PROFILE - CLOS E-UP December 2002 "Reprinted with permission from Irrigation & Green Industry magazine.

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DUBBED THE "FATHER OF MODERN ARBORICULTURE," Dr. Alex Shigo has spent most of his adult life studying, lecturing, dissecting and writing about trees. “A tree is much more than a chunk of dead wood,” exclaims Shigo. "Trees are alive; they live all year 'round, not just for a short time in the summer. They work during the winter, too. M any people spend time on what goes wrong with a tree; I wanted to study what goes right." Shigo was born at the height of the depression in 1930, in Duquesne, Pennsylvania. Attending Waynesburg College in South- western Pennsylvania, he received his Bachelor of Science degree in biology. Music was also a part of Shigo's life; he plays a mean clarinet. But his future plans were interrupted by the Korean War; he served in the Air Force and was in the official Air Force Band. After the war, Shigo continued his study of botany, biology and genetics, working as a lab assistant for Dr. Charles Bryner, his biology teacher at Waynesburg College. Bryner expected quite a bit from Shigo, admonishing him whenever he missed a question, Shigo recalls. "It helped me become more disciplined," he quips. Shigo furthered his education at the University of West Virginia, receiving a master's degree in biology in 1958, and a Ph.D. in pathology in 1959. He completed the doctorate so quickly because he started working on his Ph.D research at the same time he was working on his master's - "a loop- hole the university quickly closed," recalls Shigo. His career as a pathologist began with the U.S. Forestry service later that year. "I was a creature of opportunities," Shigo notes. "Until the 1950s there were only big two-man chain saws; then a manageable, one-man chain saw was developed. One of my assignments for the U.S. Forest Service was to learn more about tree decay. So I went out and started to dissect trees." Shigo had never handled a chain saw before. Even so, he wasn't satisfied with the cross-cut or transverse type of dissection that other pathologists favored. "Such dissection provides only a part of a tree's story," remarks Shigo. His idea was to dissect trees longitudinally as well. As a result, he learned that many commonly held concepts about heart rot and decomposition and other theories were wrong. "I could either go with the book (theories) or go with what I saw in the tree. Either the books were wrong' or the trees were wrong. I chose to go with the trees," Shigo says. "I started to see trees in a different way because a tree is a living thing," Shigo explains. "When you hit a living thing, it reacts. When YOU hit a tree, it does something. When a tree is threatened, it doesn’t just stand there. It establishes boundaries." With these and other theories that go against conventions, Shigo admits he has his detractors, but he also has his admirers. Denne Goldstein, publisher of this magazine, was the founder of Arbor Age magazine. He developed a relationship with Dr. Shigo in the late 1970s. "Alex is one of the most 1

knowledgeable people about trees; he is an exciting lecturer. His enthusiasm in contagious." Not one to mince words, Shigo has earned the respect of the foresters and arborists around the world. "Too many people are working in the field without an understanding of trees and grass," he observed. "People should know that trees are generating organisms, instead of re-generating organisms like human beings," Shigo explains. "Trees generate their own food from carbon dioxide, sunlight and water, while human beings must intake food from elsewhere. Therefore, tree food is a misnomer. While such supplements, like fertilizer, provide important elements, they do not provide an energy source," he says. Another example: While humans put new cells in old places countless times during a lifetime, trees continue to put new cells in new places, Shigo explains. Similarly, a tree doesn't heal, because it doesn't replace injured cells with new ones. In his books and lectures, Dr. Shigo disagrees with other popular theories about trees. Among those theories that Shigo disputes is the idea that trees are mostly dead wood. Shigo's understanding of trees comes from his years in the U.S. Forest Service. He eventually became chief scientist for the Forest Service and was in demand as a speaker at many conferences, both in the United States as well as around the world, until he retired in 1985. Not one to sit back and do nothing, he began to write and continues to play music. It wasn't long before calls began coming in from around the world, requesting him to lecture and teach. Shigo began a second career as a lecturer and author, which continues until this day . "The name Alex Shigo has a become a legend. When he walks into a room, he is the focal point. He has aura that commands respect," commented Goldstein. "Dr. Shigo is one of the warmest people I've met, with a sincere desire to teach what he has learned about trees. 'You have to touch a tree and feel it,' is one of my favorite Shigoisms." Since his retirement, he's written and published several papers, journals, books, and his most recent effort, a compact disk. Trees, Associates and Shigo is a CD which includes 5,000 slides from his work during the last 40-plus years. Included on the disk are thousands of images of the insides of trees, some so close up that one can see dust mites on an insect. While he's reluctant to discuss exact figures, Shigo said he's sold more than 70 tons of books, enough to cover the driveway of his home several times over. Shigo and his wife, M arilyn, live in Durham, New Hampshire. In the summer, they love to spend time at their summer cottage on a lake in Barrington, New Hampshire. They have a son, a daughter, and five grandchildren. Plagued with some health problems, Shigo has curtailed his travel, but he still looks forward to the future with excitement. He plans to add DVDs to his collection of publications. "I'm trying to get people who work with trees to understand them," says Shigo.

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Articles within: 1. A Professional Understands Dose 2. A Touch of Chemistry 3. How trees survive 4. Tree Autopsy 5. Troubles in the Rhizosphere 6. Arboriculture in the 21st Century 7. A NEW TREE BIOLOGY COM ES OF AGE 8. The Science of Tree Cultivation and the Science Behind the Treatments 9. Tree Education and Philosophy 10. Armillaria Root Rots, Predisposition and Poor Sorauer. 11. WATER AND TREES 12. Canker Rots and the Heart Rot Myth 13. California Oak problem 14. Tree Chemicals that Kill or Cure 15. Trees and Associates in Winter 16. What Arborist Need to Know About Lichens

www.shigoandtrees.com

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A Professional Understands Dose By Dr. Alex L. Shigo Tree pruning is a two-part treatment that demands a specialized knowledge of collars and dose. Knowing. how to remove a branch without injuring the tree requires an understanding of branch anatomy and defense boundaries, whereas knowing how many leaf-bearing branches can be removed without injuring the tree requires an understanding of the symplast and the second law of energy flow. Energy flow, cash flow

I asked a physicist friend recently what natural law he thought was the most important to sustain life. Without hesitation, he said it had to be the Second Law of Thermodynamics or energy flow, which states that no system will remain orderly, or survive, unless it receives a continuous supply of energy. Next, I asked a business friend what law he thought was most important in business. Just as quickly, he replied "cash flow." He stated that a successful entrepreneur needs to know how to get money, what to do with it, and when and how to let it go. He added that cash-flow problems are central to most business failures in big and small companies alike. We expect doctors, mechanics and others who call themselves professionals to understand the parts and processes of their business. We should demand no less from arborists. Below are some very brief comments that will make arborists more aware of a few neglected but essential parts and processes for correct tree pruning. I deal with these subjects in a much greater detail in my books. Two examples of over-pruned trees, where too much symplast has been removed.

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Symplast, a living webwork Two major myths have held back advances in arboriculture: Wood is dead, and decay is not a disease. These myths arose mainly from the lack of understanding of the symplast. The symplast is the highly ordered, three-dimensional, connected webwork of living protoplasm in trees. It's like a webwork of jelly. The living protoplasm is contained in thin-walled cells called the parenchyma, which have small cell wall openings that act as tunnels where the protoplasm of one cell connects with the protoplasm of adjoining cells. It is extremely important to remember that the symplast is alive. Energy reserves are stored within the living symplast, mostly as starch and oils. Twigs, branches, trunks and roots all have a symplast, which stores energy reserves. The greater the volume of the symplast, the greater the capacity to store energy reserves. The symplast is very fragile and requires a rigid framework, the apoplast, to hold it in place. The apoplast, on the other hand, is a dead framework. It is a highly ordered connection of dead cells and cell parts that act as a tough framework for the symplast. The apoplast stores water, mostly as bound water, which, unlike free water, is chemically bound to cellulose and does not flow. A unique feature of trees is that living and dead cells are connected in ways that support the heavy, woody framework while maintaining the biological process essential for life. Wood is a highly ordered arrangement of living, dying and dead cells that have walls of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. So, how does this all affect tree pruning? Removing living branches, stems or roots from trees reduces the volume of symplast. Since energy reserves are stored in the symplast, the energy reserves of the trees are reduced. For the living processes of the tree, there is a great difference between killing and dying-even though the end result is the same. As a branch dies, mobile materials such as nitrogenous substances have a chance to move back into the still living tissues. When a living branch is suddenly removed, all of the nitrogenous substances are lost. As trees mature, the ratio of dynamic mass, or symplast, declines from 100 percent to 10-20 percent.

Dynamic and static mass 5

Young trees contain living cells throughout, and the wood is said to be 100 percent dynamic mass. In fact, the definition of a young tree is one that is 100 percent dynamic mass. Significant amounts of the symplast may be removed from a young tree without seriously disrupting the workings of the Second Law, since enough energy remains to keep the parts and processes of the tree system orderly. As trees grow and mature, however, the inner and oldest living cells begin to die, and nitrogenous substances move outward toward the cambial zone into the still-living cells. When cells die near the inner margins of the symplast, the dead material is called the protection wood. Heartwood is one type of protection wood. Sapwood is wood that has a symplast. Protection is a static feature, whereas defense is a dynamic process. The symplast in the sapwood maintains a defense potential, because it contains living cells. Protection wood has very little or no nitrogen or energy reserves. Materials called extractives might also impregnate the dead cells. As the volume of protection wood increases, the ratio of dynamic mass (symplast in sapwood) to static mass (protection wood with all dead cells) changes. Because the ratios are changing, the amount of symplast lost by removing living branches is also changing. As trees grow and age, the demands of the Second Law become more pronounced. When wounds are inflicted and compartmentalized, the volume of dynamic mass decreases. If over-pruning, flush cuts, topping cuts or repeated deep injections are inflicted, the wood associated with the injuries is also compartmentalized. But again, as dynamic mass is walled off, the capacity to store energy reserves is decreased. When not enough energy is left for a tree to maintain a strong defense, then pathogens attack. Usually, the roots are first to go, because they depend on leaves and living branches for their energy. Core-skin hypothesis

By this time, you may be asking where all this information may be found. Many researchers over a long period have contributed to what Dr. R.C. Hardwick calls the core-skin hypothesis, which states that as new growth increments or "new trees" grow over old increments or "old trees," the "young trees" become "skin" over the aging "core." As trees age, the ratio of "core" to "skin" increases. Hardwick is must reading for anyone really interested in trees. I have used many of his ideas in my book "Modern Arboriculture," because they are very relevant to many tree treatments, especially fertilization and pruning. What's the solution?

Generally, as trees get larger and older, the number of living branches you remove should decrease, while the number of dead branches that you should remove will increase. Of course, a branch should be removed any time it becomes a high risk for failure. And remember, always keep wildlife in mind when pruning. I do not believe it is possible to give magic percentages for dose, or the number of living branches that may be pruned. Also, because of the forms of many trees, it is not possible to state how much should be removed and from where on the trunk. For example, American elms that are vase-shaped are still found 6

in many cities, particularly in Canada. How you prune such a tree would be very different from how you would prune a round mulberry tree in the southwestern United States. Each tree species has different mature forms and different ratios of dynamic to static mass. The collars on every branch will be different. Once these features are recognized and understood, only then can sound decisions be made about tree pruning. Think cash flow Cash flow describes the movement of money within a business. Energy flow means the same for a tree's business of survival. Think of the component parts of a tree and its processes as similar to the workings of your business. You and your people are the symplast. If you are the owner, then you are the cambial zone. Your office and other non-living parts make up the apoplast. When a tree business is small and young, it is mostly "symplast." As your business grows and ages, you must take care to recognize "dead wood" among employees and non-living things. The faster you discard "dead wood," the healthier your business will be. A common saying in the corporate world is that the amount of money you make is less important than how much you keep. Indeed, as your business grows, you might find yourself making less money. This is just one argument against uncontrolled growth. Growing bigger and faster, then, does not always make for a healthier company or a healthier tree. In business, constant and careful pruning will maximize profits from limited resources. The same may be said for trees. A Touch of Chemistry Life is a journey, powered by the sun, of a group of highly ordered and connected chemicals borrowed from the Earth. Death is the end of the journey when all borrowed chemicals are returned to be used again for new life. By Dr. Alex L. Shigo Advanced modern Arboriculture is the care of the tree system based on the most current accepted tools, machines, products and techniques, and on an awareness of the scientific principles behind decisions, predictions and treatments. The tree system is made up of trees, their associates and their environment. Arboriculture has grown from an art where muscles and skills were the major ingredients. Now it is time to add mind and science. The major science disciplines are biology, engineering, and chemistry. Of course, many other science disciplines play a role in the profession, as well as economics and communications. Chemistry is the science of arrangements of atoms and their properties. As reactions change arrangements, the properties of the products also change. Chemistry speaks to the trees and associates 7

at the molecular level. It is a ribbon that runs through all life processes and treatments. The use of fertilizers, water, herbicides, pesticides, mulches, soils and even proper pruning, all have a great amount to do with chemistry. I believe many highly intelligent arborists ran from biology and chemistry primarily because of the way the subjects were taught. Students could fail by misspelling photosynthesis, or forgetting the makeup of glucose. It was not teaching: It was boring memorization. Some people wanted to be out touching trees and really learning about them. Times are changing. Muscles and mind are now both required for the job. Some people will resist, but those who can see the writing on the wall will know that better jobs with higher wages are there for arborists who take the next steps. Chemistry of Life All living and non-living thing are made of chemicals. With living things, chemicals are so highly ordered in their arrangements that they repeat. Trees are bags of highly ordered arrangements of chemicals. You are bags of chemicals. The big bags are called cells, and the smaller bags within are cellular bodies and inclusions that maintain the processes of life. A major difference b etween your cells and those of the tree is that most of your cells have a soft, fatty, membrane boundary, whereas most of the tree's cells have a hard, tough cellulose-lignin, wall-like boundary. Trees and people are also, because they have tubes that transport liquids and substances dissolved in them from one place to another, and both have chemical pathways in living cells that regulate the chemical processes. Trees have tubes of vessels, tracheids, and phloem sieve tubes. People have a digestive tube and blood vessels. The chemical pathways in living cells are routes for the constant chemical changes that support life. To hold the cells and tubes in place, people have skin and bones. Trees build their tough framework into their tubes, fibers and bark. To stay alive, the inner cellular bodies require a continuous supply of energy. The energy -releasing substances reach the cellular bodies through the special tubes. To grow, elements and water must also move to growing sites by way of the transport tubes. Chemicals produced by an insect that deposited an egg in this oak twig stimulated the tree to form a gall that served as the protective home for the developing larva. Chemicals of one kind may turn on or off other chemicals in living things. These processes become more understandable when you realize that all organisms are "bags" of chemicals. Basic Chemicals of Life Six chemicals - carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) - make up about 98 percent of the weight of people and trees. Water (H 2 O, or two hydrogens and an oxygen atom) is the most abundant molecule in all living things. Other organic molecules are of four basic types: lipids (CH, mostly), carbohydrates 8

(CHO), proteins (CHONS), and nucleic acids (CHONSP). Carbon is the central chemical of life. The term "organic" means that carbon is part of the molecule. (Science is full of exceptions. Diamonds, coal, oil, graphite and natural gas have carbon, but they are not organic molecules mainly because of their structure and lack of oxygen.) Lipids Lipids are fats, oils and waxes made up of long chains of hydrogen and carbon connected to a glycerol molecule that has three oxygens. The chains of hydrogen and carbon can take on many forms because of branching. Suberin is a lipid that in the outer periderm of phellem waterproofs outer bark. Suberin- impregnated phellem is called cork. The chains of carbon and hydrogen in suberin are so varied that few enzymes from microorganisms are able to cleave it for an energy source. This characteristic gives corks their unique benefits for sealing bottles. Suberin is also in a layer in absorbing roots called the Casparian strip. This layer is an effective boundary essential in the absorption processes. Energy is required to transport water and elements through the boundary into the tree. Suberin is also a major compound in the barrier zone that forms after wounding. Outer bark that contains suberin is often used for mulch, since bark mulch will not be broken down by soil microorganisms because of the suberin. The bark mulch has aesthetic value, but the bark is of little value for providing energy -releasing compounds to soil microorganisms. Some trees store fats and oils as their reserve energy source. The fats and oils are not soluble in water. Many palms store oils. Waxes on leaves and fruits are also lipids.

The plight of this partially blind koala is due to ignorance of tree basics. Koalas eat the leaves of only about six species of Eucalyptus. Because of fire ditches to reduce the threat of fire and over development, most of the leaves on the declining trees in the area tanned. Tanning is a chemical process of combining phenol-based substances with proteins, and the disruption of hydrogen bonds leaves the protein indigestible. The animals ate and ate, but received little nutrition. A spirochete similar to syphilis entered and was passed along by mating. Many koalas died. The good news is that development in the area was not only stopped, but many developed areas will be returned to their original state. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are substances made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of one carbon to one oxygen to two hydrogens. They are the energy -carrying compounds. The basic fuel for living processes is glucose, a simple sugar that contains six carbons, 12 hydrogens 9

and six oxygens-C 6 H 12 O 6. The wonder of this compound is in the way in which the atoms are bonded. A great amount of light energy from the sun trapped by photosynthesis goes into glucose. Glucose is like a mobile battery, because it is soluble in water. When the glucose reaches the living cells, it is "burned" in the presence of oxygen and provides the energy to run living processes. Trees use energy in five basic ways: Growth, maintenance of all cell processes, reproduction, exudates and storage (mainly for new growth and defense). Growth and maintenance are linked in, that growth increases the mass of an organism while maintenance keeps the cellular bodies orderly and active. Reproduction, which increases the numbers of an organism, takes a great amount of energy from the system. Some trees have periodic heavy seed crops, while other trees, such as American elms, have heavy crops every year, Root exudates are like taxes: From 5 percent to 20 p ercent of the carbohydrates and other organic substances made from photosynthesis and metabolism exit the non-woody roots into the rhizosphere. These exudates are used as an energy source and building blocks by many soil microorganisms. Storage of compounds for new growth and defense is usually as insoluble starch or as oils and fats. Starch is made up of long chains of glucose. Starch is different from cellulose because of a different type of bonding. Glucose from photosynthesis follows two different routes: Some fuels the living processes, and other glucose molecules form cellulose, which is the most abundant natural substance in the world. Cellulose is made up of twisting rope-like chains of glucose molecules. Lignins fill the spaces between the twisting "ropes" of cellulose. Lignins are natural cementing materials that give wood its unique characteristics for strength. Tree cell walls also have hemicelluloses, which are compounds made up of shorter chains of sugars. An enzyme called amylase can change the starch chains back to glucose molecules. M any fungi have enzymes that can cleave the cellulose chains to release glucose. The wonder of glucose is that it can be an active cellular fuel, a tough material, a storage material and the basic unit of many other molecules essential for life. Now, back to growth and maintenance as linked processes. We know how to stimulate growth: add a nitrogen source to soil or leaves and shoots will grow bigger. What we cannot do directly is add an energy source to trees. When growth increases, energy goes out of the system first. Then maintenance and defense must also increase after this for the added living matter. If stored energy is used to meet the added growth demands, little stored energy remains for defense, leaving a bigger plant with a smaller defense system. Any number of insects and microorganisms "know" this. The classic example is fire blight. Add nitrogen to a tree that has a little fire blight and the disease will spread rapidly. Add an overdose of nitrogen to trees and any number of sucking insects will be there. The latest example is the Canadian hemlock problem caused by the hemlock woolly adelgid. Some people may argue that the added growth will support more photosynthate and this adds to the total energy budget of the system. The fact often forgotten is that the energy must come out of the system first and then the photosynthate begins to come back. M uch can happen in the time between these processes that would benefit pathogens, which are opportunists waiting for a weak moment. There is a way to indirectly "feed" a tree, and that is by the addition of composted wood and leaves to the soil. I believe we must think of the tree as the major part of an entire system. In this sense, it is possible to feed the tree system. The composted wood and leaves provide a carbon source for the many 10

microorganisms that are a part of the tree system. Dose again is extremely important. High mounds of mulch about the bases of trees is not beneficial, especially if the wood and leaves are not composted. Proteins Proteins are compounds of amino acids that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and, in a few cases, sulfur. There are 20 basic amino acids arranged in many ways to form proteins. Proteins are the basic molecules that make up living matter. Animals are mostly proteins and trees are mostly carbohydrates on a weight basis. Proteins are also the central molecules in enzymes, which are substances that catalyze many reactions along the pathways of life. Enzymes are "efficiency experts" in that they bring about chemical reactions in ways that minimize the expenditure of energy. They are often likened to keys that open the doors. Or, they may be likened to knives that cleave long chains or big molecules into smaller ones. All of these actions occur in ways that minimize energy costs and keep heat down. If it were not for enzymes, living cells would run out of fuel and would heat to the point of disruption. A major benefit of fertilizers is that they provide nitrogen for proteins. As more proteins form, the possibility for added growth increases. Nitrogen is absorbed at the rhizoplane in two forms: as nitrate ions or ammonium ions. Nitrate is an anion that carries a single negative charge. The ammonium ion is a cation that carries a single positive charge. The molecular weight of the nitrate ion, which is made up of one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms, is 62. Nitrogen has a molecular weight of 14, and each oxygen is 16. The ammonium cation is made up of one nitrogen and four hydrogens that have a molecular weight of one each. It weighs 18, the same as water, H 2 O. A nitrate anion is three times the weight of an ammonium cation. This is extremely important, because the ammonium cation- being as small as the water molecule-often is attached to the inner surface of clay crystals. The ammonium cation is attracted to negative points in and on the clay crystals. In this way, clays hold ammonium cations as a reserve nitrogen source. A nitrate ion is too big and heavy to compete with an ammonium ion in clays. Nitrate is usually the molecule that is absorbed by non-woody roots. The absorbing, non-woody root boundary is called the rhizoplane. In a sense, the rhizoplane is the "great discriminator." Ions pass into and out of the tree by way of the rhizoplane. When a cation moves in, an inner cation moves out. The same is true for anions. The usual cation that exits is a proton or the positively charged nucleus of hydrogen. The usual anion is the bicarbonate anion, which forms from carbonic acid, which in turn forms when carbon dioxide dissolves in water. Carbon dioxide and water are products of respiration, which is an energy releasing process that requires oxygen. The energy released then "runs" the pathways in the living cells. When nitrate ions enter non-woody roots, bicarbonate ions or ions made up of an oxygen and hydrogen exit. A bicarbonate ion is made up of one hydrogen, one carbon and three oxygens. An important point to remember is that a carbon-containing ion exits when a nitrogen-containing ion enters. When nitrate ions enter, they usually react with reserve carbons to form amino acids. So again, carbon is leaving the reserves. And even more carbon exits as root exudates. As carbon reserves decrease, so does the potential for defense. Add to this the fact that the percentage of exudate excreted increases when trees are over-pruned or injured during construction, and the defense potential is threatened even more. Overt evidence of the decrease in defense potential is shown by the abundance of root diseases in areas where trees are commonly over-pruned, over-watered or 11

over-fertilized. Remember, pathogens "know" how to wait for a short, weak moment in the life of an organism. When the moment comes, they are always ready. Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids are so called because they were first found in the nuclei of cells . Nucleic acids are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sometimes sulfur. Two nucleic acids, DNADeoxyribonucleic acid and RNA-ribonucleic acid, are almost household terms. The acids hold the codes for life. DNA is like a rubbery ladder that is twisted. The "rungs" are mad e up of four different nitrogen-containing molecules. The combinations of groups of "rungs" are the genes that determine the makeup of an organism. The codes within a species are basically similar in their themes, but there are countless variations on the themes. This fact accounts for the great difference between individuals within a species. This variation is very imp ortant to the people who select individual trees for superior traits. We have known for more than 25 years that some individuals of a species are able to compartmentalize wounds more effectively than others. With the great need for tough city trees, it is difficult to understand why this information has never been used.

Water Water is the medium for the chemicals of life. For instance, we know that glucose is the basic fuel for living processes, however, it is only usable when it is in a soluble state or in water. The same can be said for the 14 elements from soil that are essential for life, as well as a long list of organic compounds. Weathering of rocks by organic acids produced by lichens is an important process that benefits the tree system. Elemen ts essential for life are often locked up in rocks.

Water is made up of two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom. The way these three atoms are bonded gives this molecule amazing characteristics. Think of the water molecule as a large balloon for oxygen and two smaller balloons for the hydrogens. The hydrogen balloons are bonded to the large balloon in a way that leaves each hydrogen atom with a small positive charge. On the opposite side of the balloon from the hydrogens, the oxygen has two small 12

negative charges. The water molecule then has two small positive charges on one side and two small negative charges on the opposite side. Such a molecule is called a dipole because it has positive and negative ends. When many water molecules are together, one negative point is attracted to one positive point of another water molecule. The way the two negative points and two positive points are positioned makes it impossible for two water molecules to connect both positives to both negatives. The charges are small but they are enough to result in highly complex three-dimensional lattices of connected water molecules. This is why water that weighs only 18 on the molecular scale is not a gas at room temperature. The molecules normally form huge clumps of connected lattices. The cohesive nature of water explains why water will form humps on the surface of smooth glass or on the waxy coatings of leaves and needles. The lattice structure of water molecules is a major reason it "holds together" in vessels and tracheids. The exact nature of the 3-D lattices is still not understood. When free-flowing water moves in trees, some of the water molecules "stick" to the small negative charges on cellulose molecules. The positive charges of the hydrogen of water are attracted to the negative charges of the oxygen on hydroxyls (oxygen and hydrogen bonded) on cellulose. This is called a hydrogen bond. It is like a Post-It Note. It sticks when you want it to stick, but when you pull it away, you cannot tell where it was stuck. The water that bonds with cellulose is called bound water.

