Shakespeare's Sonnets

The Complete Guide

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Contents
Articles
Shakespeare's sonnets 1 9 9 15 15 21 25 31 33 35 35 35 37 38 39 41 42 43 47 48 50 51 52 54 55 57 58 60 62 65 67

Introduction
Petrarch's and Shakespeare's Sonnets

Dedication and Characters
Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton Sexuality of William Shakespeare Emilia Lanier Mary Fitton Rival Poet

The Sonnets
Procreation sonnets Sonnet 1 Sonnet 2 Sonnet 3 Sonnet 4 Sonnet 5 Sonnet 6 Sonnet 7 Sonnet 8 Sonnet 9 Sonnet 10 Sonnet 11 Sonnet 12 Sonnet 13 Sonnet 14 Sonnet 15 Sonnet 16 Sonnet 17 Sonnet 18 Sonnet 19 Sonnet 20

Sonnet 21 Sonnet 22 Sonnet 23 Sonnet 24 Sonnet 25 Sonnet 26 Sonnet 27 Sonnet 28 Sonnet 29 Sonnet 30 Sonnet 31 Sonnet 32 Sonnet 33 Sonnet 34 Sonnet 35 Sonnet 36 Sonnet 37 Sonnet 38 Sonnet 39 Sonnet 40 Sonnet 41 Sonnet 42 Sonnet 43 Sonnet 44 Sonnet 45 Sonnet 46 Sonnet 47 Sonnet 48 Sonnet 49 Sonnet 50 Sonnet 51 Sonnet 52 Sonnet 53 Sonnet 54 Sonnet 55 Sonnet 56 Sonnet 57 Sonnet 58

70 72 74 76 78 80 82 83 84 89 92 93 94 96 98 102 106 107 108 109 111 112 114 116 117 118 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 130 134 136 137 138

Sonnet 59 Sonnet 60 Sonnet 61 Sonnet 62 Sonnet 63 Sonnet 64 Sonnet 65 Sonnet 66 Sonnet 67 Sonnet 68 Sonnet 69 Sonnet 70 Sonnet 71 Sonnet 72 Sonnet 73 Sonnet 74 Sonnet 75 Sonnet 76 Sonnet 77 Sonnet 78 Sonnet 79 Sonnet 80 Sonnet 81 Sonnet 82 Sonnet 83 Sonnet 84 Sonnet 85 Sonnet 86 Sonnet 87 Sonnet 88 Sonnet 89 Sonnet 90 Sonnet 91 Sonnet 92 Sonnet 93 Sonnet 94 Sonnet 95 Sonnet 96

140 146 150 151 153 154 159 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

Sonnet 97 Sonnet 98 Sonnet 99 Sonnet 100 Sonnet 101 Sonnet 102 Sonnet 103 Sonnet 104 Sonnet 105 Sonnet 106 Sonnet 107 Sonnet 108 Sonnet 109 Sonnet 110 Sonnet 111 Sonnet 112 Sonnet 113 Sonnet 114 Sonnet 115 Sonnet 116 Sonnet 117 Sonnet 118 Sonnet 119 Sonnet 120 Sonnet 121 Sonnet 122 Sonnet 123 Sonnet 124 Sonnet 125 Sonnet 126 Sonnet 127 Sonnet 128 Sonnet 129 Sonnet 130 Sonnet 131 Sonnet 132 Sonnet 133 Sonnet 134

198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 235 237 238 239 241

Sonnet 135 Sonnet 136 Sonnet 137 Sonnet 138 Sonnet 139 Sonnet 140 Sonnet 141 Sonnet 142 Sonnet 143 Sonnet 144 Sonnet 145 Sonnet 146 Sonnet 147 Sonnet 148 Sonnet 149 Sonnet 150 Sonnet 151 Sonnet 152 Sonnet 153 Sonnet 154

242 243 244 245 249 250 251 252 253 254 259 262 264 268 269 270 270 272 273 274 275 275 277 278

Music and Entertainment
A Waste of Shame The Dark Lady of the Sonnets When Love Speaks

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 281 286

Article Licenses
License 287

Shakespeare's sonnets

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Shakespeare's sonnets
Shakespeare's Sonnets

Author Country Language Genre(s) Publisher

William Shakespeare England Early Modern English Renaissance poetry Thomas Thorpe

Publication date 1609

Shakespeare's sonnets are 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as the passage of time, love, beauty and mortality. All but two of the poems were first published in a 1609 quarto entitled SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS.: Never before imprinted. Sonnets 138 and 144 had previously been published in a 1599 miscellany entitled The Passionate Pilgrim. The quarto ends with "A Lover's Complaint", a narrative poem of 47 seven-line stanzas written in rhyme royal. The first 17 sonnets, traditionally called the procreation sonnets, are ostensibly written to a young man urging him to marry and have children in order to immortalise his beauty by passing it to the next generation.[1] Other sonnets express the speaker's love for a young man; brood upon loneliness, death, and the transience of life; seem to criticise the young man for preferring a rival poet; express ambiguous feelings for the speaker's mistress; and pun on the poet's name. The final two sonnets are allegorical treatments of Greek epigrams referring to the "little Love-god" Cupid. The publisher, Thomas Thorpe, entered the book in the Stationers' Register on 20 May 1609: Tho. Thorpe. Entred for his copie under the handes of master Wilson and master Lownes Wardenes a booke called Shakespeares sonnettes vjd. Whether Thorpe used an authorized manuscript from Shakespeare or an unauthorized copy is unknown. George Eld printed the quarto, and the run was divided between the booksellers William Aspley and John Wright.

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Dedication
The sonnets include a dedication to one "Mr. W.H.". The identity of this person remains a mystery and has provoked a great deal of speculation. The dedication reads:

Dedication page from The Sonnets

TO.THE.ONLIE.BEGETTER.OF. THESE.INSUING.SONNETS. Mr.W.H.   ALL.HAPPINESSE. AND.THAT.ETERNITIE. PROMISED. BY. OUR.EVER-LIVING.POET. WISHETH. THE.WELL-WISHING. ADVENTURER.IN. SETTING. FORTH. T.T.

Given its obliquity, since the 19th century the dedication has become, in Colin Burrow's words, a 'dank pit in which speculation wallows and founders'. Don Foster concludes that the result of all the speculation has yielded only two "facts," which themselves have been the object of much debate: First, that the form of address (Mr.) suggests that W.H. was an untitled gentleman, and second, that W.H., whoever he was, is identified as "the only begetter" of Shakespeare's Sonnets (whatever the word "begetter" is taken to mean).[2] The initials 'T.T.' are taken to refer to the publisher, Thomas Thorpe, though Thorpe usually signed prefatory matter only if the author was out of the country or dead.[3] Foster points out, however, that Thorpe's entire corpus of such consists of only four dedications and three stationer's prefaces.[4] That Thorpe signed the dedication rather than the author is seen as evidence that he published the work without obtaining Shakespeare's permission.[5] The capital letters and periods following each word were probably intended to resemble an ancient Roman lapidary inscription or monumental brass, thereby accentuating Shakespeare's declaration in Sonnet 55 that the work will confer immortality to the subjects of the work:[6] Not marble, nor the gilded monuments Of princes shall outlive this pow'rful rhyme, 126 of Shakespeare's sonnets are addressed to a young man (often called the "Fair Youth"). Broadly speaking, there are two branches of theories concerning the identity of Mr. W.H.: those that take him to be identical to the youth, and

''Shakespeare's sonnets'' those that assert him to be a separate person. The following is a non-exhaustive list of contenders: • William Herbert (the Earl of Pembroke). Herbert is seen by many as the most likely candidate, since he was also the dedicatee of the First Folio of Shakespeare's works. However the "obsequious" Thorpe would be unlikely to have addressed a lord as "Mr".[7] • Henry Wriothesley (the Earl of Southampton). Many have argued that 'W.H.' is Southampton's initials reversed, and that he is a likely candidate as he was the dedicatee of Shakespeare's poems Venus & Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece. Southampton was also known for his good looks, and has often been argued to be the 'fair youth' of the sonnets. The reservations about "Mr." also apply here. • A simple printing error for Shakespeare's initials, 'W.S.' or 'W. Sh'. This was suggested by Bertrand Russell in his memoirs, and also by Foster[8] and by Jonathan Bate.[9] Bate supports his point by reading 'onlie' as something like 'peerless', 'singular' and 'begetter' as 'maker', ie. 'writer'. Foster takes "onlie" to mean only one, which he argues eliminates any particular subject of the poems, since they are addressed to more than one person. The phrase 'Our Ever-Living Poet', according to Foster, refers to God, not Shakespeare. 'Poet' comes from the Greek 'poetes' which means 'maker', a fact remarked upon in various contemporary texts; also, in Elizabethan English the word 'maker' was used to mean 'poet'. These researcher believe the phrase 'our ever-living poet' might easily have been taken to mean 'our immortal maker' (God). The 'eternity' promised us by our immortal maker would then be the eternal life that is promised us by God, and the dedication would conform with the standard formula of the time, according to which one person wished another 'happiness [in this life] and eternal bliss [in heaven]'. Shakespeare himself, on this reading, is 'Mr. W. [S]H.' the 'onlie begetter', i.e., the sole author, of the sonnets, and the dedication is advertising the authenticity of the poems. • William Hall, a printer who had worked with Thorpe on other publications. According to this theory, the dedication is simply Thorpe's tribute to his colleague and has nothing to do with Shakespeare. This theory, originated by Sir Sidney Lee in his A Life of William Shakespeare (1898), was continued by Colonel B.R. Ward in his The Mystery of Mr. W.H. (1923), and has been endorsed recently by Brian Vickers, who notes Thorpe uses such 'visual puns' elsewhere.[10] Supporters of this theory point out that "ALL" following "MR. W. H." spells "MR. W. HALL" with the deletion of a period. Using his initials W.H., Hall had edited a collection of the poems of Robert Southwell that was printed by George Eld, the same printer for the 1609 Sonnets.[11] There is also documentary evidence of one William Hall of Hackney who signed himself 'WH' three years earlier, but it is uncertain if this was the printer. • Sir William Harvey, Southampton's stepfather. This theory assumes that the fair youth and Mr. W.H. are separate people, and that Southampton is the fair youth. Harvey would be the "begetter" of the Sonnets in the sense that it would be he who provided them to the publisher, after the death of Southampton's mother removed an obstacle to publication. The reservations about the use of "Mr" did not apply in the case of a knight.[7] [12] • William Himself (i.e. Shakespeare). This theory was proposed by the German scholar D. Barnstorff, but has not found much support.[7] • William Haughton, a contemporary dramatist.[13] [14] • William Hart, Shakespeare's nephew and male heir. Proposed by Richard Farmer, but Hart was nine years of age at the time of publication, and this suggestion is regarded as unlikely.[15] • William Hatcliffe of Lincolnshire, proposed by Leslie Hotson in 1964. • Who He. In his 2002 Oxford Shakespeare edition of the sonnets, Colin Burrow argues that the dedication is deliberately mysterious and ambiguous, possibly standing for "Who He", a conceit also used in a contemporary pamphlet. He suggests that it might have been created by Thorpe simply to encourage speculation and discussion (and hence, sales of the text).[16] • Willie Hughes. The 18th century scholar Thomas Tyrwhitt first proposed the theory that the Mr. W.H. (and the Fair Youth) was one "William Hughes", based on presumed puns on the name in the sonnets. The argument was repeated in Edmund Malone's 1790 edition of the sonnets. The most famous exposition of the theory is in Oscar

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''Shakespeare's sonnets'' Wilde's short story "The Portrait of Mr. W.H.", in which Wilde, or rather the story's narrator, describes the puns on "will" and "hues" in the sonnets, (notably Sonnet 20 among others), and argues that they were written to a seductive young actor named Willie Hughes who played female roles in Shakespeare's plays. There is no evidence for the existence of any such person.

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Structure
The sonnets are almost all constructed from three four-line stanzas (called quatrains) and a final couplet composed in iambic pentameter[17] (a meter used extensively in Shakespeare's plays) with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg (this form is now known as the Shakespearean sonnet). The only exceptions are Sonnets 99, 126, and 145. Number 99 has fifteen lines. Number 126 consists of six couplets, and two blank lines marked with italic brackets; 145 is in iambic tetrameters, not pentameters. Often, the beginning of the third quatrain marks the volta ("turn"), or the line in which the mood of the poem shifts, and the poet expresses a revelation or epiphany. There is another variation on the standard English structure, found for example in sonnet 29. The normal rhyme scheme is changed by repeating the b of quatrain one in quatrain three where the f should be. This leaves the sonnet distinct between both Shakespearean and Spenserian styles.

When in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon myself, and curse my fate, Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featur’d like him, like him with friends possess’d, Desiring this man’s art, and that man’s scope, With what I most enjoy contented least; Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising, Haply I think on thee,—and then my state, Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven’s gate; For thy sweet love remember’d such wealth brings That then I scorn to change my state with kings.

Whether the author intended to step over the boundaries of the standard rhyme scheme will always be in question. Some, like Sir Denis Bray, find the repetition of the words and rhymes to be a "serious technical blemish",[18] while others, like Kenneth Muir, think "the double use of 'state' as a rhyme may be justified, in order to bring out the stark contrast between the Poet's apparently outcast state and the state of joy described in the third quatrain."[19] Given that this is the only sonnet in the collection that follows this pattern, it is hard to say if it was purposely done. But most of the poets at the time were well educated; "schooled to be sensitive to variations in sounds and word order that strike us today as remarkably, perhaps even excessively, subtle." [20] Shakespeare must have been well aware of this subtle change to the firm structure of the English sonnets.

Characters
Some scholars of the sonnets refer to these characters as the Fair Youth, the Rival Poet, and the Dark Lady, and claim that the speaker expresses admiration for the Fair Youth's beauty, and later has an affair with the Dark Lady. It is not known whether the poems and their characters are fiction or autobiographical. If they are autobiographical, the identities of the characters are open to debate. Various scholars, most notably A. L. Rowse, have attempted to identify the characters with historical individuals.

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Fair Youth
The 'Fair Youth' is an unnamed young man to whom sonnets 1-126 are addressed. The poet writes of the young man in romantic and loving language, a fact which has led several commentators to suggest a homosexual relationship between them, while others read it as platonic love, or even as the love of a father for his son. The earliest poems in the collection do not imply a close personal relationship; instead, they recommend the benefits of marriage and children. With the famous sonnet 18 ("Shall I compare thee to a summer's day") the tone changes dramatically towards romantic intimacy. Sonnet 20 explicitly laments that the young man is not a woman. Most of the subsequent sonnets describe the ups and downs of the relationship, culminating with an affair between the poet and the Dark Lady. The relationship seems to end when the Fair Youth succumbs to the Lady's charms.

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton at 21. Shakespeare's patron, and one candidate for the "Fair Youth" of the sonnets.

There have been many attempts to identify the Friend. Shakespeare's one-time patron, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton is the most commonly suggested candidate, although Shakespeare's later patron, William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, has recently become popular [21]. Both claims have much to do with the dedication of the sonnets to 'Mr. W.H.', "the only begetter of these ensuing sonnets": the initials could apply to either Earl. However, while Shakespeare's language often seems to imply that the 'friend' is of higher social status than himself, this may not be the case. The apparent references to the poet's inferiority may simply be part of the rhetoric of romantic submission. An alternative theory, most famously espoused by Oscar Wilde's short story 'The Portrait of Mr. W.H.' notes a series of puns that may suggest the sonnets are written to a boy actor called William Hughes; however, Wilde's story acknowledges that there is no evidence for such a person's existence. Samuel Butler believed that the friend was a seaman, and recently Joseph Pequigney ('Such Is My love') an unknown commoner.

The Dark Lady
The Dark Lady sequence (sonnets 127–152), distinguishes itself from the Fair Youth sequence by being more overtly sexual in its passion. Among these, Sonnet 151 has been characterized as "bawdy" and is used to illustrate the difference between the spiritual love for the Fair Youth and the sexual love for the Dark Lady.[22] The distinction is commonly made in the introduction to modern editions of the sonnets.[22] William Wordsworth was unimpressed by these sonnets. He wrote that: These sonnets, beginning at 127, to his Mistress, are worse than a puzzle-peg. They are abominably harsh, obscure & worthless. The others are for the most part much better, have many fine lines, very fine lines & passages. They are also in many places warm with passion. Their chief faults, and heavy ones they are, are sameness, tediousness, quaintness, & elaborate obscurity.

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The Rival Poet
The Rival Poet's identity has always remained a mystery, though there is a general consensus that the two most likely candidates are Christopher Marlowe and George Chapman. However, there is no hard evidence that the character had a real-life counterpart. The Poet sees the Rival as competition for fame and patronage. The sonnets most commonly identified as The Rival Poet group exist within the Fair Youth series in sonnets 78–86.[23]

Themes
One interpretation is that Shakespeare's Sonnets are in part a pastiche or parody of the three centuries-long tradition of Petrarchan love sonnets; in them, Shakespeare consciously inverts conventional gender roles as delineated in Petrarchan sonnets to create a more complex and potentially troubling depiction of human love.[24] Shakespeare also violated many sonnet rules which had been strictly obeyed by his fellow poets: he plays with gender roles (20), he speaks on human evils that do not have to do with love (66), he comments on political events (124), he makes fun of love (128), he speaks openly about sex (129), he parodies beauty (130), and even introduces witty pornography (151).

Legacy
Coming as they do at the end of conventional Petrarchan sonneteering, Shakespeare's sonnets can also be seen as a prototype, or even the beginning, of a new kind of 'modern' love poetry. During the eighteenth century, their reputation in England was relatively low; as late as 1805, The Critical Review could still credit John Milton with the perfection of the English sonnet. As part of the renewed interest in Shakespeare's original work that accompanied Romanticism, the sonnets rose steadily in reputation during the nineteenth century.[25] The outstanding cross-cultural importance and influence of the sonnets is demonstrated by the large number of translations that have been made of them. To date in the German-speaking countries alone, there have been 70 complete translations since 1784. There is no major written language into which the sonnets have not been translated, including Latin,[26] Turkish, Japanese, Esperanto,[27] and even Klingon.[28]

Modern editions
Legally, the sonnets (like all of Shakespeare's work) are in the public domain. This has prompted them to be reprinted in many editions. • • • • • • • • Martin Seymour-Smith (1963) Shakespeare's Sonnets (Oxford, Heinemann Educational) Stephen Booth (1977) Shakespeare's Sonnets (Yale) W G Ingram and Theodore Redpath (1978) Shakespeare's Sonnets, 2nd Edition John Kerrigan (1986) The Sonnets and a Lover's Complaint (Penguin) G. Blakemore Evans (1996) The Sonnets (Cambridge UP) Katherine Duncan-Jones (1997) Shakespeare's Sonnets (Arden Edition, Third Series) Helen Vendler (1997) The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets, Harvard University Press [29] Colin Burrow (2002) The Complete Sonnets and Poems (Oxford, Oxford University Press)

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Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Stanley Wells and Michael Dobson, eds., The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 439. Foster, Donald. "Master W.H., R.I.P." PMLA 102 (1987) 42–54, 42. Burrow, Colin (2002). Complete Sonnets and Poems. Oxford University Press. p. 99. ISBN 019818431X. Foster 1984, 43. Vickers, Brian (2007). Shakespeare, A lover's complaint, and John Davies of Hereford. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0521859123. Burrow 2002, 380. Schoenbaum, Samuel (1977). William Shakespeare, a compact documentary life (1 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 270–271. ISBN 01981257555. [8] Foster, 1987. [9] Bate, Jonathan. The Genius of Shakespeare (1998) 61-62. [10] Vickers, 2007,8 [11] Collins, John Churton. Ephemera Critica. Westminster, Constable and Co., 1902; p. 216. [12] Appleby, John C (January 2008). "Hervey, William, Baron Hervey of Kidbrooke and Baron Hervey of Ross (d. 1642)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. [13] Berryman, John (2001). Haffenden, John. ed. Berryman's Shakespeare: essays, letters and other writings. London: Tauris Parke. p. xxxvi. ISBN 9781860646430. [14] Neil, Samuel (27 April 1867). Athenæum (London): 552. [15] Neil, Samuel (1863). Shakespere: a critical biography. London: Houlston and Wright. pp. 105–106. OCLC 77866350. [16] Colin Burrow, ed. The Complete Sonnets and Poems (Oxford UP, 2002), p. 98; 102-3. [17] A metre in poetry with five iambic metrical feet, which stems from the Italian word endecasillabo, for a line composed of five beats with an anacrusis, an upbeat or unstressed syllable at the beginning of a line which is no part of the first foot. [18] Bray, Sir Denis. The Original Order of Shakespeare's Sonnets. (Brooklyn: Haskell House, 1977) p. 36 [19] Muir, Kenneth. Shakespeare's Sonnets. (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1979) p. 57 [20] McGuire, Philip C. Shakespeare's Non-Shakespearean Sonnets. Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 3 (Autumn, 1987) p. 304-319; 306 [21] http:/ / books. guardian. co. uk/ departments/ classics/ story/ 0,,1645660,00. html [22] Matz, Robert. The World of Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Introduction. p. 111. ISBN 9780786432196. [23] OxfordJournals.org (http:/ / res. oxfordjournals. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 56/ 224/ 224) [24] Stapleton, M. L. "Shakespeare's Man Right Fair as Sonnet Lady." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 46 (2004): 272 [25] Sanderlin, George (June 1939). "The Repute of Shakespeare's Sonnets in the Early Nineteenth Century" (http:/ / jstor. org/ stable/ 2910858). Modern Language Notes (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 54 (6): 462–466. doi:10.2307/2910858. . [26] Shakespeare's Sonnets in Latin (http:/ / www. slu. edu/ colleges/ AS/ languages/ classical/ latin/ tchmat/ pedagogy/ latinitas/ dv/ dv. html), translated by Alfred Thomas Barton, newly edited by Ludwig Bernays, Edition Signathur, Dozwil/CH 2006 [27] Shakespeare: La sonetoj (sonnets in Esperanto), Translated by William Auld, Edistudio, Edistudio Homepage (http:/ / www. edistudio. it/ index_libri. php?Lang=en), verified 2008/02/03 [28] Selection of Shakespearean Sonnets (http:/ / services. tos. net/ text/ klingon/ kli-sonnets. txt), Translated by Nick Nicholas, verified 2005/02/27 [29] http:/ / www. hup. harvard. edu/ catalog/ VENART. html

External links
• Historical background to Shakespeare's Sonnets (http://shakespeare.about.com/od/thesonnets/a/sonnet.htm) • The Sonnets (http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/views/sonnets/sonnets.php) – Compare two sonnets side-by-side, see all of them together on one page, or view a range of sonnets (from Open Source Shakespeare) • The Sonnets (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/) – Full text and commentary. • The Sonnets (http://www.gutenberg.net/etext/1041) – Plain vanilla text from Project Gutenberg • Shakepeare's Sonnets (http://www.nosweatshakespeare.com/sonnets.htm) Overview of each in contemporary English • Free audiobook (http://librivox.org/sonnets-by-william-shakespeare/) from LibriVox (http://librivox.org/) • Complete sonnets of William Shakespeare (http://www.web-l.com/shakespeare/poetry/sonnets/) – Listed by number and first line. • Gerald Massey - 'The Secret Drama of Shakspeare's Sonnets (1888 edition) (http://www.gerald-massey.org.uk/ massey/cpr_shakspeare_index.htm) • Discussion of the identification of Emily Lanier as the Dark Lady (http://peterbassano.com/shakespeare) • Shakespeare Sonnet Shake-Up (http://www.bookrags.com/sonnet/) "Remix" Shakespeare's sonnets

''Shakespeare's sonnets'' • shakespeareintune.com (http://www.Shakespeareintune.com/) all the 154 Sonnets are here recited with a musical introduction. • Online, free, self-referential concordance to the Sonnets (http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~rac101/concord/texts/ sonnets/) • The Sonnets: A gift Edition (http://openlibrary.org/works/OL15382753W/William_Shakespeare. _The_Sonnets._With_arrangement_and_photographs_by_Arthur_Ambarts) (http://www.blurb.com/bookstore/ detail/1611948)

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Introduction
Petrarch's and Shakespeare's Sonnets
The sonnet is a type of poem finding its origins in Italy around 1235 AD. While the early sonneteers experimented with patterns, Francesco Petrarch began to solidify sonnet structure. The Italian, or Petrarchan, sonnet consists of an octave and a sestet. The octave can be broken down into two quatrains; likewise, the sestet is made up of two tercets. The octave presents an idea to be contrasted by the ending sestet. The particular quatrains and tercets are divided by change in rhyme. Petrarch typically used an ABBA ABBA pattern for the octave, followed by either CDE CDE or CDC DCD rhymes in the sestet. The rhyme scheme and structure work together to emphasize the idea of the poem: the first quatrain presents the theme and the second expands on it. The repeated rhyme scheme within the octave strengthens the idea. The sestet, with either two or three different rhymes, uses its first tercet to reflect on the theme and the last to conclude. William Shakespeare utilized the sonnet in love poetry of his own, employing the sonnet structure conventionalized by English poets Shakespeare Wyatt and Surrey. This structure, known as the English or Shakespearean sonnet, consists of three quatrains and a concluding couplet. The rhyme scheme is a simple ABAB CDCD EFEF GG format. The effect is “like going for a short drive with a very fast driver: the first lines, even the first quatrain, are in low gear; then the second and third accelerate sharply, and ideas and metaphors flash past; and then there is a sudden throttling-back, and one glides to a stop in the couplet” (Spiller 159). Like Petrarch, Shakespeare used structure to explore the multiple facets of a theme in a short piece. Examples: In what bright realm, what sphere of radiant thought A Did Nature find the model whence she drew B That delicate dazzling image where we view B Here on this earth what she in heaven wrought? A What fountain-haunting nymph, what dryad, sought A In groves, such golden tresses ever threw B Upon the gust? What heart such virtues knew?— B Though her chief virtue with my death is frought. A He looks in vain for heavenly beauty, he C Who never looked upon her perfect eyes, D The vivid blue orbs turning brilliantly – C He does not know how Love yields and denies; D

Petrarch's and Shakespeare's Sonnets He only knows, who knows how sweetly she C Can talk and laugh, the sweetness of her sighs. D (Translation of Petrarch, Sonnet 159) While the poem as a whole aims at praising love, the focus shifts at the break between octave and sestet. In the first eight lines, the speaker poses a series of questions in admiration of a beloved; the last six lament the man who has not experienced love. My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun; A Coral is far more red than her lips’ red; B If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; A If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. B I have seen roses damask’d, red and white, C But no such roses see I in her cheeks; D And in some perfumes is there more delight C Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. D I love to hear her speak, yet will I know E That music hath a far more pleasing sound; F I grant that I never saw a goddess go; E My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground. F And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare G As any she belied with false compare. G (Shakespeare, Sonnet 130) The beloved here is contrasted with conventional beauty; each quatrain primarily addresses a different sense. The changing rhymes emphasize this shift in focus while the continuing pattern adds continuity. The independently rhymed couplet introduces a new point: the speaker reiterates his affection despite her contradiction to standards of beauty.

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Comparing Sonnet Sequences
The term sonnet sequence might be rephrased as series or cycle of sonnets. Sonnets become more significant when they are read in the order that the poet places them, as opposed to reading them at random. Thus, the most unusual aspect of such a sequence is the sense of a “unity within a larger unity."[1] Sonnet sequences do not follow a spelled-out narrative progression, nor are they simply compilations of random poems with similar themes, “they are something in between."[2] The structure lies in the beginnings and endings of the sequences, and in their overall thematic advancements. The beginnings of the sequences usually contain sonnets that “introduce characters, plot, and themes” (363). The commencing sonnets suggest an account of the birth of a love “experience” (363) and hopefully foresee a happy ending. However, there is often also a sense of knowing the actual outcome of the sequence. In turn, the idea that the poet is in the middle of the experience, and knows its ending at the same time gives the sequence a “structural and narrative control” (363). The ultimate goal of the poet in both English and Italian sequences is to win the beloved, which he can only do if he “declares and analyzes his passion, celebrates and courts the beloved, and writes poetry to please her/him” (363). Many English sonnet sequences start with addresses to the reader, and “many of [these addresses] specifically raise questions about the relationship between being in love and writing and reading love sonnets” (364). The beloved is a major interest of sonnet sequences, but the poetry itself is also an important focus. While the soulful poetry is intended to woo the beloved, it is also written for an audience to whom a clear succession should be important. A

Petrarch's and Shakespeare's Sonnets common indication of progression is “the movement from indirect description of the beloved to direct address to her” (367). However, there is an “antithetical tendency” (368) to discontinue this personal address into a more impersonal language at moments of “conflict and stress” (368). An even further progression is formulated with the “inclusion of explicit autobiographical detail,” which “increases intensity and immediacy” (368). In other words, as the sequence intensifies, so do the relationships between poet and beloved, reader and beloved, and therefore poet and reader. It is thought that the English inherited the Italian structure of the sonnet sequence from Dante and Petrarch, and then tailored it to fit their own intentions (382). Shakespeare’s Sonnet 130, in which, “while declaring his love for his mistress, he mocks the Petrarchan standard vocabulary of praise”, is an example that marks English independence from the conventions of Petrarch.[3] The English sonnet sequences “exemplify the Renaissance doctrine of creative imitation as defined by Petrarch” (384). Petrarch wrote and revised his famous sequence Canzoniere, or Song Book, between the years of 1327 and 1374. It comprises 366 poems divided into two parts: 1-263 and 264-366. Petrarch gradually constructed this work, which is derived from the countless drafts and revisions that he made throughout its creation. It is famously known for “shed[ding] light on the generation of English sequence” (360-361). Petrarch’s concern for rearrangements in and alterations to his sonnet sequence suggests that he treated his poems like works of art, in which there is always room for improvement. This idea can also be applied to Shakespeare’s ideals, considering his sonnets 138 and 144 first appeared in 1599 in The Passionate Pilgrim, and then appeared “much revised and strengthened” (361) in the 1609 publication of The Sonnets. There is a triple focus to all sonnet sequences that was originally put forth by the Italian model: “the poet-lover’s passion, the beloved who must be celebrated and won, and the poetry, which unites lover and beloved” (360). They are generally all linked by the metaphor of procreation. Petrarch’s Sonnet 9 of Canzoniere familiarizes this metaphor and foreshadows its re-emergence in Shakespeare’s Sonnets 1-17 of The Sonnets. The principal structuring tool in both the English and Italian sequences is the defined division into two parts. The first part makes a concrete relationship between poet and beloved (the solid Petrarchan relationship), while the second part is shorter and brings about some sort of change in the relationship and the two members of it. In Canzoniere, this change comes in the form of Laura’s death, and in The Sonnets, it occurs with Shakespeare’s shift of focus from “idealizing love to sexual use” (369). For these two sonneteers, ending the sequence proves to be difficult in that the goal of winning the beloved is not achieved. Though normally coveted, the “open-ended structure and sequential movement of the sequence offer no logical stopping place” (375). Also, the fact that the second part of the sequence must act like the couplet of an individual sonnet not only creates an imbalance in the sequence, but it also puts pressure on the poet to make sure the ending has “special force” (375). The three main strategies that English sonneteers end up choosing from are: stopping abruptly in medias res; achieving detachment by moving into a different mode, genre, or voice; or providing a narrative resolution. Petrarch opted for the second strategy by moving into a religious mode. Shakespeare also chose the second strategy by moving into a renaissance mode, focusing on projecting his fears and desires onto Cupid. A series of complaints can also be found in the concluding sonnets of Shakespeare’s sequence, which “justify the beloved’s chastity and break the identification with the poet-lover” (381). In both Petrarch’s and Shakespeare’s sequences, the indicated release- whether by death or by time- “releases the lover and the sequence abruptly shifts gears” (374).

11

Petrarch's and Shakespeare's Sonnets

12

Ovidian Influences in the Sonnets
Ovid’s completion of the Metamorphoses ensured that, as he puts it, part of him will survive the death of his own body.[4] The phrasing at the end of the Metamorphoses, in the account of Hercules’ transfiguration upon Oeta[5] and the likening of poetic achievement to spiritual transcendence captures some of the most extravagant claims that western culture has made for such achievement. Ovid was a uniquely important influence of Petrarch. Among the Ovidian texts to which Petrarch was attracted was one of those that Shakespeare fancied, and he gives it almost exactly Shakespeare’s spin.[6] Laura, left behind in France, is his better part; even at a great distance she commands his heart and voice. Indeed, in making it impossible for him to be silent, she is his Muse; Petrarch turns out to be the historical link between the newer meaning of Ovid’s theory of his “better half” and its original one. In the speech that Petrarch gives when he receives the laurel crown on the Capitoline Hill he invokes the conclusion to the Metamorphoses straightforwardly as a proof for his thesis about the nobility of poetic fame, and taken together the two citations define one of the most innovative and influential twists that he gives to the tradition of fin’ amors: this poet’s love for his lady is, by design, all but indistinguishable from his literary ambition, his love of the laurel crown. The symbolic focus of that coincidence is the story of Daphne’s transformation into Apollo’s tree. Petrarch made the story in the Metamorphoses the dominant myth of the longest poem in the sequence, Canzoniere 23. This poem is a virtuoso sequence of a half dozen Ovidian myths, from Apollo and Daphne to Actaeon and Diana, offered up as figuration of the poet’s own subjective experience; it has become known as the canzone della metamorfosi, a sustained “lyricization of epic materials,”[7] which effectively rewrites Ovid’s long poem as erotic and professional autobiography. This incorporation of the Metamorphoses into lyricism has momentous consequences for the following history of Petrarchanism, whereas poets such as Pierre de Ronsard and Barnabe Barnes, used each of the Ovidian myths as a figure for achieved sexual intercourse. Within the lyric sequence, such evocations play against the expectation of female unattainability, which is also one of Petrarch’s legacies, and contribute powerfully to Petrarchanism’s reputation for shameless and often bizarre sensuality. We find this phrase’s English equivalent twice in Shakespeare’s Sonnets.[8] In neither case, however, is the context the same as that of Ovid’s. Shakespeare makes such boasts in the Sonnets, and they owe much to Ovidian precedent; but this particular phrase has migrated into different territory, the lover’s affirmation of a transcendent dependence on the beloved. Ovid never writes this way of Corinna in his Amores, where she is only an occasional longing; it is unmistakably his desire, not her merit that animates the Amores. Shakespeare, however, regards the beloved object highly as the all-inclusive focus. Indeed, justification of the lover’s existence marks the decisive new start for European love poetry in the thirteenth century. Despite Shakespeare’s interest in and references of Ovid in his Sonnets, the second decade of the seventeenth century brought about a departure from the Ovidian territory that Renaissance sonneteering had cultivated. Shakespeare tended to ban mythology from his Sonnets. Of the few mythological allusions Shakespeare incorporates into the sonnets, seldom are they depicted in the same way Ovid depicts them in his Metamorphoses. In Sonnet 53, Adonis is paired with Helen as an exemplar of human beauty (53.5, 7); Mars’ name appears, though not Venus (55.7); ‘heavie Saturne’ laughs and dances with ‘proud pide Aprill’ (98.2-4); the nightingale is called Philomel (102.7) and the phoenix is mentioned (19.4). In the procreation sonnets, a reference to the myth of Narcissus is clearly intended by Shakespeare.[9] [10] Moreover, the latter half of the Sonnets depicts less flesh in the form of seduction. In the dark lady poems, the seduction has already succeeded; its consequences[11] are overwhelmingly shame and anger. Desire in the young man is of a different order, intense but also idealized and Platonic in a way which male Petrarchists writing about women often attempt but seldom achieve. Shakespeare calls his young man ‘sweet boy’ (108.5) and alludes occasionally to ‘rosie lips and cheeks’ (116.9), but is otherwise restrained and abstract.

Petrarch's and Shakespeare's Sonnets

13

Petrarch's and Shakespeare's Lovers
Although Petrarch is accredited with perfection of the sonnet, Shakespeare still made changes in sonnet form and composition 200 years after Petrarch's death. While Petrarch’s sonnets focused mainly on one hub, Shakespeare developed many subjects within his themes such as insomnia, slave of love, blame, dishonesty, and sickness. Despite creating complicated plots, Shakespeare also manages to place ulterior motifs among his two lovers, building new poetic form where Petrarch left off. Petrarch’s sonnets were dedicated solely to Laura. She is thought to be an imaginary figure and a play on the name Laurel, the leaves with which Petrarch was honored for being the poet laureate and the very same honor he longed for in his sonnets as a “Laurel Wreath”.[12] The Focus of love within Petrarch’s sonnets contains a unique contrast with Shakespeare’s. Petrarch wrote his poems to a beloved from afar. His interactions were based only on his viewing Laura; his love for her was purely invented. Shakespeare on the other hand shared a reciprocal love with both his lovers; the objects of his love were “articulate, active partners.” (Gajowski 21) Shakespeare’s sonnets are divided between his two lovers: sonnets 1-126 for a male, and sonnets 127-152 for a female; the first to a fair youth, and the second to a dark lady. Petrarch’s sonnets in opposition are focused solely on one lover, Laura. Shakespeare copies the female love in Petrarch’s poetry with the beloved youth who is created, cherished, adored, and eternized. After the fair youth, the dark lady brings a completely opposite literary figure into play. The dark lady is both of a different gender and she displays aspects contrary to Laura. One point that Shakespeare made while writing about the dark lady is a satirical comment on Petrarch’s love: “My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun Coral is far more red than her lips' red” (Lines one and two of Shakespeare's Sonnet 130) The dark lady is not shown as beautiful or idolized as Petrarch portrayed his love, Laura (Sedgwick). This idolization analyzed from a stand point of courtly love draws an interesting segue to the death of Laura in Petrarch’s sonnets, which leads to “the sublimation and transformation of desire” (Neely). His adoration changes from an earthly love, Laura, to a love of the Virgin Mary. Petrarch’s obsessive feelings toward Laura fit remarkably well under the title courtly love. This love is a way to explain his erotic desire and spiritual aspiration. Shakespeare, similarly to Petrarch, shows an eroticized love to the fair youth, a love that also fits nicely under pretense of courtly love. Then like with the death of Laura, this switch to a more divine love can be seen in Shakespeare’s last two sonnets which are dedicated to Cupid, the Roman god of love.

Bibliography
• Boyd, William. "Two Loves Have I'" Guardian Unlimited. 6 Feb. 2007 <http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,1644965,00.html>. • Braden, Gordon, and A. B. Taylor. Ovid, Petrarch, and Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. • Byrd, Katy, and Nathan Harrod. "Shakespeare's Sonnets." 5 Feb. 2007 <http://www.springfield.k12.il.us/schools/springfield/eliz/Sonnets.html>. • Dutschke, Dennis. "The Anniversary Poems in Petrarch's Canzoniere." Italica 58 (1981): 83-101. JSTOR. 8 Feb. 2007. • Evans, Gareth, and Barbara Lloyd Evans. The Shakespeare Companion. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1978. • Everett, Glenn. "A Guide to the Sonnet." University of Tennessee. 5 Feb. 2007 <http://www.utm.edu/departments/english/everett/sonnet.htm>.

Petrarch's and Shakespeare's Sonnets • Freccero, Carla. "Ovidian Subjectivities in Early Modern Lyric: Identification and Desire in Petrarch and Louise Labé." Ovid and the Renaissance Body (2001): 21-37. • Gajowski, Evelyn. The Art of Loving. Cranbury: University of Delaware P, 1991. 15-26. • Huston, Beth. "Paradoxes of Love." Able Muse. 2002. 10 Feb. 2007 <http://www.ablemuse.com/critique/b-houston_juster-review-3.htm>. • McDonald, Russ. The Bedford Companion to Shakespeare. New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin, 1996. 255-259. • Petrarch, Francis. The Sonnets of Petrarch. Trans. Joseph Auslander. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1931. • Sedgwick, Eve K. Between Men : English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York: Columbia UP, 1985. 28-48. • Shakespeare’s Sonnets, Paul Edmondson and Stanley Wells, Oxford; New York; Oxford University Press 2004 • Spiller, Michael R. G. The Development of The Sonnet: an Introduction. New York: Routledge, 1992. • “The Structure of English Renaissance Sonnet Sequence,” Carol Thomas Neely, ELH, Vol. 45, No. 3 (Autumn, 1978), pp. 359-389- JSTOR • “The Term Sonnet Sequence”, William T. Going, Modern Language Notes, Vol. 62, No. 6. (June, 1947), pp. 400-402- JSTOR • Turner, James G., ed. Sexuality & Gender in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. 138-140. • Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

14

Notes
[1] “The Term Sonnet Sequence”, William T. Going, Modern Language Notes, Vol. 62, No. 6. (June, 1947), pp. 400-402- JSTOR [2] Almost all of the quotations for the remainder of this comparison are extracted from pages 360-384 of Carol Thomas Neely’s “The Structure of English Renaissance Sonnet Sequence”. A reference is noted for the one exception in paragraph four. [3] Edmondson and Wells, pp. 15. [4] Still in my better part I shall be borne immortal far beyond the lofty stars and I shall have an undying name. Meta. xv. 875-6. [5] he gained new vigour in his better part. Meta. ix.269 [6] Alas, if by speaking I renew the burning desire that was born the day I left behind the better part of me, and if love can be cured by the long forgetfulness, who then forces me back to the bait so that my pain may grow? And why do I not first turn to stone in silence. Canzoniere 37.49-56 [7] Braden, Gordon, and A. B. Taylor. Ovid, Petrarch, and Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. [8] “Oh how thy worth with manners may I singe, / When thou art all the better part of me?” (Sonnets 39.1-2), and “My spirit is thine the better part of me” (Sonnets 74.8) [9] Oh, I am he! I have felt it, I know now my own image. I burn with love of my own self; I both kindle the flames and suffer them….The very abundance of my riches beggars me. (Meta. 3.463-4, 466) [10] But thou contracted to thine owne bright eyes, Feed’st thy lights flame with selfe substaintial fewell, Making a famine where aboundance lies. (Sonnet 1.5-7) [11] ‘Injoyd no sooner but dispised straight (129.5) [12] Huston, Beth. "Paradoxes of Love." Able Muse. 2002. 10 Feb. 2007 http:/ / www. ablemuse. com/ critique/ b-houston_juster-review-3. htm.

15

Dedication and Characters
Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton
Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (Wriothesley is pronounced "Risley"; 6 October 1573 – 10 November 1624), was the second son of Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southampton, and his wife Mary Browne, Countess of Southampton, daughter of the 1st Viscount Montagu. Shakespeare's first two narrative poems, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece were dedicated to Southampton, who is often theorized as one of the primary individuals discussed in Shakespeare's Sonnets.

Early life
He was born on 6 October 1573, in Cowdray House, Sussex, England. When his father died, he moved to the nearby town of Midhurst, England, and inherited the Earldom in 1581, when he became a Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, 1603, in royal ward, under the immediate care of Lord Burghley. He the Tower, attributed to John de Critz. entered St John's College, Cambridge, in 1585, graduating M.A. in 1589:[1] and his name was entered at Gray's Inn before he left the university. At the age of seventeen he was presented at court, where he was soon counted among the friends of the earl of Essex, and was distinguished by extraordinary marks of the queen's favor. He became a munificent patron of poets: Nashe dedicated his romance of Jack Willon to him, and Gervase Markham his poem on Sir Richard Grenville's last fight. His name is also associated with Barnabe Barnes's Parthenophil and Parthenope, and with the Worlde of Wordes of John Florio, who was for some years in his personal service as teacher of Italian.

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton

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Drama and association with Shakespeare
It is as a patron of the drama and especially of Shakespeare that he is best known. "My Lord Southampton and Lord Rutland," writes Rowland White to Sir Robert Sydney in 1599, "come not to the court ... They pass away the time in London merely in going to plays every day" (Sydney Papers,[2] ed. Collins, ii. 132). Venus and Adonis (1593) was dedicated to Southampton in terms expressing respect, but no special intimacy; but in the dedication of The Rape of Lucrece[3] (1594) the tone is very different. "The love I dedicate to your lordship is without end ... What I have done is yours; what I have to do is yours; being part in all I have, devoted yours." Nicholas Rowe, on the authority of the actor Thomas Betterton, Rowe stated in his Life of Shakespeare that Southampton on one occasion had given Shakespeare a present of £1000 to complete a purchase. There is no documentary evidence of this, however.

Nathan Drake in his Shakespeare and his Times (1819; vol. ii. pp. 62 seq.) first suggested that Lord Southampton was the person to whom the sonnets of Shakespeare were addressed. He re-interpreted Thomas Thorpe's dedication to the "onlie begetter of these ensuing sonnets, Mr W.H.," by adopting the very unusual significance given by George Chalmers to the word "begetter", which he takes as equivalent to procurer. Mr W. H. was thus supposedly the bookseller who obtained the manuscript. Other adherents of the Southampton theory suggest that the initials H. W. (Henry Wriothesley) were simply reversed for the sake of concealment by the publisher. The chief arguments in favor of the Southampton theory are the agreement of the sonnets with the tone of the dedication of Lucrece, the friendly relations known to have existed between Southampton and the poet, and the correspondence, at best slight, between the energetic character of the earl and that of the young man of the sonnets. Mr Arthur Acheson (Shakespeare and the Rival Poet, 1903) brings much evidence in favor of the theory, first propounded by William Minto, that George Chapman, whose style is parodied by Shakespeare in the 21st sonnet and in Love's Labour's Lost, was the rival poet of the 78th and following sonnets. Mr Acheson goes on to suppose that Chapman's erotic poems were written with a view to gaining Southampton's patronage.

Henry Wriothesley at twenty one years of age

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton

17

Association with the 2nd Earl of Essex
In 1596 and 1597 Southampton was employed in Essex's expeditions to Cádiz and to the Azores, in the latter of which he distinguished himself by his daring tactics. In 1598 he had a brawl at court with Ambrose Willoughby, and later in the same year he attended the queen's principal secretary, Sir Robert Cecil, on an embassy to Paris. In 1599, during the Nine Years War (1595-1603), he went to Ireland with Essex, who made him general of his horse, but the queen insisted that the appointment be cancelled. Southampton remained on in personal attendance upon the earl, rather than as an officer. During his time in the Irish wars, it was reported to Cecil that he saw most of his active service in bed with a captain Piers Edmunds - he would "cole and hug" his captain in his arms, and "play wantonly" with him. However, Southampton was active during the campaign, and prevented a defeat at the hands of the Irish rebels, when his cavalry drove off an attack at Arklow in County Wicklow. He was deeply involved in Essex's conspiracy against the queen, and in February 1601 was sentenced to death. Cecil obtained the commutation of the penalty to imprisonment for life.

Dedication page, The Rape of Lucrece, with dedication to Southampton by William Shakespeare. 1594

Life under King James I (and VI)
On the accession of James I Southampton resumed his place at court and received numerous honors from the new king. On the eve of the abortive rebellion of Essex he had induced the players at the Globe Theatre to revive Richard II, and on his release from prison in 1603 he resumed his connection with the stage. In 1603 he entertained Queen Anne with a performance of Love's Labour's Lost by Burbage and his company, to which Shakespeare belonged, at Southampton House. He seems to have been a born fighter, and engaged in more than one serious quarrel at court, being imprisoned for a short time in 1603 following a heated argument with Lord Grey of Wilton in front of Queen Anne. Grey, an implacable opponent of the Essex faction, was later implicated in the Main Plot and Bye Plot. Southampton was in more serious disgrace in 1621 for his determined opposition to Buckingham. He was a volunteer on the Protestant side in Germany in 1614, and in 1617 he proposed to fit out an expedition against the Barbary pirates.
Southampton c. 1600 Southampton was a leader among the Jacobean aristocrats who turned to modern investment practices — "in industry, in modernizing their estates and in overseas trade and colonization."[4] He financed the first tinplate mill in the country, and founded an ironworks at

Titchfield. He developed his properties in London, in Bloomsbury and Holborn; he revamped his country estates, participated in the efforts of the East India Company and the New England Company, and backed Henry Hudson's

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton search for the Northwest Passage. A significant artistic patron in the Jacobean as well as the Elizabethan era, Southampton promoted the work of George Chapman, Samuel Daniel, Thomas Heywood, and the composer Alfonso Ferrabosco the younger. Heywood's popular, expansionist dramas were compatible with Southampton's maritime and colonial interests.[5]

18

Virginia Company, colonization
Henry Wriothesley, whose name is included in the 1605 panel of the New World Tapestry, took a considerable share in promoting the colonial enterprises of the time, and was an active member of the Virginia Company's governing council. Although profits proved elusive, his other visions for the Colony based at Jamestown were eventually accomplished. He was part of a faction within the company with Sir Edwin Sandys, who eventually became the Treasurer, and worked tirelessly to support the struggling venture. In addition to profits, Southampton's faction sought a permanent colony which would enlarge British territory, relieve the nation's overpopulation, and expand the market for English goods. Although profits largely eluded the Virginia Company, and it was dissolved in 1624, the other goals were accomplished. His name is thought by many to be the origin of the naming of the harbor of Hampton Roads, and the Hampton River. Although named at The Earl of Southampton c.1618, after a portrait later dates, similar attribution may involve the town (and later city) of by Daniel Mytens, National Portrait Gallery, London. Hampton, Virginia, as well as Southampton County, Virginia and Northampton County. However, the name Southampton was not uncommon in England, including an important port city and an entire region along the southern coast, which was originally part of Hampshire. There are also variations applied in other areas of the English colonies which were not part of the Virginia Company of London's efforts, making the origin of the word and derivations of it as applied in Virginia even more debatable.

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton

19

Later life and death
In 1624 he and his elder son enrolled themselves as volunteers for the United Provinces of the Netherlands against Spain. Immediately on landing they were attacked with fever, to which both succumbed, the father surviving until 10 November 1624.

Issue
In 1598 Henry Wriothesley married Elizabeth Vernon, the daughter of John Vernon of Hodnet by his wife Elizabeth Devereux. Elizabeth Devereux's grandfathers were the Viscount Hereford and the Earl of Huntingdon; on her father John's side, Elizabeth's family were more obscure. Henry and Elizabeth married while "...she was already highly pregnant". Henry and Elizabeth had several children including: 1. Penelope Wriothesley who married William Spencer, 2nd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton; 2. James Wriothesley b 1605 who died shortly before his father in the Netherlands; 3. Thomas Wriothesley b 1608 who became the 4th Earl Southampton; 4. Anne Wriothesley who married Robert Wallop of Farley Wallop.

Elizabeth, Countess of Southampton c. 1618

Images
There exist numerous portraits of Southampton, in which he is depicted with dark auburn hair and blue eyes, compatible with Shakespeare's description of "a man right fair." Sir John Beaumont wrote a well-known elegy in his praise, and Gervase Markham wrote of him in a tract entitled Honor in his Perfection, or a Treatise in Commendation of ... Henry, Earl of Oxenford, Henry, Earle of Southampton, Robert, Earl of Essex (1624). In 2002, Alec Cobbe claimed that a portrait owned by his family was not of a woman as previously thought, but rather a portrait of Southampton. [6] In April 2008, a rare portrait, believed to be of Southampton has been discovered using X-ray technology. Art historians from Bristol University have found what they believe is a picture of Henry Wriothesley which was painted over in the 16th Century. To the naked eye, it is a portrait of his wife Elizabeth Vernon, dressed in black and wearing ruby ear-rings. The hidden picture was uncovered when the work was X-rayed in preparation for an exhibition in Somerset.[7] The Earl has been played on screen by Peter Egan (1971), Eddie Redmayne (2005) and Shaun Evans (2006).

Further reading
For further information see Memoirs of Henry Wriothesley, the third Earl of Southampton, in Boswell's Shakespeare (1821), xx. 427 sqq., where many of the elegies on Southampton are printed; also Nathan Drake, Shakespeare and his Times (1817), ii. 120; Sidney Lee, Life of William Shakespeare (1898); Gerald Massey, The Secret Drama of Shakespeare's Sonnets (1888); Samuel Butler, Shakespeare's Sonnets Reconsidered (1899), where there is some distinctive criticism of the Southampton theory (ch. v.vii); an article by William Archer, Shakespeare's Sonnets. The

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton Case against Southampton, in the Fortnightly Review (Dec. 1897); and Sidney Lee's article on Southampton in the Dict. Nat. Biog., arguing in favor of his identity with the hero of the sonnets. P Alvor in Das neue Shakespeare Evangelium (Munich, 1906), brings forward a theory that Southampton and Rutland were the authors of the Shakespeare tragedies and comedies respectively, and borrowed William Shakespeare's name to secure themselves from Elizabeth's suspicion.

20

Notes
[1] Wriothesley, Henry, 4th Earl of Southampton (http:/ / venn. lib. cam. ac. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=WRTY585H& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50) in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958. [2] The circumstances and some text of this letter can be read at "William Shakespeare: The Text Formed from an Entirely new Collation of the Old Editions..." (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=FcamC-jHjOsC& pg=PR173& dq=rowland+ white+ vol. + ii. ,+ p. + 132. & as_brr=1& ei=2392R5_LIoeQjgGMwcx3), by J Payne Collier, Esq. F.S.A. in eight volumes. London: Whittaker & Co [3] "The Rape of Lucrece" (http:/ / shakespeare-1. com/ poetry-sonnets/ lucrece. html/ ), Shakespeare-1.com [4] Margot Heinemann, "Rebel Lords, Popular Playwrights, and Political Culture: Notes on the Jacobean Patronage of the Earl of Southampton," in Browwn; p. 139. [5] Consider Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Fortune by Land and Sea, and The Travels of the Three English Brothers; Heinemann, pp. 142-7. [6] Anthony Holden (2002-04-21). "That's no lady, that's..." (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ education/ 2002/ apr/ 21/ artsandhumanities. highereducation). The Observer. . Retrieved 2009-03-10. [7] X-rays uncover 'hidden portrait' (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ 7372629. stm). BBC News. 2008-04-29. .

References
• Brown, Charles Cedric, ed. Patronage, Politics, and Literary Traditions in England, 1558–1658. Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1993. • Collins, Arthur. Letters and Memorials of State in the Reigns of Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, King James, King Charles the I, Part of the Reign of King Charles II and Oliver's Usurpation Written and Collected by Hen. Sydney, Phil. Sydney and His Brother Rob. Sydney, Rob. IId. Earl of Leicerter, Phil. Viscount Lisle, and Alg. Sydney ; Together with Letters of the Other Ministers of State, with Whom They Held a Correspondence. London: Printed for T. Osborne, 1746. • Wriothesley family (http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/WRIOTHESLEY.htm#Henry WRIOTHESLEY (3º E. Southampton)) Accessed December 29, 2007 • Shakespeare, William, and Alexander Chalmers. The Works of William Shakspeare. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1858. (p. clxxiii) googlebooks (http://books.google.com/books?id=FcamC-jHjOsC&pg=PR173& dq=rowland+white+vol.+ii.,+p.+132.&as_brr=1&ei=2392R5_LIoeQjgGMwcx3) Accessed December 29, 2007 • The Rape of Lucrece online (http://shakespeare-1.com/poetry-sonnets/lucrece.html/) Retrieved December 29, 2007 •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. • X-rays uncover 'hidden portrait' Tuesday, 29 April 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7372629.stm

Sexuality of William Shakespeare

21

Sexuality of William Shakespeare
The sexuality of William Shakespeare has been the subject of recurring debate. It is known that he married Anne Hathaway and they had three children. In addition there has been speculation that he had affairs with other women, or may have had an erotic interest in men. However, no reliable direct evidence exists to support the view that he was interested in men; all theories along these lines rely on circumstantial evidence and inference from an analysis of his sonnets. The suggestion that Shakespeare had multiple female lovers has been given a good deal of scholarly and public interest, while the possibility of a non-heterosexual Shakespeare has historically been controversial given his iconic status and the stigma towards homosexuality in Western countries. At the age of 18, Shakespeare married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. Two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds the next day as surety that there were no impediments to William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery) [1] the marriage. The couple may have arranged the ceremony in some haste, since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times.[2] [3] [4] Hathaway's pregnancy could have been the reason for this. Six months after the marriage, she gave birth to a daughter, Susanna.[5] Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later.[6] Shakespeare probably initially loved Hathaway, speculation supported by an early addition to one of his sonnets (Sonnet 145), where he played off Anne Hathaway's name and said she saved his life (writing 'I hate from hate away she threw/And saved my life, saying "not you."').[7] Nevertheless, after only three years of marriage Shakespeare left his family and moved to London, possibly because he felt trapped by Hathaway.[8] Other evidence to support this belief is that he and Anne were buried in separate (but adjoining) graves and, as has often been noted, Shakespeare's will makes no specific bequeath to his wife aside from 'the second best bed with the furniture'. This may seem like a slight, but many historians contend that the second best bed was typically the marital bed, while the best bed was reserved for guests.[9] The poem 'Anne Hathaway' by Carol Ann Duffy endorses this view, describing how, for Shakespeare and his wife, the second best bed was 'a spinning world of forests, castles', whilst 'In the other bed, the best, our guests dozed on, dribbling their prose'. A bed missing from an inventory of Anne's brother's possessions (removed in contravention of their father's will) allows the explanation that the item was an heirloom from the Hathaway family, that had to be returned.[10] The law at the time also stated that the widow of a man was automatically entitled to a third of his estate, so Shakespeare did not need to mention specific bequests in the will.[10]

Sexuality of William Shakespeare

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Possible affairs with women
While in London, Shakespeare may have had affairs with different women. One anecdote along these lines is provided by a lawyer named John Manningham, who wrote in his diary that Shakespeare had a brief affair with a woman during a performance of Richard III.[11] Upon a time when Burbage played Richard the Third there was a citizen grew so far in liking with him, that before she went from the play she appointed him to come that night unto her by the name of Richard the Third. Shakespeare, overhearing their conclusion, went before, was entertained and at his game ere Burbage came. Then, message being brought that Richard the Third was at the door, Shakespeare caused return to be made that William the Conqueror was before Richard the Third.[12] The Burbage referred to is Richard Burbage, the star of Shakespeare's company, who is known to have played the title role in Richard III. While this is one of the few surviving contemporary anecdotes about Shakespeare, some scholars are sceptical of its validity.[13] Still, the anecdote suggests that at least one of Shakespeare's contemporaries (Manningham) believed that Shakespeare was heterosexual, even if he was not 'averse to an occasional infidelity to his marriage vows'.[14] Indeed, its significance has been developed to affording Shakespeare a preference for "promiscuous women of little beauty and no breeding" in his honest acknowledgement that well-born women are beyond his reach.[12] Possible evidence of other affairs are that twenty-six of Shakespeare's Sonnets are love poems addressed to a married woman (the so-called 'Dark Lady').

Possible homoeroticism
Shakespeare's sonnets are cited as evidence of his possible bisexuality. The poems were initially published, perhaps without his approval, in 1609.[15] One hundred and twenty-six of them appear to be love poems addressed to a young man known as the 'Fair Lord' or 'Fair Youth'; this is often assumed to be the same person as the 'Mr W.H.' to whom the sonnets are dedicated.[16] The identity of this figure (if he is indeed based on a real person) is unclear; the most popular candidates are Shakespeare's patrons, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton and William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, both of whom were considered handsome in their youth.[17] The only explicit references to sexual acts or physical lust occur in the Dark Lady sonnets, which unambiguously state that the poet and the Lady are lovers. Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton Nevertheless, there are numerous passages in the sonnets addressed to the Fair [18] Lord that have been read as expressing desire for a younger man. In Sonnet 13, he is called 'dear my love', and Sonnet 15 announces that the poet is at 'war with Time for love of you.' Sonnet 18 asks 'Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?/Thou art more lovely and more temperate', and in Sonnet 20 the narrator calls the young man the 'master-mistress of my passion'. The poems refer to sleepless nights, anguish and jealousy caused by the youth. In addition, there is considerable emphasis on the young man's beauty: in Sonnet 20, the narrator theorizes that the youth was originally a woman whom Mother Nature had fallen in love with and, to resolve the dilemma of lesbianism, added a penis ('pricked thee out for women's pleasure'), an addition the narrator describes as 'to my purpose nothing', which Samuel Schoenbaum interprets as: 'worse luck for [the] heterosexual celebrant'.[16] In some sonnets addressed to the youth, such as Sonnet 52, the erotic punning is particularly intense: 'So is the time that keeps you as my chest, Or as the wardrobe which the robe doth hide, To make some special instant special blest, By new unfolding his imprisoned pride.' In Sonnet 20: the narrator tells the youth to sleep with women, but to love only him: 'mine be thy love and thy love's use their treasure'.

