilaginous tumour benign often arising in the ephyseal plate or line and protrude at right angles..orbital.

Joints and Ligaments Otic Ovale Palate Parietal Parotid Pars Pecten Perikymata Periosteum Periostitis Periostosis Petrous Phalanx Pertaining to the ear Oval shaped A roof adj.phalanges a row of soldiers used for a row of fingers or toes Planar joints Pollex Process Prominens Pseudoarthrosis False or new joint due to the nonhealing of a fracture Pterion A wing. Transverse ridges and the grooves on the surfaces of teeth Inflammation on the outer surface of the bone Abnormal growth of long bones on their outer surfaces Pertaining to a rock / rocky / stoney adj. 22 ©D Pterygoid Pubis Ramus Recess © A. the region where the tip of the greater wing of the sphenoid meets or is close to the parietal. L.The A to Z of Bones. Pertaining to a region beside or near the ear A part of A comb. petrosal Pertaining to flanks of soldiers . a wall.. Wing shaped Hairy that part of the hip bone with hair over the surface adj pubic pl pubes Branch as in the superior pubic ramus the superior or higher branch of the pubic bone (Pubis) A secluded area or pocket. (TERY-on) Alternatively the region where these 4 bones meet. separating the frontal from the squamous region of the temporal bone. nd a Layer of fascial tissue connective tissue on the outside of compact bone not present on articular (joint) surfaces see endostium Ne ill . Neill rA A projection ma Thumb Joint which allows for sliding across the joint as in the wrist and foot and ribs A general term describing any marked projection or prominence as in the mandibular process. Pertaining to the outer wall of a cavity from paries. a small cavity set apart from a main cavity.palatal or platatine.

Sinuses may contain air.e.sellar. the sagittal suture is notched posteriorly.styloid a pencil-like structure. slender process/protrusion. Neill . A wedge i. Sulcus Sustenaculum Suture of the skull.sinusoid.. Ne ill © A. sella turcica = Turkish saddle..sphenoid . The skull refers to all of the bones that comprise the head. Grainlike A space usually within a bone lined with mucous membrane. from the letter Sigma which is S in Greek. venous or arterial blood. Round An arrow. lymph or serous fluid depending upon location and health of the subject adj.spinous descriptive of a sharp. A cartilagenous joint or a growth with bone-cartilage-bone Means together ie the close proximity of or fusion of 2 structures Tight inflexible joints b/n 2 bones little to no movement many axial joints ma nd a S-shaped. a modified BV usually vein with an enlarged lumen for blood storage and containing no or little muscle in its wall)..erect Form of osteomalacia or bone softening due to Vitamen D deficiency Elevated bony growth often roughened. making it look like A deviation from the vertical of the Vertebral column laterally (as opposed to exaggeration of vertical curves in kyphosis and lordosis) A saddle.. (also.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Rectus Rickets Ridge Rotundum Sagittal Scoliosis Sella Sesamoid Sigmoid Sinus Straight . Stylos ©D Symphysis SynSyndesmosis Synostosis 23 rA Fusion of any joints Long wide groove often due to a BV indentation A supportive structure as in the sustenaculum tali = a structure which supports the Talus in the foot The saw-like edge of a cranial bone that serves as joint between bones An instrument for writing hence adj. adj. L. A thorn adj. such as the frontal and maxillary sinuses in the head.. the Sphenoid is the bone which wedges in the base of the skull between the unpaired frontal and occipital bones adj. Skull SphenoSpine Splanchocranium The splanchocranium refers to the facial bones of the skull.

L. A very small prominence.. Tectum Tegmen Temporal Tendon Tentorium Trabecula Trephination Refers to time and the fact that grey hair (marking the passage of time) often appears first at the site of the temporal bone. 24 © A. bend) .tarsal (Gk wickerwork referring to the basketlike structure of the os tarsus with the ligaments) A roof. an eminence..zygomatic. invagination is the acquisition of a sheath by pushing inwards into a structure. and evagination is similar but produced by pushing outwards adj.e. tympani A hook adj.The A to Z of Bones.most moving jointd are synovial Pertaining to any bones joining the foot with the leg adj. the bone joining the maxillary. trabeculae The practice of making an artifical hole in the cranium practiced in many ancient religions used to relieve cranial pressure Pertaining to a small wheel or disc in the femur it is a large disc shaped tuberosity Trochanter Trochlea Tubercle Tuberculum Tuberosity Turbinate Tympanum Uncus ©D Vagina Volar Wormian bone Zygoma rA ma A drum pl. An old term for the nasal conchae. A sheath. A covering. . hence. Joints and Ligaments Synovial joint Talus Tarsus Any moveable joint with synovial fluid b/n the 2 opposing bones . A tie or cord of collagen fibres connecting muscle with bone (as opposed to articular ligaments which connect bone with bone) A tent. hence shaped like a top. A “little” beam i. a swelling or large rough prominence often associated with a tendon or ligament attachment. temporal & sphenoid bones adj. A large rounded process or eminence. Neill nd a Ne ill Ankle (Gk. frontal... hence. process or bump. supporting structure or strut pl. A child’s spinning top. Extrasutural bone in the skull A pulley that part of the bone or ligamantous attachment that pulls the bone in another direction as in the elbow or the ankle A small process or bump. Pertaining to the palm (hand) or the sole (foot) A yoke.uncinate.vaginal.

Scapula. Frontal. © A. Manubrium generally surrounded by a layer of compact bone with cancellous or spongy bone in b/n. Vertebrae. Ne ill Thin flattened and usually curved bones: most Skull bones. Each pair of limbs is supported by a GIRDLE of supporting bones the PECTORAL GIRDLE and the lower PELVIC GIRDLE. Generally they are unnamed although the Incus is given to the large extra-sutural bone when present. Ethmoid and bones with “sinuses” Sesamoid bone Bones completely surrounded by soft tissue w/o joints Hyoid Short bone Sutural bone “Wormian” bone small bones which occur within the skull sutures sometimes called extra-sutural if the main part f the bone is outside of the suture. 22 paired skull bones including the ear ossicles / not including the teeth. and digits Phalanges see diagram showing a long bone the covering is of COMPACT BONE which is present only in the shaft and the ends have compact bone covering with CANCELLOUS BONE in the cavity along with red marrow . many of the bones at the base of the skull. Joints and Ligaments Classification and Summary of Bones Flat bones Irregular bones Various shapes not easily classified Sphenoid. Ulna. Hip. nd a Longer than wide 2 ends epiphysis and a central diaphysis. There are between 600 and 620 bones in the body including the various sesamoid and Wormian bones and other areas where there may be separate or ossified joints. Mandible.The A to Z of Bones. . Radius. Tibia. Neill rA ma Roughly cubic in shape. Growth mainly lengthwise: most limb bones: Femur. Ear Bones irregular growth centres Long bone Pneumatic bone/Alveolar bone Bones filled with air to lighten their weight Maxilla. a hinge joint and 2 bones distally (the forearm and shin) joined by an interosseous upper membrane ligament. L. 5 single bones mainly on the base of the skull 1 mandible 1 hyoid variable sutural and extra-sutural bones (generally between 3-5) 56 digit bones or Phalanges plus an additional 3 to 4 small sesamoid bones in the foot over the big toe and the thumb There are: ©D There are: 25 Each limb has a single long bone proximally (arm and thigh). Fibula Humerus. Most wrist (Carpal) and ankle (Tarsal) bones.

Joints and Ligaments Bone Structure Long Bone (Femur) Compact Bone ma Periosteum rA nd a Haversian Systems Endosteum Blood Vessel 26 ©D © A. Neill Ne ill Spongy or Cancellous Bone with Red Marrow Yellow Marrow . L.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments Articulated Skeleton Anterior ©D 27 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . L.

Joints and Ligaments Articulated Skeleton Posterior ©D rA ma © A. L. Neill 28 nd a Ne ill .The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments Disarticulated Bones ©D 29 © A. L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill .

Neill 30 nd a Ne ill . Joints and Ligaments ©D rA ma © A.The A to Z of Bones. L.

Neill Classification and Summary of Joints definition: joint = any BONE something BONE B+?+B i.The A to Z of Bones. L. lower limb. upper limb.e whenever 2 or more bones meet . feet and hand joints costovertebral zygapophyseal elbow /knee /finger /toe atlanto-axial medial joint wrist /ankle © A. Joints and Ligaments TYPE OF JOINT GOMPHOSIS SYNARTHROSES = FIBROUS JOINT eg SUTURE (short fibrous connection b/n bones) eg SYNDESMOSIS (longer fibres more cartilage) SYNCHONDROSIS = 1º CARTILAGENOUS JOINT (Amphiarthrosis) SYMPHYSIS (20 cartilagenous joint) SYNOVIAL (Diarthrosis) eg PLANE eg HINGE eg PIVOT rA ma BONE HYALINE CARTILAGE SYNOVIAL FLUID HYALINE CARTILAGE BONE STRUCTURE BONE FIBRES TOOTH BONE FIBRES BONE BONE FIBRES BONE BONE FIBRES BONE BONE HYALINECARTILAGE BONE BONE FIBROCARTILAGE BONE MOVEMENT nil little / nil nil ©D eg CONDYLOID eg BALL & SOCKET eg SADDLE 31 nd a little due to the elasticity of the CARTILAGE little in all directions may be influenced by HORMONES Full movement type depends upon the shape of the boney surfaces gliding / sliding one directional movement around an axis movement in 2 directions movement in many directions .common hip / shoulder centre movement in 2 planes thumb C-MC joint Ne ill EXAMPLES teeth / jaw bone joints in the Skull joints b/n flat bones Tibiofibula joint Radioulna joint 1st costal cartilage to the Manubrium rib cartilage Manubriosternum MOST joints in axial skeleton eg b/n VERTEBRAL BODIES b/n Pubic bones MOST joints in the appendicular skeleton.

Joints and Ligaments Synovial Joint Joint capsule ma rA ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill nd a Synovial membrane Hyaline cartilage 32 Ne ill Bone Synovial cavity . L.

bifurcate lig with 2 insertions ma description of any lig in front of the named structure (also used to describe those fibres in front of a structure) collateral = accessory rA any “helping” lig. knee jts wrist © A. of the Radius ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT = ALL calcaneocuboid + calcaneonavicular pisio-hamate + pisio-metacarpal radial collat lig the: palm (palmar). foot overview. Neill Classification and Summary of Ligaments definition: a band of tissue connecting bones. EXAMPLES annular also see retinaculum arcuate anterior any curved lig. viscera or other body structures.The A to Z of Bones. supporting/strengthening the primary lig generally used where there are many short bones in a crowded area any circular lig. shoulder joint. phalanges (volar) temporomandibular joint (Henle). may be distinct fibrous bands or fascial folds or nonfunctional remnants of foetal structures . Joints and Ligaments NAME accessory = collateral DESCRIPTION any “helping” lig. supporting/strengthening the primary lig generally used with outer ligs over bigger joints ligaments which cross over ©D cruciform deltoid 33 ligs which fan out as a “D” DELTOID LIGAMENT nd a annulus fibrosis annular lig. wrist overview vertebro-vertebral joints elbow ankle joint-subtalar dorsum of the hand elbow. CRUCIATE LIGAMENTS knee jt (of the knee) cruciate ligs of the atlanto-axial jt odontoid jt craniovertebral jts ankle jt Ne ill SHOWN IN hand overview. TMJ views. humerus and wrist arcuate pubic ligament pelvic girdle overview craniovertebral jts thoracic cage vertebro-vertebral jts. L. sole (plantar).

Tendons which join muscle to bone are not discussed nor are other ligamentous structures such as the aponeuroses or ligaments of organs such as the Hepatic ligaments. costovertebral jts © A.deep ligs acting as a surface for muscle attachment inter-spinous posterior rA long ligs which attach 2 bones SUPRASPINOUS “interspinous” over long distances acting LIGAMENTUM NUCHAE as an extended surface for SACROSPINOUS muscle attachment . Joints and Ligaments NAME flava DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES ligs with large amounts of LIGAMENTUM FLAVA elastic fibres hence yellow in colour inter-osseous ligs which span across 2 bones for a considerable length . vertebra-vertebro jts vertebro-vertebral jts craniovertebral jts pelvic girdle overview sacrum pelvic girdle vertebro-vertebral jts thoracic cage.ligs INGUINAL LIG description of any lig POSTERIOR behind the named structure LONGITUDINAL (also used to describe LIGAMENT = PLL those fibres of a lig behind a structure) lig which fans out (smaller radiate lig of the rib deltoid shape) ma ligs which are b/n 2 spines INTERSPINOUS deep ligs acting as a LIGAMENTS surface for muscle attachment.more SACROTUBEROUS supf than the inter.The A to Z of Bones. bones and skeletal muscles. L. Neill 34 . nd a interarticular ligs which enter the (may also be synovium and are inside called synovial) the joint long head of Biceps shoulder jt cruciate ligs of the knee knee jts acetabular lig hip jt interosseous membrane forearm radioulna jts of the forearm lower leg tibiofibular jts interosseous membrane of the lower leg OBTURATOR LIG pelvic overview vertebral column overview ©D radiate synovial = interarticular Ne ill SHOWN IN The ligaments included in this book are those associated with the musculoskeletal system.

Neill rA Clavicle .conoid part nd a Ne ill Acromio-Clavicular articulation & joint = part of the pectoral girdle ..Trapezoid part 3 4 5 6 supra-scapula notch 3A supra-scapular lig Clavicle .sternal end Acromio-Clavicular art.The A to Z of Bones. pectoral Ns (C5-C6) Movements associated with scapula: elevation / depression. L. protraction/retraction. Joints and Ligaments A anterior (ribs cut away) BS NS supra scapular artery.acromial end ma 2C Coraco-Clavicular lig. . lat. rotation 1 2 Acromion Coracoid process of Scapula 1A Aromio-Clavicular lig. 2A Coraco-Acromial lig 2B Coraco-Clavicular lig. ©D 35 © A. thoracoacromial artery suprascapular.

L. Neill nd a 2B Ne ill 3 4 2 .The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments A 1 6 5 1A 2A rA ©D ma 2C 3A 36 © A.