The Bonds of Life There are three major types of chemical bonds--covalent, ionic and hydrogen. Think of bonds as magnets: Covalent bonds are the strongest magnets; Ionic are next; and hydrogen the least strong. Covalent bonds hold the nitrogen in the air so tightly together that it takes a great amount of ener gy to break the bonds. That is good, because the air is about 80 percent nitrogen, which is in a form that is very difficult for organisms to use. Ionic bonds are lesser magnets. Elements and combinations of elements enter and exit non-woody roots as ions. Ions have a positive or negative charge. Hydrogen bonds are the smallest magnets. Yet in many ways, they are the major magnets of life. They hold things together and, when pressures are applied, they let things go. The more you know about hydrogen bonds, the more you will know about living processes. There are three physical forces that we know of--gravity, electromagnetic and nuclear. Chemistry sp eaks primarily to the electromagnetic forces. Nuclear forces hold atoms together. Gravity and nuclear forces are primarily within the discipline of physics. Something must hold matter together. At the same time, the matter that is held together must eventually come apart-build up, breakdown, recycling. Some force holds them together and some greater force pulls them apart. Think about how it would be if once matter got together, it could not be taken apart. Or think of the other extreme, that matter would be always falling apart. The wonder of natural systems is the way in which matter holds together and the way that matter comes apart. The Tree Seesaw 13

Dynamic equilibrium is one of the major principles of chemistry. Dynamic equilibrium is a state of apparent balance while in reality two opposing processes are operating at a constant rate. Natural systems are in constant states of dynamic equilibrium that are often misstated as the balance of nature. Trees are in the same state: The top supplies the energy to the bottom and the bottom supplies the water and elements to the top. Trees can be likened to seesaws. For a seesaw to work, it must go up and down. If one end is shortened (through over-pruning), the seesaw will be more difficult to operate. If the seesaw is balanced and still, the tree is dead. If a heavy weight is placed on one side (through over-watering or over-fertilizing), it will be difficult to operate. Some Final Points I have discussed very briefly some organic molecules of life, water, bonding and dynamic equilibrium. Here are some examples of the ways this information is related to trees and their treatments. 1. Tanning M any evergreen leaves tan after they mature. Tanning means that proteins bond with phenol-based molecules. In the process, the hydrogen bonds that hold the protein spirals in place are pulled away and the protein spiral collapses like a slinky toy. Once collapsed, no insect or other organism can use the protein as a food source because the collapsed spiral makes it almost impossible for an enzyme to enter and cleave the protein. This is why we tan animal skins.

2. Fiber Saturation Point When the thick inner wall layers of fibers become saturated with water, that condition is called the fiber saturation point. The secondary wall has three layers called S 1, S 2 and S 3. The S 2 layer has an abundance of cellulose. The hydrogen bonds on the water molecules attach to the negative positions of oxygen atoms on hydroxyls that "stick out" from the cellulose. The water is now called bound water. The high amount of bound water in the S 2 layer is a major protection feature against decay -causing fungi in living trees. 3. Urea Fertilizer Urea is the major molecule used for nitrogen in fertilizer. It is inexpensive to make. Urea is an organic molecule with a central carbon, an oxygen, two nitrogens and four hydrogens. The hydrogens form weak hydrogen bonds with positive charges and the oxygen has two weak negative bonds. The molecule is a dipole, and is very soluble in water because of the hydrogen bonds. This is the good news. The bad news is that the molecule reacts very quickly in water to release ammonia gas that can go off into the atmosphere on hot windy days and not into the soil. Also, many microorganisms contain a urease enzy me that splits the molecule to release ammonia. M any fertilizers are now including a chemical to slow the action of the urease in order to minimize loss of nitrogen as ammonia gas.

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4. Over-watering If high turgor pressure is essential as a protection feature against infection, why not add lots of water to make sure you maintain a high turgor pressure? If you do, the plant wilts or the palm heart is infected. How can this be? The seesaw and absorption in the soil are the answers. When too much water is added to soil, the oxygen content is decreased. When oxygen is low, non-woody root respiration will be low. When respiration is low, very little carbon dioxide and water will be formed. As a result, very little carbonic acid will form. When carbonic acid is low, very little bicarbonate ion will form. Bicarbonate anion is a major player in absorption. For nitrate ion to enter the non-woody root, an anion must exit. When bicarbonate anion is low, nitrate anion entering the non-woody root will be low. The seesaw states that extremes kill. Too little is not good, and too much is not good. If you load the soil with water, absorption of essential elements and water decreases because respiration and bicarbonate ions decrease. 5.Pesticides and Herbicides M ost pesticides and herbicides kill by blocking a chemical pathway within the. cells, usually by the alteration of enzymes. The alteration is such that a chemical compound almost the same as the real enzyme "fits" into the real enzyme's usual position, but it does not work. Chemicals designed to kill specific organisms usually have an enzyme-blocking chemical for some enzyme specific to that organism. M ore broad-range killer chemicals alter some other chemical essential for living processes. For example, arsenic "fits" into the position occupied by phosphorus in the molecule ATP, adenosine triphosphate. ATP is the universal "money handler" in organisms. Arsenic is an analog for phosphorus. The problem for the organism is that arsenic does not do the job of ATP, and the cash flow system of the organism disrupts. Other broad-range chemicals work in similar ways. 6. Chlorosis When nitrate anion enters a non-woody root, bicarbonate anion exits the root. When bicarbonate anion dissolves in water, the pH will increase in the rhizosphere. The pH could be two or more units higher right after fertilization with urea. First, urea forms ammonia, which dissolves in water to form a strong base. Then, when bicarbonate anions enter the rhizosphere water they are also bases. If this takes place in soils that are already high in pH, and if trees that have genetic codes for optimal growth in low pH soils are planted there, it is possible that some chlorosis could occur. As pH increases, iron and manganese form insoluble precipitates rather than ions in water. When iron and manganese are low, processes of photosynthesis decrease. The other side of the urea story is that after two to four weeks, the pH will decrease if certain bacteria are present and active. This seesaw effect with pH changes is more common than recognized in the rhizosphere. The problem is that when the pH conditions favor pathogens, it does not take long for them to infect. 7. Taxol and Cancer I end with this example because a very valuable chemical from yew trees shows great promise as a control for some forms of cancer. Taxol does it by blocking the pathways that lend elasticity to the cell's inner cytoskeleton. What does that mean? When cells divide rapidly, as they do in some cancers, the inner cell cytoskeleton stretches to accommodate the genetic apparatus that transfers the genetic material. If that apparatus is not elastic, it will not stretch as two cells begin to form from one. Instead, it resists stretching and may even break, thus preventing cell division. Since some cancers are cell divisions out of control, taxol slows this division process. The side effects are that the same slowing of cell division also takes place in normal healthy cells. But cancer cells multiply so much faster than 15

normal cells that this side effect is far outweighed by the benefits.

Why Do I Need to Know This Stuff? The answer is simple: You do not need to know this stuff if you are satisfied with your job and wages. If you are pleased with your position and pleased with the thought that you will be doing the same things for the same wages the rest of your life, fine! If you want to advance-not only in your job but as a person who gets enjoyment out of understanding the way things work-then you need to know this stuff. The people who want this stuff rarely ask the question of why they need it because they already know the answer. I believe arboriculture will become more of a science, and it will follow the same route as modern medicine. So far, the early history of medicine fits very well with the developing profession of arboriculture.

16

HOW TREES S URVIVE
By Dr. Alex Shigo This noted researcher and author discusses the characteristics of trees that help them survive, as well as what happens when systems of the tree falter. Trees are the tallest, most massive, longest-living organisms ever to grow on earth. Trees, like other plants, cannot move. However, trees, unlike other plants are big, woody and perennial, which means they are easy targets for living and nonliving agents that could cause injuries. Trees cannot move away from potentially destructive conditions. Wounding agents and destructive conditions do destroy trees, but somehow, trees have grown in ways that give them super survival powers. The big question is, how do trees do it? The answer lies in concepts of biology and mechanical engineering. The purpose of this paper is to examine the question of tree survival power more from the concepts of biology, but also to be aware of concepts of mechanical engineering. I will focus on subjects that need more clarification. Details on all subjects given here are in my books. Because different disciplines often use similar terms that have different meanings for their work, it is important to start with some definitions of terms I will use. You may not accept my definitions, but you will know what I mean when I use a term. I believe if a person cannot define a term in 25 words or less, they should not use it because they probably do not understand it. Keyword Definitions of Terms (Keyword definitions give the most important words that define a term. Complete sentences are not necessary.) Capacity - What you have as a result of your genetic code; a potential source for some future action or product. Ability - What you are doing with what you have; a dynamic or kinetic process. System - A highly ordered connection of parts and processes that have a predetermined end point product, service. Stress - A condition where a system, or its parts, begins to operate near the limits for what it was designed. Strain - Disorder and disruption of a system due to operation beyond the limits of stress. Vigor - The capacity to resist strain; a genetic factor, a potential force against any threats to survival. Vitality - The ability to grow under the conditions present; dynamic action. Health - The ability to resist strain. Disease - A process that decreases the order and energy of a living system to the point of strain. Survival - The ability to remain alive or functional under conditions that have the potential to cause strain. Generating system - New parts and processes form in new spatial positions; plants. Regenerating system - New parts and processes form in old, or preoccupy, spatial positions; animals. 17

Wood - A highly ordered connection of living, dying and dead cells that have walls of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Symplast - The highly ordered connection of living axial and radial parenchyma in wood and bark. Apoplast - The highly ordered connection of dead cells and cell parts that make up the framework that holds the symplast. Quality - The characteristics that define a product, service or performance; quality can be low or high. Hypothesis for survival Because trees cannot move away from potentially destructive agents and conditions, they have grown in ways that give them the capacity to adjust rapidly after being threatened by agents or conditions that could cause strain or death. The capacity to adjust is a genetic feature called vigor. The program of vigor of an organism is defined by the limits of factors essential for survival. For example, one tree may have broad limits for water utilization. When drought occurs, it will still survive. Another tree may have very narrow limits for water utilization. Even the slightest disruption in availability of water would lead to strain or even death. A vigor code then determines the limits for such essential factors as space, water, elements, temperature and soil pH. The vigor of an organism cannot be measured until a life threatening stimulus contacts the organism. When any potentially destructive stimulus occurs, the ability of the tree to adjust will be due not only to its vigor, or genetic code, but to its vitality. A tree that is very vigorous by nature of its genetic code may be growing on a rock. It would not be very vital. What this means is that for survival, both the vigor and vitality of a tree must be optimized.

Forest tree, city tree Trees became tall, massive and long-living plants as they grew in groups. Trees not only connect with other trees by way of root grafts but also by way of the fungi that are associated with non-woody roots; the organs are called mycorrhizae. Trees also connected with many other organisms, very large to very small, in ways that benefited the trees and their associates. Synergistic associations are important parts of the tree system. A forest is a system where trees and many associates are connected in ways that ensure survival of all members. It is important to remember that the genetic codes for survival, or vigor, came from trees growing in forests. When the forest-coded tree is brought into the city, the factors that affect vitality become extremely important. The architecture of most city trees as they grow as individuals is different from most of their relatives in the forest where trees grow in groups. Forest trees have group protection and group defense. The individual tree has neither.

The good news, the bad news 18

The good news is that most of our city trees have strong vigor codes that have made them super survivors for hundreds of millions of years. The bad news is that many human actions and mistreatments affect vitality and undo all the benefits of wondrous vigor code. It is only because most trees have such strong vigor codes that they still survive in cities. There is no doubt in my mind that the greatest threat to survival faced by city trees are mistreatments by humans. M any trees tolerate mistreatments. Too often their tolerance is perceived as justifications for the mistreatments. I have heard it said many times that the tree did not die, so therefore the treatments must have been correct. How do trees adjust? Trees have two basic adjustment codes. 1. After injuries, boundaries form that resist spread of infections. By resisting spread of infections, the boundaries protect and preserve the water, air and mechanical support systems of the tree. Two types of boundaries form: reaction zones and barrier zones. The reaction zone is a chemically altered boundary that forms within the wood present at the time of wounding. The barrier zone is an anatomical and chemical boundary that forms after wounding. The barrier zone separates the infected wood from the new healthy wood that continues to form in new spatial positions. The tree is a generating system. The tree has no mechanism to form new, healthy cells in the same positions as those that are infected. Regenerating systems in animals do restore, repair, replace and regenerate parts in the same spatial positions. Animals have a process call apoptosis, which means programmed cell death followed by lysis, and new cells forming again in the same positions of those that died, lysed, and were eliminated. This normal process of apoptosis accelerates after animals are injured and infected. This accelerated restoration process is then called healing. In this sense, trees have no healing process. Trees are highly compartmented, woody, shedding, perennial plants. Trees are generating systems. Every growth period, trees form new compartments over older ones. Trees grow as their apical and vascular meristems produce cells that differentiate to form all parts of the tree. The important part to remember is that trees grow as new parts form in new spatial positions. Trees cannot "go back" to restore, repair, replace or regenerate parts. You do not restore a church by building a new one next to it. All words in English that start with "re" mean that new parts will go back in previously occupied positions or back to an original state. These words have no meaning for trees. These words have been the basis for great amounts of confusion. A tree cannot function in the same ways as animals do after injuries or threats to their survival. The continuing use of such meaningless words for trees is a strong indication why tree basics should be understood by people who work with trees. 2. Now for the second adjustment feature of trees. After wounds or threats to their survival, trees also grow in ways that will maintain their mechanical structures. Now we come to the mix of biology and mechanical engineering. There are two basic ways trees adjust to maintain and strengthen their structural stability: reaction wood and woundwood.

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Reaction wood can be of two types. Compression wood forms on the down side of leaning trunks and tension wood forms on the upper sides. Compression wood is common in conifers and can be seen on a transverse dissection as dark bands in the wood, usually resin soaked. Or the growth increments could be larger in width and still be dark and resin soaked. It is not possible to see tension wood because the changes take place in the cell walls. A gelatinous layer forms in the cell walls, and this layer can only be seen when properly stained and viewed under a microscope. The important part here is to know that these altered cell forms occur and that they occur after a stimulus that threatens survival mainly because of a lean in the stem that could lead to a fracture. Woundwood is altered wood that forms about the margins of wounds. When wounds release the pressure of the bark, some of the still living parenchyma in the symplast begin to divide and produce new cells in new positions. These new cells no longer are held in place by the pressures of the bark or of the apoplast. The new cells become rounded and have a thin, primary cell wall. The cells exercise their ability (now) to divide and divide and divide. Because they are thin-walled, dividing cells, and because they contain the genetic codes for forming all parts of the tree, some of the cells begin to differentiate to form sprouts, prop roots, roots or flowers. This capacity for division and differentiation is called meristematic. M eristems are groups of cells that have the ability to divide and differentiate to form all parts of the tree. There are apical meristems that increase the length of stems and roots, and also produce flowers, and vascular meristems - cambial zone - that increases the girth or circumference of a tree. The symplast is a meristematic tissue. This means that the parenchyma in the symplast have the capacity to divide and to differentiate. However, they are not able to exercise this capacity so long as they are "trapped" in place by the strong apoplast and the pressure of the bark. When wounds "release" the symplast, then the capacity to divide and to differentiate is converted to an ability. Callus is the name given to the thin walled, mostly round, meristematic cells that first form after wounding about the edges of the wound. Callus has very little lignin, the tough "natural cement" that gives cell walls great strength. After callus cells continue to form, the pressure begins to build again as internal round callus cells begin to squeeze against other callus cells. As pressure increases internally, the shape of newly formed cells begins to change. Within a few weeks to a few months after wounding during the growth period, callus formation begins to diminish and woundwood formation begins. Woundwood has fewer vessels than "normal" wood. The cell walls are usually thicker than normal and usually contain more lignin. The woundwood cells cease to be meristematic. A new vascular cambium forms and continues to form woundwood. These woundwood tissues are seen as ribs about the margins of wounds. The woundwood ribs also add new strength to the weakened side of a stem, branch or woody root. When woundwood closes wounds, then normal wood continues to form. The internal boundary forming processes of compartmentalization are separate from the processes of callus and woundwood formation. 20

A typical cracking pattern associated with multiple stems. The willow oak was growing in a city. Cracks that separate multiple stems often lead to fractures. The tree shown here was one of many that was a victim of Hurricane Hugo.

Rot associated w ith Armillaria mellea in a root of red spruce. The tree root did compartmentalize the infection, but in doing so the volume of root wood that could store energy reserves was decreased.

Klaus Vollbrecht stands beside an elm in Sweden that was felled because of extensive root and trunk rot. As trees grow older, the rate of growth of the fungi that cause decay may be more important as a survival factor than the rate of growth of the tree. What can go wrong? It appears that trees could live forever. Of course, that is not so because the tree system, like all systems, must obey natural laws. And, again, the laws bring together biology and mechanical engineering. Because a tree is a generating system, it is bound by its genetic codes to increase constantly in mass. The second law of energy flow begins to take its toll. The second law states that no system can remain in an orderly condition without a continuous supply of energy. As the tree system begins to increase in mass, the demands for energy to maintain order in 21

the system begin to increase at exponential rates. The tree still has ways of living within the limits of this law. The tree is a shedding organism. It uses and sheds non-woody and woody parts as they die. Decay ed wood that develops within boundaries is even a form of shedding. Also, as trees age, the percentage of the entire tree that is symplast begins to change. The ratio of apoplast to symplast increases. So, the tree has both dynamic mass - symplast and ap oplast. As the inner cells in the symplast die, the inner apoplast that now has all dead cells is called protection wood. Protection is a static feature. Defense is a dynamic action. Protection wood is more protective than the sapwood because protection wood often contains substances called extractives that resist decay. Protection wood may also be so altered that it s water, pH and available elements may not support growth of microorganisms. Sapwood has a symplast. When sapwood is injured and infected, dynamic processes take place. There are two types of sapwood: sapwood that conducts free water, and sapwood that has its vessels plugged and does not conduct free water. When protection wood is injured and infected, the intrinsic characteristics of the wood resist spread of infections. There are four types of protection wood: heartwood, false heartwood, discolored wood in early stages and wetwood. (See the book Tree Anatomy for details.) The biology of fractures Trees, like all organisms, die in three basic ways: depletion, dysfunction and disruption. Depletion means that energy decreases to the point where disorder increases and the survival of the system is threatened. Examples are infections and starvation. Dysfunction means that highly ordered parts and processes begin to become disordered to the point where survival is threatened. Some examples are genetic problems and toxins. Disruption means that the highly ordered structure of a system is disordered to the point where survival is threatened. Some examples are storm injuries and wounds inflicted by large machines. Trees grow as increments of new cells envelop older increments. In a sense, trees grow as cones of tissues envelop older, smaller cones. The tough structural parts of a tree are aligned in axial or vertical arrangements of thick-walled fibers or fiber tracheids, and vessels or tracheids. Every part of the tree framework is selfsupporting, unlike animals that have thin-walled cells that are held in position by a boundary called skin and an internal framework of bones. The animal system allows movement as evasive defense against some destructive agents. The tree also has a radial arrangement of parenchyma cells. Remember that the parenchyma cells usually have thin walls with little lignin. Bands of radial parenchyma cells are called rays. They are often the sites of internal cracks.

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No absolutes There are no absolutes. There are no perpetual motion machines. Every system has its limits for survival. The tree system also has its limits for survival. As it increases in mass and gets older, the likelihood for injuries increases. A mature, healthy tree may have thousands of compartmentalized infections. Yet, there comes a time when even the limits of a super survivor begin to be approached. There are no absolutes. When trees are young, depletion and dysfunction are the major causes of death. As trees get older and have survived thousands of injuries and infections, disruption becomes the greatest threat for highquality survival. When a branch fractures and falls, it dies. When a trunk splits and falls to the ground, it dies. And, as larger and larger wounds result from such fractures, the likelihood of more fractures increases greatly. When the pattern of fractures begins in city trees, not only are the trees in potential trouble, but so is the property near the trees. Also, people who go near the trees could have problems if trees or their parts fracture and fall. The tree's architecture A tree is a central beam with secondary lateral beams called branches and twigs. The tree is unique as a living system because it connects living and dead cells, and, in a sense, still maintains some control over the dead parts. The cell walls of dead fibers still hold bound water that acts as a strong protection feature against infection by microorganisms. So long as the bound water and the free water in the lumens saturate the wood, infection will be resisted. It is possible also that some of the bound water could be "released" and used as free water in living processes. This is probably the case in tissues behind buds where high amounts of starch are stored during the end of the growing season. In spring the starch is enzymatically converted back to glucose, which greatly increases the osmotic pressure, and may "pull" bound water from cell walls. Water does not flow from tissues behind buds when cuts are made very early in the spring, often before soils are thawed in areas where they normally freeze. Because trees are constructed of living and dead parts, the concepts of biology and mechanical engineering are all the more appropriate. They are connected. We say trees do not move, and in the sense of changing spatial posit ions, this is correct. Yet trees are constantly in motion. As they sway, new tissues that form in new positions constantly adjust to potential weakness. If all this is so, why do tree failures occur? Now, back to the idea that there are no absolutes. There are limits to all parts and processes that make up a system. As the limits are approached, we have increasing stress. When the limits are exceeded, we have strain. When the strain is physiological, we have a disease. When the strain is structural, we have a fracture. Branch attachments Branches are subdominant stems. As buds grow, some develop as leaders that extend the central trunk or beam. Other buds that do not grow as central leaders become subdominant lateral branches. For example, if a young tree is pulled partially out of the soil and tied horizontal to the ground, soon a 23

series of leader trunks will form along the procumbent trunk. They would be called trunks, not branches. However, if the tree was not tied down, the usual leader and branch architecture would develop. As the branch grows, branch tissues at the base of the branch turn abruptly about the branch base and then continue downward on the trunk. The trunk tissues grow around the branch tissues at the branch base, The branch tissue forms a collar called the branch collar and the trunk tissues form a collar called the trunk collar. For ease of reference, the two collars are collectively called the branch collar. The tissues of both collars usually mix and mesh to form a swollen place about the branch base. When branches die, protective chemical zones form in these swollen basal tissues. The protective zone within the branch base resists infection into the tree from microorganisms that grow in the dead branch. A better understanding of branch attachment has led to adjustments in pruning. Cuts should be made as close as possible to the branch collar, but the collar should not be injured or removed. Removal of branch collars - flush cuts are major starting points for many serious tree problems - cankers, rots. cracks, insect infestations. A brief look at decay Decay is usually considered the major cause of tree failures. I do not believe this is entirely correct. I believe that cracks are much more of a problem, and I will discuss them after a few words about decay. Decay is a process that increases the disorder of any highly ordered system. Tree decay is the breakdown of the highly ordered structure of cell walls. Tree decays are the most serious and most common group of tree diseases, worldwide. Decay is a disease because it affects the health of the entire organism. Pathology must consider the entire organism, not only its parts. For many years, decay was not considered a disease because the microorganisms infected only dead parts. Two of the most serious myths that have held back understanding of a tree, and consequently our understanding of correct tree treatments, are that wood is dead and that decay is not a disease. The entire myth of wound paints to stop decay was built on these two myths. Sad, but these myths are still alive and economically active today. (It is more productive to talk about decays.) Trees have grown in ways that greatly decrease the potential impact of decay s. Trees compartmentalize decayed wood. Compartmentalization is the tree's defense process. The tree is a living system that has many associates. When trees are injured, they will always be infected. There is no tree process that prevents infection. After wounding, the tree responds in ways that ensure continual survival. The original concepts of decay did not treat the tree as a living, responding organism. The so-called tree decay concepts were really wood decomposition concepts. All wood darker than the sapwood was considered heartwood or a type of heartwood - wound heartwood, pathological heartwood. Heartwood was considered a dead tissue that was invaded by decay causing fungi after wounding. Tree decay was the breakdown of the heartwood. M any different types of decay patterns and decay-causing fungi were identified. Wood product researchers took over the study of wood decay. This is the time the "wood is 24

dead" myth started. It was true for products, but not for the tree. Wood anatomy was studied by many researches. To this day, many people confuse wood anatomy with tree anatomy. Tree anatomy is about a living organism. Tree decay and compartmentalization are about living, responding organisms.

Decay and tree failure Decay is usually considered the major cause of tree failures. This may be so in parts of the world where digging into cavities is a regular practice. In the digging process, natural protection boundaries are destroyed. Also, the strong woundwood ribs are removed. Then, decay is cited as the cause of failure. Harsh pruning cuts that remove the branch collar have been major starting points for cavities. Thick coatings of wound paints over such wounds greatly increase the spread of decay. Cutting branches flush to the trunk flush cuts - painting wounds and digging out decay have been the three major treatments of the industry. There is no doubt in my mind that these three mistreatments have caused more tree problems than all the diseases, fires, floods and insect infestations added together. M odern arboriculture means that tree treatments are based on tree biology. Trees are living systems. In the U.S., the practice of digging into cavities is rarely done. The use of wound dressings has decreased greatly. The correct pruning of trees is increasing greatly. M ore and more, people are basing treatments on an understanding of tree biology. Now, back to trees and decay. Decay was the greatest threat to the plants that were developing as tall, long-living, woody plants. Decay had the potential to break down the framework for the developing tree. If the framework was broken down as wounds were inflicted and as branches and woody roots died, the tree as we know it today would never have developed. Some combination of processes and structures "had to happen" or the plant would never have become a tall, massive, long-living tree. Or, you could say, the mechanical design of the tree developed in such a way that decay was usually resisted. For these reasons, I see decay to the point of failure in the natural forest as a last stage process in the life of a tree. Decay has become a major cause of tree failure in younger city trees mainly because the mistreatments of humans has occurred at rates much faster than the trees' ability to adjust. And to add insult to injury, the trees' adjustment tissues were the first to be destroyed. For these reasons, I see tree decay as an increasing problem in cities where mistreatments have routinely destroyed the trees' systems for defense and protection. It will take a complete new generation of trees and modern arborists at work before this problem is corrected. In many cities of the world the problems have been corrected. To start, I invite you to my town of Durham, New Hampshire, where you will see full-crowned beautiful trees. You will not see topped and mutilated trees, no wound dressing and no cavities that have been dug into. In fact, you will rarely find a cavity, even on the largest and oldest trees. So, I am optimistic; it will take time.