Sexuality of William Shakespeare However, others have countered that these passages could be referring to intense platonic friendship, rather than sexual love. In the preface to his 1961 Pelican edition, Douglas Bush writes, Since modern readers are unused to such ardor in masculine friendship and are likely to leap at the notion of homosexuality (a notion sufficiently refuted by the sonnets themselves), we may remember that such an ideal, often exalted above the love of women, could exist in real life, from Montaigne to Sir Thomas Browne, and was conspicuous in Renaissance literature.'[19] Bush cites Montaigne, who distinguished male friendships from 'that other, licentious Greek love' for a platonic interpretation of the sonnets.
[20]

23

, as evidence

Another explanation is that the poems are not autobiographical but fiction, another of Shakespeare's "dramatic characterization[s]", so that the narrator of the sonnets should not be presumed to be Shakespeare himself.[] [21] In 1640, John Benson published a second edition of the sonnets in which he changed most of the pronouns from masculine to feminine so that readers would believe nearly all of the sonnets were addressed to the Dark Lady. Benson’s modified version soon became the best-known text, and it was not until 1780 that Edmund Malone re-published the sonnets in their original forms.[22] The question of the sexual orientation of the sonnets' author was openly articulated in 1780, when George Steevens, upon reading Shakespeare's description of a young man as his 'master-mistress' remarked, 'it is impossible to read this fulsome panegyrick, addressed to a male object, without an equal mixture of disgust and indignation'. [23] Other English scholars, dismayed at the possibility that their national hero might have been a 'sodomite', concurred with Samuel Taylor Coleridge's comment, around 1800, that Shakespeare’s love was 'pure' and in his sonnets there is 'not even an allusion to that very worst of all possible vices'. [24] Robert Browning, writing of Wordsworth's assertion that 'with this key [the Sonnets] Shakespeare unlocked his heart', famously replied in his poem House, 'If so, the less Shakespeare he!'[25] The controversy continued in the 20th Century. By 1944, the Variorum edition of the sonnets contained an appendix with the conflicting views of nearly forty commentators.

See also
• • • • • Shakespeare's life Shakespeare's reputation Shakespeare's plays Shakespeare's sonnets Shakespeare's late romances

References
[1] Schoenbaum, Samuel (1977). William Shakespeare : a compact documentary life. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. pp. 77–78. ISBN 0198125755. [2] Wood, Michael (2003). In Search of Shakespeare. London: BBC Worldwide. pp. 84. ISBN 0-563-53477-X. [3] Schoenbaum (1977:78–79) [4] Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare by Stephen Greenblatt, W. W. Norton & Company, 2004, pages 120-121. [5] Schoenbaum (1977:93) [6] Schoenbaum (1977:94) [7] Greenblatt (2004: 143) [8] Greenblatt (2004:143) [9] Ackroyd, Peter (2005). Shakespeare the Biography. London: Chatto and Windus. pp. 484. ISBN 1-856-19726-3. [10] Wood (2003:338) [11] Diary of John Manningham, of the Middle Temple, and of Bradbourne, Kent, barrister-at-law, 1602-1603 by John Manningham, Westminster, Printed by J. B. Nichols and Sons, 1868. [12] Duncan-Jones, Katherine (2001). Ungentle Shakespeare: Scenes from his life. London: Arden Shakespeare. pp. 132–133. ISBN 1-903436-26-5. [13] Berryman's Shakespeare by John Berryman, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2001, page 109.

Sexuality of William Shakespeare
[14] Shakespeare, William, 'Shakespeare the man, Life, Sexuality' (http:/ / search. eb. com/ shakespeare/ article-252446) Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Shakespeare, accessed April 4, 2007. [15] Bate, Jonathan (2008). "The perplexities of love". Soul of the Age. London: Viking. pp. 220–221. ISBN 978-0-670-91482-1. [16] Schoenbaum (1977: 179–181) [17] Recent summaries of the debate over Mr W.H.'s identity include Colin Burrows, ed. The Complete Sonnets and Poems (Oxford UP, 2002), pp. 98-103; Katherine Duncan Jones, ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets (Arden Shakespeare, 1997), pp. 52-69. For Wilde's story, see 'The Portrait of Mr W.H.' (1889) [18] Enter Willie Hughes as Juliet Or, Shakespeare's Sonnets Revisited (http:/ / www. infopt. demon. co. uk/ shakespe. htm) by Rictor Norton, accessed Jan. 23, 2007. [19] Pequigney, p.64 [20] Montaigne, p. 138 [21] Bate (2008: 214) [22] Crompton, Louis, Homosexuality and Civilization, pp. 379 [23] Rollins 1:55 [24] Rollins 2:232-233 [25] James Schiffer, Shakespeare's Sonnets: Critical Essays, Routledge, 1999, p.28

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Additional reading
• The Chiastic Shakespeare (http://www.chiasmus.com/mastersofchiasmus/shakespeare.shtml) • Last Will and Testament of William Shakespeare (http://fly.hiwaay.net/~paul/shakspere/shakwill.html) [sic] • The Cobbe oil painting of William Shakespeare (http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1883770,00. html) • Third Earl of Southampton – Shakespeare's patron, the 'fair youth', pdf article (http://image.guardian.co.uk/ sys-files/Observer/documents/2002/04/20/obs.ore.020421.005.pdf) • Keevak, Michael. Sexual Shakespeare: Forgery, Authorship, Portraiture (Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 2001) • Alexander, Catherine M.S., and Stanley Wells, editors. Shakespeare and Sexuality (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001) • Hammond, Paul. Figuring Sex Between Men from Shakespeare to Rochester (Oxford, Eng.: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002) • Smith, Bruce R. Homosexual Desire in Shakespeare's England: A Cultural Poetics (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1991; reissued with a new preface, 1994) • Pequigney, Joseph. Such Is My Love: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1985) [the most sustained case for homoeroticism in Shakespeare's sonnets]

Emilia Lanier

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Emilia Lanier
Emilia Lanier

There are no known portraits of Emilia Lanier. In 2003 the actor and writer Tony Haygarth argued that this miniature portrait by [1] Nicholas Hilliard, 1593, depicts her. Born Died Occupation Literary movement 1569Bishopsgate 1645London, England poet English Renaissance

Emilia Lanier, also spelled Lanyer, (1569–1645) was the first Englishwoman to assert herself as a professional poet through her single volume of poems, Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum (1611).[2] Born Aemilia Bassano and part of the Lanier family tree, she was a member of the minor gentry through her father's appointment as a royal musician, and was apparently educated in the household by Susan Bertie, Countess of Kent. She was for several years the mistress of Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon, first cousin of Elizabeth I of England. She was married to court musician Alfonso Lanier in 1592 when she became pregnant by Hunsdon, and the marriage was reportedly unhappy.

Biography
Learning about the events of Lanier's life has not always been an easy task for researchers. Very little is known about her. Scholars have had to piece together Lanier's biography by relying on the sparse amount of church, court and legal records that mention Lanier's name and her activity. Researchers have also relied upon entries from astrologer Simon Forman's (1552–1611) professional diary, which mention his accounts with Lanier. Lanier visited Foreman many times during 1597 for astrological readings, and because Forman was evidently sexually interested in her and rejected, his account is likely biased. Church records show that Lanier was baptised Aemilia Bassano at the parish church of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, on January 27, 1569. Her father, Baptiste Bassano, was a Venice-born musician at the court of Elizabeth I. Her mother was Margret Johnson (born ca. 1545-50), possibly the aunt of court composer Robert Johnson. Lanier also had a sister, Angela Bassano, who married Joseph Hollande in 1576. There were also brothers Lewes and Phillip, both of whom died before they reached adulthood.[3]

Emilia Lanier Baptiste Bassano died on April 11, 1576, when Aemilia was seven years old. Bassano's will dictated to his wife that he had left young Aemilia a dowry of £100, to be given to her either when she turned 21 years old or on the day of her wedding, whichever came first. Forman's records indicate that Bassano's fortune might have been waning before he died which caused him to be unhappy.[4] Foreman's records also indicate that, after the death of her father, Lanier went to live with Susan Bertie, Countess of Kent. Some scholars have questioned whether Lanier went to serve Bertie rather than be fostered by her, but there is no conclusive evidence to confirm this. It was in Bertie's house that Lanier was given a humanist education and learned Latin. Bertie greatly valued and emphasised the importance of young girls receiving the same level of education as young men.[5] Later evidence indicates that this decision may have greatly impacted Lanier and her own decision to publish her writing. After living with Bertie, Lanier went to live with Margaret Clifford, Countess of Cumberland, and Margaret's daughter, Lady Anne Clifford. Dedications in Lanier's own poetry seem to confirm this information.[6] Lanier's mother died when Lanier was eighteen. Church records show that Johnson was buried in Bishopsgate on July 7, 1587.[6] Not long after her mother's death, Lanier became the mistress of Tudor courtier and cousin of Queen Elizabeth I, Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon. At the time of their affair, Lord Hunsdon was Elizabeth's Lord Chamberlain and a patron of the arts and theatre (he supported Shakespeare's theatre company, known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men, but not until two years after their affair was over). He was also forty-five years older than Lanier. Records indicate that Carey gave her a pension of £40 a year. Lanier apparently enjoyed her time as Carey's mistress. An entry from Forman's diary reads "[Lanier] hath bin married 4 years/ The old Lord Chamberlain kept her longue She was maintained in great pomp... she hath 40£ a yere & was welthy to him that married her in monie & Jewells".[7] In 1592, when she was 23, Lanier became pregnant with Carey's child. Carey paid her off with a sum of money. Lanier was then married to her first cousin once removed, Alfonso Lanier. He was a Queen's musician and church records show the two were married in St. Botolph's church, Aldgate, on October 18, 1592.[8] Another of Forman's diary entries indicates that the marriage was an unhappy one. It also indicates that Lanier was much happier as Carey's mistress. It reads "...and a nobleman that is ded hath Loved her well & kept her and did maintain her longe but her husband hath delte hardly with her and spent and consumed her goods and she is nowe...in debt".[7] Alfonso and Aemilia remained married until his death in 1613. Forman's diary entries suggest Lanier told him about having several miscarriages. It is known that Lanier gave birth to a son, Henry, in 1593 (presumably named after his father, Henry Carey) and a daughter, Odillya, in 1598. Odillya died when she was ten months old and was buried at St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate. Lanier's son married Joyce Mansfield in 1623; they had two children, Mary (1627) and Henry (1630). Henry senior died in October 1633. It is implied from later court documents that Lanier may have been providing for her two grandchildren after their father's death.[9] In 1611, Lanier published her volume of poetry, Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum. Lanier was forty-two years old at the time and the first woman in England to declare herself a poet. People who read her poetry considered it very radical and many scholars today refer to its style and arguments as "proto-feminist".[10] After the death of her husband, Lanier supported herself by running a school. She rented a house from Edward Smith to house her students but, due to disputes over the correct rent price, was arrested on two different occasions between 1617 and 1619. Because parents weren't willing to send their children to a woman with a history of arrest, Lanier's dreams of running a prosperous school ended.[11] Little else is known about Lanier's life between 1619 and 1635. Court documents state that, in this year, Lanier brought a lawsuit against her husband's brother, Clement, for money owed to her from the profits of one of her late husband's financial patents. The court ruled in Lanier's favour, declaring that Clement pay her £20. Clement couldn't pay her immediately, so Lanier brought the suit to court again in 1636 and in 1638. There are no records that verify whether Lanier was ever paid in full but it is known that, at the time of death, she was described as a "pensioner",

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Emilia Lanier someone who has a steady income or pension.[11] Lanier died at the age of seventy-six and was buried at Clerkenwell, on April 3, 1645.[11]

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Poetry
As the author of the collection of poetry known as "Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum" (1611) Emelia was only the fourth woman in England to publish a book of original poetry, with Isabella Whitney, Anne Dowriche, and Elizabeth Melville preceding her. Her volume centres on the title poem, a long narrative work of over 200 stanzas. It tells the story of Christ's passion satirically and almost entirely from the point of view of the women who surround him. The main poem is prefaced by ten shorter dedicatory works, all to aristocratic women, beginning with the queen. There is also a prose preface addressed to the reader, comprising a vindication of "virtuous women" against detractors of the sex. After the central poem there is a verse "Description of Cookham," dedicated to Margaret, Countess of Cumberland and her daughter Lady Anne Clifford. This last is the first published country house poem in English (Ben Jonson's more famous "To Penshurst" may have been written earlier but was first published in 1616). Her inspiration came from a visit to Cookham Dean, where Margaret Clifford, Countess of Cumberland, and her daughter Lady Anne Clifford lived. While visiting the residence she says to have received a spiritual awakening, inspired by the piety of Margaret. At the age of 42, in 1611, she published Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum (Hail, God, King of the Jews). At the time that she published her book, it was extremely unusual for an Englishwoman to publish work and to do so as a means of making a living was even more unusual. The book was radical for its time, although the topics of virtue and religion were considered to be suitable themes for women. It was viewed as radical because it addressed topics such as the maltreatment of women. Layner defends Eve, and womankind in general, arguing that Eve has been wrongly blamed for the original sin of eating the forbidden fruit, while no blame has been pointed at Adam. She argues that Adam shares most of the guilt by concluding that Adam was stronger than Eve, and thus, he should have been able to resist the temptation. She also defends women by pointing out the dedication of the female followers of Christ who stayed with Him throughout the Passion, and looked for him first after the burial and resurrection. She also draws attention to Pilate’s wife who attempted to intervene and prevent the unjust trial and crucifixion of Christ. Layner reproaches mankind by accusing them of crucifying Christ. She also notes the male apostles that forsook and even denied Christ during His crucifixion and Passion. Theorists who claim Lanyer was Jewish ignore the fiercely anti-Semitic statements she makes in the poem, though these beliefs are of course the norm for her period.

Shakespeare links
The sonnets
After Emilia was no longer at court and two years after her affair with Lord Hunsdon had ended, he became the patron of the Lord Chamberlain's Men, the theatre company which performed the Shakespearean plays after 1594. Some have speculated that Lanier, an apparently striking woman, was Shakespeare's "Dark Lady". This identification was first proposed by A. L. Rowse and has been repeated by several authors since, notably David Lasocki and Roger Prior in their 1995 book The Bassanos:Venetian Musicians and Instrument makers in England 1531-1665 and in articles by Martin Green and Stephanie Howard Hughes. Although the colour of her hair is not known, records exist of her cousins having "black" skin, and her background in coming from a musical family fits the picture of the "dark lady" in the Shakespearean Sonnets. More recently, the theory that she was the Dark Lady has fallen into disfavor and is widely disputed by Lanyer scholars like Susanne Woods (1999), given that Rowse posited her immorality based on Forman's biased accounts. Woods offers the most reliable account of Lanyer's life. Barbara Lewalski notes that Rowse's theory that Aemilia Lanyer was Shakespeare's "Dark Lady" has unfortunately deflected attention from Lanyer's poems and from Lanyer as a poet.

Emilia Lanier A number of commentators have concluded that it cannot be just coincidence that in Shakespeare’s two Venetian plays, there is an Emilia in one (Othello) and a Bassan(i)o in the other (Merchant of Venice). In addition in Titus Andronicus there is an Aeilius and a Bassianus. In 2008 [12] Roger Prior suggested that in 1593 Shakespeare visited Bassano (del Grappa) where he saw the fresco of Goats & Monkeys that he apparently cites in Othello (IV.i.263) on the external wall of a house there. Prior does not, however, feel there is conclusive proof that the Bassanos were Jewish. In 2005 [13] the English conductor Peter Bassano, a co-lateral descendant of Emilia suggested that she provided some of the texts for William Byrd’s 1589 Songs of Sundrie Natures dedicated to Lord Hunsdon. He further suggested that one of the songs, the setting of the translation of an Italian sonnet: Of Gold all Burnisht may have been used by Shakespeare as a parodied model for Sonnet 130, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun.

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Shakespeare authorship
A New York production in 2007 by The Dark Lady Players, based on a thesis by John Hudson at the Shakespeare Institute at the University of Birmingham, suggested that she was the author of an underlying religious allegory in A Midsummer Night's Dream, and perhaps of the play itself. In summer 2008, Michael Posner, in a 15 page review of the theory in the 'Canadian arts journal The Queen's Quarterly, concluded that the case for Amelia Bassano Lanier is as plausible as Shakespeare’s and more plausible than many others". Posner's 2010 article in Reform Judaism argued that Lanier was very likely the author of all or most of Shakespeare's plays, and asserts that she was Jewish.[14] In summer 2010, writing in the on-line literary magazine Bibliobuffet.com, Lev Raphael concluded there is no firm evidence that she was Jewish and challenged the basic assumptions of Posner's article.[15] The consensus among Lanier experts is that even if her father was of Jewish heritage, she herself was not educated in Jewish texts and would not have been able to embed coded Jewish references of any sort into the plays, had she written them. Lanier scholars welcome the growing attention to her own poetry, but categorically dismiss the theory that she wrote Shakespeare's plays.

Feminist ideals, Lanier's poetry and Eve’s Apology
Aemilia Lanier’s book of poetry, Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum has been viewed by many critics to be one of the earliest feminist works of British literature. Barbara Kiefer Lewalski in her article, Writing Women and Reading the Renaissance, actually calls Lanyer the "defender of womankind" [16] Lewalski claims that with the first few poems of the collection, as dedications to prominent women, Lanyer is initiating her ideas of the genealogy of women.[17] The genealogy follows the idea that "virtue and learning descend from mothers to daughters".[18] Marie H. Loughlin continues Lewalski’s argument in her article, "Fast ti'd unto Them in a Golden Chaine": Typology, Apocalypse, and Woman's Genealogy in Aemilia Lanyer's Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum, by noting that the genealogy of women began with Eve. Loughlin claims that Lanyer is advocating the importance of knowledge of both the spiritual and material worlds in connection with women.[19] She argues that women must focus on the material world and their importance in it to supplement their life in the spiritual world rather than focusing solely on the spiritual.[20] This argument stems from Lanyer’s desire to raise women up to the same level as men. Lanyer attempts to convey the message to her audience that men are not the only important beings in the material world, but that women belong there as well.[21] Lanyer’s poetry is working towards reversing the images of women typically portrayed in the Bible; specifically, that women should be subservient to men.[22] Lanyer flips that idea of the subservient woman and instead strives towards illustrating the idea that women are in “mystical and apocalyptic union with Christ”,[23] that is, if either gender was placed nearer the “‘everlasting throne’” of Jesus, it would be the female sex.[23] In lines 745-840 of Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum, more commonly known as Eve’s Apology, Lanyer brings together two biblical women of different eras who perfectly portray this idea of the genealogy of women striving towards that union with Christ. The first half of the passage has Eve addressing the fact that Adam too should share the blame of the fall of Man. If women are to be

Emilia Lanier subservient to men, men should be protecting women. Adam should have stopped Eve from eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, but he instead succumbed to temptation, although he had not been tempted by any "subtle serpent" as Eve had been. Lanier writes, "Her weakness did the serpent's words obey, / But you in malice God's dear Son betray", thereby placing greater blame on the men responsible for Jesus's death. Eve’s disobeying God’s laws led to the need of having a savior. The second half of the passage illustrates that Pilate’s wife tried to save Jesus Christ’s life, therefore remedying any fault of Eve’s. This smaller section of the larger Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum uses Christ’s Passion to depict good women in contrast to bad men.[18] Eve’s Apology and Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum as a whole was Lanyer’s vehicle, as Loughlin claims, to “depict(s) woman’s history as a teleological progression from the times of the Old Testament to those of the New Testament and finally beyond time itself into her glorious future union with Christ.” [23]

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Notes
[1] Simon Tait, Unmasked- the identity of shakespeares Dark Lady, The Independent, 7 December 2003. (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ books/ news/ unmasked--the-identity-of-shakespeares-dark-lady-575815. html) [2] Isabella Whitney, a half century before, had been the first Englishwoman known to have published non-religious poetry. [3] McBride, Kari Boyd. Biography of Aemilia Lanyer. Aemilia Lanyer (1569-1645). 16 November 2008. Women's Studies, University of Arizona. 20 November 2008. (http:/ / www. ic. arizona. edu/ ic/ mcbride/ lanyer/ lanbio. htm) [4] The Poems of Aemilia Lanyer. Ed. Susan Woods. Oxford University Press. New York, NY. 1993. xv-xvii [5] Woods, Susan. Lanyer, A Renaissance Woman Poet. Oxford University Press. New York, NY. 1999.9 [6] McBride, Biography of Aemilia Lanyer, 1 [7] Woods, The Poems of Aemilia Lanyer, xviii [8] Woods, The Poems of Aemilia Lanyer, xviii. McBride, Biography of Aemilia Lanyer, 1-2 [9] McBride, Biography of Aemilia Lanyer, 2-3 [10] McBride, Biography of Aemilia Lanyer, 2 [11] McBride, Biography of Aemilia Lanyer, 3 [12] University of Malta Anglo-Italian Studies Vol. 9 [13] Duke University, International William Byrd Conference Nov 17-19 2005 [14] Posner, Michael (Summer 2010). "Unmasking Shakespeare" (http:/ / reformjudaismmag. org/ Articles/ index. cfm?id=1584). Reform Judaism. . [15] Raphael, Lev (Summer 2010). "Anyone but Shakespeare" (http:/ / www. bibliobuffet. com/ book-brunch-columns-322/ 1304-anyone-but-shakespeare-062010). BiblioBuffet. . [16] Lewalski, Barbara Keifer. Writing Women and Reading the Renaissance. Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Winter, 1991), pp. 792-821. [17] Lewalski 802-803 [18] Lewalski 803 [19] Loughlin, Marie H. "Fast ti'd unto Them in a Golden Chaine": Typology, Apocalypse, and Woman's Genealogy in Aemilia Lanyer's Salve Deus Rex JudaeorumRenaissance Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 1 (Spring, 2000), pp. 133-179 [20] Loughlin 139 [21] Loughlin 140 [22] Loughlin 134 [23] Loughlin 135

References
• • • • Martin Green ‘Emilia Lanier IS the Dark Lady’ English Studies vol. 87, No.5, October (2006) Stephanie Hopkins Hughes ‘New Light on the Dark Lady’ Shakespeare Oxford Newsletter, 22 September (2000) Julia Wallace ‘That’s Miss Shakespeare To You’ Village Voice March 28-April 3, (2007) pg 42 Michelle Powell-Smith 'Aemilia Lanyer: Redeeming Women Through Faith and Poetry,' April 11, 2000 on-line at Suite101. • Roger Prior ‘Jewish Musicians at the Tudor Court’ The Musical Quarterly, vol. 69, no 2 .Spring, (1983), 253-265 • Ruffati and Zorattini 'La Famiglia Piva-Bassano Nei Document Degli Archevi Di Bassano Del Grappa,' 2 December 1998, Musica e Storia • Giulio M. Ongaro ‘New Documents on the Bassano Family’ Early Music vol. 20, 3 August (1992) 409-413

Emilia Lanier • David Bevington 'Aemilia Lanyer: Gender, Genre, and the Canon. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky (1998) • Susanne Woods, Lanyer: A Renaissance Woman Poet. New York: Oxford University Press (1999) • Ted Merwin ‘The Dark Lady as a Bright Literary Light’ The Jewish Week, 23 March, (2007) 56-7 • Michael Posner 'Rethinking Shakespeare' The Queen's Quarterly, vol. 115, no. 2 (2008) 1-15 • Lev Raphael 'Anyone but Shakespeare' Bibliobuffet.com, issue 322, June (2010)

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External links
• Website dedicated to Lanier's poetry (http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/lanyer/lanyer.htm) • Discussion of the identification of Lanier as the Dark Lady (http://peterbassano.com/shakespeare) • John Hudson's thesis, that Lanier was the author of Shakespeare's plays (http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=tyn-3GNOd7w)

Mary Fitton

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Mary Fitton
Mary Fitton

Portrait of Mary Fitton circa 1595 Born Died Spouse June 1578Gawsworth, Cheshire 1647 Captain Wiliam Polwhele

Parents Sir Edward Fitton Alice Halcroft

Mary Fitton (original spelling: Fytton) (June 1578 – 1647) is considered by some to be the "Dark Lady" of William Shakespeare's sonnets. She was the daughter of Sir Edward Fitton of Gawsworth, Cheshire, and was baptized on 24 June 1578. Her elder sister, Anne, married John Newdigate in 1587, at the age of fourteen. She also had two brothers, though not much is known about them.

Life at court
About 1595 Mary Fitton became a maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth. Her father recommended her to the care of Sir William Knollys, comptroller of the Queen's household. Sir William promised, "I will be as careful of her well doing as if I were her own true father."[1] But Knollys, though fifty and already married, soon became suitor to Mary Fitton, in hope of the speedy death of the actual Lady Knollys. He wrote of his passion to her sister and even named Mary's niece, who he was sponsoring as godfather, "Mary". His infatuation was well known and mocked in court -Shakespeare used the derision in Twelfth Night in Malvolio (Mary's nickname was "Mal").[2] There is no hint in her authenticated biography that she was acquainted with Shakespeare. William Kempe, who was a clown in Shakespeare's company, dedicated his Nine Daies Wonder to Mistress Anne (perhaps an error for Mary) Fitton, Maid of Honor to Elizabeth; and there is a sonnet addressed to her in an anonymous volume, A Womans Woorth defended against all the Men in the World. In 1599, Mary had to quit the court because of a mixture of physical and mental illnesses that Elizabethans called "the mother" or "suffocation of the mother" (a form of hysteria). When she returned to court, she refused Knollys. In June 1600 Mary led a dance in the masque celebrating the fashionable wedding of Lady Anne Russell, granddaughter of the Earl of Bedford, with Henry Somerset, later created Marquess of Worcester, at Lord Cobham's residence in Blackfriars.[3] Led by Mary, the maids performed an allegorical dance and afterwards chose substitutes from the audience. Mary boldly chose the queen, telling her that she represented Affection (which then meant passionate love), to which the queen replied "Affection? Affection's false." William Herbert, later Earl of Pembroke, is known to have been present at this affair. Mary was a couple of years older than he, but she pursued him ardently. She became his mistress, and was soon pregnant. In February 1601 Pembroke was sent to the Fleet Prison after admitting paternity but refusing to marry his mistress. Mary Fitton was

Mary Fitton placed with Lady Margaret Hawkins, the widow of Sir John Hopkins for her confinement. In March 1601 she gave birth to a baby boy who died immediately (perhaps from syphilis, which it is believed Pembroke may have suffered from). Both Mary and Pembroke were dismissed from court.

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Life after Court
Mary did not seem as abashed by the business as her father, who considered it to be social ruin. Knollys tried to woo her once again, but Mary was firm. She had an affair with the married Vice-Admiral Sir Richard Leveson, who left her £100 after his death in 1605 (his wife had to be committed to the care of her father). After this she had an affair with Captain Wiliam Polwhele and bore a son that was presumably his. Her mother was scandalized, writing to her other, married, daughter, "such shame as never had a Cheshire woman, worse now than ever. Write no more to me of her."[4] Even after marriage to the father of her child, her mother referred to him as "a very knave". When Polwhele died in 1610, Mary had a son and daughter to take care of. She married again, to a Pembrokeshire captain named Lougher. He died in 1636. She died in 1647 and was buried in Gawsworth, leaving a little Welsh property to her daughter who had married and had children herself.

Footnotes
[1] Haynes, Alan: Sex in Elizabethan England 1997:44. [2] "Malvolio" also simply means "I mean ill"; he is a malcontent figure. [3] Noted in J.G. Waller, "The lords of Cobham, their monuments and the church" Archaeologia Cantiana (The Kent Archaeological Society) 1878:157. [4] Haynes, Alan. Sex in Elizabethan England 1997:49.

References
• Haynes, Alan. Sex in Elizabethan England. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Limited, 1997. ISBN 0-905-778-359 •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Rival Poet

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Rival Poet
Shakespeare's Sonnets feature several 'characters,' either fictional or real persons. Several theories about them have been expounded, and scholarly debate continues to put forward both conflicting and compelling arguments. One such character is the Rival Poet, whom the author sees as a rival for fame and patronage. The sonnets most commonly identified as The Rival Poet group exist within the Fair Youth series in sonnets 78-86.

Possible candidates
Among others, George Chapman, Christopher Marlowe, Samuel Daniel, Michael Drayton, Barnabe Barnes, Gervase Markham,[1] Richard Barnfield[2] and Walter Raleigh[3] have been proposed as identities for the Rival Poet. George Chapman Chapman was a prominent poet and translator of Homer. Scholars speculate that Shakespeare was familiar with his work, having read part of his translation of the Iliad for his own Troilus and Cressida , a dramatic reworking of Chaucer's epic poem. Chapman himself wrote Ovid's Banquet Of Sense, a metaphysical poem seen as a response to the erotic Venus and Adonis, which incidentally features Shakespeare's most quoted poet, Ovid. The moral tone of Chapman's poem eschews the amatory tone of Shakespeare's, and seeks to instill spiritual seriousness in a work that takes the five senses as its Conceits. Chapman's patrons also moved in the same circles as Shakespeare's; thus Shakespeare may have felt insecure about the stability of his own income versus a talented rival. Chapman was both then and now regarded as being particularly erudite, whereas, as Ben Jonson writes, Shakespeare had "small Latine and lesse Greeke."[4] Christopher Marlowe Marlowe was more highly regarded as a dramatist than a poet, his chief poetical work, Hero and Leander, remaining incomplete at the time of his death (it was subsequently completed by Chapman). Due to Marlowe's relatively small dramatic output as compared with Shakespeare, it's unlikely that he would have been the subject of Shakespeare's Sonnets, i.e. considered a serious rival. By the time Shakespeare began his works Marlowe was a well-established playwright but the two had a very important artistic relationship. In his book The Genius of Shakespeare, Jonathan Bate notes “the two-way traffic between Marlowe and Shakespeare until the latter’s death” (Bate 107). Shakespeare strove to outdo Marlowe and through their artistic competition they would push one another to higher achievements in dramatic literature. This competition could have also motivated the Rival Poet Sonnets (130). Multiple poets It has also been suggested that the Rival Poet is an amalgam of several of Shakespeare’s contemporaries instead of a single person. This is indicated by the fluctuation between singular and plural addresses of the rival(s) in the sonnet sequence (Jackson 225). In Sonnet 78 the Speaker refers to other poets who have gained inspiration from the Fair Youth but in 79 the Speaker is only concerned with one “he,” a potentially “worthier pen.” Sonnet 80 continues the singular reference but by 82 the Speaker reverts to the plural “writers” (225). In 83 he refers to “both your poets” indicating that the Speaker is one poet and the Rival is the other. According to MacD. P. Jackson, Sonnet 86 is “the most powerful of the group [and] the most detailed in its characterization of one specific Rival Poet” (226). While arguably the most powerful of this sonnet grouping, one cannot neglect the oscillation between singular and plural seen throughout the group as a whole. This discrepancy makes it difficult to isolate one specific poet to claim the title of Rival. The Speaker’s attitude towards the Rival is also difficult to pinpoint. Some critics, such as R. Gittings, believe that much of the Poet’s comments on his rival should be read as ironic or satiric (Robertson 180). Jackson maintains that his feelings toward the Rival shift between varying degrees of admiration and criticism (226). This also indicates a

Rival Poet multitude of rivals. As the Poet’s confidence ebbs and flows along with his impression of his rival(s), the identity of the rival(s) also fluctuates. A final defense for the Multiple Rivals Theory relies on a dating of the Rival Poet sonnets between 1598-1600. While this frame of reference has support, so do other possible dates and there will always be controversy regarding dating of individual sonnets. However, if it is assumed that this grouping was published between 1598 and 1600, a publication by Francis Meres comes into play. In 1598, Meres published Palladis Tamia; Wits Treasury with a chapter titled “A Comparative Discourse of our English Poets with the Greek, Latin, and Italian Poets” in which he documents the critical esteem of the poets of the day (233). Shakespeare received high praise for his dramatic work but Marlowe and Chapman were deemed England’s “two excellent poets” (qtd. in Jackson 234). This, according to Jackson “must surely have helped provoke the Rival Poet series” (234).

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Footnotes
[1] [2] [3] [4] Halliday, pp. 52, 127, 141-2, 303, 463. Leo Daugherty, William Shakespeare, Richard Barnfield, and the Sixth Earl of Derby, Cambria Press, 2010 Roper, David. "The Rival Poets." (http:/ / www. dlroper. shakespearians. com/ rival_poet. htm) The Shakespeare Story. Baldwin, W. T. William Shakspere's Smalle Latine and Lesse Greeke (http:/ / durer. press. uiuc. edu/ baldwin/ vol. 1/ html/ 2. html). 1944

References
• • • • Bach, Alice. A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, Blackwell, 2006. Bate, Jonathan. The Genius of Shakespeare. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Jackson, MacD. P. “Francis Meres and the Cultural Contexts of Shakespeare’s Rival Poet Sonnets.” (http://res. oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/56/224/224) Review of English Studies. 56.224 (2005): 224-246. 16 Nov 2007. • Muir, Kenneth. Shakespeare's Sonnets. 1979; reprinted London, Routledge, 2005. • Wilson, John Dover. Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Introduction for Scholars and Others. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1963.

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The Sonnets
Procreation sonnets
The term procreation sonnets is a name given to Shakespearean sonnets numbers I to XVII (1 to 17). They are referred to as the procreation sonnets because they all argue that the young man, to whom they are addressed, should marry and father children, hence, procreate. Throughout the procreation sonnets, Shakespeare usually argues that the child will be a copy of the young man, and he will therefore live through the child. The actual historical identity of the man to whom they were written is a mystery, but most believe it was Henry Wriothesley (W.H. backwards), or William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke. If the latter, it has been suggested that the 17 sonnets correspond in number to Herbert's age at the time.

External links
• The Procreation Sonnets (1 - 17) [1]

References
[1] http:/ / oldpoetry. com/ opoem/ 47896

Sonnet 1
» Sonnet 1 From fairest creatures we desire increase, That thereby beauty's rose might never die, But as the riper should by time decease, His tender heir might bear his memory: But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes, Feed'st thy light'st flame with self-substantial fuel, Making a famine where abundance lies, Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel. Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament And only herald to the gaudy spring, Within thine own bud buriest thy content And, tender churl, makest waste in niggarding. Pity the world, or else this glutton be, To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's 1st sonnet, one of his best known, is the first of his procreation sonnets, which urge the young man he is writing to not to waste his beauty by not fathering a child. The intended recipient of this and other sonnets is a subject of scholarly debate, with many believing it to be Henry Wriothesley. See: Identity of "Mr. W.H."

Sonnet 1

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Synopsis
This sonnet starts with the line "From fairest creatures we desire increase" meaning that creatures multiply in order to preserve their beauty. Shakespeare is commenting that creatures age "as the riper should by time decease" therefore by procreating the next generation will preserve a creature's beauty "His tender heir might bear his memory". The person in this sonnet is described as being too self-absorbed to procreate. Therefore although he is beautiful now, this beauty will eventually fade "the world's fresh ornament / And only herald to the gaudy spring" Sonnet 1 introduces the themes of the first group of sonnets; it explores themes of Beauty, Passage of human life, and wasteful self-consumption. Sonnet 1 starts a group of the first seventeen sonnets, often referred to as the procreation sonnets because they are about producing offspring. The structure of Sonnet 1 is simple. The first quatrain describes that Beauty should propagate. The second quatrain argues that the male in the poem has failed to do this. The third quatrain argues that he should do this otherwise his beauty will whither away, with the final couplet portending doom should he fail. The image of the young man contracted to his own bright eyes, feeding his "light's flame" is an image of self-absorption.

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

External links
• • • • • An analysis and paraphrase of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/1detail.html) Analysis of this sonnet (http://www.hup.harvard.edu/features/venart/sonnet1_com.html) Sparknotes notes on the sonnet (http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/shakesonnets/section2.rhtml) Shakespeare's sonnets.com on Sonnet 1 (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/icomm.htm) CliffsNotes on Sonnet 1 (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/Shakespeare-s-Sonnets. id-169,pageNum-4.html)

Sonnet 2

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Sonnet 2
« » Sonnet 2 When forty winters shall besiege thy brow, And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field, Thy youth's proud livery, so gazed on now, Will be a tatter'd weed, of small worth held: Then being ask'd where all thy beauty lies, Where all the treasure of thy lusty days, To say, within thine own deep-sunken eyes, Were an all-eating shame and thriftless praise. How much more praise deserved thy beauty's use, If thou couldst answer 'This fair child of mine Shall sum my count and make my old excuse,' Proving his beauty by succession thine! This were to be new made when thou art old, And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it cold. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's 2nd sonnet is another procreation sonnet and inquiry into Time's destruction of Beauty, urging the young man of the sonnet to have a child.

Synopsis and analysis
The theme of necessary procreation found in Sonnet 1 continues into Sonnet 2. The man's beauty will be lost and become like a "tattered weed." "Will be a tatter'd weed, of small worth held" unless he reproduces. People will ask where his beauty is "Then being ask'd where all thy beauty lies." The only way for this beauty to be preserved is to have a child. Therefore when the man described is old, his heir will be young — "This were to be new made when thou art old."

Interpretations
• Caroline Blakiston, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

Sonnet 2

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External links
• An analysis of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/iicomm.htm) • An analysis and paraphrase of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/2detail.html) • CliffsNotes on Sonnet 2 (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/Shakespeare-s-Sonnets. id-169,pageNum-5.html)

Sonnet 3
« » Sonnet 3 Look in thy glass, and tell the face thou viewest Now is the time that face should form another; Whose fresh repair if now thou not renewest, Thou dost beguile the world, unbless some mother. For where is she so fair whose unear'd womb Disdains the tillage of thy husbandry? Or who is he so fond will be the tomb Of his self-love, to stop posterity? Thou art thy mother's glass, and she in thee Calls back the lovely April of her prime: So thou through windows of thine age shall see Despite of wrinkles this thy golden time. But if thou live, remember'd not to be, Die single, and thine image dies with thee. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 3 by William Shakespeare is one of the 17 procreation sonnets urging the man to whom he is writing to not to waste his beauty by not having children. The intended recipient of this and other sonnets is a subject of scholarly debate, with some believing it to be Henry Wriothesley. Sonnet 3 is typical of a Shakespearean sonnet in its form: fourteen decasyllabic lines, consisting of three quatrains and a concluding rhyming couplet. In this sonnet, the poet is exhorting the Young Man to marry and have a child, merely to immortalise his beauty The parting message can be seen within the last lines of the poems: But if thou live, remember'd not to be, Die single, and thine image dies with thee.

Sonnet 3

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Interpretations
• Timothy Spall, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

External links
• A paraphrase of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/3detail.html) • A brief analysis of the sonnet (http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=8805) • Shakespeare's sonnets.com on Sonnet 3 (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/iiicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes on Sonnet 3 (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/Shakespeare-s-Sonnets. id-169,pageNum-6.html)

Sonnet 4
« » Sonnet 4 Unthrifty loveliness, why dost thou spend Upon thy self thy beauty's legacy? Nature's bequest gives nothing, but doth lend, And being frank she lends to those are free: Then, beauteous niggard, why dost thou abuse The bounteous largess given thee to give? Profitless usurer, why dost thou use So great a sum of sums, yet canst not live? For having traffic with thy self alone, Thou of thy self thy sweet self dost deceive: Then how when nature calls thee to be gone, What acceptable audit canst thou leave? Thy unused beauty must be tombed with thee, Which, used, lives th' executor to be –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 4 is another one of Shakespeare's procreation sonnets.

Sonnet 4

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Synopsis and analysis
Shakespeare urges the man to have children, and thus not waste his beauty by not creating more children. To Shakespeare, unless the male produces a child, or “executor to be", he will not have used nature's beauty correctly. Shakespeare uses business terminology ("niggard", "usurer", "sums", "executor", "audit", "profitless") to aid in portraying the young man's beauty as a commodity, which nature only "lends" for a certain amount of time. Nature's bequest gives nothing but doth lend, And being frank she lends to those are free Shakespeare finishes with a warning of the fate of he who does not use his beauty: Thy unused beauty must be tomb'd with thee, Which, used, lives th' executor to be.

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

External links
• An analysis and paraphrase of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/4detail.html) • An explanation of terminology in the sonnet (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/ivcomm.htm) • Cliffnotes on Sonnet 4 (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-7.html)

Sonnet 5

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Sonnet 5
« » Sonnet 5 Those hours, that with gentle work did frame The lovely gaze where every eye doth dwell, Will play the tyrants to the very same And that unfair which fairly doth excel; For never-resting time leads summer on To hideous winter, and confounds him there; Sap checked with frost, and lusty leaves quite gone, Beauty o'er-snowed and bareness every where: Then were not summer's distillation left, A liquid prisoner pent in walls of glass, Beauty's effect with beauty were bereft, Nor it, nor no remembrance what it was: But flowers distill'd, though they with winter meet, Leese but their show; their substance still lives sweet. (continue to Sonnet 6) –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 5 is a sonnet written by William Shakespeare.

Analysis
It repeats the emphasis on human aging, compared with progress of the seasons. The final couplet about "distilled flowers" refers to the extraction of perfume from petals, in which the visible "show" of the flowers disappears, but their "essence" remains. The reference is probably to the Youth's "seed" - his capacity to prolong his "essence" by producing children, but it is also an example of Shakespeare's play on the question of what is transient and what eternal in the material world.

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

Sonnet 5

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External links
• An analysis and paraphrase of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/5detail.html) • Shakespeare sonnets.com on Sonnet 5 (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/vcomm.htm) • CliffsNotes on Sonnet 5 (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/Shakespeare-s-Sonnets. id-169,pageNum-8.html)

Sonnet 6
« » Sonnet 6 (continued from Sonnet 5) Then let not winter's ragged hand deface, In thee thy summer, ere thou be distilled: Make sweet some vial; treasure thou some place With beauty's treasure ere it be self-killed. That use is not forbidden usury, Which happies those that pay the willing loan; That's for thy self to breed another thee, Or ten times happier, be it ten for one; Ten times thy self were happier than thou art, If ten of thine ten times refigured thee: Then what could death do if thou shouldst depart, Leaving thee living in posterity? Be not self-willed, for thou art much too fair To be death's conquest and make worms thine heir. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 6 is a sonnet by William Shakespeare, and a continuation of his fifth sonnet.

Synopsis
The opening line of this sonnet leads directly from the end of Sonnet 5, as though the two poems were intended as one, itself perhaps a reference to the idea of pairing through marriage that informs the first 17 sonnets. The sweet "vial" refers to the distillation of perfume from petals mentioned in Sonnet 5, but is now directly explained and expanded as an image of sexual impregnation in order to produce children. The image of "usury" refers to replication of the invested "essence" in offspring, in the same way that money earns interest. The propagation of children can never be exploitative. A tenfold return on the investment is to be desired.

Sonnet 6

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Notes References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

External links
• An analysis and paraphrase of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/6detail.html) • Commentary (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/vicomm.htm) • Cliffs Notes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-9.html)

Sonnet 7
« » Sonnet 7 Lo! in the orient when the gracious light Lifts up his burning head, each under eye Doth homage to his new-appearing sight, Serving with looks his sacred majesty; And having climb'd the steep-up heavenly hill, Resembling strong youth in his middle age, yet mortal looks adore his beauty still, Attending on his golden pilgrimage; But when from highmost pitch, with weary car, Like feeble age, he reeleth from the day, The eyes, 'fore duteous, now converted are From his low tract and look another way: So thou, thyself out-going in thy noon, Unlook'd on diest, unless thou get a son. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 7 is a sonnet by William Shakespeare.

Sonnet 7

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Interpretive Synopsis
Each day for the sun is like one lifetime for man. He is youthful, capable, and admired in the early stages of his lifetime, much like the sun is admired in the early day. But as the sun sets and a man’s aging gets the best of him, he is facing frailty and mortality, and those once concerned with man and sun are now inattentive. At night the sun is forgotten. At death man is forgotten, unless he leaves a legacy in the form of a human son.

Commentary
This sonnet introduces new imagery, comparing the Youth to a morning sun, looked up to by lesser beings. But as he grows older he will be increasingly ignored unless he has a son to carry forward his identity into the next generation. The poem draws on classical imagery, common in art of the period, in which Helios or Apollo cross the sky in his chariot - an emblem of passing time.

Textual Analysis
Not unlike other Shakespearean sonnets, sonnet 7 utilizes simplistic "word play" and "key words" to underline the thematic meaning. These words appear in root form or similar variations (Vendler 75). The poetic eye finds interest in the use of 'looks' (line 4), 'looks' (line 7), 'look' (line 12), and 'unlook'd' (line 14). A more thematic word play used is those words denoting 'age', but that are not explicity identifiable. Doth homage to his new-appearing sight, Resembling strong youth in his middle age, Attending on his golden pilgrimage; (Shakespeare 3,4,6) By using words typical of expressing human features (e.g. youth), the reader begins to identify the sun as being representative of man. The sun does not assume an actual 'age', therefore we infer that the subject of the poem is man.

Critics in Dialogue
Burden of Beauty
Although Robin Hackett makes a considerably in-depth argument that Shakespeare’s Sonnet 7 may be read in context with Virginia Woolf's The Waves as the story of an imperialistic “sun hero” (Hackett 263), the potential bending of Shakespeare’s work this analysis threatens may be best illustrated by the substantial lack of any other criticism seeking the same claim. Like Woolf, Hackett ventures that Shakespeare creates a poem “in which all characters and events revolve around a larger-than-life hero, whose rise or fall, or rise and fall, determines the plot of the story” (Hackett 269). As Michael Shoenfeldt points out, however, in “The Sonnets,” the contextual placement of Sonnet 7, being among the first 126 that address they young man, gives the sonnet a substantially different reading: “the conventional praise of chaste beauty, and turn[s] it on its head — the young man’s beauty burdens him with the responsibility to reproduce, a responsibility he is currently shirking” (Schoenfeldt 128). The heir, referred to as “son” in Sonnet 7, is to “continue his beauty beyond the inexorable decay of aging” (Schoenfeldt 128). Decay of honor and beauty, often referred to in the sonnets addressed to the young man, are here explicitly paralleled with the sun’s passage through the sky. As each day the sun rises and falls, so the young man will rise and fall both in beauty and admiration. The only way to “continue his beauty” is to reproduce. However uncommon direct reference to decay is in Sonnet 7, Thomas Tyler in Shakespeare’s Sonnets ensures the use of verbs like “reeleth” indirectly evoke an image of decay by fatigue. “Reeleth,” according to Tyler, means “worn out by fatigue” (Tyler 1899).

Sonnet 7

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Profound Use of Pronoun
Shoenfeldt further addresses the abundance of sexual tension surrounding the issue of reproduction in Sonnet 7. Many as “fact” held the medical belief that each orgasm reduced one’s life by a certain unit. Shakespeare may be struggling with this troubling “fact” in the image of the falling sun “from highmost pitch” (Schoenfeldt 132). Penelope Freedman accounts for this tension in the grammatical usage of “you” and “thou” in Power and Passion in Shakespeare’s Pronouns: ”: “Linguists have long since identified one isolated feature of verbal exchange in early modern English that can serve as an index to social relationships. It is generally accepted that the selection of ‘thou’ or ‘you,’ the pronouns of address, can register relations of power and solidarity” (Freedman 3). The singular use of “thou,” which Freedman notes had a “dual role” to mark the emotions of anger and intimacy (Freedman 5) solely in the couplet of Sonnet 7 carefully mimics the height of tension in the sonnet, bringing it to a close with a mark of intimacy, and perhaps contempt, at the refusal of the addressee to reproduce. Whether this intimacy is based on a lovers’ relationship is difficult to accurately assess. Freeman comments how there is evidence of “thou” being used between family members but hardly any between lovers (Freedman 16). Instead, what can be inferred is that the two characters in Sonnet 7 are intimate enough to be of the same social class and to make a “direct appeal” of one another (Freedman 17). The linguistic strength of a direct appeal of the couplet opposes the image of frailty in the third quatrain. Giving the hope of an escape from decay, the couplet restores what seems to be lost in the third quatrain.

Imperialism
Reverting to Hackett’s criticism, Sonnet 7 may indeed be “read as a story of imperialism (Hackett 263). By noting Shakespeare’s use of the word “orient” in the first line of the sonnet, Hackett begins his exegesis. The Orient was a common link, at least as far as quintessential British narratives go, to the idea of wealth and prosperity. Hackett also connects the use of “golden pilgrimage” as more evidence of wealth seeking by way of imperialism. The “burning head” is that of an imperialistic ruler; “new-appearing sight” is this civilized knowledge given to the colonized. This type of reading allows “serving with looks” to be less metaphorical and more practical, alluding to the newly colonized people’s duty to pay homage to the new ruler. With this reading, the sonnet may be looked at as a warning to rulers to remain powerful, lest people “look another way” and follow a new imperialistic ruler (Hackett 263-264). “The sonnet with its metaphor of the rise and fall of the sun, . . . can be read as an illustration of not only the fate of an adored man who fails to beget a son, but also the fate of a colonizing power that fails to produce either her heroes (and their military strength) or the ideology that sends those heroes to seek fortunes on the boundaries of empire” (Hackett 264).

Cosmic Economy
Thomas Greene believes the first clauses of early Shakespearean sonnets are haunted by ‘cosmic’ or ‘existential’ economics. The second clause issues hope for stability of beauty and immortality. This idea is rather modern and equates human value with economics (Engle 832). The sun in sonnet 7 is an imperialistic empire that controls the economy of the world. The economic status of its governed is completely dependent upon the sun’s immortality. If the sun did not rise, there would be no harvest and no profit. The implied man in sonnet 7 also has an economic function in his humanity. He is a cog in the machine of imperialism. A constituent of his governing body politic as well as to the greatest ruler – the sun. His complete reliance on the sun for economic gain is slave-like. Man waits for the sun to rise in the morning, labors under its heat, then feebly ends his days work, ever closer to his mortality. This sonnet is epideictic rhetoric of both blame and praise: blaming the sun for reminding man of his immortality, and praising the sun for the vast pleasures it brings man in his short lifetime. What are most highly valued of all are those that transcend time, and that is the sun (Engle 834).

Sonnet 7

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Metaphysics
The relationship between man and sun in sonnet 7 is metaphysical. The sun is the center of our being, but is also an object of desire. We want the sun’s immortality. But man and the sun rely on one another to coexist. Man needs sun to survive on earth, and the sun would be of no significance without man. Man will cycle ad nauseam in this world yet the sun stays the same. The sun is reliable and unchanging. To the sun, one man is the same to another is the same to another.

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Engle, Lars (October 1989). Afloat in Thick Deeps: Shakespeare's Sonnets on Certainty. PMLA 104. pp. 832-843. • Freedman, Penelope (2007). Power and Passion in Shakespeare’s Pronouns. Hampshire: Asgate. pp. 3, 5. 16-17. • Hackett, Robin (1999). Supplanting Shakespeare’s Rising Sons: A Perverse Reading Through Woolf’s The Waves: Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature. 18. pp. 263-280. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 128, 132. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 74-75.

External links
• Paraphrase of sonnet in modern language (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/7detail.html) • Analysis of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/viicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/Shakespeare-s-Sonnets.id-169,pageNum-10. html)

Sonnet 8

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Sonnet 8
« » Sonnet 8 Music to hear, why hear'st thou music sadly? Sweets with sweets war not, joy delights in joy: Why lov'st thou that which thou receiv'st not gladly, Or else receiv'st with pleasure thine annoy? If the true concord of well-tuned sounds, By unions married, do offend thine ear, They do but sweetly chide thee, who confounds In singleness the parts that thou shouldst bear. Mark how one string, sweet husband to another, Strikes each in each by mutual ordering; Resembling sire and child and happy mother, Who, all in one, one pleasing note do sing: Whose speechless song being many, seeming one, Sings this to thee: 'Thou single wilt prove none.' –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 8 is a procreation sonnet by William Shakespeare, urging the young man to whom it is addressed to marry and have children. A comparison is made between the harmony of different instruments in an orchestra, voices in unison (although on "one note" an octave apart) and a harmonious relationship between a family. The music, which he hears, angers him as it makes him feel worthless living a single life. The last line "Sings this to thee: 'Thou single wilt prove none" implies that he will become nothing having not had children. Singleness cannot make an unison (see sonnet 128 and Fred Blick, reference below). This sonnet, which in its numbering invokes the union or unison of the octave, is associated with sonnet 128 by the vocative naming of the addressee as "music", but in sonnet 128 harmony in unions/unison is to be achieved by the "kiss", not marriage.

Musical Setting
The sonnet was set to music by Igor Stravinsky in Three Songs from William Shakespeare.

Interpretations
• Ladysmith Black Mambazo, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Blick, Fred. (1999). Shakespeare's Musical Sonnets: Numbers 8, 128 and Pythagoras The Upstart Crow, A Shakespeare Journal, Clemson University Press, Clemson. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Sonnet 8 • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

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External links
• Paraphrase of sonnet in modern language (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/8detail.html) • Shakespeare’s sonnets (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/viiicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/Shakespeare-s-Sonnets.id-169,pageNum-11. html)

Sonnet 9
« » Sonnet 9 Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye That thou consumest thyself in single life? Ah! if thou issueless shalt hap to die. The world will wail thee, like a makeless wife; The world will be thy widow and still weep That thou no form of thee hast left behind, When every private widow well may keep By children's eyes her husband's shape in mind. Look, what an unthrift in the world doth spend Shifts but his place, for still the world enjoys it; But beauty's waste hath in the world an end, And kept unused, the user so destroys it. No love toward others in that bosom sits That on himself such murderous shame commits. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 9 is another of Shakespeare's procreation sonnets.

Synopsis
In it, he reasons that if the young man remains single so that he does not make a widow, he is wrong because if he dies the entire world will in effect be a widow, crying over the fact that he did not leave a child behind, or a copy of his beauty. To Shakespeare, a widow will always have the image of her children to console her after her loss. Ah! if thou issueless shalt hap to die. The world will wail thee, like a makeless wife; The world will be thy widow and still weep That thou no form of thee hast left behind, When every private widow well may keep

Sonnet 9 By children's eyes her husband's shape in mind. The sonnet ends with the scathing declaration that if the young man does not marry and have children, he is committing "murderous shame" upon himself. No love toward others in that bosom sits That on himself such murderous shame commits.

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Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• • • • Paraphrase of sonnet in modern language (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/9detail.html) Analysis of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/ixcomm.htm) CliffsNotes on the sonnet (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-12.html) Paraphrase of the sonnet (http://www.nosweatshakespeare.com/shakespeare's_sonnet9.htm)

Sonnet 10

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Sonnet 10
« » Sonnet 10 For shame deny that thou bear'st love to any, Who for thy self art so unprovident. Grant, if thou wilt, thou art beloved of many, But that thou none lov'st is most evident: For thou art so possessed with murderous hate, That 'gainst thy self thou stick'st not to conspire, Seeking that beauteous roof to ruinate Which to repair should be thy chief desire. O! change thy thought, that I may change my mind: Shall hate be fairer lodged than gentle love? Be, as thy presence is, gracious and kind, Or to thyself at least kind-hearted prove: Make thee another self for love of me, That beauty still may live in thine or thee. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 10 is another of Shakespeare's procreation sonnets. Shakespeare uses a rather harsh tone to admonish the young man for his refusal to fall in love and have children.

Synopsis
The procreation theme is repeated, though for the first time a personal relationship between the poet and the youth is stated, even to the extent that the youth is asked to have a child to please the poet. The poem stresses the charm of the youth, who is much loved. The middle lines toy with imagery of political rebellion, mentioning conspiracies and destruction of houses.

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sonnet 10

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External links
• Paraphrase of sonnet in modern language (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/9detail.html) • Analysis of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xcomm.htm) • CliffsNotes on the sonnet (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-13.html)

Sonnet 11
« » Sonnet 11 As fast as thou shalt wane, so fast thou growest In one of thine, from that which thou departest; And that fresh blood which youngly thou bestowest Thou mayst call thine when thou from youth convertest. Herein lives wisdom, beauty and increase: Without this, folly, age and cold decay: If all were minded so, the times should cease And threescore year would make the world away. Let those whom Nature hath not made for store, Harsh featureless and rude, barrenly perish: Look, whom she best endow'd she gave thee more; Which bounteous gift thou shouldst in bounty cherish: She carved thee for her seal, and meant thereby Thou shouldst print more, not let that copy die. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 11 is another of Shakespeare's procreation sonnet in which the speaker reasons that even as the young man ages, it is Nature's will that someone of his beauty should procreate and make a copy of himself.

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sonnet 11

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External links
• • • • Paraphrase of sonnet in modern language (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/11detail.html) Analysis of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xicomm.htm) Paraphrase of the sonnet (http://nfs.sparknotes.com/sonnets/sonnet_11.html) CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/ Shakespeare-s-Sonnets-Critical-Commentaries-Sonnet-11.id-169,pageNum-14.html)

Sonnet 12
« » Sonnet 12 When I do count the clock that tells the time, And see the brave day sunk in hideous night; When I behold the violet past prime, And sable curls all silver'd o'er with white; When lofty trees I see barren of leaves Which erst from heat did canopy the herd, And summer's green all girded up in sheaves Borne on the bier with white and bristly beard, Then of thy beauty do I question make, That thou among the wastes of time must go, Since sweets and beauties do themselves forsake And die as fast as they see others grow; And nothing 'gainst Time's scythe can make defence Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee hence. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet XII is another of Shakespeare's procreation sonnets. The poet goes through a series of images of mortality, such as a clock, a withering flower, a barren tree and autumn, etc. Then, at the "turn" at the beginning of the third quatrain, the poet admits that the young man to whom the poem is addressed must go among the "wastes of time" just as all of the other images mentioned. The only way he can fight against Time, Shakespeare proposes, is by breeding and making a copy of himself.

Sonnet 12

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Interpretations
• Martin Jarvis, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase of sonnet in modern language (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/12detail.html) • Analysis of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xiicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes on the sonnet (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/ Shakespeare-s-Sonnets-Analysis-and-Original-Text-by-Sonnet-Sonnet-12.id-169,pageNum-36.html)

Sonnet 13

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Sonnet 13
« » Sonnet 13 O! that you were your self; but, love, you are No longer yours, than you your self here live: Against this coming end you should prepare, And your sweet semblance to some other give: So should that beauty which you hold in lease Find no determination; then you were Yourself again, after yourself's decease, When your sweet issue your sweet form should bear. Who lets so fair a house fall to decay, Which husbandry in honour might uphold, Against the stormy gusts of winter's day And barren rage of death's eternal cold? O! none but unthrifts. Dear my love, you know, You had a father: let your son say so. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 13 is the first of Shakespeare's procreation sonnets to contain a declaration of love. Throughout this sonnet are descriptions of the winter and the death in nature that this brings. The winter images captured in Sonnet 5 and Sonnet 6 reappear in this sonnet.

Interpretation and meaning
The first line "O! that you were your self;" means that Shakespeare wants the man he is describing to remain as he is, unchanged, not aging. The sonnet is quite philosophical in that it asks how can a person have an identity if they are constantly changing? The third line of this sonnet "Against this coming end you should prepare" has a Biblical connotation of the Day of Judgment. Like many of the previous procreation sonnets it describes how the man being described needs to have children. The two lines below describe how a person's essence can be captured in their children and that by having children they would resemble their father. Yourself again, after yourself's decease When your sweet issue your sweet form should bear.

Sonnet 13

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Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase of sonnet in modern language (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/13detail.html) • Analysis of sonnet 13 (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xiiicomm.htm)

Sonnet 14
« » Sonnet 14 Not from the stars do I my judgment pluck; And yet methinks I have astronomy, But not to tell of good or evil luck, Of plagues, of dearths, or seasons' quality; Nor can I fortune to brief minutes tell, Pointing to each his thunder, rain and wind, Or say with princes if it shall go well, By oft predict that I in heaven find: But from thine eyes my knowledge I derive, And, constant stars, in them I read such art As truth and beauty shall together thrive, If from thyself to store thou wouldst convert; Or else of thee this I prognosticate: Thy end is truth's and beauty's doom and date. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 14 is another of his procreation sonnets, this one featuring the speaker declaring that he has the power to predict the future, but he does not do so by reading the stars or anything of the like, and he does not predict disasters or how well a prince will rule. He takes his knowledge from the eyes of the poem's addressee, and from them he predicts that his death is in fact the death of Beauty itself.

Sonnet 14

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Interpretations
• Ioan Gruffudd, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Moo?

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/14detail.html) • Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare's-sonnets) (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xivcomm.htm) • CliffsNotes on the sonnet (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-17.html)

Sonnet 15

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Sonnet 15
« » Sonnet 15 When I consider every thing that grows Holds in perfection but a little moment, That this huge stage presenteth nought but shows Whereon the stars in secret influence comment; When I perceive that men as plants increase, Cheered and cheque'd even by the self-same sky, Vaunt in their youthful sap, at height decrease, And wear their brave state out of memory; Then the conceit of this inconstant stay Sets you most rich in youth before my sight, Where wasteful Time debateth with Decay, To change your day of youth to sullied night; And all in war with Time for love of you, As he takes from you, I engraft you new. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 15, a procreation sonnet, is a reflection on the destruction of Time and Decay, and its effect on the young man to whom the sonnet is addressed. As Shakespeare explains, men, like plants, stay in a perfect state for only a brief period. In the couplet Shakespeare says that he will wage war on time and, besides urging him to marry (and thus "immortalize" himself through having children), he will make the young man live on through his verse.

Interpretations
• Marianne Jean-Baptiste, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). "The Sonnets." The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Ed. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sonnet 15

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External links
• Explanation and analysis (Shakespeare's-sonnets) [1] • Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) [2] • CliffsNotes [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xvcomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 15detail. html [3] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-18. html

Sonnet 16
« » Sonnet 16 But wherefore do not you a mightier way Make war upon this bloody tyrant, Time? And fortify yourself in your decay With means more blessed than my barren rhyme? Now stand you on the top of happy hours, And many maiden gardens yet unset With virtuous wish would bear your living flowers, Much liker than your painted counterfeit: So should the lines of life that life repair, Which this, Time's pencil, or my pupil pen, Neither in inward worth nor outward fair, Can make you live yourself in eyes of men. To give away yourself keeps yourself still, And you must live, drawn by your own sweet skill. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 16 is another of his procreation sonnets, this one continuing from Sonnet 15. In it, the speaker asks the young man why he does not actively fight against time and age by having a child.

