Robert Batson 7th period Honors Chemistry Dr.

Moody 12 December 2010 Chemical Reaction Types lab report: Introduction: The purpose of the lab was to create a demonstration that presented four types of chemical reactions (synthesis, decomposition, single-displacement, and doubledisplacement). Each type of chemical reaction has different properties and have different indicators that a reaction has occurred. The experiment exposed other compounds to each other or put a compound against conditions that would cause a chemical reaction, such as a compound being exposed to heat. The lab was broken into four parts. The first lab was a demonstration of synthesis. Synthesis is a type of chemical reactions in which two compounds or elements are introduced to each other and produce a single product. The equation for synthesis is

A + B → AB
Synthesis occurs naturally and can be produced for important chemical products used for the market. Natural synthesis occurs in organisms and an example of organic synthesis is the separation of gas from natural gas compounds. Synthesis is also used for the production of consumer products such as a drugs, dye, or flavoring. Decomposition is the chemical process in which a compound breaks down into molecules or smaller compounds. It’s essentially the opposite of synthesis. The decomposition in the lab was a decomposition of Copper (II) Carbonate. Decomposition is driven by influences to the original composition. It is represented by the equation

AB → A + B
Single displacement reactions are when one element replaces another element in a compound to form a new compound. In single displacement reactions the element that is being displaced is reduced. The single displacement formula is

AX + B → AB + X
In the equation the A or B must be either a non-metal or a halogen. In single displacement reactions there are cation replacements and anion replacements.The lab uses an aluminum sample and exposes it to copper chloride. This is an example of an anion replacement.

Materials and Methods: Materials included in the experiment include standard lab equipment, samples of Magnesium, dioxide, copper carbonate (III), aluminum foil, copper chloride, AgNO3, CuSO4, Fe(NO3)3, KI, KSCN, and a sample tray. For the first experiment burn magnesium and observe the reaction. For the second lab heat copper (II) carbonate in a test tube and observe the reaction. For the third lab add a small piece of aluminum to a test tube. Cover the aluminum foil with copper chloride and observe the reaction after several minutes. The fourth lab calls for an arrangement of each sample (AgNO3, CuSO4, Fe(NO3)3, KI, KSCN) so that each sample interacts with one another and observe all reactions. Results: The first experiment can be represented by the equation 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO The magnesium reacted with the flame and changed color to produce Magnesium Oxide The second lab showed the decomposition of copper (II) carbonate to carbon dioxide and copper oxide. The compound changed color from blue to black. It is represented by the chemical equation CuCO3 → CO2 + CuO The third lab was a reaction between an aluminum sample and copper chloride. Bubbles and black pigment appeared near the aluminum sample. Heat was produced by the reaction. It can be represented by the chemical equation Have Dr. Moody show you an equation The fourth lab was multiple reactions that were all examples of doubledisplacement chemical reactions. The table below demonstrates the reactions and observations made. AgNO3 AgNO3 CuSO4 Fe(NO3)3 KI KSCN x Cloudy Cloudy-Orange CuSO4 Cloudy x No reaction Fe(NO3)3 CloudyOrange No reaction x Orange Black KI KSCN

Exploded/Solidified Exploded/White Yellow-Orange Orange x No Reaction Green Black No Reaction x

Exploded/Solidified YellowOrange Explodes/White Cloud Green

Discussion: In the first lab the magnesium reacted with the flame by producing magnesium oxide. This is an example of synthesis. Synthesis can occur naturally but also when one compound or molecule is introduced to another. The reaction occurred because the magnesium sample was introduced to the flame. It follows the synthesis formula of

A + B → AB or (in the case of the lab) 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO The reason it needed to be two magnesium molecules is because all chemical equations must be balanced. The magnesium oxide product appeared as a white powder. The transition of states of matter was from solid and gas to solid. The signs of a chemical reaction taking place was color change and an odor that emitted. Magnesium Oxide is a naturally occurring mineral that can form inside of your body. It is used to supply magnesium to your body which is necessary for health of nerves and muscles. So the chemical reaction that was observed in the lab occurs in humans’ bodies naturally all the time. The second lab was a demonstration of decomposition. The reaction occurred when the compound copper (II) carbonate was heated. The compound decomposed to carbon dioxide and copper oxide. The products exposure to heat is what leads to its decomposition. Decomposition can best be represented by the formula AB → A + B Decomposition often occurs when a compound is introduced to heat or lack of heat. The lab exemplifies this. Indicators that a chemical reaction had occurred was a smell and the compound had changed to a black color The third lab was an example of a single displacement reaction. The aluminum foil reacted copper chloride by yielding bubbles and black pigment. Also heat was exerted by the reaction. The single displacement formula is AB + X → AX + B With that formula Robert formed the chemical equation that would apply to the lab. The result is CuCl + Al → CuAl + Cl There is room for error in that equation for there could be more molecules that were not accounted for. The reason the reaction took a relatively long time is because it took several moments for each molecule of aluminum to displace the chlorine molecules. Heat was exerted because of the kinetic energies of the molecules rearranging which could lead to a hypothesis stating that all single (or double) displacement reactions exert heat due to the exchange of molecules. The final lab was a demonstration of double-displacement reactions. Each reaction that occurred in the twenty-five wells was a double-displacement reaction. Almost every reaction produced a precipitate of solid. Some samples had violent reactions while others no visible reaction took place. All of the samples produced heat which supports the previous stated hypothesis that all displacement reactions produce heat. Some compounds exploded when introduced to others. A reaction like this occurs when the process of the displacement of molecules rearranges and collides. There are three switches downstairs. Each corresponds to one of the three light bulbs in the attic. You can turn the switches on and off and leave them in any position. How would you identify which switch corresponds to which light bulb, if you are only allowed one trip upstairs? In the lab reactions that introduced the same compound to each other were not accounted for. There was no room for human error unless ridiculous proportions were used. Each lab illustrated how each kind of chemical reaction contrasts and influences involved in the reactions. I would still like to pursue the displacement causing heat hypothesis in further experimentation.

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