Cracks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

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I see tree decay as an increasing problem in cities where mistreatments have routinely destroyed the trees' Systems for defense and protection. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Just as trees developed as highly compartmented systems that compartmentalized decay, they also developed in ways that sustained survival after cracks formed. There are two basic types of cracks in wood. Ring shakes are cracks or separations along the circumferential growth increments. Ray shakes, or radial cracks are separations along the radial plane. Ring shakes occur commonly along the plane of the barrier zone that forms after wounding. The barrier zone is a strong protective zone that separates infected wood from healthy wood that continues to form after wounding. Suberin forms in the cell walls. In a sense, barrier zones are like an inside bark. The barrier zone is weak in a structural way. Ray shakes or radial cracks usually start from ring shakes. Ray shakes also start as the woundwood ribs curl inward at the vertical margins of wounds. When the woundwood ribs grow rapidly, the likelihood of cracks forming at the wound margins increases. Wound dressings that stimulate woundwood formation also increase the chances for cracks. Compartmentalization was the trees' "answer" to decay. What did the trees "do" about cracks? First, the tree "produced" more cracks, and second, it "invited" anaerobic bacteria into the cracks. Now for some details. Rarely have I found forest trees with only one or two radial cracks. I have dissected thousands of trees that had internal cracks. Usually there are many cracks, and they form at different positions around the base of the stem. There appear to be two survival benefits to multiple cracks. First, the trunk continues to bend as a vertical multiple beam. And, when a radial crack does rupture the cambium, then woundwood formation starts. The woundwood then adds strength to that portion of the trunk. As radial cracks propagate toward the cambial zone, the new ray tissues that form appear thinner. The survival benefit would be that the radial crack would propagate even faster when it approached the thinner ray tissues. Then, the likelihood for disrupting the cambial zone would increase, and then the formation of woundwood would begin. Woundwood cannot begin to form until the cambial zone is ruptured. For years I was aware of this phenomenon, but I did not understand how it could be beneficial for survival. Now it makes sense. The second way trees "deal" with cracks is to have the cracks infected by anaerobic wetwood-forming bacteria. The cracks are perfect sites for the bacteria. It was common to have water and wetwood fluids flow from dissected trunks that had cracks. Research has shown that wetwood resists decay. Cracks are not major causes of failures in forest trees, but they are major causes of failures in city trees. Why? In forest trees, multiple basal cracks with wetwood are common. Forest trees rarely have large low branches. City trees that have been topped and mutilated have cracks forming in higher positions on the trunk. Large low branches often have cracks at the point where the branches bend downward. The architecture of city trees and the mistreatments they receive often leads to cracks and failures. Also, when long, hot, dry periods dry the wetwood in the cracks, failures often result. Summary 26

Trees are living systems. They are unique living systems because they have the capacity to add strength to their structure at exactly the most effective places. This capacity is built into their genetic code. As generating systems, they are always building in front of themselves. When any part of the structural framework is weakened to the point where survival is threatened, the new parts that form in new positions form in ways that add strength to the weakened place. Having the capacity to respond effectively to survive is dependent on having the energy, conditions and other ingredients necessary to turn the capacity into an ability Both capacity as a vigor ingredient and ability as a vitality ingredient are necessary for long-term, highquality survival. Vigor without vitality, or vitality without vigor will not support long-term, high quality survival. The vigor codes for trees have met the test of time in forests. M any trees in many cities of the world are having great difficulties in expressing their vigor codes because human activities and treatments have affected their vitality. There are no absolutes. No system, or its parts, will survive when stress goes to strain. It is time to reexamine the tree system. It is time to start basing tree treatments on tree biology. It is time for modem arboriculture! TCI

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Tree Autopsy
Reading the Tree's Log By Dr. Alex Shigo

WHITE OAK, Quercus alba The growth rate of this tree was decreasing for the last 15 years. The last seven growth increments consisted of only earlywood vessels. The tree was a victim of repeated attacks the last seven years by gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar. (I was watching this tree for many years until it was cut for a housing development.) Trees keep a very accurate log of all events that affect their lives The log is kept in the wood, and to read that log you must under stand the simple language of tree anatomy. Trees respond to the ever changing environment, and to injuries and infections. Because pruning and removing trees are major activities of most tree companies. arborists have many opportunities to autopsy a tree and read its log. Autopsy, which comes from the Greek word autopsia, means to see for yourself. It is often mistaken for the word for necropsy, which means the study of the dead. The usefulness of an autopsy depends on knowing where to look, what to look for, and the meaning of what you see. You must be able to see details fast. We have a special name for people who can see fast. We call them lucky! Here is check list for some major features to look for and record when reading the tree's log. 1. Growth increments - tree age, patterns of wide or narrow increments, eccentric growth patterns, date when increments began to increase or decrease in width, colors. 2. Wood type - diffuse-porous, semi-ring porous, ring porous, conifer resinous, conifer non-resinous, tropical, monocot. 3. Energy reserves, I²,KI to determine amount of starch and volume of wood with starch. 4. Wound history - date of wounds to the year, or, in some cases, the week they were inflicted. 5. Branch history - when branches died. If pruned, how they were pruned and the defect associated with the branches. 6. Cracks - boundaries from wounds, ring shakes, radial cracks, cracks in bark only, cracks in wood and bark, wetwood in cracks. 28

7. Animal wounds - bird peck wounds and ring shakes, squirrel wounds, other animal wounds. 8. Closure patterns of wounds - ram's horns, cracks, woundwood ribs, discolored wood associated with cracks. 9. Discolored wood and wetwood - patterns of infected wood, CODIT walls, callus, odors, internal checking patterns. 10. Decayed wood - white rot, brown rot, zone lines in rotted wood, CODIT walls, sporophores. 11. Resin ducts - traumatic ducts in non-resinous conifers. 12. Tyloses - traumatic tyloses in wood that does not normally form them. 13. Insects - galleries, in bark, in bark and wood, insect, ants, termites; galleries clean or full of frass. 14. Reaction wood - compression wood in conifers. (You cannot see tension wood.) 15. Injection and implant wounds - separate cloumns of discolored wood, or columns coalescing. As you learn more about tree anatomy, many other details of the tree's log will become obvious. RED OAK, Quercus rubra, 38 years old, with a closed and compartmentalized wound. 1. A star-shaped pith as with most oak species. There is no pith in roots. Note the five-lobed growth increments near the center of the tree. 2. Red oak is a ring-porous tree that forms large vessels first in the growing period and smaller vessels later. Wide and narrow rays radiate from the center of the tree. Oaks have a darkly colored protection wood called heartwood. All cells are dead in the heartwood. 3. Some events caused the tree to start decreasing its growth rate at this time. Note the decreasing width of the growth increments. 4. The tree was wounded by buckshot during a dormant period nine years before it was cut. The barrier zone boundary between the growth increments indicates a wound during the dormant period. A 29

wound during the growing period will cause a barrier zone boundary to form within the growth increment. 5. A dark boundary called a reaction zone borders the column of decayed wood in the heartwood. Note that the boundary is darker in color than the heartwood, but as decay develops, the darker wood changes to a lighter color. This is called white rot, because the cellulose and lignin are digested by the fungi. 6. The woundwood ribs closed the wound in five years. Note the bark between the ribs of woundwood 7. The tree was cut just as the first vessels were forming. Since vessels begin to form as the leaves are expanding, this tree was cut around the second week of M ay in New Hampshire. 8. The size of the woundwood ribs were very large before the wound was closed. Note that the woundwood ribs contained mostly dense wood with few vessels. 9. After wound closure, the size of the growth increments were about the same as those before the tree was wounded. 10. The pointer to the left shows new bark with a smooth corky layer-phellem. The pointer to the right shows the old original rough phellem of the tree. RED SPRUCE, Picea nibra, 40 years old, with a closed and compartmentalized wound. Spruce trees are conifers that have tracheids, not vessels, for water transport and mechanical support. As the growth increment increases, the tracheids that formed later have thicker walls. These are called fiber tracheids. 1. The tree started to grow at an even rate. After six years, it began to lean slightly to the left. 2. After 13 years, it began to lean slightly to the right. Note the larger and darker bands of compression wood. 3. At this time, the tree was injured. Note the sudden decrease in growth rate. 4. Spruce trees have very few resin ducts in healthy wood. The wood is a non-resinous type. However, when the tree is injured, resin ducts, called traumatic ducts, often form. The ducts appear as dark spots in the wood. Even though the wound is not shown in the photo, you can be sure there was a wound nearby on the tree. 30

5. A very narrow ring shake or separation indicates a small wound near wher e this specimen was cut. Note also the sudden decrease in growth rate to the left of the arrow. 6. The wound penetrated one growth increment. A very strong "CODIT wall 2" resisted deeper spread into the tree. Note the dark and of fiber tracheids at the arrow point. The wood was altered chemically as a protection wood after wounding. 7. Note both arrows showing the barrier zone that formed after wounding. When trees are wounded during the growing period, it is possible to date the wound to within a week of when it was inflicted. The barrier zone is slightly beyond the middle of the growth increment indicating that the wound was inflicted about four to five weeks after new needles began to form. Under normal conditions, it takes about six to eight weeks after needle or leaf formation before the growth increment is fully formed. This tree was wounded around the third week of June in New Hampshire. 8. Thick woundwood ribs began to close the wound. 9. The wound was closed in four years. 1 0. The tree was cut about a week after new tracheids began to form. It was cut the third week of M ay, and therefore the wound was six years and about four weeks old. AMERICAN BEECH, Fagus grandifolia, about 110 years old, with a column of compartmentalized, decayed wood associated with an old, dead branch. 1. Beech has diffuse-porous wood. All vessels are about the same size and arranged evenly throughout the growth increment. Beech will tolerate low light and often it will grow very slowly, as shown here, as an understory tree. When it is released into light, it grows rapidly. 2. A small wound with decay was compartmentalized in the center of the tree. 3. The tree lost branches at this time and a core of protection wood formed. This type of protection wood is called false heartwood, because the death of branches triggers the process. Heartwood formation in oaks is a genetically controlled aging process. The false heartwood, like heartwood, resists the spread of decay. 4. Note that the decay associated with the dead branch did not spread into the column of

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false heartwood. It could be that the events that brought about the formation of false heartwood--dying branches--also released the tree into more light. Note that after a few years, the growth increments increased greatly in width. 5. The cellulose and lignin were both being digested, indicating a white rot. The fungi did not grow into the central core of dense, slow growing, false heartwood. 6. Note that the decay spreads first into the earlywood of each growth increment. This pattern results in a tooth-like margin to the column of defect when viewed in cross section. 7. The decay associated with the branch did not spread outward into the column of discolored wood. 8. The limits for the column of discolored wood were set by the cracks that formed as the woundwood closed the wound. 9. A crack where the woundwood formed about the dead branch. 1 0. The curling woundwood ribs formed ram's horns. The cracks that form in this way often extend the columns of discolored and decayed wood beyond the barrier zone and wood present at the time of branch death or of wounding. Dr. Alex L. Shigo doing an autopsy.

CANADIAN HEM LOCK, Tsuga canadensis, about 40 years old, with a dead branch. 1. The pith of the branch was infected and darkly discolored.

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2. Both arrows show the branch protection zone that formed after the branch died. 3. The branch bark ridge. 4. Note the invaginated increments indicating included bark to this point. Note also the dark color of the wood from the arrow downward toward the trunk. This indicates that the increments were squeezing together to the point of cell death. 5. For some reason, the increments began to form normally at this point. A much narrower growth increment formed at this time, suggesting a possible injury. 6. A different type of checking pattern can be seen where the normal branch-trunk collars began to form. Compare area 6 to area 4. 7. A crack formed after the branch died. The branch died about 12 years before the tree was cut. 8. There was a sudden decrease in growth rate at this time. Note both arrows 8. The number of growth increments above the branch are equal to those below the branch from arrows 8 to the bark. 9. Compression wood began to form here.

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Troubles in the Rhizosphere
By Dr. Alex Shigo

The root of this horse chestnut grows first from the energy in the seed. Roots cannot make their own energy. The root "pumps" start first and the top "Pumps" follow.

Rhizosphere Wars

The rhizosphere is the absorbing root-soil interface. It is the zone, about one millimeter in width, surrounding the epidermis of living root hairs and the boundary cells of mycorrhizae as well as hyphae growing out from some mycorrhizae. The rhizoplane is the boundary where soil elements in water are absorbed into the tree. Under an electron microscope, the rhizoplane appears as a jelly where microorganisms and tree cells mix, making it impossible to tell which side is tree and which is soil. A constantly changing mix of organisms inh abit the rhizosphere and surrounding soil. Bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, protozoa, slime molds, algae, nematodes, enchytraeid worms, earthworms, millipedes, centipedes, insects, mites, snails, small animals and soil viruses compete constantly for water, food, and space. The rhizosphere is a battleground and the wars are continuous. Amoebae are eating bacteria. Some bacteria are poisoning other bacteria. Fungi are killing other fungi. Nematodes are spearing roots. Fungi are trapping nematodes. Earthworms are eating anything they can find. Sometimes the victors benefit the tree and sometimes they do not. Every tree treatment affects the rhizosphere in some way. The more you know about the rhizosphere, the better the chances are that your treatments will lead to benefits rather than harm.

Declines and the Starving Rhizosphere

Go anywhere in the world and you will learn that some local trees have a "new" decline problem. Declines usually mean the trees are sick because there is a problem in the rhizosphere. 34

Trees die, as all organisms do, in three basic ways: depletion, dysfunction and disruption. Disruption means wounding, severe mechanical impacts and fracturing. Dysfunction means some parts and processes of the living system have developed problems that retard or prevent their functioning and growth. Depletion means that the basic substances for life begin to decrease to the point where injury and death are certain. One of the ways depletion injures organisms is by starvation. Soils and wood share a common problem: They are thought of as dead substances. This has come about because wood-products research gained an early lead over research on wood in living trees. With soils, many texts still define soils as "loose material of weathered rock and other minerals, and also partly decayed organic matter that covers large parts of the land surface on Earth." Sapwood in living trees has many more living cells than dead cells. In upper layers where most absorbing roots of plants grow, soils have more soil organisms than grains of weathered rock. In great disrespect, most people still refer to soil as dirt! When researchers first discovered the great value of soil microorganisms for human antibiotics and profit, the living nature of the soil began to emerge. A more correct definition of soil should be that it is a substance made up of sands, silts, clays, decaying organic matter, air, water and an enormous number of living organisms. Survival of all living systems depends greatly on synergy and efficiency to optimize the functioning of all processes and to keep waste as low as possible. When synergy and efficiency begin to wane, declines follow. Trees are dependent on the light energy from the sun for their energy, water and 14 elements from the soil for their building blocks of life. Some trees decline when incorrect treatments or abiotic injuries lead to starvation of organisms in the rhizosphere. When there are troubles in the rhizosphere, there will be troubles with the tree.

A mycorrhiza back-lit to show the fungus hyphae extending out from the organ. This is the world of the rhizosphere. Energy & Root Exudates M icroorganisms compete in the rhizosphere, an area rich in exudates from the tree. The exudates contain carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamins and many other substances essential for life. From 5 percent to 40 percent of the total dry matter production of organic carbon from photosynthesis may be released as exudates! When trees begin to decline, the amount of organic carbon released as exudates increases. M ineral deficiencies, low amounts of soil air and severe wounding are major causes for the increase. Another way to say this is that an increase in exudates would be caused by over-pruning, construction injury, planting too deeply, over-watering, compaction and planting trees in soils that have a pH too high or too low for their optimal growth. 35

You would think that a tree in decline would decrease not increase exudates. A possible explanation might come from the self-thinning rule of ecology, which states that when energy input into a site equals output, there will be no further growth unless some trees die. As many suppressed trees die, a much fewer number continue to grow bigger. Simple. Or, on the basis of the mass-energy ratio law, as some trees on a site get bigger, many smaller suppressed trees will die. As the suppressed trees decline, they contribute a higher percentage of their soluble carbohydrates to the rhizosphere.

Mycorrhizae form when mycorrhizal fungi infect newly forming non-woody roots as shown here. Note the tubelike structure of the hyphae. The increase in exudates from a declining tree with a defense system weakened by low energy reserves would give root pathogens an advantage over other soil organisms. When the tree dies, its dead wood adds a great amount of carbon to the soil, thus benefitting all soil organisms. If this scenario is correct, then the codes for the increase of exudates as trees decline would have been set in the genes of the forest trees. Then, even after trees are taken out of their groups in forests and planted as individuals, the genetic codes for increasing exudates as the tree declines for reasons other than crowding would still be in effect. A tree does not "know" why it is dying. In a crowded, young, growing forest, the self-thinning rule of ecology does benefit tree survivors and all soil organisms. But, when one or two trees in a yard, city or park start to decline, their early death may benefit only the root pathogens. And even worse, since the tree will be cut and removed from the site, there would be no benefits from added carbon to the soil. Mycorrhizae covered by hyphae. Water and elements often are absorbed into the hyphae and then the tree. The hyphae extending from the mycorrhizae greatly increase the area for absorption.

A Closer Look at Roots Woody tree roots are organs that support the tree mechanically, store energy reserves, transport water and the substances dissolved in it and synthesis substances such as growth regulators, amino acids and vitamins that are essential for growth. Trees have different types of root systems. For example, mangroves along coastlines have stilt roots. M any trees growing in tropical areas have aerial roots that become prop roots when they grow into the soil. Other trees 36

have strangling roots that eventually kill the host tree that first supported their growth. Trees in sandy soils can have roots that grow downward over 90 feet. Palms have roots that are adventitious and grow from meristematic regions in their base. M any tree species have deep roots when they are young and more shallow roots later. It would be nearly impossible for the strongest person to pull out young saplings of beech, oak or hickory from forest soil. Woody roots have cells with walls of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Lignin is that natural "cementing" substance that gives wood its unique characteristic for strength. Woody roots also have an outer bark or periderm made up of three layers: the phellogen, phelloderm and phellem. The phellogen is the bark cambium. The phelloderm is a thin layer of cells on the inner side of the phellogen. The phellem is the outer corky layer. Phellem cells are impregnated with a substance called suberin, which is a fatty substance that prevents water absorption. Some characteristics of woody roots are: * They do not absorb water. * They have no pith. * Their conducting elements are usually wider than those in the trunk. * They have a greater proportion of parenchyma cells than is usual for trunks. The living parenchyma store energy reserves, usually as starch. A soft cortex without chlorophyll may be in the bark. In some tree species that thrive in wet soils or have deep roots, the cortex may have many open spaces that act as channels for air to reach the living cells in the roots. It is important to remember that the parenchyma in the woody roots store energy reserves, and root defense is dependent on energy reserves. When reserves are low, defense is low. When defense is low, weak or opportunistic pathogens attack. It is nature's way. Non-Woody Roots Non-woody tree roots are organs that absorb water and elements dissolved in it. The two basic types of non-woody roots are:

1. Root hairs on non-woody roots are extensions of single epidermal cells. Common on seedlings, root hairs grow to maturity in a few days. They function for a few weeks and then begin to die. On mature trees, they are usually not abundant. When they do form, they do so when soil conditions are optimum for absorption of water and elements. I have found root hairs growing in non-frozen soils beneath frozen soils in winter.

2. Mycorrhizae are the other type of non-woody roots. Mycorrhizae are organs made up of tree and fungus tissues that facilitate the absorption of phosphorus-containing ions and others essential for growth. The fungi that infected developing non-woody roots to form mycorrhizae were very "biologically smart." Rather than competing with other microorganis ms in the rhizosphere for exudates from the tree, 37

the mycorrhizal-forming fungi went right to the source inside the tree. And, even more to their advantage, many of the mycorrhizal fungi grew thread-like strands of hyphae-long, vegetative tubes of fungi-out from the mycorrhizae. This inside and outside presence gave the fungi a distinct advantage over other microorganisms in the rhizosphere. The tree gains efficiency with mycorrhizae in several ways.

A block of frozen soil several inches deep was lifted away to reveal these mycorrhizae and strands of litterdecomposing fungi. Note the cavities surrounding the mycorrhizae.

1. With their extended hyphae, mycorrhizae not only greatly extend the absorbing potential into the soil, but the hyphae may connect with other hyphae on other trees. In this way, the mycorrhizae serve to connect trees of the same or a different species. This leads to the conjecture that the natural connections that developed over long periods in the natural forest may have some survival value. That is why forest types are often named for the groups of species commonly found growing together. For example, we speak of the birch-beechmaple forest, or the pine-oak forest. From a practical standpoint, when trees are planted in cities and parks, there may be great survival advantages by planting groups of trees made up of the species that are normally found together in natural stands.

2. The mycorrhizae have been shown to provide some resistance against root pathogens. It may be that the pathogens would have difficulties in building their populations in the rhizosphere dominated by the mycorrhizal fungi.

Perhaps the most important feature of the mycorrhizal fungi is that their boundary material is mostly chitin. Chitin is slightly different from cellulose by the replacement of some cellulose atoms by a chain of atoms that contain a nitrogen atom. This slight change in some way makes chitin a material better suited for absorption of elements. Remember that the fungus hyphae gain all their essentials for life by absorption through their boundary substance.

There are other advantage,, to the chitin and the tube-like hyphae that ramify the soil in the rhizosphere and beyond. When the hyphae die, they add a nitrogen source for other organisms. Also, when the hyphae are digested, they leave tunnels in the soil that are about eight to 10 microns in diameter. For the bacteria, these small tunnels may mean the difference between life and death. The bacteria quick ly colonize the tunnels. The survival advantage here is that the major threats to their survival are protozoa that are usually much larger than 10 microns. So the hungry amoebae are not able to get at the bacteria inside the eight-micron tunnels. 38

A common treatment for compaction is to fracture the soil and add water. The fracturing allows air to penetrate the soil, but does not provide any eight-micron tunnels for the bacteria. The only way to bring back the tunnels is to bring back the fungi in well-composted wood and leaf mulch, as nature does, or by inoculating the mulch with mycorrhizal fungi. Who Was First? I do not know if the fungi were the first to grow into the root to get first chance at exudates or whether it was the bacteria. Regardless, bacteria and their close relatives, the actinomycetes, also infect nonwoody roots to form organs that serve for the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Fixation means that the nitrogen that makes up almost 80 percent of our air is converted to a soluble ionic form by the action of the bacteria and actinomycetes within the nodules on the roots. (Some free-living soil bacteria can also fix nitrogen.) An enzyme called nitrogenase is the catalyst for the reaction that will take place only under very exacting conditions. There must be soluble molybdenum and iron and no free oxygen available. These conditions are present within the nodules. Here again, the microorganisms benefit the tree by providing a source of soluble nitrogen, and, in turn, the bacteria and actinomycetes get first chance at exudates. Even more importantly, the nodules protect them from foraging protozoa. Infections that result in benefits to both parties are called mutualistic. When the benefits are greater than the sum of the parts, the association is called synergistic. Species of legumes commonly have bacterial nitrogen-fixing nodules and mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizae facilitate absorption of elements, and the nodules provide a nitrogen source. Many species of trees have actinorhizae, which are the nodules formed by the root infections by actinomycetes. Species of Alnus have very large nodules. The actinorhizae are common on tropical and subtropical trees, and especially on trees that have adapted to soils low in available elements essential for life. On some subtropical and tropical trees, such as the macadamia, multi-branched clusters of non-woody roots called proteoid roots form. The proteoid roots alter the rhizosphere by acidification processes that facilitate the absorption of phosphorus-containing ions. When I examined the roots of dying macadamia nut trees in an orchard in Hawaii, I could not find proteoid roots, yet only a few days earlier I had found them on macadamia nut trees growing in the wild. I learned later that the orchard where trees were dying was heavily fertilized on a regular, basis with phosphorus. Another type of nodule forms on species of cycads. These nodules harbor blue green algae, or cyanobacteria, that have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. My point is that many different synergistic associations have developed in, on and about non-woody roots that provide elements, not an energy source. These associations are of extreme benefit to all connected members. At the same time, the conditions that provide for the associations are very delicate and exacting. It does not take much to disrupt them.

An iodine stain (I2-KI) was poured on half of the sugar maple stem section, left, and root, right. The iodine stains starch purple. Note the greater density of purple in the root over the stem. The iodine 39

stain is a very effective way to determine vitality of a tree. Small cores can be removed with care and checked for starch. The cores should be removed only when a determination of vitality is essential for a treatment. The stain can be poured on small cut woody-root tips to check vitality of trees selected for planting. It Does Not Take M uch to Disrupt Them This statement deserves repeating and repeating. The delicate "threads" that hold these powerful associations together need to be recognized and respected. Trees in cities grow only so long as these "threads" remain connected. Trees grow as large oscillating pumps, with the top trapping energy and pumping it downward. The bottom absorbs water and elements and pumps them upward. The pumps have developed over time to work on the basis of many synergistic associations that maximize benefits for all connected members and to minimize waste.