3D Tibio-Calcaneal lig 5 6 7 8 9 4D Tibio-Talar (deep) lig Tibio-Talar lig Tibio-fibular lig anterior Talo-Fibular lig post. Talo-Fibular lig Talo-Fibular lig .tibial fibres 10 Calcaneo-Fibular lig *D = all parts of the DELTOID lig -from TIBIA to ankle bones in a “D” shape ©D 37 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . L. tibial & peroneal arteries NS deep peroneal tibial NS deep peroneal = ant tibial (L4-S2) A dorsiflexion plantarflexion 1D Tibio-Calcaneal (deep) lig 2D Tibio-navicular lig. Joints and Ligaments A ANKLE JOINT = Talocrural joint medial / lateral BS ant.

Neill 38 nd a 10 Ne ill 6 . L. Joints and Ligaments A 5 2D ©D rA 1D ma 8 5 2D © A.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments A ANKLE JOINT = Talocrural joint posterior BS ant. Neill rA *D = all parts of the DELTOID lig -from TIBIA to ankle bones in a “D” shap ma nd a Ne ill . L. Talo-Fibular lig Talo-Fibular lig .Tibial fibres 10 Calcaneo-Fibular lig ©D 39 © A. Talo-Fibular lig Tibio-Talar lig Tibio-fibular lig post. 3D Tibio-Calcaneal lig 5 6 7 8 9 4D Tibio-Talar (deep) lig ant. tibial & peroneal arteries NS deep peroneal = ant tibial (L4-S2) A dorsiflexion plantarflexion 1D* Tibio-Calcaneal (deep) lig 2D Tibio-Navicular lig.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments A nd a 7 ©D rA ma 10 © A. L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 9 Ne ill 8 1D 2D 3D 4D 40 .

Calcaneo-Cuboidal lig lat. Joints and Ligaments A ANKLE JOINTS lower = SUBTALAR joints lateral / medial BS* anastomotic network around jts from ant. Talo-Calcaneal lig med. post. rA 10 Talo-Calcaneo-Navicular jt ma © A. tibial arteries. Calcaneo-Navicular lig 6 7 8 9 long plantar lig subtalar jt 5B med. dorsalis pedis. L. Talo-Calcaneal lig 11 Spring lig / plantar Calcaneo-cuboidal lig 12 short plantar lig ©D 41 *B = BIFURCATED lig (2 heads) also called Bifurcate lig. peroneal arteries NS medial lateral plantar Ns (L4-S3) A inversion eversion (foot) gliding and rotation (subtalar joints individually) 1 2 3 interosseous Talo-Calcaneal lig cervical lig Talo-Navicular lig 4B lat. Neill nd a Ne ill .The A to Z of Bones.

Neill . Joints and Ligaments A 1 8 2 nd a 6 7 ma 9 rA 12 6 ©D 8 Ne ill 3 5B 4B 11 3 10 42 © A. L.The A to Z of Bones.

CERVICAL & THORACIC regions VB with VB via intervertebral discs = INTERVERTEBRAL jts (fibrocartilagenous) articular processes superior/inferior = ZYGAPOPHYSEAL jts (plane synovial) first rib with manubrium jt / COSTO-STERNAL jt (synovial) clavicular jts .MANUBRIOSTERNAL jt (fibrocartilagenous) sternum with xiphoid process .COSTOVERTEBRAL jts (synovial) manubrium with sternum . Joints and Ligaments A ANTERIOR CHEST .XIPHISTERNUM jt (fibrocartilagenous. L.proximal CLAVICULO-STERNAL (synovial) -distal ACROMIO-CLAVICULAR (synovial) scapula with humerus / SHOULDER jt = GLENOHUMERAL jt (synovial) ribs with sternomanubrium jts / COSTOSTERNAL jts (varied) ribs with vertebrae .may ossify) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ist rib clavicle acromion f the scapula humerus 5th rib manubrium sternum Xiphoid process 12th rib L1 vertebral body © A.OVERVIEW SHOWING vertebral jts .The A to Z of Bones. Neill ©D 43 rA ma nd a Ne ill .

The A to Z of Bones. L. Joints and Ligaments A 2 3 4 1 5 rA ©D ma 8 10 9 7 44 © A. Neill nd a Ne ill 6 .

forearm radial ulna deviations / flexion extension circumduction .elbow supination pronation .shoulder flexion extension .wrist 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Lateral supracondylar ridge Lateral epicondyle Radial collateral ligament annular ligament styloid process Scaphoid Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate Triquetrium Lunate Olecranon Medial Supracondylar ridge Medial epicondyle Trochlea Head of Ulna Shaft of Radius Shaft of Ulna acromoin coracoid process ©D 45 rA ma © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill nd a Ne ill . L. Joints and Ligaments A ARM Articulations = Upper limb overview anterior FRONT (L) / posterior BACK BS brachial artery NS brachial plexus (C2-T1) A all movements .

L. Joints and Ligaments A 21 2 4 ma nd a 14 15 1 16 17 3 4 19 5 7 8 6 18 rA ©D Ne ill 20 2 13 9 12 11 10 46 right anterior left posterior b© A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill .

arch 11 vertebral foramen ©D 47 © A. mass 12 ant.Gk demigod who held up the world on his shoulders) Articulations: Atlanto-Axial jts (3) C1-C2 Atlanto-Occipital jts (2) C1-Occiput (Base of the skull) Special no vertebral body special anterior features no spinous process facet for dens no articular discs (odontoid process) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 facet for odontoid / dens process ant.The A to Z of Bones. tubercle superior articular facet inferior articular facet posterior tubercle posterior arch groove for vertebral BVs & suboccipital N Foramen Transversarium = transverse foramen TP 10 lat. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . Joints and Ligaments A Atlas = C1 = First Cervical Vertebra anterior / superior (Atlas . L.

L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 48 . Joints and Ligaments A 9 12 11 nd a 4 2 1 6 7 10 ma 8 rA 9 ©D Ne ill 3 4 5 © A.

The A to Z of Bones.lateral = zygapophyseal joints of C1/C2 BS spinal branches of vertebral art.Odontoid process (C2) transverse lig of Axis (C2) transverse foramen of Axis (C2) medial tubercle of Atlas (C1) tranverse foramen of Axis (C2) post arch and tubercle of Atlas (C1) lamina and spine of Axis (C2) body of Axis (C2) superior articular facet of atlanto-occipital jt ant arch of Atlas (C1) ©D 49 11 facet for Dens (C2) 12 ant tubercle of Atlas (C1) rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.median = ODONTOID JOINT AKA hanging joint . rotation Dens . Joints and Ligaments A BS spinal branches of vertebral art. Neill Atlanto-Axial joint . L. lateral flexion. NS spinal Ns dorsal rami (C1-2) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 flexion. extension. circumduction Atlanto-Axial joints . NS spinal Ns dorsal rami (C1-2) A rotation.

Joints and Ligaments A 12 11 10 1 nd a ma 5 6 7 9 8 ©D rA Ne ill 2 3 4 50 © A. L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill .

stapes = stirrup in the Temporal bone middle ear cavity Malleus abuts the Tympanic membrane of the middle ear (eardrum) articulates with the Incus and then the Stapes which abuts to the round window ©D 51 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 External Auditory Meatus = Earhole External ear Tympanic membrane = Lateral border for the middle ear Inner ear Auditory tube Cochlea Cochlea N Facial N Vestibular N Oval Window with Stapes Vestibular canals Incus Malleus Promontory Round Window View of individual bones actual size Right and Left sides respectively from above down Stapes Incus Malleus © A.Temporal stirrup with the Temporal bone round membrane Special small bones with articulate with membrane features delicate balance to stretched across bone transmit sound at both ends Ne ill Auditory ossicles = Ear bones .middle ear (in the Temporal bone) . Joints and Ligaments A Overview . Neill rA ma nd a Articulations: Malleo-Incus Hammer with the eardrum Incus-Stapes inter ear ossicle articulation Stapo .The A to Z of Bones.3 bones incus = anvil. malleus = hammer. L.In situ -individual bones Description .

L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments A 12 11 13 1 3 nd a ma 15 14 5 ©D rA Ne ill 10 9 8 7 6 52 © A. Neill .

The A to Z of Bones.pivot for movement of the head all movements but nodding) Articulations: Atlanto-Axial jts (3) vertebro-axial Axial jts (2) (Base of the skull) Special no vertebral body features dens / odontoid process no articular discs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ©D 53 © A. Joints and Ligaments A Axis = C2 = Second Cervical Vertebra anterior / superior (Axis . Neill rA Dens = Odontoid process (tooth) attachment of Alar ligament groove for Transverse ligament pedicle body vertebral foramen spinous process lamina inferior articular process transverse process transverse notch / foramen (if closed) superior articular facet facet for odontoid / dens process ma nd a Ne ill C1-C2 C1-Occiput Dens acts as an AXIS for rotation at C1 . L.

Neill . Joints and Ligaments A 12 9 13 ma 9 12 nd a 1 2 8 rA 11 ©D 10 Ne ill 10 3 4 5 6 7 54 © A. L.The A to Z of Bones.

e. L. foot bones) Articulations: 3 articular surfaces Calcaneo-navicular for the Os Tarsus Calcaneo-talus (tarsal bones) Calcaneo-cuboid 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sulcus Calcanei = Calcaneal sulcus middle articulation surface with foot bones / Os Talus anterior articulation surface with foot bones / Os Tarsus peroneal trochlea posterior surface attachment for the calcaneofibular ligament posterior part of the joint surface for the Talus groove for Flexor Hallicus Longus Sustenaculum Tali 11 medial process 13 lateral process 12 Calcaneal tuberosity ©D 55 14 Peroneal tubercle rA 10 articular surface for Cuboid ma nd a Ne ill © A.largest of the Tarsal bones/Os Tarsus i. Joints and Ligaments Calcaneus = Os Calcis = Heel bone (Calcaneus .The A to Z of Bones. Neill C lateral / medial Inferior / Superior .large quadrangular bone at the back of the Talus .

The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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(Capitate - small cap-like bone in the wrist, 2nd row of carpal bones = part of the os carpus consists mainly of articulating facets)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

facet for Lunate palmar surface facet for 3rd MC facet for 4th MC

facet for Hamate

facet for Trapezopid facet for 2nd MC facet for 3rd MC

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Capitate = Os Capitus = part of Os Carpus (wrist bones)

The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

Carpus = Carpal Bones = WRIST BONES
(Carpus = Os Carpus = wrist bones = 2 rows of bones between the fingers and the forearm)

1st row 2nd row trapezium, scaphoid, lunate, trapezoid, capitate hamate triquetral, pisiform, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Triquetral Capitate Lunate Trapezoid Scaphoid Trapezium

Metacarpals = MC head of 5th MC shaft of 5th MC

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13 Hook of Hamate

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Joints and Ligaments Clavicle = COLLAR BONE inferior / anterior proximally sterno-clavicular 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sternal end of Clavicle facet for first costal cartilage groove for subclavian artery coronoid tubercle trapezoid line superior surface anterior surface acromial end of Clavicle impression for costoclavicular lig ©D 61 © A. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill with acromion (scapula) distally acromio-clavicular C Articulations: with manubrium .The A to Z of Bones. L.

Neill 62 .The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 5 8 nd a 9 ma 3 2 rA 7 ©D 1 Ne ill 3 4 5 6 C 1 © A. L.

Joints and Ligaments Coccyx = Os Coccygis anterior / posterior functions as an anchor for many regional muscles and ligaments = the vestigial tail . Neill rA ma nd a Articulations: with each other 3-5 bones S1-3/5 average 4 which may be fused with the sacrum superiorly sacro-coccygeal Special less features inferiorly after may fuse with features: S1 no pedicles.The A to Z of Bones. L.looks like a cuckoo's bill) 1 2 3 4 superior articular surface body of coccyx 1 fused bodies C3-5 TP = transverse process ©D 63 © A. laminae or sacrum late in life looks like the bill of the cuckoo spinous processes Ne ill C (Coccyx = Small tail bones at the base of the spine - .

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments nd a 3 4 ma rA 4 ©D Ne ill 1 2 1 2 3 © A. Neill 64 C . L.

T1-12) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 articular facet for (TP) transverse process tubercle of rib articular part of rib neck of rib facet on the head of the rib superior demi-facet on the base of the VB articular capsule of the costotransverse joint costotransverse lig joint capsule intervertebral disc inner -nucleus pulposis intervetebral disc outer. Neill C .T3 VB with the TP of the equivalent vertebra eg RIB 3 with T3 nd a demifacets on the bodies of 2 adj vertebrae and their connenting disc transverse costovertebral joint = costotransverse joint Ne ill © A. Joints and Ligaments Costovertebral joints = RIB/SPINE joints articulations-superior / joints-superior (Costovertebral joints = 3 joints in each typical rib.The A to Z of Bones.annulus fibrosis intra-articular lig superior costotransverse lig lat costotransverse lig ©D 65 rA ma Articulations: with VB 2 demi-joints eg RIB 3 articulates with T2. 1 with the transverse process of the respective thoracic vertebra) BS posterior intercostals -spinal branches of the thoracic Aorta A gliding in inspiration upper 6 elevation (pump handle) lower 4 eversion (bucket handle) lowest 2 no movement NS posterior intercostals Ns spinal branches (C8. 2 with the bodies of the vertebrae. L.

L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 2 3 4 5 nd a 6 8 7 9 2 4 rA ma ©D 5 10 11 © A. Neill Ne ill 1 14 13 12 66 C .

L. Joints and Ligaments Costovertebral joints = RIB/SPINE joints articulations. Neill C . joints / lateral (Costovertebral joints = 3 joints in each typical rib.T3 VB with the TP of the equivalent vertebra eg RIB 3 with T3 nd a demifacets on the bodies of 2 adj vertebrae and their connenting disc transverse costovertebral joint = costotransverse joint Ne ill © A. 2 with the bodies of the vertebrae.The A to Z of Bones.T1-12) A gliding in inspiration upper 6 elevation (pump handle) lower 4 eversion (bucket handle) lowest 2 no movement ©D 67 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 articular facet for TP superior demi-facet on the base of the VB VB = vertebral body radiate lig ALL = anterior longitudinal lig intervertebral disc intra-articular lig head of rib angle and shaft of rib paired synovial joints planar with demi-facets superior costotranverse lig spine of thoracic vertebra superior costo-demi-facet on inferior aspect of VB rA ma Articulations: with VB 2 demi-joints eg RIB 3 articulates with T2. 1 with the transverse process of the respective thoracic vertebra) BS posterior intercostals -spinal branches of the thoracic Aorta NS posterior intercostals Ns spinal branches (C8.

