Leadership Theories

MBA 645 Leadership in Organizations Jeff Shay University of Montana

Trait Theory ‡ Earliest approach ‡ Identify great person from masses ‡ Certain traits = success/effectiveness ‡ As basic as height. complex as intelligence ‡ Recent resurgence .

Behavioral Theories ‡ Pattern of actions used by different individuals determines leadership potential ‡ Examples ± Autocratic. democratic and laissezfaire ± Michigan Studies: Employee centered versus task centered .

Reward and Punishment Theory ‡ Higher performance and satisfaction ± Performance-contingent reward behavior ‡ Mixed results ± Contingent punishment behavior ± Noncontingent reward behavior ‡ Negative results ± Noncontingent punishment behavior .

. That is.Situational Contingency Theories ‡ Leader traits and/or leader behaviors are important aspects but must be taken in context. the situation matters.

position power . task structure.Fiedler¶s Leadership Contingency Theory ‡ Group effectiveness dependent on an appropriate match between a leader¶s style and the demands of the situation ‡ Situational control ‡ Least preferred coworker ‡ Important variables ± Leader/member relations.

Fiedler¶s Key Variables Which leaders are most effective during these conditions? High-Control Situations Leader/member relations Task Structure High Good Low Task-motivated Leader Moderate-Control Situation Good Low Weak Poor High Strong Weak Low-Control Situations Poor Low Strong Weak Position power Strong Weak Strong I II III IV V VI VII VIII Relationshipmotivated Leader .

Path-goal Theory ‡ Rooted in Expectancy Theory ‡ Leader behaviors ± Directive ± Supportive ± Achievement-oriented ± Participative .

Supportive Leadership Reduce boredom Make job more tolerable Increase the intrinsic valence of work Increase effort Supportive Leadership Increase self-confidence Lower Anxiety Increase effortperformance expectancy .

Directive Leadership Reduce role ambiguity Increase effortperformance expectancy Directive Leadership Increase size of incentives Increase outcome valences for task success Increase subordinate effort Strengthen reward contingencies Increase performancereward expectancies .

Path-goal Theory Causal Variables Leader Behavior Intervening Variables Subordinate expectations Outcome Variables Subordinate effort and satisfaction Situational Moderator Variables Characteristics of task and environment Characteristics of subordinates .

Situational Leadership ‡ No single best way to lead ‡ Focus on maturity or readiness of followers ± Ability and willingness ‡ Adjust emphasis on task and relationship behaviors according to the readiness of followers to perform their tasks .

Situational Leadership ‡ Telling: low readiness. employees skeptical ‡ Delegating: high readiness. able but unwilling. untrained and inexperienced employees ‡ Selling: low/moderate readiness. employees ready and willing to take responsibility . trained but inexperienced employees ‡ Participating: moderate/high readiness.

New Approaches to Leadership ‡ Charismatic ‡ Transformational .

Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership ‡Idealized Influence ‡Inspiration ‡Intellectual stimulation ‡Individualized consideration Broadening and elevating follower goals Performance beyond expectations Transactional Leadership ‡Contingent reward ‡Management by exception (active or passive) ‡Laissez faire Leader/follower exchange Agreed upon performance .

10 Intervening Variables . market conditions. etc.An Integrating Framework Leader Traits 1 2 Success Criteria 3 5 8 Leader Power 4 6 7 Leader Behavior Situational Variables 9 Economy. etc. commitment. Subord.