M any of life's essentials for the bottom associates come from the top of the tree. And, the top works only because the bottom works. Energy is required to move things, and elements and water are required to build things. Tree Treatments and the Rhizosphere When trees are over-pruned, the top will be injured first. When it is injured, it will not serve the energy requirements of the bottom. Soon root diseases start and are blamed for the decline or death of the tree. Where over-pruning is common. so are root diseases. Compacted soil blocks air and water to the bottom and crushes all the microcavities where the microorganisms live. In nature, decomposing wood and leaves keep conditions optimal for the rhizosphere inhabitants. Over-watering stalls the respiration processes in the roots. When respiration stops, carbonic acid is not formed. When carbonic acid is not formed, ions necessary for the absorption process do not form. When absorption is down, the tree system is in trouble. Fertilizers can be of great benefit to trees growing in soils low in or lacking elements essential for growth. Elements or molecules made up of a few to many different atoms enter the roots as ions. An ion is a charged atom or molecule. Ions with a positive charge are cations, and those with a negative charge are anions. Each particle or granule of fertilizer is a salt made up of a lattice of anions and cations, just as ordinary table salt is made up of a grand lattice of connected sodium cations and chloride anions. When salt as sodium chloride dry granules is poured into water, the sodium and chloride ions separate. When they separate, they carry electrical charges and are called the sodium ion and the chloride ion. When a cation enters a root, another cation must exit. This is very important, as we will see. When nitrogen enters a root as nitrate anion, an anion of bicarbonate ion from carbonic acid exits. The bicarbonate ion is probably the second most important compound in nature, next to water, because it drives the absorption process. When a bicarbonate ion exits into the rhizosphere, the pH increases. When urea is used in fertilizers as the nitrogen source, the pH in the rhizosphere could increase to 2 or more pH units. The chemistry behind this is complex, but here I present only the conclusion, because a common problem with trees in some high pH soils is chlorosis. There is no easy field method for 40

measuring the pH of the one millimeter wide rhizosphere. The rhizosphere could be pH 8, and the bulk soil would measure pH 6. As pH increases, the availability of elements such as iron and manganese decreases. In soils, it is one thing to have an element present and another to have it in a form available to the plant as an ion. As pH increases, iron and manganese element, form molecules that precipitate in water rather than ionize. If they are not available as ions, they will not be absorbed. And, if they are not absorbed, several of the enzymes essential for chlorophyll formation and photosynthesis will not form. When the energy flow from the top of the pump is blocked, then the bottom does not get enough energy for growth and defense. The pathogens invade, and the tree declines. This scenario does not mean that every time you use urea, trees will decline from chlorosis. But the use of urea could be a contributing factor where trees with genetic codes for growth on low pH soils are planted in high pH soils. If fertilization is a desired treatment, then a fertilizer that has nitrogen in a positive charged ion, such as an ammonium ion, would help to reduce the rhizosphere pH. When the ammonium ion enters the root, a proton of positive charge will exit. The protons in rhizosphere water will bring about more acidic conditions, so there is a way out. In summary, fertilizers can be very beneficial for healthy survival of trees planted outside their forest homes. How beneficial will depend greatly on an understanding of many of the points mentioned here and some basic chemistry. Primary Causes of Diseases It is often very difficult to have people recognize the importance of small organisms in small places doing big things. Blame for the death of a tree is often placed on big things that can be seen or felt. M ost pathogens are opportunistic weaklings waiting for a defense system to decrease. M any small disrupting events often lead to the decrease in a defense system. Then after the tree has been weakened, the final agent comes along and gets the full blame for the cause. A perfect example is the cankers on honey locust. Flush pruning is usually the real cause. Pumps and Food Trees are oscillating pumps. When the pump begins to wobble, some parts will begin to weaken. When they weaken to the point where some other agent causes a part to break, the pump will stop. It is very difficult to determine where problems start in an oscillating pump. Symptoms may be in the bottom, but the cause may have been in the top. Or, it could be the other way around. I go back to two points that may be part of the answer: exudates and the self-thinning rule of ecology. All living things require food and water for growth. Leaves and photosynthesis provide the energy at the top of the pump. The nonwoody roots and the rhizosphere provide the elements and water at the bottom. Photosynthesis will not work without water and elements, and the absorption processes will not work without an energy source. Trees became trees growing in groups in forests where the self-thinning rule had strong survival value. Not only did exudates provide quick energy for the rhizosphere organisms, but the carbon in the wood of the trees that fell to the ground also provided a long-lasting energy source for a succession of organisms.

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Reports from some countries indicate an abundance of soluble nitrogen compounds in runoff water and even in ground water. This is a strong indication that the carbon-nitrogen ratio has been disrupted in the soil. It is well established from studies of the physiology of fungal parasitism that the degree of parasitism is often determined by the carbon-nitrogen ratio. It is probably similar for other organisms. The organisms in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils have many different ways to weather rocks and to get nitrogen and other elements essential for their growth. What they cannot get in the soil is a sufficient energy source. Yes, some small animals die and provide carbon, and some microorganisms can get energy by chemosynthesis, but the requirements for carbon are much greater than what could be supplied by those sources alone. Carbon must come from the top of the pump. When the energy source from the top begins to decrease, the rhizosphere organisms will begin to starve. The oscillating pump model soon takes on the form of a circle, because now it could be said that the top did not work efficiently because the bottom had a problem first, and this could be so. My point is that the energy problem does play a key role in declines. If a single tree is already very low in energy reserves, it cannot contribute much to the rhizosphere even if the genetic codes rule that exudates should increase as a tree begins to decline. Soon we will be faced with the chicken or egg problem. I believe there is a way to decrease the potential starvation problem. In forests, more wood should be left on the ground, and in cities, more composted wood and leaves should be added in correct quantities to the soil about the base of trees. Incorrect treatments of pruning, watering, planting and fertilizing should be corrected, because they often start the pumps to wobble. If these simple adjustments can be made, rhizosphere starvation will decrease and our trees will lead healthier and longer lives.

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Arboriculture in the 21 Century
By Dr. Alex Shigo
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Arboriculture in the beginning of the 21 century will begin to split into art-only and art-and-science professionals. By the middle of the next century, the two professions will be well separated. The purpose of my discussion is to give information in support of this prediction. To know where you are going, you must first know where you are and then know how you got there. The future can be thought of as an extrapolatation of points along a curve. The past defines undulations of the curve before the present. History is the actual occurrence of events over time. The recording of past events is often clouded by the person who tries to explain why some of the events happened. The occurrence of the events cannot be denied, but any more than that becomes very subjective. Just as I base my discussion on a single prediction, I believe there was one driving belief that set the stage for the growth of arboriculture in the United States. That belief is now over three centuries old, and it has moved as a wave. When a wave hits the shoreline, the crash back into the water is much more intense than the inward rush of water. The belief that grew after our country was colonized in 1620 was that the trees were endless and they were the enemy. Trees were in the way of farms, homes, towns and roads. Yes, they did have some value for buildings and for fires, but their size and abundance made them more of a problem than a benefit. Over time, the value of trees did increase, but the belief in endless forests continued. In recent decades, the great wave with power of more than three centuries behind it hit a very steep shoreline. The crash of the wave signaled the end of the belief that the forests were endless. By this time, the many values of trees had gained public attention. A city without trees is not worth living in. Trees as a means for enhancing property has become common sense. As the value of trees continues to gain momentum, educated clients will demand better treatments, better decisions and better trained and educated people to look after their trees. The art-science arboriculturist will be called. Correct pollarding, as done on these London plane trees in Spain, will slowly become more common.

Why have myths and misunderstandings plagued arboriculture? The problem started in the mid-19th century when several important events happened about the same time. The repeated failure of the potato crop in Ireland caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans, set 43

off a large scale famine and migration. At this time, Anton De Bary proved that a fungus caused the disease rather than the well-accepted that the disease caused the fungus. At the same time as Louis Pasteur was winning the battle of the germ theory, Robert Hartig showed that fungi cause decay rather than the long held belief that decay causes fungi. For his work, De Bary recognized as the father of plant pathology. Hartig is recognized as the father of forest pathology. Hartig's great work set off a rushing stream of research on decay. Soil is alive with many organisms. Decisions and treatments must be made to keep not only trees healthy, but also habitants. They are all part of the grand living system.

In a world covered with trees, however, there was no incentive to learn about how to grow more of them. What was needed was to find better ways to deal decay and better and faster ways to get the wood out of the forest. Pathology studies centered on pathological rotation schemes to deal with decay in living trees and better ways to prevent decays in wood products. Now comes the problem of the heartrot concept. Heartrot was defined as the decay of the heartwood. Heartwood was defined as the central, darkly colored dead core of all trees. decay developed in dead heartwood, decay was not considered a disease. At the same time, textbooks and teachers-even to the present day -state that the only living part of a tree trunk is the single layer of green cambium that produces wood on its inside. And that is all wrong! Sapwood has more living cells than dead cells. The cambium is not a single layer, nor is it green. (The cortex is green). The cambial zone produces xylem. When it is lignified, it is then correctly called wood. The dead heartwood decay concept has been the major myth that has led to many injurious tree treatments. If the wood is dead, then put a wound dressing on wounds. If decay develops, dig it out until healthy clear wood is exposed. Cut branches as flush as possible to the trunk to stimulate faster "healing" to cover the core of dead, decay-susceptible wood. The heartrot concept treated the tree as a dead cylinder of wood. The heartrot concept is, at best, a wood decomposition concept. The tree as a living, big, beautiful organism was left out of the concept! Say what you will about compartmentalization, but it is built on the belief that a tree is a living, dynamic, organism. The tree does not lie there and just "let" decay-causing organisms run through it at will! If you believe that the tree is a living, dynamic, organism, then to treat it is essential to understand the basic principles of all living things. This means an understanding of biology and, yes, chemistry. Now we know there is still more, as we see the need to understand the tree also as a magnificent mechanical structure. The science part of arboriculture will be expanded in the 21st century. The past has given us the endless enemy and the dead heartwood decay concept. The present gives us great concerns for the conservation of trees and for the best ways to treat the living tree and its many living associates-the tree system. Proper pruning of trees near electric utility lines will become more common. Here are monkey pod trees, pruned correctly, in Honolulu. 44

Guns, Shadows, Targets You can have the best rifle in the world. You could be the world's best sharpshooter. However, if you don't know the difference between shadows and animals, you won't put much wild game on the table. To shoot a deer you must aim at the deer as the target not its shadow. Silly, you say. Think about it. Plato did 2,300 years ago. He said in The Republic that many people have great difficulty telling the difference between reality and shadows as perceived reality. Plato tells a story about people born in a cave. They are chained to their chairs and can only see the wall in front of them. There is a fire in back of them. People with various-shaped objects march behind the fire and the shadows of the objects show on the wall. Great societies of shadow watchers are formed. High honors and awards are given to the best shadow watchers. One day, a brave soul breaks from his chains and runs out of the cave. The light at first blinds him and the pain is intense. In a short time, he begins to see again and the pain begins to subside. Then it happens! He is overwhelmed at what he is seeing and touching. He is now seeing and touching real things, not looking at shadows. He becomes so overjoyed that he wants to share his discoveries with his cave friends. He rushes back into the cave. They kill him! I predict that many cave people will escape in the 21 st century. I believe the word is out in the cave that real things of great wonder are outside, just waiting to be understood and enjoyed. This does not mean that the cave shadow watchers will go away. They will strengthen their forces and let escapees know the dangers that face them. They will come up with even better recipes for bigger, and more wonderful shadows.

Guns, Tools, Principles Back to guns again. Consider if you will what a gun and shooting is all about: a tube, a projectile and some force-providing substance to move the projectile so rapidly through the tube that it extends its path far beyond the tube. Think for a moment about this. From a historical view, tubes were used by early humans and are still used today by some jungle people as a tool for directing some projectile in a straight path beyond the tube. So, tubes are not new. Think about the many kinds of projectiles used to strike a target. Projectiles are not new. How about some force to move the projectile. You could blow a dart through a tube. You could whip a small stone through a tube. Or, you could use some material such as black powder that explodes and blows the projectile through the tube. Again, nothing new. However when you connect the tube with a lead projectile and use a force-providing substance, now the rifle became a new thing made up of many old things. That is the way most so-called new theories, principles or concepts come about. Remember, the Old Testament states that nothing is new, yet it is followed by a New Testament! New theories, concepts and principles are usually built on many old, well known other truths. The act of connecting makes the product new. Not so different from much that is said about modern arboriculture. The concept is not new in one sense, because much has been discovered about tree biology, tree associates, soils, chemistry, biophysics and many other subjects. My point is that key aspects have not been connected. You would not go hunting with only a tube, or with some lead or rock projectiles, or with a handful of black powder. These are all old things. You do hunt with a rifle. It is new in the sense of connecting the most important parts of well-known items. Nothing new, but a connection of more refined items. 45

This will be the same procedure with many tools and machines used by arborists in the 21st century. Just as guns are connections of simple basic parts, so are many of the tools and machines used to prune, plant, fertilize, spray, inject, chip, dig stumps, cut wood, lift to greater heights and record data. There is no doubt that computers and new electrical tools will enter the tree care profession. I predicted many years ago that small electrical devices will be placed in select trees and signals will be sent to receiving computers miles away. A flush cut on Mrs. Jones' tree will start a red light blinking. Don't laugh. In summary, tools and machines will change to be more accurate, lighter and user-friendly. However, just like the modem rifle, how you use them will depend on skills and distinguishing shadows from the real targets. Of Steel and Trees It is always fascinating to see the common threads that connect subjects far removed from each other. What can the steel industry tell us about the tree industry? Plenty! In 1901, United States Steel was formed as the first and mightiest conglomerate in the world. The conglomerate brought together oil, railroads, coal, telegraph cables, steel and people. The good news is that the steel conglomerate was a major factor in the growth of our country. The bad news is that the people who worked in the mills and coal mines and on the railroads were paid very little for extremely hard, long work. They were the people who came to the New World after the potato famine. The leaders of the conglomerate all became multi-millionaires. By our standards today, they would be billionaires. The power of the conglomerate lasted almost a century. After the second world war, the conglomerate began to weaken as other countries got into the steel business, oil was imported and air travel took over from rail. Long before the steel conglomerate, nature "understood" the power of synergy, where two or more connected groups yield much more than the sum of the groups taken as individuals. A classic case of synergy is the connection of trees and fungi to produce a new organ called a mycorrhiza. Many synergistic associates exist within the rhizosphere of trees. My point is that much more can be done at a lower cost if the right groups are connected. The steel groups waited until 1901 to understand that. Trees "knew" it long before that. A major difference between the steel conglomerate and the tree "conglomerate" or system is that the tree system did "demand" much from every associate, but the associates were "assured" high-quality survival. The fall of the steel conglomerate can also teach us a tree system lesson: When connected parts begin to fall away, in a short time the entire system will begin to decline. In preparation for this discussion, I looked at many old photographs of houses of the first ultra-rich people in the United States. Their mansions or castles were built on land scraped of all living things. Photos showed that new trees and new gardens were the first additions to the landscape. Many of the new trees were small, less than six inches caliper. It was not long after this that arborists were called to prune and care for the trees. This was the beginning of commercial arboriculture. Some may argue that arboriculture started long before this, when trees were cleared for telegraph lines. I hope we never consider that arboriculture, since trees were mutilated to make room for the lines. Further, some people may say that line clearing is still with us today. I am an eternal optimist, because I believe that line clearing of the past is changing to pruning trees near electric utility lines. Ron Carter of Victoria, B.C., shows some excellent composted mulch from wood chips and leaves. Mulch is food for many soil inhabitants. More 46

composted mulch will be used in the future.

Hard Work Will Not Change A major difference between a tomato plant and a tree is that you cannot fall out of a tomato plant. Tomato plants cannot fall on you and kill you. To be an arborist, you must not be afraid of hard work. This is a major reason why I am very proud to be associated with arborists. I like people who work hard and have a strong feeling for our living world. This part of arboriculture will never change. Here I need some further explanation of my terms old and modern arboriculture. By old arboriculture I mean tree care based on old recipes and myths- plant deep, cut flush, paint wounds, dig into cavities, over prune, over water, over fertilize, inject anything that stands still, top trees, add lots of fresh chip s as mulch, plant the wrong tree in the wrong place and most important, don't read or learn anything new! M odem arboriculture will still mean lots of hard physical work. But it will also mean making decisions, predictions and treatments based on an understanding of the whole tree system-hard work and education, mind and muscles, training and education. Not to belabor my point, but modem arboriculture must be more than just muscles without the mind. I know that many people became arborists because they ran from school. I know this has no reflection on their intelligence. In fact, I think some were so intelligent they saw the futility of some of the school courses! I regard some of the school dropouts as my close friends, and I know they not only understand arboriculture, they understand the ways of the business world. In the future, I hope our education systems will change and reduce the number of dropouts. Changes and Adjustments As arboriculture grows in the 21 st century, the art and science will slowly come together. New and altered tools, machines and products will bring with them the need to understand correct use and dose where products are concerned. There will still be saws, and other tools will be developed for rapid, correct pruning and for cutting trees. The biggest changes will come in tools and machines used for detection of potential problems and diagnoses of existing problems. Electronic devices will be used for sensing early symptoms of declines and of diseases. Electromagnetic devices will be used to confuse insects and fungi. M any new products will flood the marketplace. The careful arborist will really need to know what may be helpful from what could be harmful, at least to the wallet and purse. To keep pace with the new products, the science side of arboriculture will have to increase greatly. Today the number of Ph.D. arborists is low compared to the number with only a high school education. There will be dramatic changes in these percentages as demands increase for decisions on larger tracts of land. Bright students will begin to consider not only salaries, but, as always, the life the job brings. This last feature has always been a beneficial part of arboriculture. As the "outside" shrinks, the chance to be outside and still make a living will have greater appeal to young people. Training and education leading to careers in arboriculture will start at an earlier age. M ore and better educational programs through schools, television and environmental-based groups will inform not only prosp ective arborists but the clients who will hire them. Awareness of the whole green system will come to all people from many different sources. The image of a professional modern arboriculturist will increase greatly. In time, the present organizations such as the ISA, NAA, The National Arbor Day Foundation and others will begin to have many sub groups. I use for my predictions here the patterns of some of our large organizations today. 47

I do not want to lose sight of the fact that the hard, physical parts of arboriculture will not go away. Even if more powerful, lightweight tools and machines come, it will still take a lot of muscle to do many tree jobs. The ability to move bigger and bigger trees with bigger and bigger equipment will still tax the body after a long day. However, the modem arborist will have to use his or her mind to decrease the burden of heavy loads and dangerous jobs. The size of the patient will never let arboriculture become an easy profession. A difficult subject to discuss, but it must be discussed, is how will the existing green groups grow in the next century? Will they grow together, apart or remain as they are now? Some of the major groups are arborists, nursery people, landscape architects, foresters, and lawn care people. These groups have insulated themselves from others very well during this century. Competition in business may force some melting and blending. The educational requirements of landscape architects have kept them at a higher wage level than other groups. The shrinking forest and the chipping industries will continue to reduce the needs for the "classical" forester. Small woodlot forestry will remain a steady market for many foresters. Workshops will give people opportunities to touch all parts of the tree.

The desire to abandon people, machines and headaches usually means a try as a consultant. We are overrun with consultants now, and the flow will continue to increase. What will happen is that those with the best credentials will dominate the market, and they will slowly grow back into what they tried to leave as they hire assistants, secretaries and all sorts of others. There is no doubt that the marketplace will be the ultimate driving force when it comes to which groups will stay as they are now, or melt into hybrid groups. I predict that more hybrid groups will develop and establish a hierarchy at positions from CEO to the person who will drag the brush. The rush of paperwork and regulations will continue to make small and medium-sized companies think about their economic survival. The wave of downsizing will not crash for many decades. In October 1957, an event took place that gave all Americans a wake-up call. Sputnik went off! Were we to be outpaced by another country? Were we not the leader? In October 1957, there was little doubt about who was now in control. No way were we as a country going to let it happen. Anybody who could spell scientist became one! What nobody knows is when or if another wake up call will come. On the environment, it has been tried with the book Silent Spring, and with warnings on acid rain, global warming, the decline of our forests, ozone depletion and the possibility of comets striking earth. But none of them really has stuck to the wall. The theme of gloom and doom was used so much that it was similar to the repeated warning of wolf, wolf! The scary part of this is that the wolf may come some day and people will say , not again! If it does happen, I believe there is a good chance that the wake-up call will affect something in our green world that has a direct bearing on our survival. One such possibility would be famine due to several events happening at the same time. Or it could be drought, dead soils, insect infestation, a new, powerful, disease-causing mutant bacterium or fungus. Not that I am looking for gloom and doom, as so many others are to give our profession a boost, but I do believe we work in an area critical for the health of the world. 48

That point has never come through, mainly because we are just ending the period of the endless enemy. People usually respond only to crises, which is sad but true. As the endless enemy wave hits the shore, the back splash may signal the need to begin learning something about our trees. Remember, there was no need to know how trees grow how to grow trees when it was thought that the forests were endless. Consider the same situation with AIDS. Until it came along, little was known about our human immune system. Why study something that has no immediate value or connection? Now, researchers must go back to some basics that were left unstudied. The journals are now full of articles about our immune system. Why not take the same approach with trees? Look in any textbook on biology or botany and see how much space is given to the entire field of trees. What more do you need to learn about them? They are big, tall and some grow for a long time. They have three organs (WOW!), leaves, stem, roots. The core of wood is covered by bark and they have seeds. Next lesson. How sad! Just as medical people somehow left out the human immune system, tree people left out the entire response system of a tree. How could a dead cylinder of wood respond anyway. Wound it, paint it, and when it decays, dig out the rot! Enter compartmentalization again. In 1959, when I first started dissecting thousands of large trees in a longitudinal radial direction with a chain saw, I saw things in the trees that were different from what I saw in the textbooks., One day I decided to escape from the cave and I stood up in front of my peers and said the tree is correct and the textbooks have some shadows in them. Since that day, the shadow watchers have been out to get me. In the next century, I believe we will go back to learn more about many subjects that were left along the way. M any people have asked for more advanced stuff. It is interesting that while some want more advanced information, others are saying enough, we do not need it. My answer is, if you are satisfied with your wages and job-and satisfied knowing they will not change during your life-then fine, you do not need more stuff. I must say that the other group asking for more drives me. I repeat, I accept the group who doesn't want more and I respect them and their position, but they should not interfere with those who do want more. What more is there, really? There is more about biology, laced with a good dose of chemistry. The next level of tree biology cannot be approached without the language of chemistry. To hear and read the same old studies on fertilization, pruning, etc. must make you as disturbed as it does me. The next level of biology and chemistry will give us new opportunit ies to really talk about fertilization, rhizoplanes, bicarbonate ions, redox potentials in soil, ion size and charge, and a new, wonderfully long list of topics that will clarify years of confusion. I cannot see how we can discuss the tree without discussing associates, and the soil and the ribbon of chemical changes that runs through the whole grand connected system. I am not saying that every arborist must be a biologist or chemist. I do believe that every arborist should at least be aware of the major scientific principles of life. It is awareness that I am after, not a complete detailed understanding of biology and chemistry. Now, I am very sympathetic with arborists who ran from biology and chemistry in school. It is no wonder they did, judging from the way the textbook are written and the way they were taught. I have been wading through large chemistry texts now, and I know the problem.

Changing Education Now I come to another big adjustment that will take place in the next century. The curricula for twoand four-year programs will and must be adjusted. It is impossible to cover all the material needed in that time to prepare a person for a job. Yet, many people just cannot afford to continue going to college. What is the answer? Textbooks and courses must change to awareness-type material. The 49

material must be in a form that makes you aware of the principles, but does not demand that you understand all the details. Chemistry courses are designed to make you a chemist. What if you do not want to be a chemist, but you do want to be aware of enough chemistry to help you make sound decisions about treatments for the tree system? The first part removed from awareness chemistry will be the mathematics. I am not down on mathematics, but it is usually the main problem when it comes to chemistry. The next item to go must be the demand to memorize long formulae. It will not be easy to write and teach awareness-type books and courses. Yet, it must be done. I know the subject is hot now within many universities. As this happens, the mix of art and science of arboriculture will come about without a stir. It will be a natural thing. Now, let me go back to a potential problem I presented earlier about insulated green groups. As more students graduate with more awareness information about many principles, the insulation among the green groups will begin to decrease. Why? Because of the marketplace again. C lients will only want one group to do the job for reasons of economics. Another big change in the next century will be the expanding world market for modern arboriculturists. The Pacific rim is already beginning to show its economic strength. If the past is prologue, developing cities will want trees and parks. Rebuilding old and decaying parts of cities will require decisions about trees and parks. In some of the Pacific rim countries, the reverence for trees is high, while in other countries trees have little value. This will change as people pressures demand someplace to walk and sit. What this means is that young, trained and educated people from the United States may see great opportunities in other countries. As travel time shrinks, the possibilities of working in other parts of the world will become more desirable. Where Will R esearch Go? The role of electromagnetic fields will be hot for all life sciences from humans to trees to microorganisms. For a long time, some researchers have believed that termites communicate by way of magnetic fields, and that insects first find their target by magnetic fields and then go on with volatiles or pheromones. This research may clarify why insects seem "to know" a declining tree from a healthy one or a tree that has no defense system. Once these subjects are understood, they open up a whole new approach to pest control. The use of genetic information has been slow to come to practical means with trees. M ost genetics research has been directed toward more showy individuals. Super tough trees that could resist invasion after wounding have been known about since 1976. That information has never been used. In time genetics will play a greater role in selecting trees for different soil types and sites. The use of growth regulators will increase. The bottle-neck for their use now is the lack of understanding of the physiology of movement in the tree. Materials can be put in, but they may or may not move throughout the tree. Here again is an example of a forgotten basic area that must be researched. M any effective materials are available now, but getting to their target sites in the tree is the problem. Research on electrical-based sensors will come in several decades, not soon. The sensors are available now, and have been for at least two decades. The problem is knowing what all the signals mean! This is the problem the Shigometer has and will continue to have. The machine or meter only gives numbers, the important thing is to know what they mean. The numbers cannot be "wrong" because they are only an indication of some electrical signal. 50

Over and over again, I make the same plea for understanding the basics of the tree system. When this finally happens, many wonderful pieces will fall into place.

A New Tree Biology
Comes of Age By Dr. Alex L. Shigo

Dissections of thousands of trees with a chain saw started a N ew Tree Biology in 1959.

51

Dissections showed that there were highly ordered patterns of discolored and decayed wood associated with wounds and branch stubs.

Patterns of discoloration and decay in many trees could not be explained by the heartrot concept. Heartwood in this white oak was sound in the center yet distinct columns of decay w ere associated with the wounds. The decay did not spread at-w ill in the heartwood. Is Wood Living or Dead? Light; is it a wave or a particle? Yes! A duality that started quantum mechanics. Newtonian physics started to be replaced by new concepts, especially concepts dealing with the atomic world. Wood; is it living or dead in growing trees? Yes! Another type of duality that started new concepts dealing with trees and their associates. A New Tree Biology started to develop. Trees Are Generating Systems A New Tree Biology is based on concepts of the tree as a compartmented, generating system that survives, when injured, by forming new barriers and strengthening old barriers that resist the spread of microorganisms, and that protect the structural, transport and storage systems. Organisms that infect trees counter the tree's response by attacking in successions. The survival pressures of the tree are met with the survival pressures of the microorganisms that attack trees. Another type of duality begins to develop as trees survive, so long as they are not digested by wood-inhabiting microorganisms, and the microorganisms survive so long as they digest trees.