Joints and Ligaments 1 12 nd a 8 ma 1 6 rA 11 ©D 10 9 Ne ill 2 2 3 4 5 7 68 C © A. L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill .

L. 1 with the transverse process of the respective thoracic vertebra atypical ribs have only 2 articulating with their own vertebral body) BS posterior intercostals -spinal branches of the thoracic Aorta NS posterior intercostals Ns spinal branches (C8. Neill rA 1 2 3 4 T1 T2 first rib second rib ma Articulations: RIB 1 with vertebral RIB 2 with T1 T2 body and transverse vertebral bodies process of T1 only tranverse process of T2 nd a Ne ill C articulations / anterolateral Costovertebral joints = RIB/SPINE joints of ATYPICAL RIBS 1 & 2 .The A to Z of Bones. T1-2) A gliding in inspiration Rib1 does not move much Rib 2 elevation ©D 69 © A. Joints and Ligaments (Costovertebral joints = 3 joints in each typical rib. 2 with the bodies of the vertebrae.

Neill Ne ill 1 2 3 4 70 C .The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments nd a ma rA ©D © A. L.

L. recurrent laryngeal spinal branches of ventral rami (C1-3) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 flexion/extension. rotation jugular foramen (transverse foramen in the base of the skull) mastoid process transverse process of C1 of Atlas ALL ALL = anterior longitudinal lig. lateral flexion. C3 C2 C3 zygapophyseal joint L capsule of the lateral atlanto-occiptal joint 10 capsule of the lateral atlanto-axial joint ©D 71 11 ant atlanto-occipital membrane rA ma nd a basilar of Occiput Ne ill © A. Joints and Ligaments Craniovertebral joints = HEAD/SPINE joints anterior (made up of median and lateral Atlanto-Occipital (C1/head) and AxialOccipital joints (C2/head) joints) BS vertebral arteries NS medial branches of dorsal rami. attached to tubercle intervertebral disc C2.The A to Z of Bones. Neill C .

Joints and Ligaments 11 Ne ill 1 C 2 3 nd a ma rA 8 7 5 6 4 10 9 ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 72 . L.

lateral flexion. longitudinal lig =PLL lamina of C2 transverse lig of atlas (C1) post atlanto-occipital lig post arch of C1 vertebral artery post atlanto-occipital lig space which leads to foramen magnum and then … vertebral foramen rA ma nd a basilar of Occiput tectorial membrane ant atlanto-occipital membrane apical lig of Dens Ne ill © A. Joints and Ligaments Craniovertebral joints = HEAD/SPINE joints lateral (made up of median and lateral Atlanto-Occipital (C1/head) and AxialOccipital joints (C2/head) joints) BS vertebral arteries NS smedial branches of dorsal rami. L.The A to Z of Bones. rotation ©D 15 16 17 17A 73 ant arch of Atlas C1 Dens of C2 longitudinal band of cruciform lig superior (becomes 7A) longitudinal band of cruciform lig inferior C2 C3 intervertebral disc body of C3 post. Neill C . recurrent laryngeal spinal branches of ventral rami (C1-3) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7A 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 flexion/extension.

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 17A 17 nd a ma 11 16 15 14 13 12 rA ©D 10 Ne ill 3 4 5 6 7 7A 8 9 C 1 2 © A. L. Neill 74 .

Neill jugular foramen Ne ill C . rotation transverse process of Atlas tectoral membrane 3A PLL capsule of zygapophyseal joints C2 C3 intervertebral disc longitudinal band of cruciform lig inferior capsule of lat joint of C1 C2 transverse band of cruciform lig over the deeper stronger transverse lig of the Atlas (C1) alar lig* 10 capsule of lat atlanto-occipital jt ©D 75 11 longitudinal band of cruciform lig superior *broken in hanging rA ma nd a © A. recurrent laryngeal spinal branches of ventral rami (C1-3) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 flexion/extension. L. lateral flexion. Joints and Ligaments Craniovertebral joints = HEAD/SPINE joints posterior (made up of median and lateral Atlanto-Occipital (C1/head) and Axial-Occipital joints (C2/head) joints) BS vertebral arteries NS medial branches of dorsal rami.The A to Z of Bones.

L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 76 . Joints and Ligaments 11 nd a ma 3A 5 4 10 9 8 7 6 ©D rA Ne ill 3 C 1 2 © A.

L. Neill rA ma nd a Articulations: with Calcaneus posteriorly with 4th and 5th MTs anteriorly Special cuboid shape with features large tuberosity on the inferolateral surface Ne ill cubo-calcaneal cubo-metatarsal joints underneath and to theside C lateral / medial Cuboid = part of Os Tarsus / bones of the foot . has a tuberosity and groove to support the passage of peroneus longus tendon of the foot) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 facet for lateral cuniform facet for Navicular facet for 4th MT dorsal surface lateral surface facet for Calcaneus facet for 5th MT groove for peroneus longus tendon facet on tuberosity for sesamoid bone in the tendon ©D 77 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments (Cuboid = large cubic bone of the tarsal bones b/n calcaneus and the 4th and 5th metatarsals.

Joints and Ligaments 1 3 nd a ma 5 6 4 8 rA 7 ©D Ne ill 2 4 9 © A. L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 78 C .

L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA ma nd a with 2nd metatarsal anteriorly is the smallest of the cuniforms Ne ill also joins to the other cuniforms on either side Cuniform intermediate = the second Cuniform part of Os Tarsus / bones of C the foot . the most lateral of the Cuniform bones) Articulations: with Navicular posteriorly Special features 1 2 3 4 facet for lateral cuniform facet for Navicular facet for medial cuniform facet for 2nd metatarsal ©D 79 © A. Joints and Ligaments lateral / medial (Cuniform bones = 3 + Cuboid.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill nd a 2 80 Ne ill 4 C . Joints and Ligaments 3 ©D rA ma 1 © A.

Joints and Ligaments (Cuniform bones = 3 + Cuboid the most lateral of the Cuniform bones) 1 2 3 4 5 6 facet for 4th metatarsal (MT) facet for 3rd MT facet for Cuboid facet for Navicular facet for tendon 2nd MT ©D 81 © A. L.The A to Z of Bones. 4th metatarsals with 2nd cuniform anteriorly medially Special is the intermediate in size features Ne ill C lateral / medial Cuniform lateral = the third Cuniform part of Os Tarsus / bones of the foot . Neill rA ma facet for intermediate cuniform nd a Articulations: with Navicular posteriorly with the Cuboid laterally with 2nd. 3rd.

L. Joints and Ligaments 3 1 ©D rA ma 6 4 5 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 82 nd a 2 Ne ill C .

L. Neill rA ma nd a Articulations: with Navicular posteriorly with 1st and 2nd MT anteriorly Special is the largest of the features cuniforms Ne ill cubo-calcaneal cubo metatarsal joints kidney shaped facet at the base of the 1st MT C lateral / medial Cuniform medial = the first Cuniform part of Os Tarsus / bones of the foot . Joints and Ligaments (Cuniform bones = 3 + Cuboid the most lateral of the Cuniform bones) 1 2 3 4 5 6 facet for 2nd metatarsal (MT) facet for Navicular facet for 1st MT facet for peroneus longus tendon facet for intermediate cuniform facet for tendon of Tibialis Anterior ©D 83 © A.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments 6 rA ma ©D 2 3 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill nd a 5 1 4 84 Ne ill 3 C . L.

Joints and Ligaments EAR BONES = Auditory Ossicles in situ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 middle ear / INCUS. Neill rA ma 11 ant process of Malleus 12 neck of Malleus 13 lateral malleolar process nd a head of Malleus body of Incus short process of Incus ant malleolar process post crus of stapes base of Stapes ant crus of Stapes long process of Stapes lenticular process of Incus handle of Malleus Ne ill . MALLEUS & STAPES E ©D 85 © A.The A to Z of Bones. L.

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Ne ill 3 4 5 6 8 7 9 86 E 1 2 11 ©D © A. L. Neill rA 10 ma 13 12 nd a .

fenestra vestibuli post bony ampulla 10 round window .fenestra cochlea 11 lat semicircular canal 13 lat bony ampulla 12 post semicircular canal ©D 87 © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. Joints and Ligaments EAR BONES =Auditory Ossicles in situ 1 cochlea / labyrinth ant semicircular canal ant bony ampulla elliptical recess spherical recess cochlea cupola of cochlea base of cochlea E 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 oval window . Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill .

The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA ma 9 nd a . L. Joints and Ligaments Ne ill 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 88 E 1 13 12 11 10 ©D © A.

profunda brachii. L. Joints and Ligaments ELBOW joint / humero-ulnar articulation. ulnar and median Ns (C5-7) ©D 89 © A. anterior / posterior Extended E (Elbow joint -hinge joint between the Ulna and the Humerus only one dimensional movement) BS anastomosies around joint from brachial. radial and ulnar arteries NS musculocutaneous.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA 1 Humerus 2 Radius 3 Ulna 4 head of Radius 5 neck of Radius 6 Trochlea of Humerus 7 Olecranon of Ulna ma Articulations: hinge jt Ulna hinge joint and Humerus inferior is the proximal pivot joint radio-ulnar joint nd a A flexion and extension -elbow supination pronation proximal & distal radioulnar jts at the wrist Ne ill . radial.

L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill ma 2 nd a 7 . Joints and Ligaments Ne ill 6 4 5 2 3 Right anterior 90 E 1 3 rA Left posterior ©D © A.

L. Joints and Ligaments ELBOW joint / humero-ulna joint. Neill . radial. radial and ulnar arteries NS musculocutaneous.The A to Z of Bones. lateral / medial Flexed (Elbow joint -hinge joint between the Ulna and the Humerus only one dimensional movement) E BS anastomosies around joint from brachial. ulnar and median Ns (C5-7) A flexion and extension -elbow supination pronation proximal & distal radioulnar jts at the wrist Articulations: hinge jt Ulna and Humerus hinge joint inferior is the proximal pivot joint radio-ulnar joint 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 radial collateral lig annular lig (covering the head of the Radius) radial tuberosity interosseous membrane oblique cord supinator crest of Ulna articular capsule lat epicondyle of Humerus ant band of Ulnar collateral lig medial epicondyle post band of Ulnar collateral lig Olecranon of Ulna oblique band of Ulnar collateral lig ©D 91 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. profunda brachii.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA ma 6 nd a . Joints and Ligaments Ne ill 2 3 4 5 9 2 5 4 92 E 1 8 7 7 10 11 ©D 12 13 © A. L.

Joints and Ligaments Ethmoid bones anterior / lateral / medial / superior (Ethmoid = sieve light spongy cubic bone sitting b/n the 2 orbital cavities). Neill rA 12 Vomer ma nd a Ne ill .Jugum Sphenoidale Ethmoid sinus) continuous with the Sphenoid sinus Orbital plate of Ethmoid bone (part of the Orbital cavity) (Bridge connecting the 2 wings of the Sphenoid bone) Perpendicular plate of the Palatine bone Uncinate process Ala (of Crista Galli) Anterior groove (on the Ethmoid) 10 Posterior groove (on the Ethmoid) 11 Cribiform plate (entrance for the Olfactory nerve) ©D 93 © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ethmoidal labyrinth containing air cells (part of the Crista Galli Middle Nasal concha Jugum of Sphenoid .

Joints and Ligaments 1 anterior 2 3 7 6 5 1 4 4 Ne ill lateral 2 8 3 7 superior 94 E medial 3 10 9 1 ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill rA 2 6 8 12 ma 1 11 nd a 6 .

The A to Z of Bones. Neill nd a Ne ill . L. Joints and Ligaments Femur = Thigh bone aka LEG BONE anterior / posterior (Femur = is the longest heaviest and strongest bone in the body) F Articulations: with acetabulum with the hip superiorly / proximally with patella and tibia with the knee and distally only 1 bone of the lower leg 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 greater trochanter fovea on the head Head of the femur neck of the femur intertrochanteric line lesser trochanter shaft of the femur adductor tubercle medial epicondyle medial condyle lateral condyle lateral epicondyle patella surface of the femur trochanteric fossa intertrochanteric crest spiral line linea aspera medial supracondylar line intertrochanteric fossa popliteal surface lateral supracondylar line quadrate tubercle gluteal tuberosity ©D 95 rA ma © A.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Joints and Ligaments Ne ill 2 1 23 15 6 22 16 17 18 21 20 12 11 19 96 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 F 3 14 4 rA 13 12 ©D 11 © A. Neill ma 8 9 10 nd a .

Joints and Ligaments Fibula = lower leg bone aka SHIN BONE anterior / posterior (Fibula = is a long thin lateral bone of the lower leg incidental at the knee joint pivotal at the ankle) F Articulations: with Tibia superiorly not the knee with Talus distally lateral malleolus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 styloid process articular facet for Tibia head of Fibula lateral surface lateral border anterior border posterior surface medial surface interosseus border 11 fossa for lateral malleolus 12 fossa for Tibia (distal) ©D 97 © A. Neill rA 10 Tubercle between articulations ma nd a Ne ill Tibiofibular jt Talofibular jt lateral side . L.The A to Z of Bones.

Neill rA 12 ma nd a .The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 1 2 3 4 Ne ill 9 4 7 8 5 10 11 98 F 6 8 ©D © A. L.

Each finger has a proximal. Joints and Ligaments FINGERS OVERVIEW = Phalanges (Fingers = made up of 3 phalanges.hinge joint as above Ne ill see also . middle and distal phalanx. Neill ©D 99 10 proximal phalanx of the fifth/little finger rA middle phalanx of the index finger ma nd a with the respective metacarpal .hinge joint as above with the distal phalanx . small long bones in the hand distal to the Metacarpals.saddle joint with the middle phalanx .Phalanges dorsal / palmar . L.planar joint the thumb . except the thumb (pollux) which only has 2 a proximal and distal phalanx) F Articulations proximal phalanx proximal joint distal joint middle phalanx proximal distal distal phalanx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 proximal phalanx of the thumb distal phalanx of the thumb proximal phalanx of the index finger distal phalanx of the index finger distal phalanx of the third finger distal phalanx of the ring finger distal phalanx of the little finger middle phalanx of the little finger orange = phalanges red = metacarpal bones green = carpal bones © A.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments 1 2 5 6 4 3 Ne ill 10 9 7 6 5 3 1 2 4 100 F 7 7 8 ©D © A. Neill rA ma nd a . L.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments F BS princes pollicis. palmar and dorsal digital arteries NO ANASTOMOSES ACROSS THE FINGERS hence blocking both sides of the finger will result in tissue death eg wearing a tight ring (Fingers = made up of 3 phalanges. L. middle and distal phalanx. radialis indicis. adduction / abduction circumduction 1 2 3 4 5 6 palmar lig of IP joints collateral ligs of IP joints collateral ligs of MCP joints deep transverse MC ligs palmar ligs grooved for flexor tendons ©D 101 © A.The A to Z of Bones. rotation. except the thumb (pollux) which only has 2 a proximal and distal phalanx) NS median N for medial 3½ fingers ulna N for the rest A IP extension and flexion MCP flexion / extension. small long bones in the hand distal to the Metacarpals. Each finger has a proximal. Neill rA capsule for MCP of the thumb ma nd a Ne ill FINGER joints = Interphalangeal joints (IP jts) .