Paraphrase
Why don't you fight time with weapons more powerful than my poetry? Right now you are in your prime, and many women would be willing to bear you a child, who would copy you better than any work of art. The life of your child would renew your own beyond my own power (Lines 9-12 are doubtful and contested). Giving your self away (that is, in marriage and procreation) will allow you to keep yourself (in life), and only your own skill can cause this to happen.

Source and analysis
The sonnet is a syntactical and thematic continuation of 15. Interpretation of the sonnet hinges on the third quatrain, generally regarded as obscure. Edmond Malone suggested that "lines of life" refers to children, with a pun on line as bloodline. This reading was accepted by Edward Dowden and others. Line 10 is equally obscure, with the connection of "this" to "Time's pencil" and "my pupil pen" (the latter phrase George Steevens regarded as evidence that

Sonnet 16 Shakespeare wrote his sonnets as a youth; for T. W. Baldwin, the phrase connects this sonnet to The Rape of Lucrece). While in general terms "Time" is in this line a form of artist (rather than a destroyer, as elsewhere in the cycle), its exact function is unclear. The second half of the quatrain completes the assertion that procreation is a more viable route to immortality than the "counterfeit" of art. Following William Empson, Stephen Booth points out that all of the potential readings of this disputed quatrain are potentially accurate: while the lines do not establish a single meaning, the reader understands in general terms the usual theme, the contrast between artistic and genealogical immortality.

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Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Empson, William (1975). Seven Types of Ambiguity. Vintage, New York. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/16detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xvicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-19.html)

Sonnet 17

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Sonnet 17
« » Sonnet 17 Who will believe my verse in time to come, If it were fill'd with your most high deserts? Though yet heaven knows it is but as a tomb Which hides your life, and shows not half your parts. If I could write the beauty of your eyes, And in fresh numbers number all your graces, The age to come would say 'This poet lies; Such heavenly touches ne'er touch'd earthly faces.' So should my papers, yellow'd with their age, Be scorn'd, like old men of less truth than tongue, And your true rights be term'd a poet's rage And stretched metre of an antique song: But were some child of yours alive that time, You should live twice, in it, and in my rhyme. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet XVII, the last of his procreation sonnets, questions his own descriptions of the young man, believing that in future ages will believe them to be exaggerations if he does not make a copy of himself (a child).

Synopsis
Shakespeare insists that his comparisons, even though they are quite strong, are not exaggerations. Shakespeare even goes as far as to say that his verse is a "tomb" that hides half of his beauty. Shakespeare argues that the descriptions in fact are not strong enough, and they do not do justice to the man's beauty. ("If I could write the beauty of your eyes,/"). The sonnet ends with a typical notion that should the young man have a child, he shall live both in the child and in the poet's rhyme. As in Sonnet 130, Shakespeare shows himself again to be quite conscious and hesitant in terms of flamboyant, flowery proclamations of beauty. His radiant display of interest is argued by many as a sign of homosexuality in Shakespeare

Original text
The original text from 1609 Quarto for this sonnet is: VVho will believe my verse in time to come If it were filled with your most high deserts? Though yet heaven knows it is but as a tomb Which hides your life , and ſhewes not half your parts: If I could write the beauty of your eyes, And in fresh numbers number all your graces, The age to come would ſay this Poet lies, Such heavenly touches near touch earthly faces.

Sonnet 17 So should my papers (yellowed with their age) Be ſcorn'd,like old men of less truth then tongue, And your true rights be termed a Poets rage, And stretched miter of an Antique ſong. But were some child of yours alive that time, You should live twice in it,and in my rime.

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Interpretations
• Richard Attenborough, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • • • • • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• • • • • Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/17detail.html) Facsimile of 1609 edition of sonnet 17 part 1 (http://extra.shu.ac.uk/emls/Sonnets/b4r.jpg) Facsimile of 1609 edition of sonnet 17 part 2 (http://extra.shu.ac.uk/emls/Sonnets/b4v.jpg) Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xviicomm.htm) CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-20.html)

Sonnet 18

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Sonnet 18
« » Sonnet 18 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate; Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date; Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 18, often alternately titled Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?, is one of the best-known of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. Part of the Fair Youth sequence (which comprises sonnets 1-126 in the accepted numbering stemming from the first edition in 1609), it is the first of the cycle after the opening sequence now described as the Procreation sonnets. Most scholars now agree that the original subject of the poem, the beloved to whom the poet is writing, is a male, though the poem is commonly used to describe a woman. In the sonnet, the speaker compares his beloved to the summer season, and argues that his beloved is better. He also states that his beloved will live on forever through the words of the poem. Scholars have found parallels within the poem to Ovid's Tristia and Amores, both of which have love themes. Sonnet 18 is written in the typical Shakespearean sonnet form, having 14 lines of iambic pentameter ending in a rhymed couplet. Detailed exegeses have revealed several double meanings within the poem, giving it a greater depth of interpretation.

Sonnet 18

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Paraphrase
The poem starts with a flattering question to the beloved—"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" The beloved is both "more lovely and more temperate" than a summer's day. The speaker lists some negative things about summer: it is short—"summer's lease hath all too short a date"—and sometimes the sun is too hot—"Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines." However, the beloved has beauty that will last forever, unlike the fleeting beauty of a summer's day. By putting his love's beauty into the form of poetry, the poet is preserving it forever. "So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee." The lover's beauty will live on, through the poem which will last as long as it can be read.

The poem
(in modern spelling and punctuation) Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date, Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed, And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimmed. But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st. So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
A facsimile of the original printing of Sonnet 18.

Context
The poem is part of the Fair Youth sequence (which comprises sonnets 1-126 in the accepted numbering stemming from the first edition in 1609). It is also the first of the cycle after the opening sequence now described as the Procreation sonnets, although some scholars see it as a part of the Procreation sonnets, as it still addresses the idea of reaching eternal life through the written word, a theme of sonnets 15-17. In this view, it can be seen as part of a transition to sonnet 20's time theme.[1] There are many theories about the identity of the 1609 Quarto's enigmatic dedicatee, Mr. W.H. Some scholars suggest that this poem may be expressing a hope that the Procreation sonnets despaired of: the hope of metaphorical procreation in a homosexual relationship.[2] Other scholars have pointed out that the order in which the sonnets are placed may have been the decision of publishers and not of Shakespeare. This introduces the possibility that Sonnet 18 was originally intended for a woman.[3]

Sonnet 18

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Structure
Sonnet 18 is a typical English or Shakespearean sonnet. It consists of three quatrains followed by a couplet, and has the characteristic rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg. The poem carries the meaning of an Italian or Petrarchan Sonnet. Petrarchan sonnets typically discussed the love and beauty of a beloved, often an unattainable love, but not always.[4] It also contains a volta, or shift in the poem's subject matter, beginning with the third quatrain.[5]

Syllabic structure of a line of Sonnet 18[6]
Stress Syllable x / x / x / x / x /

Thou art more love- ly and more temp- pe- rate

Exegesis
"Complexion" in line six, can have two meanings: 1) The outward appearance of the face as compared with the sun ("the eye of heaven") in the previous line, or 2) the older sense of the word in relation to The four humours. In the time of Shakespeare, "complexion" carried both outward and inward meanings, as did the word "temperate" (externally, a weather condition; internally, a balance of humours). The second meaning of "complexion" would communicate that the beloved's inner, cheerful, and temperate disposition is sometimes blotted out like the sun on a cloudy day. The first meaning is more obvious, meaning of a negative change in his outward appearance.[7] The word, "untrimmed" in line eight, can be taken two ways: First, in the sense of loss of decoration and frills, and second, in the sense of untrimmed sails on a ship. In the first interpretation, the poem reads that beautiful things naturally lose their fanciness over time. In the second, it reads that nature is a ship with sails not adjusted to wind changes in order to correct course. This, in combination with the words "nature's changing course", creates an oxymoron: the unchanging change of nature, or the fact that the only thing that does not change is change. This line in the poem creates a shift from the mutability of the first eight lines, into the eternity of the last six. Both change and eternity are then acknowledged and challenged by the final line.[4] "Ow'st" in line ten can also carry two meanings equally common at the time: "ownest" and "owest". Many readers interpret it as "ownest", as do many Shakespearean glosses ("owe" in Shakespeare's day, was sometimes used as a synonym for "own"). However, "owest" delivers an interesting view on the text. It conveys the idea that beauty is something borrowed from nature—that it must be paid back as time progresses. In this interpretation, "fair" can be a pun on "fare", or the fare required by nature for life's journey.[8] Other scholars have pointed out that this borrowing and lending theme within the poem is true of both nature and humanity. Summer, for example, is said to have a "lease" with "all too short a date." This monetary theme is common in many of Shakespeare's sonnets, as it was an everyday theme in his budding capitalistic society.[9]

Notes
[1] Shakespeare, William et al. The Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. pg. 130 ISBN 0521294037 [2] Neely, Carol Thomas (October 1978). "The Structure of English Renaissance Sonnet Sequence" (http:/ / jstor. org/ stable/ 2872643). ELH (ELH, Vol. 45, No. 3) 45 (3): 359–389. doi:10.2307/2872643. . [3] Schiffer, James. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New York: Garland Pub, 1999. pg. 124. ISBN 0815323654 [4] Jungman, Robert E. (January 2003). "Trimming Shakespeare's Sonnet 18.". ANQ a Quarterly Journal of Short Articles Notes and Reviews (ANQ) 16 (1): 18–19. doi:10.1080/08957690309598181. ISSN 0895-769X. [5] Preminger, Alex and T. Brogan. The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. pg. 894 ISBN 0691021236 [6] Simpson, Paul. Stylistics. New York: Routledge, 2004. pg. 27. ISBN 0415281059 [7] Ray, Robert H. (October 1994). "Shakespeare's Sonnet 18.". The Explicator 53 (1): 10–11. doi:10.1080/00144940.1994.9938800. ISSN 0014-4940. [8] Howell, Mark (April 1982). "Shakespeare's Sonnet 18". The Explicator 40 (3): 12. ISSN 0014-4940.

Sonnet 18
[9] Thurman, Christopher (May 2007). "Love's Usury, Poet's Debt: Borrowing and Mimesis in Shakespeare's Sonnets". Literature Compass (Literature Compass) 4 (3): 809–819. doi:10.1111/j.1741-4113.2007.00433.x.

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References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/18detail.html) • Sparknotes' reading of the sonnet (http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/shakesonnets/section2.rhtml) • Commentary on the poem (http://shakespeare.about.com/od/studyguides/a/sonnet18_guide.htm)

Sonnet 19
« » Sonnet 19 Devouring Time, blunt thou the lion's paws, And make the earth devour her own sweet brood; Pluck the keen teeth from the fierce tiger's jaws, And burn the long-liv'd phoenix, in her blood; Make glad and sorry seasons as thou fleet'st, And do whate'er thou wilt, swift-footed Time, To the wide world and all her fading sweets; But I forbid thee one most heinous crime: O! carve not with thy hours my love's fair brow, Nor draw no lines there with thine antique pen; Him in thy course untainted do allow For beauty's pattern to succeeding men. Yet, do thy worst old Time: despite thy wrong, My love shall in my verse ever live young. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 19, sometimes considered the last of the opening group of sonnets, treats the theme of redemption of time through art.

Sonnet 19

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Paraphrase
Time that devours all, you can blunt the lion's paws with age and make the earth devour its own children; you can pluck the teeth from the tiger, and you can burn the phoenix in its own blood. You can continue to make happiness and sadness as you proceed, and indeed, do whatever you want to the world. But I forbid you one thing: You may not make wrinkles on the beautiful face of my beloved, for you must leave him as the model of beauty to the people who follow us. Yet even if you do your worst, my beloved shall continue ever-young in my poems.

Source and analysis
G. Wilson Knight notes and analyzes the way in which "devouring" time is developed by trope in the first 19 poems; Jonathan Hart notes the reliance of Shakespeare's treatment on tropes from Ovid and Edmund Spenser. Like the poems that immediately precede it, the poem offers the immortality of art as a way to escape time and death. Quarto's "yawes" (3) was amended to "jaws" by Edward Capell and Edmond Malone; this change is now almost universally accepted. George Steevens glosses "in her blood" as "burned alive" by analogy with Coriolanus 4.6.85; Nicolaus Delius has the phrase "while still standing." Henry Charles Beeching perceives a valediction in the final line, meant to indicate that the opening group of sonnets ends here.

Interpretations
• David Harewood, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hart, Jonathan (2002). "Conflicting Monuments." In the Company of Shakespeare. AUP, New York. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/19detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xixcomm.htm)

Sonnet 20

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Sonnet 20
« » Sonnet 20 A woman's face with nature's own hand painted, Hast thou, the master mistress of my passion; A woman's gentle heart, but not acquainted With shifting change, as is false women's fashion: An eye more bright than theirs, less false in rolling, Gilding the object whereupon it gazeth; A man in hue all hues in his controlling, Which steals men's eyes and women's souls amazeth. And for a woman wert thou first created; Till Nature, as she wrought thee, fell a-doting, And by addition me of thee defeated, By adding one thing to my purpose nothing. But since she prick'd thee out for women's pleasure, Mine be thy love and thy love's use their treasure. –William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 20 was published in a collection of 154 sonnets in the early seventeenth century. This particular sonnet is infamously known and widely interpreted due to questions raised regarding the sexuality of the narrator, and therefore Shakespeare himself. Sonnet 20, “has received more attention than many better ones, partly because of puzzling, punning seventh line may contain a clue to the identity of ‘the onlie begetter,’ and partly because the whole poem has been thought to raise the pseudo-problem of Shakespeare’s homosexuality.”[1]

Context
Sonnet 20 is most often considered to be a member of the “fair youth” group of sonnets, in which most scholars agree that the narrator to be addressing a young man. This interpretation contributes to common assumption of the homosexuality of Shakespeare, or at least the speaker of his sonnet. The position of Sonnet 20 also influences its analysis and examinations. William Nelles, of the University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, claims that, “Sonnet 20 splits readers into two groups: those who see an end to any clear sequence after this point, and those who read on, finding a narrative line connecting the rest of the sonnets in a meaningful pattern.”[2] Scholars have suggested countless motivations or means of organizing Shakespeare’s sonnets in a specific sequence or system of grouping. Some see the division between the sonnets written to the “young man,” while others do not. A number of academics believe the sonnets may be woven into some form of complex narrative, while “Paul Edmondson and Stanley Wells confidently assert that the sonnets are ‘better thought of as a collection than a sequence, since…the individual poems do not hang together from beginning to end as a single unity…Though some of the first 126 poems in the collection unquestionably relate to a young man, others could relate to either a male or female.’”[3]

Sonnet 20

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Sexuality
The modern reader may read sonnet 20 and question whether or not Shakespeare’s sexuality is reflected in this sonnet. When looking at the sexual connotations in this sonnet it is important to reflect on what homoerotism meant during the time that Shakespeare was writing. Casey Charles discusses the idea that there was no official identity for a gay person at this time. There were words that identified what we would consider to be homosexual behaviour, but the idea of “gay culture” was not present.[4] Charles goes on to say that these laws had very few transgressors, which means that either people did not commit these crimes of homosexuality or it was more socially acceptable than the modern reader would think. This lends itself to the idea that either Shakespeare had no idea of the homoerotic undertones in this sonnet or he was completely aware of how it would read. Shakespeare’s awareness of the homoeroticism still does not give light to the reader if he himself was actually practicing homosexual behavior.[5] One of the most famous accounts to raise the issue of homoeroticism in this sonnet is Oscar Wilde's short story "The Portrait of Mr. W.H.", in which Wilde, or rather the story's narrator, describes the puns on "will" and "hues" throughout the sonnets, and particularly in the line in sonnet 20, "A man in hue all hues in his controlling," as referring to a seductive young actor named Willie Hughes who played female roles in Shakespeare's plays. However, there is no evidence for the existence of any such person. (A "hue" was a servant; see OED, "hewe". The original word in the Quarto for "hues" is "Hews.")

Analysis
The possibilities for scholarly interpretations of Sonnet 20 are endless. While there is much evidence that suggests the narrator’s homosexuality, there are also countless academics who have argued against the theory. Both approaches can be used to analyze the sonnet. Philip C. Kolin, of the University of Southern Mississippi, provides analysis of several lines from the first two quatrains of Sonnet 20. Kolin interprets these lines as written by a homosexual figure. One of the most common interpretations of line 2 is that the speaker believes, “the young man has the beauty of a woman and the form of a man...Shakespeare bestows upon the young man feminine virtues divorced form all their reputedly shrewish infidelity.”[6] In other words, the young man possesses all the positive qualities of a woman, without all of her negative qualities. The narrator seems to believe that the young man is as beautiful as any woman, but is also more faithful and less fickle. Kolin also argues that, “numerous, though overlooked, sexual puns run throughout this indelicate panegyric to Shakespeare’s youthful friend.”[6] He suggests the reference to the youth’s eyes, which gild the objects upon which they gaze, may also be a pun on “gelding…The feminine beauty of this masculine paragon not only enhances those in his sight but, with the sexual meaning before us, gelds those male admirers who temporarily fall under the sway of the feminine grace and pulchritude housed in his manly frame.”[6] Martin B. Friedman, of California State College, Hayward, holds an entirely different view. Friedman believes Sonnet 20 is written by a masculine heterosexual figure in relation to a variety of sports of Shakespeare’s time. For example, he argues, “the terms ‘Master’ and ‘Mistress’[of line 2], used interchangeably to refer, as here, to something which is an object of passionate interest of a center of attention, come from the game of bowls.”[1] He continues to build connections between several phrases and, what he believes to be, references to terms used in gambling, more specifically in the game of bowls, which involves the rolling of a dice. Friedman claims, “And the imagery recurs in line 5: ‘An eye more bright then theirs, lesse false in rowling.’”[1] Amy Stackhouse brings an interesting interpretation to the form of sonnet 20. Stackhouse explains the form of the sonnet being written in iambic pentameter with an extra-unstressed syllable on each line lends itself to the idea of a “gender-bending” model. The unstressed syllable lends itself to a feminine rhyme, yet the addition of the syllable to the traditional form represents a phallus.[7] Stackhouse also comments on the reveal of the gender of the addressee in the final few lines as a way of Shakespeare playing with the idea of gender throughout the poem. Stackhouse’s analysis of the nature aspect also seemed to play into the “gender-bending” model by creating this idea of Mother Nature falling in love with her creation and thus imparting a phallus to him. Which is represented in the extra-unstressed syllable as well.[7] This idea of nature is also reflected in Philip C. Kolin’s analysis of the last part of

Sonnet 20 the poem as well. Kolin’s observation of Shakespeare’s discussion of the man being for “women’s pleasure” does not lend itself to this idea of bisexuality or gender-bending at all. This is where Shakespeare is clearly saying that this is not homosexual love. Kolin is saying that nature made him for “women’s pleasure” and that is what is “natural” [6] . Kolin goes on to say that the phrase “to my purpose nothing” also reflects this natural aspect of being created for women’s pleasure. In this, however, he takes no account of Shakespeare's common pun of "nothing" ("O") to mean vagina.[8] Whereas Stackhouse would argue the poem is almost gender neutral Kolin would argue that the poem is “playful” and “sexually (dualistic)” [6]

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Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Martin B. Friedman, Shakespeare’s ‘Master Mistris’: Image and Tone in Sonnet 20, 189-191. William Nelles, Sexing Shakespeare’s Sonnets: Reading Beyond Sonnet 20, 128-140. William Nelles, Sexing Shakespeare’s Sonnets: Reading Beyond Sonnet 20, 128-140. (Charles, Casey. "Was Shakespeare gay? Sonnet 20 and the politics of pedagogy." College Literature 25.3 (1998): 35-52. EBSCOhost. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.) (Charles, Casey. "Was Shakespeare gay? Sonnet 20 and the politics of pedagogy." College Literature 25.3 (1998): 35-52. EbSCOhost. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.) (Kolin, Philip C. "Shakespeare's Sonnet 20." Explicitor 45.1 (1986): 10-12. Print.) (Stackhouse, Amy D. "Shakespeare's Half-Foot: Gendered Prosody in Sonnet 20." Explicitor 65 (2006): 202-04. Print.) Williams, Gordon (1997). "nothing". Shakespeare's Sexual Language: A Glossary. London: Athlone Press. p. 219. ISBN 0-8264-9134-0.

References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/20detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxcomm.htm)

Sonnet 21

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Sonnet 21
« » Sonnet 21 So is it not with me as with that Muse, Stirred by a painted beauty to his verse, Who heaven itself for ornament doth use And every fair with his fair doth rehearse, Making a couplement of proud compare With sun and moon, with earth and sea's rich gems, With April's first-born flowers, and all things rare, That heaven's air in this huge rondure hems. O! let me, true in love, but truly write, And then believe me, my love is as fair As any mother's child, though not so bright As those gold candles fixed in heaven's air: Let them say more that like of hearsay well; I will not praise that purpose not to sell. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 21 was written by William Shakespeare. Like Sonnet 130, it addresses the issue of truth in love, as the speaker frankly admits that his lines, while less extravagant than those of other poets, are more truthful.

Paraphrase
I am unlike the other poet, who praises a woman made artificially beautiful by cosmetics, who compares her to the heavens, and indeed to everything beautiful. He proudly compares his beloved to the sun and moon, to the beauties of earth and sea, to the flowers of April. For myself, because my love is true, I wish merely to write truly. My beloved is as beautiful as any human, though not so bright as the stars. Those who like exaggerated rumors may speak more if they wish; since I do not plan to sell my beloved, I will not waste time with superfluous praise.

Source and analysis
George Wyndham calls this the first sonnet to address the problem of the rival poet; Beeching and others, however, differentiate the poet mentioned here from the one later seen competing with Shakespeare's speaker for the affections of a male beloved. Edmond Malone found parallel descriptions of the stars as candles in Romeo and Juliet and Macbeth. While Alexander Schmidt glosses line 13 as "fall in love with what others have praised," Edward Dowden has it "those who like to be buzzed about by talk." As William James Rolfe notes, the line refers definitely to the type of exaggerated praise the sonnet has just described. George Wyndham notes a parallel to the final line in Samuel Daniel's Delia 53; in that poem, the speaker condemns the "mercenary lines" of other poets. As Madeleine Doran and others note, criticism of exaggerated praise was only slightly less common in Renaissance poetry than such praise itself. Because of the repeated --are rhymes in the third quatrain, the poem has six rhymes instead of seven.

Sonnet 21

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Interpretations
• Imogen Stubbs, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Doran, Madeleine (1976). The Idea of Excellence in Shakespeare. Shakespeare Quarterly, 27. pp. 133-149. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • McGuire, Philip (1987). Shakespeare's Non-Shakespearean Sonnets. Shakespeare Quarterly, 38 (1987): pp. 304-319. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/21detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-24.html)

Sonnet 22

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Sonnet 22
« » Sonnet 22 My glass shall not persuade me I am old, So long as youth and thou are of one date; But when in thee time's furrows I behold, Then look I death my days should expiate. For all that beauty that doth cover thee, Is but the seemly raiment of my heart, Which in thy breast doth live, as thine in me: How can I then be elder than thou art? O! therefore love, be of thyself so wary As I, not for myself, but for thee will; Bearing thy heart, which I will keep so chary As tender nurse her babe from faring ill. Presume not on thy heart when mine is slain, Thou gav'st me thine not to give back again. –William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare's Sonnet 22 is among the part of his sequence written to a young man; more narrowly, it is among the early poems, in which the speaker of the poem and the young man are represented as enjoying a healthy and positive relationship. The last line, however, hints at the speaker's doubts, which become prominent slightly later in the sequence.

Paraphrase
I will not believe that I am old as long as you are young, but once I see that you are old, I will know that I will die soon. The reason for this is that you and I have exchanged hearts, so that I cannot be truly old until you, who have my heart, grow old. We are the same age. Thus, I beg you to take care of yourself for my sake, as I will take care of myself for your sake, as a mother takes care of her baby. But do not expect that if my heart is slain (i.e., through your carelessness or betrayal) I will give you yours back: you didn't give it to me just to take it back later.

Source and analysis
The poem is built on two conventional subjects for Elizabethan sonneteers. The notion of the exchange of hearts was popularized by Petrarch's Sonnet 48; instances may be found in Philip Sidney (Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia) and others, but the idea is also proverbial. The conceit of love as an escape for an aged speaker is no less conventional and is more narrowly attributable to Petrarch's Sonnet 143. The image cannot be used to date the sonnet, if you agree with most critics, that it was written by a poet in his mid-30s. Samuel Daniel employs the same concept in a poem written when Shakespeare was 29, and Michael Drayton used it when he was only 31. Stephen Booth perceives an echo of the Anglican marriage service in the phrasing of the couplet. "Expiate" in line 4 formerly caused some confusion, since the context does not seem to include a need for atonement. George Steevens suggested "expirate"; however, Edmond Malone and others have established that expiate here means "fill up the measure of my days" or simply "use up." Certain critics, among them Booth and William

Sonnet 22 Kerrigan, still perceive an echo of the dominant meaning. The conventional nature of the poem, what Evelyn Simpson called its "frigid conceit," is perhaps a large part of the reason that this poem is not among the most famous of the sonnets today.

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Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/22detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxiicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-25.html)

Sonnet 23

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Sonnet 23
« » Sonnet 23 As an unperfect actor on the stage, Who with his fear is put beside his part, Or some fierce thing replete with too much rage, Whose strength's abundance weakens his own heart; So I, for fear of trust, forget to say The perfect ceremony of love's rite, And in mine own love's strength seem to decay, O'ercharg'd with burthen of mine own love's might. O! let my books be then the eloquence And dumb presagers of my speaking breast, Who plead for love, and look for recompense, More than that tongue that more hath more express'd. O! learn to read what silent love hath writ: To hear with eyes belongs to love's fine wit. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 23 is one of the sequence addressed to a well-born young man. It is of special interest because of its use of a metaphor drawn from acting, a figure that has led to much attention for what the poem might reveal about Shakespeare's attitude towards his profession.

Source and analysis
Hermann Isaac notes parallels to the central dilemma of the poem ranging from Petrarch, the Renaissance locus for love-conceits, through Wyatt and Edmund Spenser, to Walter Raleigh and Samuel Daniel. The reference to acting has struck some critics as relevant to the author's biography. George Steevens, an advocate of early composition, argued that Shakespeare might have derived the image from watching performances of traveling troupes in Stratford; Malone suggested that the image implies familiarity with acting, not spectating. However, the image is not unique to Shakespeare and need not be taken as personal. "For fear of trust" has drawn different, though not neceessarily contradictory, glosses. Nicolaus Delius has it "from want of self-confidence," with which Edward Dowden substantially agrees; Thomas Tyler adds "for fear that I shall not be trusted," and Beeching agrees that "the trust is active." "Dumb presagers" is sometimes seen as a continuation of the acting metaphor; a dumb show often preceded each act of Elizabethan plays. Fleay suggests a more specific indebtedness to Daniel's Complaint of Rosamond, 19. The principal interpretive issue relates to "books" in line 9. George Sewell and Edward Capell, among others, supported emendation to "looks," principally because the syntactical connection with "presagers" seems to require a word in line 9 that can evoke future time. Both words fit into the trope of the lover struck dumb by his love, and hoping to use his books (or looks) to make himself understood. Editors from Malone to Booth and William Kerrigan have defended the quarto reading, and most modern editors generally retain "books."

Sonnet 23

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Original text
The original text from 1609 Quarto: As an unperfect actor on the stage, Who with his fear is put besides his part, Or some fierce thing replete with too much rage, Whose strengths abondance weakens his owne heart; So I for fear of trust,forget to say, The perfect ceremony of loves rite, And in mine owne loves strength seem to decay, Ore-charg'd with burthen of mine owne loves might: O let my books be then the eloquence, And domb presagers of my speaking brest, Who pleade for love,and look for recompence, More then that tonge that more hath more exprest. O learn to read what silent love hath writ, To hear wit eyes belongs to loves fine wiht.

Interpretations
• John Gielgud, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sonnet 23

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External links
• • • • Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/23detail.html) Facsimile of Sonnet 23 from 1609 Quarto (http://extra.shu.ac.uk/emls/Sonnets/c1v.jpg) Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxiiicomm.htm) CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-26.html)

Sonnet 24
« » Sonnet 24 Mine eye hath play'd the painter and hath steel'd, Thy beauty's form in table of my heart; My body is the frame wherein 'tis held, And perspective it is best painter's art. For through the painter must you see his skill, To find where your true image pictur'd lies, Which in my bosom's shop is hanging still, That hath his windows glazed with thine eyes. Now see what good turns eyes for eyes have done: Mine eyes have drawn thy shape, and thine for me Are windows to my breast, where-through the sun Delights to peep, to gaze therein on thee; Yet eyes this cunning want to grace their art, They draw but what they see, know not the heart. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 24 treats the commonplace Renaissance conceit connecting heart and eye. Though it relates to other sonnets that explore this theme, Sonnet 24 is considered largely imitative and conventional.

Paraphrase
The sonnet may be paraphrased thus: Like a painter, my eye has drawn your image on my heart, with my body as the frame. To paint in due proportion is the greatest skill of a painter, and only through this painter (that is, my eye) may you see the image of you that has been created in my heart. Your eyes, indeed, are the windows into my own. Now, consider what mutual benefit our eyes have brought each other. My eyes drew you, and your eyes are windows through which I can see my own heart, windows the sun delights to shine through in order to see you. Yet eyes, unfortunately, can draw only what they see, not the emotions invested in those perceived objects.

Sonnet 24

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Source and analysis
Edward Capell emended quarto "steeld" to "stelled," a word more closely related to the metaphor of the first quatrain. Edward Dowden notes parallels for the opening conceit in Henry Constable's Diana and in Thomas Watson's Tears of Fancy. The poem's central conceit, the dialogue between heart and eye, was a period cliché. Sidney Lee traces it to Petrarch and notes analogues in the work of Ronsard, Michael Drayton, and Barnabe Barnes. The poem has not enjoyed a high reputation. Henry Charles Beeching speculates that it might be a half-serious spoof of a cliched type of poem. George Wyndham is among the few to take it completely seriously, providing a neoplatonic reading. "Perspective" is the key trope in the second half of the poem, as it introduces the idea of the connection between speaker and beloved. Some editors have assumed that "perspective" was used, as often in the Renaissance, to refer to a specific type of optical illusion; however, Thomas Tyler and others demonstrated that the word was also known in its modern sense during the time.

References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) [1] • Analysis [2] • CliffsNotes [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 24detail. html [2] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xxivcomm. htm [3] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-27. html

Sonnet 25

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Sonnet 25
« » Sonnet 25 Let those who are in favour with their stars Of public honour and proud titles boast, Whilst I, whom fortune of such triumph bars Unlook'd for joy in that I honour most. Great princes' favourites their fair leaves spread But as the marigold at the sun's eye, And in themselves their pride lies buried, For at a frown they in their glory die. The painful warrior famoused for fight, After a thousand victories once foiled, Is from the book of honour razed quite, And all the rest forgot for which he toiled: Then happy I, that love and am beloved, Where I may not remove nor be removed. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 25 is among the first of the sequence to deal explicitly with the difference in class between Shakespeare and the subject of the poems. It prefigures the more famous treatment of this difference in Sonnet 29.

Paraphrase
Let those who have been favored by fortune boast about their social standing; I, who am hindered by fortune, am happy with the unanticipated pleasure of your love and regard. Prince's favorites, like marigolds that survive only as long as the sun shines on them, last only as long as that royal favor continues. A great soldier loses his reputation completely if he loses just one battle. I am, then, more truly fortunate, because the pleasure I take in you cannot be removed from me by any means.

Source and analysis
John Kerrigan notes the echo of the prologue to Romeo and Juliet in the astrological metaphor of the first quatrain; he notes that the image severs reward from justice, making fortune a mere caprice. "Unlooked for" has occasioned some comment. Henry Charles Beeching argued for an adverbial meaning, such as "surprisingly" or "unexpectedly." George Wyndham glossed it as "not favored in the way a favorite is." Edmond Malone noted the resemblance of lines 5-8 to Henry VIII 3.2.352-8. The quarto reads "worth" at the end of line nine. Edward Capell proposed the emendation "might," which is comprehensible in terms of typesetting. Lewis Theobald proposed "fight," which is now widely accepted; he also proposed, alternately, that "worth" be retained and 11's "quite" be changed to "forth." John Payne Collier is among the few critics to take this alternative seriously. George Steevens opined that "the quatrain is not worth the labor that has been bestowed on it." Edward Dowden notes that the marigold was most commonly mentioned in Renaissance literature as a heliotrope, with the various symbolic associations connected to that type of plant; William James Rolfe finds an analogous reference to the plant in George Wither's poetry.

Sonnet 25

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Interpretations
• David Warner, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/25detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxvcomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-28.html)

Sonnet 26

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Sonnet 26
« » Sonnet 26 Lord of my love, to whom in vassalage Thy merit hath my duty strongly knit, To thee I send this written embassage, To witness duty, not to show my wit: Duty so great, which wit so poor as mine May make seem bare, in wanting words to show it, But that I hope some good conceit of thine In thy soul's thought, all naked, will bestow it: Till whatsoever star that guides my moving, Points on me graciously with fair aspect, And puts apparel on my tottered loving, To show me worthy of thy sweet respect: Then may I dare to boast how I do love thee; Till then, not show my head where thou mayst prove me. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 26 is generally regarded as the end-point or culmination of the group of five preceding sonnets. It encapsulates several themes not only of Sonnets 20-25, but also of the first twenty-five poems together: the function of writing poems, the effect of class differences, and love.

Paraphrase
Beloved, whose own worth has connected me to you in feudal bonds, I send you these writings. I send them as a testament to my duty, not to show off my wit. Indeed, my duty is so great that my poor skill may not represent it adequately. Still, I hope that you will aid it with your own imagination, and give my naked rhymes some standing in the world through your approval. Not until the star under which I was born favors me, allowing me to write more beautifully about my love--not until then will I dare to boast of my love for you, but will rather stay away from places where you might be able to judge my love's value.

Source and analysis
Analysis of this sonnet was at one point focused on its provenance. Edward Capell was the first to note the similarity of content between the first quatrain and the dedication to Southampton in The Rape of Lucrece. Some scholars have speculated that the poem was written to accompany some other of Shakespeare's writings, perhaps the first group of sonnets. The hypothesis remains intriguing but unproven. Edward Massey and Sidney Lee, among others, accept the connection between sonnet and dedication; among the skeptics are Thomas Tyler, Nicolaus Delius, and Hermann Isaac. More specific arguments that the poem's similarities to the Venus dedications indicate that the poem was written to Southampton have not gained wide acceptance. Modern analysts are more likely to remain agnostic on the question of the occasion of the poem, if any; all agree, however, that the sonnet at least dramatizes the type of emotions an older but lower-class poet might express toward a potential noble patron. Assessments of the sonnets placement within the sequence vary. In conjunction with the biographical hypothesis, some scholars (among them Capell and Edward Dowden) have seen it as an envoy or introduction to a certain set of poems sent to an aristocrat who had commissioned them. On thematic grounds, this group is usually defined as

Sonnet 26 20-25, but is sometimes extended to all of the first 25 sonnets. Others, among them George Wyndham and Henry Charles Beeching, make it the introduction of a new set, running until Sonnet 32. Capell and Malone's emendation of the quarto's "their" (line 12) to "thy" is almost universally accepted now. The poem, like many others in the sequence, is built on a conceit rooted in social class. In this context, the master-servant trope commonplace in Petrarchan love poetry is literalized, by the poem's address to an imagined noble. Helen Vendler argues that the speaker's identification of himself as a slave or vassal invites skepticism rather than identification; however, others have stressed the appropriateness of the metaphor in the context of the speaker's frustrated desire for equality with the beloved. As Stephen Booth notes, the poem works on a series of "shows": the word appears in four separate lines of the sonnet. Booth perceives a vague sexual pun in the second half of the poem, but G. B. Evans and others describe this reading as "strained."

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Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Lee, Sidney (1904). Elizabethan Sonnets. Westminster: Constable, 1904. • Schallwyck, David (2002). Speech and Performance in Shakespeare's Plays and Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/26detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxvicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-29.html)

Sonnet 27

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Sonnet 27
« » Sonnet 27 Weary with toil, I haste me to my bed, The dear repose for limbs with travel tired; But then begins a journey in my head To work my mind, when body's work's expired: For then my thoughts--from far where I abide-Intend a zealous pilgrimage to thee, And keep my drooping eyelids open wide, Looking on darkness which the blind do see: Save that my soul's imaginary sight Presents thy shadow to my sightless view, Which, like a jewel hung in ghastly night, Makes black night beauteous, and her old face new. Lo! thus, by day my limbs, by night my mind, For thee, and for myself, no quiet find. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 27 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards another person. Sonnet 27 is Shakespeare's only pangrammic sonnet.

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sonnet 27

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External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/27detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxviicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-30.html)

Sonnet 28
« » Sonnet 28 How can I then return in happy plight, That am debarred the benefit of rest? When day's oppression is not eas'd by night, But day by night and night by day oppress'd, And each, though enemies to either's reign, Do in consent shake hands to torture me, The one by toil, the other to complain How far I toil, still farther off from thee. I tell the day, to please him thou art bright, And dost him grace when clouds do blot the heaven: So flatter I the swart-complexion'd night, When sparkling stars twire not thou gild'st the even. But day doth daily draw my sorrows longer, And night doth nightly make grief's length seem stronger. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 28 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man. Sonnet 28 continues the complaint of the previous sonnet. The opposition between day and night dominates the sonnet.

Original text
The original text from 1609 Quarto: How can I then returne in happy plight That am debard the benefit of reſt? When daies oppreſſion is not eazd by night, But day by night and night by day opreſt. And each (though enimes to ethers raigne) Doe in conſent ſhake hands to torture me, The one by toyle, the other to complaine How far I toyle, ſtill farther off from thee. I tell the Day to pleaſe him thou art bright, And do'ſt him grace when clouds doe blot the heauen: So flatter I the ſwart complexiond night, When ſparkling ſtars twire not thou guil'ſt th' eauen.

Sonnet 28 But day doth daily draw my ſorrowes longer,(ſtronger And night doth nightly make greefes length ſeeme

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Notes References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

External links
• Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxviiicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-31.html)

Sonnet 29
« » Sonnet 29 When in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes, I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon myself and curse my fate, Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featured like him, like him with friends possess'd, Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope, With what I most enjoy contented least. Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising, Haply I think on thee, and then my state, Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate; For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings That then I scorn to change my state with kings. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 29 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. This is one of his more ambiguous sonnets: one does not know who the speaker is referring to or if the word "love" in this sonnet refers to a romantic love or a platonic love. Shakespeare is most known for his plays and poetry. Most of his work was written between 1589 and 1613. Although he was an active poet, Shakespeare's poems did not earn acclaim until the nineteenth century. This is partly due to the fact that some of his sonnets hinted at homoeroticism which, at the time, was a forbidden idea.

Sonnet 29

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Structure of Sonnet 29
Sonnet 29 follows the same basic structure as Shakespeare's other sonnets. The sonnet contains fourteen lines and is written in iambic pentameter, meaning that each of the fourteen lines contains ten syllables that alternate between unstressed and stressed. It is composed of three rhyming quatrains with a rhyming couplet at the end and follows the traditional English rhyme scheme of ABAB CDCD EFEF GG. As noted by Bernhard Frank, Sonnet 29 includes two distinct sections with the Speaker explaining his current depressed state of mind in the first octave and then conjuring what appears to be a happier image in the last sestet[1] In his literary criticism of Stephen Booth’s analysis of the work, Murdo William McRae explains two characteristics of the internal structure of Sonnet 29 that Booth failed to mention that make the work distinctly unique from any of Shakespeare’s other sonnets [2] . The first unique characteristic is the lack of a “when/then” pattern. Traditionally, the first eight lines of a sonnet produce a problem (a “when” statement”) that is then resolved in the last six lines (a “then” statement). McRae points out, however, that the Speaker in this sonnet fails to produce a solution possibly because his overwhelming lack of self-worth prevents him from ever being able to state an actual argument, and instead uses his conclusion to contrast the negative feelings stated in the previous octave. McRae notes that this break from the traditional style of sonnet writing creates a feeling of the sonnet being “pulled apart.” The second unique characteristic is the repetition of the B-rhyme in lines 2 and 4 (“state” and “fate”) in the F-rhyme in lines 10 and 12 (“state” and “gate”). McRae says that the duplication of the B-rhyme redirects the reader’s attention to the lines, and this “poem within a poem” pulls the piece back together in a way that contrasts its original pulling apart. However, Shakespeare did not only create a pattern of line rhymes. As Frank explains in his article Shakespeare repeats the word “state” three times throughout the poem with each being a reference to something different. The first “state” referring the Speaker’s condition (line 2), the second to his mindset (line 10), and the third to “state” of a monarch or kingdom (line 14). This whole issue of the duplicated B-rhyme is addressed in other sources as well. Philip McGuire states in his article that some refer to this as a "serious technical blemish", while others maintain that "the double use of 'state' as a rhyme may be justified, in order to bring out the stark contrast between the Speaker's apparently outcast state and the state of joy described in the third quatrain" [3] . The biggest question seems to surround whether this rhyme decision significantly deviates from the Shakespearean sonnet format or if it was simply the poet's choice. In his book The Fickle Glass: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets, Paul Ramsey points out the line three specifically as "one of the most perturbed lines in our language" [4] page 153). He specifically points out stressed syllables, "troub-," "deaf," and "heav'n", saying they are "jarringly close together" and that "the 'heav'n with' is probably the most violent example in the sonnets of a trochee without a preceding verse-pause... The heaping of stress, the harsh reversal, the rush to a vivid stress - all enforce the angry anti-religious troubled cry." (page 153) Ramsey breaks down this line very specifically and implies that Shakespeare was incredibly meticulous and deliberate when writing each line to convey his tone and sentiment.

Persona of the speaker
Camille Paglia states that there is nothing in the poem that would provide a clue as to whether the poem is directed towards a man or a woman, but assumes, as many do, that Sonnet 29 was written about the young man[5] . Both Paglia and Frank agree that the first octave is about the Speaker’s current depression caused by his social ostracism in his outcast state” (line 2) and personal misfortune that has “curse[d] my fate” (line 4). The Speaker proclaims his jealousy of those that are “rich in hope” (line 5) and “with friends possess'd” (line 6), once again referring to his hopelessness and low social status. Paglia refers to this section of the poem as a “list of half-imaginary grievances.” Frank seems to agree with her statement of “half imaginary” since he believes the Speaker wills his own misery. As the poem moves from the octave to the sestet, Frank makes note of the Speaker’s “radical movement from despair to alert.” This sudden emotional jump (along with the pattern of the “state”) displays the Speaker’s “wild mood

Sonnet 29 swings.” Frank believes that the last sestet, however, is not as “happy” as some may believe. Using line 10 as his example, Frank points out that the Speaker says he simply “thinks” of his beloved while he is alone which leads one to wonder if the said “sweet love” (line 13) even knows the Speaker exists. Paglia, however, takes several different views on the poem. For example, she does not actually come out and accuse the Speaker of bringing his causing his own suffering. Referencing line 1, she notes that Fortune (personified) has actually abandoned the poor Speaker. This abandonment is the cause of the Speaker’s desire for “this man's art, and that man's scope” (line 7) and has caused the Speaker to only be “contented” (line 8) which hints at the Speaker’s (and possibly Shakespeare’s) lack of artistic inspiration. The final few lines, however, are where Paglia differs the most from Frank. Paglia feels that the “sweet love” of the Speaker’s has been restored and that he has received a “spiritual wealth.” The once jealous and desperate Speaker has now found solace in love knowing that love “dims all material things” that he has been lusting after. In a way the conflict presented has almost been resolved by this restoration of art in the Speaker’s life. Elizabeth Harris Sagaser sets Sonnet 29 apart from other Elizabethan sonnets in that the speaker is the main focus, as opposed to many love sonnets of the time focused entirely on the object of the speaker's affection, or so they appeared to be. These poems included blazons, or a catalogue of beautiful qualities in the object of the poet's desire; this would seem that the poem is about the woman, not the speaker. However, Sasager says, "I do not mean to imply that... (these poems) are themselves 'about' particular beloveds. But they do pretend to be, and therein is the difference.[6] She goes on to clarify this difference, or what sets sonnet 29 apart from most love object-centered sonnets of the time. "The poet-lover in sonnet 29 admits up front that the fruits of his inward experience are primarily his own, though not his own in terms of everafter fame... Instead, the speaker of 29 is concerned first and foremost with his own persuasion of himself; it is he himself, poet-lover, whom he must incite to wonder" [7] This is to say that though most poetry of the time was at least disguised to be about the object of the speaker's affection, this sonnet does not even attempt to do so. According to Sasager, it is clear that this poem is speaker-focused and about the emotions and experiences of the speaker, not that of the beloved's. As discussed by other critics, Sasager addresses the lack of "when... then" structure saying "the poem shifts to representing a particular moment: not a past moment, but now." She makes a point to say this differs notably from other poems of the time.

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Religious nature of Sonnet 29
Paglia and Frank have similar views on the religious references made throughout the poem. The Speaker first states that heaven is deaf to his “bootless [useless] cries” (line 2). The “lark at break of day arising” (line 11) symbolizes the Speaker’s rebirth to a life where he can now sing “hymns at heaven's gate” (line 12). This creates another contrast in the poem. The once deaf heaven that caused the Speaker’s prayers to be unanswered is now suddenly able to hear. Both authors note the lack of any reference to God and how the Speaker instead speaks only of heaven. Expanding on that notion, Paul Ramsey, in The Fickle Glass: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets, claims, "Sonnet 29 says that God disappoints and that the young man redeems"[8] . This is to say that the poem is not religious in the institutional way, but rather it is its own kind of religion. Ramsey continues, "Against that heaven, against God, is set the happy heaven where the lark sings hymns. The poem is a hymn, celebrating a truth declared superior to religion."[9] So while Sonnet 29 makes some religious references, Ramsey maintains that these are in fact anti-religious in sentiment.

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Synopsis
Sonnet 29 by William Shakespeare the speaker describing moments of great sadness, in which he cries over his "outcast state" by himself. This "outcast state" may refer to either a generally unfavorable standing in society or a lack of financial success in the playwriting field. One possible explanation for this lack of success is the closing of London theatres in 1592 due to a plague epidemic. Another suggested reason for Shakespeare's "outcast state" is an instance of harsh public criticism of Shakespeare by fellow playwright Robert Greene. The attack may have had a deep impact on Shakespeare. Yet another possibility of the meaning of the "outcast state" is that, rather simply, the man was outcast. The speaker then says that in these times he "trouble[s] deaf heaven with his bootless cries", meaning he feels his prayers and exhortations are to no avail. The word "trouble" has particular interest because it suggests that he believes his prayers bother heaven, which shows a general exhaustion of hope and faith on the part of the speaker. The speaker then reveals that he is least satisfied in the things he enjoys most. Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featured like him, like him with friends possess'd, Desiring this man's art and that man's scope, With what I most enjoy contented least; The "turn" at the beginning of the third quatrain occurs when the poet by chance ("haply") happens to think upon the young man to whom the poem is addressed, which makes him assume a more optimistic view of his own life. The speaker likens such a change in mood "to the lark at break of day arising, From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate". This expression was most probably the inspiration for American poet Wallace Stevens when he wrote the poem The Worms at Heaven's Gate in Harmonium. The couplet is an emotional declaration that remembrance of his friend's love is enough for him to value his position in life more than a king's. The repeated use of "state" is notable in line 2 and 10 to mean the Poets general condition, in line 14, with double meaning, it can be read to mean a country.

Interpretations
• Rufus Wainwright put the sonnet to music for the album, When Love Speaks (2002, EMI Classics), which was an album of poetry recitals • actor Matthew Macfadyen recites this poem on Essential Poems (To Fall in Love With) (2003 BBC TV program) • Actor Ron Perlman recites this poem on the album "Of Love and Hope", soundtrack of the '80s TV series Beauty and the Beast, to music by Lee Holdridge.

Trivia
• The 1968 Canadian play (and 1971 film version), Fortune and Men's Eyes, takes its title from this sonnet • in episode 3 ("Siege") from season 1 of Beauty and the Beast, Vincent (portrayed by Ron Perlman) reads this sonnet to Catherine (played by Linda Hamilton) • Edward Lewis, portrayed by Richard Gere, reads this sonnet to Vivian Ward, played by Julia Roberts, during their scene at the park in Pretty Woman • A chapter in Tobias Wolff's Old School is titled "When in disgrace with fortune". • on season 2 ("The Measure of a Man") of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Comm. Bruce Maddox reads the first two lines of the sonnet out of Lt. Comm. Data's Shakespeare book • T.S. Eliot quotes this sonnet in his 1930 poem "Ash Wednesday": 'Because I do not hope/ Because I do not hope to turn/ Desiring this man's gift and that man's scope/ I no longer strive to strive towards such things/ (Why should the agèd eagle stretch its wings?)' • Featured in the 2002 film Conviction where Omar Epps, portraying an imprisoned Carl Upchurch, reads the first half of the Sonnet aloud to other prisoners from his cell.

Sonnet 29

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Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] (Bernhard Frank, “Shakespeare’s ‘SONNET 29’,” The Explicator Volume 64 No. 3 (2006): p. 136-137). (Murdo William McRae, “Shakespeare’s Sonnet 29,” The Explicator Volume 46 (1987): p. 6-8) (McGuire, Philip C. "Shakespeare's Non-Shakespearean Sonnets." Shakespeare Quarterly 38.3 (1987): 304-19. JSTOR. Web.) (Ramsey, Paul. The Fickle Glass: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets. New York: AMS, 1979. Print. pg: 152)( Camille Paglia, Break Blow Burn. New York: Pantheon Books, 2005, p. 8-11 Sasager, Elizabeth H. "Shakespeare's Sweet Leaves: Mourning, Pleasure, and the Triumph of Thought in the Renaissance Love Lyric." The Johns Hopkins University Press 61.1 (1994): 1-26. JSTOR. Web. 27 Oct. 2009.<http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/2873429.pdf>, page 8 [7] Sasager, page 9. [8] (Ramsey, Paul. The Fickle Glass: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets. New York: AMS, 1979. Print. pg. 152) [9] Ramsey, page 153

References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • • • • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/29detail.html) • CliffsNotes on the sonnet (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/ Shakespeare-s-Sonnets-Analysis-and-Original-Text-by-Sonnet-Sonnet-29.id-169,pageNum-79.html) • Passion in Pieces (http://www.passioninpieces.co.uk) The series of sonnet films by Sam Small.

Sonnet 30

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Sonnet 30
« » Sonnet 30 When to the sessions of sweet silent thought I summon up remembrance of things past, I sigh the lack of many a thing I sought, And with old woes new wail my dear time's waste: Then can I drown an eye, unused to flow, For precious friends hid in death's dateless night, And weep afresh love's long since cancell'd woe, And moan the expense of many a vanish'd sight: Then can I grieve at grievances foregone, And heavily from woe to woe tell o'er The sad account of fore-bemoanèd moan, Which I new pay as if not paid before. But if the while I think on thee, dear friend, All losses are restored and sorrows end. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 30, one of his most famous, is a reflection on sad memories reconciled by the realization of the gift he has in his friend. A phrase from the second line of this sonnet has achieved a worldwide circulation in the literature of the twentieth century, with its concern with time: C. K. Scott-Moncrieff chose "Remembrance of Things Past" as the title for his English translation of Marcel Proust's À la recherche du temps perdu. The mood of depression, with absence from his friend, continues and brings back to the speaker the thought of earlier friends now dead, and former loves now over.[1]

Synopsis
Shakespeare constructed Sonnet 29 in honor of his friend and possibly his lover, the Earl of Southampton (Shakespeare’s savior). He continues this theme in Sonnet 30. The poet’s mournful recollections of his deceased friends are ignited by the lover’s absence and can only be cured by the thoughts of his lover; this exemplifies his dependence on his cherished friend for spiritual and emotional support.[2] The sonnet begins by using courtroom metaphors ("session", "summon up" (as a witness), and "cancell'd" (as a debt)). The speaker paradoxically describes solitary contemplation as "sweet" despite his inevitable thought on sad things. Shakespeare grieves his failures and shortcomings ("I sigh the lack of many a thing I sought"), and, although the tragedy is long in the past, he "weep[s] afresh love's long since cancell'd woe". The theme of renewed sadness in contemplation figures prominently in the sonnet. Then can I grieve at grievances forgone And heavily from woe to woe tell o'er The sad account of fore-bemoanèd moan, Which I pay new as if not paid before. The subject of lost friends and lost lovers, which in this sonnet emerges only from a more general evocation of things loved and lost, becomes the main subject of sonnet 31, which may well have been written almost immediately afterwards and in which Shakespeare declares that all those he has lost and lamented are, as it were reincarnated in

Sonnet 30 his friend.[3] The sonnet continues the themes of grief, but while it is a poem about memory its language is surprisingly legal and financial. The poet meditates in solitude on past sorrows, failures, the memory of deceased friends, financial loses, and on old wounds. The concluding couplet, however offers the compensation as all woes vanish in recollection of the “dear friend”.[4] The sonnet ends with a touching statement that in his thoughts of sorrow, when he thinks of his friend, "All losses are restored and sorrows end." The sonnet is much similar in content and tone to Sonnet 29 ("When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes...").

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Metaphors and imagery
The sonnet is intimately bound up with his response to individual metaphors. A metaphor which is obtrusive or vague may well undermine, or at least obscure, a sonnet’s literal statement. That literal statement will not usually be abandoned but it will have to co-exist with a potentially frustrating metaphoric competition. In some sonnets, though, the competition between metaphor and statement is a sustaining, not frustrating, element. An example is sonnet 30 which has one of the most exhaustive metaphors in the sonnets in this book. Coldly abstracted Sonnet 30 says the following: “When I meditate I remember dead friends whom I have long since ceased mourning over. I feel their loss anew until I think of you; with that thought I cease grieving at that loss”. That statement pays a great tribute to the power of the young man but it also has strong negative, reductive undertones which are only held in check by the distance between the sonnet’s statement and the metaphor it uses. The metaphor is, or course, a legal/financial one, beginning at “sessions” and continuing through “summon up”, “precious”, “cancelled”, “expense”, “tell o’er”, “account”, “pay”, and “paid”, to “losses are restored”. Added to those obvious images there is a strain of words which carry secondary legal/financial senses: “lack”, “dear”, “waste”, “unused”, “dateless”, "foregone", and “dear” again in the couplet. Nonetheless I can sympathize, it not agree with martin Seymour-smith’s judgment that the legal metaphor is “unobtrusive”, largely because it has to compete with another line of imagery, the poet’s sorrow: ”sigh”, “old woes”, “new wail”, “drown an eye”, “unused to flow”, “weep afresh”, “moan”, “grieve at grievances”, “heavily”, “from woe to woe”, “sad”, “fore-bemoaned moan”, and “sorrows”. I call this line of imagery because it does not quite have the standing of a metaphor; elements of it are metaphorical, but the reader’s vision is on sighs and tears-a literal and figurative form overcoming each other is the surprising degree to which they fail to interact. Put simply, the part of the mind which sees thought presiding over his court and summoning witness, the cancelling of debts and the spending of money, will not directly, or even indirectly, relate these images to sighs and tears. “Dateless” has its double reference – death has no end, like a lease which has no fixed term – but neither it nor the rest of the metaphor can be absorbed into the sonnet’s statement… Here the death of friends can not be so conveniently labeled. It exists, of course, as a poetic subject, but not normally as a subject, let alone a vehicle, for love poetry, one of whose conventional metaphors is the legal/financial. In essence Sonnet 30 preserves the balance between subject and metaphor, permitting the reader neither to turn it into the reductive statement ‘you are all my dead friends’, nor to read it as the involved love conceit which so much of its language points toward.[5]

Interpretations
In sonnet 30 the poet indulges in just the sort of mourning what we saw him asking his friend- if somewhat ironically- to reject coldly in Sonnet 71 (“no longer mourn for me”). There are other relations between Sonnets 30 and Sonnet 71, especially in the tone of the two sonnets with their opposition between sentiment and marketplace. Indeed, perhaps it is the futility of marketplace methods in Sonnet 30 to appreciate the powers and needs of affection that leads in Sonnet 71 to the somewhat self-pitying indictment of the “vile world” in its emotional unresponsiveness. Both this sonnet and Sonnet 31 are elaborately metaphysical exempla for the homely proverb, “In love is no lack”; they may have been intended as such.

Sonnet 30 1. Sessions: the periodic sittings of the judges, a court of law (Seymour-smith notes that the legal metaphor “adds notion of guilt and punishment to that of nostalgia.”) 2. Summon: cite by authority to appear at a specified place, require an appearance before a court either to answer a charge or to give it evidence 6. Dateless: endless, without limit or fixed term.[6] This is one of the most pensive and gentle of the sonnets. It links in closely with the previous one, (Sonnet 29) both in thought and layout. The discontent with life which was expressed there still remains in this one, as the poet surveys his past life and all the sorrows it has brought him. The language is quasi-legal, possibly based on that appropriate to a manorial court investigating discrepancies in its accounts. Hence terms like, waste, expense, grievance, cancelled, tell o'er, paid before, are employed. When the account is finally reckoned up, with his dear friend added to the balance sheet, the discrepancies and losses disappear, and all sorrow is outweighed by the joy of remembering him.[7] • Kenneth Branagh, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

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Notes
[1] A.L. Rowse, Shakespeare’s Sonnets Third Edition. The MacMillan Press Ltd, 1984 [2] Mabillard, Amanda. An Analysis of Shakespeare's Sonnet 30. Shakespeare Online. 2000. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] J.B. Leishman, Theories and Variations in Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Hillary House Publishers Ltd NY, 1961 D. Callaghan, Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2007 Gerald Hammond, The Reader and Shakespeare’s Young Man Sonnets, The MacMillan Press Ltd, 1981 Stephen Booth, Shakespeare’s Sonnets. New Haven and London Yale University Press, 1977 http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xxxcomm. htm

References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/30detail.html) • Analysis of the sonnet (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxxcomm.htm)

Sonnet 31

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Sonnet 31
« » Sonnet 31 Thy bosom is endeared with all hearts, Which I by lacking have supposed dead; And there reigns Love, and all Love's loving parts, And all those friends which I thought buried. How many a holy and obsequious tear Hath dear religious love stol'n from mine eye, As interest of the dead, which now appear But things remov'd that hidden in thee lie! Thou art the grave where buried love doth live, Hung with the trophies of my lovers gone, Who all their parts of me to thee did give, That due of many now is thine alone: Their images I lov'd, I view in thee, And thou (all they) hast all the all of me. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 31 is one of the numerous sonnets in his sequence addressed to a well-born young man. Developing an idea introduced at the end of Sonnet 30, this sonnet figures the young man's superiority in terms of the possession of all the love the speaker has ever experienced.

Paraphrase
You contain or possess all the loves of people that I, because I lacked them, supposed dead; love reigns in your heart, and all the parts of love, and all those friends I had thought dead. I used to cry as if at funerals, for people who appeared to be dead, when in fact those I thought dead had simply lodged with you. You are, indeed, like a grave where buried love is resurrected; you are hung with the trophies of my past love, and those past loves gave to you the parts of me that they once owned. The love I once owed to them is now due to you alone, and the loves I once had I now see in you, and you have all of me.

Source and analysis
Critics such as Malone, Collier, Dowden glossed "obsequious" as "funereal"; others have preferred the simpler "dutiful". The quarto's "there" in line 8 is generally amended to "thee," although certain critics have defended the quarto reading. "Religious love" is frequently compared to a similar phrase used ironically in A Lover's Complaint; G. Wilson Knight connects the phrase to a "suprapersonal reality created by love" in the sequence as a whole. Numerous editors have placed a period after "give" in line 11. This practice, which is not universal, changes the "that" in line 12 from an abbreviated "so that" to a demonstrative; the advantage of this procedure is that it renders comprehensible the "due" in line 12. T. W. Baldwin argued on thematic grounds that this poem should immediately follow Sonnet 20 and Sonnet 22. This argument, like others to rearrange the sonnets, has not received wide acceptance.

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Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/31detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxxicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-34.html)

Sonnet 32
« » Sonnet 32 If thou survive my well-contented day, When that churl Death my bones with dust shall cover And shalt by fortune once more re-survey These poor rude lines of thy deceased lover, Compare them with the bett'ring of the time, And though they be outstripped by every pen, Reserve them for my love, not for their rhyme, Exceeded by the height of happier men. O! then vouchsafe me but this loving thought: 'Had my friend's Muse grown with this growing age, A dearer birth than this his love had brought, To march in ranks of better equipage: But since he died and poets better prove, Theirs for their style I'll read, his for his love'. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 32 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Sonnet 32

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Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/32detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxxiicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-35.html)

Sonnet 33
« » Sonnet 33 Full many a glorious morning have I seen Flatter the mountain tops with sovereign eye, Kissing with golden face the meadows green, Gilding pale streams with heavenly alchemy; Anon permit the basest clouds to ride With ugly rack on his celestial face, And from the forlorn world his visage hide, Stealing unseen to west with this disgrace: Even so my sun one early morn did shine, With all triumphant splendour on my brow; But out, alack, he was but one hour mine, The region cloud hath mask'd him from me now. Yet him for this my love no whit disdaineth; Suns of the world may stain when heaven's sun staineth. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 33 is the first of what are sometimes called the estrangement sonnets (33-36): poems concerned with the speaker's response to an unspecified "sensual fault" (35) committed by his beloved.

