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Finite Element Book

Finite Element Book

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Published by: anggarinaldi on Jan 17, 2011
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Fatigue life depends on fluctuating stress cycle, identified by stress amplitude
over a mean stress at a point in the component, and the number of such cycles
the product is designed for. All points of a component may not experience same
stress amplitude or same mean stress. Also, a single point may experience stress
cycles of different amplitude, for example due to cold start, warm start and hot
start or due to load change in a steam turbine casing.

Some components are subjected to more than 106

stress cycles, for example
due to flexural stress cycles of rotating components or stresses due to vibration
in static components. They fall in the category of high cycle fatigue and are
designed for infinite life by limiting stress amplitude below endurance limit
(SE)' Components subjected to pressure and temperature fluctuations, such as
due to different start-up procedures of power plant components, experience less

283

284

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

than 106

stress cycles. Such components are designed for finite life, based on
the stress amplitude (>SE) at critical points of the component.

For example, a turbine casing or rotor experiences zero stress, when shut
down and very high stress during start-up, when it comes in contact with steam
at high temperature and pressure. Start-up procedure for a typical 110 MW
steam turbine, from cold condition, is given in Fig. 10.5. Change of stress from
stress-free cold condition to the high stress value during transient and back to
zero stress after shut-down forms one stress cycle, with stress range (St) and the
turbine is designed for a particular number of such cold starts (nt) during its
design life of about 40-50 years. Similarly other transients like warm start, hot
start, load fluctuation due to varying demand between day and night etc .. all
give different stress ranges (S2, S3, .. ) and each of them may occur for a different
number of cycles (n2, n3, .. ).

360"C
35 ata

,.i----360 Tlhr

.

,. :

~--;-I~-+-' --535°C

.,.

If

":

I

,.. .f"----130 ata

" : ,""

. ,. ,. ........ 1' ........ ". -... 110 MW

:" .,;,"" : ..

~....

. -r

/ ...

-,,'/ : ." :

"" I. I

............,. .. r 1 MW luiin

Load

---. Steam flow
----. Pressure

"

".;: :

."".

".. I

I

--/ . .;

!

:

~. _.

I

I

---Temp

30

75

110

130

Time in min

FIGURE 10.5 Typical cold start diagram of a 110MW thermal power plant

The stress range will vary at different points of the structure, for the same
transient. Corresponding to each stress amplitude, number of cycles to cause
fatigue failure (Ni) is read from Stress amplitude (S) V s Number of cycles (N)
curve of the material (Refer Fig.lO.6, for a typical curve), assuming it acts
alone. Due to large scatter in the experimental data of S-N values from uni-axial
fluctuating load test, a factor of 2 on stress and 20 on number of cycles is used
in some codes, white preparing S-N curve of a material. Then, fatigue usage
fraction 'U' is obtained from the most widely used model (Palmgren-Miner
hypothesis, popularly known as Miner's rule), for validating safe design of a
component.

CHAPTER 10 DESIGN V ALIDA nON AND OTHER TYPES OF ANALYSIS

Log S

1

--------1--

1

1

1
--------1--..,--
1
1

1

1

S[ _________ 1_ --+ --.., --lII.-___ _

Infinite life region:

:

:

1

LogN

FIGURE 10.6 Typical S-N curve of a material

Fatigue usage fraction, U F = ~[ ~ii J

< 1

..... (10.7)

The finite element analysis gives us 6 stress components (3 normal stresses
and 3 shear stresses) at each node point of a 3-D continuum structure or 4 stress
components (3 normal stresses along axial, radial and hoop directions and 1
shear stress) in an axisymmetric analysis, while S-N curve of a material is
given for one particular stress. Usually vonMises stress or maximum principal
stress difference is used with the S-N curve. This stress value is obtained at each
point and at each time step of the transient. Stress amplitude (Si), half of stress
range, is calculated over the complete transient, consisting of many time steps.
Corresponding to this stress amplitude, number of cycles to failure (Ni) is
obtained from the S-N curve of the material and fatigue usage fraction
calculated to validate the design.

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