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Knitting Basics

Knitting Basics

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Knitting Basics

There are two broad categories of knit textiles: weft and warp. Weft knits are made by feeding yarn to all needles horizontally to construct a course. Weft knits can be produced on either a circular knit machine or a flat bed machine. In warp knitting, one yarn is used for each knitting needle. Each stitch in a course is made by a different yarn. Alamac uses circular knit machines to manufacture weft knit fabric for apparel manufacturers.

Basic weft knit fabric

Course: Row of loops or stitches running across the knit fabric

Wale: Vertical chain of loops in the lengthwise direction of the fabric, formed by one needle

Glossary of Knitting Terms Single knit Knit fabric produced using a single set of knitting needles. It is usually a thin lightweight fabric. Knit fabric produced on two sets of opposed needles. It is thicker and heavier than a single knit fabric.


Technical Face

The outside of the tube of fabric produced by a circular knitting machine. This may or may not be the outside of a finished garment made from the fabric. The inside of the tube of fabric produced by a circular knitting machine. This may or may not be the inside of a finished garment made from the fabric. An interlocking series of loops used to construct fabric. See the diagram above of the basic weft knit fabric. A needle receives a new yarn without losing its old loop. A tuck loop always faces the technical back of the fabric. These terms describe the same formation. The stitch is created by not allowing the needle to raise high enough to receive a new yarn, causing the yarn to float behind the face stitches. Combination of float and tuck stitches. In a 3x1 inlay, three needles float and one tucks. Commonly used in Fleece and French Terry fabrics. The basic singleknit construction (T- shirt fabric) with the appearance of tiny “V” s on the face of the fabric and wavy courses on the back of the fabric. This doubleknit fabric draws some wales to the front and others to the back for a ridge effect. Ribs have a higher stretch and recovery than most knits and they are used for trim and body goods. Two yarn feeds are required to create one course. The knitting on front and back gives interlock a smooth surface on each side of

Technical Back

Knit Stitch

Tuck Stitch

Welt, Miss, or Float Stitch

Inlay Stitch

Jersey Fabric

Rib Fabric

Interlock Fabric

particularly demanded due to the rising popularity of sports wear and casual wears. Lacoste Fabric The original stitch configuration used in Lacoste shirts. When the interlocking loops run lengthwise. and consumers among others. sweaters. better fit. suits and coats apart from rugs and other home furnishings. the loops may be loosely or closely constructed. When the loops run across the fabric. after weaving. knitted fabrics are used widely for making hosiery. The tucking pattern creates a tiny honeycomb look on the technical back of the fabric. According to the purpose of the fabric. It is a versatile technique that can make fabrics having various properties such as wrinkle-resistance. underwear. The other one produces finished apparels such as hosiery. As of present day. Crocheted fabric is the simplest example of knitting where a chain of loops is constructed from a single thread with the help of a hook. Knitting is the second most frequently used method. Selected needles can be pulled out for poor boy looks. that turns yarns or threads into fabrics. Basic Principle of knitting A knitted fabric may be made with a single yarn which is formed into interlocking loops with the help of hooked needles. stretchability.the fabric. sweaters. sewing centers. which is used as the face for garments. The combination of knit and tuck stitches gives a small diamond appearance to the face of the fabric. each row is called a course that corresponds to the filling or weft in woven fabrics. each row is called a wale that corresponds to the direction of warp in woven fabrics. It is the most popular fabric used in collar/placket shirts. It has two primary areas having their own sub divisions of specialization. A knitted fabric having 50 loops or stitches in one inch of width and 60 loops in one inch . underwear etc. Basic Construction Process of Knitted Fabric The construction of knitted fabric is assessed by the number of stitches or loops per square inch. it can stretch in any direction even when a low-grade yarn having little elasticity is used. Pique Fabric Industrial Knitting Process It is a known fact that the main material for fabric construction is yarn. Knitting Industry knitting industry is a very complex one. As the loops are interlocked in a knitted fabric. One of the key segments of knitting industry manufactures knitted goods for garment manufacturers. slacks.