Sonnet 33

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Paraphrase
I've seen many beautiful mornings on which the sun shines on the mountaintops, the meadows, and streams. Yet soon, clouds overcast the sun, hiding the sun from the world until it sinks in the west. In the same way, my beloved shone on me one morning, making me happy, yet an hour later he too was hidden by clouds. I do not scorn him for this; even the best humans may err when the sun of heaven does so.

Source and analysis
Nicolaus Delius notes thematic and stylistic parallels to the last scene of The Two Gentlemen of Verona. George Steevens and Edward Dowden were among the first to group the so-called "estrangement sonnets" and to note the parallels to other groups (such as 40 - 42) with similar themes. The sonnet and the ones that follow have been especially attractive to critics interested in biographical reference in the sonnet; George Wyndham deplores this tendency, as does Stephen Booth. Hilton Landry notes that the poem is an extended simile with metaphors in each branch of the simile; he also called it the "simplest and sweetest" of the group. Elizabeth Sagaser notes that the poem is counterposed to Sonnet 116. The poem's conceit has numerous parallels in Shakespeare's plays. Sidney Lee compares "flatter" (line 2) to a similar usage in King John 3.1.77-80. Steevens, Edward Capell, and Henry Brown note parallels in other plays. Edmond Malone glosses "rack" (line 6) as "the quick motion of the clouds"; "region" (10), a term for a division of the atmosphere, echoes and amplifies the reference. Rolfe notes that "forlorn" (line 7) was in Elizabethan pronunciation with the accent on the first syllable when it follows an unaccented syllable. Samuel Taylor Coleridge analyzes the poem as an instance of how Shakespeare "gives a dignity and passion to the objects that he presents. Unaided by any previous excitement, they burst upon us at once in life and in power."

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1817). Biographia Literaria. London. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Landry, Hilton (1963). Interpretation in Shakespeare's Sonnets. University of California Press, Berkeley. • Sagaser, Elizabeth (1994). Shakespeare's Sweet Leaves: Mourning, pleasure, and the triumph of thought in the Renaissance love lyric. ELH, 61. pp. 1-26. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sonnet 33

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External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/33detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxxiiicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-36.html)

Sonnet 34
« » Sonnet 34 Why didst thou promise such a beauteous day, And make me travel forth without my cloak, To let base clouds o'ertake me in my way, Hiding thy bravery in their rotten smoke? 'Tis not enough that through the cloud thou break, To dry the rain on my storm-beaten face, For no man well of such a salve can speak, That heals the wound, and cures not the disgrace: Nor can thy shame give physic to my grief; Though thou repent, yet I have still the loss: The offender's sorrow lends but weak relief To him that bears the strong offence's cross. Ah! but those tears are pearl which thy love sheds, And they are rich and ransom all ill deeds. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 34 is the second of the sequence, running until Sonnet 36, concerned with an unspecified sin committed against the speaker by a person the speaker loves.

Paraphrase
Why did you hold out the promise of a beautiful day, causing me to leave home without even a cloak, when now you have allowed clouds to hide your radiance? It is not enough in recompense that you break through the clouds and dry the rain on my face, because no one can speak well of a remedy that heals the wound but does not remove the disgrace of having been wounded. Similarly, your grief does not heal my grief; although you repent, I am still injured, and an offender's guilt offers little succor to the person who must bear the burden of the offense. Oh, but your tears are as precious as pearls, and they are so valuable that they redeem all your ill deeds.

Sonnet 34

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Source and analysis
Following Horace Davis, Stephen Booth notes the similarity of this poem in theme and imagery to Sonnet 120. The quarto's "loss" was emended to "cross" by Edmond Malone and Edward Dowden; the emendation is now almost universally accepted. Gerald Massey finds an analogue to lines 7-8 in The Faerie Queene, 2.1.20. The strong contrast between the first twelve lines and the couplet is often noted, but judged variously. The Christian overtones of "ransom," a word often used for Christian salvation, have been widely noted; for some structurally-oriented critics, such as Booth and Joel Fineman, the couplet is notable for the way in which it echoes and transforms the metaphor of the opening line in a way that blurs the identity of lover and beloved.

Interpretations
• Robert Lindsay, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Fineman, Joel (1984). Shakespeare's Perjur'd Eye: Representations. pp. 59-86. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/34detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxxivcomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-37.html)

Sonnet 35

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Sonnet 35
« » Sonnet 35 No more be grieved at that which thou hast done: Roses have thorns, and silver fountains mud: Clouds and eclipses stain both moon and sun, And loathsome canker lives in sweetest bud. All men make faults, and even I in this, Authorizing thy trespass with compare, Myself corrupting, salving thy amiss, Excusing thy sins more than thy sins are; For to thy sensual fault I bring in sense, Thy adverse party is thy advocate, And 'gainst myself a lawful plea commence: Such civil war is in my love and hate, That I an accessory needs must be, To that sweet thief which sourly robs from me. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 35 is part of the sonnet sequence commonly agreed to be addressed to a young man; more narrowly, it is part of a sequence running from 33 to 42, in which the speaker considers a sin committed against him by the young man, which the speaker struggles to forgive.

Paraphrase
Don't feel sorry for what you did; everything in nature is flawed or subject to imperfection. All people commit errors; I am making an error in this (ie, this effort to make you feel better). I'm using these natural comparisons to exonerate you, and thus corrupting myself by forgiving you. (Lines 7 and 8 are obscure and contested.) To forgive your sensual fault, I use my sense (presumably common sense or reason); though you have wronged me I am defending you, and as a result, I am forced to argue against my own interests. Indeed, my feelings of love and hate are so confused that I have become an accomplice to you, the very person who is sinning against me.

Source and analysis
C. Knox Pooler notes that line 4 echoes a simile in The Two Gentlemen of Verona that was derived from Plutarch; Stephen Booth notes several adaptations of proverbs, applied against one another in a manner that tends to reinforce the contradictory emotions of the speaker. Fleay perceived an allusion to Elizabeth in the "moon" of line 3, and to Southampton in the "bud" of line 4. The poem is among the better-known and more frequently anthologized of the sonnets. It is commonly regarded as exemplary of Shakespeare's skill at evoking ambivalence and at creating complex personae. L. C. Knights regarded the first quatrain as typically Elizabethan, but praises the phonic and syntactic complexity of the second quatrain. As Booth writes, "The facts the poem reports should make the speaker seem admirable in a reader's eyes; the speaker's manner, however, gives conviction to the idea that he is worthy of the contempt he says he deserves" (192). Lines 7 and 8 are sometimes seen as a crux, and are universally recognized as ambiguous. Knights notes the potential doubleness of line 7, either "I corrupt myself by excusing you" or "I myself corrupt you more by forgiving you."

Sonnet 35 George Steevens glosses 8: "Making the excuse more than proportioned to the offence", while Bullen has it "Making this excuse: Their sins are more than thine." Both Bullen and Steevens amended the quarto's "their" to "thy," as is now standard practice.

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Further analysis
In Sonnet 35, one of the most apparent points that critics have addressed is the duality of the poem’s tone. The first quatrain describes what at first appears to be praise and is followed by the second quatrain, in which the speaker addresses a lover’s sin and the corruption of himself as a result. Stephen Booth draws attention to the discrepancies between the first and second quatrains and remedies this discrepancy by explaining the speaker’s true purpose in the first quatrain. He says, “This sonnet is a variation of Shakespeare’s habits of damning with fulsome praise and of making flattering accusations.”[1] The speaker lists sarcastic praises, which are supposed to be read as if the speaker was recalling these excuses he made for his sinful lover with contempt. Quatrain 2 creates “a competition in guilt between the speaker and the beloved.”[1] The competition grows with the speaker’s attempt to justify his sin of becoming the accomplice by degrading the beloved. This leads to an escalation in quatrain 3, where the speaker declares his inner turmoil. He says, “Such civil war is in my love and hate." This conflict within the speaker leads to the couplet, which according to Booth declares the “beloved diminished under a new guilt of being the beneficiary of the speaker’s ostentatious sacrifice."[1] In summation, Booth’s reaction to Sonnet 35 is that “the facts the poem reports should make the speaker seem admirable in a reader’s eyes; the speaker’s manner, however, gives conviction to the idea that he is worthy of the contempt he says he deserves."[2] Contrary to Booth’s take on the duality of Sonnet 35, Helen Vendler claims the dedoublement is most visible “in the violent departure from in quatrain 1 in the knotted language of quatrain 2."[1] Instead of describing the speaker as divided over love and hate, she says that the speaker in quatrain 1 is “misguided, and even corrupt, according to the speaker of quatrain 2."[1] She also disagrees with Booth’s reading of the couplet. Rather, she related the contrasting voices in the first and second quatrain to a philosophical metaphor for the self. “I have corrupted myself is a statement that presupposes a true “higher self which has, by a lower self, been corrupted, and which should once again take control. Even the metaphor of the lawsuits implies that one side in each suit is ‘lawful’ and should win."[3] Vendler brings up another point of criticism, which is the confessional aspect of Sonnet 35. Shakespeare uses the vocabulary of legal confession. In an essay by Katherine Craik she discusses the connection between this sonnet and the early criminal confession. Craik says, “the speaker testifies against the unspecified ‘trespass’ of a ‘sweet thief,’ but simultaneously confesses to playing ‘accessory’ to the robbery."[4] The speaker also excuses the beloved’s sin, which brought about his “wrongful self-incrimination” in the sonnet. She concludes, “Fault can be transferred in the act of confessing, and judgments are clouded rather than clarified."[4] Her conclusion aligns with Booth’s claim that the speaker is an unlikeable one. It also aligns with Vendler’s point that either the speaker or the beloved must be wrong. Craik’s essay draws the conclusion that the speaker is actually at greater fault than the beloved.

Homosexuality in Shakespeare's Sonnet 35
Sonnet 35 deals with the speaker being angry with the young man for an apparent betrayal through infidelity. The apparent homoeroticism between the speaker and the young man has spurred debates about the sexuality of the speaker and consequently Shakespeare himself. There are 3 main points to discuss with this issue: the problem of ambiguity in the writing, the possibility of applying an anachronistic view of love and consequently mistaking these sonnets homoerotic, and finally the implications of Shakespeare’s life and homosexual tendencies. The Ambiguity of the Texts Paul Hammond argues the difficulty in pinning down the sexual language lies in the intentional ambiguity. First, one must keep in mind that in the early modern period the death penalty was still in effect for sodomy, so it was extremely important that writers remain vague to protect their own lives. Keeping the language ambiguous enabled

Sonnet 35 multiple interpretations of the writings without the danger of being branded as homosexual.[5] What is more, the words we would use to describe homosexual behavior is either anachronistic to the time period or it carried different meanings. For example, there is no seventeenth-century equivalent word for homosexual. Additionally, “sodomy” and “sodomite” in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries have a radically different meaning than modern perceptions. It is not clear if sodomy even had any specific representation of sexual behavior between men. It could be used for sexual activity between men, women, or either sex and an animal. It can also be used as a rhetorical device to establish the unacceptable foreignness of an enemy.[5] To further confuse things, even the meaning of “friend” is subject to scrutiny. “Friend” can be used to greet a complete stranger, it can mean someone of the same sex that is an extremely close friend, and it can even be used to describe a man and a woman in love.[5] In the same respect, lover can be meant to have sexual connotations or just imply a strong platonic friendship. Hammond states, “The words ‘love’, ‘lover’, and ‘friend’ in the Sonnets have no single or unambiguous meanings, but are continually being redefined, refelt, reimagined."[5] He also states, “Sometimes indications of sexual desire are present not in the form of metaphor or simile, but as a cross-hatching of sexually charged vocabulary across the surface of a poem whose attention seems to lie elsewhere."[5] Misinterpretation of Love Carl D. Atkins argues that readers are misinterpreting the type of love depicted in the sonnets as homosexual. He believes that we must look at it with an eye that considers the concepts of love in Shakespeare’s time. He sees the relationship between the speaker and the young man as a passionate friendship that is more pure than heterosexual relationships and in some cases can even take precedence over marriage.[2] He puts an emphasis in distinguishing between intellectual lover, or love of the mind, and animal love, or love of the body. The sonnets are writing about a pure platonic form of love and modern readers are injecting too much sexual politics into his or her criticism. Atkins sees the sonnets more as a chronicle of underlying emotions experienced by lovers of all kinds whether it is heterosexual, homosexual or passionate friendship: adoration, longing, jealousy, disappointment, grief, reconciliation, and understanding.[2] Homosexual Implications for Shakespeare’s Life Stephen Booth considers the sonnets in the context of Shakespeare’s personal sexuality. First, he discusses the dedication of sonnets 1-126 to “Mr. W. H.” Booth considers Henry Wriothesley, third Earl of Southampton, and William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke as the best candidates. Both men work with the idea that the sonnets are being addressed to a man of high rank and both were considered to be attractive.[6] However, the dedication remains mostly a mystery. Some theories even point to the dedication being to Shakespeare himself. [6] In regards to the sonnets having a bearing on Shakespeare’s sexuality, Booth maintains the sonnets are written as a form of fiction. He believes the hermaphroditic sexual innuendos are being overanalyzed and misinterpreted to point towards Shakespeare’s own sexuality. In reality, it was commonplace for sexual wordplay to switch between genders. He writes, “Moreover, Shakespeare makes overt rhetorical capital from the fact that the conventions he works in and the purpose for which he uses them do not mesh and from the fact that his beloveds are not what the sonnet conventions presume them to be."[6] Booth maintains that sonnets involving wooing a man are in fact an attempt of Shakespeare to exploit the conventions of sonnet writing. Overall, Booth asserts that the sexual undercurrents of the sonnets are of the sonnets and do not say anything about the sexuality of Shakespeare.[6]

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Sonnet 35

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Interpretations
• Keb' Mo', for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] Engle, Lars (2007). Atkins, Carl D. (2007). Vendler, Helen (1997). Craik, Katherine A. (2002). Related article: (http:/ / muse. jhu. edu/ journals/ shakespeare_quarterly/ v053/ 53. 4craik. html). [5] Hammond, Paul. (2002). [6] Booth, Stephen (1977).

References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Atkins, Carl D. (2007). Shakespeare's Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Rosemont, Madison. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Craik, Katherine A. (2002). Shakespeare's A Lover's Complaint and Early Modern Criminal Confession. Shakespeare Quarterly. The Folger Shakespeare Library. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Engle, Lars (2007). William Empson and the Sonnets: A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. Blackwell Limited, Malden. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hammond, Paul (2002). Figuring Sex Between Men from Shakespeare to Rochester. Clarendon, New York. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Knights, L. C. (1967). Shakespeare's Sonnets: Elizabethan Poetry. Paul Alpers. Oxford University Press, Oxford. • Lopez, Jeremy (2005). Sonnet 35. Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare. pp. 1136-1140. • Matz, Robert (2008). The World of Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Introduction. Jefferson, N.C., McFarland & Co.. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/35detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxxvcomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-38.html)

Sonnet 36

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Sonnet 36
« » Sonnet 36 Let me confess that we two must be twain, Although our undivided loves are one: So shall those blots that do with me remain, Without thy help, by me be borne alone. In our two loves there is but one respect, Though in our lives a separable spite, Which though it alter not love's sole effect, Yet doth it steal sweet hours from love's delight. I may not evermore acknowledge thee, Lest my bewailed guilt should do thee shame, Nor thou with public kindness honour me, Unless thou take that honour from thy name: But do not so, I love thee in such sort, As thou being mine, mine is thy good report. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 36 is one of 154 Shakespeare's sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man or woman.

History
Sonnet 36 is just one of The Sonnets out of 154 that were written. There are 120 sonnets devoted to an unknown young man, twenty-eight sonnets are written to a young lady, and the rest are allegorical.[1] Sonnet 36 falls in the category of love and beauty along with other sonnets such as 29, 37, and many others according to Claes Schaar.[2]

Analysis of relationship between speaker and young man
Shakespeare most likely wrote the sonnets that were meant for the young man over a four or five year period.[3] There is speculation that the young man Shakespeare is addressing may be named William Hughs or Hews. While Butler raises the question of Shakespeare’s homosexuality, other critics such as Wilde refute this claim and maintain Shakespeare had an innocent relationship with the boy. However, no reputable evidence for this theory has been found. Throughout his sonnets, Shakespeare addresses the young man’s physical beauty as well as his internal beauty.[4] In this particular sonnet, Shakespeare admits his love for the young man, but he states that he is not able to publicly acknowledge his love due to the shame that might result. According to Lord Alfred Douglas, there seems to be a contradiction between Sonnet 35 and Sonnet 36, because while he rebukes the young man in the first sonnet, he admits his own guilt in the second.[5] Butler proposed that the young man in this poem was guilty of some public offense. However, Alfred Douglas believes that line 10 of the poem completely exonerates the young man of such an offense, because Shakespeare admits his own guilt.[5]

Sonnet 36

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General analysis
Sonnet 36 represents the speaker’s acceptance that he and his lover will no longer be able to be together. The two seem to both love each other, but due to some unknown incident (most likely caused by the younger lover and not the speaker) they cannot be together. Because of this incident, embarrassment would be brought to both (especially the speaker) if they were seen together in public. The message of the sonnet is best summed up when the speaker says, “I may not ever-more acknowledge thee, Lest my bewailed guilt should do thee shame,” (lines 9-10) implying that the young lover should not bring shame to him, just as he would not want to bring shame to the young lover.[6]

Line by line analysis
"Let me confess that we two must be twain, Although our undivided loves are one:" The speaker admits that the two of them cannot be together (twain = separate or parted) Even though their loves are together and seem inseparable.[6] "So shall those blots that do with me remain, Without thy help, by me be borne alone." "Blots" is a vague reference to some disgrace that the reader is unaware of. The speaker has accepted that he must be alone, because he sees no way they can be together.[6] "In our two loves there is but one respect, Though in our lives a separable spite," When it comes to their compassion there is only one matter: love. But in reality, there is a "separable spite" that will keep them apart.[6] "Which, though it alter not love's solo effect, Yet doth it steal sweet hours from love's delight." Although this "spite" cannot change the way the two feel about each other, It can still take away the time they can spend together, which is the most enjoyable part of love.[6] "I may not evermore acknowledge thee, Lest my bewailed guilt should do thee shame," The speaker is proclaiming that he will no longer acknowledge the young lover in public. This is because he wants to avoid bringing either of them shame.[6] "Nor thou with public kindness honour me, Unless thou take that honour from thy name:" The speaker is advising the young lover to not acknowledge him in public either. Unless the young lover wants to bring dishonor to the speaker.[6] "But do not so; I love thee in such a sort, As thou being mine, mine is thy good report." He is reenforcing the command to not acknowledge him and reminding him that he loves him Since they are "one," if either is dishonored, then both are dishonored.[6] According to Helen Vendler, author of The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets, there is a parallel of phrases in the same lines that represent unity and divisions respectively. For example, the phrase, “we two” is followed by, “must be twain”, meaning must be separate. Also, “Our two loves” is followed by “separable spite”.[7]

Criticism
Relationship between sonnet 36 and other sonnets
The location of where Sonnet 36 properly fits in the sequence of Shakespeare's sonnets has been widely debated. Claes Schaar groups the sonnets according to how similar they are. Sonnet 36 is grouped with Sonnet 33 through Sonnet 35. Although there is no apparent connection between Sonnet 36 and 37, there is an apparent link between the topic in 35 and the first line of 36.[8] Helen Vendler agrees with Schaar contending that Sonnets 37 and 38 seem to not fit in place between Sonnets 36 and 39. He claims Sonnet 36 and 39 are often linked because they share three sets of rhymes: me/thee, one/alone, and twain/remain. Sonnets 36 and 39 both contain the word "undivided" and conern a thematic commonality concerning the separation of lovers. Sonnets 37 and 38 are linked with Sonnet 6 in both material and the use of the phrase "ten times" thus, illustrating discontinuity among the sonnets. Sonnet 36 is also strongly linked with Sonnet 96 in that the rhyming couplet is identical, "But do not so, I love thee in such sort,

Sonnet 36 As thou being mine, mine is thy good report." The theme of depriving oneself of honor for the other is also consistent between the two. These discrepancies with thematic links and common word usage have given legitimacy to the argument that the Sonnets may not be in a finalized order.[7] It is argued that Shakespeare provided room among his clearly written sonnets for some of his earlier and less refined sonnets. Therefore, the order of the sonnets may not be the polished repertoire Shakespeare had intended.[7]

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Biblical references
Blackmore Evans suggested that Sonnet 36 was influenced by Ephesians 5:25-33, "25Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her 26to make her holy, cleansing her by the washing with water through the word, 27and to present her to himself as a radiant church, without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish, but holy and blameless. 28In this same way, husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. 29After all, no one ever hated his own body, but he feeds and cares for it, just as Christ does the church— 30for we are members of his body. 31'For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.' 32This is a profound mystery—but I am talking about Christ and the church. 33However, each one of you also must love his wife as he loves himself, and the wife must respect her husband." Most particularly, verses 31 and 32 that discuss the mystery of the two, husband and wife, becoming "one flesh" in marriage. This link is most strongly exemplified in the first two lines of Sonnet 36, "Let me confess that we two must be twain, Although our undivided loves are one:"[6] Stephen Booth adds that Ephesians 5 was a regular source of inspiration for Shakespeare. There is also evidence of Ephesians 5 in Shakespeares, Henry IV, Part 1. Booth suggests that the "blots" in line 3 of Sonnet 36 may be an allusion to Eph 5:27, "...without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish..." There is also a parallel in motivation between the speaker's self-sacrifice in accepting separation for his lover's sake and Christ's marriage to the church.[9]

Other references
Line 12 of Sonnet 36 suggests that Shakespeare may be addressing a person of nobility. The correct address of such a person was, "Right honourable". Such parallels in dedications can be found in Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece.[6]

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Douglas (1933). p. 17. Schaar (1962). p. 187. Hubler (1952). p. 78. Douglas (1933). pp. 16-17, 19. Douglas (1933). pp. 90-91. Evans (2006). Vendler (1997). Schaar (1962) Booth (1977).

Sonnet 36

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References
• Alden, Raymond (1916). The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. • Atkins, Carl D. (2007). Shakespeare's Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Rosemont, Madison. • Baldwin, T. W. (1950). On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. • Booth, Stephen (1977). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Yale University Press, New Haven. • Douglas, Alfred (1933). The True History of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Kennikat Press, New York. • Dowden, Edward (1881). Shakespeare's Sonnets. London. • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton. • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York. • Knights, L. C. (1967). Shakespeare's Sonnets: Elizabethan Poetry. Paul Alpers. Oxford University Press, Oxford. • Matz, Robert (2008). The World of Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Introduction. Jefferson, N.C., McFarland & Co.. • Schaar, Cales (1962). Elizabethan Sonnet Themes and the Dating of Shakespeare’s ‘Sonnets. Hakan Ohlssons Boktryckeri, Lund. • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt. • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

External links
• Paraphrase and analysis (Shakespeare-online) (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/36detail.html) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xxxvicomm.htm)

Sonnet 37

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Sonnet 37
« » Sonnet 37 As a decrepit father takes delight To see his active child do deeds of youth, So I, made lame by Fortune's dearest spite, Take all my comfort of thy worth and truth; For whether beauty, birth, or wealth, or wit, Or any of these all, or all, or more, Entitled in thy parts, do crowned sit, I make my love engrafted to this store: So then I am not lame, poor, nor despis'd, Whilst that this shadow doth such substance give That I in thy abundance am suffic'd, And by a part of all thy glory live. Look what is best, that best I wish in thee: This wish I have; then ten times happy me! –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 37 returns to a number of themes sounded in the first 25 of the cycle, such as the effects of age and recuperation from age, and the blurred boundaries between lover and beloved. However, the tone is more complex than in the earlier poems: after the betrayal treated in Sonnets 34-36, the speaker does not return to a simple celebration.

Paraphrase
Just as an aged father takes delight in the youthful actions of his son, so I, crippled by fortune, take comfort in your worth and faithfulness. For whether its beauty, noble birth, wealth, or intelligence, or all of these, or all of these and more, that you possess, I attach my love to it (whatever it is), and as a result I am no longer poor, crippled, or despised. Your mere shadow (present in me) provides such solid reality to me that I am complete with it. I wish whatever is best in you, and if this wish is granted, then I will be extremely happy.

Source and analysis
The sonnet was at one point a favorite of biographically oriented critics, such as Edward Capell, who saw in the opening lines a reference either to a physical debility or to Shakespeare's son. This interpretation was rejected by Edmond Malone and others; Horace Howard Furness, discussing it in conjunction with the legend that Shakespeare played Adam in As You Like It, calls the supposition "monstrous." Edward Dowden notes that lameness is used symbolically (as in Coriolanus 4.7.7) to indicate weakness or contemptibility. George Wyndham and Henry Charles Beeching are among the editors who find other analogues for "lame" in this metaphorical sense. "Dearest" (3) is glossed by Gervinus as "heartfelt", but Malone's gloss "most operative" is generally accepted. Line 7 has been much discussed. Malone's emendation of "their" to "thy" is no longer accepted. George Stevens, finding an analogy in The Rape of Lucrece, glosses it as "entitled (ie, ennobled) by these things." Nicolaus Delius has it "established in thy gifts, with right of possession." Sidney Lee has "ennobled in thee", reversing the relationship between beloved and "parts." It is commonly agreed that the image is drawn from heraldry.

Sonnet 37 "Shadow" and "substance" are drawn from Renaissance Neoplatonism; Stephen Booth notes that the wit of line 10 derives from Shakespeare's reversal of the usual relationship between reality and reflection.

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References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Evans, G. Blakemore, and Anthony Hecht, eds. Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xxxviicomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-40. html

Sonnet 38
« » Sonnet 38 How can my muse want subject to invent, While thou dost breathe, that pour'st into my verse Thine own sweet argument, too excellent For every vulgar paper to rehearse? O! give thy self the thanks, if aught in me Worthy perusal stand against thy sight; For who's so dumb that cannot write to thee, When thou thy self dost give invention light? Be thou the tenth Muse, ten times more in worth Than those old nine which rhymers invocate; And he that calls on thee, let him bring forth Eternal numbers to outlive long date. If my slight muse do please these curious days, The pain be mine, but thine shall be the praise. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 38 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the lyric subject expresses its love towards a young man.

Sonnet 38

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External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xxxviiicomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-41. html

Sonnet 39
« » Sonnet 39 O! how thy worth with manners may I sing, When thou art all the better part of me? What can mine own praise to mine own self bring? And what is't but mine own when I praise thee? Even for this, let us divided live, And our dear love lose name of single one, That by this separation I may give That due to thee which thou deserv'st alone. O absence! what a torment wouldst thou prove, Were it not thy sour leisure gave sweet leave, To entertain the time with thoughts of love, Which time and thoughts so sweetly doth deceive, And that thou teachest how to make one twain, By praising him here who doth hence remain. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 39 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Paraphrase
How can I celebrate your worth in my poems without appearing conceited, given that you're my better half? What good does it do me to praise myself--and am I doing anything besides praising myself when I praise you? For this reason, let's live apart. And though we love each other dearly, let's lose our common identity; by this separation, I can give you the praise that you deserve by yourself. Oh, absence, you would be such a torment if it weren't for the fact that you give me the chance to fill up the lonely hours with thoughts of love, which make the time pass so sweetly, and that you teach me how to divide my love and me in two, as I, here, praise my friend while he remains elsewhere.

Sonnet 39

109

Themes
Sonnet 39 is about the necessity of separation. The last few lines could cause some confusion; the poet is saying that, although he is separated from his lover, and therefore 'twain' or divided, they are really still the same. This can be so because of the sweet thought of love guiding the poet, allowing him to show that his lover is still within his heart and thus joined to him in spirit, no matter where his lover is in body. No one knows for sure the true identity of Shakespeare's dear friend, but most scholars agree that he was the Earl of Southampton, the poet's patron.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xxxixcomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-42. html

Sonnet 40
« » Sonnet 40 Take all my loves, my love, yea take them all; What hast thou then more than thou hadst before? No love, my love, that thou mayst true love call; All mine was thine, before thou hadst this more. Then, if for my love, thou my love receivest, I cannot blame thee, for my love thou usest; But yet be blam'd, if thou thy self deceivest By wilful taste of what thyself refusest. I do forgive thy robbery, gentle thief, Although thou steal thee all my poverty: And yet, love knows it is a greater grief To bear love's wrong, than hate's known injury. Lascivious grace, in whom all ill well shows, Kill me with spites yet we must not be foes. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 40 is one of the sequence addressed to a well-born, handsome young man to whom the speaker is devoted. In this poem, as in the others in this part of the sequence, the speaker expresses resentment of his beloved's power over him.

Sonnet 40

110

Paraphrase
Go and take all of my loves, my beloved--how would doing so enrich you? It would not give you anything you do not already have. All that I possessed was already yours before you took this. (The second quatrain is obscure and contested.) If, instead of loving me, you love the person I love, I can't blame you, because you are merely taking advantage of my love. (For possible readings of lines 7-8, see below). Yet I forgive you, even though you steal the little that I have, and even though it is well known that an injury inflicted by a supposed lover is far worse than an insult from an enemy. Oh lustful grace (ie, the beloved), in whom everything bad is made to look good, even if you kill me with these wrongs against me, I will not be your enemy.

Source and analysis
Commonly viewed as parallel to the situation in Sonnets 133, 134, and 144, the sonnet appears in this light to reflect a situation in which the speaker's beloved has seduced the speaker's mistress. While the seeming specificity of the reference has tantalized biographical critics, it has also been likened (for instance, by Geoffrey Bullough) to the central situation of The Two Gentlemen of Verona. The situation described, if not wholly unique to Shakespeare, is at least highly unusual, as Sidney Lee notes. Parallels have been noted in Petrarch and in Theodore Beza's Poematica, but these are not as implicitly sexual as Shakespeare's poem. Line 5 is glossed by Edward Dowden as "If for love of me thou receivest her whom I love"; George Wyndham, though, has it "If, instead of my love, you take the woman whom I love." Line 8, the next vague line, has received even more varied interpretations. Dowden has it "Deceive yourself by an unlawful union while you refuse lawful wedlock"; Beeching has it "by taking in willfulness my mistress whom you yet do not love"; Lee says "'What thou refusest is that lascivious indulgence which in reality thou disdainest." C. C. Stopes relates the line to other sonnets written in condemnation of illicit lust.

References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare with Variorum Readings and Commentary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Lee, Sidney. Elizabethan Sonnets. Westminster: Constable, 1904. • Stopes, C. C. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London: Alexander Morig, 1904. • Wilson, George. The Five Gateways of Knowledge. Cambridge: Macmillan, 1856.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xlcomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-43. html

Sonnet 41

111

Sonnet 41
« » Sonnet 41 Those pretty wrongs that liberty commits, When I am sometime absent from thy heart, Thy beauty, and thy years full well befits, For still temptation follows where thou art. Gentle thou art, and therefore to be won, Beauteous thou art, therefore to be assail'd; And when a woman woos, what woman's son Will sourly leave her till he have prevail'd? Ay me! but yet thou might'st my seat forbear, And chide thy beauty and thy straying youth, Who lead thee in their riot even there Where thou art forced to break a twofold truth:-Hers by thy beauty tempting her to thee, Thine by thy beauty being false to me. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 41 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xlicomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-44. html

Sonnet 42

112

Sonnet 42
« » Sonnet 42 Thou hast her it is not all my grief, And yet it may be said I loved her dearly; That she hath thee is of my wailing chief, A loss in love that touches me more nearly. Loving offenders thus I will excuse ye: Thou dost love her, because thou know'st I love her; And for my sake even so doth she abuse me, Suffering my friend for my sake to approve her. If I lose thee, my loss is my love's gain, And losing her, my friend hath found that loss; Both find each other, and I lose both twain, And both for my sake lay on me this cross: But here's the joy; my friend and I are one; Sweet flattery! then she loves but me alone. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 42 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. Sonnet 42 translation to modern English:. It is not my main ground of complaint that you have her, even though I loved her dearly; that she has you is my chief regret, a loss that touches me more closely. Loving offenders, I excuse you thus: you love her, because you know I love her; similarly, she abuses me for my sake, ain allowing my friend to have her. If I lose you, my loss is a gain to my love; and losing her, my friend picks up that los. Both find each other, I lose both, and both lay this cross on me for my sake. But there is one consolation in this thought: my friend and I are one; therefore she loves me alone.[1]

Analyses And Criticisms
Sonnets 1-154 discuss a love triangle between the speaker, his mistress and a young man. In sonnet 42, this young man is present as the speaker’s ‘friend.’ The primary objective of this sonnet is to define the speaker’s role in the complex relationship between the youth and the mistress. Sonnet 42 is the final set of three sonnets known as the betrayal sonnets (40, 41, 42) that address the fair lord's transgression against the poet: stealing his mistress [2] . This offense was referred to in Sonnets 33-35, most obviously in Sonnet 35, in which the fair lord is called a "sweet thief." This same imagery is used again in Sonnet 40, when the speaker says, "I do forgive thy robbery, gentle thief." Sonnet 41 implies that it is easy for the speaker to forgive the fair lord his betrayal, since it is the mistress that "woos," tempted by the fair lord's beauty just as the speaker admires it. This affair is discussed later in sonnet 144-a poem which further suggests that the young man and the dark lady are lovers; “…my female evil tempteth my better angel from my side,” [3] In Helen Vendler's The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets, it is noted -- "By inserting himself somehow as cause or agent of the relation between the young man and the mistress, the speaker preserves a connection with the young man which is the overriding motive of this poem" [4] . The idea that the fair lord and the poet are "one" is common in the sonnets; for example, it was also asserted in Sonnets 36, 39, and 40. A closer look at Sonnet 36 illustrates this point further, “In our two loves there is but one respect,” [5] . A possible reason the speaker emphasizes the oneness between himself and the youth is to align himself with the youth as opposed to his mistress.

Sonnet 42 Sonnet 42 uses feminine rhymes at the end of the lines: especially in the second quatrain as a poetic device, similar to sonnet 40.[6] “The poem is essentially a sad one…it’s sadness heightened by the feminine endings, six in all,” [7] . Many critics seem to agree with this reading of the feminine endings, and note that additionally, the author uses two words to imply the emotionality tied up in his sonnet. The word "loss" is repeated throughout this poem, appearing six times. The repetition of this word emphasizes how strongly the speaker feels that he has been deprived of the two most important relationships in his life: the fair lord and the mistress. The word "loss" is balanced by the word "love," which also appears six times. They appear together in line 4, "A loss in love that touches me more nearly," referring to the poet's loss of the fair lord to his former mistress. Again in line 9, the two words are woven into the same line, "If I lose thee, my loss is my love's gain.” These perfectly balanced words emphasize the main point of the sonnet as being about loss of love.[8] The use of the term "loving offenders" in line 5 can have two meanings: that the offenders (the fair lord and the mistress) are in love; but it can also mean that they seem to enjoy their offense. This line, along with line 12, "And both for my sake lay on me this cross," hearken back to Sonnet 34, in which the speaker declares, "The offender's sorrow lends but weak relief / To him that bears the strong offence's cross." The biblical allusion of the cross ties the poet himself to Jesus in his suffering so that others might be happy, relieved of their sins.[9] Hammond writes that he feels the author was projecting himself as a martyr, a Christ like figure bearing the cross. Hammond reads line 5, “loving offenders” to mean equally as a vocative or self description; saying, ‘it is my nature to love those who offend against me’. It appears that most critics agree that the author himself is accepting the ‘cross’ in this poem.[10] The exaltation "Sweet flattery!" at the end of the sonnet indicates sarcasm, since "flattery" usually indicates dishonest beauty. The speaker makes the argument that since he and the youth are one, they must then share the same woman. Because the mistress and the youth are having an affair, the speaker comes to the logical conclusion that he and the youth are that much closer. Atkins illustrates this, “…we are meant to understand…that the flattery exists nowhere outside the poet’s imagination,” [11]

113

References
[1] (Hammond 59) [2] (Vendler 217) [3] (Greenblatt 1803) [4] (Vendler, p. 220) [5] (Greenblatt pg. 1766) [6] (Hammond, 59) [7] (Atkins 124) [8] (Atkins, 124) [9] (Hammond 58) [10] (Rowse, 87) [11] (Atkins 124)

Works cited
• Rowse, A.L. Shakespeare’s Sonnets, the Problems Solved. Pp. 86-87 2nd Ed. Harper Row Publishers. New York, New York. 1965. • Hammond, Gerald. The Reader and Shakespeare’s Young Man Sonnets. Pgs 58-69. Barnes and Noble Books. New Jersey 1981. • Atkins, Carl D. (Ed.). Shakespeare’s Sonnets (with three hundred years of commentary). 2007. Rosemeont Publishing and Printing Corp. Cranbury, NJ. Pgs. 124-125 • Vendler, Helen . The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. 1997. President and Fellows of Harvard College. Belknep press of Harvard, Cambridge, Mass. London, England. Pgs. 217-221. • Shakespeare, William. Sonnet 42. The Norton Shakespeare. Edited by Stephen Greenblatt. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.

Sonnet 42

114

External links
• Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xliicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-45.html)

Sonnet 43
« » Sonnet 43 When most I wink, then do mine eyes best see, For all the day they view things unrespected; But when I sleep, in dreams they look on thee, And darkly bright, are bright in dark directed. Then thou, whose shadow shadows doth make bright, How would thy shadow's form form happy show To the clear day with thy much clearer light, When to unseeing eyes thy shade shines so! How would, I say, mine eyes be blessed made By looking on thee in the living day, When in dead night thy fair imperfect shade Through heavy sleep on sightless eyes doth stay! All days are nights to see till I see thee, And nights bright days when dreams do show thee me. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 43 employs antithesis and paradox to highlight the speaker's yearning for his beloved and sadness in (most likely) his absence, and confusion about the situation described in the previous three sonnets.

Paraphrase
I see best when my eyes are closed. All day I am forced to look on what I do not care about; only at night, when my dreaming eyes see you, do I truly see. For even your image (ie, shadow) brightens all the shadows of a dream, and how much brighter you are in daylight, when you may be seen in reality? How much, then, would it delight me to see you in reality, when already your image in my dreams makes them so bright? Until I can see you again, my days are as dark as night because of your absence, and my nights as bright as day because of your sight in my dreams.

Source and analysis
This is one of the poems omitted from the pirated edition of 1640. Gerald Massey notes an analogous poem in Philip Sidney's Astrophil and Stella, 38. Stephen Booth notes the concentration of antithesis used to convey the impression of a speaker whose emotions have inverted his perception of the world. Edmond Malone glosses "unrespected" as "unregarded." Line 4 has received a number of broadly similar interpretations. Edward Dowden has "darkly bright" as "illumined, though closed"; he glosses the rest of the line "clearly directed in the darkness." Sidney Lee has the line "guided in the dark by the brightness of your shadow," while George Wyndham prefers "In the dark they heed that on which they are fixed." In line 11, Edward Capell's emendation of the quarto's "their" to "thy" is now almost universally accepted.

Sonnet 43

115

Musical Setting
The sonnet was set to music by Benjamin Britten as part of his Nocturne for Tenor, 7 Obligato Instruments and Strings. Rufus Wainwright's "Sonnet 43", the sixth track on his album "All Days Are Nights: Songs for Lulu" (2010), is a musical setting of the sonnet.

References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Evans, G. Blakemore, and Anthony Hecht, eds. Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xliii. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-46. html

Sonnet 44

116

Sonnet 44
« » Sonnet 44 If the dull substance of my flesh were thought, Injurious distance should not stop my way; For then despite of space I would be brought, From limits far remote, where thou dost stay. No matter then although my foot did stand Upon the farthest earth remov'd from thee; For nimble thought can jump both sea and land, As soon as think the place where he would be. But, ah! thought kills me that I am not thought, To leap large lengths of miles when thou art gone, But that so much of earth and water wrought, I must attend time's leisure with my moan; Receiving nought by elements so slow But heavy tears, badges of either's woe. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 44 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2] • Shakespeare Online [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xlivcomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-47. html [3] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 44detail. html

Sonnet 45

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Sonnet 45
« » Sonnet 45 The other two, slight air, and purging fire Are both with thee, wherever I abide; The first my thought, the other my desire, These present-absent with swift motion slide. For when these quicker elements are gone In tender embassy of love to thee, My life, being made of four, with two alone Sinks down to death, oppress'd with melancholy; Until life's composition be recured By those swift messengers return'd from thee, Who even but now come back again, assured Of thy fair health, recounting it to me: This told, I joy; but then no longer glad, I send them back again, and straight grow sad. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 45 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xlvcomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-48. html

Sonnet 46

118

Sonnet 46
« » Sonnet 46 Mine eye and heart are at a mortal war, How to divide the conquest of thy sight; Mine eye my heart thy picture's sight would bar, My heart mine eye the freedom of that right. My heart doth plead that thou in him dost lie, A closet never pierc'd with crystal eyes, But the defendant doth that plea deny, And says in him thy fair appearance lies. To 'cide this title is impannelled A quest of thoughts, all tenants to the heart; And by their verdict is determined The clear eye's moiety, and the dear heart's part: As thus: mine eye's due is thine outward part, And my heart's right, thine inward love of heart. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 46 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Translation of Sonnet 46
According to the first two lines, the heart wants one thing (emotional love) and the eye wants something different (physical beauty). The third and fourth lines make it clear that while the eye is fixated on the physical appearance of the young man, the heart would prefer not to see the person’s physical appearance. Instead, it would focus on emotional love. Lines five and six state that the young man who is the object of the poem resides inside the speaker’s heart, where he is unseen by the “crystal eyes.” The seventh and eighth lines state that the eyes disagree with the heart and argue that they are capable of detecting of the beauty of a person. The third quatrain sets up the decision to be made about this ‘battle.’ Line 9-10 explains that deciding this legal right of possession requires a jury of thoughts and these thoughts are all tenants of the heart. The jury decides the verdict and what share (moiety) the clear eye and dear heart will receive. The rhyming couplet offers the final decision. Author G. Blackmore Evans believes the ‘outward part’ refers to the external physical beauty; the eyes are granted the exercise of their physical attribute of sight.[1] According to Evans, the ‘right’ of the heart perhaps suggests the ‘natural right’ making it a stronger word and emphasizing the superiority of the heart’s claim: “‘thy inward love of heart’ is the spiritual/mental love of your heart and is a ‘part’ of you in value far beyond the ‘due’ accorded to the eyes because it is the ‘essential’ you, not merely the ‘appearance.’” [2]

Sonnet 46

119

Rhyme Scheme
The sonnet uses a ABAB CDCD EFEF FF rhyme scheme which, as critic Philip C. McGuire writes, is unusual in an English sonnet.[3] This is made even more unusual by the fact that the words “heart” and “part” are both used in the third quatrain as well as in the couplet. Furthermore, the first quatrain rhymes “sight” with “right”, and the “-t” sound at the end of each of these words is repeated in the third quatrain and couplet with “part” and “heart.” McGuire suggests that the “blurring of formal divisions in sonnet 46 anticipates” the “league” that arises “betwixt mine and heart” in sonnet 47. Sonnet 47 also includes the words “heart” and “part.”

Analysis
Sonnet 46, along with sonnets 24 and 47 (which are all sonnets referring to the eye and heart tension), is known as an absence sonnet. George Massey states that the sonnet has the look of a lover fondling the miniature of his beloved, and rejoicing that in her absence he has at least her portrait to dote on and dally with.[4] The picture is not an actual portrait though, but rather a “visionary portrait of the Earl for the possession of which the eyes and heart contend." [4] It is an image engraved in one’s heart and conjures a mental picture. Author J.W. Lever agrees that the sonnets taken into this group employ the theme of the Poet’s absence from his Friend. The subject-matter is traditional – conceits on the eyes and heart, laments at separation, accounts of the sleeplessness or trouble dreams of the beloved. Lever believes, “conceits on absence become instruments of investigating the workings of poetic thought, its power to transcend space, its visionary quality.” [5] The conceit was equally witty, and also worked to advance the poet’s understanding of himself, derived not from ideal principles but from observation and intuition. Because there is this apparent focus on the absent person, it seems logical that physical descriptions play into the remembrance of the absent. It is quite obvious that the body is the focus in this poem. There are 14 references to body parts (eye and heart). While the body was not an exploited object in Renaissance times, it was a focus of love nonetheless. Lever notes that it was commonplace of romance “entered through the eyes and penetrated to the heart.” [6] Furthermore, “Renaissance fancy…developed the conceit, with love engraving upon the heart the lady’s image. The engraving became a portrait, with the eyes as windows through which it could be seen.” [5] In a time when courtship was more formal and suitors or lovers were viewed from a far, it makes sense that one would struggle with relying on the eye for physical knowledge of the other, but need the heart to fully read and connect to the person. Shakespeare sets up the dispute between the heart and the eye as a legal battle that is to be decided by a jury (“quest of thoughts”). Legal terminology is abundant throughout the sonnet, with both the heart and eye making “pleas” for their cases. Eventually, a “verdict is determined” that the “outward part” of the body belongs to the eye while the “inward love of heart” belongs to the heart. Critic Paul Hammond focuses on the word “’cide” in line 9. ([7] He argues that neither “’cide” as in “decide” nor “side” as in “to support” or “to side with” make sense in the context of the poem. He states that the word was originally printed as “fide”, which was a misprint of “finde”, meaning “to determine and declare.” He gives two reasons why he thinks this is the correct word: (1) “side” does not make sense in the context of the poem and (2) that “finde” continues the legal imagery of the sonnet. Battle imagery is also rife throughout the sonnet. It describes a “mortal war” between the heart and the eye, with both striving for different aspects of a person and preventing the other from attaining what it desires. They clash over “how to divide the conquest of thy sight.” In the end, the sonnet suggests that a truce must be made between the heart and the eye.

Sonnet 46

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Connections to Sonnet 47
Sonnet 46 is strongly connected to Sonnet 47. The former raises the issue of the balance between the heart and the eyes, and the latter provides the resolution to this issue. As critic Joel Fineman writes, Sonnet 47 “rel[ies] on a verdict that is determined at the conclusion of Sonnet 46.” [8] While 46 focuses on the “war” between the heart and the eyes, 47 begins with the line “Betwixt mine eye and heart a league is took”, suggesting that a truce has been made and the war has come to an end. The third quatrain and couplet from Sonnet 47 emphasize the equality of heart and eye, suggesting that they are complementary. While they are different parts of the body with different desires, they both find “delight” in the same thing: the young man. Fineman writes that “the difference between outward and inward is secured and reconciled because the vision of the eye and the thinking of the heart can be harmoniously apportioned between the clear-cut opposition of the clear eye’s moiety and the dear heart’s part.” [8] In essence, they both want different parts of the same thing, and thus should function in harmony instead of in conflict. It is interesting to note that both Sonnets 46 and 47 uses the idea of a picture to describe the physical appearance of the young man. Sonnet 46 states, “Mine eye my heart thy picture’s sight would bar” while Sonnet 47 says, “With my love’s picture then my eye doth feast.”

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Evans, G. Blakemore (ed.). The Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. p. 155 Evans, G. Blakemore (ed.). The Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 155 (McGuire, Philip C. “Shakespeare’s Non-Shakespearian Sonnets.” Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 3 (Autumn 1987), pp. 304-319) Massey, George. Shakespeare’s Sonnets Never Before Interpreted. New York: AMS Press, 1973. p. 185 Lever, J.W. “The Poet in Absence.” Discussions of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Ed. Barbara Herrnstien. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1964. p. 73 [6] Lever, J.W. “The Poet in Absence.” Discussions of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Ed. Barbara Herrnstien. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1964. 73 [7] Hammond, P. A Textual Crux in Shakespeare's Sonnet 46. Notes and Queries v. 253 no. 2 (June 2008) p. 187-8 [8] Fineman, J. “Shakespeare’s “Perjur’d Eye””. Representations, No. 7 (Summer 1984) pp. 59-86

External links
• Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/xlvicomm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-49.html)

Sonnet 47

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Sonnet 47
« » Sonnet 47 Betwixt mine eye and heart a league is took, And each doth good turns now unto the other: When that mine eye is famish'd for a look, Or heart in love with sighs himself doth smother, With my love's picture then my eye doth feast, And to the painted banquet bids my heart; Another time mine eye is my heart's guest, And in his thoughts of love doth share a part: So, either by thy picture or my love, Thy self away, art present still with me; For thou not farther than my thoughts canst move, And I am still with them, and they with thee; Or, if they sleep, thy picture in my sight Awakes my heart, to heart's and eyes' delight. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 47 is one of the large number of the sequence addressed to a well-born young man. More locally, it is a thematic continuation of "Sonnet 46."

Paraphrase
My heart and my eyes have reached a mutually beneficial understanding. When my eye yearns for the sight of my beloved, or when my heart is pining, then my eye shares the sight of my beloved (seen in a painting) with my heart. At other times, my heart will share with my eye (in imagination) some memory or thought of the beloved. So whether in painting or in imagination, you are always present with me. It is impossible for you to move outside the sphere of my thoughts; I am always with my thoughts, and they are always with you. Or, if my thoughts are, as it were, sleeping, then your painting will delight my eyes and thus awake my heart.

Source and analysis
The sonnet thematically continues from the "verdict" delivered by the eye and heart in the previous sonnet. Kerrigan perceives an allusion to the story of Zeuxis and Parrhasius in the "painted banquet" of line 8. Comparing the same image to similar passages The Fairy Queen, Booth regards the image as symbolic of coldness and insufficience. Sidney Lee suggests that the conceit of the poem inspired a passage in John Suckling's Tragedy of Benneralt. Edmond Malone notes that the figure of line 3 appears also in The Comedy of Errors; Edward Dowden notes parallels to Sonnet 75.

Sonnet 47

122

References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952. • Lee, Sidney. Elizabethan Sonnets. Westminster: Constable, 1904.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xlviicomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-50. html

Sonnet 48
« » Sonnet 48 How careful was I when I took my way, Each trifle under truest bars to thrust, That to my use it might unused stay From hands of falsehood, in sure wards of trust! But thou, to whom my jewels trifles are, Most worthy comfort, now my greatest grief, Thou best of dearest, and mine only care, Art left the prey of every vulgar thief. Thee have I not lock'd up in any chest, Save where thou art not, though I feel thou art, Within the gentle closure of my breast, From whence at pleasure thou mayst come and part; And even thence thou wilt be stol'n I fear, For truth proves thievish for a prize so dear. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 48 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Sonnet 48

123

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xlviiicomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-51. html

Sonnet 49
« » Sonnet 49 Against that time, if ever that time come, When I shall see thee frown on my defects, When as thy love hath cast his utmost sum, Called to that audit by advis'd respects; Against that time when thou shalt strangely pass, And scarcely greet me with that sun, thine eye, When love, converted from the thing it was, Shall reasons find of settled gravity; Against that time do I ensconce me here, Within the knowledge of mine own desert, And this my hand, against my self uprear, To guard the lawful reasons on thy part: To leave poor me thou hast the strength of laws, Since why to love I can allege no cause. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 49 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ xlixcomm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-52. html

Sonnet 50

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Sonnet 50
« » Sonnet 50 How heavy do I journey on the way, When what I seek, my weary travel's end, Doth teach that case and that repose to say, 'Thus far the miles are measured from thy friend!' The beast that bears me, tired with my woe, Plods dully on, to bear that weight in me, As if by some instinct the wretch did know His rider lov'd not speed being made from thee. The bloody spur cannot provoke him on, That sometimes anger thrusts into his hide, Which heavily he answers with a groan, More sharp to me than spurring to his side; For that same groan doth put this in my mind, My grief lies onward, and my joy behind. continue to Sonnet 51 –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 50 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Interpretations
• Gemma Jones, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI)

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 50comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-53. html

Sonnet 51

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Sonnet 51
« » Sonnet 51 (continued from Sonnet 50) Thus can my love excuse the slow offence Of my dull bearer when from thee I speed: From where thou art why should I haste me thence? Till I return, of posting is no need. O! what excuse will my poor beast then find, When swift extremity can seem but slow? Then should I spur, though mounted on the wind, In wingéd speed no motion shall I know, Then can no horse with my desire keep pace. Therefore desire, (of perfect'st love being made) Shall neigh, no dull flesh, in his fiery race; But love, for love, thus shall excuse my jadeSince from thee going, he went wilful-slow, Towards thee I'll run, and give him leave to go. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 51 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man. According to the Norton Anthology, sonnet 51 is considered part of the "long sequence" (18-126) and focuses on the young man who Shakespeare wrote about in his preceding 17 sonnets. This poem focuses on a young man fighting time to return to his lover, and includes description of haste and timeliness.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 51comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-54. html

Sonnet 52

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Sonnet 52
« » Sonnet 52 So am I as the rich, whose blessed key, Can bring him to his sweet up-locked treasure, The which he will not every hour survey, For blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure. Therefore are feasts so solemn and so rare, Since, seldom coming in the long year set, Like stones of worth they thinly placed are, Or captain jewels in the carcanet. So is the time that keeps you as my chest, Or as the wardrobe which the robe doth hide, To make some special instant special-blest, By new unfolding his imprison'd pride. Blessed are you whose worthiness gives scope, Being had, to triumph, being lacked, to hope. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 52 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 52comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-131. html

Sonnet 53

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Sonnet 53
« » Sonnet 53 What is your substance, whereof are you made, That millions of strange shadows on you tend? Since every one hath, every one, one shade, And you but one, can every shadow lend. Describe Adonis, and the counterfeit Is poorly imitated after you; On Helen's cheek all art of beauty set, And you in Grecian tires are painted new: Speak of the spring, and foison of the year, The one doth shadow of your beauty show, The other as your bounty doth appear; And you in every blessed shape we know. In all external grace you have some part, But you like none, none you, for constant heart. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 53, presumably addressed to the same young man as the other sonnets in the first part of the sequence, raises some of the most common themes of the sonnet: the sublime beauty of the beloved, the weight of tradition, and the nature and extent of art's power.

Paraphrase
What are you made of that causes you to be reflected in millions of ways? Everyone else has only one shadow, but you, though you are only one person, are reflected in everything. Someone who attempts to paint Adonis ends up creating only a faint imitation of you; again, someone who attempted to paint Helen would end with a picture of you in Greek dress. If someone speaks of the springtime or the harvest time, then the former is a mere shadow of your beauty, the latter an equally faint shadow of your fruitfulness. We see you in every beautiful thing we see, but there is one way in which you are unlike anything else—in your constancy and fidelity.

Source and analysis
Following George Wyndham, John Bernard notes the neoplatonic underpinnings of the poem, which derive ultimately from Petrarch: the beloved's transcendent beauty is variously diffused through the natural world, but is purer at its source. The reference to Adonis has led numerous scholars, among them Georg Gottfried Gervinus, to explore connections to Venus and Adonis; Gerald Massey notes that the twinned references to Adonis and Helen underscore the sense of the beloved's androgyny, most famously delineated in Sonnet 20. Hermann Isaac notes that the first quatrain resembles a sonnet by Tasso. In support of his hypothesis that the person addressed in the sonnet was an actor, Oscar Wilde hypothesized that the poem's "shadows" refer to the young man's roles. The poem is comparatively free of cruces. "Tires" (l. 8), which generally refers only to a head dress, has been glossed by editors from Edward Dowden to Sidney Lee as referring to the entire outfit. "Foison," a relatively uncommon word even in Shakespeare's time, is glossed by Edmond Malone as "abundance." The placement of the sonnet in the sequence has also caused some confusion. The last line, which is not evidently sarcastic, appears to contradict the tone of betrayal and reproach of many of its closest neighbors in the sequence as

Sonnet 53 first presented. A dominant motif within the first two stanzas of Sonnet 53 is the contrast between shadow and substance. According to G.L. Kittridge, in Sonnets of Shakespeare , “Shadow, often in Shakespeare is contrasted with substance to express the particular sort of unreality while ‘substance’ expresses the reality.” The shadow is that which cannot be expressed in a concrete manner while substance is that which is tangible. Kittridge goes into more detail about the use of shadow and couplet within the initial couplet. “Shadow is the silhouette formed by a body that intercepts the sun’s rays; a picture, reflection, or symbol. “Tend” means attend, follow as a servant, and is strictly appropriate to ‘shadow’ only in the first sense, though shadows is used here in the second… All men have one shadow each in the first sense; you being only one can yet cast many shadows, in the second sense, for everything good or beautiful is either a representation of you or a symbol of your merits,” (Sonnets, 142).This definition helps elaborate on Shakespeare’s extended metaphor and wordplay, explaining that shadow is that which is not palpable as well as the reflection of the young man in all that is real. Jonathan Bate, in his work, The Genius of Shakespeare, analyzes the classical allusions within the poem. He writes, “In Sonnet 53, the youth becomes Adonis, retaining a controlling classical myth beneath the surface,’ (Genius, 48). In addition, Bate writes about how the poem could be interpreted in a way reminiscent of Shakespeare’s A MidSummer Night’s Dream, “In A MidSummer Night’s Dream, Theseus says that lunatics, lovers, and poets are of imagination all compact- their mental states lead to kinds of transformed vision whereby they see the world differently from how one sees it when in a ‘rational’ state of mind,” (Bate,51). This quote draws upon the theme of Shakespeare’s attempt to materialize intangible emotions such as love or an aesthetic appreciation for beauty. Shakespearean scholar Joel Fineman offers a criticism of Shakespeare’s sonnets in a broader context that is evident in Sonnet 53. Fineman writes, “from Aristotle on the conventional understanding of rhetoric of praise as all the rhetoricians uniformly say, enargically, ‘heightens its effect,” (Fineman). In this sense, the praise of the young man is meant to highlight his features and bring them to a literal understanding. The first line of the third quatrain extends the conceit of the Platonic theory, the idea that the perceptions of reality are merely reflections of the essential reality of forms. Platonic theory suggests that our perceptions are derived from this world of forms in the same way shadows are derived from the objects that are lit. The metaphor of shadow was often employed to help explain the illusory quality of perception and the reality of forms, both by Renaissance Platonists and by Plato himself in his book, Symposium [1] . In the sonnet, spring can only offers shades of the beauty of the youth. The youth is presented as the ideal Beauty, the form, from which all other beautiful things come [2] . This idea is summarized in line thirteen of the sonnet: “In all external grace you have some part.” This line finds the youth to be the exclusive source of all beautiful things, expanding his “domain” even further than the first quatrains in which the youth is said to be the source of the legendary figures of Adonis and Helen. Scholars though have disagreements about the end for which the Platonic theory is used. In “the usual interpretation of an elliptical construction,” the ending couplet expresses further praise for the youth, seeming to say that while all things beautiful are shades of the youth, the youth like nothing else, is distinguished by a constant, faithful heart [3] . Considering the sonnets expressing betrayal in Sonnets 40-42, this sonnet extolling the youth’s constancy seems absurd for some scholars and is problematic. Seymour-Smith suggests that the last line should be interpreted: “you feel affection for no one, and no one admires you for the virtue of constancy” [4] . Duncan Jones agrees and suggests that the word “but” at the beginning of the closing line radically changes all that has gone before and marks a turn to a more critical perspective. One interpretation of the sonnet by Hilton Landry interprets the last line in a slightly different light. He proposes that Sonnet 53 is part of a tentative group stretching from Sonnet 43 to Sonnet 58 which have in common the speaker’s separation from the youth. Sonnet 53 in itself makes no mention of absence from the youth, but connects to this larger group via similar themes and word choices. Landry points out that seven other poems, sonnets 27, 37, 43, 61, 98, 99, and 113, connect separation with images of shadows. He notes that it is only when the speaker is absent from his friend that he begins to speak of shadows and images. Separation, Landry says, causes the poet’s imagination to begin, “to find, or rather project, many images of the friend’s beauty in his surroundings” [5] .

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Sonnet 53 In light of the poem’s situation within the group of sonnets expressing separation from the youth and the feelings of betrayal seen in Sonnet 35 and 40-42, Landry argues that the speaker in the last line praises the youth’s fidelity not because he is confident of the youth’s constancy but because he fitfully hopes that the youth will have a constant heart [6] . Putting it another way, the speaker hopes that by praising the youth for his constancy the youth will become more constant while the pair is separated. This style of cautious advice finds parallels in Renaissance rhetoric. Francis Bacon in his essay, “Of Praise,” explains a particular method of addressing kings and great persons with civility in which, “by telling men what they are, they represent to them what they should be” [7] . In addition, C.S. Lewis notes that an established feature of praise verse in the Renaissance was that it, “hid advice as flattery and recommended virtues by feigning that they already existed” [8] . Helen Vendler, writing in, The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets, is in agreement with Landry that the closing line is largely propitiatory though she arrives at this conclusion without including Sonnet 53 within a group of separation sonnets. She notes that the youth having, “millions of adorers…hover about him together with his millions of seductive shadows,” and an androgynous beauty, as comparable to Adonis as Helen, that doubles the number of potential admirers puts the youth in a particularly dangerous situation to give in to temptation [9] .