Neill 102 .The A to Z of Bones. L. Joints and Ligaments Ne ill nd a ma 3 4 F 2 1 6 5 ©D rA © A.

L. Cuniform intermed. Cuniform medial Cuniform proximal phalanx of Hallux (big toe) distal phalanx of Hallux (big toe) middle phalanx of 2nd toe distal phalanx of 2nd toe proximal phalanx of 2nd toe MTs Cuboid facet for medial malleolus calcaneus middle phalanx of 4th toe phalanx of 3rd toe Sustenaculum Tali of Calcaneus ©D 103 rA ma nd a Articulations: “foot” with Tibia & Fibula to make up the medial & lat. Metatarsal bones and phalanges) F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 lateral tubercle of Talus medial tubercle of Talus trochlea of Talus neck of Talus head of Talus Navicular lat. Neill . malleoli respectively within the foot T-MT jts MT-P jts IP jts Ne ill Talo-Fibular jt = lateral malleoli (lateral ankle) Talo-Tibial jt = medial malleoli (medial ankle) foot to the ball of the foot jts ie the arch ball of the foot to the toes and toe jts © A. Joints and Ligaments FOOT BONES overview dorsal / plantar (Foot defined as = Tarsal.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments 12 11 10 13 14 Ne ill 15 3 2 13 4 21 9 8 7 6 5 4 F ma 11 10 rA ©D 8 9 7 6 nd a 17 1 18 20 19 15 18 16 16 © A. Neill 104 . L.The A to Z of Bones.

middle and distal phalanx. a proximal and distal phalanx) F BS branches of dorsalis pedis medial & lat.The A to Z of Bones. L. Joints and Ligaments FOOT joints = Intertarsal joints (IT jts) dorsal / plantar (The foot is made up of the Tarsals Metatarsals and the Toes (phalanges). plantar Ns (S1-2) A slight gliding and rotation to assist with inversion / eversion of the foot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 dorsal intercuniform ligs dorsal cuneonavicular lig dorsal cuneocuboid lig dorsal cuboidenonavicular lig plantar intercuniform ligs plantar cuneonavicular lig plantar cuneocuboid lig plantar cuboidenonavicular lig ©D 105 © A. plantar art. small long bones in the foot distal to the Metatarsals. except the big toe (hallux) which only has 2. Each toe has a proximal. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . NS deep peroneal medial & lat.

Neill . L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 1 Ne ill 4 F nd a 6 2 3 5 rA ©D ma 8 7 106 © A.

L.The A to Z of Bones. Glabella 14 Frontal squama 15 Ethmoidal notch ©D 107 © A.pars orbitalis Posterior Ethmoidal foramen Anterior Ethmoidal foramen Frontal and Ethmoid air cells . 1 Frontal tuberosity -Frontal bossing Superciliary arch Nasal spine Supraorbital margin and notch F 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Superior Orbital plate . Joints and Ligaments Frontal bones anterior / lateral / inferior Description . Neill rA ma nd a Superior and inferior temporal lines Ne ill .Frontal sinus 10 Zygomatic process 12 Lacrimal fossa 11 Supra-Orbital notch or foramen 13 Metopic suture .frontal suture.horizontal section forming the roof of the orbit.Unpaired largest and very robust anterior bone forming the forehead .

Neill 108 . L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 14 Ne ill 1 2 3 13 F nd a 5 11 12 8 15 4 1 rA 4 ma 3 6 2 ©D 9 10 4 7 © A.

Joints and Ligaments Hamate = hammer lateral / medial (Hamate or hammer like bone in the first row of the Carpus or Wrist bones) Articulations: with Triquetral with 4th and 5th proximally Metacarpals (MC) distally with Capitate with Lunate medially lateroproximally H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 articular surface for Lunate Hook / Hamulus articular surface for Capitate articular surface for 5th MC articular surface for 4th MC palmar surface dorsal surface ©D 109 © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill rA ma nd a articular surface for Triquetral Ne ill .

Joints and Ligaments 1 4 3 Ne ill 8 5 2 7 3 5 6 110 H ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill rA ma 1 nd a 6 .

distal end carpus or wrist bones in 2 layers H Scaphoid (part of os carpus/wrist) first metacarpal bone proximal phalanx of thumb (pollux) 10 distal phalanx of thumb 11 middle phalanx of 2nd finger (index finger) 12 distal phalanx of index finger 13 distal phalanx of 3rd finger (middle finger) 14 distal phalanx of 4th finger (ring finger) ©D 111 © A.2 layers of irregular bones) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 distal ends of forearm bones metacarpal bones phalanges = finger bones Ulna. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . distal end Radius.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments HAND and WRIST bones overview dorsal (Hand bones = metacarpals + phalanges (finger bones) Wrist bones = carpals . L.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 112 . L. Joints and Ligaments 13 14 12 Ne ill 11 10 H nd a 3 4 9 ma 2 7 1 6 5 8 ©D rA © A.

L.hence additional all other fingers mobility have 3 (middle) nd a Ne ill © A. Neill .The A to Z of Bones. distal end Scaphoid (part of os carpus/wrist) first metacarpal bone proximal phalanx of thumb (pollux) distal phalanx of thumb middle phalanx of 2nd finger (index finger) distal phalanx of index finger distal phalanx of 3rd finger (middle finger) distal phalanx of 4th finger (ring finger) ©D 113 rA ma Articulations main levels forearm with wrist radiocarpal / radioulna wrist with hand carpometacarpal (C-MC) hand with fingers metacarpophalangeal (MC-P) sublevel within the wrist intercarpal (IC) along the fingers interphalangeal (IP) Special thumb/pollux only MC-P features has 2 phalanges in the thumb = saddle proximal & distal joint . distal end Radius.2 layers of irregular bones) (Hip bone . Joints and Ligaments HAND (and WRIST) bones overview palmar (Hand bones = metacarpals + phalanges (finger bones) Wrist bones = carpals .unnamed because it does not resemble anything) H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 distal ends of forearm bones carpus or wrist bones in 2 layers metacarpal bones phalanges = finger bones Ulna.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill 114 . Joints and Ligaments 13 14 Ne ill 11 10 12 H 7 nd a 8 7 5 4 9 3 ©D 6 rA 1 ma 2 © A.

radial and ulnar deviation 1 2 3 4 5* 6* 7 8 9 palmar C-MC ligs radial collat ligs proximal IC lig pisiohamate lig pisio-MC lig palmar radiate C lig distal dorsal IC ligs radial collat ligs dorsal radiate ligs 10 dorsal C-MC ligs * Bifurcate ligament ©D 115 rA © A. L. Neill ma nd a Ne ill Hand .Intercarpal joints = IC joints b/n the wrist and the fingers . and deep palmar arch rich aa NS ant post interosseus Ns (C6-8) H A sliding and gliding to allow increased wrist range of movement.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments dorsal / palmar BS anterior interosseus C & MC branches of radial & ulna art.

Joints and Ligaments Ne ill nd a 4 6 2 5 3 1 H rA 10 ma 7 ©D 8 9 4 © A. Neill 116 .The A to Z of Bones. L.

Carpo-metacarpaI and Intercarpal joints = C-MC IC joints b/n the forearm and the fingers . L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments palmar / dorsal BS anterior interosseus carpal and metacarpal branches of radial and ulna arteries and deep palmar arch rich aa H NS ant post interosseus Ns (C6-8) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 interosseous MC lig dorsal lig of the thumb dorsal C-MC lig lateral lig of the thumb dorsal MC-MC ligs (inter MC) palmar MC-MC lig (inter MC) palmar lig of the thumb palmar C-MC ligs ©D 117 © A. Neill rA ma nd a sliding and gliding to allow for the fingers and thumb to increase range of movements Ne ill HAND JOINTS .

Neill 118 . L. Joints and Ligaments Ne ill 1 5 2 H nd a ma 6 8 4 3 rA 1 7 3 ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones.

cavity with the junction of all 3 bones ramus of Pubis/Pubic bone tuberosity of the Ischium ©D 119 ma 1 2 3 4 5 Articulations Pubis to Pubis defining Pubic symphysis the Sagittal plane Femur with Acetabulum hip joint = ball and socket Ilium with Sacrum Iliosacral joint Special 3 component bones Acetabulum features PUBIS/pubic bone intersection of the (yellow).The A to Z of Bones. Neill Hip bone = Innominate bone (unnamed bone) = Os Coxae . ILEUM (blue) 3 component & ISCHIUM (pink) with bones separate ossification centres completely fuse in adolescence hip+sacrum+hip = PG longer pelvic girdle (PG) wider nd a Ne ill medial © A. Joints and Ligaments (Hip bone .unnamed because it does not resemble anything) H rA 1 2 3 4 5 crest of Ileum Ala of Ileum Acetabulum . L.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill nd a . L. Joints and Ligaments 1 Ne ill 2 2 H rA 4 3 ma 5 120 ©D © A.

L. Neill 13 ischiopubic junction ma nd a Ne ill Hip bone = Innominate bone (unnamed bone) = Os Coxae . Joints and Ligaments lateral (Hip bone .unnamed because it does not resemble anything) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ASIS = anterior superior iliac spine Iliac fossa Iliac crest Iliac tuberosity H PSIS = posterior superior iliac spine PIIS = posterior inferior iliac spine ischial spine Auricular surface / articular surface of Ilium with sacrum greater sciatic notch (enclosed with a ligament in life) 10 lesser sciatic notch 11 ischial body 12 ischial tuberosity 13A ischiopubic ramus 14 pubic symphysis 15 pubic crest ©D 121 16 pubic tubercle 17 superior ramus of Pubis 18 iliopubic eminence 19 AIIS = anterior inferior iliac spine rA © A.The A to Z of Bones.

L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA 14 13 ma nd a . Joints and Ligaments 1 2 Ne ill 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 9 12 11 13A 122 H 19 18 17 16 15 ©D © A.

L. Joints and Ligaments medial (Hip bone . gluteal line inf.unnamed because it does not resemble anything) H ©D 123 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13A 13B 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ASIS = anterior superior iliac spine Iliac fossa Iliac crest Iliac tuberosity PSIS = posterior superior iliac spine Auricular surface / articular surface of Ilium with sacrum PIIS = posterior inferior iliac spine greater sciatic notch (enclosed with a ligament in life) ischial spine lesser sciatic notch ischial body ischial tuberosity ischiopubic junction ischiopubic ramus ischio ramus pubic symphysis pubic crest pubic tubercle superior ramus of Pubis iliopubic eminence AIIS = anterior inferior iliac spine post.The A to Z of Bones. Neill Hip bone = Innominate bone (unnamed bone) = Os Coxae . gluteal line crest of Acetabulum rim of Acetabulum obturator groove obturator foramen rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.

Neill ma 13B nd a . Joints and Ligaments 3 5 4 Ne ill 21 22 1 19 23 18 14 17 16 24 13A 13 25 124 H 20 7 8 9 10 rA 11 ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones. L.

The A to Z of Bones. rotation 1 2 3 4 5 6 iliofemoral lig pubofemoral lig medial band of iliofemoral lig lateral band of iliofemoral lig ischiofemoral lig H central band of iliofemoral lig ©D 125 © A. Joints and Ligaments Hip joint anterior / posterior BS articular branches of: obturator. superior and inferior gluteal arteries NS gluteal. medial circumflex femoral. adduction / abduction / circumduction. obturator Ns (L2-4) A flexion / extension. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . L.

L. Neill nd a 3 5 4 126 . Joints and Ligaments 2 Ne ill 1 5 H ma ©D rA 6 © A.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments Hip joint medial BS articular branches of: obturator. adduction / abduction / circumduction. Neill rA 10 head of femur in acetabulum-cavity ma acetebulum-edge nd a Ne ill . obturator Ns (L2-4) A flexion / extension. rotation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 iliofemoral lig pubofemoral lig ischeal ramus pubic ramus femur H ligament of femoral head ischeal spine transverse ligament ©D 127 © A. L. medial circumflex femoral. superior and inferior gluteal arteries NS gluteal.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments 10 Ne ill 6 7 4 9 5 128 H 3 1 ©D © A. L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA ma nd a 8 .

head. capitulum. L. Joints and Ligaments Humerus = ARM bone (upper arm bone) anterior / posterior (Humerus = largest bone in the upper limb) H Articulations proximal/upper end arm with scapula distal/lower end elbow Special ossifies from 8 features centres glenohumeral joint = shoulder joint elbow = humerus + ulna + radius shaft.The A to Z of Bones. trochlea. 2 epicondyles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 head of Humerus / epiphysis anatomical neck surgical neck ©D 129 medial lip of intertubercular sulcus shaft of Humerus / diaphysis and nutrient foramen medial supracondylar ridge coronoid fossa medial epicondyle trochlea capitulum lateral epicondyle radial fossa lateral supracondylar ridge deltoid tuberosity lesser tubercle greater tubercle sulcus for radial N olecranon fossa rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. Neill . 2 tubercles.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Joints and Ligaments 16 15 1 2 4 3 4 Ne ill 1 16 2 3 14 17 6 13 9 11 130 H rA 13 12 11 ©D 10 © A. Neill ma 5 6 7 18 8 9 14 nd a .