A spring-beard needle has a fine. A knitted fabric that has more wales will be rigid and stable in width while a fabric that has more courses will be rigid and stable in length. Same is the case with loops which will vary in length with the needle lengths. which act on the needle butts. Warp knit fabric. It is used for jersey and rib knitting. springy hook looking like a beard. This hook has to be used with a sinker to hold the fabric down and a presser to close the hook as it forms the loop. Hand knitting is basically weft knitting. Weft Knitting There are three basic stitches in weft knitting • • • Plain-knit stitch Purl stitch Rib stitch Any other stitch is a variation of these three stitches. A compound needle made up of a hook and a sliding closing element is used for faster knitting with lesser fabric distortion. Plain-knit stitch: Plain knit. The construction of a knitted fabric depends upon the type being constructed. A fabric having many wales and courses per square inch will have better recovery from stretching than a fabric having lesser wales and courses. Various types of needles are used for making different knitted fabrics including latch needle. Types of knitted Fabrics There are various types of knitted fabrics and each type has different appearance and characteristics. fit to body shape in a better way but will have poorer recovery ability. spring-beard needle. stretch more easily. gage or cut which refers to . A row of latch or beard needles is arranged in a linear position on a needle plate or in a circular position on a cylinder. Latch needle has a latch or swinging finger that closes onto the hook of the needle as it pulls the yarn through a loop in order to form a new loop. The spacing of the needles is called gauge. where one continuous yarn forms courses across the fabric. and compound needle. When done on weft knitting machines. If the thickness of the hook differs from one needle to another then the stitches will also vary in width. Importance of Needles in Knitting Process The needle quality also affects the knitted fabric's quality. Such fabric that will have fewer wales and courses will be less rigid. The side by side evenly spaced needles are moved by cams. It is used for making more fine fabrics with smaller loops.of length will be said to have 50 wales and 60 courses. the basic form of knitting can be produced in flat knit or in tubular (or circular) form. where a series of yarns form wales in the lengthwise direction of the fabric. It is also called jersey stitch or balbriggan stitch. All the knitted fabrics are classified into two general categories: • • Weft knit fabric. individual yarn is fed to a single or multiple needles at a time.

The fabric doesn't curl at the edges and as the fabric possess an excellent widthwise elasticity. The fabric doesn't curl at the edges. In both the machines. it is an expensive method of fabric construction. The stitches on the backside appear horizontally as floats at a slight angle. they are widely used for making underwear. about 5 times more than weaving. it is widely used for making such clothing that needs an excellent fit such as wristbands of sleeves and waistbands of garments. These floats are called laps or underlaps and are a distinguished features of warp knit fabrics. Plain-knit fabrics stretch more in the width than in the length and as such. 2X1. one set of needles is placed opposite the other set of needles in an inverted V position. In the flat rib machine. depending on the width of the rib desired. multicolored patterns. courses are visible as interlocking rows of opposed half circles. 3X1. underwear and socks for men and children. Purl stitch is widely used in infant wear and kids clothing due to its crosswise stretch and excellent lengthwise stretch. For instance. Warp Knitting Warp knitting is different from weft knitting in the sense that in it each needle loops its own thread. The needles of warp knitting machines produce parallel rows of loops that are interlocked in a zigzag pattern. is made on flat bed knitting machines and circular machines by needles using hooks on both ends to alternately draw loops to the front of the fabric in one course and to the back in the next course. textured surfaces produced by raised designs and pile effects. and the like. Warp knitting machine Warp knitting may be flat or tubular that can . Accordion rib is the combination of 1x1 and 2X2. The needles intermesh loops drawn to one side of the fabric. Each set of needles alternately draws loops in its own direction. Heavy. It is inexpensive and a variety of designs may be produced including stripes. gloves. jumbo stitch is also possible which gives a bulky effect to the fabrics. hosiery and sweaters. also called link-and-link stitch. The production rate is higher. one set of needles is placed vertically in a cylinder and the other set of needles is placed horizontally on a dial.the number of needles in one and a half inches. As a greater amount of yarn is required for rib stitch and the rate of production is also slower. one set of needles pulls the loops to the front and the other set of needles pulls the loops to the back of the fabric. These fabrics have the tendency of curling up at the edges which is controlled to a level through certain finishes. On the reverse side or the technical back. Purl stitch: Purl stitch. The stitches on the front side of the fabrics appear vertically having a slight angle. Rib stitch: Rib stitch produces alternate lengthwise rows of plain and purl stitches and as such the face and back of the fabrics are a look-alike. 2X2. In the circular rib machine. a 60 gauge machine will have 40 needles per inch. Plain knit allows the use of single or plied yarns produces comparatively lightweight fabrics than produced by other stitches. However. Rib stitch can be produced on a flat rib machine as well as circular rib machine. rib stitches can be 1X1. The fabrics look similar on both the sides resembling back of the plain knit. for example. forming vertical herringbone like ribs or wales on the right side or technical face of the fabric. It is comparatively slower and a costly technique.