Thousands of trees were treated and later dissected to map the spread of infections. This dissected sugar maple shows the discolored wood associated w ith the experimental drill wound. New Concepts Needed New concepts had to be developed that would serve both parts of this duality. One concept was called compartmentalization. Trees survived so long as they could compartmentalize the infections. Wood-inhabiting microorganisms survived so long as they could compete successfully in successions as the wood in the compartments was digested. This was the other concept. Compartmentalization then served the survival time for trees and the succession concept served microorganisms that attacked trees. 52

Compartmentalization is under moderate to strong genetic control. The ability of microorganisms to compete successfully with others and to spread within the compartments is also under genetic control. These concepts help explain long-term survival of trees and their associates. Some of the associates benefit the tree while others act against the tree. However, while events are happening, the tree as a generating system is growing new parts in new spatial positions. In this sense, the tree does not heal or restore injured and infected tissues. While all of these events are taking place, time is going by. The events explain the long-term survival of trees and their associates.

Hundreds of thousands of isolations for microorganisms from sound and infected wood showed that bacteria and non-decay causing fungi were usually the first organisms to invade wood through wounds and branch stubs. Here is a non-decay causing fungus, Phialophora mellinii, in a vessel in discolored wood in a red maple. Old Problems Persist The concept of compartmentalization, as simple as it is, is still not understood by many people. Proof of this can be found in the words used by some researchers as they talk about "wound healing," "regenerating roots," and "wound repair." If the tree is accepted as a generating system, then terms that imply regenerating processes create oxymorons. The terms also block clear thinking needed to help solve other problems. One concept that has blocked progress with understanding tree defense is the heartrot concept. Along with the concept has come "heartrot fungi." The heartrot concept is based on wood as a dead, nonresponsive substance. The heartrot concept is a wood decomposition concept. The concept states that wounds exp ose heartwood, which is dead wood, and the wood-rotting "heartrot fungi" then infect the dead wood and grow at will, eventually producing fruiting structures on the wound face. If the wound does not expose heartwood, then the injured wood soon becomes "wound heartwood," "pathological heartwood," or "precocious heartwood." This concept is still alive and very well in many textbooks and in the classrooms of the world. A major problem is the confusion about wood. It is seldom defined.

Wounding experiments on heartwood- forming trees, such as the red oak shown here, helped to prove further that infections spread in highly ordered and predictable patterns. Symplast Concept Wood is an organ made up of living, dying and dead cells that have boundaries of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignins, mostly. The protoplasm of the living cells in wood and bark are connected in a three-dimensional network called the symplast. The dead boundary 53

walls and dead cells that "hold" the symplast in place is called the apoplast. The symplast is concentrated in a circumferencial zone between the wood and bark called the cambial zone, and an outer bark circumferencial zone called the phellogen and in radial bundles called meristematic points. This symplast concept is essential to an understanding of compartmentalization. Once the symplast concept is understood, then many parts of the compartmentalization concept fall into place. Just as you cannot have regenerating terms for a generating system, you cannot have dead wood terms for an organ that contains living cells. The easiest way to see the extent of the symplast is to pour a solution containing iodine (I2-KI) over a freshly cut wood section. The iodine stains starch grains purple, and except for a few rare exceptions, the purple dots will only be seen in living cells. (The exceptions deal with starch grains left behind in cells that died quickly.) Tree Defense & Protection The symplast defines the limits of the tree defense system. Defense is dynamic and protection is static. As the inner symplast dies, the wood becomes protection wood. There are four types of protection wood: heartwood and false heartwood, discolored wood and wetwood. Heartwood is genetically agealtered wood that has a greater protection capacity than the sap wood that contains the symplast. False heartwood is wood so depleted of elements essential for life that few organisms can grow in it. False heart- wood is often trunk wood associated with dying and dead branches. As the branches die, the trunk wood associated with the branches deplete their supply of elements, especially nitrogen-based molecules, that are essential for life. Discolored wood is wood infected by non-hymenomycetous, or non-decay causing fungi. In the early stages, discolored wood is a protection wood, but in later stages, as more organisms infect, the wood may lose its protection properties. As this happens, the discolored wood may take on the characteristics of soft rot where the S2 layer of the secondary layer of fibers is infected and altered. Wetwood is wood infected by anaerobic bacteria mostly. The infected wood is altered in ways that disrupt membranes, and leakage of substances leads to high concentrations of elements, high pH, and low amounts of free oxygen as micro spaces are filled with water.

Sharon Ossenbruggen (now deceased) developed many teaching programs that used a wide variety of models and other materials designed to help clarify new concepts. Genetics Yes; Absolutes No In nature, there are no absolutes. Strong defense and protection mean that there will be longer time periods before decomposition. Boundaries resist, not stop, infections. Strong tree defense re- actions favor longer time periods, but eventually all living matter will be reduced to its primary parts, which will be reused, or recycled, for new life. Some tree species, or even protection properties. These features are under genetic control. A major protection boundary that determines the longevity of many trees is the protection zone at the base of branches. All trees have branches and as some branches die or are mechanically removed, the 54

openings are infection courts for wood-inhabiting microorganisms. The tree species that have the strongest branch-protection boundaries are those that usually live the longest. As microorganisms invade trunks by way of branch openings, the tree may eventually compartmentalize the infecting microorganisms. However, over time as the trunk wood walls off more symplast, the space for storage of energy reserves is also walled off. This is a major way root-rotting fungi slowly kill trees. The tree keeps losing space for storage, and as energy storage materials decrease, so does the capacity for defense. The compartmentalization concept includes more than the tree; it also includes organisms associated with the tree. If trees had absolute defense and protection, wood would never decay. But, it does.

Many workshops were conducted to help arborists learn about the new concepts by touching all parts of the tree, inside and outside. Here participants are getting ready to dig roots and touch mycorrhizae under snowcovered soils. Tree Associates and Successions The tree has as a defense system dynamic processes that resist the spread of invaders, or resist their advance with substances that temporarily stall their growth. The grand "natural idea" of succession is: if one group of organisms is not able to continue the invasion, another group will be able to do so. The group following the one before them also uses the dead organisms for a food source. This is a major way nitrogen-based substances are brought back into the wood. A major protection scheme of trees is to "move" the supply of nitrogen-based substances out to the younger symplast as the wood ages. All organisms must have some nitrogen-based substances to build amino acids for proteins. The amount of new protoplasm is directly proportional to the amount of nitrogen-based substances available. Successions solve this problem by reusing the nitrogen-based substances left behind in the dead cells of those organisms that proceeded them. All these processes take time. As time goes by, the generating tree continues to grow new parts in new spacial positions.

A New Tree Biology brings together the 55

microscope and the chain saw. The concepts that have developed over the last 40 years have been made possible because of the hard work done by many people. There is still a long way to go. M ass, Energy Limits Such a system has long-term, but not absolute, survival. As any system increases in mass, the energy to maintain order in the system increases exponentially. However, the tree has "a way" to minimize this threat to survival by shedding parts. The tree "uses" and sheds leaves and needles, reproductive parts, twigs, dying branches, and non-woody roots-root hairs, mycorrhizae. In a sense, the compartmentalized wood is a type of shedding. (Another type of duality arises, as a tree is both an annual and a perennial.) CODIT Is a Model To help people in the field understand and use the compartmentalization concept, a simple model of the concept called CODIT was developed. CODIT is an acronym for Compartmentalization Of Decay In Trees. Decay is defined here as a process where a highly ordered substance-wood-begins to become more disordered. Some people have substituted the words damage or defect for the D of CODIT. The problem here is that the altered wood in the compartments is not always an economic loss. In some cases the lightly colored wood adds value to a product. The real problems with CODIT are that some people forget that it is a model and they think of the model terms as real anatomical walls. The more serious problem is one where the model is taken as an absolute process where the boundaries stop the infection. Practical Applications If a person understands A New Tree Biology with the concepts of compartmentalization and successions, old practices will be quickly recognized as being more harmful than beneficial. Flush cuts on branches remove the tree's protection boundaries and create wounds in the trunk. Painting wounds blocks the normal successions, which stimulate the tree to form boundaries. M any of the organisms that are first on a fresh wound are those that "keep away" the more destructive types. Callus and woundwood form after wounding. Compartmentalization is a separate process that takes place in wood present at the time of wounding. Digging into cavities breaks the compartment boundaries that resist the spread of infections. Drilling holes to drain liquids exposes healthy wood to infections. When wetwood is drained, the wood first infected by bacteria will usually be infected by wood-decaying fungi. As some trees are wounded repeatedly during treatment, the storage spaces for energy reserves is reduced, and defense is also reduced. M any insects and microorganisms attack when defense is low. As stored energy reserves 56

begin to become depleted, the processes that support compartmentalization no longer function. The invaders have opportunities to grow rapidly in the wood. In desperation, some people add fertilizers and call them tree foods. Worse yet is the practice of injecting nitrogen-based substances into trunk wood. This defeats the tree's protection feature where nitrogen-based substances move out of dying wood. The introduced nitrogen-based substances stimulate growth of microorganisms. As the tree compartmentalizes the infections, space for storage is decreased, along with defense. The leaves may get greener, and growth may be stimulated. These obvious signs are usually short-lived. Also, as nitrogen-based substances are absorbed, the nitrogen quickly bonds with carbon to form amino acids that in turn form more protoplasm. This is at the expense of the defense system because the carbon for the amino acids comes from the already low resources. Insect borers are common attackers, along with sap -feeding insects on leaves. They usually get the blame for the decline or death of the tree.

Many adjustments in treatments came from the new concepts. Wound dressings were shown to do more harm than good. Flush pruning was shown to cause many problems for trees. Here, a flush cut is compared to a proper cut that did not remove the branch collar. A New and Better Future for Trees A New Tree Biology focuses on defense as the major theme of a tree. Trees cannot move from destructive agents. They grow as highly defensive organisms. Their anatomy and physiology are ties to their s defense actions, and later to features providing strong protection. Trees connected with many other organisms, and synergistic processes led not only to stronger tree defense but to greater opportunities for survival of the associates. Forests came. Forests are systems made up of trees and many other organisms connected in such highly ordered ways that high-quality survival is ensured for all members. Trees have developed ways to minimize the dangers of an increasing mass to energy ratio. Trees shed parts. 57

Trees grow within their means, or within the limits of their environment. It is essential to understand first how any system operates at its most efficient and effective way. Then, when problems start, the chances for a remedy are much better. As more people begin to understand A New Tree Biology, more old practices will slowly give way to new and better practices that will benefit the tree, the tree owner, and the people who care for the tree.

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Touch Trees. Connect with Nature.

By Dr. Alex Shigo

Trees in the forest start life w ith their fungus friends to form mycorrhizae.

Arboriculture is a science and an art Science is an orderly process of collecting, connecting and recording information about natural systems. Science is understanding. Science is mind. Art is a process requiring skills to produce a product or performance considered attractive or pleasing. Art is doing. Art is muscle. Arboriculture is the cultivation of trees. To cultivate healthy, attractive and safe trees both mind and muscle must be used. Arboriculture is an art and a science.

Arboriculture emerged as an art Arboriculture emerged primarily as a skill, or art form, done by strong, working class people who were not afraid of hard work. It is time now to add science to the cultivation of trees. The cell theory started biology as a science The basic science behind all tree treatments is biology. Biology as a science started after the acceptance of the cell theory , then next came the germ theory and later the theory of evolution. The theory of genetics and the clarification of DNA have advanced biology to one of the leading disciplines of science today.

Biology is the study of living systems Biology as a science means an understanding of the chemicals and chemistry of life. Trees are not only living systems, but they are the most massive, longest livin g and tallest living systems ever to grow on earth. They support more communities of other living systems than any other organism. The cultivation of such superior living systems must start with an understanding of tree biology. M odern Arboriculture is tree cultivation based on an understanding of tree biology. The more you know about the way the system works, the better you can work on it.

Trees are forgiving 59

Trees are the most forgiving living systems on earth. They have been mutilated and injured by humans in countless ways, yet they continue to grow and to provide many benefits for humans, and countless communities of other living organisms. However, as forgiving and as superior as they are in many ways, they do have their limits for survival.

Trees are super survivors Survival is the ability to remain alive, often under conditions that have the potential to kill. Trees have never moved away from their problems. Trees have many associates and over time they have developed unsurpassed means for cooperation with them. Trees and their associates cooperate in synergistic ways. Synergy means that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Trees have also developed in ways that do not disrupt the law of increasing mass and energy. The law states that as mass of any system in-creases, the amount of energy necessary to maintain order in the system must increase at an exponential rate. Trees grow within their means. And, unlike humans, they never question or complain. They accept and adjust. Trees have no healing system, in the sense of restoring injured and infected tissues. Trees are generating systems. Tree defense is centered about boundaries that form about infections, and that resist their spread. New tree parts are always in new spatial positions.

Humans keep putting humans at the top Humans write books. Humans have written that humans are at the top of the line for living systems. Humans feel they are on the top position because humans have a large brain that can think. Humans run from danger. Humans are regenerating systems that restore injured and infected parts back in old spatial positions. Humans heal. Humans, at best, live about a hundred years. M ost trees are still very young at the age of one hundred. I wonder how life forms would be ranked if trees wrote the books? Trees are forgiving organisms. Trees are more than big sticks of dead wood. Trees do not heal, they compartmentalize infections. This process makes it possible for trees to outlive humans, even when constantly mutilated.

Humans have large brains So, humans are supposed to be so great because of their big brain that can think, learn, make decisions, and predict events yet to happen. If all of this is correct, then what do trees have that make it possible for them to far outlive humans, and still not run from fires, floods and a long list of other destructive agents? What is the trees' secret to long success?

Trees have defense as their theme

60

The basic advantage trees have is that they have evolved with defense as their theme. Their construction, physiology, chemistry, physics and all their other properties and processes have developed with defense as a theme. Humans have a big brain as their theme and trees have defense. The tree "secret" is a generating system built around defense and a ready capacity to adjust when their survival is threatened.

Defense is a dynamic survival process Strong defense depends on a high amount of energy reserves. When enrgy reserves are low, defense is low. Defense is chemistry. The cell theory is about cells as the basic unit of life. All multi-cellular organisms are made up of cells, which are, in a sense, bags of chemicals and chemical reactions. To try to understand biology without some understanding of chemistry is foolish. To understand tree biology, we must start with an awareness of the simple basics of chemistry. It is time to take the fear out of chemistry!

Learn about the principles of life Along with chemistry, every arborist should be aware of the principles of life. The general principles of life are true for all living things. However, specific principles differ for each species. Defense is a general principle, but the specific ways animals defend themselves is different from the specific ways trees defend themselves. Another example is that all living organisms require an energy source. This is a general principle of life. Humans must get food already made, while trees make their own. Trees can store energy reserves only in living cells.

Confusion of general and specific principles of life The major problem that has followed tree cultivation from its beginning has been the confusion of the general principles of life with the specific principles of life for trees, or worse yet, with the specific principles of life for humans. And, this has been so, because until very recently, little attention was given to tree biology, and especially tree anatomy. Anatomy must come before physiology. Tree anatomy has been a problem because trees are so massive. Bits and pieces of trees have been studied in the laboratory , but entire trees have seldom been dissected. Wood anatomy is different from tree anatomy! Wood anatomy has been studied from the view of dead prepared samples in the laboratory. By tree anatomy, I mean entire living trees, again, entire living trees. Tree dissections must be done outside with large, powerful tools. It is hard, physical work.

Trees connect in synergistic ways with many other organisms. 61

These mushrooms produce great numbers of spores that can be blown by the wind for long distances. When the spores germinate to form hyphae, some will infect non-woody tree roots to form mycorrhizae.

Separation of academics and workers The problem is made worse because research people rarely associate with working people. The people who have university degrees seldom go outside to associate with tree people working in the field. (I have never been able to convince my research colleagues that a chainsaw is a research tool!) The separation between the working people and the university people has existed since the beginning of science. There are many good reasons for this, but now it is time to change this! Remember, trees are big, alive and they do grow outside. New demands Science advances as new tools, new ideas, and new demands of society connect. The people now demand tree work to be better , faster and less expensive. The only way to meet these demands is to be able to make better decisions faster. Better decisions faster means a better understanding about the way tree systems function. Now we are back to science, or the biology of trees. Industry survival depends greatly on the rate of acceptance and adjustment to new tools, new ideas and new demands of the market place.

The science behind the treatments Fertilizers are chemicals. Water is a chemical. M ulch is a mass of ever-changing chemicals. Herbicides, pesticides and all other materials used to treat trees are chemicals. To even think about modern tree cultivation without an understanding of chemistry is folly indeed. Pruning also depends on an understanding of the tree system. The dose of pruning must, or should be, based on the ratio of living cells to dead cells in a tree, the dynamic mass to static mass ratio.

Needs for the future There is little to be gained by dwelling on the problems of the past. It is time to look to the future and to direct our attention to better solutions. Here I list some ways to bring the art and science of arboriculture to a much higher level. I remain optimistic. I know many fine arborists who are working in these directions now. I hope that more people will join those who are trying to accomplish these goals. 1. Establish a strong and meaningful code of ethics. Violate it and you are out! 2. Base certification on the ability to perform at a specified high level. Violate the rules and you are out! 62

3. Develop bio-profiles for the most commonly grown trees. 4. Develop levels for arboriculture based on education and abilities. 5. Establish a pre-arboriculture core education program that will include some biology, chemistry , physics, soils, microbiology and other natural system subjects. 6. Develop better textbooks to serve the levels of arboriculture, and core education programs. 7. Increase the number of teachers capable of teaching biology, chemistry and physics in arboriculture classes. 8. Have more outdoor workshops where professors and workers connect, communicate and touch all parts of trees and soils. 9. Have more articles in trade journals written by people who are not selling products. Reduce the number of infomercials. 10. Develop workplace education courses for people who are active, and often very successful, in arboriculture but lack a scientific background. M any of these people are very intelligent, but they either left school early or were forced out of science courses because of the ways the courses were taught. Give them another chance. Children are born with a natural curiosity about nature. It is our responsibility to feed this curiosity and not to destroy it.

Time for modern arboriculture Arboriculture started when honest, hard-working people went out to prune, treat wounds and fill cavities. These three treatments have been the basic tasks of a working tree person. Pruning was done by cutting the branch flush to the trunk to promote "healing." Pruning wounds and other wounds were painted to prevent rot. Cavities were cleaned and filled to stop rot and help preserve the life of trees. Sad, but once you begin to understand just a little tree biology, you will realize that all of the old treatments did more harm than good. Remember, you cannot "feed" a tree, wounds do not "heal," roots do not regenerate, wounds do not "bleed," mycorrhizae are organs, and you cannot inoculate with organs and finally, wound dressings do not stop decay! Ignorance of tree biology has been, and still is, the major cause of tree problems worldwide. It is time for some changes. It is time for modern arboriculture. The trees need our help now. Connect with the greatest living systems ever to grow on earth. Touch Trees.

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Tree Education and Philosophy
By Alex L. Shigo An educated homeowner would probably recognize the potential high risk of failure of such a tree, and have something done about it. It is the responsibility of tree care professionals to help educate customers about the care of their trees.

Humpty Dumpty said a word means only what he wants it to mean. Socrates, a great philosopher, said, just tell us what you want your word to mean. And Voltaire, another great thinker, said, when we know what you mean by your words, arguments and misunderstandings will seldom happen. So be it.

Just the facts Philosophy is a delightful trip around a circle. Philosophy is about thinking. Thinking is a mental process where experiences, old thoughts and ideas, facts and other stored information are connected in ways that result in some new thought or idea. Trees are superior survival organisms. They live longer, grow taller and become more massive than any organism ever to inhabit earth. Trees do demand some respect. This means trees have dignity. Education is a learning process. Learning leads to increased knowledge. Knowledge is the amount of information gained. Intelligence is the capacity to gain information. Wisdom is the use of information in ways that ensure continued high - quality survival. My objective in this brief essay is to focus on tree education: what it is, what it can do for you and what it can do for trees.

Stress? Or, treatments done without understanding some simple basics of biology? The tree was over - pruned, over - trenched, and over fertilized. The bill was "over," also.

Training and educating Trees are beginning to receive some respect worldwide. Not much, but some, and that is better than the way it was in the past. Now, I believe, it is the responsibility of people who care for trees, and about trees, to keep this movement going. The more you learn about any subject, the better the chances are for regulating the direction of the subject or if that is not possible, then for predicting with high probabilities the way 64

it will go. Training to deal with trees has far exceeded education about trees. Training is wonderful. However, training without educatin g leads to robots. At the same time, education alone leads to waste. Training and educating are twins; both are needed. Now! Some people are using the words "education about trees," but I don't know what they mean. Teachers teach. They try to get the mental "engines" started. They stimulate you.

The grass is very green. The tree is dying! If trees are wanted on such a site, they should be species that can tolerate lots of water .

To keep the "engines" going, students must be disciplined enough to keep adding more information to the mind. The adding process is motivation. Think of your car. The key connects the battery and starter. Once the engine turns over, it begins to run on gasoline. Teachers are batteries. Gasoline, or self -discipline, keeps the system going - motivation. Why do you need to know this stuff? Because decision making in the field is the "name of the game." People who can make more correct decisions faster have a better chance for higher quality survival. To lecture from the stage about trees and treatments is easy. When you are outside with the trees, it is not so easy. There are always some complicating constraints such as time, schedules, weather, personal health, breakdowns, regulations, complaining customers and the list goes on and on. You never know what you will face until you are out there. Still, you must make some decisions and do the job, or you will soon be out of a job. An Example: Stress Trees are living systems. Every living system will do something when its survival is threatened. Trees are systems that came from genetic codes. The systems do have limits. When any agent causes the system to operate near its limits, then the system becomes stressed. When the potential survival threatening agent continues to exert a force, then the tree system could go from stress to strain. Any system is threatened when it is forced to operate near its limits. When the threatening force is continued, the likelihood of the system stopping increases. In nature, there are two major types of stress. The most life - threatening type deals with the second law of energy flow. The law states that every system must have a continuous supply of energy to remain in an orderly state - healthy. As energy input decreases, the likelihood of operating near the limits increases. Call it primary stress. Because trees are living systems, they must maintain a continuous flow of energy. Trees burn glucose to release energy to power the forces of life. This is the same for humans and other life forms. When energy begins to become limiting, the system begins to operate near its genetically designed limits. There is no known way to feed a tree in the sense of adding an energy source. Food is a substance made up of elements essential for life and an energy source. Animals can be fed. Trees get their energy by a process that traps the energy of the sun in a molecule called glucose. Glucose is made as chlorophyll is stimulated to form ATPs that later power the formation of glucose. The process of trapping the sun' s energy is called photosynthesis. When the process does produce 65

glucose, some is used for metabolism, some for structural parts and some for storage. The stored energy is in a form not soluble in water; either as starch, oils or fats. The stored energy is used to start new growth when the next growth cycle starts and for defense. When stored energy reserves are low, defense is low. So, what can be done when a tree is energy stressed? You cannot feed it. If you add fertilizer (which is not food), the nitrogen will cause the already low supply of energy reserves to be lowered all the more as the nitrogen combines with the stored carbon to form amino acids that, in turn, lead to increased growth. The new growth will be defenseless. And the insects and microorganisms apparently can detect this. They attack. The story goes on. There is much more, but my point here is to show how one of the major problems facing trees - stress - depends on education. The simple answers today deal with adding all kinds of stuff that may give the illusion of short - term benefits. In the end, I believe, many of these treatments may add to the problem. Before I leave the subject of stress, I should say that secondary stress is caused when substances and conditions essential for life are at extremes; too little, too much. These secondary stress problems can usually be treated by adjustments of substances and conditions. Where are the roots? They were buried at about a foot below ground level. Education starts when people begin to touch and see things for themselves.

Education is the key Stress is used here only as an example of why education about tree biology is so important. Of course, much more needs to be given about the subject of tree stress. But, for now, here are some brief comments about what should be done. First aid for stress means keeping the tree safe and stopping the stress agents. Keeping it safe could mean removing the target, bracing the tree, or removing parts or the entire tree. Before you can reduce or stop the agents or conditions causing the stress, you must know what they are. Tree biology again. After first aid, start a long - range program of correct tree care that includes mulching, pruning, watering, fertilizing and probably much more. Decisions for all treatments, especially for dose, should be based on a sound understanding of tree biology. Trees do have dignity. They should get more respect. Respect starts with an attempt to understand. Understanding is about education. So, maybe we are back to the beginning ...A trip around a circle. Is that philosophy?

66

Armillaria Root Rots,
Predisposition and Poor Sorauer By Dr. Alex L. Shigo This red spruce root (Picea rubens) has compartmentalized the Armillaria infection, but space for storage has been greatly decreased. Note the fungus wedge in the bark. How do root rots kill trees? Do they? Are the "killer fungi" the primary cause? What is meant by predisposition? Who is Sorauer, and why do we need to know something about his work? It is time to take a closer look at root rots, and especially those caused by species of Armillaria. I say species of Armillaria because we know that more species than Armillaria mellea are involved. The subject of armillaria root rot has been discussed many times. I will try to give some information that is not usually reported. First, as with any problem, it is important to understand the background information and some history . That is why I plan to include predisposition and the father of the subject, Paul Sorauer, in this brief discussion. Decay associated w ith a species of Armillaria in the roots of this American beech was compartmentalized as it spread into the tree base. The year 1874 is a good time to start. This is the year that Robert Hartig published his famous book on important diseases of forest trees. The first subject in this book is armillaria root rot. Hartig called the fungus A garicus (Armillaria) melleus. Hartig took the disease concepts of Anton De Bary and Gotthelf Kuhn and applied them to trees. This was a monumental moment for all trees. Hartig proved that the fungus fruiting on a wound was the same as the fungus causing the rot behind the wound. The single fungus, single disease concept was accepted and began to move quickly. One reason was that problems of decay in living trees and wood products were considered very economically important. Decay associated w ith a species of Armillaria was weakly compartmentalized in the base of this Populus tremuloides (arrows in the 67

wood). The red arrow shows the barrier zone and the arrow at left shows the fungus wedge that spread into the bark. Also in 1874, another book was written. It was a handbook for plant diseases by a person history seems to have forgotten, or left behind, Paul Sorauer. M ore than half of his book was on abiotic causes of diseases and predisposition. Although his book was reprinted six times prior to 1934, his concepts on predisposition just were not able to compete with the concepts of a single pathogen for a single disease, including decay in trees and wood products. The strange part of this story is that arguments went on for decades about whether decay in trees could even be considered a disease. Why? Because decay was said to be the breakdown of dead heartwood. How could you have a disease of dead matter? The heartrot concept that followed was really a decomposition concept. The response of the living tree to the wounds and the infections was not considered. Also, isolations for fungi were done on malt agar alone, which does not support growth of bacteria and non-decay causing fungi. Consequently, associated microorganisms were not detected frequently. Over the years, the concepts of Paul Sorauer have made more sense to me. A major reason why his work is so difficult to understand and accept is because it is difficult to remember the many seemingly unimportant events and agents that accumulate over time and predispose a host to pathogens that could kill or cause decay. It is easy to see and touch the decayed wood, the large sporophores and the declining tree. If the sporophores are obvious when the tree is declining, the fungus inside the tree that relates to the sporophores must be the cause. This story repeats and repeats. This point is well-taken with armillaria root rot, How could anyone say that a declining tree that has many mush- rooms at the base is not dying because of the fungus infection? The mushrooms of Armillaria species do indicate without a doubt that the fungus on the inside is the same as the fungus of the fruiting bodies on the outside. Hartig proved this. We hear it said many times over and over that Armillaria is a tree killer or the armillaria root rot killed my tree! At this point, I'm sure Sorauer is turning over again, as a pinwheel, in his grave.