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References
[1] Atkins, Carl D., ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007. 148-149. ISBN 9780838641637 [2] Atkins, Carl D., ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007. 148-149. ISBN 9780838641637 [3] Atkins, Carl D., ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007. 148-149. ISBN 9780838641637 [4] Atkins, Carl D., ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007. 148-149.ISBN 9780838641637 [5] (Landry, Hilton. Interpretations in Shakespeare's Sonnets: The Art of Mutual Render. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963. 47-55. OCLC # 608824 [6] Landry, Hilton. Interpretations in Shakespeare's Sonnets: The Art of Mutual Render. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963. 47-55. OCLC # 608824 [7] Landry, Hilton. Interpretations in Shakespeare's Sonnets: The Art of Mutual Render. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963. 47-55. OCLC # 608824 [8] Landry, Hilton. Interpretations in Shakespeare's Sonnets: The Art of Mutual Render. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963. 47-55. OCLC # 608824 [9] Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge and London: Belknap-Harvard University Press, 1997. 258-260. OCLC # 36806589

Works cited
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Atkins, Carl D., ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007. 148-149. ISBN 9780838641637 • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Bate, Jonathan, The Genius of Shakespeare, 1998. (http://books.google.com/books?id=hh5pV-G-XtoC& dq=Bate+Genius+of+shakespeare&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=OPuQ3scOpb& sig=aUibuoSVTV2w7pBFwhffMy8nUUw&hl=en&ei=ORe9SsiqPIfg8Aaq6r2wAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result& ct=result&resnum=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Bernard, John. "'To Constancie Confin'd': the Poetics of Shakespeare's Sonnets." PMLA 94 (1979): 77-90. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Fineman, Joel. Shakespeare's Perjured Eye: the Invention of Poetic Subjectivity in the Sonnets, 1986. (http:// www.worldcat.org/isbn/0520063317#)

Sonnet 53 • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952. • Kittridge, G.L.Sonnets of Shakespeare. • Landry, Hilton. Interpretations in Shakespeare's Sonnets. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963. 47-55. OCLC # 608824 • Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge and London: Belknap-Harvard University Press, 1997. 258-260. OCLC # 36806589

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External links
• Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/53comm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-56.html)

Sonnet 54
« » Sonnet 54 O! how much more doth beauty beauteous seem By that sweet ornament which truth doth give. The rose looks fair, but fairer we it deem For that sweet odour, which doth in it live. The canker blooms have full as deep a dye As the perfumed tincture of the roses, Hang on such thorns, and play as wantonly When summer's breath their masked buds discloses: But, for their virtue only is their show, They live unwoo'd, and unrespected fade; Die to themselves. Sweet roses do not so; Of their sweet deaths are sweetest odours made: And so of you, beauteous and lovely youth, When that shall vade, my verse distills your truth. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 54 uses an extended metaphor to develop the theme of the beauty of the beloved and the preservative power of verse.

Introduction
Sonnet 54 is one of 154 sonnets written by English playwright William Shakespeare. It is in part of Sonnets 1-126, which are called the Fair Youth sonnets. These sonnets are written from the perspective of an elder man displaying his fondness of a younger man. The sonnets were first published together in 1609, although evidence points to Shakespeare finishing them at least 12 years earlier. [1] A. Kent Hieatt, Chales W. Hieatt, and Anne Lake Prescott published an article in Vol. 88 of Studies in Philology detailing a computer assisted study which partially confirmed this conjecture. It determined that Sonnets 1-60 were first composed sometime in between 1590 and 1595, but then likely revised after the turn of the century. In order to determine this, they looked at how Shakespeare's use of words changed over time and what current events and works he references.[2]

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Rhyme scheme
The Shakespeare sonnets take an alternating rhyme form with feminine rhyme being rare. The Shakespeare rhyme scheme is: Quatrain 1: A/B/A/B Quatrain 2: C/D/E/D Quatrain 3: F/G/F/G Heroic Couplet: H/H

Synopsis
Sonnet 54 by William Shakespeare is divided into three quatrains and one heroic couplet. The first two couplets work together, illustrating both the scentless canker bloom [3] and the scented rose. In the first two lines of the first quatrain he says that beauty is more precious as a result of truth. In the next two he gives the example of a rose. He says that beyond its looks, we prize the rose for its scent. This scent is its “truth” or essence. In the second quatrain Shakespeare compares the rose to the canker bloom. They are similar in every way other than scent. Shakespeare us of the words “play” and “wantonly” together imply that “play” has a sexual connotation.[4] In the third quatrain the author compares the death of the two flowers. The canker bloom dies alone and “unrespected,” while roses do not die alone, for “of their sweet deaths are sweetest odours made.” In the final section, the heroic couplet, Shakespeare makes the point of the sonnet clear. He says that his poetry will distill the beautiful boy’s beauty, his truth, even after it fades. It is interesting to compare this distillation to sonnet 5, where marriage was the distiller and beauty was distilled [5] . In each sonnet one gets the same result of the distillation process, which is beauty. However, in sonnet 5 the distillation process was through marriage, and in sonnet 54 it is the narrator's verse that distills this beauty. This the final product of the distillation process is brought to one in the final couplet of the poem, thus making the poem like the distillation process. This leaves the product of the verse, which is truth, enforcing the narrator's promise to leave only truth through his verse.

Modern speech
Oh how much more beautiful beauty is when the truth is told. The rose is pretty but we make it seem even prettier based on its smell. Canker blooms (wild roses) have the same color as the slightly perfumed (crimson or demask) roses which hang on violent thorns that swing about when summer’s wind unveils their disguised buds: but this is all for show, they live unnoticed and disrespected and die alone. Roses do not have this fate, after they die you can still smell them. So even when you die my lovely youth and your beauty fades my words will make your beauty immortal.

Roses
This poem is a comparison between two flowers that are representations of the youth’s beauty. Shakespeare compares these flowers, which vary greatly in their appearance, although they are essentially the same kind of flower, it is obvious that the “canker-blooms” or wild roses, according to Katherine Duncan-Jones, are the less desirable then that of the, assumed, damask or crimson rose [6] . Since the wild roses do not prolong their beauty after death, they are not like the youth–who even after death shall be immortalized in the writers words of the sonnet. Duncan Jones adds: “There is an additional problem about Shakespeare's contrast between 'The rose' and 'The canker blooms'. It is strongly implied that the latter have no scent, and cannot be distilled into rose-water: for their virtue only is their show. 'They live unwooed, and unrespected fade, Die to them selves. Sweet roses do not so ...' Yet it is clear that some wild roses, especially the sweet briar or eglantine, had a sweet, though not powerful, fragrance, and could be culled for distillation and conservation when better, red, roses were not available: their 'virtues' were identical”[7] .

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Literary Influences
Shakespeare’s sonnets are an important development in the historical progression of English poetry. The era in which Shakespeare was writing his sonnets was one of divergent literary values. He defied his society’s contemporary tastes, along with "Sidney and Spenser, the other two most prominent sonneteers" of the sixteenth century, by embracing the sonnet form, which had largely gone out of fashion. Nonetheless, he filled his sonnets with references to other Elizabethan poets whom he respected. In Sonnet 54, especially the line “The rose looks fair, but fairer we it deem,” we see a reference to Edmund Spenser’s Amoretti, Sonnet 26, the first line of which is “Sweet is the rose, but growes upon a brere.” This reference is just one of many which help to “proclaim Shakespeare’s deepest literary values and his recurrent aesthetic convictions.”[8] While Shakespeare honors his contemporaries, one of the things that make Shakespeare so great was how he differed from them. The Amoretti is a series of sonnets focused on a much more traditional topic, the courting which led to Spencer’s marriage. In the Amoretti, Spenser proposes “that a resolution to the sonneteer's conventional preoccupations with love may be found within the bounds of Christian marriage.” [9] Shakespeare’s Sonnets have a much more complicated, pained, and almost indecipherable message about love.

Context in Sonnet Sequence
The context of the sonnets vary, but the first 126 in which sonnet 54 lies are addressed to a young man of good social status and profess the narrator's platonic love. The love is returned, and the young man seems to yearn for the sonnets, as seen in sonnets 100-103 when the narrator apologizes for the long silence [10] . However, Berryman suggests that it is impossible to determine how the relationship ended up. While theories exist that the sonnets were written as literary exercises, H. C. Beeching suggests that they were written for a patron and not originally intended to be published together [11] .

Sexuality
In an analysis of Margreta de Grazia's essay about Shakespeare's sonnets, Robert Matz, mentions the subject of Shakespeare's sonnets (such as Sonnet 54) being written to a man. Drawing on a Foucauldian history of sexuality, De Grazia and Matz argue that while this notion appears scandalous in modernity, in Shakespeare's time this was not the same kind of issue. The sonnets written to a woman could have considered more improper in Shakespeare's era because of the possible racial variance and the idea of a woman's presumed promiscuity (originating in the idea of Eve causing the fall of man by enticing Adam to eat the forbidden fruit). According to Matz, "contemporary categories of or judgments about sexual desire may not cohere with past ones. De Grazia usefully argues that the changing reception of the sonnets marks a shift from an early modern concern with sex as a social category to modern understanding of sex as a personal one" [12] . The notion of homosexuality versus heterosexuality is a modern development that simply did not exist in 16th century England. Readers may have disapproved of Shakespeare's same-sex love or male friendship before the mid-20th century but they would not have reacted to the text as Shakespeare presenting himself as a "homosexual." Rather they would have pointed to other sonnets to prove his heterosexuality, and therefore find consolation in that [13] .

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References
[1] The Sonnets of Shakespeare, edited by H. C. Beeching, p. 225 GoogleBooks (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=kf4VAAAAYAAJ& ots=5eiBkm-OLO& dq=shakespeare "sonnet 54"& lr& pg=PR26#v=onepage& q=shakespeare "sonnet 54"& f=false) [2] Schiffer, James. Shakespeare’s Sonnets. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1999 [3] Shakespeare's Sonnets, edited by Stephen Booth Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=OaifjY-a5a0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=shakespeare's+ sonnets+ booth& source=bl& ots=7wfVlF0JeR& sig=iIm39_MBJElu6Wu8X2ZDRijUdaU& hl=en& ei=J62jTLmMNsiVswb9y_ydCA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& sqi=2& ved=0CCoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q& f=falseBerryman) [4] Shakespeare's Sonnets, edited by Stephen Booth Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=OaifjY-a5a0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=shakespeare's+ sonnets+ booth& source=bl& ots=7wfVlF0JeR& sig=iIm39_MBJElu6Wu8X2ZDRijUdaU& hl=en& ei=J62jTLmMNsiVswb9y_ydCA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& sqi=2& ved=0CCoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q& f=falseBerryman) [5] Beeching 96 [6] Katherine Duncan-Jones. Deep-dyed canker blooms: botanical reference in Shakespeare's Sonnet," The Review of English Studies 46.n184 (Nov 1995): pp521(5).54. [7] Katherine Duncan-Jones. "Deep-dyed canker blooms: botanical reference in Shakespeare's Sonnet," The Review of English Studies 46.n184 (Nov 1995): pp521(5).54. [8] William J. Kennedy, "Shakespeare and the Development of English Poetry", The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare's Poetry, ed. Patrick Cheney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007 [9] Larsen, Kenneth J. Introduction. Edmund Spenser’s Amoretti and Epithalamion: A Critical Edition. Tempe, AZ: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1997. [10] Berryman, John. Berryman's Shakespeare. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999. 287 [11] The Sonnets of Shakespeare, edited by H. C. Beeching GoogleBooks (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=kf4VAAAAYAAJ& ots=5eiBkm-OLO& dq=shakespeare "sonnet 54"& lr& pg=PR26#v=onepage& q=shakespeare "sonnet 54"& f=false) [12] "The Scandals of Shakespeare's Sonnets", Robert Matz, ELH 77.2 http:/ / muse. jhu. edu/ journals/ elh/ v077/ 77. 2. matz. pdf [13] "The Scandals of Shakespeare's Sonnets", Robert Matz, ELH 77.2 http:/ / muse. jhu. edu/ journals/ elh/ v077/ 77. 2. matz. pdf

Works Cited
• Matz, Robert. "The Scandals of Shakespeare's Sonnets," (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/elh/v077/77.2.matz. pdf). • Duncan-Jones, Katherine. "Deep-dyed canker blooms: botanical reference in Shakespeare's Sonnet," The Review of English Studies 46.n184 (Nov 1995): pp521(5).54. • The Sonnets of Shakespeare, edited by H. C. Beeching Google Books (http://books.google.com/ books?id=kf4VAAAAYAAJ&ots=5eiBkm-OLO&dq=shakespeare "sonnet 54"&lr&pg=PR26#v=onepage& q=shakespeare "sonnet 54"&f=false]) • Shakespeare's Sonnets, edited by Stephen Booth, 1977 Google Books (http://books.google.com/ books?id=OaifjY-a5a0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=shakespeare's+sonnets+booth&source=bl& ots=7wfVlF0JeR&sig=iIm39_MBJElu6Wu8X2ZDRijUdaU&hl=en&ei=J62jTLmMNsiVswb9y_ydCA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&sqi=2&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q& f=falseBerryman) • Berryman, John. Berryman's Shakespeare. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999. • Schiffer, James. Shakespeare’s Sonnets. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1999 • Kennedy, William J. "Shakespeare and the Development of English Poetry", The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare's Poetry, ed. Patrick Cheney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. • Larsen, Kenneth J. Introduction. Edmund Spenser’s Amoretti and Epithalamion: A Critical Edition. Tempe, AZ: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1997.

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External links
• Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/54comm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-57.html)

Sonnet 55
« » Sonnet 55 Not marble, nor the gilded monuments Of princes, shall outlive this powerful rhyme; But you shall shine more bright in these contents Than unswept stone besmear'd with sluttish time. When wasteful war shall statues overturn, And broils root out the work of masonry, Nor Mars his sword nor war's quick fire shall burn The living record of your memory. 'Gainst death and all-oblivious enmity Shall you pace forth; your praise shall still find room Even in the eyes of all posterity That wear this world out to the ending doom. So, till the judgment that yourself arise, You live in this, and dwell in lover's eyes. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 55 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Criticism
According to multiple scholars, sonnet 55 is a poem about time and immortalization. The speaker claims that his poem will immortalize the beloved, in this case the young man. According to Alison Scott, the speaker is seeking to “give” the gift of immortality to the young man through his poetry, adhering to a larger theme of giving and possessing that runs through many of Shakespeare’s sonnets.[1] David Kaula, however, emphasizes the concept of time slightly differently. He argues that the sonnet traces the progression of time, from the physical endeavours built by man (monuments, statues, masonry), as well as the primeval notion of warfare depicted through the image of “Mars’ sword” and “war’s quick fire,” to the concept of the last judgment. The young man will survive all of these things through the verses of the speaker.[2] In the first quatrain, these monuments, statues, and masonry reference both Horace’s Odes and Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Lars Engle argues that echoing the ancients, as the speaker does when he says “not marble, nor the gilded monuments / Of princes, shall outlive this powerful rhyme;” further solidifies the speaker’s claim about the longevity of written word. However, while Horace and Ovid claim the immortality for themselves, the speaker in sonnet 55 bestows it on another. Engle also claims that this is not the first time Shakespeare references the self-aggrandizement of royals and rulers by saying that poetry will outlive them. He frequently mentions his own (political) unimportance, which could lead sonnet 55 to be read as a sort of revenge of the socially humble on their oppressors.[3]

Sonnet 55 While the first quatrain is referential and full of imagery, in the second quatrain Ernest Fontana focuses on the epithet “sluttish time.” The Oxford English Dictionary gives “sluttish” two definitions: 1) dirty, careless, slovenly (which can refer to objects and persons of both sexes) and 2) lewd, morally loose, and whorish. According to Fontana, Shakespeare intended the second meaning, personifying and assigning gender to time, making the difference between the young man sonnets and the dark lady sonnets all the more obvious. Shakespeare had used the word “slut” nearly a year before he wrote sonnet 55 when he wrote Timon of Athens. In the play, Timon associates the word “slut” with “whore” and venereal disease. Associating “sluttish” with venereal disease makes Shakespeare’s use of the word “besmeared” more specific. Fontana states: “The effect of time, personified as a whore, on the hypothetical stone statue of the young man, is identified in metaphor with the effect of syphilis on the body—the statue will be besmeared, that is, covered, with metaphoric blains, lesions, and scars.” (Female) time destroys whereas the male voice of the sonnet is “generative and vivifying.”[4] Helen Vendler expands on the idea of “sluttish time” by examining how the speaker bestows grandeur on entities when they are connected to the beloved but mocks them and associates them with dirtiness when they’re connected with something the speaker hates. She begins by addressing the “grand marble” and “gilded” statues and monuments; these are called this way when the speaker compares them to the verse immortalizing the beloved. However, when compared to “sluttish time” they are “unswept stone besmeared.” The same technique occurs in the second quatrain. Battle occurs between mortal monuments of princes, conflict is crude and vulgar, “wasteful war” overturns unelaborated statues and “broils” root out masonry. Later in quatrain war becomes “war’s quick fire” and “broils” become “Mars his sword.” The war is suddenly grand and the foes are emboldened. The blatant contempt with which the speaker regards anything not having to do with the young man, or anything that works against the young man’s immortality, raises the adoration of the young man by contrast alone. Like the other critics, Vendler recognizes the theme of time in this sonnet. She expands on this by arguing that the sonnet revolves around the keyword “live.” In Q1, the focus is the word “outlive.” In Q2 it’s “living;” in Q3 “oblivious,” and the couplet focuses on the word “live” itself. However, this begs the question of whether the young man actually continues to live bodily or if only his memory remains. There are references to being alive physically with active phrases like “you shall shine in these contents” and “’gainst death and all oblivious enmity / shall you pace forth,” and also to living in memory: “the living record of your memory,” and “your praise shall…find room…in the eyes of all posterity.” Vendler argues that this question is answered by the couplet when it assigns “real” living to the day of the last judgment: “So till the judgment that your self arise / you live in this, and dwell in lovers’ eyes.”[5] Interestingly, while researching the First Folios in the Folger Library, Robert Evans came across an epitaph for Shakespeare that was previously unrecorded. The epitaph appears in verse, similar to that of the sonnets, and shows just how highly Shakespeare's contemporaries thought of his work. The lines of the epitaph themselves echo lines from sonnet 55, which bring into thought the ideas of that particular sonnet itself. Through the verses of the sonnet, the young man becomes immortal. Through the verses of the epitaph, as well as the larger context of praise for the dead poet, Shakespeare himself becomes immortal, echoing and reinforcing his very argument in sonnet 55.[6]

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Sonnet 55

136

Interpretations
• Richard Briers, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

References
[1] Scott, Alison. "Hoarding the Treasure and Squandering the Truth: Giving and Possessing in Shakespeare's Sonnets to the Young Man." Studies in Philology, Volume 101, Number 3, Summer 2004, pp. 315-331 [2] Kaula, David. "In War With Time: Temporal Perspectives in Shakespeare's Sonnets". Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. Vol. 3, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter, 1963), pp. 45-57. JSTOR Database [3] Engle, Lars. "Afloat in Thick Deeps: Shakespeare's Sonnets on Certainty." PMLA, Vol. 104, No. 5 (Oct., 1989), pp. 832-843. JSTOR Database [4] Fontana, E. "Shakespeare's Sonnet 55." The Explicator v. 45 (Spring 1987) p. 6-8. EBSCO Host Database [5] Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997. Print. [6] Evans, Robert. "Whome None but Death Could Shake: An Unreported Epitaph on Shakespeare". Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1, (Spring, 1988) p. 60. JSTOR Database

External links
• Cliffsnotes on the sonnet (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/ Shakespeare-s-Sonnets-Analysis-and-Original-Text-by-Sonnet-Sonnet-55.id-169,pageNum-140.html)

Sonnet 56
« » Sonnet 56 Sweet love, renew thy force; be it not said Thy edge should blunter be than appetite, Which but to-day by feeding is allayed, To-morrow sharpened in his former might: So, love, be thou, although to-day thou fill Thy hungry eyes, even till they wink with fulness, To-morrow see again, and do not kill The spirit of love, with a perpetual dulness. Let this sad interim like the ocean be Which parts the shore, where two contracted new Come daily to the banks, that when they see Return of love, more blest may be the view; As call it winter, which being full of care, Makes summer's welcome, thrice more wished, more rare. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 56 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man. This sonnet is also the inspiration behind Paul Hoover's 2009 book of poetry, "Sonnet 56," in which Hoover translates the sonnet into 56 written forms, including an answering machine transcript, tanka and confessional poem.

Sonnet 56

137

Interpretations
• Tom Courtnay, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI)

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 56comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-59. html

Sonnet 57
« » Sonnet 57 Being your slave what should I do but tend Upon the hours, and times of your desire? I have no precious time at all to spend; Nor services to do, till you require. Nor dare I chide the world without end hour, Whilst I, my sovereign, watch the clock for you, Nor think the bitterness of absence sour, When you have bid your servant once adieu; Nor dare I question with my jealous thought Where you may be, or your affairs suppose, But, like a sad slave, stay and think of nought Save, where you are, how happy you make those. So true a fool is love, that in your will, Though you do anything, he thinks no ill. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 57 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man. It represents to many a standard.

Sonnet 57

138

Interpretations
• Janet McTeer, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 57comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-60. html

Sonnet 58
« » Sonnet 58 That god forbid, that made me first your slave, I should in thought control your times of pleasure, Or at your hand the account of hours to crave, Being your vassal, bound to stay your leisure! O! let me suffer, being at your beck, The imprison'd absence of your liberty; And patience, tame to sufferance, bide each check, Without accusing you of injury. Be where you list, your charter is so strong That you yourself may privilege your time To what you will; to you it doth belong Yourself to pardon of self-doing crime. I am to wait, though waiting so be hell, Not blame your pleasure be it ill or well. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 58 is a syntactic and thematic continuation of "Sonnet 57". More generally, it belongs to the large group of sonnets written to a young, aristocratic man, with whom the poem's speaker shares a tempestuous relationship. In this poem, the speaker complains of the beloved's voluntary absence, using the occasion to outline a more general lament against his own powerlessness and the indifference of the young man.

Paraphrase
I pray that the god (Amor) who made me so emotionally enslaved to you keeps me from ever thinking about wishing to control your time, or even to ask you to account for how you have spent your time. I am your servant, and thus I have no choice but to accept your decisions. Please, let me suffer patiently while I wait for you to have time for me, and let me not accuse you of doing me any injury. Go where you like; you have the power not only to decide for yourself, but even to pardon yourself for any injury you may commit. And even though waiting is hell for me, I must accept your actions patiently, whether they be good or bad.

Sonnet 58

139

Source and analysis
Line 6 is obscure. Nicolaus Delius glosses it "Let me bear the fact that the liberty you possess is wanting to me, a captive." While recognizing that Delius might be correct, Edward Dowden suggests "The separation from you, which is proper to your state of freedom, but which to me is imprisonment." In line 9, the quarto's comma after tame is generally removed; editors have glossed the phrase "tame to sufferance" as "made tame to fortune's blows" (Malone); "bearing tamely even cruel distress" (Dowden); "complaisant in suffering" (Sidney Lee}; and "subdued so as to suffer" (Beeching). In the nineteenth century, there was some debate as to whether this sonnet and Sonnet 57 were addressed to a man or a woman. The tone of querulous anger and the use of some sonnet conventions (such as the conceit of servitude) were sometimes seen as inappropriate for a poem addressed to a social superior and a man. Others, principally those who wished to fit the sonnets into a biographical narrative, accepted that the poems were addressed to a man, and often had a specific man in mind, whether Southampton or someone else. Thomas Tyler, for instance, noted thematic and verbal parallels between these sonnets and some letters of Pembroke. The latter identification has received scant acceptance. Modern critics accept that the poems were addressed to the young man, and they view the language of class in the sequence from 56-59 in terms of a complex dynamic of class difference and desire. The speaker's metaphoric description of love as enslavement is complicated and enriched by the fact that here, the speaker is literally as well as figuratively subordinate to the beloved. For Helen Vendler and Stephen Booth, among others, the rhetoric of enslavement is ironic: it highlights the element of exaggeration in the speaker's rhetoric, thus hinting that those emotions spring more from self-pity than from justified hurt. Other critics agree to the complexity without admitting that it is ironic. David Shallwyck asserts that the sonnet "accomplishes the remarkable feat of simultaneously offering an apology and levelling an accusation."

References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Schallwyck, David. Speech and Performance in Shakespeare's Plays and Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. • Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Boston: Belknap Press, 1999.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 58comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-61. html

Sonnet 59

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Sonnet 59
« » Sonnet 59 If there be nothing new, but that which is Hath been before, how are our brains beguil'd, Which labouring for invention bear amiss The second burthen of a former child. Oh that record could with a backward look, Even of five hundred courses of the sun, Show me your image in some antique book, Since mind at first in character was done, That I might see what the old world could say To this composed wonder of your frame; Whether we are mended, or where better they, Or whether revolution be the same. Oh sure I am the wits of former days, To subjects worse have given admiring praise. –William Shakespeare

I. Overview
Sonnet 59 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

II. Poetic style of Sonnet
Sonnet 59, like all of Shakespeare’s sonnets, is fourteen lines long and employs the rhyme scheme A B A B C D C D E F E F G G. It can be divided into four parts; three four lined quatrains and a single two lined part called a couplet. This four part division is found in every one of Shakespeare’s 154 sonnets.[1] The rhyme scheme is quite obvious when looking at each of these four divisions. In the first quatrain the last words of each line are “is”, “beguil’d”, “amiss”, and “child”. As can be seen here, the first and third lines rhyme with each other, while the second and fourth form a separate rhyming pair. The same pattern persists in the next two quatrains as well, and only changes at the last division, the couplet. Here is the only place two consecutive lines rhyme.[2]

Sonnet 59

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III. Major Themes
One Story
According to Thomas Foster in his book How To Read Literature Like a Professor, “pure originality is impossible.” [3] Human beings are fascinated by life in space and time. So, when we write about “ourselves” and “what it means to be human,” we are all writing the story of life.[4] Foster wrote an entire chapter about Shakespeare’s influence entitled “When in Doubt, It’s From Shakespeare…” According to Foster: If you look at any literary period between the eighteenth and twenty-first centuries, you’ll be amazed by the dominance of the Bard. He’s everywhere, in every literary form you can think of. And he’s never the same: every age and every writer reinvents its own Shakespeare.[5] Ironically, with each rewriting of this “one story” the author is influenced by changes in attitudes and cultures between the original and current era of creation. Each author alters the message to fit their own agenda while the audience is a variable of agency in interpretation. All of these same “old” factors ironically help create a “new” story. The following fear voiced by Shakespeare: If there be nothing new, but that which is Hath been before, how are our brains beguiled is remedied by the strength of his own “invention” to influence future ages.[7]
[6]

Sonnet -"Body" of work
In David Klein's analysis entitled Foreign Influence on Shakespeare's Sonnets, sonnet writing became a popular past-time during Shakespeare’s time period: Two hundred thousand sonnets were written in Europe between 1530 and 1650. The topic of most of them was love. Remembering that the subject of love was not limited to the sonnet form, we are prepared to expect a monotony of sentiment.[8] The fear of a “second burden of a former child” period in general when compared to Shakespeare:
[9]

can be seen through Klein’s analysis of sonnet writers of the

Their eyes were turned to the past where they saw a linguistic ideal they strove to imitate... Such a mighty genius as Shakespeare, however, took what the Renascence had to offer him as useful material; and then, with face forward, set to work to create.[10] Love was a conceit made petty by the sonnet writer stuck in revolution around one archetypal subject.[11] The writer’s world was that subject and the world was there to profess the supremacy of her beauty. According to Klein, this takes the subject into the realm of imagination.[12] Shakespeare grounds his subject in reality using the following lines of Sonnet 59: O, that record could with a backward look, Even of five hundred courses of the Sun, Show me your image in some antique book, Since mind at first in character was done! That I might see what the old world could say To this composed wonder of your frame.[13] Shakespeare uses his own education about the past to coolly reason his subject’s beauty out of emotional speculation. In essence he has researched the beauty of antiquity and found: O, sure I am of the wits of former days To subjects worse have given admiring praise.[14]

Sonnet 59 Substantiation of beauty was a result of the Renaissance according to Klein. This accomplishment was rendered by “the revelation of man to himself, and he discovered that he had a body of which he could be as proud as of his mind, and which was just as essential to his being.” [15]

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Mind and Body, Form and Feeling, Flesh and Thought
In the book Bodies and Selves in Early Modern England, Mike Schoenfeldt examines the concepts of physiology and inwardness as seen through the works of Shakespeare, specifically in The Sonnets. Through Schoenfeldt’s literary research, he reveals the interaction between “flesh and thought” during Shakespeare’s time period.[16] The dynamic that Shakespeare plays with in the “feeling” and the “form” of the sonnet portrays a “feeling in the form.” He uses both the physical form and symbolic meaning of the sonnet art form.[17] Since mind at first in character was done To this composed wonder of your frame.[19] According to Schoenfeldt, Shakespeare’s writing is trying to “wring meaning from the matter of existence.” [20] He is using both the physical “frame” and symbolic “mind” to convey his message. Again, in the book The Body Emblazoned, by Jonathon Sawday, Shakespeare’s sonnets are used to exhibit the idea of confrontation between the physical and the psychological human being. The conflict for early Renaissance writers involved the interaction between the “material reality” and the “abstract idea” of the body.[21] The conceptual framework of the period was starting to dissect the material from the immaterial; the subject from the object.[22] This idea is commonly referred to as the body and soul or mind and body conflict. Shakespeare is not exempt from this cultural ideology. In fact, his writing reflects a bodily interiority that was changing with new discoveries in science and art. According to Schoenfeldt: By urging a particular organic account of inwardness and individuality, Galenic medical theory gave poets a language of inner emotion… composed of the very stuff of being. The texts we will be examining [including Shakespeare’s sonnets] emerge from a historical moment when the “scientific” language of analysis had not yet been separated from the sensory language of experience… the Galenic regime of the humoral self that supplies these writers with much of their vocabulary of inwardness demanded invasion of social and psychological realms by biological and environmental processes.[23] The outside world of the physical body is a part of the language in use by Shakespeare and his peers to portray the inward world of emotion and thought. Characters are the “vehicles” for meaning much as the body is the “vehicle” for the mind. Since mind at first in character was done.[24] Yet, Shakespeare blurs the threshold between the two concepts of body and mind. Which, labouring for invention, bear amiss The second burden of a former child! [25] The process of creation in the mind becomes the physical process of labor. Shakespeare’s work takes on a life of its own literally, but here the reference is based on the cultural concept of psychological inwardness. “Shakespeare turns so frequently to physiological terminology because the job of the doctor, like that of the playwright and poet, is to intuit inner reality via external demeanor.” [26] The fields of medicine and art merge in expression to create a common language of the self.
[18]

Sonnet 59

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Birth and Pregnancy
Pauline Kieman makes a very good case that the first quatrain in Sonnet 59 is dealing primarily with the theme of biological birth and pregnancy. She makes many claims supporting this idea, but the main points are as follows: -Inventio, becomes, as we reach bear, an image of pregnancy, and imaginative creation is no the dominating sense of invention so that at amiss we are holding in our minds the idea of an embryo growing imperfectly in some way in the womb. -At line 4 the sense of the pain of a heavily pregnant womb is doubled by the word "second". -The poet (William Shakespeare) tries to bring something into being for the first time, but before it can get born it is crushed under the weight of previous creations. e.g. "which for labouring invention bear amiss".[27] Joel Fineman also subscribes to the theory of pregnancy and birth being a theme of the Sonnet, particularly the first quatrain, but he takes a different approach in his final analysis of this theme. He suggests that this rebirth is not a biological rebirth, but rather a rebirth of subjectivity, particularly within the Late Renaissance. So, in other words, the rebirth is not literal, as stated by Kieman, but rather the rebirth is symbolic of the sentiments and intellectual themes of the Late Renaissance. There is still a theme of birth, pregnancy, or rebirth, it is just concluded in different terms.[28]

Reflexivity
Alfred Harbage analyzes Shakespeare's "sense of history" as he puts it. This definitely centers itself on the idea of reflexivity, especially at the beginning of the poem, where Shakespeare shows the "baggage" that he enters his writing with.[29] Murray Krieger affirms this idea that Shakespeare has a sense of history when he writes his sonnets, as though he believes that there is "nothing new" and everything, no matter how striking or unique, has happened before. He also states about the final line--"Or revolution be the same"--that,"a change that transforms history is always threatened with the grudging concession that it has happened before, with as much ardor, and in just this way." [30]

The Young Man
Russell Fraser suggests that Shakespeare's "if" clause which occurs in "if there be nothing new..." actually is referring to something new beneath the sun, namely, the young man. He also states that Shakespeare reverses his claim, but his main purpose is inclusiveness, wherein lies power.[31]

Blazon, Competition
The popular aspect of the Petrarchan-style sonnet is called the blazon. The blazon divides the unobtainable female object of desire into parts that can be compared to the outside world. According to Sawday, “the free-flow of language within the blazon form over the female body was not a celebration of ‘beauty’ (the ostensible subject), but of male competition.” [32] O, sure I am the wits of former days To subjects worse have given admiring praise.[33] Shakespeare uses the blazon for the evaluation of the sonnet itself, drawing attention to this competition.

Sonnet 59

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Difference and Violence
The idea of identity commands a differentiation between the self and society. According to Rene Girard, in his book Violence and the Sacred: It is not the differences but the loss of them that gives rise to violence and chaos... The loss forces men into a perpetual confrontation, one that strips them of all their distinctive characteristics- in short, of their "identities." Language itself is put in jeopardy. 'Each thing meets/ In mere oppugnancy:' the adversaries are reduced to indefinite objects, "things" that wantonly collide with each other like loose cargo on the decks of a storm-tossed ship. The metaphor of the floodtide that transforms the earth's surface to a muddy mass is frequently employed by Shakespeare to designate the undifferentiated state of the world that is also portrayed in Genesis.[34] Girard goes on to say that "equilibrium invariably leads to violence," while justice is really the imbalance that shows the difference between "good" and "evil" or "pure" and "impure." When the past is not differentiable from the present, a violence called sacrificial crises occurs. There will always be differences despite the seeming similarities; otherwise, violence will ensue to "correct" the situation.[35] This experience in poetry is also referred to as a "force, as it were, 'behind' the representative surface of the poetry." [36] The physical is again seen as part of the psychology used by Shakespeare in the language of his sonnets.

Biblical Allusions
Much of the sonnet seems to be focused on a debate as to whether the old style or the new is superior. In fact, the opening lines stating that “If there be nothing new, but that which is Hath been before…” call to mind a similar passage that would have far outdated Shakespeare, but that would have been familiar to most learned men of his day. In the biblical book of Ecclesiastes, chapter 1, verse 9, it is written that “The thing that hath been is that which shall be; and that which hath been done is that which shall be done; and there is no new thing under the sun." The speaker asks whether the Fair Youth has surpassed his ancient equivalents, or whether he has fallen short of their legacy. This is summarized in lines 11 and 12: Whether we are mended, or whe'er better they, Or whether revolution be the same Ultimately, the speaker decides that even if the Youth has not out-shined his predecessors, he is still certainly more beautiful than at least some who came before him, as the speaker states in lines 13 and 14: O, sure I am, the wits of former days To subjects worse have given admiring praise.

External links
• Analysis [37] • CliffsNotes [38]

Works Cited
[1] http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 30204144 [2] For more information go to sources like the following: http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2872643 The Structure of English Renaissance Sonnet Sequence Author(s): Carol Thomas Neely [3] (Foster, Thomas C. How to Read Literature Like a Professor. New York: Harper, 2003. Print. p. 187) [4] (Foster, Thomas C. How to Read Literature Like a Professor. New York: Harper, 2003. Print. p. 186) [5] (Foster, Thomas C. How to Read Literature Like a Professor. New York: Harper, 2003. Print. p. 38) [6] (Sonnet 59, Lines 1-2) [7] (Foster, Thomas C. How to Read Literature Like a Professor. New York: Harper, 2003. Print. p. 44)

Sonnet 59
[8] (Klein, David. Foreign Influence on Shakespeare's Sonnets. The Sewanee Review, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oct., 1905), pp. 454-474. http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 27530718 p. 457) [9] (Sonnet 59, Line 4) [10] (Klein, David. Foreign Influence on Shakespeare's Sonnets. The Sewanee Review, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oct., 1905), pp. 454-474. http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 27530718 p. 472) [11] (Klein, David. Foreign Influence on Shakespeare's Sonnets. The Sewanee Review, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oct., 1905), pp. 454-474. http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 27530718 p. 470) [12] (Klein, David. Foreign Influence on Shakespeare's Sonnets. The Sewanee Review, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oct., 1905), pp. 454-474. http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 27530718 p. 471) [13] (Sonnet 59, Lines 5-10) [14] (Sonnet 59, Lines 13-14) [15] (Klein, David. Foreign Influence on Shakespeare's Sonnets. The Sewanee Review, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oct., 1905), pp. 454-474. http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 27530718 p. 463) [16] (Schoenfeldt, Michael C. Bodies and selves in early modern England : physiology and inwardness in Spenser, Shakespeare, Herbert, and Milton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print. p. 77) [17] (Schoenfeldt, Michael C. Bodies and selves in early modern England : physiology and inwardness in Spenser, Shakespeare, Herbert, and Milton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print. p. 76) [18] (Sonnet 59, Line 8) [19] (Sonnet 59, Line 10) [20] (Schoenfeldt, Michael C. Bodies and selves in early modern England : physiology and inwardness in Spenser, Shakespeare, Herbert, and Milton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print. p. 172) [21] (Sawday, Jonathan. The Body Emblazoned; Dissection and the Human Body in Renaissance Culture. New York: Routledge, 1996. Print. p. 3) [22] (Sawday, Jonathan. The Body Emblazoned; Dissection and the Human Body in Renaissance Culture. New York: Routledge, 1996. Print. p. 20) [23] (Schoenfeldt, Michael C. Bodies and selves in early modern England physiology and inwardness in Spenser, Shakespeare, Herbert, and Milton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print. p. 8) [24] (Sonnet 59, Line 8) [25] (Sonnet 59, Lines 2-4) [26] (Schoenfeldt, Michael C. Bodies and selves in early modern England : physiology and inwardness in Spenser, Shakespeare, Herbert, and Milton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print. p. 75) [27] http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 519060 [28] http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2928456 [29] http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2857232 [30] http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 468662 [31] http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 27546084 [32] (Sawday, Jonathan. The Body Emblazoned; Dissection and the Human Body in Renaissance Culture. New York: Routledge, 1996. Print. p. 199) [33] (Sonnet 59, Lines 13-14) [34] (Girard, Rene. Violence and the Sacred. Trans. Patrick Gregory. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977. Print. p. 51) [35] (Girard, Rene. Violence and the Sacred. Trans. Patrick Gregory. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977. Print. p. 51) [36] (Cody, Michael C. Shakespeare's "Alien Pen": Self-Substantial Poetics in the Young Man Sonnets. http:/ / search. ebscohost. com/ login. aspx?direct=true& db=aph& AN=40074851& site=ehost-live pp. 493-494) [37] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 59comm. htm [38] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-62. html

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Sonnet 60

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Sonnet 60
« » Sonnet 60 Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore, So do our minutes hasten to their end; Each changing place with that which goes before, In sequent toil all forwards do contend. Nativity, once in the main of light, Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crown'd, Crooked eclipses 'gainst his glory fight, And Time that gave doth now his gift confound. Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth And delves the parallels in beauty's brow, Feeds on the rarities of nature's truth, And nothing stands but for his scythe to mow: And yet to times in hope my verse shall stand, Praising thy worth, despite his cruel hand. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 60 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young beloved.

Synopsis
Sonnet 60 focuses upon the theme of time passing . This is one of the major themes of Shakespeare sonnets, it can be seen in Sonnet 1 as well. Like sonnets 1-126, Sonnet 60 was addressed to "a fair youth" whose identity is questioned. In the last two lines (the couplet) the speaker says that his verse will live on and therefore make the beauty of the beloved immortal. The sonnet compares minutes to waves on a pebbled shore regularly replacing each other. The rising of the sun setting is used as a metaphor for human life. Time is also depicted as halting youth.

Form and structure
Sonnet 60 displays the traditional characteristics of a Shakespearean sonnet—three quatrains and a couplet written in iambic pentameter with an ABAB CDCD EFEF GG rhyme scheme. In fact, Helen Vendler calls Sonnet 60 “one of the perfect examples of the 4-4-4-2 Shakespearean sonnet form” [1] . According to Vendler, “Each quatrain introduces a new and important modification in concept and tone, while the couplet—here a “reversing” couplet contradicting the body of the sonnet—adds yet a fourth dimension” [2] . In other words, Vendler is arguing that each section of the poem offers new insight and content; therefore, there are four distinct parts or “dimensions” of the sonnet—each quatrain is not merely positing the same idea, while the couplet is not simply summarizing the quatrains [3] . However, Sonnet 60 contains unique traits, such as several trochees, which distinguish it from some of Shakespeare’s other sonnets and help further develop the main themes of the sonnet. Shakespeare’s sonnets usually contain iambs, feet that have an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, but Sonnet 60 incorporates several trochees, feet that have a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. Vendler writes that the first two lines of the sonnet begin with trochees, which “draw attention to the hastening of the

Sonnet 60 waves, the attacks by eclipses and by Time, and the countervailing praising by verse” [4] . According to Robert Arbour, after these initial trochees, Shakespeare ends each of these first two lines with a “calm, iambic meter” [5] . Arbour argues that this sensation of waves crashing culminates at the beginning of the third line, in which a spondee, a foot with two stressed syllables, represents this climax [6] . However, Carl Atkins claims that the first two lines are “answered directly by two regular lines” [7] . Despite this disagreement, both critics acknowledge that the non-iambic feet simulate the undulating and crashing waves that Shakespeare portrays in the first line of the sonnet. While Vendler emphasizes the meter of the first quatrain, Atkins and Arbour continue this analysis by examining the second quatrain. After the first quatrain, the next trochee occurs in the middle of line 5, the only medial trochee of the sonnet, followed by trochees at the beginning of the sixth and seventh lines. The sixth and seventh lines mirror the first two lines of the sonnet in form, drawing attention to their common theme of birth—the waves near the shore and children grow toward maturity—and death—minutes reach their conclusion as the children’s glory is destroyed [8] . The non-linear pattern of the second quatrain also draws attention to the quatrain’s “slowness and repeated breaks [which suggest] the labour of human life which Time hinders at every step” [9] . This contrasts greatly with the “smoothness of the first quatrain, describing the work of time, in which each line [after the initial trochee] runs to its end like the ripple to which it compares the succession of minutes” [10] . Therefore, while these three critics may examine and emphasize different aspects of the meter in the sonnet, all three maintain that the meter helps convey and facilitate the main themes of the sonnet.

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Analysis and criticism
This poem has many competing images, including time, conflict, and the sea. In Stephen Booth's thorough criticism of Sonnet 60, he remarks that of the battle that the speaker attempts to wage against time in his effort to be together with the youth. The words chosen by Shakespeare such as toil, transfix, fight, contend, glory, confound, and scythe all hint at a violent conflict to which the speaker finds himself irreversibly attached. The conflict of the speaker relates to how best solve the problem of time, yet he initially sees no counter to time's devastating attacks [11] . Lopez dives into more detail about this conflict, focusing on the death and destruction that Sonnet 60 describes The second quatrain explains life's cycle, presenting the journey from birth to death and from sunrise to eclipse or sunset as ways to explicate the feeling of loss after having so much. It culminates in the pessimism that all that was ever had, has been or will be lost. He explains the third quatrain as the degradation of his fascination's beauty, that the weapons that time methodically uses to slowly strip what the speaker values is a crushing blow. The completeness of time's destruction is made clear as if man's beauty and goodness are created only for time to demolish [12] . Helen Vendler sees the conflict that both Booth and Lopez are picking up on, but also adds the idea of the different concepts of time that Shakespeare develops. The waves upon the shore, beating endlessly as the minutes beat upon the hours, is the stationary model, showing the consistency and terminality of the speaker's enemy. She also describes a model of rise and fall, characterizing the tragic model. Similar to the shape of a human lifespan, with a rise from immaturity and incompetence, climaxing at a stage most able, and then steadily falling away from the high point of life and towards entropy, the second quatrain shows this parabolic idea of existence, from which Shakespeare longs to escape. The third quatrain gives Vendler the specific images that Booth and Lopez refer to the violent encounter between the speaker and time, and how time speedily spoils all the speaker enjoys. While Booth and Lopez see the conflict of that Shakespeare is ensnared by as one of the main points to take away from this sonnet, Vendler examines the confusion of these models interacting with each other, suggesting an inner conflict as more pressing than his external conflict about time and its destructive and unwanted powers [13] .

Sonnet 60

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Context
Sonnet 60 appears as part of a larger collection of 154 sonnets published in 1609 under the title “Shakespeare’s Sonnets.” Sonnets 1-126, or the “Fair Youth” sequence, are commonly thought to be addressed to a young man, though that man’s identity is not known. It is believed that the majority of the sonnets were written in the 1590s, including Sonnet 60 (xxix) [14] . The historical context in which Shakespeare wrote Sonnet 60, especially matters concerning time, provide an interpretive key to the poem. By the 1590s, when Shakespeare wrote Sonnet 60, England was in the midst of a period of unprecedented colonization, industry, and commerce. Charles Andrews points out in his History of England that in the era of Elizabeth, England entered its period of "modern history" and had "become a power of first rank" [15] . The Spanish Armada had been defeated in 1588. At the same time, coinage became standardized. The English East India Company launched its first spice trading expedition in 1598, and England began its first colonization attempts in North America. In commerce, industry and wealth, England experienced unprecedented growth and all of these areas were, by the 1590s, all "regulated and controlled by the state" [16] . As England become more powerful and regulated, the accurate measurement of time became crucial to the country’s well-being. The accurate measurement of time helped in standardizing the payment of wages for labor, regulating industry, and keeping governance efficient. By the 16th century “life in the cities had become equated with life by the clock,” and by the late 16th century, the first minute hands began to appear on public (and private) clocks [17] . Time in the London of 1609 had become highly measured, increasingly accurate, and integrated into the social order; people “ruled themselves by the clock" [18] . Dympna Callaghan in the essay, “Confounded by Winter, Speeding Time in Shakespeare’s Sonnets,” states that Sonnet 60 is one of two sonnets (also 12) which are “keenly concerned with time” and are given the “significantly symbolic numbers” [19] . Sonnet 12 concerns the 12 hours on the face of a clock and Sonnet 60 concerns “our minutes” [20] . These two sonnets, therefore, Callaghan says, “bespeak mechanical time” and their number signifies the importance of the modern measurement of time [21] . This “measured” and “mechanical” time-keeping changed the way persons experienced time. Time in the ancient world had been marked by the rising of the sun and its setting, the seasons, or the lunar and solar events, by birth and death. With the coming of modern measurements of time, Daniel Boorstin in The Discoverers states that "mankind [was] liberated from the monotony of nature" and "[t]he flow of shadows, sand and water translated into the clock's staccato, became a useful measure of man's movement across the planet" (1). With the increasing dominance of mechanical time in the 1590s—the context of Shakespeare's Sonnet 60—the connection between nature and time began to fracture [22] .

The influence of Ovid: Metamorphoses and Sonnet 60
Sections of Book XV of Ovid’s Metamorphoses serve as the template for much of Sonnet 60. As in Shakespeare’s Sonnet 60, Ovid speaks of time as a cyclical, natural process, like waves on the sea [23] :
Ovid
Full sail, I voyage Over the boundless ocean, and I tell you Nothing is permanent in all the world. All things are fluent; every image forms, Wandering through change. Time is itself a river In constant movement, and the hours flow by Like water, wave on wave, pursued and pursuing, Forever fugitive, forever new

Shakespeare
Like as the waves make toward the pebbled shore So do our minutes hasten to their end; Each changing place with that which goes before In sequent toil all forwards do contend.

[24]

Ovid, as in Shakespeare’s sonnet, speaks of this same natural rhythm of time as seen through the process of birth, life and death:

Sonnet 60
To the void air, there in light we lay Feeble and infant and were quadrupeds Before too long a little wobbled And pulled ourselves upright, holding a chair, And the side of the crib and strength grew into us And swiftness; youth and middle age went swiftly Nativity once in the main of light Crawls to maturity werewith being crown'd Crooked eclipses 'gainst his glory fight And time doth now his gift confound

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[25]

.

Ovid closes this section, like Shakespeare, depicting Time as a devouring animal. Ovid writes:
….Time devours all things With envious age together. The slow gnawing Consumes all things, and very, very slowly Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth And delves the parallels in beauty's brow

[26]

.

Feeds on the rarities of nature's truth And nothing stands but for his scythe to mow

Clearly, Shakespeare relied heavily on these sections of Ovid’s Metamorphoses while composing Sonnet 60, and these passages from Ovid roughly correspond to the three quatrains of the sonnet. Shakespeare would have looked back to ancient sources like many Renaissance writers of his time. In the book Shakespeare and Ovid, Johnathan Bate states that persons of the Renaissance period "believed passionately that the present could learn from the past" and that this belief "was the starting-point of education and a formative influence on the writing of the period" [27] . There was a strong belief in Shakespeare's day that, though times change—changes which are the result of passing time—the essentials of human nature, "the foundations of the affections of the human mind," did not change [28] . To look into the past, therefore, meant also for Shakespeare to look more deeply into the meaning of the present [29] . By looking back to Book XV of Ovid's Metamorphoses, Shakespeare also gives a modern view (one that includes minutes) of an ancient view of time, one that provides a contrast to the more mechanized time of the 1590s. Time, in Ovid's work and in the first three quatrains of Sonnet 60, are intertwined with the processes of nature, looking back to a time before time and nature are fractured. Just as the poem struggles with time, so Shakespeare's modernized use of Ovid struggles to reconcile the past view of time and the present view of time, the world as it was, and the world as it is.

Interpretations
• Richard Wilson, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

References
[1] (Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1997, p. 284. ISBN 0674637119) [2] (Vendler, p. 284) [3] (Vendler, p. 284) [4] (Vendler, p. 286) [5] (Arbour, Robert. “Shakespeare’s Sonnet 60.” Explicator 67.3 (Spring 2009): 157-160. EBSCOhost. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. <http://ezp.slu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=40121212&site=ehost-live>) [6] (Arbour, p. 157) [7] (Atkins, Carl, ed. Shakespeare’s Sonnets: with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007, p. 167. ISBN 9780838641637) [8] (Arbour, p. 158) [9] (qtd. in Atkins, p. 167) [10] (qtd. in Atkins, p. 167) [11] (Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Publishing, 1977. p. 239-241) [12] (Lopez, Martin. "Teaching Shakespeare's Sonnets: Time as Fracture in Sonnets 18, 60, and 63: http:/ / sederi. org/ docs/ yearbooks/ 07/ 7_36_marrinez. pdf ) [13] (Schoenfeldt, Michael. A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p. 29) [14] (Shakespeare: The Sonnets Ed. William Burto. Signet Classics: NY, 1988)

Sonnet 60
[15] (324) [16] (Andrews, Charles. A History of England. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, 1903) [17] (125) [18] (Dhorn-van Rossum, Gerard. History of the Hour: Clocks and Modern Temporal Orders. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1996, p. 233) [19] (106) [20] (108) [21] (Callaghan, Dympna. "Confounded by Winter: Speeding Time in Shakespeare's Sonnets," in A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. Ed. Michael Schoenfeldt. Blackwell Press: Oxford, 2007, p. 108) [22] (Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. Vintage Books: New York, 1985) [23] (Ovid, Metamorphoses. Trans. Rolfe Humpheries. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, 1955) [24] (177-184) [25] (218-223) [26] (231-233) [27] (5) [28] (5) [29] (Bate, Johnathan. Shakespeare and Ovid. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1993)

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External links
• Sparknotes reading of sonnet 60 (http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/shakesonnets/section4.rhtml) • Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/60comm.htm) • CliffsNotes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-63.html)

Sonnet 61
« » Sonnet 61 Is it thy will, thy image should keep open My heavy eyelids to the weary night? Dost thou desire my slumbers should be broken, While shadows like to thee do mock my sight? Is it thy spirit that thou send'st from thee So far from home into my deeds to pry, To find out shames and idle hours in me, The scope and tenor of thy jealousy? O, no! thy love, though much, is not so great: It is my love that keeps mine eye awake: Mine own true love that doth my rest defeat, To play the watchman ever for thy sake: For thee watch I, whilst thou dost wake elsewhere, From me far off, with others all too near. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 61 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Sonnet 61

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External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 61comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-64. html

Sonnet 62
« » Sonnet 62 Sin of self-love possesseth all mine eye, And all my soul, and all my every part; And for this sin there is no remedy, It is so grounded inward in my heart. Methinks no face so gracious is as mine, No shape so true, no truth of such account, And for myself mine own worth do define, As I all other in all worths surmount. But when my glass shows me myself indeed, Beated and chopped with tanned antiquity, Mine own self-love quite contrary I read; Self so self-loving were iniquity. 'Tis thee (my self) that for myself I praise, Painting my age with beauty of thy days. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 62 is one of the poems in his sonnet sequence addressed to the young man with whom Shakespeare shares an intimate but tormented connection. This sonnet brings together a number of themes that run through the cycle: the speaker's awareness of social and other differences between him and the beloved; the power and limitations of poetic art; and the puzzling sense in which love erases the boundaries between individuals.

Paraphrase
I am an extremely vain person; I am proud both of my outward form and of my personality. This sin, furthermore, is so deeply rooted in my soul that I do not believe it can ever be removed. However, when I look at my own real face in the mirror, I am disgusted, and I realize that to love such a face would be a sin. In fact, what I love about myself is my possession of you, and my beauty derives from the part of you that I possess.

Source and analysis
The conceit of the poem is derived most nearly from Petrarch; however, the idea of lovers who have in some sense exchanged souls is commonplace and proverbial. The connected theme--the speaker's unworthiness compared to his beloved--is likewise traditional. Line 7 has posed some problems. Edward Dowden hypothesized that "for myself" meant "for my own satisfaction," and certain editors suggest that "do" be amended to "so." Consensus, however, has settled on some version of the

Sonnet 62 gloss of Nicolaus Delius: "I define my own worth for myself," with "do" as an intensifier. For "beated" in line 10, Edmond Malone suggested "bated," and George Steevens "blasted." Dowden speculated, without accepting, the possibility that "beated" referred to a process of tanning; John Shakespeare was a glover. Stephen Booth notes that the use of "bating" in this sense is not attested before the nineteenth century. Helen Vendler sees the speaker of the poem as harshly criticizing his own weakness and foolishness, but for most critics the poem is lighter in mood. Though it echoes other poems in the sequence which present the connections created by love as painful, in this poem, the presence of the beloved is more comforting than terrifying.

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Interpretations
• John Sessions, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Boston: Belknap Press, 1999.

External links
• Analysis [1] • CliffsNotes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 62comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-65. html

Sonnet 63

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Sonnet 63
« » Sonnet 63 Against my love shall be, as I am now, With Time's injurious hand crush'd and o'er-worn; When hours have drain'd his blood and fill'd his brow With lines and wrinkles; when his youthful morn Hath travell'd on to age's steepy night, And all those beauties whereof now he's king Are vanishing or vanish'd out of sight, Stealing away the treasure of his spring; For such a time do I now fortify Against confounding age's cruel knife, That he shall never cut from memory My sweet love's beauty, though my lover's life: His beauty shall in these black lines be seen, And they shall live, and he in them still green. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 63 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
This sonnet, addressed to the same young man as the previous 62 sonnets, deals with the inevitability of aging and death. Shakespeare laments the fact that his subject's beauty will not last forever, but unlike Sonnet 2, in which immortality is found through procreation, the resolution found here is in the immortality granted by the writing of the poem ("these black lines").

Analysis
Like Sonnet 2, this poem makes use of cutting and crushing imagery to depict the effects of time in creating wrinkles on the face. The prevailing metaphors in this sonnet compare youthful beauty to riches, similar to Sonnet 4, and old age and death to night, similar to Sonnet 12. The attention to the subject's mortality, returned to in this sonnet, remains the focus for the next two sonnets, and Sonnet 65 contains much the same resolution as this does.

Sonnet 63

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External links
• Analysis [1] • Cliffs Notes [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 63comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-66. html

Sonnet 64
« » Sonnet 64 When I have seen by Time's fell hand defaced The rich proud cost of outworn buried age; When sometime lofty towers I see down-razed And brass eternal slave to mortal rage; When I have seen the hungry ocean gain Advantage on the kingdom of the shore, And the firm soil win of the watery main, Increasing store with loss and loss with store; When I have seen such interchange of state, Or state itself confounded to decay; Ruin hath taught me thus to ruminate, That Time will come and take my love away. This thought is as a death, which cannot choose But weep to have that which it fears to lose. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 64 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

History and the Content of the Sonnet
A Shakespearean sonnet is a poem written in iambic pentameter, meaning that it is written in lines ten syllables long and with accents falling on every second syllable. The sonnet is fourteen lines, the final two being called the couplet, in which the last words of these final two lines rhyme. The Shakespearean Sonnets were written during the Elizabethan Era in England. They consist of four parts: the first three are each four lines long and are known as quatrains, and the final part is the couplet, as previously discussed. Each quatrain develops its own idea or imagery, concluding with final thoughts to the previous three in the couplet. The first 126 sonnets are addressed to an unknown young man, and the others are dedicated to a mysterious woman, both of whom Shakespeare praises, loves, and scrutinizes repetitively. Shakespeare’s sonnets were all written during the 1590’s, though they weren’t published until after the dawn of the new century. Shakespeare divides the sonnet into three quatrains. The opening quatrain begins with the personification of time. In this quatrain the speaker emphasizes that he will never win against time, time is destroyer of great things built by man and man will always be inferior to it. The second quatrain is written in a rhyme scheme of cdcd. Using this

Sonnet 64 rhyme scheme the sonnet portrays an almost "battle" between the ocean waves and the shore. These lines foreshadow the feeling of helplessness within the speaker as time as the ultimate destroyer, "store with loss and loss with store", time will always be victorious. The last quatrain deals with the speakers realization that death is inevitable and time will come and take his love away.

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Analysis and Criticism of Sonnet 64
The critic T. W. Baldwin explains that Sonnet 64 deals with Shakespeare’s struggle against time, which he “cannot withstand”.[1] He also presents the idea of the revolution of sea and land, although not many other critics agree.[2] Sonnet 64 “catalogues instances of inevitable destruction so as to provide a consolation for death and places “emphasis on the inescapable fact of mutability”.[3] Because of the inevitability and finality of death, Shakespeare’s lover is not choosing to leave him. On the contrary, his lover could not do anything about it. In this way, Shakespeare is able to feel better about himself, because the love of his life was taken from him involuntarily.[3] However, Sonnet 64 does not specify whether Shakespeare is more upset over the loss of life or the loss of love.[3] Most critics place Sonnet 64 in a chronological sequence or group with Sonnets 62-74. Both T. W. Baldwin and Emily Stockard agree that these sonnets are similar in subject and tone.[1] [4] However, another critic, Brents Stirling, disagrees. He places Sonnet 64 in a sonnet group containing only Sonnets 63-68.[5] He argues that these sonnets should be grouped together because they are the only ones to refer to the subject of the poem in the third person rather than second person.[6] Sonnet 64 is very similar to Shakespeare’s Sonnet 60 where both sonnet's focus on a central idolizing of “ time as the destroyer.”.[7] In Helen Vendler’s, The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets”, Vendler describes Sonnet 64 to be written in a state of horror and “unprotected vulnerability.”[8] The speaker’s horror is manifested in the line, Increasing store with loss, and loss with store. Vendler argues that in this line “ Loss wins in both cases. It is of course impossible to increase abundance with loss, and equally impossible to increase loss by adding abundance to it.”[9] Atkins is also in agreement that sonnet 64 especially in line 12, the speaker expresses a state of fear: That Time will come and take my love away. In the “Shakespeare’s Sonnets” Atkins argues the meaning of this line is clear that “ after seeing all these other ruins, I think about your eventual ruin.”[7] Vendler calls line 12 a “collapse into monosyllabic truth”, “ and its dismayed adolescent simplicity of rhythm, this line feels like a death.”[10] Booth claims that in line 13 is unclear: “ death, the nearest potential antecedent, cannot choose, but it cannot weep or fear either; thought makes better sense, but it is the thinker who does the weeping and fearing.” Vendler argues that the in the last three lines of the sonnet that a “ “natural” pattern of unreveresed ruin “defeats” the intellectual mastery-by-chiasmus, as the concept of gradual leakage comes to represent personal loss. Time takes love away, a thought is like a death, one weeps to have what one fears to lose.... Having while fearing to lose is already a form of losing.”[9] Overall, both Booth and Vendler agree in the last three lines of the sonnet the speaker weeps at the fear of losing his love, ultimately realizing that he cannot escape time and time will come and take his love away.