Simplex knit. Stitch definition. with the dyes being extracted from animals or plants. including vat dyes. yarn. Different classes of dyes are used for different types of fiber and at different stages of the textile production process. Dye types For most of the thousands of years in which dyeing has been used by humans to decorate clothing. Quality is generally better than weft knits. Warp knit fabrics are very popular due to their many properties such as smoothness. which are similar to the ancient natural dyes.. and to render the dyes more stable to resist washing and general use. It is a very fast technique that can produce fabric with a dimensional stability almost equal to that of a woven fabric. Crochet and Weftinsertion warp. Raschel knit. and modern synthetic reactive and direct dyes. or fabrics for other uses. Nylon and protein fibers such as wool and silk are dyed with acid dyes. . Warp knits have superior dimensional ability. Cotton is dyed with a range of dye types. from loose fibers through yarn and cloth to completed garments. They are less prone to sagging. shrink resistance. In the last 150 years. cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye. sheerness.Tricot knit. the primary source of dye has been nature. Milanese knit. texture and fabric cover are also usually better than weft knits. strength and abrasion resistance. There are basically seven types of warp knitting. polyester yarn is dyed with disperse dyes. Acrylic fibers are dyed with basic dyes. Ketten Raschel knit. humans have produced artificial dyes to achieve a broader range of colors. It can also use yarns of man made fibers very efficiently.produce a variety of patterns. wrinkle resistance. Dyeing Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material in loose fibre. Methods Dyes are applied to textile goods by dyeing from dye solutions and by printing from dye pastes. Comparison of Weft Knitting and Warp Knitting Warp knit fabrics have certain advantages over weft knits • • • • • Warp knit fabrics do not ravel easily.

while viscose rayon yarns are partly dyed at hank form because of technology. and they have been replaced with reactive and metal complex dyes which need no mordant. the packages are unloaded from the carrier into a trolly. The raw yarn is wound on a spring tube to achieve a package suitable for dye penetration. Yarn dyeing There are many forms of yarn dyeing. polyester or polyamide yarns are always dyed at package form. The common dyeing process of cotton yarn with reactive dyes at package form is as follows: 1. Now the trolly is taken to hydro extractor where water is removed. the dyed yarn packages are packed and delivered. 3. 8. a class of dyes largely for dyeing cotton. The packages are then dried to achieve the final dyed package. Chromium salts were until recently extensively used in dying wool with synthetic mordant dyes. 7. Cotton yarns are mostly dyed at package form. These softened packages are loaded on a dyeing carrier's spindle one on another. 4. The term may also be applied to dyeing without the use of mordants to fix the dye once it is applied. Most other classes of synthetic dye. Mordants were often required to alter the hue and intensity of natural dyes and improve their color fastness. The packages are pressed up to a desired height to achieve suitable density of packing. and acrylic or wool yarn are dyed at hank form. This renders the dye soluble so that it can be absorbed by the fiber since the insoluble dye has very little substantively to the fiber. After dyeing.Direct application The term "direct dye application" stems from some dyestuff having to be either fermented as in the case of some natural dye or chemically reduced as in the case of synthetic vat and sulfur dyes before being applied. The carrier is loaded on the dyeing machine and the yarn is dyed. 2. 5. The packages are hydro extracted to remove the maximum amount of water leaving the desired color into raw yarn. These were used for economical high color fastness dark shades such as black and navy. other than vat and surface dyes. . 6. Common forms are the at package form and the at hanks form. are also applied in this way. are water soluble and can be applied directly to the fiber from an aqueous solution. Direct dyes. Environmental concern has now restricted their use.₪ After this process. In the continuous filament industry.