White spreading "fans" of mycelium from an Armillaria infection are shown at the base of this white birch. As tree defense decreases from root infections, the pathogen often grows rapidly into the bark. Why are root rots called killers?

Have you ever wondered why there are so many fungi known to cause decays in trunks of trees, yet few are cited as the cause of decline and death? The answer usually given is that the rots are compartmentalized. Don't roots compartmentalize infections also? Of course they do! And, they usually do it more effectively than trunks. So, why is it said so often that root-rotting fungi, such as Armillaria species, kill trees? A major problem is that trunk wood and root wood is thought to be similar. When you start with a false premise, confusion or myth will always follow. Root wood is different from trunk wood in many ways. Trunk wood and root wood both store starch in living cells, but root wood has a much greater percentage of living cells than trunk wood. When I2- KI is poured over the cut surfaces of trunk wood and root wood of the same tree, the root wood will be much darker in color, indicating more starch in more living cells. 68

Starch is not soluble in water. However, when water molecules are chemically "inserted" back into starch by way of amylase enzymes, the starch is converted back to glucose. Glucose is the fuel for life. Glucose also "runs" the defense system. When glucose reserves are high, defense is high. When glucose reserves are low, defense is low. When defense is high, we say the organism is healthy. Most pathogens are opportunists and wait until defense is low before they attack. Before I continue with this subject, I should give some other characteristics of root wood. Roots also mechanically support the tree. Root wood does have lignin, but not as much as trunk wood. This is best shown when you cut trunk wood and root wood of the same tree and feel the difference. It is much easier to cut root wood than trunk wood. Roots transport liquids that contain essential elements for tree life. The diameters of root wood vessels, or tracheids, are usually larger than those in trunk wood. "Agree or not, all living things will obey natural laws of energy and matter . The laws state that no organism or system will remain orderly (healthy) unless there is a continuous supply of energy, and that energy and matter cannot be destroyed but only converted to other forms. " Great numbers of living parenchyma cells usually surround root wood vessels. The living cells in root wood also "make" many substances essential for tree life. Roots do not have a pith. Roots do not have a green cortex. Roots do not "make" their own energy. Roots do not have heartwood. Space for storage of energy reserves is of top priority. Storage space equals defense Back to compartmentalization for more on why root rots are cited as tree killers. The good news is that roots are effective compartmentalizers of infections. The bad news is that when the compartmentalization processes repeat faster than the ability of the generating tree to produce enough new healthy wood in new positions, troubles for the tree start. As more and more root wood is compartmentalized after repeated attacks by pathogens, it is not long before space for storage of energy reserves begins to decrease. As energy reserves decrease, defense decreases. As defense continues to decrease, a point is reached where energy reserves are so depleted that further compartmentalization does not function. No defense! Pathogens can then grow at will in the host. This is how species of Armillaria and other root-infecting microorganisms serve the final death notice to trees. Much more still must be said. (Poor Sorauer.)

Root canker rots Species of Armillaria have a unique ability to rot wood and form wedges into the root bark. In a sense, Armillaria species are root canker rots because this is also an ability of canker rots of trunks. And, the fungi that incite trunk canker rots usually infect branch stubs that have weak protection zones. Protection zones at the base of the trunk branches or root branches depend on energy reserves for protection substances. The story repeats as energy reserves decrease, protection zones become weaker and finally lose their ability to resist invasion by the pathogens. Canker rots are caused by fungi that can rot wood and form wedges into the bark. When conditions are best for rotting wood, they rot wood. When conditions are not best for rotting wood, the pathogens form large wedges into the bark. As the bark wedges increase in size, they squeeze and eventually kill the cambium from the bark side inward. Then the defenseless wood beneath the bark is easily invaded by the pathogens. In time, the expanded volume of infected wood is compartmentalized. As this hostpathogen "seesaw" continues, the host can "win" if compartmentalization is fast and effective, and enough new wood is formed to store more energy reserves. The host begins to "lose" when the pathogens begin to occupy more and more space. Perennial trunk cankers have a similar ability to grow slightly in wood and rapidly in bark. The 69

difference is that the fungi that incite perennial trunk cankers are not able to grow rapidly in wood and cause decay. Arrow 1 in this spruce root (Picea rubens) shows the position of an Armillaria bark wedge that formed several years before the second wedge formed, as shown by arrow 2.

Predisposition means low defense

Time for Paul Sorauer to enter again. How does his predisposition concept fit into this story? First, think about where problems blamed on species of Armillaria are most serious. I think you will agree that in urban areas it will be in places where intensive work is done to provide beautiful landscapes. In forests, it will be where the trees are heavily cut - as in clear cuts, plantation thinning or intensive selection-repeated at short time intervals. There must have been a reason why Robert Hartig spent 30 years studying Armillaria spp. And why it was the first subject in his first book. The forestry management methods in that part of the world favor conditions that invite species of Armillaria and other root-rotting fungi. In forests, Armillaria spp. also follow defoliations, such as those caused by gypsy moth caterpillars, and diseases such as beech bark disease and oak wilt. Also, mushrooms of Armillaria species are common on stumps. Removal of the top does not mean that the woody roots die immediately. As the energy reserves in the roots decrease, the point is reached when defense systems no longer function. The "clean-up crews" enter. Tree removals in urban areas, even when the stumps are ground down, still provide root wood for opportunistic pathogens. As populations of the pathogens build up, they may attack trees that have stronger defense systems. What Sorauer said was that when conditions or other agents cause defense to decrease, predisposition starts. The hosts become easier to attack or the host is predisposed to attack. Everyone will obey nature's laws Agree or not, all living things will obey natural laws of energy and matter. The laws state that no organism or system will remain orderly (healthy) unless there is a continuous supply of energy, and that energy and matter cannot be destroyed but only converted to other forms. The law of conservation of matter "clicks" in when the energy flow of any system becomes inefficient. The energy still remaining in the system - the tree and especially the roots-will not be wasted. This is what I mean when I say that the "clean-up crew" enters. Some other organisms will "come in" to use the remaining energy in more efficient ways. The wood is made up mostly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. All of these substances have a carbon, hydrogen and oxygen framework and can be utilized by microorganisms as an energy source for their metabolisms. Animals do not have the enzymes to make the chemical conversions. M any microorganisms do. The energy in the remaining starch and wood is then used further. Think what would happen if these natural laws were not operating? We would have no breakdown of once-living organisms. You can think of life as a journey, powered by the sun, of a highly ordered group of chemicals, borrowed from the soil. Death is the end of the 70

journey when chemicals and their energy are returned to the soil to be used again for new life. Everything is recycled. No waste!

As Armillaria infections and infections associated with other root-rotting fungi spread into larger roots, the infections are compartmentalized, but storage space is decreased to the point where defense processes no longer function. Then, the pathogens grow rapidly in the host.

How do the pathogens get into the roots? Species of Armillaria are ubiquitous in soil. The black shoestrings, or rhizomorphs, can easily be found growing around many living, healthy roots. The fungi in this genus have been found throughout extremely large land areas. My point is that they seem to be everywhere, just waiting for the right conditions to attack. If they are everywhere, why do they not kill all trees? Just as the sun and the cold are triggers for other problems, so it is with Armillaria sp ecies. The gun must be loaded or in a state where the trigger, once pulled, will set it off. Again, low defense is the condition for infection. But where do they get in? Roots have many branch roots, just as trunks have many branches. As described briefly above, there is a protection zone at the base of branch roots just as in trunk branches. When energy reserves are low, the protection zones are weak. Roots in forests where no human activities have gone on for many years still have many wounds. As roots squeeze against each other, dead spots and cracks may form. As roots squeeze against rocks, the same type of wounds may occur. Then there are insect wounds and wounds caused by small animals. My point is that the pathogens do not have to "look hard" to find openings into the roots. The rhizomorphs always seem to be there. As wounds are inflicted and as branch root protection zones weaken, the pathogens attack. In areas where soils receive high amounts of water, another type of wound or opening can occur. When water is abundant, the suberin protection at the base of mycorrhizae may not form. With leaves, the leaf starts to die and then the basal abscission zone forms. With mycorrhizae, the mycorrhizal organ dies after the abscission zone forms. When the zone does not form, it serves as the perfect infection court for microorganisms, such as those in the genus Phytophthora. The dead spots could also be opening for other organisms. The broken mycorrhiza shows the basal attachment that could be an infection court for other root pathogens in the soil. Under 71

ideal conditions, an abscision zone forms first at the base and then the mycorrhiza dies.

What to do? Now comes the hard part! What can be done to reduce injuries by root-infecting organisms? A major actor in this story has not been discussed-humans. I believe that humans and their activities are major causes of root rots, by way of predisposition. When trees, knowingly or unknowingly, are over-watered (to support weed-free green grass), overinjected (because you can kill everything, good guys and bad guys and no need for diagnoses), overmulched (so what can we do with all these chips?), planted too deeply (we have always done it that way), over- braced (it won't fall over, even in a high wind), over-amended (maybe if we throw more stuff on, all will be better), it is a wonder trees grow in our urban areas. And the assaults go on and on. What must be done to slow the pace of "overs" is to learn some simple tree basics. Ignorance of tree biology has been, and still is, the major problem of trees worldwide. That goes for urban trees and forest trees. ¤ For all tree managers, or for people who aim to cultivate trees in urban or forest areas, the ten most common trees they deal with should be identified. Of all the trees a person looks after, usually 90 percent will be ten or fewer species. Then list-write-at least 20 features about the tree. When there are removals or logging, take a few minutes to examine the insides of the trees. Start a sample collection. The more you learn about your trees, the better and faster will be your decisions to have treatments that promote health. ¤ If you know that large woody roots are infected, do not add fertilizers to those areas or the fertilizers will benefit the pathogens more than the tree¤ If roots must be cut for any reason, make cuts with sharp instruments. No need to paint. ¤ When transplanting trees, always remove broken and crushed roots. ¤ When storms bend trees to the point where some roots are splintered, it is best to sever the root at the tree side of the splintered area. Care must be taken that the injured root or the severed roots do not make the tree a high risk for failure.

We need a more complete story if we are to reduce injury caused by root rots In 1960, I started studies on root rots. Roots of many red pine, Pinus resinosa, in plantations were dug out and dissected to study Fomes annosus, now called Heterobasidion annosum. Later studies were done on what was called Armillaria mellea on red spruce, Picea rubens, and beech, Fagus grandifolia. M any of the beech trees were in decline from beech bark disease. Hundreds of trees were dug out and dissected. Thousands of isolations were taken from selected specimens. The published results showed that the infections "followed" the CODIT patterns, and that many other microorganisms - bacteria and non-decay causing fungi-were involved in the diseases. I also believe from research done years ago that spores of Armillaria spp. from mushrooms pass through insects, usually fungus gnats, before they germinate. In the end, there will always be some bu g or some obvious sporophore on a declining and dying tree. They will get the blame for the death. When you see these signs and symptoms, think about all the predisposition factors that set the tree up for the "clean-up crew ." Then pity poor Sorauer! \

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Water and Trees
By Dr. Alex L. Shigo

Water and energy are tw ins. In many parts of the world, supplies are decreasing as demands are increasing. Wise management -starting with education -is the answer to this potential problem.

Water as snow adds beauty to these beech leaves. As snow melts, the water seeps slowly into the soil and run-off is minimized.

Water, water, everywhere, but only 0.05 percent to drink! Oceans cover 71 percent of the earth's surface, but ocean water is too salty for people and trees. M any plants and a few species of trees do live in salty water. The salty water makes up 97 percent of the earth's water. Of the remaining fresh 3 percent, 75 percent is in ice at the poles. The rest can be used for drinking. However, most of it is inaccessible ground- water. We are back to 0.05 percent available to us from lakes and streams. We not only drink it; we wash in it, flush it, and use it for irrigation of grass, crops and trees as if it will never run out. In many places in the world, it has run out. As trees were cut the land heated. No clouds formed. No rain fell. Water is held in clay soils. This can be very beneficial when in moderate amounts, but when too much water saturates the clay, problems start - usually root rots.

Water, trees and life Arborists know about water best by its amounts in extremes: too much, too little. Too much brings floods, or when frozen, breakage. Too little brings droughts. Amounts of precipitation are out of human control. Humans do bring on tree problems when they water too much, or forget to water. Stress is a condition where a system begins to operate near the limits for the way it is designed. Water is an essential for all life systems to survive. When too much or too little water is present, the tree system begins to operate near its limit for survival. Stress. Water - caused stress is a major predisposing factor for a long list of tree problems that could end in death. Root problems are at the top of the list. Insects and fungi are easy to see and they will always be there. Fighting secondary agents of tree problems has become the primary role of many people. Water as a liquid dissolves many substances essential for the life of trees. Water transports the substances throughout the tree. Water is essential for photosynthesis and its end product, glucose. As bound water, it acts as a storage product. The way water changes from free to bound, and back again, is one the wondrous processes of nature. 73

A Plea for M odern Arboriculture Years ago I p redicted that in the 21st century, arboriculture would begin to split as more arborists moved from old arboriculture toward modern arboriculture. Old arboriculture will not go away. It is, and will be for many years, the dominant force for tree care. New people are coming on the scenes, and the scenes, or demands of the marketplace, are changing rapidly. Survival of any individual or system depends directly on their ability to adjust to changes. The rate of adjustment defines the winners. Some arborists believe that chemistry is not arboriculture, and that it has no place in arboriculture. A few teachers have told me they do not use my book, Modem Arboriculture, because it contains some very simple chemistry, which is not arboriculture. M any teachers do understand chemistry but their schedules do not allow time to teach it. But, what about the arborists who are sick and tired of the same old stuff? They want something new and better. It will take time to bring modem arboriculture into full bloom. A better understanding of tree biology and chemistry is the basis for modem arboriculture. Sad, but biology and chemistry still frighten many people. Here I give a brief glimpse of water, one of the most essential substances for trees and for all living things. To be an arborist and not have some understanding about water is unthinkable for me. I'm sure some arborists will not read this article. I'm also sure that others will not only read it, but chew it and study it. If you want more of this stuff, I should be pleased to give it. If not, so be it. I respect trees and arborists. I believe they deserve and need something new and better, not the same old stuff. What is water? Water is a substance in which two hydrogen atoms bond in a unique way to one oxygen atom, hence, H2O. The unique bonding is so spectacular that water takes on fascinating characteristics. It is the only substance on earth that occurs naturally as a liquid, gas or solid. All water on earth originally came from rocks. As the extremely hot, young earth began to cool, gases such as oxygen and hydrogen escaped from rocks. They collected above the earth, and as some oxygen and hydrogen bonded, the rains came. Your basic atom Atom was the name given to the smallest bit of matter. The word means uncuttable. Of course we know now that atoms can be reduced or cut further. There are 92 naturally occurring kinds of atoms. In elaborate laboratories, scientists have increased that number to 110, as of this writing. An atom contains at least one central, positively charged body and one circling, negatively charged body. Every atom is unique in that the number of positive charges normally equals the number of negative charges. The positive bodies are protons, and the negative bodies are electrons. The circling nature of the electrons is often referred to as a negative cloud. All atoms except hydrogen have at least one neutron in their nucleus. The neutron has mass, but no charge. The hydrogen atom has one proton and one electron, but no neutron. If the nucleus of an atom could be enlarged to about the size of a dime, the circling cloud of the 74

electron or electrons would be nearly the size of a football field. Think about it. A half -inch cube of nuclear material would weigh about 10 million tons. The figures lose their meaning because it is difficult for our minds to grasp these facts. In the end, we must remember the energy and matter are concepts, and that they are interchangeable.

M ore about hydrogen Hydrogen is the most abundant atom in the universe. Because of its abundance on the sun, there is life on Earth. On the sun, the heat and pressures are so great that hydrogen atoms are fused to form helium atoms. In this fusion process, some matter is converted to enormous amounts of energy. The energy radiates from the sun as light. Chlorophyll in trees and other green plants traps some of the light energy that is ultimately used to form glucose. Carbon dioxide and water are key players in this process. This may be why water is often called the substance of life. Hydrogen starts the many events that lead to water, energy and life. Hydrogen is a unique atom because it normally does not contain a neutron. To understand the ways of hydrogen' s single proton and electron is to understand much about chemistry , life and, here, trees. The single electron rotates about the proton in a cloud that is commonly called a ring. The single ring of hydrogen could accommodate two electrons. But, if it did, this would unbalance the charges, and this won't happen unless something forces it to. Normally the number of protons equals the numbers of electrons. M odels have been developed for atoms so that discussions about them could be easier. In the models, the first ring could have two electrons, and the second ring eight electrons. Of course the "real" nature of the atoms are replete with exceptions and strange characteristics. However, with water and hydrogen and oxygen, most of the model terms are applicable.

M ore about oxygen Oxygen has eight protons and eight neutrons in its nucleus, and eight electrons in two rings. The first ring is saturated with two electrons and the second ring has six. It can hold eight electrons. We breathe oxygen so it can combine with hydrogen "left over" from our energy - yielding processes. When it does connect or bond with hydrogen, we breathe it out as water vapor. It seems that we just cannot get away from water and life, and in this case, our own life. Water is also essential for the life of trees, and trees provide arborists with the means of their life and business. Oxygen is a product of photosynthesis. We say oxygen is given off to the air. In the process of photosynthesis - where carbon dioxide and water are the ingredients - the power for the process comes from the hydrogen in the water. In a sense, water is split, or to be even more precise, the protons and electrons of the hydrogen atoms are separated. After many chemical processes, oxygen is released. Oxygen becomes very essential in respiration. In this process, the energy stored in glucose is released to do the work of life. The products of respiration are carbon dioxide and water. Back to water again. The processes of photosynthesis start with carbon dioxide and water, and, in the end, the processes of respiration end with the release of carbon dioxide and water. In all of this, the power of the sun is used to make life on Earth possible. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and water are the actors. They start and they finish still being the same actors ready to act again and again for continued new life. Now if all of this does not "grab you" then there is no hope !

Bonding patterns 75

Atoms bond with other atoms to form dogs, cats, humans and trees. All life forms are made up of atoms bonded in unique ways, often in the form of electrically neutral molecules. The strongest bonds are called covalent. With these bonds, two or more atoms share electron fields by actually penetrating one another's fields. The next level of bonding is called ionic. Each atom or group of atoms here has a positive or negative charge. Such atoms or groups are called ions. Because unlike charges attract, ions of unlike charges bond, but do not penetrate each other's electron field. We commonly call many of these ion combinations "salts." Common table salt is really a crystal made up of sodium ions bonded to chloride ions. Table salt is not a molecule. When the crystals are poured into water , the ionic bonds separate. The same processes operate for commonly used fertilizers. They are salts. In water, their bonds are released. In the third type of bonding, the atoms or groups come fairly close together, but do not touch. This bonding pattern is the weakest, yet this pattern is the major one that holds you and trees together. On a relative numerical basis, consider the holding power of these bonds to be about two or three; on the same scale, the covalent holding power between two nitrogen atoms in the air is about 190. Yes, life forms are held together by these relatively weak bonding forces. If this were not so, processes of breakdown and buildup would not work. No recycling. No new life. This third type of bonding brings us back to water, and its ingredients - oxygen and hydrogen. The third type of weak bonding is called hydrogen bonding. Because it is so important, some additional details should be given.

Hydrogen bonds Hydrogen bonds are the unique features of water. In summary, oxygen has two positions for additional electrons in its second ring. Hydrogen has one electron in its single ring, but the ring can accommodate two electrons. Two hydrogen atoms bond with a single oxygen atom to form a molecule called water. Each hydrogen atom bonds on the second ring of the oxygen atom where there is a place for them. When the hydrogen atoms bond with the oxygen atom, a strange partnership takes place. Each hydrogen atom now has two electrons in its ring and the oxygen atom has electrons filling the two available positions on its second ring. Add to this the fact that the hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom now have their rings saturated, yet the positive and negative charges of the molecule are balanced! What a process! There is much more to this story of water. Oxygen "accepts" the electrons of the hydrogen atoms, but it pulls most of their electron clouds deep into its atom. Another way to say this is that the electrons of the hydrogen atoms spend much more time deep inside the oxygen atom's ring than they do rotating about the protons in the hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen protons as a result are near the outer edge of their ring, with very little electron negative charge about them. The protons, being positive, exert their charges out from their position on their rings. And, because the oxygen has absorbed most of the negative charges of the electrons of the hydrogen atoms, the side opposite the hydrogen atoms becomes weakly negative. So now one part of the water molecule has two weak positive points and the opposite side two weak negative points. Such a molecule is called a dipole. Water is a dipole. Here is another way to view the water molecule. Imagine oxygen as a large clear ball. Now, mark four points on the ball all equidistant from each other. M ake two points red and two green. Next, move the green points slightly away from each other, and move the red points slightly toward each other the same distance that you moved the green points. The two green points have weak negative charges, and the two red points have weak positive charges. The red points are positions where the hydrogen atoms are bonded to the oxygen. The exact points of red are the positions where the protons reside and are producing the weak positive charges. If you can imagine this three - dimensional model of water in 76

your mind, many fascinating characteristics of water become easy to explain and understand.

Figure 1 : Oxygen, above, has eight electrons in two rings, and eight protons and eight neutrons in its nucleus. Shown here are two - dimensional diagrams for three - dimensional atoms and molecules. All diagrams are from models and the nucleus and electrons are greatly enlarged. (Red = Positive; Green = Negative) The hydrogen atoms, below, each has a single proton and single electron in one ring.

Figure 2: Water forms when two hydrogen atoms bond with an oxygen atom. Weak positive charges extend from the protons in each hydrogen atom, and two weak negative charges extend from the opposite side of the molecules Water is used in abundance to maintain lawns, garden and trees in some of the driest parts of the world.

Water and trees were both at the Khyber Pass many years ago, I have been told. Now, neither are present. The question is, what part did the removal of the trees play in the problem?

Cohesive water Water forms drops as it rains and falls on leaves and needles. If water is poured on a smooth glass surface, mounds will form. If you pour alcohol on the same surface, no mounds will form. Why? The answer: water has an abundance of hydrogen bonds; alcohol does not. Back to our ball model. You can bond one water molecule with another molecule, or even bond four molecules with one molecule. However, you cannot have one water molecule bond its two positive sites with the two negative sites on another water molecule. Remember, the red dots are closer together than the green dots. You cannot fit two red dots 77

over two green dots. Back again to four on one. It is possible for four molecules of water to align themselves in such a way that they bond one of their dots with a dot of a different color on the ball. As each molecule moves into position where its positive site bonds with a negative site of another molecule, an active dance goes on. If you can imagine it, every water molecule is "trying" to bond with another. The problem starts for the molecules when bonding partners position their other sites too close to similarly charged sites on the molecules. Remember, unlike charges do attract, but like charges repel. And, because the hydrogen bonds are such weak bonds, it does not take much to knock them apart. So, the wild dance goes on as molecules vie for positions only to be knocked out of place again and again. The significance of this process for life and for trees specifically cannot be overrated. Cohesion makes it possible for water to cling within vessels and tracheids. The cohesive feature gives us raindrops and water as a liquid at temperatures below 100 degrees Celsius. M any liquids, alcohol included, form few hydrogen bonds. Ammonia, which weighs the same as water on a chemical scale, is a gas at normal temperatures - again because its molecules do not bond together as water molecules do. Water from liquid to ice As long as the dance goes on, liquid water exists. As temperatures begin to decrease, the pace of the dance decreases until, at 4 degrees Celsius, every one gets a last chance to pick a bonding site. Because many of the molecules that would normally be in the middle of the group now move to outer posit ions to find a bonding partner, the volume or space occupied by the dancers increases. We say that as water's temperature drops near 4 degrees Celsius, expansion takes place. As water expands, bottles or even large rocks can be broken. The power of expanding water has been used by humans down through history. As a result of further cooling, the dance stops, as every molecule has a position. We call this state ice. Because ice is less dense than an equal volume of water, it floats - all because of hydrogen bonds. Some people have said that hydrogen bonds (icebergs) caused the sinking of the Titanic. Yes, water can be good, and it can be bad! Water in its solid form (ice) is a major cause of tree fractures.