Analysis and Criticism of the Couplet
"This thought is as a death, which cannot choose But weep to have that which it fears to lose." William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 64 scrutinizes the idea of losing his loved one to Time, and views Time as an agent of Death.[11] Shakespeare’s reference to ‘outworn buried age’ demonstrates the idea of his loved one being consumed or worn out by time and age.[12] According to Helen Vendler, it seems that “the first twelve lines [are] a long defense – by thinking about the end of inanimate things – against thinking about the death of a living person” (.[13] Interestingly enough, as James Grimshaw analyzes the final two lines, Shakespeare substitutes the word which for death in the couplet, adding more emphasis on the sonnet’s theme of death as an overpowering force.[11] The love he is losing could have one of two meanings: it could either be the true death of his beloved, or in fact simply the love he has for his beloved.[12] Vendler interprets this death as the death of his beloved, in which the couplet justly displays this as Shakespeare’s genuine concern, thus distinctly separating itself from the previous twelve lines.[14]

Sonnet 64 Shakespeare’s dread of time and age taking away his praised beloved seems to alarm him above all of the other entities he observes throughout his Sonnet 64, though he despairs in the idea that losing her is beyond his control.

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Analysis on the Phonetic play of "Ruin hath taught me to ruminate"
Sonnet 64 is a great example of why people always say "You should never let your past interfere with your present". Barret argues that sonnet 64 "provides an example of past-oriented natural habitats that might interfere with the productive considerations of the future".[15] In other words because the speaker is letting the past overwhelm his thoughts, he therefore cannot think positively about the future due to past habits or tendencies. Unlike some of the other sonnets addressed to the young man, sonnet 64 moves toward a feeling of the lover's exposure to the risk of being destroyed. Barret also argues that the phonetic play between ruminate and ruinate is as she says an "underscore a relationship inherent in the poem’s logic", "Each quatrain of the sonnet open with the same construction—“ When I have seen”—yet these statements are never met with a summational “then,” so the temporal ambiguity the phrase creates the remains unresolved: Does the speaker gesture toward repeated past actions (‘in the instances that I have seen’) or forward to a causational limit point (‘once I have seen’)?".[16] When we read the lines that pertain to the waves and the shore,"at times the waves are winning against the shore, and then at times the shore is winning against the waves", the speaker almost speaks in a tone of confidence and determination to not let time control his life. Although when he goes to say Time will take my love away we begin to get a sense of uncertainty within the speaker. This uncertainty within the speaker is described by Barret when she argues "The sonnet registers temporal matters in personal terms; the couplet never corrects the poem’s grammatically obscured engagement with time, but instead introduces a paralyzing temporal collapse: the present moment becomes overwhelmed by an anticipation of future loss—an extreme version of ‘I miss you already.’.... The ruin/ruminate pairing bespeaks a suspicion of an imagined time spent looking back".[17]

Line by Line Analysis
From "Shakespeare's Sonnets." Oxquarry Books Ltd. 2009.[18]
Line 1. When I have seen by Time's fell hand defaced Analysis 1. fell = savage, fierce;defac'd = disfigured, smashed. Probably a reference to the defacement of idols - the destruction of any images of saints or divinity, which were a special target of Puritan and Reformist zeal. There are many defaced statues on the continent. In this country the destruction was more effective and very little evidence remains.

2. The rich proud 2. This probably refers to monuments in churches and graveyards, which expressed the pride and grandeur of wealth. Many cost of outworn monuments and sepulchres were from ages long since gone, outworn buried age, and were subject to ruin and decay, as well as buried age; human vandalism. 3. When sometime lofty towers I see down-razed, 4. And brass eternal slave to mortal rage; 3. sometime = sometimes; Alternatively sometime = formerly, which would refer to the lofty towers, and this would then give the meaning 'when I see towers which were formerly lofty now razed to the ground'.down-raz'd = razed to the ground, ruined. The destruction of the monasteries was a comparatively recent event, and fresh in memory.

4. eternal can refer either to brass, or to slave, probably both. mortal rage = deadly rage. Being a slave to mortal rage would imply being under its power, rather than being merely its servant. The latter meaning is difficult and does not entirely make sense, as it is not clear what services brass could perform as the minion of mortal rage, other than to be molested by it. mortal rage could also mean 'destruction caused by mortals'. 5. The imagery is that of an advancing army, gaining land by pushing its forces forward.

5. When I have seen the hungry ocean gain 6. Advantage on the kingdom of the shore,

6. The army secures a foothold on the land, an advantage over the enemy.

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7. the watery main = the ocean, the open sea.

7. And the firm soil win of the watery main, 8. Increasing store with loss, and loss with store;

8. Increasing store with loss - can be the object of win in the line above, increasing being adjectival, in that the land wins an increasing store of territory from the ocean, with some losses. Then it receives further losses, with some gains. Or increasing can be a present participle referring to the firm soil, giving the meaning 'the firm soil triumphs in its battle against the sea, increasing its holdings, albeit with some loss, then increasing its losses with some compensatory gains (not as much as the losses)'. With either grammatical interpretation the meaning is fairly evident. Perhaps more important is the fact that the sound of the line is like the sound of a wave approaching and then receding, approaching and receding. Store = a holding, something kept, something reserved to be put aside. 9. This takes up the idea of kingdom from line 6. States and governments are subject to change and ruin, and especially to changes in the power structures.

9. When I have seen such interchange of state, 10. Or state itself confounded to decay;

10. Confounded has the meaning of being brought to ruin as well as the meaning of thwarted and blocked.

11. Ruin hath 11. ruminate to consider, speculate, ponder. Its closeness in sound to ruin and ruinate is no doubt deliberate. Introduces phonetic taught me thus to play of ruin and ruminate. ruminate 12. That Time will come and take my love away. 13. This thought is as a death which cannot choose 12. The contrast here is between the complex latinate words of the previous lines - interchange, confounded, ruminate - with the simple mono-syllabic Anglo-Saxon words of this line, underlining the brutal harshness of the reality. Time's classical destructive powers have the immediate non-literary effect of taking away all that is dearest to us, over and above its capacity to operate in the historical world with temples, monasteries, monuments, bronzes, kings and vast empires. 13. This thought is as painful as the thought of death. which seems to refer to thought rather than to death. (See below for link to further discussion).

14. But weep to 14. The thought (or the poet himself) must weep for his beloved's mortality, even though, through love, he possesses him and have that which it holds him in his thoughts. fears to lose.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] (T. W. Baldwin, On the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare’s Poems and Sonnets, p. 279) (T. W. Baldwin, On the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare’s Poems and Sonnets, p. 353) (Emily Stockard, “Patterns of Consolation in Shakespeare’s Sonnets 1-126,” Studies in Philology, Vol. 94, No. 4 (1997): p. 480) (Emily Stockard, “Patterns of Consolation in Shakespeare’s Sonnets 1-126,” Studies in Philology, Vol. 94, No. 4 (1997): p. 479) (Brents Stirling, “A Shakespeare Sonnet Group,” PMLA, Vol. 75, No. 4 (1960): p. 347) (Brents Stirling, “A Shakespeare Sonnet Group,” PMLA, Vol. 75, No. 4 (1960): p. 348) (Atkins CD, editor. Shakespeare’s Sonnets With Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Cranbury (NJ): Rosemont Publishing & Printing Corp.; 2007. P 175-177. ) [8] (Vendler H. The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Cambridge(MA): Harvard University Press; 1997. P 300-302. ) [9] (Vendler H. The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Cambridge(MA): Harvard University Press; 1997. P 300-302.) [10] (Atkins CD, editor. Shakespeare’s Sonnets With Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Cranbury (NJ): Rosemont Publishing & Printing Corp.; 2007. P 175-177.) [11] (Grimshaw, James. “Amphibiology in Shakespeare’s Sonnet 64.” Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 25 No. 1 (Winter 1974), pp. 127-129) [12] (Hecht, Anthony; Evans, Gwynne Blakemore. The Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, April 2006) [13] Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1 November 1999. p. 299-302) [14] (Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1 November 1999. p. 299-302) [15] (Barret J.K. 'So written to aftertimes': Renaissance England's Poetics of Futurity. Annarbor(MI): ProQuest LLC.; 2008. 13-16 p.) [16] (Barret J.K. 'So written to aftertimes': Renaissance England's Poetics of Futurity. Annarbor(MI): ProQuest LLC.; 2008. 13-16 p.) [17] (Barret J.K. 'So written to aftertimes': Renaissance England's Poetics of Futurity. Annarbor(MI): ProQuest LLC.; 2008. 13-16 p.) [18] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 64comm. htm

Sonnet 64

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Bibliography
Atkins C D. Shakespeare's Sonnets With Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Cranbury (NJ): Rosemont Publishing & Printing Corp.; 2007. 175-177 p. Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare's Poems and Sonnets. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois Press; 1950. p. 279, 353. Barret J.K. 'So written to aftertimes': Renaissance England's Poetics of Futurity. Annarbor(MI): ProQuest LLC.; 2008. 13-16 p. Booth S. Shakespeare's Sonnets Edited with analytic commentary by Stephen Booth. London: Yale University; 1977. 245-246 p. Fontana, E. "Shakespeare's Sonnet 55." The Explicator v. 45 (Spring 1987) p. 6-8http://ezp.slu.edu/login?url=http:/ / vnweb. hwwilsonweb. com/ hww/ jumpstart. jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e666334661c6e44dcc2d7d6bec6ef2c8a95456c9c119eb5a34bc199ea0adfc32e& fmt=C

Grimshaw, James. "Amphibiology in Shakespeare's Sonnet 64." Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Winter, 1974), pp. 127-129. http:/ / libraries. slu. edu/ databases/ dbdesc/ jstor. cfm=http:/ / www. jstor. org. ezp. slu. edu/ stable/ 2868891?& Search=yes& term=Criticism& term=64& term=Sonnet& term=Shakespeare& list=hide& searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DShakespeare%2BSonnet% 2B64%2BCriticism%26gw%3Djtx%26prq%3DShakespeare%2BSonnet%2BCriticism%26Search%3DSearch%26 hp%3D25%26wc% returnArticleService=showArticle Hecht, Anthony; Evans, Gwynne Blakemore. "The Sonnets." http:/ / books. google. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=S6U6qp4xJMQC& oi=fnd& pg=PR8& dq=Shakespeare+ Sonnet+ 64+ criticism& ots=XtEl5gbiq6& sig=uSTARKKLfOmXgGvq5iV_20csUqk#v=onepage&q=Sonnet%2064&f=false Helen Vendler, The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets (p. 299-302)http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=TlCaxUoazrgC& dq=Helen+ Vendler+ %22The+ Art+ of+ Shakespeare's+ Sonnets%22& printsec=frontcover& source=bl& ots=6vumIxEe7Y& sig=PTtVdKV0VO2EvwIkNoG60bqfhxo& hl=en& ei=bgfNSojYNoeANp_1tDo& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4#v=onepage& q=Sonnet%2064& f=false

Stirling, Brents. "A Shakespeare Sonnet Group." PMLA, Vol. 75, No. 4 (1960). p. 340-349. http:/ / www. jstor. org. ezp. slu. edu/ stable/ 4174591?seq=16& Search=yes& term=stockard& term=emily& list=hide& searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Demily%2Bstockard%26gw%3Djtx%26prq%3Dshakespeare%2BAND%2Bs item=1&ttl=175&returnArticleService=showArticle&resultsServiceName=doBasicResultsFromArticle

Stockard, Emily. Patterns of Consolation in Shakespeare's Sonnets 1-126. Studies in Philology, Vol. 94, No. 4 (1997). p. 465-493. http:/ / www. jstor. org. ezp. slu. edu/ stable/ 460595?seq=8& Search=yes& term=sonnet& term=64& term=shakespeare& list=hide& searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dsonnet%2B64%2Band%2Bshakespeare%26gw%3Djtx%26prq%3Dsonnet% item=2&ttl=2407&returnArticleService=showArticle&resultsServiceName=doBasicResultsFromArticle

Sonnet 65

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Sonnet 65
« » Sonnet 65 Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea, But sad mortality o'er-sways their power, How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea, Whose action is no stronger than a flower? O, how shall summer's honey breath hold out Against the wreckful siege of battering days, When rocks impregnable are not so stout, Nor gates of steel so strong, but Time decays? O fearful meditation! where, alack, Shall Time's best jewel from Time's chest lie hid? Or what strong hand can hold his swift foot back? Or who his spoil of beauty can forbid? O, none, unless this miracle have might, That in black ink my love may still shine bright. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 65 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
This sonnet is a continuation of Sonnet 64, and is an influential poem on the aspect of Time's destruction. Shakespeare also offers an escape from Time's clasp in his end couplet, suggesting that the love and human emotion he has used through his writing will test Time and that through the years the black ink will still shine bright. Shakespeare begins this sonnet by listing several seemingly vast and unbreakable things which are destroyed by time, then asking what chance beauty has of escaping the same fate. A main theme is that many things are powerful, but nothing remains in this universe forever, especially not a fleeting emotion such as love. Mortality rules over the universe and everything is perishable in this world, so it is only through the timeless art of writing that emotion and beauty can be preserved. Time is not an innocuous entity. Here in Sonnet 65 Shakespeare shows time's cruel ravages on all that we believe is enduring. According to Lowry Nelson, Jr., Sonnet 65 is simply a continuation of Sonnet 64 and he argues that "both poems are meditations on the theme of time's destructiveness".[1] He also explains that "Sonnet 65 makes use of the same words [brass, rage, hand, love] and more or less specific notions, but it proceeds and culminates far more impressively," in comparison to Sonnet 64. The last two couplets are Shakespeare's own summary on the theme that love itself is a "miracle" that time nor human intervention can destroy. Shakespeare critic Brents Stirling expands on Lowry's idea by placing sonnet 65 in a distinct group among the sonnets presumably addressed to Shakespeare's young friend, because of the strictly third-person mode of address. Stirling links sonnets 63-68 through their use of "uniform epithet, 'my love' or its variants such as 'my beloved' ".[2] In sonnet 65, the pronoun 'his' directly references the epithet. "Sonnet 65 opens with an epitome of [sonnet] 64: 'Since brass not stone nor earth nor boundless sea..." The opening line refers back to the 'brass,' 'lofty towers,' 'firm soil,' and 'wa'try main' of 64[3] .. 'This rage' of 'sad mortality' calls to mind the 'mortal rage' of 64. "After its development of 64, sonnet 65 returns with its couplet to the couplet of 63: 'That in black ink my love may still shine

Sonnet 65 bright' echoes 'His beauty' that 'shall in these black lines be seen'; and 'still shine' recalls 'still green' " [4] .. This "triad" of poems relates to the group of sonnets 66-68, for "Their respective themes, Time's ruin (63-65) and the Former Age, a pristine earlier world now in ruin and decay (66-68), were conventionally associated in Shakespeare's day," suggesting that the sonnets were written as a related group meant to be distinctly categorized.[5]

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Structure
Shakespearean scholar Helen Vendler characterizes Sonnet 65 as a "defective key word" sonnet. Often, Shakespeare will use a particular word prominently in each quatrain, prompting the reader to look for it in the couplet and note any change in usage. Here, however, he repeats the words "hold" and "strong" (modified slightly to "stronger" in Q1), but omits them in the couplet, thus rendering them "defective." Vendler claims that these key words are replaced by "miracle" and "black ink" respectively in the quatrain, citing as evidence the shift of focus from organic to inorganic, which parallels the same shift occurring more broadly from the octave to the sestet, as well as the presence of the letters i, a, c, and l visually yoking miracle to black ink.[6] Stephen Booth supports this line of criticism, noting the juxtaposition of "hand" and "foot" in line 11, suggesting someone being tripped up and perhaps mirroring the shift to come in the couplet.[7] Barry Adams furthers the characterization of Sonnet 65 as somehow disrupted or defective, noting the usage of "O" to begin the second and third quatrains and the couplet, but not the first quatrain. He also notes the paradoxical nature of this device: "The effect of this last verbal repetition is to modify (if not nullify) the normal 4+4+4+2 structure of the English or Shakespearean sonnet by blurring the distinction between couplet and quatrain. Yet the argumentative structure of the poem insists on that distinction, since the concluding couplet is designed precisely to qualify or even contradict the observations in the first three quatrains.".[8] Joel Fineman treats Sonnet 65 as epideictic. He injects cynicism into the Fair Youth sonnets, claiming that the speaker does not believe fully in the immortalizing power of his verse; that it is merely literary and ultimately unreal. He treats the "still" in line 14 as wordplay, reading it to mean "dead, unmoving" rather than "perpetual, eternal".[9] There is some scholarly debate over this point, though. Carl Atkins, for example, writes that the reader is "not to take the couplet's 'unless' seriously. We are not expected to have any doubt that the 'miracle' of making the beloved shine brightly in black ink has might. Of course it does - we have been told so before. 'Who can hold back time?' the speaker asks. 'No one, except me,' is the answer".[10] Philip Martin tends toward agreement with Atkins, but refutes the suggestion that the reader is "not to take the couplet's 'unless' seriously," asserting instead that, "the poem's ending is...deliberately and properly tentative".[11] Murray Krieger agrees with Martin's point that, "the end of 65 is stronger precisely because it is so tentative" [12] .. "The soft, almost non-consonantal 'how shall summer's honey breath hold out' " offers no resistance to Time's 'wrackful siege of batt'ring days'.[13] Krieger suggests that while the sonnet does not resist Time through an assertion of strength, the concession of weakness by the placement of hope solely on a 'miracle,' offers an appeal against Time: "May there not be a strength that arises precisely from the avoidance of it?".[14]

Connection to The Tragedy of Julius Cæsar
Time is a natural force from which none of us are immune. This theme pervades the sonnet; the speaker recognizes that time will strip the beloved of his beauty and by saying that implies that time will take his beloved from him. Eventually, time will consume everyone in death, and, whether one chooses to recognize it or not, he will not have any control over exactly when that consumption will take place. This theme translates to Julius Caesar as well. Caesar is unfazed by the soothsayer’s proclamation in act one, and even though Calpurnia seems for a time to have succeeded in keeping Caesar home on the day of his eventual murder, he goes to Senate anyway. Caesar walks into his own death, much less literally than Brutus, who does actually walk into the sword that kills him. But in these deaths in the context of the play serve to elucidate the truth that death (or ‘Time,’ as the sonnet refers to it) will consume you regardless of your ambitions or future plans; it does not take you into consideration. Obviously, Caesar

Sonnet 65 would not have gone to Senate if he knew he would be stabbed upon entering, just as Brutus and Cassius would not have engaged in a full-blown war if they knew they would be dead before it was over. It is coincidental enough that the speaker suggests that the only way to immortalize his beloved as he is, is through his writing. And the way that Caesar and the others are kept alive is through writing, through history, and in some senses through Shakespeare himself. It is rather universally accepted that a body of Shakespeare’s sonnets, including 65, are addressed to a young man whose beauty the poems make known. The young man is like Caesar, then, in that Shakespeare recognizes the presence of feminine qualities in a man. But the common theme is more than recognition, it is an acknowledgment of tension created by that recognition. Especially by Cassius, Caesar is made out to be rather feminine, as is the young man in descriptions of his beauty. In that the speaker does not directly refer to the addressee of the sonnets as a man, and in that Brutus and the others find discomfort in Caesar’s ruling ability because of his appeared weaknesses, shows that Shakespeare recognizes an anxiety about men with feminine qualities, or women with masculine qualities, like Queen Elizabeth, of whom Caesar may or may not be representative.

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Interpretations
• Jonathan Pryce, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

References
[1] Nelson, Lowry Jr. Poetic Configurations: essays in literacy, history and criticism. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992. 139-142. [2] Stirling, Brents. The Shakespearean Sonnet Order: Poems and Groups. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1968, 160-163 [3] Stirling, Brents. The Shakespearean Sonnet Order: Poems and Groups. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1968, 160-163 [4] Stirling, Brents. The Shakespearean Sonnet Order: Poems and Groups. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1968, 160-163 [5] Stirling, Brents. The Shakespearean Sonnet Order: Poems and Groups. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1968, 160-163 [6] Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1997. [7] Booth, Steven, ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1977. [8] Adams, Barry B. "Sonnet 65". The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005. 1153-58. [9] Fineman, Joel. Shakespeare's Perjured Eye: The Invention of Poetic Subjectivity in the Sonnets. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. [10] Atkins, Carl D., ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Cranbury, NJ: Rosemont Publishing and Printing Corp., 2007. [11] Martin, Philip. Shakespeare's Sonnets: Self, Love and Art. London: Cambridge University Press, 1972. 154-55. [12] Martin, Philip. Shakespeare's Sonnets: Self, Love and Art. London: Cambridge University Press, 1972. 154-55. [13] Krieger, Murray. A Window to Criticism: Shakespeare's Sonnets and Modern Poetics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964. 170-173 [14] Krieger, Murray. A Window to Criticism: Shakespeare's Sonnets and Modern Poetics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964. 170-173

External links
• Analysis (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/65comm.htm) • Cliffs Notes (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-169,pageNum-68.html)

Sonnet 66

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Sonnet 66
« » Sonnet 66 Tired with all these, for restful death I cry, As, to behold desert a beggar born, And needy nothing trimm'd in jollity, And purest faith unhappily forsworn, And guilded honour shamefully misplaced, And maiden virtue rudely strumpeted, And right perfection wrongfully disgraced, And strength by limping sway disabled, And art made tongue-tied by authority, And folly doctor-like controlling skill, And simple truth miscall'd simplicity, And captive good attending captain ill: Tired with all these, from these would I be gone, Save that, to die, I leave my love alone. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 66 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Sonnet 66 is a world-weary, desperate list of grievances of the state of the poet's society. The speaker criticizes three things: general unfairness of life, societal immorality, and oppressive government. Lines 2 and 3 illustrate the economic unfairness caused by one's station or nobility: As, to behold desert a beggar born, And needy nothing trimm'd in jollity, Lines 4-7 portray disgraced trust and loyalty, unfairly given authority, as by an unworthy king "Gilden honour shamefully misplaced", and female innocence corrupted "Maiden virtue rudely strumpeted". Lines 8, 10, and 12, as in lines 2 and 3, characterize reversals of what one deserves, and what one actually receives in life. As opposed to most of his sonnets, which have a "turn" in mood or thought at line 9, (the beginning of the third quatrain (See: Sonnets 29, 18) the mood of Sonnet 66 does not change until the last line, when the speaker declares that the only thing keeping him alive is his lover. This stresses the fact that his lover is helping him merely survive, whereas sonnets 29 and 30 are much more positive and have 6 lines in which they affirm that the lover is the fulfillment of the poet's life.

Sonnet 66

163

Interpretations
• Alan Bates, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

External links
• Analysis of the sonnet [1] • Sonnet 66: translations, articles, music etc. [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 66comm. htm [2] http:/ / libelli. narod. ru/ sonnet66/ index. html

Sonnet 67
« » Sonnet 67 Ah! wherefore with infection should he live, And with his presence grace impiety, That sin by him advantage should achieve And lace itself with his society? Why should false painting imitate his cheek And steal dead seeing of his living hue? Why should poor beauty indirectly seek Roses of shadow, since his rose is true? Why should he live, now Nature bankrupt is, Beggar'd of blood to blush through lively veins? For she hath no exchequer now but his, And, proud of many, lives upon his gains. O, him she stores, to show what wealth she had In days long since, before these last so bad. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 67 is a thematic continuation of "Sonnet 66," and is more generally one of the group of poems addressed to a well-born younger man. In this poem, the speaker's anxiety about the social difference between him and his beloved takes the form of a criticism of courtly corruption. This sonnet was placed first in the pirated and mangled edition of 1640.

Paraphrase
Why does the man I love have to live in a milieu of such moral corruption, bringing his grace to the sins of those around him, to sin's advantage? Why do others paint themselves (that is, use makeup) to imitate the beauties he has naturally? Why should those of inferior beauty seek false roses when he himself has a true one? Indeed, why should he himself live, now that Nature itself has lost the power to create beautiful things—that is, because Nature has given all of her store of beauty to him? Nature preserves him in order to show what she (that is, Nature) was capable of in the old days, before the current degeneration.

Sonnet 67

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Source and analysis
Gary Schmidgall notes that the underlying conceit of the sonnet derives from Petrarch, for whom hyperbolic praise is a main part of the stock in trade. For most critics, this theme is in this poem significant as it interacts with another theme, the corruption of the court. This theme, which was prominent in the voguish satire of the 1590s. As he would in Hamlet, Shakespeare draws on the language of abuse derived ultimately from Roman satirists such as Juvenal and Horace. The combination of satiric and romantic language is commonly said to reinforce the speaker's ambivalence about his beloved. M. M. Mahood notes the lexical uncertainty of line 1, which leaves open the possibility that the friend himself is infected. For this reason, Roger Warren points to a thematic similarity to All's Well That Ends Well, whose hero, Bertram, is similarly ambiguous. "Lace" in line 4 has been glossed various ways. Citing Romeo and Juliet and Macbeth, George Steevens glossed it as "embellish"; Edward Dowden agreed, but George Wyndham has it as "diversify." Wyndham also perceives a reference to the "rival poet" in lines 7-8. In line 8, "seeing" is sometimes amended to "seeming" but more commonly "dead seeing" is glossed as some variation "lifeless appearance."

References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952. • Warren, George. "Why Does It End Well? Helena, Bertram, and the Sonnets." Shakespeare Studies 22 (1969).

Sonnet 68
« » Sonnet 68 Thus is his cheek the map of days outworn, When beauty lived and died as flowers do now, Before the bastard signs of fair were born, Or durst inhabit on a living brow; Before the golden tresses of the dead, The right of sepulchres, were shorn away, To live a second life on second head; Ere beauty's dead fleece made another gay: In him those holy antique hours are seen, Without all ornament, itself and true, Making no summer of another's green, Robbing no old to dress his beauty new; And him as for a map doth Nature store, To show false Art what beauty was of yore. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 68 Sonnet 68 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

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Sonnet 69
« » Sonnet 69 Those parts of thee that the world's eye doth view Want nothing that the thought of hearts can mend; All tongues, the voice of souls, give thee that due, Uttering bare truth, even so as foes commend. Thy outward thus with outward praise is crown'd; But those same tongues that give thee so thine own In other accents do this praise confound By seeing farther than the eye hath shown. They look into the beauty of thy mind, And that, in guess, they measure by thy deeds; Then, churls, their thoughts, although their eyes were kind, To thy fair flower add the rank smell of weeds: But why thy odour matcheth not thy show, The soil is this, that thou dost common grow. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet 69, like many of those nearby in the sequence, expresses extremes of feelings about the beloved subject, who is presented as at once superlative in every way and treacherous or disloyal.

Paraphrase
What the world can see of you is perfect; no one denies you that name of perfection. Everyone admits this without hesitation or limitation. But the same people who so readily praise your beauty reverse that praise when they examine you in other ways. These people, judging your mind and character by your actions, decide that you are as much foul as beautiful. And the reason that your odor does not match your appearance is you have become common (ie, keep company that befouls your reputation.)

Source and analysis
As Stephen Booth notes, the sonnet is carelessly printed, and its emendation history begins with the 1640 quarto. Edmond Malone altered the quarto's "end" (3) to "due," and this change is now commonly accepted as necessary for rhyme. Quarto's "Their" (5) is just as commonly emended to "Thy" on semantic grounds; the change was first proposed by Edward Capell. The most significant crux is "solye" (14). Malone suggested "solve" while admitting that he could not find other instances of "solve" as a noun, nor have two centuries of subsequent investigation found one. On no less tenuous grounds, George Steevens proposed "sole" as a noun. More common now is the emendation of "soil" in an archaic meaning "to solve." Instances of the word in this meaning have been found in Nicholas Udall's Erasmus and in Hamlet. It is presumably the preferred reading now.

Sonnet 69 George Wyndham was unable to explain the capitalization of "Commend," one of only three such failures in his interpretation. The poem prefigures the flower language of the more-famous Sonnet 94.

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References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspere's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Evans, G. Blakemore, and Anthony Hecht, eds. Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

Sonnet 70
« » Sonnet 70 That thou art blamed shall not be thy defect, For slander's mark was ever yet the fair; The ornament of beauty is suspect, A crow that flies in heaven's sweetest air. So thou be good, slander doth but approve Thy worth the greater, being woo'd of time; For canker vice the sweetest buds doth love, And thou present'st a pure unstained prime. Thou hast pass'd by the ambush of young days, Either not assail'd or victor being charged; Yet this thy praise cannot be so thy praise, To tie up envy evermore enlarged: If some suspect of ill mask'd not thy show, Then thou alone kingdoms of hearts shouldst owe –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 70 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

External links
• Explanation and analysis [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 70comm. htm

Sonnet 71

167

Sonnet 71
« » Sonnet 71 No longer mourn for me when I am dead Then you shall hear the surly sullen bell Give warning to the world that I am fled From this vile world, with vilest worms to dwell: Nay, if you read this line, remember not The hand that writ it; for I love you so That I in your sweet thoughts would be forgot If thinking on me then should make you woe. O, if, I say, you look upon this verse When I perhaps compounded am with clay, Do not so much as my poor name rehearse. But let your love even with my life decay, Lest the wise world should look into your moan And mock you with me after I am gone. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 71 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Interpretations
• Peter Bowles, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI)

Sonnet 72

168

Sonnet 72
« » Sonnet 72 O! lest the world should task you to recite What merit lived in me, that you should love After my death,--dear love, forget me quite, For you in me can nothing worthy prove. Unless you would devise some virtuous lie, To do more for me than mine own desert, And hang more praise upon deceased I Than niggard truth would willingly impart: O! lest your true love may seem false in this That you for love speak well of me untrue, My name be buried where my body is, And live no more to shame nor me nor you. For I am shamed by that which I bring forth, And so should you, to love things nothing worth. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 72 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
This sonnet is part of a sequence in which the poet professes his own inadequacy to be the recipient of the Youth's love and devotion. He suggests that should he die, the Youth should not praise him for to do so would be to lose his own worth.

Sonnet 73

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Sonnet 73
« » Sonnet 73 That time of year thou mayst in me behold When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang Upon those boughs which shake against the cold, Bare ruin'd choirs, where late the sweet birds sang. In me thou seest the twilight of such day As after sunset fadeth in the west, Which by and by black night doth take away, Death's second self, that seals up all in rest. In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire That on the ashes of his youth doth lie, As the death-bed whereon it must expire Consumed with that which it was nourish'd by. This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong, To love that well which thou must leave ere long. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 73, one of William Shakespeare's most famous sonnets, focuses upon the theme of old age, with each of the three quatrains encompassing a metaphor. The sonnet is pensive in tone, and although it is written to a young friend (See: Mr. W.H.), it is wholly introspective until the final couplet, which finally turns to the person who is addressed (the "thou" in line one). It is suggested by Joseph Kau in an article entitled "Daniel's Influence On An Image In Pericles and Sonnet 73: An Impresa of Destruction" that Samuel Daniel had a fair amount of influence on this sonnet. This article also suggests that Shakespeare's immediate source of the impresa, or motto, 'Qua me alit me extinguit' was from Geoffory Whitney's A Choice of Emblems (London, 1586)[1]

Analysis and synopsis
Shakespeare’s Sonnet 73 mainly focuses on the use of metaphor to aid his audience in thoroughly understanding the meaning of each of the three quatrains. Richard B. Hovey utterly believes that “in Sonnet 73 the poet-narrator compares his state with three things: autumn, the passing of day, and the burning out of a fire. To each of these comparisons Shakespeare devotes a quatrain, a quatrain which develops a metaphor” [2] . Therefore, although believed to be one of Shakespeare’s well-known sonnets, Sonnet 73 has had numerous comments, with different perspectives on its significance, as well as its addressee. Barbara Estermann discusses William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 73 in relation to the beginning of the Renaissance. She argues that the speaker of Sonnet 73 is comparing himself to the universe through his transition from “the physical act of aging to his final act of dying, and then to his death” [3] . Esterman clarifies that throughout the three quatrains of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 73, the speaker “demonstrates man’s relationship to the cosmos and the parallel properties which ultimately reveal his humanity and his link to his to the universe. Shakespeare thus compares the fading of his youth through the three elements of the universe: the fading of life, the fading of the light, and the dying of the fire” [4] . Sonnet 73 mainly focuses on the theme of old age and its effect on human beings. Throughout this sonnet, Shakespeare’s intent is to allow his audience to observe the consequences and outcomes of old age. To properly get

Sonnet 73 his point across to his readers, Shakespeare uses a variety of metaphors throughout the three quatrains to help his audience distinguish what he understands to be old age. As a result, throughout the entire sonnet the tone of his voice is in some sense negative and cold, because the thought of old age which results in death is rarely enjoyed and becomes a burden on the lives of each individual. This sonnet addresses the poet’s lover, who is believed to be a man. Throughout the poem, the poet tries to explain to his lover the difficulty of old age. Shakespeare informs his audience that old age and death both share an inevitable relationship, which each individual must experience, at one point in their lifetime. He uses the metaphor of the season of fall when he refers to the “yellow leaves,” before he emphasizes the death of winter, which is recognized, when he begins to talk about the “cold”. Hence, in this sonnet, Shakespeare’s use of metaphor puts an emphasis on the notion of death and old age. The initial quatrain of Sonnet 73 is neatly recapitulated by Seymour-Smith: “a highly compressed metaphor in which Shakespeare visualizes the ruined arches of churches, the memory of singing voices still echoing in them, and compares this with the naked boughs of early winter which he identifies himself” [5] ). The poet perceives that death occurs that “time of year” when it is dark, cold and gloomy; the time after the “yellow leaves” have disappeared, and the birds have stopped singing and have left their branches, their place of residence. Throughout the first quatrain, Shakespeare reveals that his lover is aging through his eyes comparing him to a tree without any leaves, “none, or few do hang.” As a result, his lover’s body shivers, portraying that he has lost his youth seeing as his body can no longer take the cold. In the second quatrain, Shakespeare focuses on the “twilight of such day” as death approaches throughout the nighttime. Barbara Estermann states that, “he is concerned with the change of light, from twilight to sunset to black night, revealing the last hours of life” [6] . Thus he believes that as the sunset fades, the dark night “doth take away” his life, which he will not be able to regain, after the “black night”. As a result, as the night approaches the individual’s youth begins to fade away and his old age leads him to the path of death. Carl D. Atkins insinuates that the final quatrain of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 73 is the final stage in which youth disappears forever. “As the fire goes out when the wood which has been feeding it is consumed, so is life extinguished when the strength of youth is past.” (Atkins 198). He compares the burning fire that slowly goes out to the passing away of life, as old age prevails youth. Shakespeare is concerned with the reality of death, “the fading out of life’s energy” [7] . He realizes that what he has “nourished” but must now “expire”. “The ashes of his youth doth lie” –the ashes of his youth burn brightly, as he recognizes that what brightened up his youth is devoured by the fire burning away his old age. As a result, Shakespeare informs his audience that we must “love more strongly,” because in the end, we are going to leave it all beyond and respond to death.

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Original text
The original text from 1609 Quarto: That time of yeeare thou maiſt in me behold, When yellow leaues,or none,or few doe hange Vpon thoſe boughes which ſhake againſt the could, Bare rn'wd quiers, where late the ſweet birds ſang. In me thou ſeeſt the twi-light of ſuch day, As after Sun-ſet fadeth in the Weſt, Which by and by blacke night doth take away, Deaths ſecond ſelfe that ſeals vp all in reſt. In me thou ſeeſt the glowing of ſuch fire, That on the aſhes of his youth doth lye, As the death bed,whereon it muſt expire,

Sonnet 73 Conſum'd with that which it was nurriſht by. This thou perceu'ſt,which makes thy loue more ſtrong, To loue that well,which thou muſt leaue ere long.

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Structure and metaphors
Sonnet 73 is a classic Shakespearean sonnet focused around the elements of time and a strong skepticism against old age. Written from one lover to another, this sonnet structurally comprises three quadrates and couplet [8] . The organization of the poem serves many roles in the overall effectiveness of the poem. Yet, one of the major roles implied by this scheme revolved around ending each quatrain with a complete phrase. Given the rhyme scheme of every other line within the quatrain, as an audience we are to infer a statement is being made by the end of every four lines. Further, when shifted toward the next four lines, a shift in the overall thought process is being made by the author. If Shakespeare's use of a complete phrase within the rhyme scheme implied a statement then the use of a consistent metaphor at the end of each quatrain showed both the author's acknowledgement of his own mortality and a cynical view on aging. This view on aging is interconnected with the inverse introduction of each symbol within the poem. By dropping from a year, to a day, to the brief duration of a fire, Shakespeare is establishing empathy for our speaker through the lapse in time.[9] Additionally, the three metaphors utilized pointed to the universal natural phenomenon linked with existence. This phenomenon involved the realization of transience, decay, and death.[10] Despite negatively depicting the problem of aging in the first three quatrains, each symbol is needed to set up the purpose defined by the last couplet of the sonnet. In these lines, our speaker acknowledges the growth in his love for his significant other. This growth directly correlated to his lover’s unrelenting adoration in spite of the physical deterioration caused by aging. “This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong; to love that well which thou must leave ere long” (Ln. 13–14). Overall, the structure and use of metaphors are two connected entities toward the overall progression within the sonnet. Seen as a harsh critic on age, Shakespeare sets up the negative effects of aging in the three quatrains of this poem. These aspects not only take on a universal aspect from the symbols, but represent the inevitability of a gradual lapse in the element of time in general from their placement in the poem. Further, many of the metaphors utilized in this sonnet were personified and overwhelmed by this connection between the speaker's youth and death bed.[11] This inevitability leads to the purpose and transformation experienced from our author by the final lines of the poem. A deeper appreciation for his lover in spite of his narcissistic views toward death serves as the overall rationale behind Sonnet 73.

Interpretation and criticism
The subject of Sonnet 73 is under debate among many critics. Agreeing that the obvious interpretation of Sonnet 73 forces the reader to face the fatality of life, John Prince says that the most common conclusion reached is that the speaker is telling his listener about his own life and the certainty of death in his near future. After going through a lengthy description that, on the surface, describes the passage of time and the coming of death, he concludes his dissertation by saying that the reader perceives this eminent death and, because he does, he loves the author even more. However, an alternative understanding of the sonnet presented by Prince asserts that the author does not intend to address death, but rather the passage of youth. With this, the topic of the sonnet moves from the speaker’s life to the listener’s life [12] . The key to these two interpretations lies in the very last line, “this thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong, to love that well which thou must leave ere long”. The question that must be addressed is this: to whom or to what is “that” referring to, the speaker’s life or the reader’s? This alternative interpretation suggests that it refers to the reader’s life and therefore does not concern the death of the author, but rather the loss of youth of the reader. The

Sonnet 73 last clause, which says “which thou must leave ere long”, emphasizes this point, because the reader must eventually leave his youth (Prince 198). Prince explains this by saying: “Why, if the speaker is referring to his own life, does he state that the listener must ‘leave’ the speaker's life? If the ‘that’ in the final line does refer to the speaker's life, then why doesn't the last line read ‘To love that well which thou must lose ere long?’ Or why doesn't the action of leaving have as its subject the ‘I,’ the poet, who in death would leave behind his auditor?” (Prince 197) By understanding the last line to refer to the reader’s life, rather than the speaker, Prince concludes that the sonnet is not referring to death and leaving love, like most would but instead the loss of youth that all must endure. Additionally, Frank Bernhard criticizes the metaphors Shakespeare used to describe the passage of time, be it the coming of death or simply the loss of youth. Though lyrical, they are logically off and quite cliché, being the overused themes of seasonal change, sunset, and burn. In fact, the only notably original line is the one concerning leaves, stating that “when yellow leaves, or none, or few do hang, upon those boughs” [13] . Logic would require that few should proceed none; in fact, if the boughs were bare, no leaves would hang. Bernhard argues that Shakespeare did this on purpose, evoking sympathy from the reader as they “wish to nurse and cherish what little is left”, taking him through the logic of pathos – ruefulness, to resignation, to sympathy (Bernhard 4). This logic, Bernhard asserts, dictates the entire sonnet. Instead of moving from hour, to day, to year with fire, then sunset, then seasons, Shakespeare moves backwards. By making time shorter and shorter, the reader’s fleeting morality comes into focus, while sympathy for the speaker grows. This logic of pathos can be seen in the images in the sonnet’s three quatrains. Bernhard explains: “Think now of the sonnet's three quatrains as a rectangular grid with one row for each of the governing images, and with four vertical columns: spring / summer / fall / winter morning / noon / evening / night tree / log / ember / ashes These divisions of the images seem perfectly congruous, but they are not. In the year the cold of winter takes up one quarter of the row; in the day, night takes up one half of the row; in the final row, however, death begins the moment the tree is chopped down into logs” (Bernhard 4). This is a gradual progression to hopelessness. The sun goes away in the winter, but returns in the spring; it sets in the evening, but will rise in the morning; but the tree that has been chopped into logs and burned into ashes will never grow again. Bernhard concludes by arguing that the end couplet, compared to the beautifully crafted logic of pathos created prior, is anti-climactic and redundant. The poem’s first three quatrains mean more to the reader than the seemingly important summation of the final couplet (Bernhard 4). Though he agrees with Bernhard in that the poem seems to create two themes, one which argues for devotion from a younger lover to one who will not be around much longer, and another which urges the young lover to enjoy his fleeting youth, James Schiffer asserts that the final couplet, instead of being unneeded and unimportant, brings the two interpretations together. In order to understand this, he explains that the reader must look at the preceding sonnets, 71 and 72, and the subsequent sonnet, 74. He explains: “The older poet may desire to ‘love more strong’ from the younger man but feels, as 72 discloses, that he does not deserve it. This psychological conflict explains why the couplet hovers equivocally between the conclusions ‘to love me’, which the persona cannot bring himself to ask for outright, and ‘to love your youth’, the impersonal alternative exacted by his self-contempt” [14] . By reading the final couplet in this manner, the reader will realize that the two discordant meanings of the final statement do in fact merge to provide a more complex impression of the author's state of mind. Furthermore, this successfully puts the focus of the reader on the psyche of the “I”, which is the subject of the following sonnet 74.

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Sonnet 73

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Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Kau, Joseph. Daniel's Influence on an Image in Pericles and Sonnet 73: An Impresa of Destruction." Shakespeare Quarterly 26(1975): 51-53. (Richard B. Hovey, “Sonnet 73,” College English 23.8 (1962): p. 672-673 < http:/ / www. jstor. org. ezp. slu. edu/ stable/ 373787>) (Barbara Estermann, “Shakespeare’s SONNET 73,” Explicator 38.3 (2008): p. 11-12 < http:/ / web. ebscohost. com. ezp. slu. edu/ ehost/ pdf>) (Barbara Estermann, “Shakespeare’s SONNET 73,” Explicator 38.3 (2008): p. 11 < http:/ / web. ebscohost. com. ezp. slu. edu/ ehost/ pdf>) (Ed. Atkins, Carl D. “Shakespeare’s Sonnets: With Three Hundred Years of Commentary.” Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007. pg. 197 [6] (Barbara Estermann, “Shakespeare’s SONNET 73,” Explicator 38.3 (2008): p. 11 < http:/ / web. ebscohost. com. ezp. slu. edu/ ehost/ pdf>) [7] (Barbara Estermann, “Shakespeare’s SONNET 73,” Explicator 38.3 (2008): p. 11 < http:/ / web. ebscohost. com. ezp. slu. edu/ ehost/ pdf>) [8] (Columbia, “Sonnet.” Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2009): pg. 1<http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.slu.edu/ehost/detaill>) [9] (Frank Berhard, “Shakespeare Sonnet 73", Explicator Vol. 62 (2003): pg. 3 < http:/ / web. ebscohost. com. ezp. slu. edu/ ehost/ pdf>) [10] (James Schroeter, “Sonnet 73: Reply,” College English, Vol. 23, No. 8 (1962) : pg. 673 <http://www.jstor.org.ezp.slu.edu/stable/3737888>) [11] (Stephen Booth, “Shakespeare’s Sonnets”, New Haven and London Yale University Press (1977) pg. 260) [12] (Prince, John S. Explicator 55.4 (1997): 197) [13] ( Bernhard, Frank. Explicator 62.1 (2003): 3) [14] (Schiffer, James. Shakespeare's Sonnets: Critical Essays. New York and London: Garland, 1999. Print)

External links
• Sparknotes reading of sonnet 73 (http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/shakesonnets/section4.rhtml) • Facsimile of sonnet 73 in 1609 Quarto (http://extra.shu.ac.uk/emls/Sonnets/e4r.jpg)

Sonnet 74
« » Sonnet 74 But be contented when that fell arrest Without all bail shall carry me away, My life hath in this line some interest, Which for memorial still with thee shall stay. When thou reviewest this, thou dost review The very part was consecrate to thee: The earth can have but earth, which is his due; My spirit is thine, the better part of me: So then thou hast but lost the dregs of life, The prey of worms, my body being dead; The coward conquest of a wretch's knife, Too base of thee to be remembered. The worth of that is that which it contains, And that is this, and this with thee remains. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 74 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Sonnet 74

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Synopsis
The sonnet states that the poet's death should not concern the Youth, since the body is unimportant, while the spirit remains expressed in the sonnet itself, as a memorial of the immortality of the human soul

Sonnet 75
« » Sonnet 75 So are you to my thoughts as food to life, Or as sweet-season'd showers are to the ground; And for the peace of you I hold such strife As 'twixt a miser and his wealth is found. Now proud as an enjoyer, and anon Doubting the filching age will steal his treasure; Now counting best to be with you alone, Then better'd that the world may see my pleasure: Sometime all full with feasting on your sight, And by and by clean starved for a look; Possessing or pursuing no delight Save what is had, or must from you be took. Thus do I pine and surfeit day by day, Or gluttoning on all, or all away. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 75 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet expresses his complete pleasure in the presence of his beloved, but says that his devotion resembles that of a miser to his money, filled with anxiety combined with pleasure in his wealth.

Sonnet 76

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Sonnet 76
« » Sonnet 76 Why is my verse so barren of new pride, So far from variation or quick change? Why with the time do I not glance aside To new-found methods, and to compounds strange? Why write I still all one, ever the same, And keep invention in a noted weed, That every word doth almost tell my name, Showing their birth, and where they did proceed? O! know sweet love I always write of you, And you and love are still my argument; So all my best is dressing old words new, Spending again what is already spent: For as the sun is daily new and old, So is my love still telling what is told. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 76 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
This poem repeats the theme of sonnet 38, which examines the issue of the poet's obsession with the Youth as the repeated and sole theme of his poetry. The poet expresses frustration with his poetry; that it is repetitive and he can't find inspiration. He ponders finding inspiration from other artists. He ends the poem justifying the endless, uninspired, repetition of his love poetry to the endless repetition to the rising and setting sun.

Controversial Interpretation
It has been argued that Shakespeare is also discussing the influence of drugs in poetry creation. [1] • "Noted weed" could either be paper (e.g. the poetry of others) or hemp / marijuana which was common in England at the time.[2] • "Compounds strange" could either be unusual grammar or it could be strange chemicals (i.e. drugs). • Shakespeare heavily used puns in the sonnets. It would be too simple of a poem to only discuss inspiration from other artists. There could probably be easier and better sounding ways to express that thought. Contextually, it makes sense that if he is questioning where else he can find artistic inspiration, drugs would also be a consideration. One could argue the poet is thinking he could use drugs to be inspired. He then states he decides not to use such inspiration. (The poet does not "glance aside". Also, he decides to keep the inspirational in the "noted weed

Sonnet 76

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Interpretations
• Diana Rigg, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

References
[1] CNN Online (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2001/ WORLD/ europe/ UK/ 03/ 01/ shakespeare. cannabis/ ) [2] Harvard Magazine Sep-Oct 2001. (http:/ / harvardmagazine. com/ 2001/ 09/ shakespeares-tenth-muse. html)

Sonnet 77
« » Sonnet 77 Thy glass will show thee how thy beauties wear, Thy dial how thy precious minutes waste; The vacant leaves thy mind's imprint will bear, And of this book, this learning mayst thou taste. The wrinkles which thy glass will truly show Of mouthed graves will give thee memory; Thou by thy dial's shady stealth mayst know Time's thievish progress to eternity. Look what thy memory cannot contain, Commit to these waste blanks, and thou shalt find Those children nursed, deliver'd from thy brain, To take a new acquaintance of thy mind. These offices, so oft as thou wilt look, Shall profit thee and much enrich thy book. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's 77th sonnet repeats the theme of the passing of time and the inevitability of decay. There is less emphasis on the recuperative power of art than in some other works.

Paraphrase
When you look in your mirror, you will see how quickly you are aging. This blank book will allow you to record the impressions of your mind, and these impressions will themselves teach you. The lines in your face that your mirror shows you will remind you of the open mouths of fresh graves. The hands of the dial will truly teach you how time keeps pushing you towards death. Write these things down now, and when you return to them much later you will find that they have matured along with you; they will mean more to you then. The oftener you do this, the more "your book" will profit by the discipline.

Source and analysis
Since George Steevens and Edmond Malone, the poem has been taken as referring to the gift of a blank-book or book of tablets, perhaps to the beloved, although some have suggested a more distant friendship than that in the other sonnets. Edward Dowden hypothesized that the poem relates specificially to the Rival Poet: knowing that he has lost favor, Shakespeare makes a present of this blank book to the beloved, who will now have to fill it himself, since Shakespeare has fallen silent.

Sonnet 77 The mirror and dial referred to in the sonnet are often assumed to be devices represented on the cover of the book; alternately, as Rolfe hypothesized, they might have been gifts enclosed with the book. Henry Charles Beeching discounts any clear biographical clue in the poem, arguing that it is so unrelated to those next it in the sequence that it must be read apart. Booth notes that the gift of a mirror and dial places the poem in the memento mori tradition; however, his sense of a pun on "wear" and "were" is regarded as forced by G. B. Evans. Quarto's "blacks" in line 10 is almost universally emended to "blanks," following Alexander Dyce. Some critics have defended "blacks" as referring to printer's type, or to slate notebooks.

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Sonnet 78
« » Sonnet 78 So oft have I invoked thee for my Muse, And found such fair assistance in my verse As every alien pen hath got my use And under thee their poesy disperse. Thine eyes, that taught the dumb on high to sing And heavy ignorance aloft to fly, Have added feathers to the learned's wing And given grace a double majesty. Yet be most proud of that which I compile, Whose influence is thine, and born of thee: In others' works thou dost but mend the style, And arts with thy sweet graces graced be; But thou art all my art, and dost advance As high as learning my rude ignorance. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 78 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet refers to the youth as his inspiration, comparing his own works to those of other poets, who have found in the youth creative inspiration for more traditional, learned forms of versifying. While other poets can add graces to their work by learning from the youth, the poet's work is completely defined by the youth's qualities.

Sonnet 79

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Sonnet 79
« » Sonnet 79 Whilst I alone did call upon thy aid, My verse alone had all thy gentle grace; But now my gracious numbers are decay'd, And my sick Muse doth give an other place. I grant, sweet love, thy lovely argument Deserves the travail of a worthier pen; Yet what of thee thy poet doth invent He robs thee of, and pays it thee again. He lends thee virtue, and he stole that word From thy behaviour; beauty doth he give, And found it in thy cheek: he can afford No praise to thee, but what in thee doth live. Then thank him not for that which he doth say, Since what he owes thee, thou thyself dost pay. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 79 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's part of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
When the poet wrote of the youth, his verse partook of his the youth's charms. But now his poetry has weakened another poet has taken his place. This poet takes the beauties and virtues of his verse from the youth and returns them to him in the form of poetry. Therefore the youth owes him no thanks for his verse, since he has given it its merits.

Sonnet 80

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Sonnet 80
« » Sonnet 80 O! how I faint when I of you do write, Knowing a better spirit doth use your name, And in the praise thereof spends all his might, To make me tongue-tied speaking of your fame. But since your worth, wide as the ocean is, The humble as the proudest sail doth bear, My saucy bark, inferior far to his, On your broad main doth wilfully appear. Your shallowest help will hold me up afloat, Whilst he upon your soundless deep doth ride; Or, being wrack'd, I am a worthless boat, He of tall building, and of goodly pride: Then if he thrive and I be cast away, The worst was this, my love was my decay. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 80 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Knowing that a better poet is praising the youth, the poet feels inadequate. However, since the youth's value is as big as the ocean there is room for both poets to sail the ships of their verse on it: the impressive galleon of the rival poet and the small vessel of the speaker.

Sonnet 81

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Sonnet 81
« » Sonnet 81 Or I shall live your epitaph to make, Or you survive when I in earth am rotten, From hence your memory death cannot take, Although in me each part will be forgotten. Your name from hence immortal life shall have, Though I, once gone, to all the world must die: The earth can yield me but a common grave, When you entombed in men's eyes shall lie. Your monument shall be my gentle verse, Which eyes not yet created shall o'er-read; And tongues to be, your being shall rehearse, When all the breathers of this world are dead; You still shall live, such virtue hath my pen, Where breath most breathes, even in the mouths of men. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 81 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Whether the poet outlives the youth or vice versa the youth will live forever, though the poet be forgotten. The youth will live in the poetry, to be recognised by generations yet unborn.

Sonnet 82

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Sonnet 82
« » Sonnet 82 I grant thou wert not married to my Muse, And therefore mayst without attaint o'erlook The dedicated words which writers use Of their fair subject, blessing every book. Thou art as fair in knowledge as in hue, Finding thy worth a limit past my praise; And therefore art enforced to seek anew Some fresher stamp of the time-bettering days. And do so, love; yet when they have devis'd, What strained touches rhetoric can lend, Thou truly fair, wert truly sympathiz'd In true plain words, by thy true-telling friend; And their gross painting might be better used Where cheeks need blood; in thee it is abused. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 81 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Not being married to the poet's muse, the youth can honourably respond to other poets' muses without being accused of infidelity. But the youth shouldn't be too attracted to flashy and unrealistic rhetoric. The poet's own simple truthfulness more accurately represents the youth's beauty. Other poets only need to use artificial rhetoric to enhance anaemic figures.

Sonnet 83

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Sonnet 83
« » Sonnet 83 I never saw that you did painting need, And therefore to your fair no painting set; I found, or thought I found, you did exceed The barren tender of a poet's debt: And therefore have I slept in your report, That you yourself, being extant, well might show How far a modern quill doth come too short, Speaking of worth, what worth in you doth grow. This silence for my sin you did impute, Which shall be most my glory being dumb; For I impair not beauty being mute, When others would give life, and bring a tomb. There lives more life in one of your fair eyes Than both your poets can in praise devise. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 83 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The youth does not need to be described or painted (with cosmetics), but exceeds what can be written about him. Therefore the poet has given up attempting to express the youth's worth, so that the reality will show up the weakness of his poetry. The youth has objected to the poet's silence, while the Rival Poet is writing, but the reality of the youth's beauty is much greater than both poets could express.

Interpretations
• Imelda Staunton, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Sonnet 84

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Sonnet 84
« » Sonnet 84 Who is it that says most, which can say more, Than this rich praise, that you alone are you, In whose confine immured is the store Which should example where your equal grew? Lean penury within that pen doth dwell That to his subject lends not some small glory; But he that writes of you, if he can tell That you are you, so dignifies his story. Let him but copy what in you is writ, Not making worse what nature made so clear, And such a counterpart shall fame his wit, Making his style admired every where. You to your beauteous blessings add a curse, Being fond on praise, which makes your praises worse. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 84 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Who can say more than that the youth is who he is? Writing normally adds glory to its theme, but the youth can only glorify writing by his own perfection, creating a literary style to be admired. But the youth's love of flattery corrupts the praises of his admirers.

Sonnet 85

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Sonnet 85
« » Sonnet 85 My tongue-tied Muse in manners holds her still, While comments of your praise richly compiled, Reserve thy character with golden quill, And precious phrase by all the Muses filed. I think good thoughts, whilst others write good words, And like unlettered clerk still cry 'Amen' To every hymn that able spirit affords, In polished form of well-refined pen. Hearing you praised, I say tis so, 'tis true,' And to the most of praise add something more; But that is in my thought, whose love to you, Though words come hindmost, holds his rank before. Then others, for the breath of words respect, Me for my dumb thoughts, speaking in effect. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 85 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet's inarticulacy compares with the golden words of other poets. The poet's thoughts are good, but others are more impressive in expression. All the poet can do is agree with the praises of others and offer his own dumb sincerity.

Sonnet 86

185

Sonnet 86
« » Sonnet 86 Was it the proud full sail of his great verse, Bound for the prize of all too precious you, That did my ripe thoughts in my brain inhearse, Making their tomb the womb wherein they grew? Was it his spirit, by spirits taught to write Above a mortal pitch, that struck me dead? No, neither he, nor his compeers by night Giving him aid, my verse astonished. He, nor that affable familiar ghost Which nightly gulls him with intelligence, As victors of my silence cannot boast; I was not sick of any fear from thence: But when your countenance filled up his line, Then lacked I matter; that enfeebled mine. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 86 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The Rival Poet's literary talent is again compared to a great ship in full sail (as in sonnet 80) seeking to capture the youth's beauty like a prize. The poet is unable to articulate his thoughts, but it was not the rival poet, nor other writers, nor the guiding spirits that inspire them. But the fact that the youth's face fills the verse of the rival, weakens the poet.

Sonnet 87

186

Sonnet 87
« » Sonnet 87 Farewell! thou art too dear for my possessing, And like enough thou know'st thy estimate, The charter of thy worth gives thee releasing; My bonds in thee are all determinate. For how do I hold thee but by thy granting? And for that riches where is my deserving? The cause of this fair gift in me is wanting, And so my patent back again is swerving. Thy self thou gavest, thy own worth then not knowing, Or me to whom thou gav'st it else mistaking; So thy great gift, upon misprision growing, Comes home again, on better judgement making. Thus have I had thee, as a dream doth flatter, In sleep a king, but waking no such matter. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 87 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet admits that he no longer possesses the love of the youth, whose worth is too great for the poet, who could only possess him while the youth did not recognise his own worth. His time with the youth was like a dream of greatness from which he has now woken. Shakespeare says, in essence, that the Fair Youth is so much better than he is that Shakespeare can't possibly deserve him. Being unworthy, Shakespeare wants to release the Youth from the relationship so that "he can have the better life that he deserves" [1] . In the closing couplet, Shakespeare says that while the relationship lasted, he felt like a king, but now he realizes it was simply a dream. The structure of the poem forms an interesting and logical argument and progression [2] . In the first stanza he is saying you're too good for me, so I understand if you want to get rid of me. In the second stanza he is saying that I am nowhere close to good enough for you, but maybe you are not aware of it. And in the third stanza he is saying you are too good for me, but maybe you didn't realize that before. In the closing couplet, Shakespeare confesses that no matter what the cause of misjudgment, you're released by the mistake, and "I'm left here to remember our time together" when I felt like nobility [3] .

Sonnet 87

187

Sonnet Formation/Rhyme Scheme
Shakespeare’s Sonnet 87 follows the traditional English sonnet form with fourteen lines consisting of three quatrains and a couplet. Although it follows iambic pentameter, it breaks from Shakespeare’s usual sonnet structure with its pervasive use of feminine endings, a rhyme of two or more syllables and which often ends with an unstressed syllable. Along with Sonnet 20, Sonnet 87 is most representative of Shakespeare’s experimentation with feminine endings. However, there is critical debate over their effect. Helen Vendler proposes that the feminine endings, similar to their intermittent use in Sonnet 126, parallel “the poet’s unwillingness to let the young man go” [4] . She notes that 12 of the 14 lines end with feminine rhymes. The movement between feminine and masculine endings, with the feminine endings receiving emphasis, enacts a longing on the part of the speaker for the young man to stay. Atkins adopts the view that the monotony of the feminine endings creates a somber tone of loss. Lines 2 and 4 are the only lines without feminine endings and they “ending as they do in pyrrhic feet, give the same elegiac effect” [5] .

Legal and Financial Imagery
Critics commonly agree that Shakespeare uses legal imagery as a metaphor for the relationship between the speaker and the young man. Helen Vendler and Stephen Booth are of the same opinion that the legal terms of the sonnet frame the relationship between the speaker and the young man as a contract now void because of the beloved’s realization of his greater worth. The relationship between the speaker and the young man is expressed in the language of legal financial transaction: estimate, charter, bonds, determinate, riches, and patent, into the sonnet—also dear and worth in the financial sense [6] . Booth, in addition to the above, understands hold and granting in a legal and financial sense as well. [7] Michael Andrews acknowledges the metaphorical use of legal and financial imagery like Vendler and Booth. However he proposes further that the legal and financial imagery, along with a “cooly ironic” tone, disguises the speaker’s true feelings which only fully appear in the couplet: “Thus have I had thee as a dream doth flatter,/ In sleep a king, but waking no such matter.” The couplet reveals that the speaker understands that the young man never fully gave himself [8] . In this interpretation the legal and financial imagery of the three quatrains are more self-protective than sincere. Murray Krieger offers a different view of the contract theory seen within Sonnet 87. In his analysis, he focuses his attention on the use of the word “dear” within the first line. He notes that the reader’s initial deduction of the word “dear” implies the idea of affection. But this initial impression of the word on the reader is immediately confronted by the word “estimate," which essentially uncovers the reality of the speaker’s lowly position to the young man. Kreiger furthermore notes that the legal and financial terms strongly imply the poet’s bitterness towards his position: “at having love’s world of troth reduced to the niggardly world of truth, the world of faith to the world of fact” [9] .