Where possible. Place sauce pan on the stove and heat it up.to mix in the dye solution. add the dye/water from your saucepan. .Removal of dyes In order to remove natural or unwanted color from material. Washing Machine Method: STEP 1 • • Take 1 package or a ½ bottle of RIT dye (2 packs or a full bottle will give a full color particularly for medium.For very dark colors like black. The process often risks damaging the substrate (fiber).Most convenient. where the amount of fabric will fit in a large pot. The purpose here is to totally dissolve the dye into the water. STEP 2 • Fill your washer with hot water (140 degrees is best for dark colors). Stovetop . Sink or Bucket . it is often less risky to dye the material a darker shade. Wear Rubber gloves to avoid staining. the opposite process of bleaching or discharging is carried out. plus a splash of vinegar to help set the dye. Fabric Dyeing Tips We recommend RIT dyes to get good results. If things go wrong in the dyeing process. stirring while it heats. the dyer may be forced to remove the dye already applied by a process that is normally known as stripping. This normally means destroying the dye with powerful reducing agents (sodium hydrosulphite) or oxidizing agents (hydrogen peroxide or sodium hypochlorite).Suitable for small or delicate items being dyed a light color. bright or dark colors) and place it in an old sauce pan with a quart of water (1 pint of water per package used). Easiest fabric to dye is 100% cotton. Fiber content will affect true color. and turn on the agitator for several minutes. with black often being the easiest or last option. Methods: • • • Washing Machine .

Add a small amount of detergent plus a cup of bleach. The yarn count expresses the thickness of the yarn. --This will assure that all the dye is thoroughly mixed in. The yarn count number indicates the length of yarn in relation to the weight. The foxed weight can be used with British and American weights and . If its too light then add more dissolved dye. Plastic or rubber machine parts may be tinted but won’t stain future laundry loads. the fixed length and the Tex systems. and must be known before calculating the quantity of yarns for a known length of fabric. STEP 7 Clean-Up • • • • • • • Fill washer to highest water level. Never add more than 4 packages or 2 bottles per washer load when dyeing a large amount of fabric. STEP 6 • • Take garments out of machine after the cycle and either line dry or put in dryer. STEP 5 • Wet the garments to be dyed and place them loosely into washer and turn machine on. be sure to wipe it out with a bleach cloth after use to remove any dye. Never pour dye directly on fabric.STEP 3 • • Take a piece of rag and put it in the washer for a few minutes. Run a complete cycle. Finish by wiping the top of the tub and inside lid with bleach. Clean out lint trap. Three systems of yarn count are currently in use: the fixed weight. Clean up saucepan and any other items used. and let it agitate for another 3 minutes. Pull it out and look at the color to see if it’s what you want. If you use the dryer. STEP 4 • • Turn machine on again.

It is a universal system of counting the yarn. Tex: Weight of yarn in gm present in 1000 meter length. . Like most things. One is Direct System where length is fixed and another is Indirect system where weight is fixed. The fixed length system and the Tex system are based on metric weights and measures. regardless of the method of production. C) Worsted count: No. Usually a yarn will have at least 2 ends to form a plied yarn. yarns can have many different characteristics. B). YARN COUNT Count is very important factor for the Textile Yarn Manufacturing. Direct System (Length Fixed): A). It is basically used for man made fiber. It is basically used for Wool.systems. Indirect System ( Weight Fixed): A). Denier: Weight of yarn in gm present in 9000 meter length. These count systems have been divided in two ways. of hanks of 1000 meters present in 1 kg of yarn. This is an overview of the different types of yarns used to make sweaters. B) Metric Count: No. of hanks of 840 yds present in 1 lb of yarn. Ends: 1 thread or strand of yarn. Tex is an internationally agreed system of yarn numbering that applies to all types of yarns. knit fabrics and woven fabrics. There are several count system of yarn. English Cotton Count: No. of hanks of 560 yds present in 1 lb of Yarn. Maintaining the yarn count is mandatory to retain the quality of a yarn and fabrics. 1. 1. Yarn is very broad term. Now read the basic things about yarn count at below: Definition of Count: According to the Textile Institute “Count is a number of indicating the mass per unit length or length per unit mass of yarn”. C) Pounds Per Spindle: Weight of yarn in lbs present in 1440 yards length.