Bound Water

How do trees stay alive in areas of the world where winter temperatures are far below freezing? How do trees store water? Every arborist needs to know something about those two questions, mainly because many of the major cities of the world are in areas where winters are cold. The simple answer again is hydrogen bonds. Let me explain. Trees are made up mostly of cellulose. Cellulose is made up mostly of glucose units bonded in ways that cause the units to twist as a rope does. Water plays an important role here, but the details go far beyond the scope of this article. Suffice it to say, the removal of a water molecule between two glucose units results in the cellulose pattern. The twisting takes place because the glucose units must be in a very precise position to enable the water molecule's removal. My only point here is that water does play a major role in the formation of cellulose. The free water becomes available then to the tree. Cellulose has many oxygen and hydrogen units as part of its makeup. In a sense, the oxygen - hydrogen units "stick out" from the glucose - now cellulose -molecule. Because each oxygen has a weak negative 78

charge, the site could be a potential bonding site for a positive charge from a hydrogen atom that is part of water . The story continues with the same theme. As liquid water comes in contact with cellulose, some of the positive sites on the water molecule bond with the negative sites on the oxygen atoms that are part of the cellulose. A hydrogen bond again. As more liquid water comes into the same area, the water begins to bond with other water molecules as it normally does. Remember: Cellulose - especially cellulose in the middle layer of the second wall of fibers -is made up of many "ropes" of cellulose with some spaces in between. The water molecules with their hydrogen bonds soon start filling all the emp ty spaces. As the molecules of water squeeze into every available space, spaces soon become saturated. This point is called the fiber saturation point of wood, which is the point where all available spaces are taken by water. This is usually the normal healthy condition of trees. When this condition exists, pathogens usually are not able to invade. So, water plays a major role as a preventative against many pathogens. When water is bonded to the cellulose, the water is called bound water. Because it is bonded to the cellulose, it does not freeze as liquid water does. Remember, the bonding power of the hydrogen bond is very weak. It takes little to pull it apart. The bound water not only prevents freezing and acts to prevent pathogens from invading; the bound water also is a unique way for trees to store water . Figure 3: A two - dimensional diagrammatic view shows the negative (green) and positive (red) charges on the water molecule. The negatively charged sites are farther apart than the positively charged sites.

Figure 4: A: The diagrams of two water molecules show that the two negative and the two positive sites do not align for bonding. B: One water molecule can bond w ith another water molecule when opposite charges are in direct alignment. C: It is possible to have four water molecules bond with one other water molecule when all oppositely charged sites are in direct alignment. When such bonding arrangements bring like charges too close together, the molecules move apart, but only to bond again at different sites. This repositioning of molecules is responsible for water as a liquid. From flush to free water Trees store water as bound water and energy in starch and oils. When the flush for new growth starts, some of the stored starch in living parenchyma cells in wood and behind buds is converted back to glucose. Water plays a role here also, because to go from insoluble starch to glucose, a molecule of water must be chemically inserted back into each starch unit. As this process goes on, the glucose dissolves back into the free water. The glucose in the free water brings on a pull force that easily dislodges more stored bound 79

water. In fact, this process triggers the entire process of liquid transport in trees. It starts the pumps. But, that's another story about water .

Canker Rots and The Heart Rot Myth
By Alex L. Shigo Ring rots, when they are canker rots, are major causes of defect and loss of value in Douglas fir, as shown here, and in other conifers. Canker rots: I think I know what they are. But heart rots? I don't know what they are. The fungi associated with canker rots produce wedge-like structures into the bark. The wedges then squeeze and eventually cause the death of the cambial zone. In a sense, it is as if the tree is being rewounded periodically.

Heartwood, heart rot confusion Heart rots are defined as the rot of the heartwood in trees. It is implied that all trees have heartwood, which is supposed to be the dead non-responsive central core wood of all trees. Further, the heartwood is thought to be darker in color than the sapwood. The subject gets increasingly more confusing as you wade through the literature, as I have done. The major problem comes when wood that has discolored following wounding is called a type of heartwood: wound heartwood, pathological heartwood, precocious heartwood. The confusion increases as you search to find a definition of heartwood. When trees that do not have heartwood are used in studies that compare heartwood with discolored wood in the same tree, then it is time to give up or try to bring some sense to all of this. It has been at least 30 years since I started writing and speaking out about this confusion in highly technical and non-technical journals and meetings. When I see new textbooks and hear some teachers, I know that very little clarification has come over the years. Science is supposed to advance as new ideas are presented and as old ideas are reconsidered and adjusted when necessary. Wood in living trees is a highly ordered arrangement of cells that are all alive when first formed by the cambial zone. In time, some cells age and die and function for transport and support. Other cells live longer and serve as storage spaces for energy reserves and spaces for bodies that carry out the essential processes of life. The fungus wedges associated with the canker rot fungus developed deep inside this oak. The wedges keep the wood open. 80

Is wood really dead? A poor understanding of wood in living trees is a major part of the confusion. The great mass or size of trees is the next problem. To study wood, small pieces were taken into a laboratory and examined under the microscope. Wood anatomy was born; not tree anatomy! The information was valuable because products from wood were so important to economics. Further, because wood products were dead, and wood under the microscope was dead, soon wood was considered as a dead substance in living trees. Remember, in the laboratory the wood was fixed -killed and prepared -before being sliced for observation under the microscope. Forest products interests for economic reasons was so high because forests were thought to be endless. Products research and university studies and research on wood products were the major activities associated with trees. Tree biology never had a chan ce. Trees are living organisms! As living systems, trees do respond in order to survive when their survival is threatened. So simple. So extremely difficult to get accepted! Why? Because if you accept this simple fact then you must throw out mountains of data and treatments - really myths - based on trees that have dead wood.

Telescopes and chain saws: research tools Canker rots is the subject, but to understand the subject, it is necessary to understand why there has been a problem. Canker rots have been and still are called the "true heart rots." They are called such because they appear to not fit the patterns of compartmentalization. I am very familiar with this problem. Some of my dear old research friends of years past did accept parts - but not all- of the compartmentalization theory. They still reserved the "right" to say that there are "true heart rots." The true heart rots do spread beyond boundaries, they said. And, they did, as easily seen on cross-sections of logs. Today there are still many people who believe in true heart rots. Galileo said his critics would not look through his telescope. My critics will not dissect living trees. (It's great to think that the chain saw is in the same league as the telescope!) Still. Do these "true heart rots" spread beyond boundaries? No! These rots follow the theory of compartmentalization exactly, but to recognize this you must not only dissect trees but also understand compartmentalization. Every time a living tree is wounded it will respond by first forming chemical boundaries and later anatomical boundaries, but boundaries to resist spread will begin to form as long as there are stored energy reserves. Canker rots are caused by fungi that have the genetic ability to produce wedges into bark. As the fungus wedges spread into the bark they "squeeze" the cambium zone from the outside inward. In time the cambial zone under the wedge wanes and dies. It is the same as a new wound. Then the struggle starts as the fungus "attempts" to grow into the newly declining wood tissues and the tree begins to respond in ways that resist spread. Canker rots are caused by fungi that form wedges into the bark, as shown by the pencil point in this eastern white pine. The fungi infect the resign-soaked wood and the branch corewood.

81

On species of birch and maple (shown here), canker rot fungi produce hard masses of tissue that prevent the wounds from closing. The sexual stages of the fungi do not form until the tree dies. The heart rot concept cannot explain the patterns of decayed wood associated with canker rot fungi. This dissection of an eastern white pine shows sound wood between columns of decayed wood. The heartrot concept is wrong and must be put to rest!

Ring rots and canker rots

One type of canker rots, called ring rots, go a few steps beyond in their attack. These rot-causing fungi grow best in wood tissues that have been altered chemically as part of the tree's defense. This is best seen in conifers and Eucalyptus species. I call this action "don't throw me in the briar patch." Remember in the Uncle Remus story where the Brer Fox caught the rabbit and wanted to be as mean as possible to the rabbit? The rabbit said to Brer Fox, do anything to me, but please don't throw me in the briar patch. The fox, thinking this was the worst thing he could do to the rabbit, quickly threw the rabbit into the briar patch. You know the rest of the story. In a sense the same actions happen here. The fungus "says" please don't form those awful defense chemicals, and the tree does. Then the fungus grows rapidly only in the wood that has the defense chemicals. No competition! The chemicals can only be formed in wood that still contains some living cells. The "rings" as seen on the cross-cut surface of logs then show the rot patterns that followed the tree defense. If all of this is so, why doesn't the tree die? Simple. Time. It takes time for all of the tree response actions to take place, and it takes time for the fungus to spread. While time is going by, the tree (as a generating system) forms new cells in new spatial positions. So, we have a sort of seesaw going on as the tree responds, the fungus wedges form, the wood dies, the fungus spreads, and new tissues form. Because all these events do take time, both the fungi and the tree benefit. It is difficult for many people to understand the ways natural systems work where two "teams" are "playing" against each other, and both teams win! Trying to explain dualities goes far beyond the scope of this discussion. You either accept them or you don't !

Armillaria spp. are canker rots Armillaria species that incite rots of woody roots are canker rots. The fungi produce wedges into the root bark and thus keep expanding the volume of rot. As the rot spreads, tissues that would normally store energy reserves decrease in volume. A major function of woody roots is energy storage. As storage decreases because of decreasing space, a time comes when defense also begins to decrease. When defense, which requires energy, decreases, compartmentalization also begins to weaken. As compartmentalization weakens, the pathogen spreads faster. When compartmentalization no longer 82

functions, the tree part, or the entire tree, dies.

Heart rot or center rot Back to old-fashioned heart rot. Again, heart rot is defined as the rot of the heartwood. Further, it was believed that all trees have heartwood, and that heartwood is dead wood, and that the heart or center of all trees is dead, and therefore back to all trees have heartwood. This is a perfect example of circle thinking that starts and finishes on premises that are thought to be correct, but really are not. First, all trees do not have heartwood. Heartwood does not have living cells, yet heartwood will discolor further or form boundaries when wounded. Next, central rots were common because trees have branches! As branches died and stubs were infected, the pathway was always to the center of the tree. Heart rots or center rots were common long before machines went into the forest! So-called saprots were rare because machine-caused wounding was rare. That has all changed in the last century, but the confusion started long before the last century. If all of this is so, and it is so simple to understand the truth, why was the truth not known long before this? Mainly because forests were thought to be endless, and that the major problems facing humans were problems of products. Trees were everywhere. Why worry about mere trees? Canker rots are common in species of poplar, as shown here. Branch stubs are the usual infection courts. To understand canker rots, cross sections and longitudinal sections must be studied. Tree biology still has acceptance problems As a young researcher, I went to wood meetings all over the world. Those meetings were all aimed at products, not living trees. It is difficult to believe that tree biology is "a new kid on the block." You will never learn about living things by studying dead things, or by calling living things by names that belong to dead things! Canker rots are all too common. Ring rots are the most economically damaging defects in pine. Fornes pini and its variants have been called the most economically damaging fungi in the world. Of interest is the damage caused by ring rots and canker rots in Eucalyptus species. This fact is still not accepted. In 1980, I tried to publish a paper on compartmentalization in Eucalyptus species in Australia. The proposed paper was shot down in ways that made it impossible to fly again. The real problem there was not the acceptance of compartmentalization, but rather the fact that if they did, they would have to accept the cause - fire wounds.

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Canker rots are common in many species of eucalyptus. Note the broken branch stub and the bands of decayed wood separated by sound wood in this eucalyptus species. Note the w edge formed by the canker rot fungus in the bark of this birch. As the cambial zone is squeezed to death, the tissues beneath it are killed and invaded by the canker rot fungus. Five rings of decayed wood are in this section of an eastern white pine. The fungus infects wood formed by the tree in response to the infection.

Know your marketplace! Why do arborists need to know this stuff? The quick answer is to enable them to make better decisions faster. When more tree decisions are made better and faster, everybody wins, especially the tree. Information is power. We hear it every day. We see decisions being made that affect every phase of our lives. I believe every arborist needs to know some history, some biology, and some facts about our modern marketplace. People who hire arborists to provide a service demand that the service be better, faster, and less expensive than in the past. The marketplace is the cornerstone of the business world. Enough.

What should be done? Once a canker rot is identified, the defect will only get worse. Trees do have ways to slow the process. The seesaw does go both ways. The pathogen gains some space and then the tree strengthens the newly injured area by producing not only more wood in the area of injury, but a type of wood that is much stronger than normal wood. The wood is woundwood. Woundwood is wood that forms about an injured area. The wood differs from, normal wood in that it has more lignin and the cell types and arrangements are such that they favor long-term support. That is the good news. The not-so-good news is that woundwood is very "expensive." Here we go back again to the benefits of health. And with health we go back to energy reserves. A tree that has high amounts of energy reserves will be able to form ribs of strong woundwood. A sick tree or tree under any kind of stress will not. We cannot get away from stress, health and energy. The arborist who understands this will treat all trees, including those with canker rots and other injuries, in ways that will increase health and energy reserves and decrease stress. Easy to say. Not so easy to do. Too often the decision comes to remove the tree. How do canker rots start? (Remember, ring rots are types of canker rots.) Fungi and associates infect wounds and branch stubs in four basic ways: 1. annual cankers, where a shallow wound is infected and spread is limited to one growing period; 2. wounds where successions of organisms may or may not cause increasing columns of compartmentalized discolored and decayed wood; 84

3. perennial cankers, where wounds and stubs are infected and the pathogens invade bark first and wood later in a seesaw pattern; 4. canker rots where the organisms infect the wood first and then move to the bark. The center of this fir is sound. A ring of decayed wood surrounds the sound center wood. Note the w edges formed by the canker rot fungus in the bark to the sides of the branch stub (finger).

Little is known about the early stages of establishment of the pathogens that incite canker rots. Here I give you my opinion based on research and observations. I believe the major infection court is dying, not dead, branch bases. At this point they may not be seen or recognized as stubs. I believe further that the most serious type of infection court, or individual, is one where there are still living cells but low or no defense system. (Examples with humans are easy to come by.) Next, at the crotch of branches where the trunk collar and branch collars meet, there is a gap that has been long recognized for annual plants. A similar gap occurs in woody plants. Further, for a brief time during leaf flush, the cells in the gap zone have little bark protection, even on healthy branches. When this area has stressed or dying cells, I believe this is the site and the conditions for infections that incite perennial cankers or canker rots. The major difference between the two is that with perennial cankers, the pathogens invade the bark first and later grow only slightly in the wood. With canker rots, the pathogens infect wood mostly and penetrate the bark only slightly with their wedges. I have never seen a perennial-type canker that did not have an old branch stub or branch core wood in the center. M ost canker rots follow the same pattern, but I have seen a few that did obviously start at trunk wounds. M ost canker rots and perennial cankers will be located between the four to 20 feet above ground level on trunks. Be on alert for them as you climb. The fungus wedges can be verified by the swollen areas about old stubs, and by exposing the wedge by cutting into the swollen area. In conifers, the old branch core wood may be replaced by the wedge material. Such a wedge is often called a punk knot. On angiosperms, the swollen areas rarely produce sporophores. Sporophores may form on some standing trees after they die, but usually the fertile fruit bodies do not form until the tree is down and in contact with the ground. The same situation occurs with some perennial cankers, though not all. A longstanding forestry practice has been to remove trees with canker rots and to do so in ways that keep infected trunks above the ground. In arboriculture I am all for the use of attractive trunk sections for landscaping, but great care must be made never to use a trunk section that has canker rot. What about chipping trunks that have canker rots or perennial cankers? Can chips used for mulch support growth and fruit bodies of pathogens that incite canker rots or perennial cankers? I am not aware of research on these questions. I believe that as long as wood only is chipped there is little or no problem. However, if bark remains on some chips it is highly possible that perennial canker-causing pathogens could be disseminated. Perennial cankers commonly have fruit bodies on the bark about the canker. This section from a Douglas fir is over three feet in diameter. The center is sound. Rings of decayed wood 85

are separated by sound wood. The heart rot concept states that heartwood is decayed after wounding. If this is so, why the sound center of heartwood?

Arborists are providers Arborists, like other professionals, are providers. They provide more than services and products that optimize the high quality time for trees. Arborists should provide information to tree owners. The information bonds the arborist with the tree owner. Information connects. Connections - isn't that what it's all about? Before I end this discussion, let me say a few words about one of my favorite subjects - myths associated with terms. The subject here is still canker rots. Let us look closely at this term. A canker is a localized lesion. A lesion is any dead spot. The lesion could completely cover an organism. Yet, when the lesion has definite limits or borders it is called a canker. Next, rot is a term indicating the breakdown process of wood. Rot is an ongoing or continuous type of process, or one that is spreading. Now, look at the two words again. One means confining or limited, and the other means continuing or spreading. So, now we have a spreading confining term. Such a term is called an oxymoron. To add more confusion to the subject, consider the term "sterile conk," given to some canker rots such as those incited by Inonotus obliquus (Poria obliqua) on species of Betula, and Poly porus glomeratus on species of Acer. A conk is a fertile fruit body. So here we have a sterile fertile fruit body. Crazy? Oxymoron? Yes. No wonder there is confusion.

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California Oak Problem
By Dr. Alex L. Shigo Trees don't die suddenly from natural causes, unless the causes are fires or storms. However, trees can show symptoms of decline suddenly after long periods of predisposition followed by infections. Oozing brown sap is a symptom of the disease.

Friends have sent me reports about "sudden oak decline" in California. Calls have also come in. Friends have asked for my opinion. I have not seen the trees. I have seen no data, or dissection and autopsy reports. If the decline is sudden, the growth increments should show this. Regardless, as requested, here are some of my thoughts. I start with the premise that the decline is not sudden. Next, because a species of phytophthora, which is ubiquitous in those soils, has been isolated, I believe that some predisposing factors had to affect the boundary walls of suberin that should form before non-woody roots, especially mycorrhizae, shed. My first thought is a problem due to waterlogged clay soils. I know the areas with decline have clay soils, with some areas having thick layers of heavy clays. I have dug roots in those soils and have examined soil pits. I have dissected many trees in that area, including live oaks and their close relatives. I do have some " inside" information on the soils and the trees. My first thought was, about waterlogged clay soils. I called my son Bob in Corona, Calif., and asked him to please send me the weather data for that area for the past few years. He faxed me long lists that went back to 1919! I found what I was looking for from weather data from Berkeley and North Coast Drainage areas. From December 1996 through January 1997, the area received 19 inches of rain. Two months! From November 1997 through February 1998, the area received 36.71 inches of rain! Nothing going back to 1919 even came close to that amount for those time periods. The time periods of the two heavy rains fit exactly the periods when non-woody roots and mycorrhizae should be shedding and new ones forming. I know some people say they saw the decline in 1994 and 1995. The heaviest rain year in that area was in 1983 with 48.42 inches. But most of the rain fell in M arch. Records are not complete for 1991 and 1992. In January 1995, 10.37 inches of rain fell. Because there are so many microclimates in the area, and because heavy watering of lawns is common, it is possible that waterlogging at critical times could have occurred. This could explain the earlier reports. I may be all wrong, but I believe if researchers check the weather periods I checked they will also see the amounts of rain that fell during these critical periods. The heavy rains at those times were a "freak" of nature. The trees are paying the price! We know that we should treat the tree as well as the disease, but that seldom happens. If the decline is sudden; autopsies should show this easily. (See my article on predisposition and suberin boundaries in the November 2000 issue of TCI.) 87

Here is a summary of my thoughts: Heavy rains at critical times caused waterlogging in clay soils; suberin boundaries did not form as non-woody roots shed or died; many infection courts; low amounts of air in soils; infection by species of phytophthora; decrease of root energy reserves; buildup of pathogen populations; root defense decreases further; invasion spreads rapidly; top decline becomes obvious; trees begin to die.

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Tree Chemicals that Kill or Cure
A Continuing Plea for Chemistry in Arboriculture By Dr. Alex L. Shigo

Climber beware! Poison ivy can be beautiful in the fall, but chemical volatiles from the plant can cause serious skin problems for many people.

Chemicals are atoms arranged in an almost infinite number of ways. As the kind of atoms, their arrangements, and their numbers change, so do their properties. The keywords to remember when the word chemical is used are atoms, numbers, arrangements and properties. The kill or cure part of chemicals comes to play when "amounts" or "dose" are used. The best example of dose is any fastrelease fertilizer. A little promotes lush growth while a lot will kill the plant. Is the fertilizer good or bad? Is it a helper or a killer? A professional is a person who understands dose. We are bags of chemicals, and so are trees. We and trees grow and mature as chemicals increase and change over time. In time, chemicals are recycled for new life. Time becomes a major variable. A major responsibility of arborists is to provide care for trees in ways that optimize time for high-quality growth. Cherry blossoms are a sign of spring. When leaves that fall are injured, chemical reactions take place that form cyanide-based poisons. If animals eat many of the fallen injured leaves, death could follow.

Trees and aspirin Trees through the ages have been the source for chemicals used by humans for killing and curing. Some tree species stand out in history. The most commonly used chemical or medicine today originally came from the bark of the white willow, Salix alba. The medicine, of course, is aspirin. It is not only a human painkiller - analgesic - but it is often recommended for lowering the risk of heart attack. The bark was used by early humans for pain reduction, but it was not until 1899 that the 89

chemical was discovered. Acetylsalicylic acid is aspirin but salicylic acid, the base molecule, is in a large family of analgesics. Exactly how aspirin works is still not well understood. It is known that the chemical blocks an enzyme that is necessary for nerve impulses. Mango is in the same family as poison ivy. Some people are affected by chemicals in the skin of the fruits. Trees and malaria Trees come to the aid of humans again with the bark of a tree native to South America. Ancient scholars believed that the cure for any human disease could be found in the plants growing where the disease was most severe. So it is with quinine, an alkaloid from the bark of the cinchona tree that grows where malaria is a severe disease. The mode of action of quinine is fascinating. The chemical binds with the DNA in infected cells. M ore interesting is that the greater the infection, the greater the binding. Once DNA is disrupted the cell cannot divide. M aybe the ancients knew more than we give them credit for. Quinine is well known also for its place in tonic to make a gin and tonic. In higher doses, quinine causes uterine contractions in animals, and this action could lead to abortion. Dose is the thing! An alkaloid is a naturally occurring molecule that contains nitrogen. They are bases (alkaline) and many are poisonous as doses increase. Recycling? Maple syrup cures the "sweet tooth." Maple syrup is an ingredient in many spring tonics. Sassafras tea sweetened w ith maple syrup can be a cure for many ailments. Trees and cancer

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Taxol is a tree chemical that has become very well known for its ability to stall some human cancers. The chemical comes from the bark of the Yew, or Taxus, tree that grows in the forests along the Pacific Northwest and into Canada. The mode of action is similar to quinine and many chemicals used to stall or cure cancers. The chemical taxol attacks the apparatus that is supposed to stretch as cells divide. Taxol prevents the stretching and thus inhibits cell division. Remember, humans are regenerating systems. Parts grow, break down, and are replaced in the same spatial position. Cancer cells don't like to break down. They only want to divide. So any chemical that prevents cell division gives the cancer cells some problems. Taxol does give cancer cells some problems for rapid division. Ginkgo biloba has become a favorite for many people who believe in the medicinal pow ers of plant chemicals. The extract is supposed to benefit memory. Here is a ginkgo tree in its native land of Korea. Trees and other medicines Aspirin, quinine, taxol - some big chemical actors - and all from trees originally. When the benefits of trees to humans are listed, the medicines are often left out. M ost people are not aware that a tree in India, the Neem tree, has been at the center of international legal disputes. Why? Because the local people have used the chemical powers of the tree for medicines for centuries. Now some companies want to concentrate the chemicals and trademark them for sale. This situation is not unique to India. Many tropical trees are being tested for the powers of their chemicals. And, again, local governments are stepping in to regulate or stop possible exploitation. Most chemicals found in trees are in a very dilute form. Usually the chemical must be increased in concentration before it can be used for some purpose. The ancients cooked or boiled the tree parts; usually the bark. M ost of the chemicals function as enzyme blockers. This is how most medicines work. To explain this in an extremely crude way, the chemicals "fit" into places where their presence blocks the next "fit" of a pathway. Enzymes: Biohelpers

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Enzymes are chemicals that "help" natural essential processes to go on at highly efficient rates, while the enzyme itself is not "used up" in the process. Enzymes keep heat down while reactions speed up. If enzymes did not do their work, the processes themselves would "burn out" the cells. Enzymes are big molecules with a protein core. Proteins are connected amino acids. Most enzymes have two other parts: one is a vitamin and the other is usually some element. Enzymes are often likened to keys. For a key to work, it must not only go into the slot, but the notches at the end must be arranged so that they fit exactly in the correct position to turn on a device or motor. If a key notch is altered, the key might slide into the slot, but it will not turn. Any chemical that connects onto an enzyme might so alter its shape that the function of the enzyme is blocked. M any enzymes are specific to different plant and animal species. The way many pesticides and herbicides kill is that some introduced chemical alters some unique enzyme that fails to work, thus causing death. Eucalyptus species have chemicals in their leaves that are used in many medicines, especially cough drops. The leaves on this eucalyptus species is the favorite of koalas in Australia. Tree defense chemicals Trees produce chemicals that can kill other plants, insects and even animals, including humans. Chemicals that leach from tree parts that kill other plants are called allelopathic substances. Juglone from black walnut roots is one well known example. The list of allelopathic substances is long. As I will discuss later, most of these killer chemicals have a similar base or core structure that includes a phenol or terpene. But, before I go on with that, I would like to mention some other common killer chemicals against insects and animals. About 25 years ago, the talk was all about trees sending signals to produce chemicals to kill attacking insects. The experiments worked well in the laboratory, as so many do, but they did not work outside, also, as so many do not. The story was that once a few insects began to attack one tree, that tree would "send out" chemicals that would alert nearby trees to start producing more chemicals that would stop the attack. In theory, and in the lab as stated, it all fit. In the field, no proof. Again, the killer chemicals were phenol based, which can kill insects. Lichens are tree associates. Their growth indicates clean air. Many species of lichens will not grow in polluted air.

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Penicillium species are common inhabitants of fresh tree wounds. Penicillium species and other nondecay-causing fungi, I think, are nature's real "wound dressings." Penicillium species produce antibiotics that have saved many lives.