It may be broken in hanging and strangulation. protected by the mandible / CHIN. acts to shape the jawline by supporting and bending the strap muscles 1 2 3 body of hyoid greater horn (cornu) lesser horn (cornu) ©D 131 © A. . L. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill Description . Joints and Ligaments Hyoid H Articulations: nil Special of interest in Forensic investigation rarely features broken unless specific pressure on this bone because of its site.The A to Z of Bones. This bone has no articulations -the only bone in the body .and is not normally broken in trauma.Small U-shaped bone. Attached to the styloid processes via ligaments.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill nd a 1 2 3 132 3 H . Joints and Ligaments Ne ill 2 1 ma ©D rA © A. L.

Joints and Ligaments KNEE articulation anterior / posterior (the knee is the most unstable peripheral joint in the body) BS genicular branches of the following: femoral. ant.The A to Z of Bones.flexion/extension slight lateral and medial rotation for “locking” and “unlocking” 1 Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tibial tuberosity K 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 styloid process of Fibula lateral condyle of Tibia soleal line ©D 133 © A. Neill rA lateral condyle of Femur ma nd a Ne ill . L. tibial and peroneal NS tibial (S1-2) A hinge joint .

The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

KNEE JOINT
BS genicular branches of the following: femoral, ant. tibial and peroneal NS tibial, N (S1-2) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

hinge joint - flexion/extension slight lateral and medial rotation for “locking” and “unlocking” ant. cruciate lig post. meniscofemoral lig tibial collat lig medial meniscus tendon of semimembranosis oblique popliteal lig post. cruciate lig popliteal muscle arcuate lig fibular collat lig tendon of popliteal lateral meniscus suprapatellar bursa tendon of quadratus patella subcutaneous prepatella bursa infrapatella fat pad patella lig deep infrapatella bursa synovial cavity fibrous capsule transverse lig of the knee coronary lig ant ligs of the proximal tibiofibular joint

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

KNEE JOINT
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BS genicular branches of the following: femoral, ant. tibial and peroneal NS tibial, Ns (S1-2) A

hinge joint - flexion/extension slight lateral and medial rotation for “locking” and “unlocking”

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ant. cruciate lig post. meniscofemoral lig tibial collat lig medial meniscus tendon of semimembranosis oblique popliteal lig post. cruciate lig popliteal muscle arcuate lig fibular collat lig tendon of popliteal lateral meniscus suprapatellar bursa tendon of quadratus patella subcutaneous prepatella bursa infrapatella fat pad patella lig deep infrapatella bursa synovial cavity fibrous capsule

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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Joints and Ligaments LEG = Lower limb anterior FRONT / posterior BACK BS femoral. `knee .dorsiflexion/plantarflexion eversion/inversion toes as with fingers Ne ill © A. arteries NS femoral . obturator .medial thigh sciatic .flexion extension ankle . obturator.posterior thigh and everything below the knee (including the foot) (L2-S1) A L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 iliac crest Hip / coxal bone head of Femur (epiphysis) obturator foramen neck of Femur lesser trochanter greater trochanter shaft of femur (diaphysis) Patella (knee cap) medial epicondyle tibial tuberosity Tibia medial malleous (ankle) Talus lateral malleous Fibula head of Fibula lateral epicondyle proximal phalanx of the big toe ischeal tuberosity intertrochanteric crest linea aspera adductor tubercle medial condyle lateral condyle Calcaneus (heel) ©D 139 rA ma nd a hip .The A to Z of Bones.anterior thigh. Neill . L.all movements.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 140 . L. Joints and Ligaments 1 7 3 2 21 20 6 22 nd a 9 Ne ill 4 7 5 6 8 23 24 L 18 ma 16 14 26 25 23 10 11 17 12 rA ©D Left 12 16 13 14 Right 15 © A.

small moon shaped of the wrist.scaphoid luno .The A to Z of Bones.lunate wrist and the distal radio . L. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill Lunate = Os Lunatus = part of Os Carpus (wrist bones) . 1st row of carpal bones = part of the os carpus consists mainly of articulating facets) Articulations the other bones in the capito .triquetral luno .hamate 1 2 palmar surface dorsal surface facet for Hamate facet for Radius facet for Triquetral facet for Capitate L 3 4 5 6 7 facet for Scaphoid ©D 141 © A. Joints and Ligaments (Lunate .lunate end of the radius luno .

L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA 3 6 ma . Joints and Ligaments 5 4 3 nd a 7 1 142 Ne ill 1 2 L ©D © A.

condylar process neck of Mandible post.mastication. border of ramus of Mandible ramus .Gnathion mental protuberance alveolar bone surrounding teeth anterior border of ramus coronoid process .lower jaw bone joins the skull via the condyles and a cartilaginous articular plate in the Temporal fossa. Joints and Ligaments Mandible = JAW lateral / posterior (Mandible .The A to Z of Bones. houses all the bottom teeth). L. Primary function . Articulations with the Temporal TMJ = fossa .endocoronial ridge mandibular foramen lingula superior and inferior mental spines digastric fossa mylohyoid line mylohyoid groove M ©D 143 rA ma nd a © A.horizontal ramus base mental foramen mental tubercle . Neill Ne ill .this shallow temporomandibular fossa makes it easy to joint dislocate this joint 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 mandibular notch pterygoid fovea head of Mandible .vertical ramus angle of mandible oblique line inferior border body .

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 144 . L. Joints and Ligaments 1 17 16 15 14 13 nd a ma 12 21 22 10 11 Ne ill 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 M rA 23 5 18 19 20 ©D © A.

Joints and Ligaments Manubriosternum = BREAST BONE Articulations Manubrium + Sternum Manubrium + 1st rib.fibrous notch for 3rd costal cartilage notch for 4th costal cartilage notch for 5th costal cartilage notch for 6th costal cartilage notch for 7th costal cartilage xiphoid process Xiphisternal joint Sternum Jugular notch rA ma nd a Ne ill manubriosternum manubrioclavicular costomanubrial costosternal xiphisternal © A. Neill (Combination of 3 bones = Manubrium + Sternum + Xiphoid) .The A to Z of Bones. 2nd rib Manubrium + Clavicle Sternum with all costal cartilages except the 1st Xiphoid with Sternum Xiphoid with 7th rib Special 6 ossification centres features Xiphoid bone bizarre patterns of ossification 1 Manubrium M ©D 145 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 clavicular notch notch for 1st costal cartilage (rib) notch for 2nd costal cartilage (cartilaginous part of the rib) sternal angle / manubriosternal joint . L.

L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 2 1 3 nd a 4 5 3 Ne ill 14 M 13 rA ©D ma 7 8 9 10 11 © A. Neill 6 12 146 .

Joints and Ligaments Maxilla / Maxillae Bones anterior / lateral / medial (The Maxillae are 2 paired bones which form the dominant portion of the face and hold the upper teeth. The “overgrowth” of the Maxilla is often the reason for orthodontic treatment.groove articulating surface – with Palatine bones maxillary hiatus continues with the sinus Nasal Lacrimal process alveolus -bone containing tooth root canine jugun inferior meatus rA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 frontal process medial orbital surface infra-orbital margin zygomatic process infra-orbital foramen nasal notch nasal crest anterior nasal spine alveolar bone around teeth tuberosity infra-temporal surface orbital surface palatine process ethmoid crest middle meatus conchal crest anterior Nasal spine ma © A.) M premaxillary suture is here .The A to Z of Bones. Neill nd a Ne ill . L.fuses with completed jaw growth ©D 147 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Incisive canal supported by the canine jugun Greater Palatine canal .

Neill 148 .The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 1 13 24 1 3 4 5 6 7 24 nd a 12 8 1 22 14 23 13 Ne ill 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 2 M rA 21 9 ma 10 10 15 16 25 7 17 18 9 24 ©D 20 19 © A. L.

proximal end of the approp.2nd row of carpal bones (wrist bones) metacarpals either side distal . Joints and Ligaments Metacarpals = HAND BONES Articulations proximal . L.The A to Z of Bones. 2nd (to the index finger) and 1st (to the thumb) © A. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill (metacarpals = bones between the wrist and the fingers) . 4th (to the ring finger). (to the middle finger). proximal phalanx Special these are long bones features upper dorsal (back of the hand) lower palmar (palm of the hand) 1 Hamate Triquetral Capitate Lunate M 1A hook of Hamate 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Trapezoid Scaphoid Pisiform head Trapezium ©D 11 base 149 10 shaft 12 METACARPAL bones from above down 5th (to the little finger). 3rd.

Joints and Ligaments 10 12 nd a 10 11 1A 1 8 7 9 Ne ill 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 9 M 12 rA ©D ma 5 6 © A. L. Neill 150 .The A to Z of Bones.

2nd row of carpal bone Hamate / 4th metacarpal distal . Joints and Ligaments Metacarpal fifth = bone to the little finger Articulations proximal .The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill (metacarpal = bone between the wrist and the fingers) .medial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 articular surface for 4th metacarpal articular surface for Hamate Base / proximal end palmar surface shaft M head / distal end articulates with 5th phalanx dorsal surface ©D 151 © A.proximal end of the fifth proximal phalanx Special these are long bones features upper .lateral lower .

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 5 7 3 nd a 5 6 5 4 5 3 1 2 152 Ne ill 6 M ©D © A. Neill rA ma . L.

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Metacarpal first = bone to the thumb Articulations proximal .lateral lower . Neill rA ma nd a upper . L.proximal end of the first proximal phalanx Special long bone wide ranging joint does not features articulate with the next metacarpal set apart 1 2 3 4 5 6 articular eminence associated with sesamoid bone articular surface for Trapezium Base / proximal end shaft M Head / distal end articulates with 1st phalanx groove crossed by Flexor Pollicus Brevis and Longus ©D 153 © A.2nd row carpal bone Trapezium / distal .medial Ne ill (metacarpal = bone between the wrist and the fingers) .

Joints and Ligaments nd a 3 6 Ne ill 5 4 M ma rA ©D 2 1 © A. Neill 5 4 3 154 .The A to Z of Bones. L.

Joints and Ligaments Metacarpal fourth = bone to the ring finger Articulations proximal .lateral lower .2nd row carpal bone Hamate / 3rd metacarpal.medial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 articular surface for Capitate Base / proximal end palmar surface dorsal surface shaft M Head / distal end articulates with 4th phalanx head articular surface for 3rd metacarpal articular surface for Hamate articular surface for 5th metacarpal ©D 155 © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill (metacarpal = bone between the wrist and the fingers) . 5th metacarpal distal .proximal end of the 4th proximal phalanx Special long bone features upper .

L. Neill 156 . Joints and Ligaments 3 6 nd a 2 9 Ne ill 5 4 8 M ma 5 4 rA 7 6 3 ©D 2 1 © A.The A to Z of Bones.

proximal end of the 2nd proximal phalanx Special long bone features Ne ill Metacarpal second = bone to the index finger . L.medial 1 dorsal surface M 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Base / proximal end articulation with Trapezoid palmar surface shaft articulation with Trapezium articular surface for Capitate articular surface for 3rd metacarpal ©D 157 © A. Neill rA Head . Joints and Ligaments (metacarpal = bone between the wrist and the fingers) upper .The A to Z of Bones. 4th metacarpal distal .articulation with phalanx of index finger ma nd a Articulations proximal .2nd row carpal bone Trapezoid / Trapezium / Capitate 3rd metacarpal.lateral lower .

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 6 2 nd a 9 8 7 6 1 5 2 4 3 158 1 Ne ill 7 5 M ©D © A. L. Neill rA ma .

The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA Base / proximal end - ma nd a Articulations proximal . 4th metacarpal distal .medial 1 articular surface for 2nd metacarpal articular surface for Capitate palmar surface dorsal surface M 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Head . Joints and Ligaments (metacarpal = bone between the wrist and the fingers) upper .articulation with proximal phalanx of middle finger Styloid process articular surface for 4th metacarpal shaft ©D 159 © A.lateral lower .2nd row carpal bone Capitate 2nd metacarpal.proximal end of the 3rd proximal phalanx Special long bone features Ne ill Metacarpal third = bone to the middle finger . L.

Neill rA ma . L. Joints and Ligaments 5 9 6 nd a 8 7 2 4 3 5 2 1 6 160 Ne ill 4 3 M ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones.

proximal phalanx Special these are long bones features upper dorsal (back of the foot) lower palmar (sole of the foot) 1 2 3 3A 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 M ©D 161 Cuboid facet for medial malleolus Calcaneus Sustenaculum Tali of Calcaneus lateral tubercle of Talus medial tubercle of Talus trochlear surface of Talus neck of Talus head of Talus Navicular lateral Cuniform intermediate Cuniform medial Cuniform METATARSAL from bottom up 5th (to the little toe). 4th (to the 4th toe). L.proximal end of the approp. 2nd (to the 2nd toe) and 1st (to the big toe) rA ma nd a © A.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments (metatarsals = bones between the ankle and the toes) Articulations proximal . 3rd.tarsal bones (ankle bones) metatarsals either side distal . Neill Ne ill Metatarsals Overview = FOOT BONES (not ankle) . (to the 3rd toe).

Joints and Ligaments 6 5 4 7 8 9 10 11 3 2 nd a 1 13 9 10 11 12 1 13 Ne ill 12 Right M 3A rA 3 ma 7 Left ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill 162 .

Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill (metatarsals = bones between the ankle and the toes) .tarsal bones (ankle bones) metatarsals either side distal . Joints and Ligaments Metatarsals = FOOT BONES (not ankle) Articulations proximal .The A to Z of Bones.proximal end of the approp. L. proximal phalanx Special these are long bones features M View of the FIRST metatarsal lateral medial rounded articulation for the proximal phalanx of the BIG TOE facets for the medial cuniform ± second metatarsal view of the SECOND metarsal lateral medial rounded articulation for the SECOND TOE facets for the lateral & intermediate cuniforms + third metatarsal ©D 163 © A.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Joints and Ligaments nd a ©D rA ma © A. Neill 164 Ne ill M .

Neill (metatarsals = bones between the ankle and the toes) .tarsal bones (ankle bones) metatarsals either side distal . Joints and Ligaments Metatarsals = FOOT BONES (not ankle) Articulations proximal . proximal phalanx Special these are long bones features M ©D 165 View of the FIFTH metatarsal lateral medial rounded articulation for the LITTLE TOE facets for the cuboid + fourth metatarsal rA View of the FOURTH metatarsal lateral medial rounded articulation for the FOURTH TOE facets for the lateral cuniform & cuboid + third and fifth metatarsals ma nd a View of the THIRD metatarsal lateral medial rounded articulation for the proximal phalanx of the MIDDLE TOE facets for the lateral cuniform + second and fourth metatarsals Ne ill © A. L.The A to Z of Bones.proximal end of the approp.