Couplet
Though Vendler and Booth understand the legal imagery in a similar fashion, they differ in their understanding of the couplet. Vendler proposes that the couplet has a defective key word. Vendler identifies “gift” as the key word of the sonnet as “gift” and its variants “gives” and “gav’st” appear in all three quatrains in lines 3, 7, 9, 10, and 11. However, this key word is defective because it is absent in the couplet. Its absence in the couplet reflects the desertion of the “gift,” the young man [10] . Booth understands the couplet to have sexual overtones. In the phrase, “I had thee as a dream” Booth suggests that “had” means “possessed sexually” or “embraced.” Sexual dreams were a common Renaissance topic and Booth suggests that Shakespeare is playing on this usage. He cites Spenser’s The Faerie Queene 1.1.47-49, Jonson’s The Dream, Herrick’s The Vine, Othello 3.3.416-432, and Gascoigne’s Supposes, 1.2.133 as contemporary works that contain sexual dreams [11] . Booth also proposes that “matter” in the closing line has a sexual meaning in addition to

Sonnet 87 meaning “real substance.” Here he cites examples of matter being used in its sexual sense in Hamlet 3.2.111: “country matter” and Julius Caesar 1.1.23: “women matters” [12] . Richard Strier additionally notes the complexity of the word “flatter” not only within Sonnet 87 but within other Shakespeare sonnets as well. While the word has been used “in contexts of purely negative self-deception” as well as “in the context of providing genuine beauty,” it is utilized within this poem as an “evocation of joy that is brief and delusive, but potent while it lasts” [13] . The phrase “as a dream doth flatter” correlates strongly with the Petrarchan view that earthly joys are briefly.

188

Sexuality
Opening with the exclamation of “Farewell!” sonnet 87 reads very much like a break-up poem, which would suggest a romantic theme to it, and because of the sonnet’s addressee, the suggestion turns into a homosexual romance. At the very least, Shakespeare thinks that he owes it to the youth to break up with him, due to what Pequigney calls “the narcissistic wound.” Shakespeare’s undermining of himself is proof of an apparent “wound to the ego” [14] . Sonnet 87 is filled with over the top, romantic language towards the young man, with lines such as “Thus have I had thee as a dream doth flatter.” Yet when watered down, Pequigney argues that this simply states that Shakespeare is only acknowledging that he enjoyed knowing the young man. The use of romantic language masks the idea that this is purely a platonic love between the two males. In the sonnets addressed towards the young man, such as sonnet 87, there is a lack of explicit sexual imagery which is prominent in the sonnets addressed towards the dark lady. This, as Pequigney claims, is further proof “that nothing sexually amiss is to be found in the lyrics of that Shakespeare composed for the youth.” [15] A. L. Rowse, another Shakespearean critic, also rejects the existence of homoerotic suggestion in sonnet 87, arguing that the language of the time is simply so far from how we communicate today. The language between two friends “might be considered sexually implicit” [16] in today’s world, but hundreds of years earlier was simply friendly admiration.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] (Nelles, William. "Sexing Shakespeare's Sonnets: Reading beyond Sonnet 20." English Literary Renaissance, 2009.) (Nelles, William. "Sexing Shakespeare's Sonnets: Reading beyond Sonnet 20." English Literary Renaissance, 2009.) (Nelles, William. "Sexing Shakespeare's Sonnets: Reading beyond Sonnet 20." English Literary Renaissance, 2009.) (Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge and London: Belknap-Harvard University Press, 1997. 381. OCLC # 36806589) [5] (Atkins, Carl D. Shakespeare's Sonnets: With Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007. 226. ISBN 9780838641637) [6] (Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge and London: Belknap-Harvard University Press, 1997. 383. OCLC # 36806589) [7] (Booth, Stephen, ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1977. 290. ISBN 0300019599). [8] (Andrews, Michael Cameron. "Sincerity and Subterfuge in Three Shakespearean Sonnet Groups." Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 3. Folger Shakespeare Library (1982): 321. Web. 10 October 2009. http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2869735) [9] (Kreiger, Murray. “Sonnet 87.” Shakespeare's Sonnets and Poems. Ed. Harold Bloom. Broomall, PA : Chelsea House Publishers, 1999. 39. ISBN 058525284X) [10] (Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge and London: Belknap-Harvard University Press, 1997. 383. OCLC # 36806589) [11] (Booth, Stephen, ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1977. 291. ISBN 0300019599) [12] (Booth, Stephen, ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1977. 291. ISBN 0300019599) [13] (Strier, Richard. A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. Ed. Michael Schoenfeldt. Malden: Blackwell, 2007. 84. ISBN 1405121556) [14] (Pequigney, Joseph. Such Is My Love: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1996.) [15] (Pequigney, Joseph. Such Is My Love: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1996.) [16] (Rowse, A. L. Sex and society in Shakespeare's age Simon Foreman the astrologer. New York: Scribner, 1974)

Sonnet 88

189

Sonnet 88
« » Sonnet 88 When thou shalt be disposed to set me light, And place my merit in the eye of scorn, Upon thy side, against myself I'll fight, And prove thee virtuous, though thou art forsworn. With mine own weakness being best acquainted, Upon thy part I can set down a story Of faults concealed, wherein I am attainted; That thou in losing me shalt win much glory: And I by this will be a gainer too; For bending all my loving thoughts on thee, The injuries that to myself I do, Doing thee vantage, double-vantage me. Such is my love, to thee I so belong, That for thy right, myself will bear all wrong. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 88 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
When you criticise me, I will agree with your criticisms, and support your virtue, even though you have betrayed me. Knowing my own faults, I can be so convincing when I describe them, that you will be vindicated. Even I will win, because my love for you is such that any gain to you, gains me even more. I care about you so much that to help you I will harm myself.

Sonnet 89

190

Sonnet 89
« » Sonnet 89 Say that thou didst forsake me for some fault, And I will comment upon that offence: Speak of my lameness, and I straight will halt, Against thy reasons making no defence. Thou canst not, love, disgrace me half so ill, To set a form upon desired change, As I'll myself disgrace; knowing thy will, I will acquaintance strangle, and look strange; Be absent from thy walks; and in my tongue Thy sweet beloved name no more shall dwell, Lest I, too much profane, should do it wrong, And haply of our old acquaintance tell. For thee, against my self I'll vow debate, For I must ne'er love him whom thou dost hate. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 89 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet tells the youth that he can say he abandoned the poet for some fault and he will admit it. The poet will deliberately absent himself and stop discussing the youth, since he cannot even like himself if the youth no longer cares for him.

Sonnet 90

191

Sonnet 90
« » Sonnet 90 Then hate me when thou wilt; if ever, now; Now, while the world is bent my deeds to cross, Join with the spite of fortune, make me bow, And do not drop in for an after-loss: Ah! do not, when my heart hath 'scaped this sorrow, Come in the rearward of a conquered woe; Give not a windy night a rainy morrow, To linger out a purposed overthrow. If thou wilt leave me, do not leave me last, When other petty griefs have done their spite, But in the onset come: so shall I taste At first the very worst of fortune's might; And other strains of woe, which now seem woe, Compared with loss of thee, will not seem so. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 90 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The sonnet continues the themes of the breakdown of the relationship between the youth and the poet. The poet suggests that the youth should reject him now that everyone seems to be against him. The poet exhorts the youth not to wait to reject him until after these other, less important, sorrows have passed. At least if he is rejected now, his other problems will pale into insignificance.

Sonnet 91

192

Sonnet 91
« » Sonnet 91 Some glory in their birth, some in their skill, Some in their wealth, some in their bodies' force, Some in their garments though new-fangled ill; Some in their hawks and hounds, some in their horse; And every humour hath his adjunct pleasure, Wherein it finds a joy above the rest: But these particulars are not my measure, All these I better in one general best. Thy love is better than high birth to me, Richer than wealth, prouder than garments' cost, Of more delight than hawks and horses be; And having thee, of all men's pride I boast: Wretched in this alone, that thou mayst take All this away, and me most wretched make. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 91 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Paraphrase
Some people delight in their noble ancestry; some in their abilities; some in their wealth or strength; some in their hunting animals. But I don't take joy in any of these things because I have something even better: To me your love is better than noble ancestry, wealth, expensive clothes or hunting animals. And as long as I have you, I feel prouder than anyone else. But I am also cursed in this way that if you stop loving me, I will become the most wretched person.

Interpretations
• Peter Barkworth, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Sonnet 92

193

Sonnet 92
« » Sonnet 92 But do thy worst to steal thyself away, For term of life thou art assured mine, And life no longer than thy love will stay, For it depends upon that love of thine. Then need I not to fear the worst of wrongs, When in the least of them my life hath end. I see a better state of me belongs Than that which on my humour doth depend; Thou canst not vex me with inconstant mind, Since that my life on the revolt doth lie. O, what a happy title do I find, Happy to have thy love, happy to die! But what's so blessed-fair that fears no blot? Thou mayst be false, and yet I know it not. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 92 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Sonnet 93

194

Sonnet 93
« » Sonnet 93 So shall I live, supposing thou art true, Like a deceived husband; so love's face May still seem love to me, though altered new; Thy looks with me, thy heart in other place: For there can live no hatred in thine eye, Therefore in that I cannot know thy change. In many's looks, the false heart's history Is writ in moods, and frowns, and wrinkles strange. But heaven in thy creation did decree That in thy face sweet love should ever dwell; Whate'er thy thoughts, or thy heart's workings be, Thy looks should nothing thence, but sweetness tell. How like Eve's apple doth thy beauty grow, If thy sweet virtue answer not thy show! –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 93 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Contrary to the previous sonnet, Sonnet 92, in which Shakespeare tries to question the young man's morals and character, he may now be fluctuant in his character without his own knowledge. Shakespeare also goes ahead and basically refutes what he had said in the previous sonnet, now saying that the young man is a good person with upstanding morals. He goes on to say, “For there can live no hatred in thine eye.” He is now refuting his previous statements and stating that the boy can not have bad morals or vice. In the first quatrain of the sonnet, the poet says, “So shall I live, supposing thou art true”, illustrating the initial doubt in the young man's moral character. Gradually, he starts to reason that the youth's beauty outweighs his moral flaws, a sort of superficial and narcisstic belief that the poet had previously criticized in earlier sonnets. The poet goes on to speak about the young man's facial beauty, without considering the virtue of the young man. Shakespeare acknowledges this possibility by saying, “How like Eve’s apple doth thy beauty grow", showing a connection to Adam and Eve, and how Eve's external beauty was countered by her internal moral lack of character.

External links
• Cliffsnotes analysis of Sonnet 93 [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ study_guide/ literature/ Shakespeare-s-Sonnets-Analysis-and-Original-Text-by-Sonnet-Sonnet-93. id-169,pageNum-227. html

Sonnet 94

195

Sonnet 94
« » Sonnet 94 They that have power to hurt and will do none, That do not do the thing they most do show, Who, moving others, are themselves as stone, Unmoved, cold, and to temptation slow, They rightly do inherit heaven's graces And husband nature's riches from expense; They are the lords and owners of their faces, Others but stewards of their excellence. The summer's flower is to the summer sweet, Though to itself it only live and die, But if that flower with base infection meet, The basest weed outbraves his dignity: For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds; Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 94 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Sonnet 94 is seen as being particularly difficult to interpret. Shakespeare describes a restrained and cold person who has the "power to hurt" but who does not exercise that power. The first two quatrains describe a person who is coldly detached and slow to temptation. This person, the speaker argues, is therefore more likely to inherit the gifts of heaven. They rightly do inherit heaven's graces And husband nature's riches from expense; In the third quatrain, the sonnet then shifts abruptly to a description of a flower, which most scholars believe to be one of Shakespeare's patrons. Shakespeare describes the summer as treasuring the flower - "to the summer sweet", with the flower living unaware of its beauty "Though to itself it only live and die,". This quatrain serves as an attempted explanation for the patron's "unmoved, cold" nature to allow Shakespeare to continue loving him and give him peace of mind. However the speaker reluctantly admits that the young man is guilty of harmful deeds, a "base infection", and is therefore lower (smells worse) than weeds. The last line appeared earlier in Act II of Edward III, which was published 13 years prior to the sonnets. Although the line is based on a proverb, the exact wording of the line is not that of the proverb, and is identical in the play and the sonnet.

Sonnet 94

196

Interpretations
• actress Siân Phillips, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics) • read by actress and singer Liza Minnelli in the song If There Was Love (written by Pet Shop Boys) for her 1989 album Results, although saying, incorrectly, "And husband's natures" at line 6.

External links
• Sparknotes analysis of Sonnet 94 [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. sparknotes. com/ shakespeare/ shakesonnets/ section5. rhtml

Sonnet 95
« » Sonnet 95 How sweet and lovely dost thou make the shame Which, like a canker in the fragrant rose, Doth spot the beauty of thy budding name! O! in what sweets dost thou thy sins enclose. That tongue that tells the story of thy days, Making lascivious comments on thy sport, Cannot dispraise, but in a kind of praise; Naming thy name blesses an ill report. O! what a mansion have those vices got Which for their habitation chose out thee, Where beauty's veil doth cover every blot And all things turns to fair that eyes can see! Take heed, dear heart, of this large privilege; The hardest knife ill-used doth lose his edge. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 95 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The youth's dissolute behaviour is making corruption seem beautiful. Even descriptions of the youth's behaviour make it beautiful. The youth's beauty covers the blots of vice, but everything eventually loses its qualities if it is misused.

Sonnet 96

197

Sonnet 96
« » Sonnet 96 Some say thy fault is youth, some wantonness; Some say thy grace is youth and gentle sport; Both grace and faults are lov'd of more and less: Thou mak'st faults graces that to thee resort. As on the finger of a throned queen The basest jewel will be well esteem'd, So are those errors that in thee are seen To truths translated, and for true things deem'd. How many lambs might the stern wolf betray, If like a lamb he could his looks translate! How many gazers mightst thou lead away, If thou wouldst use the strength of all thy state! But do not so; I love thee in such sort, As, thou being mine, mine is thy good report. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 96 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The youth's errors are blamed on his age, but others say youths should enjoy themselves. The youth makes faults into charms, like poor-quality jewels on a queen. The follies of the youth appear to be truths, like wolves who appear to be lambs and lead the lambs astray. The youth could do the same, but should not do so, because such behaviour will also reflect badly on the poet.

Sonnet 97

198

Sonnet 97
« » Sonnet 97 How like a winter hath my absence been From thee, the pleasure of the fleeting year! What freezings have I felt, what dark days seen! What old December's bareness every where! And yet this time removed was summer's time The teeming autumn, big with rich increase, Bearing the wanton burden of the prime, Like widow'd wombs after their lords' decease: Yet this abundant issue seem'd to me But hope of orphans and unfather'd fruit; For summer and his pleasures wait on thee, And, thou away, the very birds are mute: Or, if they sing, 'tis with so dull a cheer, That leaves look pale, dreading the winter's near. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 97 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man. It is the first of three sonnets describing a separation between the speaker and the beloved.

Paraphrase
My separation from you has seemed like winter, since you give pleasure to the year. Winter has seemed to be everywhere, even though in reality our separation occurred during summer and fall, when the earth produces plant life like a widow giving birth after the death of her husband. Yet I saw these fruits of nature as hopeless orphans, since it could not be summer unless you were here; since you were away, even the birds did not sing, or rather sang so plaintively that they made the very leaves look pale, thinking of winter.

Sources and analysis
Following Edmond Malone, T. W. Baldwin notes a resemblance between this poem's trope for the seasons and the "childing autumn" of A Midsummer Night's Dream 2.1.112; he traces the figure to Ovid. Dowden says that 97 seems to begin a new group of sonnets, comprising 97, 98, and 99. Edward Hubler remarks on the "passages of unobtrusive melody and easy grace." Thematically, the poem belongs among those poems treating absence or separation. Hilton Landry groups the sonnet with others, such as 54 and 55, in which the speaker is forced to call to mind an inferior mental substitute for his absent beloved.

Sonnet 97

199

References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950. • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881. • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

Sonnet 98
« » Sonnet 98 From you have I been absent in the spring, When proud-pied April dress'd in all his trim Hath put a spirit of youth in every thing That heavy Saturn laugh'd and leap'd with him. Yet nor the lays of birds nor the sweet smell Of different flowers in odor and in hue Could make me any summer's story tell. Or from their proud lap pluck them while they grew; Nor did I wonder at the lily's white, Nor praise the deep vermilion in the rose; These were but sweet, but figures of delight; Drawn after you, you pattern of all those. Yet seem'd it winter still, and, you away, As with your shadow I with these did play. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 98 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the persona expresses his love towards a young man. It is the second of a group of three sonnets (97 to 99) to treat a separation of the speaker from his beloved.

Paraphrase
We were apart during the spring, when everything feels young, even aged Saturn; however, none of the beauty I saw around me could bring me into sympathy with my surroundings. I could not admire the lily or the rose, since these were to me only images of you. Thus, it still seemed winter to me, since you were away.

Source and analysis
As Sidney Lee notes, this poem, like most Renaissance sonnets on similar themes, derives ultimately from Petrarch's sonnet 42; he cites examples from Surrey and Sidney. Edward Dowden notes a resemblance to Spenser's Amoretti 64. G. Wilson Knight connects the rose and lily of this poem to what he sees as a pattern of flower symbolism in the cycle.

Sonnet 99

200

Sonnet 99
« » Sonnet 99 The forward violet thus did I chide: "Sweet thief, whence didst thou steal thy sweet that smells, If not from my love's breath? Thy purple pride Which on thy soft cheek for complexion dwells In my love's veins thou has't too grossly dyed. The lily I condemned for thy hand, And buds of marjoram had stol'n thy hair: The roses fearfully on thorns did stand, One blushing shame, another white despair; A third, nor red nor white, had stol'n of both And to his robbery had annex'd thy breath; But, for his theft, in pride of all his growth A vengeful canker eat him up to death. More flowers I noted, yet I none could see But sweet or color it had stol'n from thee. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 99 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man. The sonnet is generally grouped with the preceding two in the sequence, with which it shares a dominant trope and image set: the beloved is described in terms of, and judged superior to, nature and its beauties.

Paraphrase
I criticized the violet, telling it that it had stolen its sweet smell from my beloved's breath, and its purple color from my beloved's veins. I told the lily it had stolen the whiteness of your (that is, the beloved's) hands, and marjoram had stolen the beloved's hair; a third flower had stolen from both; in fact, all flowers had stolen something from the person of the beloved.

Source and analysis
Edward Massey and others asserted that the poem was directly inspired by a poem in Henry Constable's Diana (1592); T. W. Baldwin rejected this claim while noting that the same Constable sonnet had inspired a passage in The Rape of Lucrece. At any rate, the conceit is common, and parallels have been found in the poems by Edmund Spenser, Thomas Campion, and others. George Wilson praised the poem as an example of synesthesia. The sonnet has attracted some attention as one of those which appears to provide clues about the historical identity of Shakespeare's subject (on the traditional assumption that the poems are in some sense autobiographical). In 1904, C. C. Stopes noted the existence of a portrait of Southampton at Welbeck Abbey in which his hair curls in a manner similar to young marjoram. This analysis has been disputed by scholars who assert that smell, rather than appearance, is the primary referent of Shakespeare's line. Because of the extravagant praise of the beloved's body, some Victorian scholars were reluctant to believe that the poem was addressed to a man; current consensus, however, groups it with the other poems written to the young man.

Sonnet 99 The sonnet has 15 lines, and is the only poem in the sequence with more than fourteen (126 has 12). Sonnet structure was not fixed during the period, and Sidney Lee adduces many examples of fifteen line sonnets. An extra line is particularly common in linked sonnets, and this sonnet is linked to 98; Malone ended 98 with a colon to demonstrate the connection. However, other scholars have remarked on the clumsiness of the first line and suggested that the quarto text represents an unrevised draft that found its way into print.

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References
• Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare with Variorum Readings and Commentary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1916. • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1950. • Lee, Sidney. Elizabethan Sonnets. Westminster: Constable, 1904. • Stopes, C. C. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London: Alexander Morig, 1904. • Wilson, George. The Five Gateways of Knowledge. Cambridge: Macmillan, 1856.

Sonnet 100
« » Sonnet 100 Where art thou, Muse, that thou forget'st so long To speak of that which gives thee all thy might? Spend'st thou thy fury on some worthless song, Darkening thy power to lend base subjects light? Return, forgetful Muse, and straight redeem In gentle numbers time so idly spent; Sing to the ear that doth thy lays esteem And gives thy pen both skill and argument. Rise, resty Muse, my love's sweet face survey, If Time have any wrinkle graven there; If any, be a satire to decay, And make Time's spoils despised every where. Give my love fame faster than Time wastes life; So thou prevent'st his scythe and crooked knife. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 100 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Sonnet 100

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External links
• Analysis [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 100comm. htm

Sonnet 101
« » Sonnet 101 O truant Muse what shall be thy amends For thy neglect of truth in beauty dyed? Both truth and beauty on my love depends; So dost thou too, and therein dignified. Make answer Muse: wilt thou not haply say, 'Truth needs no colour, with his colour fixed; Beauty no pencil, beauty's truth to lay; But best is best, if never intermixed'? Because he needs no praise, wilt thou be dumb? Excuse not silence so, for't lies in thee To make him much outlive a gilded tomb And to be praised of ages yet to be. Then do thy office, Muse; I teach thee how To make him seem, long hence, as he shows now. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 101 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The muse is chided for her absence and neglect of praise for the youth, but is imagined to answer by saying that truth and beauty need no additions or explanations. The muse is implored by the poet to praise the youth. The poet will teach her how to immortalize the youth's beauty.

Sonnet 102

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Sonnet 102
« » Sonnet 102 My love is strengthened, though more weak in seeming; I love not less, though less the show appear; That love is merchandized, whose rich esteeming, The owner's tongue doth publish every where. Our love was new, and then but in the spring, When I was wont to greet it with my lays; As Philomel in summer's front doth sing, And stops his pipe in growth of riper days: Not that the summer is less pleasant now Than when her mournful hymns did hush the night, But that wild music burthens every bough, And sweets grown common lose their dear delight. Therefore like her, I sometime hold my tongue: Because I would not dull you with my song. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 102 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Though seemimg to be cooler to the youth, the poet's love is actually stronger, even though he makes less show of it. Advertising one's feelings is to commercialise one's love. The poet wrote more verse in the earlier phase of their relationship, as birds sing more in the spring. Now that the spingtime has passed, song is less appropriate. So like the birds the poet now sings less frequently, lest his song seem dull and repetitive.

Sonnet 103

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Sonnet 103
« » Sonnet 103 Alack! what poverty my Muse brings forth, That having such a scope to show her pride, The argument all bare is of more worth Than when it hath my added praise beside! O! blame me not, if I no more can write! Look in your glass, and there appears a face That over-goes my blunt invention quite, Dulling my lines, and doing me disgrace. Were it not sinful then, striving to mend, To mar the subject that before was well? For to no other pass my verses tend Than of your graces and your gifts to tell; And more, much more, than in my verse can sit, Your own glass shows you when you look in it. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 103 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet says that his feeble lines cannot do justice to the subject's beauty, but merely mar it with their own inadequacy. The poet's only achievements are the result of that beauty, which is much more clearly visible simply by looking in a mirror.

Sonnet 104

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Sonnet 104
« » Sonnet 104 To me, fair friend, you never can be old, For as you were when first your eye I ey'd, Such seems your beauty still. Three winters cold, Have from the forests shook three summers' pride, Three beauteous springs to yellow autumn turn'd, In process of the seasons have I seen, Three April perfumes in three hot Junes burn'd, Since first I saw you fresh, which yet are green. Ah! yet doth beauty like a dial-hand, Steal from his figure, and no pace perceiv'd; So your sweet hue, which methinks still doth stand, Hath motion, and mine eye may be deceiv'd: For fear of which, hear this thou age unbred: Ere you were born was beauty's summer dead –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 104 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The youth does not seem to have grown older at all in the three years that the poet has known him. Still, age comes on imperceptibly. If so, future ages will have to know that beauty died before future ages were born. This sonnet deals with the destruction force of time as we grow older. Shakespeare uses his friend as an example. He admires the fact that his friend has kept his youthful appearance over the time that he has known him. In line one he opens with a sentimental line. He admits that to him his friend will for ever be that young, youthful person. One has to pay careful attention to the way that Shakespeare makes use of words; he says "To me" meaning that such views only apply to him. Also in line one there is an alliteration of the "f" sound "fair friend". Line two opens up with an exclaimed expression "such seems". The word "such" can suggest that the poet himself is taken aback by this as well. But then the word "seems" suggests that what Shakespeare sees in this friend only appears to be what it is; in reality his friend's appearance has been damaged by time.

Sonnet 105

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Sonnet 105
« » Sonnet 105 Let not my love be called idolatry, Nor my beloved as an idol show, Since all alike my songs and praises be To one, of one, still such, and ever so. Kind is my love to-day, to-morrow kind, Still constant in a wondrous excellence; Therefore my verse to constancy confined, One thing expressing, leaves out difference. Fair, kind, and true, is all my argument, Fair, kind, and true, varying to other words; And in this change is my invention spent, Three themes in one, which wondrous scope affords. Fair, kind, and true, have often lived alone, Which three till now, never kept seat in one. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 105 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet denies that his love is a form of idolatry and that the youth himself is an idol. He insists that he has been constantly devoted to the values of fairness, kindness and truth. Being three themes united in the figure of the youth, there is great scope for verse, since they have never been united in one person before. The language used is similar in some respects to the language in the Book of Common Prayer used to describe the Holy Trinity, and Shakespeare's triple repetition of the three attributes of the Fair Youth - "Three themes in one" makes plain his deliberate comparison of the youth to a form of deity or idol, even as he purports not to engage in idolatry (in the sense of polytheistic worship of idols).

Sonnet 106

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Sonnet 106
« » Sonnet 106 When in the chronicle of wasted time I see descriptions of the fairest wights, And beauty making beautiful old rhyme, In praise of ladies dead and lovely knights, Then, in the blazon of sweet beauty's best, Of hand, of foot, of lip, of eye, of brow, I see their antique pen would have express'd Even such a beauty as you master now. So all their praises are but prophecies Of this our time, all you prefiguring; And for they looked but with divining eyes, They had not skill enough your worth to sing: For we, which now behold these present days, Have eyes to wonder, but lack tongues to praise. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 106 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
In old chronicles, there are descriptions of handsome knights and beautiful ladies. Had these writers known the youth, they would have expressed it in their work. In fact, their descriptions are prophecies that prefigure the beauty of the youth. Though they had prophetic power, they did not have enough poetic skill. Even we, though we can see the perfection of the youth, lack the words to praise it.

Sonnet 107

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Sonnet 107
« » Sonnet 107 Not mine own fears, nor the prophetic soul Of the wide world dreaming on things to come, Can yet the lease of my true love control, Supposed as forfeit to a confined doom. The mortal moon hath her eclipse endured, And the sad augurs mock their own presage; Incertainties now crown themselves assured, And peace proclaims olives of endless age. Now with the drops of this most balmy time, My love looks fresh, and Death to me subscribes, Since, spite of him, I'll live in this poor rhyme, While he insults o'er dull and speechless tribes: And thou in this shalt find thy monument, When tyrants' crests and tombs of brass are spent. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 107 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
This poem repeats the theme of others, notably sonnet 18, that the poem itself will survive human mortality, and both the poet and Fair Youth will achieve immortality through it. In this case all the hazards of an unpredictable future are added to the inevitability of mortality. The line about the eclipse of the moon has sometimes been interpreted as reference to death of Queen Elizabeth I

Sonnet 108

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Sonnet 108
« » Sonnet 108 What's in the brain, that ink may character, Which hath not figured to thee my true spirit? What's new to speak, what now to register, That may express my love, or thy dear merit? Nothing, sweet boy; but yet, like prayers divine, I must each day say o'er the very same; Counting no old thing old, thou mine, I thine, Even as when first I hallowed thy fair name. So that eternal love in love's fresh case, Weighs not the dust and injury of age, Nor gives to necessary wrinkles place, But makes antiquity for aye his page; Finding the first conceit of love there bred, Where time and outward form would show it dead. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 108 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Paraphrase
Is there anything new I can say to express my love for you? No, sweet boy, there is nothing, but I must say the same things over again, like prayers to God, in order to keep eternal love fresh. The agedness of love disappears as it looks back to when it was first created, even though the passage of time would suggest it should by now have died.

Sonnet 109

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Sonnet 109
« » Sonnet 109 O! never say that I was false of heart, Though absence seem'd my flame to qualify, As easy might I from my self depart As from my soul which in thy breast doth lie: That is my home of love: if I have ranged, Like him that travels, I return again; Just to the time, not with the time exchanged, So that myself bring water for my stain. Never believe though in my nature reigned, All frailties that besiege all kinds of blood, That it could so preposterously be stained, To leave for nothing all thy sum of good; For nothing this wide universe I call, Save thou, my rose, in it thou art my all. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 109 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet denies that he has been emotionally unfaithful even though he has been absent. He can no more be untrue to the youth than to himself. If he has wandered away, he has returned, and washed away his own guilt. Even though the poet is capable of shameful behaviour, he could never be so corrupted that he would lose the perfection of the youth.

Interpretations
• Susannah York, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Sonnet 110

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Sonnet 110
« » Sonnet 110 Alas! 'tis true, I have gone here and there, And made my self a motley to the view, Gored mine own thoughts, sold cheap what is most dear, Made old offences of affections new; Most true it is, that I have looked on truth Askance and strangely; but, by all above, These blenches gave my heart another youth, And worse essays proved thee my best of love. Now all is done, have what shall have no end: Mine appetite I never more will grind On newer proof, to try an older friend, A god in love, to whom I am confined. Then give me welcome, next my heaven the best, Even to thy pure and most most loving breast. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 110 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet confesses to profligate and dishonest behaviour, but these faults have revitalised him. He will no longer look elsewhere but devote himself to the youth, who he hopes will welcome him back.

Sonnet 111

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Sonnet 111
« » Sonnet 111 O! for my sake do you with Fortune chide, The guilty goddess of my harmful deeds, That did not better for my life provide Than public means which public manners breeds. Thence comes it that my name receives a brand, And almost thence my nature is subdued To what it works in, like the dyer's hand: Pity me, then, and wish I were renewed; Whilst, like a willing patient, I will drink Potions of eisell 'gainst my strong infection; No bitterness that I will bitter think, Nor double penance, to correct correction. Pity me then, dear friend, and I assure ye, Even that your pity is enough to cure me. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 111 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It is a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The youth chides the goddess of fortune for providing for the poet nothing better than the public's / common people's applause. For this success the poet has to make his living in the public sphere, what is a shame. In doing so he is degraded, and almost finds himself sullied like a professional dyer stained with his dyes. He asks the youth to hope the poet will be regenerated after taking cleansing medicine against his infection. No medicine will be too bitter, but the youth's pity will be the most effective cure.

Sonnet 112

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Sonnet 112
« » Sonnet 112 Your love and pity doth the impression fill, Which vulgar scandal stamped upon my brow; For what care I who calls me well or ill, So you o'er-green my bad, my good allow? You are my all-the-world, and I must strive To know my shames and praises from your tongue; None else to me, nor I to none alive, That my steeled sense or changes right or wrong. In so profound abysm I throw all care Of others' voices, that my adder's sense To critic and to flatterer stopped are. Mark how with my neglect I do dispense: You are so strongly in my purpose bred, That all the world besides methinks y'are dead. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 112 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The youth's sympathy is such that it conceals the badge of shame on the poet's brow. No-one else's opinion matters, since the youth covers the poet's misdeeds. The poet must learn to take the youth's estimate as the only one worthwhile. All other opinions are consigned to oblivion. His rejection of the rest of the world is so complete that the rest of the world may as well be dead.

Sonnet 113

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Sonnet 113
« » Sonnet 113 Since I left you, mine eye is in my mind; And that which governs me to go about Doth part his function and is partly blind, Seems seeing, but effectually is out; For it no form delivers to the heart Of bird, of flower, or shape which it doth latch: Of his quick objects hath the mind no part, Nor his own vision holds what it doth catch; For if it see the rud'st or gentlest sight, The most sweet favour or deformed'st creature, The mountain or the sea, the day or night, The crow, or dove, it shapes them to your feature. Incapable of more, replete with you, My most true mind thus maketh mine eye untrue. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 113 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Since he left his beloved the poet can think of nothing else. His eye no longer sees the outer world, only the image of the beloved. Birds, flowers and other forms cannot enter his mind since it is filled with the image of his love. Whatever he sees, ugly or beautiful, is transformed into the beloved, and so the perfect inner image makes his outer vision false.

Interpretations
• Zoe Waites, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Sonnet 114

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Sonnet 114
« » Sonnet 114 Or whether doth my mind, being crowned with you, Drink up the monarch's plague, this flattery? Or whether shall I say, mine eye saith true, And that your love taught it this alchemy, To make of monsters and things indigest Such cherubins as your sweet self resemble, Creating every bad a perfect best, As fast as objects to his beams assemble? O! 'tis the first, 'tis flattery in my seeing, And my great mind most kingly drinks it up: Mine eye well knows what with his gust is 'greeing, And to his palate doth prepare the cup: If it be poisoned, 'tis the lesser sin That mine eye loves it and doth first begin. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 114 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Is the poet's mind flattered, like a king, by the youth's presence, or is it simply a truth that is being told by his eyes that ugly things are made beautiful by the mental image of the youth? Surely it must be flattery, that he consumes like a king. He knows he enjoys it even if it's poisonous. Even if it is, it's less of a sin because his eye is motivated by love.

Sonnet 115

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Sonnet 115
« » Sonnet 115 Those lines that I before have writ do lie, Even those that said I could not love you dearer: Yet then my judgment knew no reason why My most full flame should afterwards burn clearer. But reckoning Time, whose million'd accidents Creep in 'twixt vows, and change decrees of kings, Tan sacred beauty, blunt the sharp'st intents, Divert strong minds to the course of altering things; Alas! why, fearing of Time's tyranny, Might I not then say, 'Now I love you best,' When I was certain o'er incertainty, Crowning the present, doubting of the rest? Love is a babe, then might I not say so, To give full growth to that which still doth grow? –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 115 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.[1] [2]

Synopsis
The poet's earlier verses were a lie because it said he could not love the youth more. At the time he didn't understand that his love could be more intense in future, assuming that time would blunt it. Fearing this, he said that he loved the youth most powerfully then. Love is a baby, so might he not ascribe full size to one that's still growing?[3] [4] written on December 4th 1591.

References
[1] Morton Luce. Shakespeare, the Man and His Work. Seven Essays (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=f9vdM964zW0C& pg=PA58& ots=K0PbmkxJ2m& dq=Shakespeare+ "Sonnet+ 115"+ -inauthor:Shakespearelr=& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& sig=ksst69pa2RBkcl0V8Yfi0uVxS3I). Adamant Media Corporation. pp. 58. ISBN 1402139926. . [2] Shakespeare: Poet and Citizen (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=4Iuvj3_1xvgC& pg=PA244& dq=Shakespeare+ "Sonnet+ 115"+ -inauthor:Shakespearelr=& as_brr=3& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& sig=fIuHasoBfZm90Gif431OgYbBYHU). 1993. pp. 244. ISBN 0860913929. . [3] David Schalkwyk (2002). Speech and Performance in Shakespeare's Sonnets and Plays (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=DB0AvJeYoGcC& pg=PA163& ots=0uD-XNGA19& dq=Shakespeare+ "Sonnet+ 115"+ -inauthor:Shakespearelr=& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& sig=6tlLeWQmK8P1CVLjaFhsqnXWqDM). Cambridge University Press. pp. 163–164. ISBN 0521811155. . [4] James Blair Leishman (2005). Themes and Variations in Shakespeare's Sonnets (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=d3RCbXFzjR0C& pg=PA103& dq=Shakespeare+ "Sonnet+ 115"+ -inauthor:Shakespearelr=& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html& sig=p0u7EgdMPkhXQZnCHoqMxSrrZLQ). Routledge. pp. 103. ISBN 0415352959. .

Sonnet 116

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Sonnet 116
« » Sonnet 116 Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove: O no! it is an ever-fixéd mark That looks on tempests and is never shaken; It is the star to every wandering bark, Whose Worth's unknown, although his height be taken. Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks Within his bending sickle's compass come; Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom: If this be error and upon me proved, [1] I never writ, nor no man ever loved. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's sonnet 116 was first published in 1609. It is about eternal and unchanging love and has been cherished in the past four hundred years for its hopeful and promising note. Its structure and form are a typical example of the Shakespearean sonnet. The poet begins by stating he should not stand in the way of true love. Love cannot be true if it changes for any reason. Love is supposed to be constant, through any difficulties. In the sixth line, a nautical reference is made, alluding that love is much like the north star to sailors. Love should not fade with time; instead, true love lasts forever. When it says "Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom," Shakespeare is saying that love is timeless, and only death can do it part. The last two lines employ a paradoxical conceit. If there is no such thing as true love, the poet says that neither has he ever written, nor has anyone ever experienced true love. However, because the poem has been written, it means the poet, ultimately, is right about true love.

Structure
“The movement of 116, like its tone, is careful, controlled, laborious…it defines and redefines its subject in each quatrain, and this subject becomes increasingly, and vulnerable” [2] . It’s split into three quatrains and a couplet. The sonnet starts out as motionless and distant, remote, independent then moves to be “less remote, more tangible and earthbound” and the couplet brings a sense of “coming back down to earth”. Ideal love is deteriorating throughout the sonnet and continues to do so through the couplet. [3]

Sonnet 116

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Analysis
Overview Sonnet 116 is one of the most famous, but some scholars have argued the theme has been misunderstood. Hilton Landry believes the appreciation of 116 as a celebration of true love is mistaken [4] , in part because its context in the sequence of adjacent sonnets is not properly considered. Landry acknowledges the sonnet “has the grandeur of generality or a “universal significance,” but cautions that “however timeless and universal its implications may be, we must never forget that Sonnet 116 has a restricted or particular range of meaning simply because it does not stand alone.” [5] Carol Thomas Neely writes that, “Sonnet 116 is part of a sequence which is separate from all the other sonnets of Shakespeare because of their sense of detachment. They aren’t about the action of love and the object of that love is removed in this sequence which consists of Sonnets 94, 116, and 129” [6] This group of three sonnets doesn’t fit the mold of the rest of Shakespeare’s sonnets, therefore. They defy the typical concept and give a different perspective of what love is and how it is portrayed or experienced. “Though 116 resolves no issues, the poet in this part of the sequence acknowledges and accepts the fallibility of his love more fully than he could acknowledge that of the young man’s earlier” [7] Other critics of Sonnet 116 [8] have argued that one cannot rely on the context of the sonnet to understand its tone. They argue “there is no indisputably authoritative sequence to them, we cannot make use of context as positive evidence for one kind of tone or another.” [9] Shakespeare doesn’t attempt to come to any significant conclusion within this particular sonnet because no resolution is needed. Quatrain 1 The sonnet begins with the poet's apparent acknowledgment of the compelling quality of the emotional union of "true minds". As Helen Vendler has observed, “This famous almost ‘impersonal’ sonnet on the marriage of true minds has usually been read as a definition of true love.”[10] This is not a unique theme of Shakespeare’s sonnets. Carol Neely observes that “Like [sonnet] 94, it defines and redefines its subject in each quatrain and this subject becomes increasingly concrete, attractive and vulnerable.” [11] Shakespeare tends to use negation to define love according to Lukas Erne, “The first and the third [quatrains], it is true, define love negatively: 'love is not...'; Love's not...'. The two quatrains are further tied together by the reappearance of the verbs 'to bend' and 'to alter'.”[12] Love is defined in vague terms in the first quatrain. Garry Murphy observes that the meaning shifts with the distribution of emphasis. He suggests that in the first line the stress should properly be on "me": “Let ME not to the marriage of true minds...”; the sonnet then becomes “not just a gentle metaphoric definition but an agitated protest born out of fear of loss and merely conveyed by means of definition.” [13] C.R. B. Combellack disputes the emphasis placed on the “ME” due to the “absence from the sonnet of another person to stand in contrast. No one else is addressed, described, named, or mentioned.” [14] Murphy also claims that “The unstopped first and second lines suggest urgency in speech, not leisurely meditation.” [15] He writes that the short words when delivered would have the effect of “rapid delivery” rather than “slow rumination”. Combellack question this analysis by asking whether “urgency is not more likely to be expressed in short bursts of speech?” He argues that the words in the sonnet are not intended to be read quickly and that this is simply Murphy’s subjective opinion of the quatrain. Murphy believes the best support of the “sonnet itself being an exclamation” comes from the “O no” which he claims a person would not say without some agitation. Combellack observes that “O no” could be used rather calmly in a statement such as “O no, thank you, but my coffee limit is two cups.” [16] If anything, Combellack suggests, the use of the “O” softens the statement and it would require the use of different grammar to suggest that the sonnet should be understood as rapid speech. The poetic language leaves the sort of love described somewhat indeterminate; “The 'marriage of true minds' like the 'power to hurt' is troublesomely vague open to a variety of interpretations.” [17] Interpretations include the potential for religious imagery and the love being for God, “Lines one and two echo the Anglican marriage service from the Book of Common Prayer.” The concept of the marriage of true minds is thought to be a highly Christian; according to Erne, “The mental picture thus called up in our minds of the bride and bridegroom standing up front in a church is even reinforced by the insistence on the word alter/altar in the following line.” [18]

Sonnet 116 Quatrain 2 The second quatrain explains how love is unchanging according to Neely, “Love is a star, remote, immovable, self-contained, and perhaps, like the 'lords and owners of their faces,' improbably and even somewhat unpleasantly cold and distant.” [19] The second quatrain continues Shakespeare's attempt to define love, but in a more direct way. Shakespeare mentions “it” in the second quatrain according to Douglas Trevor, “The constancy of love in sonnet 116, the “it” of line five of the poem, is also – for the poet – the poetry, the object of love itself.” [20] Not only is there a direct address to love itself, the style Shakespeare’s contemplation becomes more direct. Erne states, “Lines five to eight stand in contrast to their adjacent quatrains, and they have their special importance by saying what love is rather than what it is not.” This represents a change in Shakespeare's view that love is completely undefinable. This concept of unchanging love is focused in the statement, “'[love] is an ever-fixed mark'. This has generally been understood as a sea mark or a beacon.” [21] This concept may also convey in a theological sense. During the Reformation there was dispute about Catholic doctrines, “One of the points of disagreement was precisely that the Reformers rejected the existence of an ever-fixed, or in theological idiom, 'idelible' mark which three of the sacraments, according to Catholic teaching, imprint on the soul.”[22] This interpretation makes God the focus of the sonnet as opposed to the typical concept of love. The compass is also considered an important symbol in the first part of the poem. John Doebler identifies a compass as a symbol that drives the poem, “The first quatrain of this sonnet makes implied use of the compass emblem, a commonplace symbol for constancy during the period in which Shakespeare's sonnets were composed.” [23] Doebler identifies certain images in the poem with a compass, “In the Renaissance the compass is usually associated with the making of a circle, the ancient symbol of eternity, but in sonnet 116 the emphasis is more upon the contrasting symbolism of the legs of the compass.” [24] The two feet of the compass represent the differences between permanent aspects of love and temporary ones. These differences are explained as, “The physical lovers are caught in a changing world of time, but they are stabilized by spiritual love, which exists in a constant world of eternal ideals.” [25] The sonnet uses imagery like this create a more clear concept of love in the speaker's mind. Quatrain 3 In the third quatrain, “The remover who bends turns out to be the grim reaper, Time, with his bending sickle. What alters are Time’s brief hours and weeks…” and “Only the Day of Judgment (invoked from the sacramental liturgy of marriage) is the proper measure of love’s time”” [26] The young man holds the value of beauty over that of love. When he comes to face the fact that the love he felt has changed and become less intense and, in fact, less felt, he changes his mind about this person he’d loved before because what he had felt in his heart wasn’t true. That the object of his affection’s beauty fell to “Time’s Sickle” would not make his feelings change. This fact is supported by Helen Vendler as she wrote, “The second refutational passage, in the third quatrain, proposes indirectly a valuable alternative law, one approved by the poet-speaker, which we may label “the law of inverse constancy”: the more inconstant are time’s alterations (one an hour, one a week), the more constant is love’s endurance, even to the edge of doom” [27] Vendler believes that if the love the young man felt was real it would still be there after the object of that love’s beauty had long faded away, but he “has announced the waning of his own attachment to the speaker, dissolving the “marriage of true minds”” [28] Shakespeare is arguing that if love is true it will stand against all tests of time and adversity, no manner of insignificant details such as the person’s beauty fading could alter or dissolve “the marriage of two minds”. Couplet The couplet of Sonnet 116 Shakespeare went about explaining in the inverse. He says the opposite of what it would be natural to say about love. For instance, instead of writing something to the effect of ‘I have written and men have loved,’ according to Nelson, Shakespeare chose to write, “I never writ, nor no man ever loved.” Nelson argues that “The existence of the poem itself gives good evidence that the poet has written. It is harder to see, however, how the mere existence of the poem could show that men have loved. In part, whether men have loved depends upon just what love is…Since the poem is concerned with the nature of love, there is a sense in which what the poem says

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Sonnet 116 about love, if true, in part determines whether or not men have loved.” [29] Nelson quotes Ingram and Redpath who are in agreement with his statement when they paraphrase the couplet in an extended form: "If this is a judgment (or a heresy), and this can be proved against me, and by citing my own case in evidence, then I've never written anything, and no man's love has ever been real love."” [30] Vendler states “Therefore, if he himself is in error on the subject of what true love is, then no man has ever loved; certainly the young man (it is implied) has not loved, if he has not loved after the steady fashion urged by the speaker, without alteration, removals, or impediments” [31] Each of these authorities agree in the essence of the Sonnet and its portrayal of what love really is and what it can withstand, for example, the test of time and the fading of physical attraction of the object of our love. The couplet is, therefore, that men have indeed loved both in true and honest affection (this being the most important part of the argument) as well as falsely in the illusions of beauty before just as Shakespeare has written before this sonnet.

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References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Shakespeare's Sonnet 116 (http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 116. html) (Neely, Carol Thomas. PMLA, Vol. 92, No. 1. (pp. 83-95). Modern Language Association: Jan., 1977.)(Neely 88) (Neely 88-89)(Neely, Carol Thomas. PMLA, Vol. 92, No. 1. (pp. 83-95). Modern Language Association: Jan., 1977.) Hilton Landry, The Marriage of True Minds: Truth and Error in Sonnet 116, Shakespeare Studies, 3 (1967) p.98 -110 (http:/ / pao. chadwyck. com/ articles/ results. do?QueryType=articles) [5] (Qtd. In Hilton Laundry, “The Marriage of True Minds: Truth and Error in Sonnet 116, Shakespeare Studies, 3(1967) p.98). [6] (Neely, Carol Thomas. PMLA, Vol. 92, No. 1. (pp. 83-95). Modern Language Association: Jan., 1977.)(Neely 83) [7] (Neely 89) (Neely, Carol Thomas. PMLA, Vol. 92, No. 1. (pp. 83-95). Modern Language Association: Jan., 1977.). [8] (Garry Murphy, Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116, explicator, 39:1 (1980:Fall) p.39 – 41. (http:/ / pao. chadwyck. com/ articles/ results. do?QueryType=articles)) [9] (Qtd. In Garry Murphy, Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116, Explicator, 39:1 (1980:Fall) p.40). [10] (Vendler, Helen Hennessy. Art of Shakespeare's sonnets. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap of Harvard UP, 1997. Print.) [11] (Neely, Carol Thomas. PMLA, Vol. 92, No. 1. (pp. 83-95). Modern Language Association: Jan., 1977.) [12] Erne, Lukas. "Shakespeare's 'Ever-Fixed Mark': Theological Implications in Sonnet 116." English Studies (2000): 293-304. EbscoHost. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. (http:/ / ejscontent. ebsco. com. ezp. slu. edu/ ContentServer. aspx?target=http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/ ftinterface?content=a714016147& format=pdf& magic=ebscohostejs||AA3D3EFB68C36A3B40C78D54581474B7& ft=. pdf) [13] Murphy, Garry (1982:Fall). "Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116". Explicator 39 (1): 40. [14] (Combellack,C.R.B. Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116, Explicator, 41:1 (1982:Fall) p.13). [15] (Murphy, Garry. Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116, Explicator, 39:1 (1980:Fall) p.40). [16] (Combellack, C.R.B. Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116, explicator, 41:1 (1982:Fall) p.13) [17] (Neely, Carol Thomas. PMLA, Vol. 92, No. 1. (pp. 83-95). Modern Language Association: Jan., 1977.) [18] Erne, Lukas. "Shakespeare's 'Ever-Fixed Mark': Theological Implications in Sonnet 116." English Studies (2000): 293-304. EbscoHost. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. (http:/ / ejscontent. ebsco. com. ezp. slu. edu/ ContentServer. aspx?target=http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/ ftinterface?content=a714016147& format=pdf& magic=ebscohostejs||AA3D3EFB68C36A3B40C78D54581474B7& ft=. pdf) [19] (Neely, Carol Thomas. PMLA, Vol. 92, No. 1. (pp. 83-95). Modern Language Association: Jan., 1977.) [20] ("Shakespeare's Love Objects." A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. Ed. Michael Schoenfeldt. Grand Rapids: Blackwell Limited, 2006. Print.) [21] (Erne, Lukas. "Shakespeare's 'Ever-Fixed Mark': Theological Implications in Sonnet 116."English Studies (2000): 293-304. EbscoHost. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. (http:/ / ejscontent. ebsco. com/ ContentServer. aspx?target=http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/ ftinterface?content=a714016147& format=pdf& magic=ebscohostejs||AA3D3EFB68C36A3B40C78D54581474B7& ft=. pdf).) [22] (Erne, Lukas. "Shakespeare's 'Ever-Fixed Mark': Theological Implications in Sonnet 116."English Studies (2000): 293-304. EbscoHost. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. (http:/ / ejscontent. ebsco. com. ezp. slu. edu/ ContentServer. aspx?target=http:/ / www. informaworld. com/ smpp/ ftinterface?content=a714016147& format=pdf& magic=ebscohostejs||AA3D3EFB68C36A3B40C78D54581474B7& ft=. pdf).) [23] (Doebler, John. "A Submerged Emblem in Sonnet 116." Folger Shakespeare Library 15.(1964): 109-10. Jstor. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2867968).) [24] Doebler, John. "A Submerged Emblem in Sonnet 116." Folger Shakespeare Library 15.(1964): 109-10. Jstor. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2867968). [25] Doebler, John. "A Submerged Emblem in Sonnet 116." Folger Shakespeare Library 15.(1964): 109-10. Jstor. Web. 28 Oct. 2009. (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2867968). [26] (Vendler, Helen. The art of Shakespeare's sonnets. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA: 1997. (p 490). (http:/ / libcat. slu. edu/ search~S5?/ prust& scope=1& cmdSubmit=Search/ prust/ 1,1,1,B/ frameset~1647404& FF=prust& 1,1).) [27] (Vendler, Helen. The art of Shakespeare's sonnets. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA: 1997. (p 492). (http:/ / libcat. slu. edu/ search~S5?/ prust& scope=1& cmdSubmit=Search/ prust/ 1,1,1,B/ frameset~1647404& FF=prust& 1,1).)

Sonnet 116
[28] Vendler, Helen. The art of Shakespeare's sonnets. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA: 1997. (p 493). (http:/ / libcat. slu. edu/ search~S5?/ prust& scope=1& cmdSubmit=Search/ prust/ 1,1,1,B/ frameset~1647404& FF=prust& 1,1).) [29] (Nelson, Jeffrey N.; Cling, Andrew D. "Love's Logic Lost: The Couplet of Shakespeare's Sonnet 116." ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews 13, no. 3 (2000): 14-19. 2000. (http:/ / www. worldshakesbib. org/ search?order1=author& keywords=Love+ and+ Shakespeare+ and+ sonnet+ 116& submit=Search& rid=106141& words=Love and Shakespeare and sonnet 116& returnlink=/ search?order1=author& keywords=Love+ and+ Shakespeare+ and+ sonnet+ 116& submit=Search& return=1).) [30] (Nelson, Jeffrey N.; Cling, Andrew D. "Love's Logic Lost: The Couplet of Shakespeare's Sonnet 116." ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews 13, no. 3 (2000): 14-19. 2000. (http:/ / www. worldshakesbib. org/ search?order1=author& keywords=Love+ and+ Shakespeare+ and+ sonnet+ 116& submit=Search& rid=106141& words=Love and Shakespeare and sonnet 116& returnlink=/ search?order1=author& keywords=Love+ and+ Shakespeare+ and+ sonnet+ 116& submit=Search& return=1)). [31] (Vendler, Helen. The art of Shakespeare's sonnets. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA: 1997. (p 491). (http:/ / libcat. slu. edu/ search~S5?/ prust& scope=1& cmdSubmit=Search/ prust/ 1,1,1,B/ frameset~1647404& FF=prust& 1,1).)

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Sonnet 117
« » Sonnet 117 Accuse me thus: that I have scanted all, Wherein I should your great deserts repay, Forgot upon your dearest love to call, Whereto all bonds do tie me day by day; That I have frequent been with unknown minds, And given to time your own dear-purchas'd right; That I have hoisted sail to all the winds Which should transport me farthest from your sight. Book both my wilfulness and errors down, And on just proof surmise, accumulate; Bring me within the level of your frown, But shoot not at me in your waken'd hate; Since my appeal says I did strive to prove The constancy and virtue of your love. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's sonnet 117 was first published in 1609. It uses similar imagery to Sonnet 116 and expands on the challenge in the closing couplet ("If this be error and upon me proved, | I never writ, nor no man ever loved"). Using legally-resonant metaphors ("accuse", "bonds", "proof", "appeal", "prove"), the poet defends himself against accusations of ingratitude and infidelity by saying that he was merely testing (or proving) the constancy of those same things in his friend.

Sonnet 117

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Notes and references
• Shakespeare's Sonnets online [1] • Duncan-Jones, Katherine (ed). Shakespeare's Sonnets. 1997: Arden Shakespeare, London ISBN 978-1-903436-57-8 • Evans, Blackmore (ed). The Sonnets, 2006: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ISBN 0-521-67837-4

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 117comm. htm

Sonnet 118
« » Sonnet 118 Like as, to make our appetites more keen, With eager compounds we our palate urge, As, to prevent our maladies unseen, We sicken to shun sickness when we purge; Even so, being full or your ne'er-cloying sweetness, To bitter sauces did I frame my feeding; And, sick of welfare, found a kind of meetness To be diseas'd, ere that there was true needing. Thus policy in love, to anticipate The ills that were not, grew to faults assur'd, And brought to medicine a healthful state, Which, rank of goodness, would by ill be cur'd; But thence I learn, and find the lesson true, Drugs poison him that so fell sick of you. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 118 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Please expand this section.

External links
Please expand this section.

Sonnet 119

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Sonnet 119
« » Sonnet 119 What potions have I drunk of Siren tears, Distill'd from limbecks foul as hell within, Applying fears to hopes and hopes to fears, Still losing when I saw myself to win! What wretched errors hath my heart committed, Whilst it hath thought itself so blessed never! How have mine eyes out of their spheres been fitted, In the distraction of this madding fever, O benefit of ill, now I find true, That better is by evil still made better, And ruin'd love, when it is built anew, Grows fairer than at first, more strong, far greater, So I return rebuked to my content, And gain by ill thrice more than I have spent. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 119 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Interpretations
• Richard Hammond, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI)

External links
• Analysis of the sonnet [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 119comm. htm

Sonnet 120

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Sonnet 120
« » Sonnet 120 That you were once unkind befriends me now, And for that sorrow, which I then did feel, Needs must I under my transgression bow, Unless my nerves were brass of hammer'd steel. For if you were by my unkindness shaken, As I by yours, you've pass'd a hell of time; And I, a tyrant, have no leisure taken To weigh how once I suffer'd in your crime. O, that our night of woe might have remember'd My deepest sense, how hard true sorrow hits, And soon to you, as you to me, than tender'd The humble salve which wounded bosom fits! But that your trespass not becomes a fee; Mine ransoms yours, and your must ransom me. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 120 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Interpretations
• Paul Rhys, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

Sonnet 121

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Sonnet 121
« » Sonnet 121 'Tis better to be vile than vile esteem'd, When not to be receives reproach of being; And the just pleasure lost, which is so deem'd Not by our feeling, but by others' seeing: For why should others' false adulterate eyes Give salutation to my sportive blood? Or on my frailties why are frailer spies, Which in their wills count bad what I think good? No, I am that I am, and they that level At my abuses reckon up their own: I may be straight though they themselves be bevel; By their rank thoughts, my deeds must not be shown; Unless this general evil they maintain, All men are bad and in their badness reign. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 121 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
The poet condemns hypocrisy and decides he's going to be himself. Hypocrites force you to lose out on life's fair pleasures. They are bad by pointing out your faults. What they see as a fault may actually be a good thing. You have to hide your pleasurable pursuits from them. Unless they realize that all people are bad (and presumably they will stop being hyprocrites)

Interpretive notes
A line by line interpretation into simplified, modern English: 1 You are better off being a bad person than to be known as a bad person 2 when you are actually a good person but are accused of being bad 3 and you lose the pleasure [of your activity] because it's been decided as a bad thing 4 not because you feel it is wrong but because others see it [and they have decided it is a bad thing]. 5 Why should other people's fake, adulterous eyes 6 give notice to my pleasurable pursuits? 7 Why are morally weak people spying on my weaknesses 8 and counting up a tally of what is bad when I see it as good? 9 No [I reject these people]. I am what I am. Those who point to 10 my faults create their own faults.

Sonnet 121 11 I may be good and true while they are the ones who are bent. 12 Because of their bad thoughts, I will need to be secretive 13 unless they are to agree to this statement about human evilness 14 All men are bad and they rule the world with their badness

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Notes and references
• Shakespeare's Sonnets online [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 121comm. htm

Sonnet 122
« » Sonnet 122 Thy gift, thy tables, are within my brain Full character'd with lasting memory, Which shall above that idle rank remain, Beyond all date; even to eternity: Or, at the least, so long as brain and heart Have faculty by nature to subsist; Till each to raz'd oblivion yield his part Of thee, thy record never can be miss'd. That poor retention could not so much hold, Nor need I tallies thy dear love to score; Therefore to give them from me was I bold, To trust those tables that receive thee more: To keep an adjunct to remember thee Were to import forgetfulness in me. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 122 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare, and first published in 1609. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man. Although the relationship started exuberantly in Sonnet 18 - Shall I compare thee to a summer's day - by now it has given way to an almost defensive tone. The poet justifies giving away or losing a notebook ("tables") given him by the youth to record shared events by saying that his memories of them are stronger.

Sonnet 122

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Interpretive notes Notes and references
• Shakespeare's Sonnets online [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 122comm. htm

Sonnet 123
« » Sonnet 123 No! Time, thou shalt not boast that I do change: Thy pyramids built up with newer might To me are nothing novel, nothing strange; They are but dressings of a former sight. Our dates are brief, and therefore we admire What thou dost foist upon us that is old, And rather make them born to our desire Than think that we before have heard them told. Thy registers and thee I both defy, Not wond'ring at the present nor the past, For thy records and what we see doth lie, Made more or less by thy continual haste. This I do vow and this shall ever be; I will be true, despite thy scythe and thee. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 123 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Synopsis
Shakespeare addresses the ideas of change and growth in one's lifetime by metaphorically standing up against time Father Time. The major theme is that years continue to pass and the narrator is naturally getting older with each passing year, but he does not feel that it is necessary for his character to change accordingly. There are changes in the physical world that may happen within one's lifetime (pyramids), but that is not substantial on a personal level. Even so, we ought to respect what was done before us, however that does not mean we have to revere it and at the same time an individual's pride would persuade one to think of these idea's as one's own, rather than something merely copied from the past (lines 5-8). There is little point in worrying about what has already happened, or for that matter worrying about what is happening now, but one should just live one's life for what it is. Copying down events and comparing written records with mental recollection is pointless because it wastes time in the present to do so, and time is continually moving (lines 9-12). Finally, the narrator resolves that no matter what happens in life (as new events to come are "done" by Time) he will stick to his own constitution and be true to himself regardless of what

Sonnet 123 any consequences may be. Though this is one common analysis of Sonnet 123, there are numerous takes on the sonnet ranging from the poem's use of time (or lack thereof) as a metaphor for the tyranny of post-modernist working life as well as its potential socio-political themes apparent in the poem's thematic fear of change (conservatism.) It may also be important to note that this sonnet is one of the few pieces in Shakespeare that references ideas such as time, change, and death without the use of direct bibical or literary allusion.