Trees and human toxin Now, onto some "big ones" that can cause human problems, even death: Just as I gave some good news for aspirin, qui- nine, and taxol, the bad news keeps corning back to phenol-based chemicals. M any trees and other plants produce chemicals that irritate or sicken humans, but one tree native to south Florida and the tropics can do you in. It has the ominous common name of poison wood, which tells you something. The tree is M etopium toxiferum. All parts except the pollen of this tree are deadly. The tree belongs to an infamous family that causes many animals and humans problems Anacardiaceae. Other notable trees and vines in this family are poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. M ango belongs in this family and some people are highly sensitive to the skin of the fruit. Another large family that has some notable species is the Roseaceae. The major genus that produces harmful chemicals is Prunus. And the species are Prunus serotina, black cherry, peach P. persica, and apricot, P. armeniaca. Cyanide is the basic culprit. In peach and apricot pit s it is in a molecule called amydaline. It has the taste of bitter almonds. The pits of cherries are much smaller, but they also have similar molecules. In black cherry, cyanide-based chemicals are also in the leaves, and especially in injured leaves. Death of cattle is well known after chewing leaves, again especially fallen injured leaves, have been eaten. A note here is that healthy cherry leaves contain the nontoxic cyanide precursor prunasin. When the leaves are injured, the prunasin is split to release prussic acid or hydrocyanic acid. Cyanide blocks oxygen from bonding with hydrogen, thus blocking the release of the hydrogen in water. In cyanide poisoning, one could still breathe even though death is due to suffocation.

Pathway blockers Blocking enzymes and pathways - and nasty phenols and terpenes - seem to repeat as the cause of problems. Some discussion on enzymes has been given. Here is a little more on the other subjects. Cells are highly compartmented bodies. Or, you could say that many smaller bodies are highly compartmented in cells. The cell bodies are compartmented, yet they pass along their products to other bodies in the cells. Each body in a cell has a "job" to do. The job is to process chemicals in a highly ordered and efficient way, as in an assembly line. These processes are called biochemical pathways. The pathways differ from the conventional straightforward assembly line in that there are loops along the way. The loops are places where energy must come in to power the pathway along. The rules for the pathways are similar to your computer rules. Unless every dot, dash or comma is in absolutely the correct place, the system won't work. To make an extremely long story short, some of the nasty chemicals disrupt or block the pathways. It really does not matter where in the sequence of items the block comes; in a short time the entire pathway scrambles or shuts down. As more pathways shut down, it is not long before chain reactions go on as others shut down. In the end, the entire system shuts down. We call it death. That is the worst-case scenario. There are ways out of this. M ost pathways come with possibilities for shunts - detours. If you can get to the blocked area soon enough and encourage a shunt, the pathway could continue. M edicines do this by blocking the blockers. The shunts work as a temporary 93

fix while the blocker is being unblocked. (Not very scientific, but that's the way it is.)

Trees, energy and life Life is a state where a system run by the power of the sun is so highly ordered that it repeats. We have seen that the system has many safeguards, redundancies, and protection and defense schemes. That is the good news. Disrupting agents (non-living) or pathogens (living) have ways of causing disorder in the system. That is the bad news. Trees produce chemicals that defend and protect their system. The major killer chemicals are phenol- or terpene- based. The major targets for these killer chemicals are the pathogens that attack trees: insects, animals, bacteria and fungi. Sometimes humans get into the animal zone as shown here. But most of the time it is the others that are the targets. An extremely quick summary must start with photosynthesis, where the energy of the sun is trapped in a molecule of A TP, adenosine triphosphate. Water and carbon dioxide are the main chemicals. Through many elaborate chemical processes, glucose is formed. In the process, oxygen is given off. In living cells, the process of respiration releases the energy stored in glucose and releases the carbon dioxide and water. O xygen is required for this process. So, we start with carbon dioxide, water and oxygen, and we end with the same actors ready to act again as they trap, store, transport and use the energy of the sun. The end product we call life. Enough! Glucose is the key Glucose is the key molecule here. It is used to power living processes, but it is also used in other ways. It could be used to form cellulose, hemicellulose and lignins. Or it could be altered to a nonsoluble state for future use - starch or oils. Or, it could be used to form a long list of chemicals essential for life as defense or protection chemicals. Here I focus on defense chemicals - phenols, terpenes. Phenols are found mostly in angiosperms and terpenes mostly in conifers. Phenols have the basic pattern of a six-carbon ring with an oxygen and hydrogen on the second carbon. There seems to be an almost endless number of ways to connect the rings. As the rings connect, they are called polyphenols. Their major actions seem to be blocking enzymes, especially in the fungi that cause wood decay. As always in nature, there are exceptions. Some of the first fungi that are able to invade tree wounds are those that are able to not only grow in the presence of polyphenols, but can actually break down the chemicals and use them as an energy source. The major group are Phialophora species and related fungi. Many are closely associated with bacteria. I believe this is an extremely important subject that is not being studied. I suppose that splitting wood and isolating microorganisms is just not "hot" now. Too much work. Terpenes are connections of isoprenes. Isoprene is the basic building block for many resinous chemicals and even latex and rubber. Carbon and the chemistry of life Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon. Exceptions are diamonds, graphite, coal, oil and a few other substances that are not considered organic. When you hear "organic," you know there is a carbon there someplace. Phenols and terpenes are organic molecules. They have carbon frameworks. When you connect carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, you can get thousands and thousands of chemicals for life. And when you add nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur, you have molecules that make up about 98 percent by weight of all living matter. 94

Tree associates and more chemicals Trees not only produce chemicals that kill or cure, they also support, through intimate associations, other organisms that also produce chemicals that kill or cure. Fungi that produce fruit bodies we call mushrooms head the list. M any mushrooms are edible, and others are not. Ancients used mushrooms in many of their ceremonies. M any of those mushrooms were the fruit bodies associated with mycorrhizae. The real killers are those in the genus Amanita. Here is a fungus fact that relates directly to arboriculture but few people are aware of: One of the most well-known and famous fungi in the world grows on fresh tree wounds. This fungus produces a chemical so powerful that millions of people have been cured of many diseases that could have killed them. The fungus is Penicillium notatum. I isolated this fungus frequently from the surface of fresh wounds. When this fungus is around, few others will be. To this day I believe that species of Penicillium, Mucor, Aspergillus, Alternaria, and a long list of yeasts and bacteria, are a tree's first line of defense after wounding. In a sense, these wound surface organisms are nature's real "wound dressing." It is the only wound dressing that I know of that works. The problem is that it comes free. It is so sad when you consider how much time and money has been spent and money made disrupting a beneficial natural defense. But, you have heard it before. Some are still not listening! Time to accept chemistry in arboriculture It is time to accept chemistry in arboriculture. Arborists that touch trees every day need to know about tree chemicals. Every species has something, from the fragrance of a pine to the sweet smell of a birch. Every time you cut into a tree, you release some chemicals. These chemicals tell you much about the tree. In the end, the more you learn about the way trees work, the better and faster you will be able to work on them.

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Mycorrhizae and root hairs are abundant and active in winter.
Our tree concept must be expanded to include these facts. By Dr. Alex L. Shigo Problem With repeated observation of any part or process of a system, facts emerge that must be included in the concept of that system. Consider the cell theory, germ theory, DNA, antibiotics, and even the branch collar. In all cases, new facts made it necessary to expand our concepts for these systems. Almost all of the studies on trees have been done on seedlings, or on aboveground parts in summer. Few studies have been done on mature trees outside. Deadwood anatomy has been and still is confused with living tree anatomy. An understanding of anatomy must precede any understanding of physiology. Even fewer studies have been done on below ground parts of trees in winter in temperate climates. Solution This article discusses results of observations on belowground parts of trees in winter from 1992 to present, in New Hampshire, United States. Some philosophy is given as a plea for M odem Arboriculture. An expanded concept of a tree is given. Trees are viewed as opportunistic multiple systems. Abiotic and biotic factors are discussed as initiators of processes. Dormancy Trees have five major phenological stages: Start, leaves, growth, storing and rest. Reproduction is a sub-pattern that usually starts near stage two. It is impossible to generalize these patterns because there are almost as many variations as there are species. However, every tree system must start again from a quiet period. Every tree must produce new leaves or needles for photosynthesis. Every tree must increase in mass; this is growth. Every tree must store ingredients essential for survival. Every system must rest. Most trees also have reproductive cycles. Some are extremely complex in their patterns. Dormancy is usually thought of as a period of rest where processes essential for life function at a minimal rate. Dormancy does not mean stopping! Stopping is death. The second law of thermodynamics states that no system will survive unless it receives a continuous supply of energy to maintain order. In order to survive, trees must also have a supply of water and elements. These points must be remembered as the discussions go on. Trees as business conglomerates Trees are often referred to as living systems. M any of the problems with understanding phenological stages could be clarified if a tree was viewed not as a single system, but rather as a cluster of sy stems connected in highly ordered ways. Maybe a tree is more like a business conglomerate. If the business conglomerate analogy could be accepted, then many different parts of a tree could be in different phenological stages at the same time. M any aboveground stages are different from those belowground. In the sense of natural dualities, the business conglomerate analogy is a better way to view a tree. Physiology

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If a tree is a cluster of systems, and all systems require a continuous supply of energy to maintain order, then it appears that the different systems would require energy that came from storage. It is difficult to accept that energy from photosynthesis could supply all systems at the same time. Some timing or allocations for timing must be there, and also, a supply of energy in a stored state. This we know is true because trees first form ATP, which is used to form glucose which then forms cellulose, starch and a great number of other substances. Still, glucose is the fuel that makes it possible for the tree to survive. Trees do have ways of storing energy reserves and for regulating the use of the energy for processes to survive. Water is another essential for life. We think of water, mostly, in its liquid form. Water molecules enzymatically removed or inserted are essential for many processes and products, from cellulose to starch and back to glucose. Trees store water as bound water on the hydroxyls on cellulose. The water is bonded to the cellulose by very weak, but significant, hydrogen bonds. When any force greater than hydrogen bonds is exerted, the bound water then moves to liquid water again.

Water can also exist as a gas or as a solid. As temperatures decrease, the constantly changing positions of the water molecules slow, and if temperature continues to decrease, all possible positions for hydrogen bonding will be occupied and molecular motion stops - ice formation. Energy flow Water and energy flow downhill, or from high concentrations to lower concentrations. When ice forms in the spaces between cell walls and even in cell walls, liquid water flows out of the cell and death from dehydration usually follows in plants that are not cold hardy. But if ice does not form, then dehydration may not occur. When temperatures decrease below 0 degrees Celsius, and 97

the water is pure and quiet, ice may not form. This is called supercooling of water. When nucleators are present, the ice will form as crystals about each one. Element storage It seems that if energy and water are stored, and that elements are also essential for life, then there must be some way the tree stores elements. It is difficult to conceive that growth and other elementrequiring processes receive elements at the time they are required. There must be a storage process for elements. Elements in molecules often precipitate when pH increases. This we know for iron, manganese and other elements. We know also that some elements such as potassium can be bonded in many chelated-like forms. Potassium is an element that is absorbed in its pure form. When potassium is in high concentrations, the electrical resistivity (as measured by a Shigometer) of the wood is very low. In summer during the growing season, electrical resistivity in k-Ohms is low. As winter approaches, the electrical measurements increase greatly. Summer could be in the 8 kOhm or 10 k- Ohm range while winter could be in the range of a hundred, or even higher. If potassium is a factor in electrical resistivity, then it must be bonded in ways that prevent its action as an electrolyte. Elements must be stored and I believe that much of the absorption of elements occurs in cold soil in temperate climates. Photos in books Results showed many active mycorrhizae and root hairs in soil under cold water covered by ice. Ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae from cold soil are shown in color in my book, Tree Anatomy. On the cover of another book, 100 Tree Myths, I have a color photo of ectomycorrhizae and root hairs from a Pinus strobus. There are other color photos of mycorrhizae from cold winter soil in Tree Pithy Points. (The link to the books) Life in cold soil The mycorrhizae are not only in nonfrozen soil under frozen soil, but from soil under water that was covered by ice. Further, many of the mycorrhizae and root hairs at 1,OOOX with a phase microscope showed abundance of hyphae inside the non-woody roots. The nucleus in a root hair is at the tip of the cell. Nuclei in all shapes were viewed. Active nuclei are round and as they age and die, they become 98

spindle-shaped. I had other people excavate roots and view them under my dissecting and phase microscopes. The mycorrhizae were always there. My neighbor who teaches a biology course at the University of New Hampshire routinely got samples of mycorrhizae for his class from soil under water and ice from my pond. Survival Trees are clusters of highly ordered systems; a conglomerate. Each system requires time, optimum conditions, and a ready supply of energy, water and elements. Each process takes time. In temperate climates there is just not enough time during warm periods to have every process of every system conduct its activeties. Survival in living natural systems depends on the rate of adjustment and adaptation to abiotic systems beyond the control of the biotic systems. Abiotic systems provide space, temperatures, elements, water and energy. The positions on Earth where these factors exist are very different, yet life forms have developed in almost every conceivable place, including ocean vents, to boiling springs, to cavities within deep ice. It is not difficult to expect processes of some long-term systems optimizing places and conditions considered not the best for life. Absorption of elements developed or adjusted to low temperatures. This then extended the time for a larger cluster of systems to survive. Trees have always been and still are the most massive, tallest, longest living organisms on Earth. To be such superior survivors without the benefits of movement, the tree systems adapted and adjusted to every possible condition present over a period of one solar year. Absorption Mycorrhizae are organs made up of fungus and tree tissues. The organs facilitate the absorption of water and elements essential for healthy growth. Trees have many redundancies, some for short-term conditions and some for long-term conditions. Root hairs are finger-like extensions of single epidermal cells that contain very little lignin in their walls. The cell walls of the epidermis do have cellulose, which is not the best of boundaries or membranes for absorption of water and elements. Root hairs are usually ephemeral. They grow as new roots grow and they go or die as woody roots begin to form a bark that contains suberin. Their numbers are usually so great that even if they are poor absorbing structures, they still absorb some water and elements. Mycorrhizae present a system of synergy. The fungi receive more and the tree receives more with this association. Mycorrhizae live for long periods; a year or more. (Note forms that bud.) | A mycorrhiza starts when a hypha from a germinating spore infects a newly forming non-woody root. When some fungi infect a root, they control the further development of that root. Some fungi penetrate the root and hyphae spread far beyond the root. It is not uncommon to see some mycorrhizae with hyphae completely wound about the organ. Root hairs do exist on some mycorrhizae. The question quickly arises about how fungi can exist in roots in soil under water. To make sure the roots were from neighboring trees, samples were collected from streams where only one tree species was growing. Large woody roots with smaller masses of roots were dug. The mycorrhizae were on the tree roots, mostly Acer rubrum and Ulmus americana. The fungi in roots under water appeared typical for species close to Glomus - a member of the Zygomycetes. Chlamydospores of several typ es were abundant from the winter samples. (The organisms in the roots could be oomycetes, which are close to water molds. If this can be shown, then the organisms would be better classified as endophytes. There is so much yet to be learned.)

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M embranes Membranes are nature's discriminators. M embranes keep things in that should stay in and keep things out that should stay out. When membranes lose their ability to discriminate, the cell will die. When many cells die, the organism will die. Membranes and bonds are extremely important. Bonds hold matter in place and the bonded matter is further kept in place by some membrane. The basic unit of life - the cells - speaks to this point. Plant cells have vacuoles and turgor pressure. Animal cells have neither. Plant cells have a continuous symplast made possible by plasmodesmata. Animal cells have another means for intercellular communication called channels. Root hairs have cellulose as the major substance in their outer membrane. Fun gi have chitin, which contains nitrogen, in their outer membrane. Chitin must have unique characteristics for absorption. Fungi have hyphae that grow through a substrate. Energy -yielding substances, water, essential elements, and vitamins must be absorbed through the chitin-rich membrane of the hyphae. The connection of fungi with trees optimizes two absorbing systems cellulose in root hairs, and chitin-rich substances in hyphae. Mycorrhizae with root hairs have both systems. Respiration What determines what stays in and what comes in? And what drives this process of absorption? No system can start itself. Respiration starts the absorption process and once started, concentration gradients and the Le Chatelier principle keep it going. Trees are multiple systems operating in states of dynamic equilibrium. There is the appearance of balance or the static state while really many processes are moving at equal rates in opposite directions. M any tree processes can be explained by 100

the Le Chatelier principle. Natural processes move toward a state of balance, but when they do reach balance, they die. Yet, as one part decreases or leaves the equation, the process moves in that direction, again in an "attempt" to establish balance. An understanding of dynamic equilibrium and the Le Chatelier principle are essential to an understanding of not only absorption, but many other tree processes. Remember, balance means no movement; death! Connections Nitrogen is essential for growth. What pathway operates for entrance of nitrogen through a membrane into tree roots? And, how does all of this relate to mycorrhizae being abundant in cold winter soil? Here are some additional thoughts based on points of chemistry and results of observations that repeated. Chemistry behind absorption of nitrogen Compounds of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus make up about 98 percent of the mass of trees. Carbon, oxygen and hydrogen come from water and carbon dioxide; but where do the others come from and how do they get in? The elements are absorbed as ions. Ions are molecules, or elements, that have a positive or negative charge. Like charges repel, and unlike charges attract. Ions move. Nitrogen enters as nitrate anion or as ammonium cation. Phosphorus and sulfur enter as molecules bonded with oxygen as anions. Each element enters in its pure state. Ions of sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen are big and heavy. In ways I do not understand, the fungi with chitin in their hyphal walls facilitate the absorption of these ions. The absorption of phosphorus by mycorrhizae is one of their most important functions. Nitrate ion has a molecular weight of 62. Ammonium ion weighs 18. Now back to respiration. Energy from glucose from stored starch in living root parenchyma cells is made available for tree processes by respiration. Respiration is an energy - releasing process. Products of the process are carbon dioxide and water. When some carbon dioxide dissolves in water, carbonic acid forms. The acid dissociates to form hydrogen ions that bond with water to form hydronium cations and bicarbonate anions. Hydronium weighs 19 and bicarbonate weighs 61. When you add 19 and 61, 80 is the sum. When you add the weights of nitrate and ammonium, you also get 80! On the tree side of the rhizoplane, the two ions weigh 80, and on the rhizosphere soil side, the ammonium of 18 and nitrate of 62 again weigh 80. Coincidence? I wonder. Back to cold soil and cold water under ice. First, water. Cold water contains more oxygen than warm water. Oxygen is a requirement for respiration! Clusters of ice crystals form in minute cavities. Soil does not freeze, but the water in soil freezes.

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MYCORRHIZAE IN COLD SOIL The ice melted when I placed this sample under the microscope. The sample came from soil that had ice crystals in the cavities. The soil came from my back yard in January. The soil surface was covered with snow. I believe that mycorrhizae and many other organisms do not freeze, but supercool.

In soil below 0 degrees Celsius, clusters of ice crystals form in minute cavities. In a sense, soil does not freeze, but the water in soil freezes. That is not as important as the fact that cold soil will have many ice clusters. I believe the ice clusters in soil act in a way similar to the sheets of ice over water. Plants that are not cold hardy die from dehydration because water moves out of the cell, because water moves from high concentrations to lower concentrations. As ice forms in soil, liquid water moves toward the ice clusters. The abiotic cold factor then acts as a trigger for molecules to move. It is fascinating to know that light heat from the sun triggers processes that make life possible - photosynthesis. And, low temperatures also trigger life processes. As water moves toward ice clusters, air with oxygen fills the cavities. Many living organisms bacteria, fungi, mites, thrips, nematodes, enchytride worms, amoebae -live in the oxy gen-rich cavities. And, roots live there also. Abiotic factors trigger biotic processes! The rhizoplane is the boundary between soil and living roots and hyphae. The mycorrhizae serve both tree and fungus. In roots in soil under water, I believe the endomycorrhizae benefit from the ready supply of carbon from the tree. In ectomycorrhizae, I believe the fungi and tree benefit from absorption through a chitin-rich boundary. I believe also that hyphae that grow out from mycorrhizae obtain some carbon from decomposing wood and leaves. Trees, as all living things, pay taxes. Taxes are paid in the sense of exudates that contain carbon. M any soil organisms benefit from the "taxes" and in return the organisms make elements available for the trees. The words of Galileo come to mind as he was faced by his inquisitors. Galileo said God wrote two books - Nature and Scriptures. The problem, he said, was that few people have ever read or know about the book of Nature, and until Book 1 is understood, Book 2 will never be understood. They did not understand what he said. They issued his sentence! (I am now working on Book 1.) Natural systems have developed in ways that benefit high-quality survival. Systems in tropical climates are different from systems in temperate climates. Back to rhizoplanes and the 80, 80 idea. Respiration and the Le Chatelier principle work to keep the processes moving. The natural "attempt" for balance keeps getting disrupted as one part of a two-part system keeps moving to a decreasing state. For example, to move or be absorbed into a root, the molecule must be in a soluble ionic state. This state is soluble in water also, and as water moves in soil, the ions move along with the water away from the target living system. To say it another way, the 102

same ions essential for life also move "downstream" to the groundwater or on to the ocean, where new and different life forms exist. Indeed, the natural systems function to maintain life and non-life, and these processes go on, and will go on, without the intervention of humans. This is what Book One is all about. Philosophy "Always" is what I believe in. Where does a circle start? I believe that philosophy is a mental trip around a circle. Always. Life forms and abiotic forms move toward balance. When balance is reached, the nature of the form changes; death. When abiotic forms become so highly ordered, we call the resulting form "living." When living forms become balanced, we call the resulting form "dead." So long as movement is ordered, life goes on. Dynamic equilibrium gives nonmoving forms, such as trees, the appearance of balance, while actually many systems are moving. Nature is a super, multiple system made up of what we call living and nonliving forms. Forces external to Earth - the sun - initiate processes of life and death. When these powerful forces begin to be recognized, then many parts will come together. In the end Modem Arboriculture will come, albeit slowly, mainly because old arboriculture is accepted by many people and organizations as it assures economic gains. A new train is coming. It is filled with students who have different ideas and values for life. This train includes the quest for solutions that can only come from biology and Book 1, chemistry. The train is called Modem Arboriculture. It runs on the energy of connections. The lack of knowledge of tree biology has been, and still is, the major problem for trees and tree workers worldwide! Learn about trees. Connect with nature. Touch trees.

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By Dr. Alex Shigo WARNING! Learning about lichens can become addictive! Customers often ask about things on and near their trees. If you know, fine, tell them. If you do not know, say you will find out soon and get back to them. The more you know the better for your credentials, and the next job. What are lichens? Lichens are organisms made up of fungi mycobionts - and photosynthetic algae, cyanobacteria, or both, - photobionts. The connections between the organisms are so highly ordered that the organisms repeat. There are at least 30,000 known species of lichens worldwide. Lichens are micro ecosystems. The body is called a Thallus. They come in many shapes, sizes and colors. The algae and cyanobacteria (old name, bluegreen algae) contain chlorophyll that traps the light energy from the sun, and passes some of it on to the mycobionts. The fungi have haustoria, which are finger-like projections that penetrate each cell of the photobiont. Most cyanobacteria fix nitrogen, which means they have an enzyme system that converts atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia and ammonium ions. The ammonium ions then act as building blocks for many other 104

essential chemical compounds, especially proteins that build mass of an organism, and enzymes that make processes move in a highly ordered way. Where do lichens grow? Lichens can be found on many different surfaces, from rocks, soils, trees, dead materials, and even old rusting machines, especially abandoned cars. They often appear as thin or thick paint blotches on tree trunks. They seem to be every place where others could not or would not grow. They grow under conditions that would be extremely difficult, or impossible, for other organisms. For example, they grow far beyond the tree lines, and are major energy sources for many other land organisms, especially large animals like reindeer and caribou. Do lichens harm trees? If lichens cause disease of trees, can they also cause diseases of rocks? Silly, YES! There are no data that shows lichens cause tree or rock diseases. Yet, this does not stop some people. Believe it or not, some people charge uninformed customers to remove lichens. Sad, indeed! The beard-moss lichen can hang several meters from trees, usually trees such as species growing in very cold climates near the tree lines. It is often confused with Spanish moss. Spanish moss is a flowering plant, and pine- apples are in the family. Pineapples are very far removed from lichens. Whether the lichens help the spruce trees, or limit photosynthesis, nobody knows. And, as with lichens, some people charge customers to remove Spanish and ball moss from trees that grow in warm climates. I hope you are beginning to understand now why people need to know something about lichens, and other things on trees. Lichenology needs much attention from research. Symbiosis or controlled parasitism? The lichen experts are still not sure whether the mycobionts enslave the photobionts, or whether both benefit all, the time as symbiosis, leading to synergy where all partners benefit far beyond their abilities if growing alone. I'm no lichen expert, but I believe the latter is true, and synergy is at work. Lichens are masters of dormancy. They can survive for long periods under very harsh conditions. When conditions do become favorable, they are able to respond rapidly, and grow rapidly. Consider that they grow where very few to no other organisms can grow. In favorable places they can be so aggressive that other organisms have difficulty gaining space. They are abundant in the tropics, and dry deserts, and very cold places. Again, they seem to be everywhere! M any experts think lichens were some of the first organisms to colonize land surfaces on young earth. The root-like organs of lichens are called rhizines. The rhizines penetrate rocks and aid decomposition. Lichens also produce acids and other chemicals that break down rocks and other materials. The materials are also used to support growth of the lichens. In a sense, the rocks are longterm or very -slow-release fertilizers. The rock decomposition minerals start the formation of soils. As 105

lichens die they add to the organic material to the soil. Again, for these reasons, I believe they are synergistic, and one partner is not enslaving the other partner. M any people believe that so-called higher organisms became higher organisms as they connected with many other organisms (mitochondria?). M aybe the lichens got the message first. Who knows? Are lichens of any value? The wool for the original Harris Tweed coats was dyed using materials from lichens. The spread of radioactive materials from Chernobyl was traced using lichens because they concentrated the radioactive contaminants in their parts, and the lichens were then eaten by large animals. Lichens are used for food in many parts of the world, especially in Asia. Their extracts are used for perfumes. They are very sensitive to pollutants, and are used to detect their presence. If lichens die suddenly, a real pollution problem is on the way. New medicines are coming from lichens. Some lichens are known to produce antibiotics. M any countries are now keeping a close eye on lichen collectors, and forbidding the export of lichens. I have only touched the surface of this subject. It needs much more attention. But, be careful, and remember my warning at the beginning! Go out and connect with some lichens; touch them, and don't forget on the way to TOUCH TREES!

Lichens growing on an old, rotted log.

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