Joints and Ligaments nd a ©D rA ma © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 166 Ne ill M . L.

The A to Z of Bones. 2 lateral walls which house the 3 PAIRED TURBINATES or CONCHAE. nasal spine 6 Maxilla 6A articulation b/n Nasal bones and Maxilla 7 Sphenoid bone 8 Vomer 9 Sphenoidal sinus 10 Crista Galli 11 foramen for Nasal vein 12 notch for external nasal Nerve 13 articulation with other Nasal bone 14 Lacrimal bone 15 Inferior concha and meatus 16 Palantine bone . L. the NASAL BONES.2 small thin rectangular bones below the Glabella. ©D 167 rA ma N superior & parts of the Ethmoid bone middle nasal conchae inferior nasal 2 small snail like bones conchae lying on top of Palantine bones 1 frontal sinus 2 Nasal spine of frontal bone 3 Nasal bone -external surface 3A Nasal bone internal surface 4 perpendicular plate of Ethmoid 5 ant.lateral / medial BONES .made up of the VOMER and the ETHMOID bones and the many cartilages which determine the length and shape of the nose and nasal nares (nostrils).perpendicular plate 17 sphenopalantine meatus 18 superior concha and meatus 19 middle concha and meatus nd a Articulations with Frontal superiorly with Lacrimal laterally with itself medially with Ethmoid inferiorly SPECIAL “articulates” with nasal FEATURES cartilages anteriorly Ne ill All 2o fibrocartilagenous joints BS in septum does not extend to cartilage © A. The cavity is surrounded by sinuses which open into it and superiorly by the Ethmoid plate allowing the OLFACTORY nerves to drop processes into the cavity. Neill CAVITY . the MEDIAL SEPTUM . Joints and Ligaments Nasal Bones and Cavity = NOSE The NOSE consists of: .external / internal .

L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 2A 11 6A 12 3 1 2 3 4 15 5 6 1 1 1 10 13 nd a 2 Ne ill 3A 3 9 9 8 7 rA ma N 19 19 18 18 3A 9 ©D 6 14 7 17 15 16 16 © A. Neill 168 .

L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments distal / proximal Articulations with all the cuniforms distally with Talus proximally 1 2 3 4 5 tuberosity facet for medial cuniform facet for intermediate cuniform facet for lateral cuniform facet for head of Talus ©D 169 © A. Neill rA ma N nd a Ne ill Navicular = part of Os Tarsus / bones of the foot .

L. Joints and Ligaments nd a 5 Ne ill 1 rA ma 1 4 N ©D 2 3 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 170 .

L. Neill . Joints and Ligaments Occipital bone external / internal Articulations with Vertebral Column with C1 with C2 Special large bowl like bone with a features hole at the infero-posterior portion of the skull 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 O superior angle highest nuchal line superior nuchal line inferior nuchal line Mastoid margin jugular process condylar fossa Occipital condyle foramen magnum hypoglossal canal condylar canal lateral surface lateral angle external / internal Occipital crest squamous surface external / internal Occipital protuberance lamboid margin groove for superior sagittal sinus cerebral fossa groove for transverse sinus attachment for Tentorium Cerebelli groove for superior sigmoid sinus jugluar notch jugular tubercle attachments for Falx Cerebri opisthion basion Occipital sulcus .The A to Z of Bones.sagittal sinus ©D 171 rA ma nd a Ne ill laterally © A.

Neill 172 . Joints and Ligaments 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 25 nd a 9 28 9 10 ma 27 26 Ne ill 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 18 19 20 21 5 22 23 24 17 1 17 16 14 13 O ©D 11 12 rA © A.The A to Z of Bones. L.

Joints and Ligaments Palatine bones (Left) sagittal / medial / anterior / posterior Articulations mainly with the upper jaw (Maxilla) and the Sphenoid Special L-shaped bones features forms the floor of the Nasal cavity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 perpendicular plate .vertical plate Palato-Maxillary suture Maxilla Orbital process Spheno-Papalatine notch Spenoidal process horizontal plane P ©D 173 © A. Neill rA ma 6A Pterygo-Palatine canal nd a Ne ill 2o fibrocartilagenous joints .The A to Z of Bones. L.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill . Joints and Ligaments 1 ma rA 5 4 1 1 6 nd a 2 2 Ne ill 3 1 P 5 6 8 ©D 6A 7 7 174 © A. L.

inferiorly with the Occipital .largest of features the cranial vault .posteriorly with itself medially Special large square bone .anterior with the Temporal . L. Neill . Joints and Ligaments Parietal bone (Left) external / internal Articulations with the Frontal .The A to Z of Bones.even thickness all 4 corners made up the basis of the fontanelles in the infant 1 2 3 4 5 superior temporal line parietal eminence articulation with the Occipital bone (Lambdoid suture) articulation with the Temporal bone (Mastoid) Parieto-Mastoid suture Temporo-Parietal suture P 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 articulation with the Sphenoid (Greater wing) Spheno-Parietal suture ©D 175 articulation with the Frontal bone Coronal suture inferior Temporal line groove for superior sagittal sinus frontal angle sphenoidal angle groove for frontal branch of Middle Meningeal vessels groove for parietal branch of Middle Meningeal vessels mastoid angle groove for sigmoid sinus occipital angle articulation between Parietal bones Sagittal suture rA ma articulation with the Temporal (Squamous) nd a Ne ill All 2o fibrocartilagenous joints © A.

Joints and Ligaments 8 7 nd a 5 6 ma 13 12 9 17 Ne ill 2 3 4 10 1 P 16 ©D 15 14 rA 11 © A. Neill 176 .The A to Z of Bones. L.

Joints and Ligaments Patella = KNEE CAP anterior / posterior Articulations Special features 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 with the Femur large round bone P ©D 177 © A. Neill rA ma nd a base apex femur articulation in flexion femur articulation . L.The A to Z of Bones.lateral condyle femur articulation in extension area for infra-patella fat pad femur articulation .medial condyle Ne ill .

L. Joints and Ligaments nd a ma 6 2 7 Ne ill 1 2 3 P 4 rA ©D 5 © A. Neill 178 .The A to Z of Bones.

L. Joints and Ligaments PECTORAL GIRDLE = SHOULDERS anterior / superior / posterior SPECIAL FEATURES to support the upper limb to act as accessory structure in respiration 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 first rib Clavicle Acromion of Scapula Humerus glenoid fossa of Scapula coracoid process of Scapula Manubrium (part of the Manubriosternum) Sternum (part of the Manubriosternum) Xphisternum 10 vertebral body of T12 P 11 rib 11 12 rib 12 14 medial border of Scapula 15 transverse processes 16 spine of vertebrae ©D 179 © A. Neill rA 13 spine of Scapula ma nd a Ne ill .The A to Z of Bones.

L. Joints and Ligaments 7 1 2 6 5 8 9 nd a 12 10 7 13 16 ma rA 4 Ne ill 1 3 P ©D 14 15 © A. Neill 180 .The A to Z of Bones.

L. sacroiliac lig iliac fossa iliac crest greater sciatic foramen spine of Ischium sacrospinal lig lesser sciatic foramen pectoneal lig = Cooper’s lig tuberosity of Ischium sacrotuberous lig superior pubic lig interpubic disc iliopectoneal eminence ant inferior iliac spine = AIIS ant superior iliac spine = ASIS sacroiliac joint base of sacrum sacral canal inguinal lig (thickened portion) reflected inguinal lig inguinal lig aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle lacuna lig supf inguinal ring medial crus lateral crus ala of Sacrum Coccyx obturator foramen ©D 181 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. Neill .The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments PELVIC GIRDLE = HIPS posterior SPECIAL FEATURES to support the body weight to support the pelvic organs and contents to support the lower limbs P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8A 9 10 11 11A 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18A 19 19A 19B 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 anterior longitudinal lig = ALL iliolumbar lig superior band iliolumbar lig inferior band ant.

L. Joints and Ligaments 2 3 nd a 27 26 ma 25 Ne ill 16 7 15 8A 11A 11 6 P ©D rA 17 © A. Neill 182 .The A to Z of Bones.

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments PELVIC GIRDLE = HIPS anterior SPECIAL FEATURES to support the body weight to support the pelvic organs and contents to support the lower limbs P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8A 9 10 11 11A 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18A 19 19A 19B 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 anterior longitudinal lig = ALL iliolumbar lig superior band iliolumbar lig inferior band ant. sacroiliac lig iliac fossa iliac crest greater sciatic foramen spine of Ischium sacrospinal lig lesser sciatic foramen pectoneal lig = Cooper’s lig tuberosity of Ischium sacrotuberous lig superior pubic lig interpubic disc iliopectoneal eminence ant inferior iliac spine = AIIS ant superior iliac spine = ASIS sacroiliac joint base of sacrum sacral canal inguinal lig (thickened portion) reflected inguinal lig inguinal lig aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle lacuna lig supf inguinal ring medial crus lateral crus ala of Sacrum Coccyx obturator foramen ©D 183 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. Neill . L.

The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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Phalanges = DIGITS

ARTICULATIONS with the metacarpals or metatarsals proximally with other phalanges distally each digit except the first has 3 phalanges fist digits :thumb/pollux and big toe/hallux, have only 2 phalanges SPECIAL FEATURES hinge joints - flexion and extension only b/n phalanges 1 2 3 4 distal phalanx joint capsule middle phalanx proximal phalanx

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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Joints and Ligaments Pubic Symphysis = Pubic joint anterior (Pubic symphysis is a secondary fibrocartilagenous joint) BS internal pudendal NS internal pudendal Ns perineal branch (S2-4) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 nil . Neill rA ma interpubic disc of fibrocartilage nd a Ne ill .The A to Z of Bones.except under hormonal influence eg childbirth inguinal lig acetabular labrium pectineal lig lacuna lig arcuate pubic lig transverse acetabular lig superior pubic lig hyaline cartilage P 9 ©D 189 © A. L.

L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 190 . Joints and Ligaments 1 2 3 4 nd a 9 ma 5 Ne ill 8 7 P 6 ©D rA © A.

radial and ulna arteries NS radial and median Ns (C7-8) A supination / pronation Articulations superior is the elbow joint inferior is the wrist joint nd a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 annular lig oblique cord interosseous membrane styloid process gap for the posterior interosseous vessels sacciform recess of the capsule of distal radioulnar joint R ©D 191 © A. Joints and Ligaments Radio-Ulnar joint proximal (below the elbow) distal (above the wrist) (pivot joint between the Ulna and the Radius allowing turning one bone over the other) BS anastomosies around joint from brachial.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA ma gap for the posterior interosseous vessels Ne ill hinge joint anterior . L. profunda brachii.

Joints and Ligaments 1 2 3 4 5 rA ma 7 6 nd a R 192 ©D © A. Neill Ne ill .The A to Z of Bones. L.

pollicus longus ma nd a Ne ill mid radio-ulnar joint = interosseous scaphoid. indicis ext. lunate. Joints and Ligaments Radius anterior / posterior Articulations with Ulna proximally & distally with first row of carpal bones distally R ©D 193 © A. carpi radialis longus ext. Neill rA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a-f a b c d e f head neck radial tuberosity shaft interosseous border ulnar notch styloid process dorsal tubercle posterior border grooves for the tendons crossing the Radius ext. pollicus brevis ext. L.The A to Z of Bones. digitorum ext. triquetral . carpi radialis brevis ext.

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 1 2 3 nd a 4 ma rA 7 6 5 Ne ill 9 8 R ©D a b c d e f © A. Neill 194 . L.

L. Joints and Ligaments RIB CAGE overview ARTICULATIONS - R ©D 195 SPECIAL FEATURES (see Rib typical) UPPER 6 ribs .pump movement -up & down in respiration LOWER 4 ribs.The A to Z of Bones. Neill Thorax Cavity anterior .anchor the DIAPHRAGM cartilaginous joints Manubrium with Sternum Sternum with Xiphisternum secondary fibrocartilagenous joints posterior (see costovertebral joints) EACH RIB with the same VB and the one above medially and with the transverse process of the VB laterally planar synovial joints ma nd a Ne ill © A.bucket handle movement -up and out & down and in respiration upper border = thoracic inlet = 1st rib + clavicle +manubrium + VB lower border = thoracic outlet = Xphisternum + 12th rib + VB rA anterior (see sternocostal joints) RIB 1 with Manubrium RIB 2 with the Manubrium and Sternum RIBS 3-6 with the Sternum directly TRUE RIBS RIBS 7-10 with Sternum via costocartilagenous ridge FALSE RIBS RIBS 11-12 do not articulate FLOATING RIBS DO NOT MOVE with respiration .

L. Neill 196 Ne ill . Joints and Ligaments rA ma R ©D nd a © A.The A to Z of Bones.

Neill rA lig of Serratus Anterior ma nd a Ne ill articulations superior .The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Ribs .RIB 1 T2 RIB 2 costovertebral joints demi-facets on head of Rib 2 b/n T1 and T2 crest in b/n single facet on head of Rib 1 for T1 spine of T1 + TP tubercles shafts 7A 7V groove for subclavian artery and N and vein scalene tubercle attachment of costovertebral lig R 10 ©D 197 © A. L.2 bones superior 1/1A 2/2A 3 3A 4 5 6 8 9 T1 .atypical 1.

Joints and Ligaments 4 5 6 10 nd a 5 6 10 ma rA 7A Ne ill 1 2 1A 2A 3A 3A 3A 3 R 8 7V 9 ©D © A. Neill 198 .The A to Z of Bones. L.

Joints and Ligaments Ribs .typical 3-10 inferior / posterior Articulations with VC -transverse process (TP) posteriolaterally with VB posteriorly synovial joints Special features 1 2 3 4 5 head neck tubercle angle tubercle facet R 6 7 8 9 shaft / body costal end costal groove ©D 199 demi-facet for vertebra 10 interarticular crest 11 demi-facet for vertebra rA ma © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. . Neill nd a at the same level and above eg RIB 3 = T2/3 artic. with Sternum cartilaginous joints directly or through costal bone cartilage bone cartilage ridge each rib has a costal groove which protects the segmental BS and NS Ne ill at the same level eg RIB 3 = T3 artic.