It works the same as wire gauges. . the ply and yarn size are import. A typical sweater yarn can be 2/30. 2/30 is bigger that 1/30. Most yarns are 2 ply. Direct system is classified normally into two. if weight of 1000m length of yarn is 20 gram. Yarn Count: Refers to the size of the yarn including the ply.Ply: Refers to the number of ends that make up a yarn. Indirect Count. the higher the number the smaller the size. Denier Yarn Count System: In this system. the count of that yarn will be 20 tex. 2/30 is 2 ply of 30 yarn size while the 1/30 is only 1 ply of 30 yarn size. 2 ply. Yarns can be 1 ply (single ply). A 2/20 yarn count is bigger than 2/30. Direct Count 2. if weight of 9000 m length of yarn is 40 gram the count of that yarn will be 40 denier. This is a fairly fine yarn for sweaters. In this system yarn will be coarser if the number is increased. 3 ply or 4 ply. This means it is a 2 ply and the size of the yarn is 30. Types of Yarn Count: Count is basically two types. Both are 2 ply. the length of yarn is 9000 m. When analyzing the yarn count. Tex: In tex system weight of 1000 m length of yarn is considered and expressed by gram. Such as. In this system the weight of fixed length of yarn is calculated and expressed by different weiht unit especially gram. 2/30 is twice the size of 1/30.1. Tex. but 20 is a larger yarn size than 30.1. Denier 2. Yarn Count: Count is the numerical expression of coarseness or fineness of the yarn. Direct Count: In direct system length unit is fixed but weight unit is variable.

>Firstly take the solution’s given below and mixed itCk-1——0. 1*1 Rib. the coarser the yarn.8% Hydrogen per Oxide—-3.0% . if 14.400 yds jute yarn is calculated and expressed by lbs. That means. During dyeing the most well-known knit fabric like Single Jersey. Higher the number of count.8% FFC———–0.3% DMB———–0. Machine speed should be fixed with 180 RPM. English Cotton Count System: Here weight unit is fixed but length unit is variable.3% FFC—–0. CK-1———-0. the lower the number of count. Metric System: In this count system number of hank of 560 yds yarn in one kg is the number of metric count.5% C————–0. In this system the number of hank of 840 yds yarn in one lbs is the number of English cotton count.0% >Continue this process at 95˚C for 45 minutes.0% PH-100—–0. PK Fabric the following dyeing process flowchart can be followed. finer the yarn. So that you will be able to easily manage your chemicals and other production related accessories.3% DMB———0.3% FFC——–1. It is expressed by (Ne). Liquor Ratio will be 1:12.8% Soda Ash—–2. Indirect Count: In indirect system the count is classified into two groups.400 yds jute yarn weight is 8 lbs. I have tried my best to note here the contemporary dyeing process and chemicals. It is expressed by (Nm). the count of that jute yarn will be 8 lbs/ spindle.Lbs/ Spindle: Weight of 14. One is English cotton count system and another is Metric system.0% C——–0.1% Caustic——-2.

Liquor Ratio will be 1:12.0% at 80˚C for 10 Minutes >Fixing —-process continue for 20 minutes >Apply softener >Eventually unload the product.0% (Single Jersey Fabric) 0. PK Fabric) CK-1 ——–0. >To dye the Single Jersey (S/J). so in this fact you . 1*1 Rib.8% Acetic Acid—-0.1% >Continue this process for 10 minutes within normal temperature.0% continue it at 90˚C for 10 minutes. Hope this flow chart will help you lot. using above mentioned dyeing procedure will be easier. 44L—1.0% Acetic Acid —-1. >Use PS-60—–1. 200B —-1.5% C———-0.0% >PS-60——-1.1% Acetic Acid—-0. Apply Dyes now. Machine speed should be remained at 180 RPM. Process Flow-Chart of Wet Processing Technology | Dyeing Flowchart The way a fabric is dyed is called process flowchart of wet processing technology. Croaks-N ——1. >Salt Dosing >Soda dosing >Use acetic acid—1.2% >This process should be carried out at 58˚C for 40 Minutes.8% (1*1 Rib. Actually some of the steps of a dyeing process can be removed or added as per buyer requirement.0% Continue it at 70˚C for 10 minutes. Suppose your buyer wants the more precised dyed fabric.>Again continue this process at 95˚C for 45 minutes. PK fabric.

Before dyeing a fabric or yarn some pre-treatment and after treatment is needed. A flowchart is drawn here by combining these: Grey Fabric Inspection ↓ Sewing or Stitching ↓ Singeing ↓ Desizing ↓ Scouring ↓ Bleaching ↓ Mercerizing ↓ Dyeing ↓ Printing ↓ Finishing ↓ Final Inspection ↓ Delivery .should mercerize your fabric during the dyeing pre-treatment process. The dyeing or wet processing flow chart is given below. Basically if the buyer don’t want that so called particular fabric there is no need to mercerize your fabric.