Neill 200 . Joints and Ligaments 2 4 1 3 ma 1 rA 11 nd a 7 8 4 5 2 10 9 Ne ill 5 6 R 3 ©D 8 6 7 © A. L.The A to Z of Bones.

L. sacroiliac lig sacrospinous lig inguinal lig pectineal lig sacrotuberous lig ant. dorsal sacrococygeal lig 17 falciform process 18 lesser sciatic foramen 19 greater sciatic foramen 20 superior pubic lig © A.5 S1) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 slight AP rotation anterior longitudinal lig = ALL lubosacral lig iliolumbar lig ant. Joints and Ligaments Sacroiliac joint (part of the Pelvic girdle) anterior / posterior BS anastomosies around joint: superior gluteal.The A to Z of Bones. aspect) 11 lumbosacral lig 12 short dorsal sacroiliac lig S 13 long dorsal sacroiliac lig 14 lateral sacrococygeal lig (post aspect) 15 intercornu lig ©D 201 16 supf. sacrococcygeal lig 10 lateral sacrococygeal lig (ant. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . sacral plexus (L4. iliolumbar and sacral arteries NS superior gluteal.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill 202 . Joints and Ligaments 3 4 2 anterior right 5 6 7 nd a 3 16 15 ma 5 18 8 19 rA Ne ill 1 10 9 8 20 11 12 13 S ©D 17 14 posterior left © A.

Neill nd a 1 superior articular process Ne ill Sacrum (+ Coccyx) = part of the PELVIC GIRDLE . L. Joints and Ligaments anterior / posterior Articulations with Iliac laterally fibrocartilagenous with L5 superiorly synovial with Coccyx inferiorly synovial + Special is the fused structure features of 5 Sacral vertebral bodies 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 body alar articular surface for L5 fusion b/n 2 VB 4A articular surface for Ileum inferior lateral angle sacral canal hiatus sacral cornu dorsal sacral foramen S 10 lateral crest & tubercles 11 lamina 12 transverse process ©D 203 13 median sacral crest & spinous process rA ma © A.The A to Z of Bones.

Neill 204 . L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 2 4 nd a 4 7 8 6 3 1 ma 6 11 rA Ne ill 3 4 9 4A 5 12 9 10 1 S ©D 13 © A.

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Scaphoid 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 dorsal surface non-articulating articulation surface for Trapezium articulation surface for Trapezoid articulation surface for Radius articulation surface for Lunate tubercle S ©D 205 © A. Neill rA ma nd a articulation surface for Capitate Ne ill . L.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Joints and Ligaments palmar 7 4 ma 6 3 dorsal rA nd a 1 2 Ne ill 5 6 S ©D © A. Neill 206 .

Joints and Ligaments Scapula = part of the PECTORAL GIRDLE anterior / posterior / lateral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 superior angle medial edge superior border suprascapula notch acromion coracoid process glenoid fossa subscapula fossa lateral axillary border 10 inferior angle 11 body 12 acromial angle 13 infraspinous fossa 14 supraspinous fossa 15 spinoglenoid notch 16 spine of scapula S ©D 207 © A. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . L.The A to Z of Bones.

L. Neill 208 . Joints and Ligaments 6 3 Ne ill 1 5 16 7 13 2 9 8 10 10 3 1 14 16 5 7 8 9 6 12 5 rA 15 ma 6 4 9 10 nd a S 13 ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones.

Neill (Articulation b/n the Glenoid fossa of the Sacpula and the head of the Humerus . axillary & lateral pectoral Ns (C5-6) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 superior glenohumeral lig middle glenohumeral lig Latissimus Dorsi inferior glenohumeral lig tendon of long head of Biceps Pectoralis Major (cut) coracohumeral lig transverse lig of Humerus Supraspinatus tendon S 9 10 articular capsule ©D 209 11 Subscapularis bursa 13 glenoid labrium 14 glenoid cavity 12 edge of the articular capsule 15 Subscapularis tendon rA ma nd a A flexion/extension. L. Joints and Ligaments SHOULDER JOINT = Glenohumeral joint BS posterior circumflex.The A to Z of Bones.Ball and Socket joint of ill fitting boney surfaces great mobility inferior instability) . humeral and suprascapular arteries NS posterior cord of the Brachial Plexus suprascapular. abduction/adduction. lateral/medial rotation. circumduction Ne ill © A.

Joints and Ligaments 8 7 nd a 1 9 2 3 6 5 4 15 5 rA ma 12 Ne ill 1 2 3 10 11 S 14 ©D 13 © A. Neill 210 .The A to Z of Bones. L.

Lacrimal bone Supra-Orbital foramen Spheno-Parietal suture Spheno-Frontal suture Spheno-Squamosal suture Zygoma Zygomatico-Maxillary suture Infra-orbital foramen Middle Nasal concha – turbinate (from Ethmoid bone) Inferior nasal concha – turbinate (from Ethmoid bone) Vomer Mandible Mental foramen Inter-Maxllary suture Maxilla Ethmoid bone (Orbital plate) Inferior Orbital fissure Temporo-Zygomatic suture Superior Orbital suture Fronto-Zygomatic suture Greater wing of the Sphenoid Coronal suture .The A to Z of Bones.Fronto-Parietal suture Lesser wing of the Sphenoid Optic foramen S ©D 211 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. Joints and Ligaments Skull External Views anterior 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Frontal bone Fronto-Nasal suture Inter-Nasal suture Nasal bone. L. Neill .

Joints and Ligaments 27 26 25 24 23 1 Ne ill 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 14 13 5 6 7 22 21 20 19 18 rA ma 16 15 nd a S 17 ©D © A. L. Neill 212 .The A to Z of Bones.

Alveolare Medial Pterygoid plate and Hamulus (Ethmoid) Posterior Nasal aperture Pterygoid plate (ethmoid) Lateral Pterygoid plate (Ethmoid) Zygomatic arch Mandibular fossa External Auditory meatus Styloid process Mastoid process Parieto-Mastoid suture Occipito-Mastoid suture Foramen magnum External Occipital proturberance Sagittal suture .Basilar suture Greater Palatine foramen Horizontal plate of Palatine Palatine process of the Maxilla rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. L. Neill .The A to Z of Bones.Carotid canal Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum .Parieto-Parieto suture Lambda Lambda suture Superior nuchal line (Occipital) Inferior nuchal line (Occipital) Occipital condyle Jugular foramen (fossa) Stylo-Mastoid foramen Carotid foramen . Joints and Ligaments Skull External Views inferior base of skull C S ©D 213 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Incisive fossa .

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 214 . L. Joints and Ligaments 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 1 nd a ma 18 13 15 14 17 16 rA Ne ill 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 19 S ©D © A.

Neill rA ma 11 12 13 14 Nasal bone Lacrimal bone Frontal bone Greater Wing of the Sphenoid nd a lateral 1 Frontal bone .The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Skull External Views S ©D 215 © A.Temporal ridges for attachment of Temporalis 2 Parietal bone 3 Occipital bone 4 Mastoid process 5 Temporal bone 6 Zygomatic arch 7 Mandible 8 Body of Mandible 9 Maxilla 10 Zygoma Ne ill . L.

Neill 216 . L. Joints and Ligaments 14 13 12 11 10 9 ma rA 4 5 6 8 7 nd a 3 Ne ill 1 2 S ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones.

Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill .Inca 11 Parietal bone S ©D 217 © A. Joints and Ligaments Skull External Views posterior 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sagittal sinus Parietal foramen Lambda Pareito-Occipital suture Occipital bone Lambdoid suture Inferior nuchal groove External Occitipal protruberance Occitipal bone Superior nuchal groove 10 Sutural bones .The A to Z of Bones. L.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 218 . L. Joints and Ligaments 11 nd a ma 8 7 5 10 Ne ill 1 6 2 3 4 rA 9 S ©D © A.

Euryon Frontal bone Bregma Coronal suture Parietal bone Sagittal suture Lambda Lambdoid suture . Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . L.Occipito-Parieto suture S ©D 219 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Skull External Views superior 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Occipital bone Parietal eminence .

Joints and Ligaments 1 9 8 nd a ma 6 4 5 Ne ill 2 3 7 rA S ©D © A. Neill 220 .The A to Z of Bones. L.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . Joints and Ligaments Skull Internal Views inferior Skull cap 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Lambda Lambdoid suture Parietal foramen Diploe Bregma Coronal suture Frontal crest Frontal bone Depressions for arachnoid granulations 10 Grooves for middle meningeal vessels 11 Parietal bone 12 Sagittal suture 14 Occipital bone 13 Groove for superior sagittal sinus S ©D 221 © A.

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 14 13 12 11 Ne ill 1 2 3 ma rA 6 9 8 7 nd a 4 5 10 S ©D © A. Neill 222 . L.

Neill 15 Jugular foramen ma nd a Ne ill . Joints and Ligaments Skull Internal Views 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Cribiform plate Frontal sinus Crista Galli superior internal base .The A to Z of Bones.cranial fossae Orbital plate of Frontal bone Jugum of Sphenoid Optic canal Lesser wing of the Sphenoid bone Anterior Clinoid process Foramen rotundum 10 Foramen lacerum 11 Foramen ovale 13 Dorsum sellae 12 Foramen spinosum 14 Internal acoustic meatus 16 Foramen magnum A B C S POSTERIOR FOSSA MIDDLE FOSSA ANTERIOR FOSSA ©D 223 rA © A. L.

L.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 224 . Joints and Ligaments 2 1 C nd a ma rA B 16 A Ne ill 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 S ©D © A.

the medial lesser wings and the lower ptergoid plates.The A to Z of Bones. the lateral greater wings. L. Joints and Ligaments Sphenoid anterior / posterior A single wedge-shaped bone consisting of four parts: the central body.articulation with right Temporal bone superior orbital fissure foramen rotundum 10 pterygoid canal 11 rostrum 12 vaginal process S 14 pterygoid hamulus 15 pterygoid notch 16 lateral pterygoid plate ©D 225 17 pterygoid process 18 sphenoid spine 19 cerebral surface of the greater wing 20 anterior clinoid process 21 posterior clinoid process 22 dorsum sellae © A. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 articulation with Left Temporal bone orbital surface infratemporal crest body of the Sphenoid lesser wing openings for sphenoidal sinuses squamosal suture . The bone looks like a bat in flight and is the centre piece of the skull. Neill rA 13 medial pterygoid plate ma nd a Ne ill .

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments 1 2 3 4 18 17 16 15 14 ma 6 16 14 13 19 nd a 13 20 21 22 rA 18 Ne ill 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 8 9 10 12 11 15 S ©D © A. Neill 226 . L.

RIBS 6-10 10 CARTILAGENOUS JOINTS SYNCHONDROSIS with synovial cavity) BS internal thoracic artery A 1 2 3 4 5 6 elevation/ depression.The A to Z of Bones. L. Joints and Ligaments anterior (joints b/n the Manubriosternum and the Clavicle SYNOVIAL JOINTS. joints with INTRA-ARTICULAR DISC b/n the Manubriosternum and the RIBS 3-9 SYNOVIAL JOINTS. rotation interclavicular lig articular disc fibrocartilage artic surface costoclavicular lig double synovial joint cavity RIB 2 with intrarticular lig. sternocostal / manubriocostal joints manubriosternal symphysis (20 cartilagenous) ant sternoclaviular lig costoclavicular lig sternocostal lig S 7 8 9 ©D 227 10 sternocostal joints (R3-9) PLANE synovial joints 11 interchondral synovial joint cavities (R6-10) synchondrosis 12 interchondral ligs syndesmosis 13 costochondral junction rA ma nd a NS ant supraclavicular & N to subclavius ant cutaneous branches of intercostal Ns (C8-T1-12) Ne ill © A. Neill Sterno-Clavicular joints Sterno-Costal joints . retraction/ protraction.

Joints and Ligaments 7 nd a 6 ma 9 11 12 13 rA Ne ill 4 5 5 6 10 8 1 2 3 S ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill 228 .

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Talus = ANKLE BONE (Talus biggest of the Tarsal bones in the foot .irregular bone) Articulations with Tibia superiomedially with Calcaneus inferiorly with Navicular anteriorly with Fibula laterally 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 trochlea surface for Tibia facet for medial malleous neck groove for anterior lig of Ankle artic surface for Navicular sulcus tali lateral process posterior calcaneal facet plantar surface facet for medial malleous 11 roughened surface for Deltoid lig 12 groove for Hallucis longus T 13 medial tubercle ©D 229 14 anterior surface for calcaneus 15 middle calcaneal surface 16 plantar calcaneonavicular lig rA 10 medial tubercle ma nd a © A. L. Neill Ne ill Tibiotalar joint Talocrural joint Subtalar joint Talofibular .

L. Joints and Ligaments superior 3 10 2 7 12 4 5 7 inferior 14 5 nd a 15 2 1 7 9 8 1 10 lateral rA 5 6 ma 4 3 3 5 11 4 Ne ill 1 9 16 6 12 T ©D medial 7 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill 230 .

Joints and Ligaments Temporal bone (Left) external / inferior / internal Temporal = TIME.Squama stylomastoid foramen mastoid notch .The A to Z of Bones.sigmoid sulcus arcuate eminence articulates with the parietal bone Temporoparietal suture ma nd a Ne ill © A.Digastric groove occipital groove jugular surface jugular fossa canaliculus (opening) for Tympanic nerve petrous part carotid canal edge of tegmen tympani groove for the middle meningeal vessels groove for the superior Petrosal sinus articulation with the greater wing of the Sphenoid Spheno-Temporal suture Zygomatic process groove for the middle meningeal vessels internal acoustic meatus articulates with the Occipital bone aqueduct of the vestibule mastoid foramen groove for sigmoid sinus . Temporal bones contain the auditory ossicles/ear bones & form the only joint with the mandible. Neill . L.grey hair. This bone shows first signs of aging . It is involved in both the wall and the base of the skull. T ©D 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 231 rA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 suprameatal triangle groove for middle Temporal artery parietal notch squamo-Mastoid suture mastoid area mastoid process sheath of styloid process styloid process tympanic part l external acoustic meatus / anterior border (bony ear hole) tympanosquamosal (squamotympanic) fissure mandibular fossa zygomatic process articular tubercle postglenoid tubercle squamous part .