Basic dyes: These are generallyu ammonium. Acid dyes: chemically acid dyes belongs to various subclasses such as nitro nitroso. Maximum of them are suitable for fabric dye and yarn dyeing. Poor fastness to wash but cheaper for fabric dyeing. Should be applied at alkaline or neutral condition. Sulpher dyes: These are complex organic compounds containing sulphur. sulphonium or a uxonium salt. Water soluble and application on cotton and other cellulosic fibre and leathers. silk and nylon fibres to dyeing. These dye staffs are capable of combining with metallic oxides to form insoluble colour on the fibre . Mordant dyes: They are the oldest natural dyes. they are water soluble and have affinity to wool. monoazo. They are insoluble in water but sluble under reduced condition . They are applied to the fibres through neutral or acid dye bath. They have no affinity to textiles but can be applied to cellulose or protein fibres in order to dyeing fabric when they have been mordented previously with metallic salt. There are many kind of dyes are used to dyeing fabric. quinoline. . anthraquinone etc. They are water soluble and needs salt addition in the dye bath. diazo. they are usually applied cotton for cheaper shades. Dye staffs used to fabric dyeing are: Direct dyes: These dye staffs are generally sodium salt of sulphonic acid. xanthance azine. They have direct affinity to cellulosic fibre. have high wet fastness but poor light fastness during dyeing fabric.Different Dyes Which Are Used To Dyeing The Fabric & Yarn Dyeing Fabric using different dyestuff is the most common things that every Textile Engineers should have to know. Famous for bright shade during dyeing fabric.

high temperature dyeing methods are suitable for these dye staffs but carrier dyeing method can also be applied. acrylic. Dyes firstly come to in surface then go to diffusion layer. covalent bonds are produced. They are reduced by strong reducing agent to pr9oduce leuco vat and at this stage they are soluble in water. Dye In Solution —. can also be applied on wool.Fiber surface. etc. these are. the Reactive Dyestuff is mostly used in today’s Textile Industry. They have excellent wash fastness. A textile fiber has three phase.Here convective diffusion is happened. Mainly used on cotton dyeing . Diffusion Layer and Electrical Double Layer. Physico-chemical aspects of dyeing Physico-chemical aspects of Dyeing is a process which shows us how a dye penetrates into the fiber and how many process and time a dye molecules follow to enter completely onto the fiber. . cellulosic acetate. Disperse dyes: These dye staffs are very suitable for synthetic fibres for example polyester. nylon. Vat dyes: These are very fast color on cotton and insoluble in water. Their main use on cotton but also can be used to dyeing wool silk and fur. In the above mentioned dyestuff. silk and nylin dyeing.Azoic dyes: These are not ready made dyes. Before going to dyeing process we just need to know some basics of Fiber surface on which the dye molecules work.e. After impregnation they are again oxidized to their original insoluble form. Dyeing is carried out in an alkine bath. Reactive dyes: These dye staffs directly combinds with cellulose by chemical bonding i. Fibres are firstly impregnated with a coupling component like bita nepthol and then combined with a diazotized base to producer insoluble dye staffs into the fibre. Now here is the physic-chemical of dyeing process number-wise:1. and at the last step it concentrate onto the fiber.

since the fabric contracts as well as expanding. and also tend to cling to the body. even. As a general rule. the physical bonding is required. It is also important to use a pattern specifically designed for knit fabrics. and washing beforehand eliminates shrinkage issues. Knit dresses are usually made from jersey fabric. All knits tend to shrink when they are washed. as the colors may bleed. Jersey also tends to be soft. Jersey fabric is also available in a large assortment of colors and patterns to suit all tastes. Try to avoid mixing bright colors and whites in the wash. Care directions for jersey fabric vary. One of the reasons many people like to wear jersey fabric is the stretch factor. making it very comfortable. to prevent unraveling. making it a popular choice for the layer worn closest to the body.Here adsorption is occurred. unless the seamstress is making a deliberate stylistic choice. Garments made from the material have plenty of give as their wearers move. In most cases. 5. it is recommended that the fabric be washed first. a garment made from jersey fabric is sewn with the right side facing out. A knitting Machine . 4. and tumble dried on a medium setting. and very insulating. close grained stitches associated with jersey fabric. stretchy. Dye at the Fiber Surface —-here Dye Diffused into the Fiber. The fabric is warm. as the pattern will account for the stretch factor of the material. and the wrong side has a horizontal grain. The right side of the material is marked by a series of very small lines which run vertically. Some common uses for jersey fabric include t-shirts and winter bedding. JERSEY FABRIC Jersey fabric is a type of knit textile made from cotton or a cotton and synthetic blend. 3. A knitting machine is used to make jersey. jersey fabric can be washed in warm water with like colors. When sewing jersey fabric. especially if it is cotton. depending on whether the fabric is entirely natural or partially synthetic. Dye in the Electrical Double Layer —. Dye In Diffusion Layer —– Here Molecular Diffusion is happened. Dye in the Fiber —– Here fixing is done and dye physically or chemically bound with the fiber polymer. Like many other knit fabrics. Bright colors will stay brighter longer if they are washed on a cold setting and dried on low. jersey fabric has a right side and a wrong side. flexible. exploiting the clingy characteristic of the fabric. since it can create the small.2. Chemical bond only happens in Reactive Dyeing and on other dyes. The fabric can stretch up to 25% percent along its grain. Most seamstresses also use a double layer of stitching or an overlock stitch on jersey fabric.