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lateral movements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 fibrous capsule lateral TMJ lig Mandible meniscus stylomandibular lig ant Temporal attachment of Meniscus ant. auditory meatus rA ma nd a © A.sagittal .lateral / medial open . protrusion/retraction. Joints and Ligaments Temporo-Mandibular joint = TMJ (only SYNOVIAL joint in the skull) BS superficial temporal & maxillary arteries NS auriculotemporal & masseteric branches of mandibular branch of Trigeminal N (CN5) A depression/elevation.The A to Z of Bones. L. mandibular attachment condyle of mandible posterior attachment 10 sphenomandibular lig T 11 posterior temporal attachment ©D 233 12 lower joint compartment 13 Temporal bone 14 upper compartment 15 ext. Neill Ne ill closed .

Neill . Joints and Ligaments 15 1 2 3 rA 6 13 ma 10 3 14 4 12 6 5 nd a T ©D 11 12 9 Ne ill 7 8 234 © A. L.The A to Z of Bones.

The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Tibia anterior / posterior Articulations with Fibula laterally syndesmosis distally and proximally with Talus inferiorly synovial . L.condyloid 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 interosseous border medial malleolus tibial tuberosity posterior border anterior border fibular notch lateral condyle soleal line articular facet for Fibula 10 medial condyle 11 attachment of iliotibial tract 13 medial surface 12 tubercles of intercondylar eminence T ©D 235 © A. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill .

L. Neill 236 . Joints and Ligaments 12 8 11 10 3 nd a ma 5 2 2 13 1 1 rA Ne ill 8 7 9 4 T 6 ©D © A.The A to Z of Bones.

proximal and along the shafts via the interosseous membrane) BS proximal .lateral at. L.tibal N (S2-3) distal deep peroneal and tibial Ns (L5 S1-3) A proximal . Neill rA ma opening for ant tibial vessels nd a Ne ill . Joints and Ligaments Tibio-Fibula joints posterior (3 joints distal. Tibiofibula lig interosseous membrane distal post Tibiofibula lig opening for peroneal artery T ©D 237 © A. rotation with dorsiflexion of foot distal as above 1 2 3 4 5 proximal post.ant tibial artery distal ant & post tibial arteries NS proximal .The A to Z of Bones.

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

Small “irregular bones” as with foot bones / tarsal bones, similar movements mainly gliding joints to allow small movements in the hand in several directions to facilitate movements of the fingers. mainly describing the articular facets for adjacent bones

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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The A to Z of Bones, Joints and Ligaments

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Ulna

anterior / posterior Articulations with Radius proximally pivot joint and distally with Humerus proximally hinge jt ELBOW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 radial notch olecranon trochlea notch coronoid process head styloid process interosseous border

subcutaneous area of olecranon crest for supinator

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11 posterior border / surface

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L. Joints and Ligaments Vertebrae Articulations with vertebra above & below -2 unpaired joints 2 paired joints 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 body pedicle superior articular facet vertebral foramen lamina post tubercle of TP transverse foramen* sulcus for peripheral N outlet V ©D 243 10 anterior tuberble of TP * only in cervical vertebrae rA spinous process -bifid* ma © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill nd a Special features transverse foramen bifid spinous process small curved bodies Ne ill VB -VB joints symphysis Spinous process joints syndesmosis paired zgyapophyseal planar synovial paired TP joints fibrous sydesmosis Typical cervical C3-7 superior .

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 244 . L. Joints and Ligaments 6 5 4 ma rA 3 2 1 10 nd a 8 9 ©D Ne ill 7 V © A.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill 1 body nd a Ne ill VB -VB joints symphysis Spinous process joints syndesmosis paired zgyapophyseal planar synovial paired TP joints fibrous sydesmosis Typical lumbar L1-5 superior . Joints and Ligaments Vertebrae Articulations with vertebra above & below -2 unpaired joints 2 paired joints Special features large body large prominent processes for strong muscle attachment 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 pedicle superior articular facet vertebral foramen lamina spinous process mamillary body* superior articular facet transverse process V ©D 245 * only in Lumbar vertebrae rA ma © A.

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 246 . Joints and Ligaments 6 5 nd a ma 4 1 3 9 7 ©D rA Ne ill 3 8 2 V © A. L.

Neill nd a Ne ill Typical thoracic T2-9 superior . L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Vertebrae Articulations with vertebra above VB -VB joints symphysis & below -2 unpaired + demifacets across the joints disc b/n bodies 2 paired joints + 1 pair for ribs TP Spinous process joints syndesmosis paired zgyapophyseal + 2 demi facets for ribs costotransverse planar synovial paired TP joints fibrous sydesmosis costal facets articulates with the ribs only in the thoracic region special features 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 spinous process lamina body vertebral foramen superior & inferior costal demi-facets* pedicle transverse process with articular facet for rib* V ©D 247 *only in thoracic vertebrae rA ma © A.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill 248 . Joints and Ligaments nd a ma 3 1 7 6 ©D rA Ne ill 2 5 4 5 V © A.

Joints and Ligaments Vertebrae Typical spinous process transverse process body foramen cervical long bifid transverse foramen inside thoracic long downpointing costal articulations V ©D 249 © A. Neill rA ma nd a small curved medium straight large medium Ne ill lumbar short bulky short bulky with mammilary body thick bulky small .The A to Z of Bones. L.

Joints and Ligaments thoracic curvature rA ©D ma lumbar curvature nd a V 250 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill Ne ill cervical curvature . L.

rotation cervical . Ne ill © A. L. rotation thoracic . lateral flexion.flexion/extension. Joints and Ligaments posterior coronal section / anterior coronal section (symphyses .bone .The A to Z of Bones.fibrocartilagenous disc .bone) BS spinal arteries of the regional arteries NS branches from the dorsal rami of the adjacent spinal Ns A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 pedicle body intervertebral disc space b/n ligamenta flavum ligamenta flavum = LF mammilary body lamina V ©D 251 transverse process 10 LF with capsule of joint laterally rA ma 1 posterior longitudinal lig = PLL nd a extensive movement possible b/n disc and disc but altered by the zygapophyseal joint’s angulation which changes regionally ±costal joints lumbar .flexion/extension lateral flexion. Neill Vertebro-vertebral joints = joints b/n the Vertebral bodies .

Neill Ne ill 2 3 4 5 6 7 V 252 . L.The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments nd a 8 1 ma rA ©D 9 10 2 © A.

flexion/extension.bone .bone b/n bodies fibrous joints b/n processes spinous (SP) transverse (TP) synovial joins b/n superior & inferior facets = zygapophyseal) V BS spinal arteries of the regional arteries NS branches from the dorsal rami of the adjacent spinal Ns A extensive movement possible b/n VB and discs but altered by the zygapophyseal joints angulation which changes regionally ±costal joints lumbar . Joints and Ligaments lateral / medial (symphyses .rotation cervical . L. lateral flexion. 1 superior demi-facet for costal head of rib 2 facet on TP for tubercle of rib 3 superior costotransverse ligs 4 paired synovial joints 5 rib shaft 6 rib head 7 intra-articular lig 8 intervertebral disc 8A annulus fibrosis 9 anterior longitudinal lig = ALL 10 radiate lig 11 veterbral body 12 hyaline cartilage 13 lamina 14 pedicle 15 PLL 16 spine 17 interspinous lig 18 supraspinous lig 19 LF 20 capsule for zygapophyseal jt 21 intervertebral foramen 22 intervertebral notch ©D 253 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.flexion/extension lateral flexion. rotation thoracic . Neill Vertebro-vertebral joints = joints b/n the Vertebral bodies & b/n vertebral processes = zygapophyseal joints. interspinous joints. intertransverse joints also see Costovertebral joints .fibrocartilagenous disc .The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments 1 11 10 9 8 7 nd a ma 21 14 15 22 6 20 19 12 8A 9 rA ©D 8 Ne ill 2 3 4 5 18 17 V 16 11 13 © A. Neill 254 . L.The A to Z of Bones.

L. It is the deviation of this bone which may obstruct the nasal airways. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill .The A to Z of Bones. Joints and Ligaments Vomer lateral / posterior / in situ A single small narrow frail plough-shaped midline bone. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ala (Alae) Articulation with Maxillae and Palatine Maxillovomer suture / palatinovomer suture articulation with nasal cartilages articulation with Sphenoid bone Groove for the nasopalantine nerves and vessels articulation with the Ethmoid plate Body of Vomer Perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid Maxillae areolar bone 10 Medial pterygoid plate 11 Frontal bone 12 Sphenoid sinus 14 Frontal sinus 13 anterior of nasal bones V ©D 255 © A.

The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill 256 . Joints and Ligaments 6 4 3 8 2 1 11 7 13 ma 4 9 nd a 7 8 14 6 12 5 2 10 ©D rA 8 Ne ill 5 1 3 V © A.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 meniscus ulna collateral lig articular disc palmar ulnocarpal lig radial collateral lig dorsal radio carpal ligs W ©D 257 © A. ant post carpal branches of the radial and ulan art NS ant post interosseous Ns (C6-8) A flexion / extension ulna and radial deviation circumduction. L. Joints and Ligaments WRIST JOINT = Radiocarpal joints palmar / dorsal BS anterior interosseous.The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA ma palmar radio carpal lig nd a Ne ill .

Joints and Ligaments 6 5 nd a ma rA 6 7 ©D Ne ill 1 2 3 4 2 1 3 W © A.The A to Z of Bones. L. Neill 258 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 frontal process Zygomatico-Facial formina articulation with the Frontal bone articulation with the Sphenoid Zygomatico-Orbital foramina articulation with Maxilla temporal process Zyomatico-Temporal foramina maxillary process 10 orbital surface Z ©D 259 © A. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill Zygoma = CHEEK BONES Antero-Lateral / Postero-Medial . Joints and Ligaments antero-lateral / postero-medial These bones form the prominent corners of the face under the orbital rim. L.The A to Z of Bones.

Joints and Ligaments 8 7 ma 10 9 4 rA ©D nd a 1 6 2 Ne ill 3 4 5 8 Z 260 © A.The A to Z of Bones. Neill . L.

research and medical background Amanda knows the value of learning the fundamental building blocks the A to Z of health and medicine in order to write and know the whole medical book. L. the University of Sydney. Write to us And Of course if you want to get a HEAD do Amanda’s A to Z.com © A. She is passionate about developing accessible and wide reaching medical and educational programs for all levels: the student. Pathology. the Royal colleges of Anaethetists and Biomedical scientists (of which she is currently the secretary) and commercial sponsors such as Aspen. After teaching for many years at university of Sydney and completing her PhD on “the immunopathology of cerebral malaria” Amanda developed the only accredited RCAGP continuing education course on anatomy. Developing courses on the anatomy of the Back (Back to the Back) and the Head and Neck the PG program for Dental graduates and writing a number of manuals. the postgraduate. dental. the Coroner’s court.The A to Z of Bones. Neill ©D 261 rA ma nd a Ne ill . Qualifying as a GMP (Graduate medical program) facilitator she has seen and been involved in the transition form the classic medical course to the GMP and the integration and amalgamation of the classic preclinical and clinical medical subjects to the total self directed computer content based course. nursing and other health students. www. We want these to be a guide and a help for you and want your help and feedback in order to make the manuals and the accompanying websites a benefit for you. You can be a part of this project too. Despite modern computer developments and because of her diverse teaching.amandasatoz. the health and medical professional. particularly the busy medical practitioner. and Anatomy and Forensic medicine. with a separate specialization (MSc in renal glomerular disease). conceptualizing and developing the virtual anatomy laboratory using her Flagship grant. So anatomy@mac has spread and involved students from all the university divisions and the all walks of life. Moving to Macquarie University. This massive project is still in development. booklets and programs for medical. she brought and developed her anatomy and histology program from scratch. Always looking to improve accessibility and application of knowledge and skills (such as Anatomy in Action and morphing@mac Art Anatomy exhibitions) and schools science projects Amanda and Aspen are collaborating on a series of A to Z pocket references to be used as handy guides and aids for all those interested in health and medicine. Particularly in anatomy and its branches after all we are all ANATOMY!! Looking for collaboration in her projects Amanda developed links with the NSW Department of Forensic medicine. Joints and Ligaments Biography and Aim of the A to Z and Dr Amanda Neill Dr Amanda Neill has a medical degree with specializations and research in the areas of Histology.

Joints and Ligaments ©D rA ma © A. Neill 262 nd a Ne ill . L.The A to Z of Bones.

.continuing education/patient explanation Forensic use Health professional use / other Personal use please email any comments or to order additional copies special student rates medicalamanda@gmail. anatomy word builder.. L. Joints and Ligaments relations. Joints and Ligaments The A to Z Project so far. • The A to Z of Skeletal muscles (origins insertions actions BS & NS of each muscle listed alphabetically) • The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull (including radiology of the Skull) • The A to Z of Anatomical. Histological and Medical terms (inc.com amanda@amandasatoz.com fax 61 2 93651000 phone 0414248747 mobile: 0414248747 Name: E-mail: Other contact: © A. individual joints. and joint classifications listed) Website www.aspenatlas. movements..anatomyatmac. of medical qualifications and organ wgt..com (www. BS & NS.The A to Z of Bones.) • The A to Z of Bones. Neill rA The A to Z of Topographical anatomical mapping in conjunction with the Forensic Institute of NSW and Anatomy Update ma The A to Z of Surface Anatomy. The A to Z of Nerves The A to Z of Neuroanatomy The A to Z of Emergency Medicine The A to Z of Anatomical Quizzes The A to Z of Gynecological terms The A to Z of Radiology Research projects What did you use this text for ? nd a • The A to Z of Histological and Anatomical images • The A to Z of Skeletal Muscles • The A to Z of Medical quizzes Ne ill (each bone’s features and its articulation group Pocket Reference Books list in order of priority . abbrev. pronunciation guide.com) email us for complete access to the many A to Z educational aids Other proposed titles • • • • • • • ©D 263 Student use Medical use .

The A to Z of Bones. Neill 264 nd a Ne ill eft hic Des ign L He m e er ph is . L. Joints and Ligaments Grap ©D rA ma © A.

amandasatoz. L.aspenpharma. A.com 0414248747 Contact www.au for login and passwords for the complete A to Z and the AspenAtlas online. Aspen Pharmacare Australia Pty Ltd 34-36 Chandos Street.Dr. NEILL BSc MSc MBBS PhD FACBS medicalamanda@gmail. St Leonards NSW 2065 ABN 51 096 236 985 .com www.com.

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