When choosing a knitting machine. The best way to tell the quality of the pattern is by how easy it is to follow. and lace. These machines are good for Fairisle patterns.65 centimeters (6. the hooks that hold and knit the yarn automatically will split right through the yarn. Abbreviations of common knitting terms.45 centimeters (4.A knitting machine knits yarn automatically. and DK yarns usually work best. A bulky or chunky knitting machine has hooks placed . If the yarn used in a knitting machine is too thick. Baby weight or sometimes even thinner yarn can be used. but the machine knitter must still pay close attention to the knitting machine as slipped or tangled stitches are common. but check with the manufacturer's instructions. A mid gauge knitting machine produces garments that look the most like hand knitting. reliable way to knit products for home use or for sale. or even skirts. a knitting machine is a fast. such as cast on.5mm) apart.5mm) apart. Cables and Fairisle patterns usually work well. cables. A knitting machine needs much more attention to detail than a sewing machine and can require regular untangling of caught yarn and pick-ups of slipped stitches. Some machines hold many more stitches and needles than others. mid gauge for midweight items. The thickest yarn that can usually be used on a flatbed knitting machine is sport or DK. sport. Knitting machine patterns with clear instructions and details are important.9 centimeters (9mm) apart and is perfect for making heavy sweaters. Yarn thickness is the single most important consideration when choosing a knitting machine. are found in a large majority of patterns. and cast off. that machine knitting is not necessarily easier than hand knitting. Bulky or chunky style yarns work best. The type of knitting machine patterns you’ll most likely be looking for will depend on the type of machine you have. Although no knitting machine made so far can replicate every hand knitting stitch. A knitting machine saves time compared to hand knitting. Common worsted. the knitter must decide what kind of knitted items the machine will be used to make. but not always. and bulky or chunky for heavy items. after being set or programmed to knit a specific pattern. so making large blankets and throws are easier. but instructions should not be more abstract . however. slip stitch. Smaller machines are usually used for making personal garments or other crafts. Sometimes baby weight or chunky yarns may be used. especially for beginners. Circular knitting machines are most often used for knitting in the round to create garments like hats. Most knitting machine patterns will specify the type of machine they are intended for and how many stitches are needed so you know if your machine is big enough. socks. but will not work on some models. The hooks are placed . There are three kinds of knitting machines: flat bed for lightweight items. It is important to remember. Sport or DK are the smallest weight of yarns that should be used on a bulky knitting machine. A flat bed knitting machine has small hooks placed .

but may be hard to reproduce without detailed pattern instructions. Selection of rolls: Select at least one roll of each color. we can avoid fabric related quality problems before it is put into production Four. and wrong yarn. Lessons may also be a good idea to get the most out of your machine. Lace patterns are very popular for these types of projects. · Major dye or printing defects are out of register. dye spots. tote bags.than necessary. but less than 6 2 Points Over 6 inches. Defect Classification (Four.Point System: Amount to select: Inspect at least 10% of the total rolls of the shipment. end out. color out. 4 point Inspection method Fabric Quality Inspection: The quality of a final garment depends on the quality of a fabric when it is received as a roll. 3 inches or less 1 Point Over 3 inches. then choose the additional roles in proportion to the total number of roles per color received. yarn variation. If more than one role must be selected. we inspect 10% of the rolls we receive and evaluate them based on a four-point system. No penalty points are assigned to minor defects. (A major defect is any defect that would cause a final garment to be considered a second. Normally. or shading.) Major Defects: · Major woven fabric defects include but are not limited to slubs. missing yarns. This way. machine stop. those who are just learning how to machine knit will want to start with easy projects such as scarves. Patterns which also detail how your machine should be set up before casting on are also a very good idea. Even the most outstanding manufacturing methods cannot compensate for defective materials. Only major defects are considered. Normally. but less than 9 3 Points Over 9 inches 4 Points The length of the defect is used to determine the penalty point. so even those who have been knitting for years may have to take some time learning. Graph or charted patterns are a solid choice for visual learners and can be programmed in computerized machines easily or set up on standard machines as well. color smear. or even table runners.Point System): Size Defect Penalty . soiled yarns. It is important to know that machine knitting is very different from hand knitting. holes. The best knitting machine patterns should help you do this. Acceptance Criteria and Calculation: · 40 points per 100 yards is the acceptable defect rate · # of Points per 100 yds = # of penalty points x 100 .

5cm) 4 points . · Put the rolls on the inspection machine or other viewing device.Defects of size exceeding 0 inches but not exceeding 3 inches (7.Defects of size exceeding 6 inches (15cm) but not exceeding 9 inches (22. for the defect to be considered a hole. D) No piece shall be accepted as first quality where the usable width (which is the width between the insides of the selvages or between the stenter pinholes) is less than the minimum usable width stated on the purchase agreement. Mark the right and left side of the strip. the fabric width specified on the adidas-Salomon material specification sheet is for minimum fabric width.5cm) B) No yard shall be penalized more than 4 points.5cm) but not exceeding 6 inches (15cm) 3 points . The American Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) and the European Clothing Manufacturing Association (ECMA).Defects of size exceeding 3 inches (7. measured inside the selvages. E) No piece shall be accepted as first quality that exhibits a noticeable degree of shading . · Cut off a 6 inch piece across the width off the end of the roll. Unless otherwise stated.POINT “ SYSTEM The Four-point system will be used to determine the lot acceptance of fabrics for adidasSalomon. biased. · Check for skewed. · Mark any defects to the side with colored tape so that they can be easily found and noted. There must be two or more yarns broken at the same place. Stop the inspection process every 50 yards and use the strip to check for any shading problems. This numeric grading system is endorsed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). shall be penalized 4 points.Defects of size exceeding 9 inches (22.Yds inspected Inspection Procedure: · Determine the amount to inspect 10%).“ 4 . Inspection fabric 4 point INSPECTION SYSTEM .5cm) 2 points . A) Demerit points shall be assigned as follows (Defects in any direction): 1 point . · Select the rolls to inspect. and bowed fabric. C) All holes regardless of size. · Inspect for visual defects with the light on at a speed slow enough to find the defects. · Check that the roll contains the correct yardage as stated by the piece goods source. · Record any defects. Sometimes you may have to turn the light off to see how a flaw will affect the appearance of a garment. (The fabric must be checked at a slow rate in order to effectively find flaws). Also make sure to check the end of the role.

H) No piece shall be accepted as first quality exhibiting a noticeable degree of looseness (waviness) or tightness along either or both selvages. J) Any defect found to repeat and or run in a continuous manner will constitute a running defect. in an audit can cause the dyelot to be rejected. G) Fabric bowing or bias should be within the following tolerances. Note that fabric should be within 5% skew after washing. cut from the beginning of the roll. F) No piece shall be accepted as first quality exhibiting a noticeable degree of shading end-to-end.5 inches (3. across the opposite end.8 cm) of bow or bias on 60 inch (152cm) goods. ii) Printed in checker or stripe pattern: No piece shall be accepted as first quality exhibiting more than 1. iii) Single jersey knitted fabrics within 5%. in excess of three (3) yards. ii) More than one occurrence. . which would prevent the fabric from lying flat when spreading in a conventional manner. i) Any piece having a running or repeating defect through more than three (3) continuous yards shall be rejected regardless of the point count.from side-to-side or side-to-center. nor ripple or puckers within the body of the fabric.2 inches (3cm) of bow or bias on 60 inch (152cm) goods. i) Yarn-dyed in checker pattern: No piece shall be accepted as first quality exhibiting more than 1. when checked by laying panels.

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