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External links
• Shakespeare's sonnet guide to Sonnet 123 [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 123comm. htm

Sonnet 124
« » Sonnet 124 If my dear love were but the child of state, It might for Fortune's bastard be unfather'd, As subject to Time's love or to Time's hate, Weeds among weeds, or flowers with flowers gather'd. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls Under the blow of thralled discontent, Whereto th' inviting time our fashion calls: It fears not policy, that heretic, Which works on leases of short-number'd hours, But all alone stands hugely politic, That it nor grows with heat, nor drowns with showers. To this I witness call the fools of time, Which die for goodness, who have lived for crime. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 124 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

Sonnet 124

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External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 124. html

Sonnet 125
« » Sonnet 125 Were't aught to me I bore the canopy, With my extern the outward honouring, Or laid great bases for eternity, Which proves more short than waste or ruining? Have I not seen dwellers on form and favour Lose all and more by paying too much rent For compound sweet; forgoing simple savour, Pitiful thrivers, in their gazing spent? No; let me be obsequious in thy heart, And take thou my oblation, poor but free, Which is not mix'd with seconds, knows no art, But mutual render, only me for thee. Hence, thou suborned informer! a true soul When most impeach'd, stands least in thy control. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 125 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's a member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet expresses his love towards a young man.

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 125. html

Sonnet 126

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Sonnet 126
« » Sonnet 126 O thou, my lovely boy, who in thy power Dost hold Time's fickle glass, his fickle hour; Who hast by waning grown, and therein show'st Thy lovers withering, as thy sweet self grow'st. If Nature, sovereign mistress over wrack, As thou goest onwards, still will pluck thee back, She keeps thee to this purpose, that her skill May time disgrace and wretched minutes kill. Yet fear her, O thou minion of her pleasure! She may detain, but not still keep, her treasure: Her audit (though delayed) answered must be, And her quietus is to render thee. (        ) (        ) –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 126 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. It's the final member of the Fair Youth sequence, in which the poet shows how Time and nature coincide. This sonnet has 12 lines, although it is possible that the other two lines have been lost. Sonnet 99 is the only other sonnet that does not have 14 lines (it has 15).

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 126. html

Sonnet 127

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Sonnet 127
Shakespeare's Sonnet 127 is one of a collection of poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. They were probably written over a period of several years. All 154 poems appeared in a 1609 collection, entitled SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS. Some scholars, such as Samuel Butler, agued that this sonnet refers to the Spanish Armada,[1] a thesis that Jorge Luis Borges cited in his shor story "Shakespeare's Memory".
« » Sonnet 127 In the old age black was not counted fair, Or if it were, it bore not beauty's name; But now is black beauty's successive heir, And beauty slander'd with a bastard shame: For since each hand hath put on Nature's power, Fairing the foul with Art's false borrowed face, Sweet beauty hath no name, no holy bower, But is profan'd, if not lives in disgrace. Therefore my mistress' brows are raven black, Her eyes so suited, and they mourners seem At such who, not born fair, no beauty lack, Sland'ring creation with a false esteem: Yet so they mourn becoming of their woe, That every tongue says beauty should look so. –William Shakespeare

References
[1] Philip Armstrong, Shakespeare in psychoanalysis, Routledge, 2001, p.134. ISBN 0415207215

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/127.html)

Sonnet 128

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Sonnet 128
« » Sonnet 128 How oft when thou, my music, music play’st, Upon that blessed wood whose motion sounds With thy sweet fingers when thou gently sway’st The wiry concord that mine ear confounds, Do I envy those jacks that nimble leap, To kiss the tender inward of thy hand, Whilst my poor lips which should that harvest reap, At the wood’s boldness by thee blushing stand! To be so tickled, they would change their state And situation with those dancing chips, O’er whom thy fingers walk with gentle gait, Making dead wood more bless’d than living lips. Since saucy jacks so happy are in this, Give them thy fingers, me thy lips to kiss. –William Shakespeare

Synopsis
Sonnet 128 is the 128th of William Shakespeare’s sonnets, and the second of two musical sonnets. Its number suggests, like Sonnet 8, the octave of the scale as well as the 12 notes on the keyboard inside each octave (an association first recognized and described in detail by Fred Blick, in "Shakespeare's Musical Sonnets, Numbers 8, 128 and Pythagoras", 'The Upstart Crow, A Shakespeare Journal', Vol. XIX, (1999) 152-168.) Sonnet 128 is comparable to the sonnet in Romeo and Juliet in which Romeo pleads for a first kiss. Like that pilgrim/saint tête-à-tête, this sonnet is set in a public musical celebration. Shakespeare watches his dark lady play the keyboard virginal (or Bassano built clavichord), captivated by her back swaying with the melody. Like Romeo, he longs for a kiss, but in this sonnet he envies the jacks (wooden keys) that the lady’s playing fingers “tickle” while trilling the notes. Perhaps he also envies the other men (Jacks) standing around the lady. Surely, this is an amusing scene to Shakespeare because he secretly is having an affair with the dark lady. He decides not to envy those keys—although he would like to be tickled as they are—but hopes instead to receive a kiss on his lips. Some think this sonnet was first written in 1592, when Shakespeare was first attracted to a likely candidate for the dark lady, the musical, cast-off, and pregnant former mistress, Emilia Lanier. Shakespeare wrote the lovely, teasing dialogue sonnet for his teenaged lovers in about 1595. He likely revised Sonnet 128 in 1604 and 1608. This sonnet’s creation—with its good bad puns on “jacks” and finger tickling and lips itching for a kiss—may come both before and after Romeo and Juliet. Although she’s innocently playing a virginal or some other keyboard instrument, Shakespeare may know she has been an experienced mistress, since she was 18, of Queen Elizabeth’s cousin, Lord Hunsdon, two years before he became the patron of Shakespeare’s company. At the time of Sonnet 128, it is 1592, she is now 23, pregnant, and seeking male protection.[1]

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Interpretations
• Juliet Stevenson, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics) Sonnet 128 has a sensual undertone found in many of Shakespeare's other sonnets. It is also an example of expert blending of the sonnet's physical form and the meaning it conveys. Quatrains 1 and two are made up of an extended rhetorical question. Quatrain 3 expands on the subject this question has introduced and in the ending couplet there is a marked tone shift in the speaker's clever reconcilliation.

References
[1] Jensen, Peter (2007). Secrets of the Sonnets: Shakespeare’s Code. Morrisville, NC: Lulu. (ISBN 1430309237)

External links
• CliffNotes critical commentary (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/ Shakespeare-s-Sonnets-Critical-Commentaries-Sonnet-128.id-169,pageNum-131.html) • SparkNotes "No Fear Shakespeare" modern translation (http://nfs.sparknotes.com/sonnets/sonnet_128.epl) • Video clip with German flute (http://www.shakespeareintune.com/Sonnet_128.html) • www.shakespeare-sonnets.com (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/128comm.htm)

Sonnet 129
« » Sonnet 129 The expense of spirit in a waste of shame Is lust in action: and till action, lust Is perjur'd, murderous, bloody, full of blame, Savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust; Enjoy'd no sooner but despised straight; Past reason hunted; and no sooner had, Past reason hated, as a swallow'd bait, On purpose laid to make the taker mad: Mad in pursuit and in possession so; Had, having, and in quest to have, extreme; A bliss in proof,— and prov'd, a very woe; Before, a joy propos'd; behind a dream. All this the world well knows; yet none knows well To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell. –William Shakespeare

Analysis
This Sonnet convinces the reader into disliking the pursuit of sex. The first twelve lines of the poem all add to the first: “The expense of spirit in a waste of shame”. The second verse places a frame around the first “Is lust in action; and till action, lust”. The first packet of information within this verse shows that the “expense of spirit” referred to is the pursuit of love—one expends their spirit lusting. It is, however, the second packet of information within the second verse, “and till action, lust”, that the remaining six lines of the first octet inveigh against, that is to say, unconsummated lust. These lines explain Shakespeares' opinion of lust—the following two lines list how a man acts,

Sonnet 129 that is: “Perjured, murderous, savage, etc...”. The third quatrain is filled with statements denouncing even the ultimate goal of the lust, the action, such as: “Mad in pursuit and in possession so” [Verse 9]. Here, Shakespeare points out that not only is one mad lusting till action, but mad too at the consummation of the action. This is further corroborated by verse 11, “A bliss in proof, and proved, a very woe.” The sonnet is capped by a pause and a deliberation of thought, delivered in a rhymed couplet, as the reader reflects that even though each man knows the folly of this lustful pursuit. The first twelve lines are all one sentence, leading the reader on, forcing them to gabble out the sonnet with no time to slow down and to take account of what is said. Furthering this is the structure of individual verses themselves; in the second and third quatrains, each verse is composed of two packets of information, with the second half qualifying the first. Were this an improvised speech, this construction is indicative of a speaker, in the rush of the moment, coming up with a point then explaining until another pops into his head. Adding to this is the similar choice of words throughout each line—the speaker, as written, seizes upon one word and uses it two or three times throughout the verse. If not the exact word, it is often the same word in a different part of speech, or a word with a similar timbre. This, too, is a device of improvised speech—it's simplest to associate words with themselves, or, again, with those of similar timbre. With this is mind, we see the speaker throwing out his thoughts. It is not until the twelfth line that the speaker regains his composure and is able to deliver a closing statement in the rhymed couplet that follows. Though the rhyme scheme of the Elizabethan Sonnet form is not Shakespeare's invention, he uses this also to shape the reader's interpretation and the speaker's delivery. Each verse comes with an expectation of rhyme, as no rhymes are resolved immediately and by the time any are, a new set of oddly resolving rhyme appears. It is only in the ending couplet that rhyme resolves completely. Therefore, for all lines but the couplet, the speaker is drawn onwards towards the next rhyme. Through these techniques, Shakespeare is able to describe an inexact feeling—not by recounting a specific sensory experience but by forcing the reader to speak his words as the reader would speak original words that happen to share Shakespeare's view.

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Interpretations
• actor Ralph Fiennes, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 129. html

Sonnet 130

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Sonnet 130
« » Sonnet 130 My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips' red ; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damask, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I know That music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go; My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground: And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare. –William Shakespeare

Shakespeare's Sonnet CXXX mocks the conventions of the showy and flowery courtly sonnets in its realistic portrayal of his mistress.

Synopsis
This sonnet compares the Poet’s mistress to a number of natural beauties; each time making a point of his mistress’ obvious inadequacy in such comparisons; she cannot hope to stand up to the beauties of the natural world. The first five couplets compare the speaker’s mistress to aspects of nature, such as snow or coral; each comparison ending unflatteringly for the mistress. In the final couplet, the speaker claims his love for his mistress by claiming that while he makes no strive to create false comparison; he loves his mistress as much as any man could love a woman.

Poetic Form
The poetic forum uses standard Shakespearean iambic pentameter, following the AB-AB/CD-CD/EF-EF/GG Rhyme Scheme.

In Modern Speech
My mistress's eyes are not like the sun. Coral is much redder than her lips. Next to snow, her skin appears tainted. Poets may claim their women to have hair of beaten gold, but my mistress has black unkempt wires on her head. Her cheeks are not the color of roses, and perfumes will smell far sweeter than my mistress’ breath. I love to hear her voice, yet I know that music is a far more pleasing sound. I admit that I have never seen a goddess walk, but when my mistress walks, her feet touch the ground. And yet, by Heaven, I think that my love for her is just as special as that for any woman that the poets speak exaggerations about.

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Analysis
Sonnet 130 as a Satire “This sonnet plays with poetic conventions in which, for example, the mistress’s eyes are compared with the sun, her lips with coral, and her cheeks with roses. His mistress, says the poet, is nothing like this conventional image, but is as lovely as any woman” [1] . Here Barbara Mowat offers her opinion of the meaning behind Sonnet 130; this work simply breaks down the mold in which Sonnets had come to conform too. Shakespeare composed a sonnet which seems to parody a great many sonnets of the time. Poets like Thomas Watson, Michael Drayton, and Barnabe Barnes were all part of this sonnet craze and each wrote sonnets proclaiming love for an almost unimaginable figure [2] ; Patrick Crutwell posits that Sonnet 130 could actually be a satire of the Thomas Watson poem “Passionate Century of Love”, pointing out that the Watson poem contains all but one of the platitudes that Shakespeare is making fun of in Sonnet 130.[3] However, E.G. Rogers points out the similarities between Watson’s “Passionate Century of Love,” Sonnet 130, and Richard Linche’s Poem collection entitled “Diella.”[4] There is a great deal of similarity between sections of the Diella poem collection and Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 130”, for example in “130” we see, “If hairs be wires, the black wires grow on her head,” where in “Diella” we see “Her hayre exceeds fold forced in the smallest wire.” [5] Each work uses a comparison of hairs to wires; while in modern sense this may seem unflattering one could argue that Linche’s work draws upon the beauty of weaving gold and that Shakespeare mocks this with harsh comparison. This along with other similarities in textual content lead, as E.G. Rodgers points out, the critic to believe that Diella may have been the source of inspiration for both homage, by Watson’s “Passionate Century of Love,” and satire by Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 130.” The idea of Satire is further enforced by final couplet of “130” in which the speaker delivers his most expositional line: “And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare, as any she belied with false compare.” This line projects the message behind this work; demeaning the false comparisons made by many Poets of the time.[6] Sonnet 130: Complimentary/Derisive Nature According to Carl Atkins, many early editors took the sonnet at face value and believed that it was simply a disparagement of the writer’s mistress.[7] However, William Flesch believes that the poem is actually quite the opposite, and acts as a compliment. He points out that many poems of the day seem to compliment the object of the poem for qualities that they really don’t have, such as snow white skin or golden hair.[8] He states that people really don’t want to be complimented on a quality they don’t have, e.g. an old person doesn’t want to be told they are physically young, they want to be told they are youthful, in behavior or in looks. Flesch notes that while the Shakespeare writes of can seem derisive, he is in reality complimenting qualities the mistress truly exhibits, and he ends the poem with his confession of love.

Possible Influences
Petrarch Shakespeare and other great writers would reference each other and each other’s works in their own writing. According to Felicia Jean Steele, Shakespeare uses Petrarchan imagery while actually undermining it at the same time. [9] Stephen Booth would agree that Shakespeare references Petrarchan works however, Booth says that Shakespeare “gently mocks the thoughtless mechanical application of the standard Petrarchan metaphors.” [10] Felicia Steele and Stephen Booth agree that there is some referencing going on, they vary slightly in the degree of Shakespeare’s mockery. Steele feels much stronger about the degree in which Shakespeare is discounting Petrarchan ideas by observing that in 14 lines of Sonnet 130, “Shakespeare seems to undo, discount, or invalidate nearly every Petrarchan conceit about feminine beauty employed by his fellow sonneteers.” The final couplet is designed to undo the damage Shakespeare has done to his reader’s faith that he indeed loves his “dusky mistress.” Steele’s article offers Stephen Booth’s paraphrasing of the couplet: “I think that my love is as rare as any woman belied by false compare.” Helen Vendler, who is also referenced in Steele’s article states that the final couplet would read; “In all, by heaven, I

Sonnet 130 think my love as rare/ As any she conceived for compare.” All three of these authors; Steele, Booth, and Vendler believe that in this couplet, Shakespeare is responding to Petrarchan imagery because other sonneteers actively misrepresent, or “belie” their mistress‘ beauty.

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References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Mowat, Barbara A., and Paul Werstine, eds. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New York: Washington Square, 2004. Print. Quennell, P. Shakespeare: the Poet and his Background. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1964. Print Crutwell, Patrick. The Shakespearean Moment and its Place in the Poetry of the 17th Century. New York: Random House. 1960. Print Rogers, E.G., "Sonnet CXXX: Watson to Linche to Shakespeare." Shakespeare Quarterly. 11.2 (1960): 232-233. Print. Rogers, E.G., "Sonnet CXXX: Watson to Linche to Shakespeare." Shakespeare Quarterly. 11.2 (1960): 232-233. Print. Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Harvard University Press, Massachusetts, 1997 Shakespeare, William, and Carl D. Atkins. Shakespeare's Sonnets: with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Madison NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2007. Print. [8] Flesch, William. "Personal Identity and Vicarious Experience in Shakespeare's Sonnets." Print. Rpt. in A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. Ed. Michael Schoenfeldt. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007. 383-401. Print. [9] Steele, Felicia Jean. "Shakespeare Sonnet 130." Explicator 62. pp. 132-137. 2003 [10] Booth, Stephan. Shakespeare's Sonnets, Edited with Analytic Commentary. New Haven, 1977

Sonnet 131
« » Sonnet 131 Thou art as tyrannous, so as thou art, As those whose beauties proudly make them cruel; For well thou know'st to my dear doting heart Thou art the fairest and most precious jewel. Yet, in good faith, some say that thee behold, Thy face hath not the power to make love groan; To say they err I dare not be so bold, Although I swear it to myself alone. And to be sure that is not false I swear, A thousand groans, but thinking on thy face, One on another's neck, do witness bear Thy black is fairest in my judgment's place. In nothing art thou black save in thy deeds, And thence this slander, as I think, proceeds. –William Shakespeare

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 131. html

Sonnet 132

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Sonnet 132
« » Sonnet 132 Thine eyes I love, and they, as pitying me, Knowing thy heart torments me with disdain, Have put on black and loving mourners be, Looking with pretty ruth upon my pain. And truly not the morning sun of heaven Better becomes the grey cheeks of the east, Nor that full star that ushers in the even, Doth half that glory to the sober west, As those two mourning eyes become thy face: O! let it then as well beseem thy heart To mourn for me since mourning doth thee grace, And suit thy pity like in every part. Then will I swear beauty herself is black, And all they foul that thy complexion lack. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 132 is written by William Shakespeare.

Interpretations
• Matthew Rhys, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

External links
• Cliff's Notes [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-135. html

Sonnet 133

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Sonnet 133
« » Sonnet 133 Beshrew that heart that makes my heart to groan For that deep wound it gives my friend and me! Is't not enough to torture me alone, But slave to slavery my sweet'st friend must be? Me from myself thy cruel eye hath taken, And my next self thou harder hast engross'd: Of him, myself, and thee I am forsaken; A torment thrice three-fold thus to be cross'd: Prison my heart in thy steel bosom's ward, But then my friend's heart let my poor heart bail; Whoe'er keeps me, let my heart be his guard; Thou canst not then use rigour in my jail: And yet thou wilt; for I, being pent in thee, Perforce am thine, and all that is in me. –William Shakespeare

Synopsis
In general critics adhere to the claim that Sonnet 133 addresses the complex relationship between the speaker and an unidentified woman. Critic Josephine Roberts interprets the sonnet in that the poet expresses a “fractured sense of self” [1] as a result of his toxic relationship with the dark lady. Her interpretation of the relationship as "toxic" is evident in the emotional plea that resounds throughout the sonnet. The sonnets prior to this address a young man referred to as a close friend of the speaker who is thus addressed as well in sonnet 133. According to critic A.L. Rowse, this sonnet gives the speaker's view of both his relation of the young man as his friend and the mistress [2] . Rowse's interpretation is supported by how the sonnet clearly describes the pain the unknown woman has inflicted upon both the young man and the speaker, "For that deep wound it gives my friend and me!"

The Dark Lady and the "Friend"
Because sonnet 133 is the first to directly mention to the “friend” [3] , there is some controversy concerning the subject of that word. Joel Fineman argues that in this sonnet, the poet feels trapped by the Dark Lady, who represents the constraints of a heteronormative society. She has taken the “friend,” or the poet’s homosexual side, from him, preventing the poet from living in his self-created utopia of homosexuality with the Young Man [4] . Unlike the young man sequence, in which the poet “defines his own identity [. . .] as poet and lover,” in the Dark Lady sequence, particularly sonnet 133, “the poet-lover of the [D]ark [L]ady will discover both himself and his poetry in the loss produced by the fracture of [his ideal identification as homosexual]” [5] . Other critics argue that the Dark Lady has enslaved a literal friend, the Young Man [6] , creating a love triangle between the poet, the Young Man and the Dark Lady [7] . “The suggestion is that the friend had gone to woo the lady for the poet and, according to friendship convention [. . .] the lady fell in love with the messenger” [8] . Leishman also calls her a “bad angel who has tempted away that good angel his friend” [9] .

Sonnet 133

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Sonnet Formation/Rhyme Scheme
Sonnet 133 follows the traditional English sonnet formation: fourteen lines consisting of three quatrains and ending in a rhyming couplet. In addition, it follows iambic pentameter (abab cdcd efef gg). Examining each of the three quatrains and the couplet that create the structure of a Shakespearean sonnet allows for further analysis. Helen Vendler describes the stages of the sonnet in that it begins with a listing of the conflict in Quatrain One then proceeds in Quatrain Two to show the effects and complications. Specifically the problem of this sonnet is the torture the dark lady has caused the two men to suffer. The effects and complications of this situation are pronounced throughout Quatrain Two indicating that the speaker may recover but the young man is reduced to her slave under her influence. In Quatrain Three, Vendler says that the “intolerable complication of effect” forces a request for relief and intelligibility which end in a helpless giving up reflected in the couplet [10] . Analyzing specific words within the sonnets gives further evidence of the Quatrain transition. It begins with the first line in which the speaker declares that he is separate from her by saying “that heart (of hers) makes my heart groan” [11] . Although he declares himself separate from her, her cruel eye has taken the speaker from himself and not only this, but she has taken his “next self”, which refers to his friend as addressed earlier in the sonnets. Stephen Booth further explains this point arguing that the implied logic of lines 3 and 4 suggest that if the Dark Lady possesses the friend then she should release the speaker. He also addressed the cruel eye of the speaker saying that Sonnet 133 continues the theme of hearts and eyes from Sonnet 132, and Booth notes the shift from the friend's image of "mourning eyes" to the "cruel eye"(line 5) of the mistress. Booth continues his analysis with lines 10-11 of which he suggests that they, "add one more element to the verbal complexities and confusions by which the complex and confused three-way love affair is both reported and imitated" [12] . Helen Vendler emphasizes his point by explaining that now the friend is enslaved by her as well as the speaker as evidenced in the final line of the couplet, “Perforce am thine, and all that is mine" (Line 14). She says that because he belongs to her he is thus forsaken [13] . Both Booth and Vendler suggest that everything that belongs to the speaker, including his friend's heart, bears the surrender to the dark lady.

Slave Imagery
Critics note that throughout Sonnet 133, Shakespeare uses slave imagery as a metaphor for the relationship between the speaker and the Dark Lady. The implication of the speaker as subservient to the dark lady is quite prevalent in the themes of traditional courtly love. The relationship is expressed throughout the sonnet with the use of words like “torture”, “slave”, “torment”, “prison”, and “jail.” Critic Stephen Booth holds that the metaphor within this sonnet is “so complete, so urgent, so detailed… that the lovers and their situation, and their behavior becomes grotesque” [14] . Booth proceeds to note that, although the slave imagery is a commonly used metaphor, the wording of the speaker's metaphors creates a witty and unconventional depiction of the his relationship with the unknown woman. Through phrases such as “pent in thee” found in line 13, the reader is exposed to the image of the speaker imprisoned in the Dark Lady. Furthermore, in line 4 (“But slave to slavery my sweet’st friend must be?”) we see the speaker playing on the hyperbole “by which lovers swore themselves their ladies’ willing slave” [15] . Essentially, Booth points out that although the speaker conforms with the traditional “slave” metaphor, he appears to almost resent his place in a relationship that is ultimately debilitating. Scholarly critic Gertrude Garrigues argues that Shakespeare’s use of slave imagery is simply symbolic of man as a “slave of the senses” [16] . Garrigues counters Booth’s argument in her assertion that the speaker is simply a slave to his own feelings and not a slave to the dark lady. Despite the speaker’s great affliction over his relationship with the dark lady, he has willingly subjected himself to such unbearable torment. In relationship to this argument, it can be argued that the “friend” within Shakespeare’s Sonnet 133 is in fact representative of the speaker’s inner self. This strengthens Garrigues’ argument, most notably in the line 4 where the speaker states, “But slavery to slavery my sweet’st friend must be?” When read in light of Garrigue’s assertions, the reader can see that the speaker is referring to being enslaved by himself, or his senses.

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References
[1] Roberts, Josephine. ""Thou Maist Have Thy Will": The Sonnets of Shakespeare and His Stepsisters." Shakespeare Quarterly. Jan. 1996. JSTOR. http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 2870954 . Oct. 2010. [2] Rowse, A.L. Shakespeare's Sonnets: The Problems Solved. New York: Harper and Row, 1973 [3] Atkins, Carl D., ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets With Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Cranbury, NJ: Rosemont Publishing & Printing Corp., 2007 [4] Fineman, Joel. Shakespeare's Perjured Eye: the Invention of Poetic Subjectivity in the Sonnets. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986 [5] Fineman, Joel. Shakespeare's Perjured Eye: the Invention of Poetic Subjectivity in the Sonnets. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986 [6] Leishman, J. B. Themes and Variations in Shakespeare's Sonnets. New York: Hutchinson & Co., 1961. [7] Pequigney, Joseph. Such is My Love: A Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1985 [8] Mills, Laurens J. One Soul in Bodies Twain: Friendship in Tutor Literature and Stuart Drama. Bloomington: Principia Press, 1937 [9] Leishman, J. B. Themes and Variations in Shakespeare's Sonnets. New York: Hutchinson & Co., 1961 [10] Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1997 [11] Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1997. [12] Booth, Stephen, ed. Shakespeare Sonnets. New Haven: Yale UP, 1977. [13] Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1997. [14] Booth, Stephen, ed. Shakespeare Sonnets. New Haven: Yale UP, 1977. [15] Booth, Stephen, ed. Shakespeare Sonnets. New Haven: Yale UP, 1977. [16] Garrigues, Gertrude. "Shakespeare's "Sonnets" The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, July 1887. JSTOR. http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 25668140 Oct. 2010.

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/133.html)

Sonnet 134
« » Sonnet 134 So now I have confessed that he is thine, And I myself am mortgaged to thy will, Myself I'll forfeit, so that other mine Thou wilt restore to be my comfort still: But thou wilt not, nor he will not be free, For thou art covetous, and he is kind; He learned but surety-like to write for me Under that bond that him as fast doth bind. The statute of thy beauty thou wilt take, Thou usurer that put'st forth all to use, And sue a friend came debtor for my sake, So him I lose through my unkind abuse. Him I have lost, thou hast both him and me; He pays the whole, and yet I am not free. –William Shakespeare

In Shakespeare's 134th sonnet, the speaker confronts the mistress after learning that she has seduced the Fair Youth.

Sonnet 134

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Synopsis
In the first quatrain, the speaker confesses that both he and the friend are at the mistress's mercy; in the second one, he surmises that the attachment will hold, due to the friend's naivete and the mistress's greed. The remainder of the poem construes the mistress as an unethical moneylender: metaphorically, she lent her beauty to the speaker and then collected the friend as interest.

External links
• CliffsNotes on the sonnet [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-137. html

Sonnet 135
« » Sonnet 135 Whoever hath her wish, thou hast thy Will, And Will to boot, and Will in overplus; More than enough am I that vex thee still, To thy sweet will making addition thus. Wilt thou, whose will is large and spacious, Not once vouchsafe to hide my will in thine? Shall will in others seem right gracious, And in my will no fair acceptance shine? The sea, all water, yet receives rain still, And in abundance addeth to his store; So thou being rich in Will add to thy Will One will of mine to make thy large Will more. Let no unkind, no fair beseechers kill; Think all but one, and me in that one Will. –William Shakespeare

In Shakespeare's Sonnet 135, the speaker appeals to his mistress after having been rejected by her.

Synopsis
In the first quatrain of the sonnet, the speaker pledges himself to the mistress, while he humbly refers to himself as "I that vex thee." It can be roughly paraphrased as: You have me, and me, and me again. The second quatrain can be paraphrased thus: Since your will is large and spacious, won't you let me hide my will in yours? Especially since you are graciously accepting others, but not myself? In the third quatrain, he likens the mistress to an ocean, which would be able to comfortably accommodate an additional quantity of water. Thus, he implicitly gives up the right to an exclusive relationship with the mistress. There is some debate over the meaning of the final couplet; in her book The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets, Helen Vendler supported the interpretation by G. B. Evans (Shakespeare's Sonnets, 1996) as "Let no unkind [persons] kill no fair beseechers."

Sonnet 135 Counting the contraction wilt as instance of the word will, this sonnet uses the word will a total of fourteen times. The word is also a pun on the name of the author, and as such, is also used in Sonnet 134 and Sonnet 136. Since "will" is a colloquial term for both the male and female genitalia, the poem can also be understood sexually in any number of ways. In the 1609 Quarto edition of Sonnets, all capitalized instances of the word Will appear in italics.

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External links
• Paraphrase and analysis [1] • CliffsNotes on the sonnet [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 135comm. htm [2] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ Shakespeare-s-Sonnets-Analysis-by-Sonnet-Sonnet-135. id-169,pageNum-142. html

Sonnet 136
« » Sonnet 136 If thy soul cheque thee that I come so near, Swear to thy blind soul that I was thy 'Will,' And will, thy soul knows, is admitted there; Thus far for love my love-suit, sweet, fulfil. 'Will' will fulfil the treasure of thy love, Ay, fill it full with wills, and my will one. In things of great receipt with ease we prove Among a number one is reckon'd none: Then in the number let me pass untold, Though in thy stores' account I one must be; For nothing hold me, so it please thee hold That nothing me, a something sweet to thee: Make but my name thy love, and love that still, And then thou lovest me, for my name is 'Will.' –William Shakespeare

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 136. html

Sonnet 137

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Sonnet 137
« » Sonnet 137 Thou blind fool, Love, what dost thou to mine eyes, That they behold, and see not what they see? They know what beauty is, see where it lies, Yet what the best is take the worst to be. If eyes corrupt by over-partial looks Be anchor'd in the bay where all men ride, Why of eyes' falsehood hast thou forged hooks, Whereto the judgment of my heart is tied? Why should my heart think that a several plot Which my heart knows the wide world's common place? Or mine eyes seeing this, say this is not, To put fair truth upon so foul a face? In things right true my heart and eyes have erred, And to this false plague are they now transferr'd. –William Shakespeare

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 137. html

Sonnet 138

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Sonnet 138
« » Sonnet 138 When my love swears that she is made of truth I do believe her, though I know she lies, That she might think me some untutor'd youth, Unlearned in the world's false subtleties. Thus vainly thinking that she thinks me young. Although she knows my days are past the best, Simply I credit her false speaking tongue: On both side thus is simple truth suppress'd: But wherefore says she not she is unjust? And wherefore say not I that I am old? Oh! love's best habit is in seeming trust, And age in love loves not to have years told: Therefore I lie with her and she with me, And in our faults by lies we flatter'd be. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 138 is one of the most famous of William Shakespeare's sonnets. Making use of frequent puns ("lie" and "lie" being the most obvious), it shows an understanding of the nature of truth and flattery in romantic relationships. The poem has also been argued to be biographical: many scholars have suggested Shakespeare used the poem to discuss his frustrating relationship with the Dark Lady, a frequent subject of many of the sonnets. (To note, the Dark Lady was definitely not Shakespeare's wife, Anne Hathaway.) The poem emphasizes the effects of age and the associated deterioration of beauty, and its effect on a sexual or romantic relationship.

Introduction
The Passionate Pilgrim
An early version of Shakespeare's Sonnet 138 made its début in 1599 in a collection of twenty poems called The Passionate Pilgrim [1] . The group of poems was listed as being published by William Jaggard and "W. Shakespeare" [2] . The Passionate Pilgrim went through two separate printings during 1599. Sonnet 138 is the first poem in The Passionate Pilgrim, followed thereafter by another of Shakespeare's sonnets, 144 [3] . The following is Hyder Rollins's printed version of 138 as it appeared in the first text (Variorum I, 353-54): When my Loue swears that she is made of truth, I do beleeue her (though I know she lies) That she might thinke me some vntutor'd youth, Vnskilful in the worlds false forgeries. Thus vainly thinking that she thinkes me young, Although I know my yeares be past the best: I smiling, credite her false speaking toung, Outfacing faults in loue, with loues ill rest. But wherefore sayes my loue that she is young? And wherefore say not I, that I am old: O, Loues best habit's in a soothing toung,

Sonnet 138 And Age in loue, loues not to haue yeares told. Therefore I'le lye with Loue, and loue with me, Since that our faultes in loue thus smother'd be. It has long been conjectured whether the present version of Sonnet 138 was an early draft penned by Shakespeare himself or a contrived fabrication devised by an unknown individual who discovered a later version being circulated in the Quarto or some diverse formulation [4] . Carl D. Atkins argues that this version of Sonnet 138 is just a "poor memorial reconstruction" stating that "the whole point of the sonnet is missing in the earlier version" [5] . However, Edward A. Snow feels more inline with the assumption that the early version was, indeed, written by Shakespeare and that it is not an "imperfectly remembered transcript" [6] The later version did not appear until ten years later, 1609 in Quarto [7] . According to Snow, the differences between the two version begin in that "the earlier version still hesitates at the threshold in question, and in the end relapses into metaphors that evoke the repressive claustrophobic atmosphere of Othello ("Since that our faultes in love thus smother'd be"); while the 1609 version passes over into the lucid, accommodating, fully manifest space of Anothony and Cleopatra ("And in our faultes by lies we flattered be")" [8] .

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The Dark Lady
Sonnet 138 is a part of a series of poems written about Shakespeare's dark lady. They describe a woman who has dark hair and dark eyes. She diverges from the Petrarchan norm. “Golden locks” and “florid cheeks” were fashionable in that day, but Shakespeare’s lady does not bear those traits [9] . The lady is shown as being both fair and foul, and both kind and unkind [10] . Alice F. Moore feels that within these later sonnets the poet is equally as dark as the lady. As the speaker reveals the mistress in her “foulness” and “deceit,” he consequently reveals himself. These sonnets are shadowed by the speakers own self-hatred and anger [11] . However, Joel Fineman believes that the biggest difference between series of the dark lady and the other series of sonnets featuring the young man is that those about the dark lady use a formula of lusty misogyny that is clearly Shakespearean [12] . Throughout the sonnets, and especially sonnet 138, the lady "comes to occupy this peculiarly charged erotic place ("therefore I lie with her, and she with me,/And in our faults by lies we flattered be") [13] . The sonnets addressed to the dark lady usually relate the lady with "a disjunction occasioned by verbal duplicity," ("When my love swears that she is made of truth,/I do believe her, though I know she lies") [14] . The language in the dark lady sonnets is some that "one is forced to hear-- to hear, that is, as language-- functions as a supplementary and confirming, not a disavowing, gloss on what the poet has to say" [15] . They “conceal praise under the guise of disparagement (Kambascovic-Sawers p. 293). A.L. Rowse believes that the sonnet takes us further into Shakespeare's relationship with the lady. The relationship is both "purely sexual" and "utterly unromantic" [16] . However, it can also be said that the speaker is not attracted to the woman because of her “physical, intellectual, or moral excellence” [17] . Instead, the attraction is portrayed as being “self-generated, with no basis in ‘reality’”[18] . Rowse feels that the woman discussed in the sonnet can be identified as the mistress, Emilia. Shakespeare is six years older, and is thus highly conscious of his age. Underneath all the hyprocracies there is Shakespeare's "honest candour." [19] In Shakespeare's Sonnets: The Problems Solved, A. L. Rowse notes that Sonnet 138 shows the "uncompromising realism with which he [Shakespeare] describes it all: it has been said -- rightly-- that there is no woman like Shakespeare's in all the sonnet-liturature of the Renaissance. Most of them are abstractions or wraiths; this one is of flesh and blood" [20] .

Sonnet 138

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Themes and Motifs
Valerie Traub presents the idea that many sonnets follow a Judeo-Christian idea of procreation as “justification” for heterosexuality. It is this idea that Shakespeare denies. Shakespeare is explores more sensual and even explicit ideas in the sonnets that challenge these ideals. Though Sonnet 138 does not vastly differ from this tradition as Shakespeare’s sonnets to the young boy this does fall in to this contradictory tradition.[21] Here there Shakespeare references her truth and lies rather than her sensual body showing that he is differing from Christian traditions. Joel Fineman speaks on a similar topic when referencing Shakespeare. “On both sides thus is simple truth suppress’d.” Fineman states, “his desire is imposed on him, not by God or by Nature, but by poetry itself.” Fineman is explaining that Shakespeare is not only challenging Christianity he is examining the forms and ideas of poetry themselves.[22] Shakespeare’s emphasis on truth takes away from his emphasis on procreation. J. Bunselmeyer takes it even further and discusses that Shakespeare’s puns here begin to negate not only the traditional ideas of Christianity but also the words that are being presented. This contradiction plays on fineman’s idea of the form of poetry.[23]

Line by Line
When my love swears that she is made of truth,/ I do believe her, though I know she lies,/ That she might think me some untutored youth / Unlearnèd in the world’s false subtleties. Lines 1 and 2 of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 138 present a paradox where the obsessed lover is blind to what he can clearly see. Line 2 reveals that the speaker is aware of his delusion, possibly because of the word “swears” in line 1. Swearing, according to editor Stephen Booth, means there is a reason for disbelief; consequently, the statement incriminates itself.[24] Alice F. Moore also concurs with the writing of Stephen Booth in her own commentary on Sonnet 138, also proclaiming the relationship between the two lovers as one of mutual dishonesty. For Moore, line 2 highlights an internal division of the speaker because he knows that the lady lies, but he, even knowing this, chooses to believe her.[25] The speaker clearly acknowledges his lady’s lies in line 2, and he acknowledges his decision to believe them.[26] Both lines 3 and 4 give reason for the speaker’s beliefs concerning his and his lover’s lies. He wants to appear younger, while she wants to think that she is with a more youthful lover.[27] However, the editor, Carl D. Atkins, approaches the first quatrain with a slightly different take, believing the word “lies” in line 2 to be nothing more than a set-up for the pun in the ending couplet, using the word “lies” to mean “sleep with” instead of “falsehoods.” He also has a slight twist about who lies to whom, claiming that the lady lies to the speaker about her faithfulness, but he does not lie to her, only to himself, imagining that she believes him to be an “untutored youth.”
[28]

Thus vainly thinking that she thinks me young,/ Although she knows my days are past the best,/ Simply I credit her false-speaking tongue;/ On both sides thus is simple truth suppressed In the second quatrain, specifically in lines 5 and 6, the speaker declares he is aware that she knows he is no longer young.[29] Beginning line 5 with the words “Thus vainly” effectively negates the second half of the line, implying that the lady does not actually believe in the speaker’s youth. The same can be said for line 7, with the second part of the line clearly contradicting the beginning. According to Moore, the confusing contradictions within these lines are intended to display, and help the reader to feel, the “schizophrenia” of both the poem and the two lovebirds.[30] Booth’s writing agrees with Moore; lines 5 and 6 parallel the inconsistencies that the speaker discusses in line 2. Booth’s interpretation suggests that the lady struggles to believe that she actually believes the lies that she pretends to believe. Boothe says line 7 simply shows line 8 as a truth “thus, we are both liars, she in pretending faithfulness and I in pretending youth,” emphasizing the mutuality of the relationship.[31] It reiterates their mutual deception and recognition of said deception, believing all that they hear from each other and all that they tell to each other.[32] But wherefore says she not she is unjust? / And wherefore say not that I am old?/ O love’s best habit is in seeming trust,/ And age in love loves not t’ have years told:

Sonnet 138 In line 9, the word “unjust” is taken by Atkins to mean either “dishonest” or “unfaithful”; the editor leans toward the second option because it is in keeping with the rest of his interpretation, but it is clear that the word refers to some “falseness in matters of the heart.” [33] In line 12, the term “lie with” also furthers Atkins’s argument for an elaborate pun, declaring that the speaker lies with the mistress rather than to her.[34] Also in lines 11 and 12, much is debated over the beginning “O” of line 11. Moore interprets this interjection as impatience or sarcasm, possibly a “reason or excuse hastily tossed off.” [35] However, author Helen Vendler views it as the beginnings of proverbial wisdom; the “O” is actually an answer to a question. Both lines 11 and 12 are in proverb form, but it is interesting to note that Vendler believes the proverbs to reference the speaker, as opposed to his lady.[36] Therefore I lie with her, and she with me, / And in our faults by lies we flattered be. The ending couplet provides, according to Moore, an interesting twist when “deception and love making become one: to lie is to lie with” [37] However, Vendler has a slightly different take on the poem as a whole in response to the final volte. She notes that the pronouns “I” and “she” share a mutual verb, becoming “we” with “our” shared faults. The end of the poem shows the final progression of the lovers’ relationship, beginning with anger, then suppressed anger, followed by game playing, then the realization of the absurdity of truthfulness, finally ending with the admission of flattery when each lover suppresses frank speech in order to lie to and with each other.[38] Booth also recognizes the significance of the mutual pronouns, with line 13 reiterating lies as necessary for a cooperative relationship, but his conclusion from the closing lines of the poem varies slightly from Vendler’s. For Booth, line 14 is not a realization of the lovers situation, but it is a reason for the speakers attitude throughout the poem, particularly that of “cynicism, bitterness, and despair.” [39]

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Interpretations
• Richard Johnson, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI)

References
[1] (Carl D. Atkins. Ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2007, p. 340.) [2] Stephen Booth. Ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977, p. 476. [3] (Booth p. 476) [4] (Atkins: p. 340) [5] (Atkins: p. 340) [6] (Edward A. Snow, "Loves of Comfort and Despair: A Reading of Shakespeare's Sonnet 138," ELH, 47.3 (1980): p. 462-483 (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 2872791)). [7] (Snow: p. 463) [8] (Snow: p. 463) [9] (Danijela Kambraskovic-Sawers. Three themes in one, which wonderous scope affords: Ambiguous Speaker and Storytelling in Shakespeare’s Sonnets, Criticism, 49:3 (2007:Summer) p. 294) [10] (Joel Fineman. Shakespeare's Perjurd Eye: The Invention of Poetic Subjectivity in the Sonnets. University of California Press, Berkeley: 1986, p. 17.) [11] (Alice F. Moore. Shakespeare's SONNET 138, Explicator, 43:2 (1985:Winter) p.15) [12] (Fineman p. 17) [13] (Fineman p. 17) [14] (Fineman p. 17) [15] (Fineman 286) [16] (A.L. Rowse. Shakespeare's Sonnets: The Problems Solved. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1973, p. 287) [17] (Kambascovic-Sawers p. 294) [18] (Kambascovic-Sawers p. 294) [19] (Rowse: p. 287) [20] (Rowse: p. 287) [21] (Traub, Valerie. "Sex without Issue: Sodomy, Reproduction, and Signification in Shakespeare's Sonnets" Shakespeare's Sonnets: Critical Essays. Ed. Schiffer, James. 2001.)

Sonnet 138
[22] (Fineman, Joel. Shakespeare's Perjurd Eye: The Invention of Poetic Subjectivity in the Sonnets. University of California Press, Berkeley: 1986.) [23] (Bunselmeyer, J. Appearances and Verbal Paradox Sonnets 129 and 138. Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 24, No 1 (winter, 1974) 103-108) [24] (Ed. Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets Edited with Analytic Commentary. Yale University Press, New Haven: 1977.) [25] (Moore, Alice F.,Shakespeare's SONNET 138 , Explicator, 43:2 (1985:Winter) p.15 ) [26] (Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Harvard University Press, Cambridge: 1997.) [27] (Booth p. 479) [28] (Ed. Atkins, Carl D. Shakespeare's Sonnets: With Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, Madison: 2007.) [29] (Atkins p. 339) [30] (Moore p. 15) [31] (Booth p. 479) [32] (Booth) [33] (Atkins p. 340) [34] (Atkins) [35] (Moore p. 15) [36] (Vendler) [37] (Moore p. 15) [38] (Vendler) [39] (Booth p. 481)

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Sonnet 139
« » Sonnet 139 O, call not me to justify the wrong That thy unkindness lays upon my heart; Wound me not with thine eye but with thy tongue; Use power with power and slay me not by art. Tell me thou lovest elsewhere, but in my sight, Dear heart, forbear to glance thine eye aside: What need'st thou wound with cunning when thy might Is more than my o'er-press'd defense can bide? Let me excuse thee: ah! my love well knows Her pretty looks have been mine enemies, And therefore from my face she turns my foes, That they elsewhere might dart their injuries: Yet do not so; but since I am near slain, Kill me outright with looks and rid my pain. –William Shakespeare

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 139. html

Sonnet 140

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Sonnet 140
« » Sonnet 140 Be wise as thou art cruel; do not press My tongue-tied patience with too much disdain; Lest sorrow lend me words and words express The manner of my pity-wanting pain. If I might teach thee wit, better it were, Though not to love, yet, love, to tell me so; As testy sick men, when their deaths be near, No news but health from their physicians know; For if I should despair, I should grow mad, And in my madness might speak ill of thee: Now this ill-wresting world is grown so bad, Mad slanderers by mad ears believed be, That I may not be so, nor thou belied, Bear thine eyes straight, though thy proud heart go wide. –William Shakespeare

Interpretations
• Edward Fox, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI)

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 140. html

Sonnet 141

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Sonnet 141
« » Sonnet 141 In faith, I do not love thee with mine eyes, For they in thee a thousand errors note; But 'tis my heart that loves what they despise, Who, in despite of view, is pleas'd to dote. Nor are mine ears with thy tongue's tune delighted; Nor tender feeling, to base touches prone. Nor taste nor smell desire to be invited To any sensual feast with thee alone: But my five wits nor my five senses can Dissuade one foolish heart from serving thee, Who leaves unsway'd the likeness of a man, Thy proud heart's slave and vassal wretch to be: Only my plague thus far I count my gain, That she that makes me sin awards me pain –William Shakespeare

The idea of 141 is the discrepancy between the poet's physical senses and wits (intellect) on the one hand and his heart on the other. Shakespeare describes a woman whose appearance does not elicit love (his eyes note a thousand errors in her appearance). Her voice is not pleasing to the ear (“Nor are mine ears with thy tongue's tune delighted”); her skin not pleasing to touch (“Nor tender feeling”); and there is an unpleasant taste and smell to her (“Nor taste, nor smell, desire to be invited”). Yet his heart remains affectionately attached to her. The theme of the sonnet is the dichotomy between the poets physical senses and wits (intellect) on the one hand and his heart on the other. Acknowledging that there is nothing physically attractive about the woman and that intellectually he cannot find a good reason for the relationship, the poet nevertheless is emotionally attracted to the woman. He seems to feel this emotional attachment is a punishment, but he gets some gratification from the relationship, which is contrary to his judgment and causes him anguish and despair.

Trivia
• In the movie 10 Things I Hate About You , the main character, Kat, is assigned to write her own version of Sonnet 141.

Sonnet 142

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Sonnet 142
« » Sonnet 142 Love is my sin and thy dear virtue hate, Hate of my sin, grounded on sinful loving: O, but with mine compare thou thine own state, And thou shalt find it merits not reproving; Or, if it do, not from those lips of thine, That have profaned their scarlet ornaments And seal'd false bonds of love as oft as mine, Robb'd others' beds' revenues of their rents. Be it lawful I love thee, as thou lovest those Whom thine eyes woo as mine importune thee: Root pity in thy heart, that when it grows Thy pity may deserve to pitied be. If thou dost seek to have what thou dost hide, By self-example mayst thou be denied! –William Shakespeare

Interpretations
• Sylvia Syms, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI)

External links
• Shakespeare sonnets.com [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 142comm. htm

Sonnet 143

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Sonnet 143
Sonnet 143 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare.
« » Sonnet 143 Lo! as a careful housewife runs to catch One of her feather'd creatures broke away, Sets down her babe and makes a swift dispatch In pursuit of the thing she would have stay, Whilst her neglected child holds her in chase, Cries to catch her whose busy care is bent To follow that which flies before her face, Not prizing her poor infant's discontent; So runn'st thou after that which flies from thee, Whilst I thy babe chase thee afar behind; But if thou catch thy hope, turn back to me, And play the mother's part, kiss me, be kind: So will I pray that thou mayst have thy 'Will,' If thou turn back, and my loud crying still. –William Shakespeare

External links
• www.shakespeare-online.com/ [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeare-online. com/ sonnets/ 143. html

Sonnet 144

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Sonnet 144
« » Sonnet 144 Two loves I have of comfort and despair, Which like two spirits do suggest me still: The better angel is a man right fair, The worser spirit a woman colour'd ill. To win me soon to hell*, my female evil Tempteth my better angel from my side, And would corrupt my saint to be a devil, Wooing his purity with her foul pride. And whether that my angel be turn'd fiend Suspect I may, but not directly tell; But being both from me, both to each friend, I guess one angel in another's hell: Yet this shall I ne'er know, but live in doubt, Till my bad angel fire my good one out. –William Shakespeare

Introduction
Sonnet 144 (along with Sonnet 138) was published in the Passionate Pilgrim(1599) [1] . Shortly before this, Francis Meres referred to Shakespeare's Sonnets in "his handbook of Elizabethan poetry, Palladis Tamia, or Wit's Treasurie, published in 1598," which was frequently talked about in the literary centers of London taverns [2] . Shakespeare's sonnets are mostly addressed to a young man; towards the end of the Sonnets (transition starting at Sonnet 127) the "dark lady" comes on the scene. Several sonnets portray a conflicted relationship between the poetic speaker, the "dark lady" and the young man. Sonnet 144 is one of the most prominent sonnets to address this conflict.

Sonnet 144

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"Shakespeare's Two Loves"

Rhyme Scheme and Sonnet Form
Quatrain 1: A/B/A/B Quatrain 2: C/D/C/D Quatrain 3: E/F/E/F Heroic Couplet: G/G

Autobiographical Interpretations
Michelle Burnham adopts the nineteenth century theories, that Shakespeare’s sonnets contain autobiographical information about him, in order to explore the novel Ulysses. Through her examination into Joyce’s use of the poems, the reader can discover the mindset of the nineteenth century Shakespeare reader. Burnham affirms that critics of the past believed that Shakespeare was caught in a love triangle between a fair boy and dark woman in her article, ““Dark Lady and Fair Man”: The Love Triangle in Shakespeare’s Sonnet and Ulysses [3] ” Stephen Booth reinforces this argument by stating that in line 7 “my saint” “is [written] in the courtly love tradition, in which poets customarily spoke about their beloveds in the manner and language of... worshipers to, or about, saints. [4] ” Harvey Stanborough claims that Shakespeare’s Sonnet 144 discusses, not a bisexual relationship between the author and “a man right fair” and “a woman coloured ill,” but rather it reveals Shakespeare’s internal conflict as an artist. He proposes “that it was actually addressed to a much broader, general audience and is an attempted explanation of his own artistic mind [5] .” To him, the two loves in the sonnet embody two passions which pull at Shakespeare’s mind in opposing directions: “the speaker is explaining that he has two passions: a passion (desire) for comfort, and a passion (need) for despair [6] ” He uses a less edited version of the sonnet to assert that the first line of the poem makes a clear distinction between passions rather than lovers. He uses “Two loves I have, of Comfort and Despaire” to show that the separation of the comma “contend[s] that the two loves he mentions are not people at all, but the two sides--light and dark--of his creative personality [7] .” Stephen Booth argues that the editing of the comma “has no effect on the logic of the line. [8] ” Stanborough furthers his argument by “argu[ing] that he [Shakespeare] is introducing us to the good side of himself, the side that

Sonnet 144 psychologists call the ‘presenting self,’...Being a male, he naturally describes the "better Angell" as masculine; he also describes it as ‘right faire,’... to signify the light of goodness [9] .” To explain the presence of the “dark lady,” Stanborough asserts that she is the good self’s exact opposite: “The first was masculine, so this one is necessarily characterized as feminine; the first was ‘faire,’ or light, so this one is ‘colour'd ill.’ [10] ” The entire argument is based in the fact that Stanborough believes that, in order to have creative insight, artist’s mental divisions between depression and joy. Booth exposes the underlying sexual nature of the poem in line 12 where it states “one angel in another’s hell.” He talks about the work of Ingram and Redpath when they discuss the meanings used for hell in the time Shakespeare was writing. They wrote that “several meanings appear to be present: ... such a position was often used as a pretext for a sexual tumble; ‘hell’ is probably also... the female sexual organ” in which case “‘one angel’ is the man, and ‘another’ is the woman” clearly engaging in sex[11] . Clara Longworth de Chambrun writes, “None who hears the cry of remorse and anguish in Shakespeare’s poems can doubt that their author traversed an period of great moral suffering. The serene atmosphere of his later work seems to attest that he came through the fire tempered and ripened. The facts also sustain this hypothesis and explain his Life’s Philosophy. ‘Men must endure their going hence, even as their coming hither, ripeness is all,’” [12] De Chambrun describes how the W.H. theory originated. Thomas Thorpe, a “pirate publisher,” [13] published a volume of Shakespeare’s sonnets with the following inscription, “To the onlie begetter of these insuing sonnets, Mr. W.H.,” [14] . De Chambrun criticizes the initials and she does not believe in following the Herbertist (William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke in 1623) theory, rather she writes of “graver critics” seeing the letters standing for Will Hall, a trafficker of manuscripts and a favorite of Thorpe, the “Piratical Publisher” [15] De Chambrun continues, if the Earl of Pembroke, William Herbert, was Mr. W.H., then the critics who believe the dark lady to be Mary Fitton (known mistress) would be incorrect, because Mary Fitton was a blonde [16] .

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Religious Interpretations
There is a Christian element present in Sonnet 144. Shakespeare refers to the man and woman as angels. Helen Vendler believes that the boy represents salvations while the woman is sin. “Q1 offers the familiar Christian model of the better angel and the worser spirit, both prompting the speaking, but transforms these spirits into loves, and gives them names deriving from theology: comfort (salvation) and despair (the unforgivable sin). The iconographic description fair/ colored ill supports the Christian model of angel and devil.” [17] . The bad angel comes between the poet and the good angel. “Q2 while beginning with the Christian presumption that the bad angel wants to win [the speaker] soon to hell, slides away from the motive in lines 7-8, as a witty new version of the old plot emerges; the bad angel looses interest in the speaker, and turns her interest to the better spirit” [18] . Sonnet 144 reflects Shakespeare’s relationships with young boy and the dark lady through the use of Christian images.

Homoeroticism in Sonnet 144
Shakespeare addresses many of his sonnets to a young male, whom many have assumed to be identical with Mr. W.H., the person to whom the Sonnets as a whole are dedicated. Scholars debate about the nature of Shakespeare’s relationship with his male companion and question whether it was a close friendship or a romantic love. The sonnets indicate that a woman who Shakespeare describes as the dark lady comes between the poet and Mr. W.H. Sonnet 144 addresses this conflict. Critics have been unsuccessful at pinpointing the exact identity of Mr. W.H. Douglas Trevor points out that the young boy mentioned in the sonnets may not be a specific person: “Scholars puzzled over the identity of the speaker’s male friend, debating whether or not he is one male or a composite, rooted in real life or a purely literary conjuring” [19] . Scholars developed a few possibilities for the identity of Mr. W.H such as William Herbert and Henry Wriothesley. Critics have also wondered about the woman who came between Shakespeare and the boy: “And of course there is the dark lady, identified alternatively as a nameless aristocrat, a commoner, Queen Elizabeth, her maid of honor Mary Fitton, the London prostitute Lucy Negro, the poet Aemilia Lanyer, and so on.” [20] .

Sonnet 144 The identities of these two characters are still in question but modern scholars tend to focus more on the sexual eroticism and implication of homosexuality in the Sonnets: “The reality of the poet’s purported bisexual identity now figuring more prominently than any speculation about real figures with whom Shakespeare might have actually been involved, amorously or otherwise”[21] . On the other hand, there are critics who view Shakespeare’s relationship with the young boy as a friendship rather than romantic love. This is the view that K.D. Sethna holds: “The problem, of course, is the two main characters round whom Shakespeare’s Sonnets exult and agonize with a passionate quixotism of friendship and a frantic fever of love- or, as G. Wilson Knight sums up in the current jargon, “homosexual idealism and heterosexual lust’”[22] . John Berryman, on the other hand, understands the first line of Sonnet 144 to be Shakespeare’s way of confessing his romantic relationship with the boy and the dark lady: “This is the sonnet of which the poet John Berryman remarked, in his comments on Lowell in The Freedom of the Poet, ‘When Shakespeare wrote [“Two lovers I have”] reader, he was not kidding” [23] . Helen Vendler agrees with Berryman’s analysis: “Sonnet 144 has an air of confession” [24] . If evaluated through queer hermeneutics, Sonnet 144 can appear to have homoerotic overtones. For example, Oscar Wilde's "The Portrait of Mr. W.H." is a critical analysis of Shakespeare's Sonnets that emphasizes their potential homoeroticism. Wilde believed in the theory that the young man addressed in the sonnets was an actor in Shakespeare's troupe named Willie Hughes. [25] The sonnets are thus a love letter from Shakespeare to Willie Hughes. Wilde writes, “[Shakespeare] finds that what his tongue had spoken his soul had listened to, and that the raiment that he had put on for the disguise is a plague-stricken and poisonous thing that eats into his flesh, and that he cannot throw away. Then comes Desire, with its many maladies, and Lust that makes one love all that one loathes, and Shame, with its ashen face and secret smile,” [26] . Wilde writes of Shakespeare’s mental and emotional battle of who to love and how to love that person. Wilde writes specifically of Sonnet 144,“[Shakespeare] has his moments of loathing for her [the Dark Lady], for, not content with enslaving the soul of Shakespeare, she seems to have sought to snare the senses of Willie Hughes,” [27] . In Sonnet 144, the second quatrain is full of dislike toward the Dark Lady, “To win me soon to hell, my female evil / … / and would corrupt my saint to be a devil,” [28] . However, Wilde recognizes that the Willie Hughes theory is that, just a theory. One will never know what Shakespeare was thinking when he was completing the sonnets. “Shakespeare’s heart is still to us a ‘a closet never pierc’d with crystal eyes,’ as he calls it in one of the sonnets. We shall never know the true secret of the passion of his life,” [29] . C.B. Cox writes, "In Elizabethan times the crime of buggery was punishable by death. Today this legal term for homosexual intercourse offends our ears, but its use draws attention to the abhorrence with which many Christians of the time (and since) regarded physical intimacies between men. In these circumstances it's difficult to believe that Shakespeare would not only participate in an active homosexual relation with a handsome young man, but broadcast this affair to the world in sexually explicit sonnets pass round among his friends," [30] . The competing view of a bisexual Shakespeare conflicts with Wilde's view. Cox bases his argument on the verb "to have." He argues that why must the verb usage of "to have" mean sexually possess? Elizabethan people had trouble believing "had" meant to have sexually when it came to the young man, but Cox writes, "It's difficult to refute Pequiney's contention that in these three examples (Sonnet 52, Sonnet 75, and Sonnet 87) there is a sexual innuendo in 'had,' particularly when in Sonnet 129, which concerns heterosexual love for the Dark Lady, everyone agrees that there is such an implication, [31] . Elizabethan society feared homosexual desire, but embraced heterosexual conquests. Cox writes, "The poems may be based on personal experience but still that doesn't actually prove that Shakespeare 'had' the youth. There's an element of playfulness in the sexual innuendoes, a delight in wit as if Shakespeare is enjoying his own virtuosity and may not have expected to be taken literally... In his poems to the youth he may be using sexual innuendo as a kind of joke, a playful but at times almost serious hint that his affection may even extend to physical desire," [32] .

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Sonnet 144

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The Dark Lady in Sonnet 144
Henry David Gray writes on the complexity of views that readers have taken while contemplating the Sonnets. [33] There are the Southamptonites who date the sonnets from 1592 – 1596, believe the first 125 sonnets to be in chronological order, the dark lady being Elizabeth Vernon, and the Rival Poet to be Drayton[34] . Gray continues with the next group of critics being Pembrokists, dating the sonnets from 1598 to 1603, the dark lady being Mary Fitton, and the Rival Poet being Chapman [35] . Gray believes, following with Sir Sidney Lee, that the Sonnet are literary exercises, it is important to figure who the dark lady is, that W.H. is not the youth addressed in the first 125 sonnets, the sonnets are in no chronological order, and he had no idea who the rival poet was [36] . Gray proclaims his view, “I am a free lance among the Sonnets’ critics with a special set of conjectures all my own; though I do agree with Butler that that W.H. is William Hughes, with Acheson that the Dark Lady is Mistress Davanant, and with Montmorency that the Rival Poet is Spenser, [37] .

References
[1] (Gray 19) [2] (De Chambrun 132) [3] (Burnham, Michelle. "“Dark Lady and Fair Man”: The Love Triangle in Shakespeare’s Sonnet and Ulysses." Studies in the Novel 22.Spring (1990): 43. Print.). [4] (Shakespeare, William; Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Hew Haven, London: Yale University Press, 1977.) [5] (Stanbourough, Harvey. “Shakespeare’s Sonnet 144.” Explicator 55.Fall (1996): 10-12. World Shakespeare Online Database. Web. 20 Oct. 2009. < http:/ / vnweb. hwwilsonweb. com/ hww/ results/ results_single_fulltext. jhtml;hwwilsonid=QRZZ0SOCQAPDNQA3DIKSFF4ADUNGIIV0>) [6] (Stanbourough, Harvey. “Shakespeare’s Sonnet 144.” Explicator 55.Fall (1996): 10-12. World Shakespeare Online Database. Web. 20 Oct. 2009. <http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/results_single_fulltext.jhtml;hwwilsonid=QRZZ0SOCQAPDNQA3DIKSFF4ADUNGIIV0>). [7] (Stanbourough, Harvey. “Shakespeare’s Sonnet 144.” Explicator 55.Fall (1996): 10-12. World Shakespeare Online Database. Web. 20 Oct. 2009. <http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/results_single_fulltext.jhtml;hwwilsonid=QRZZ0SOCQAPDNQA3DIKSFF4ADUNGIIV0>) [8] (Shakespeare, William; Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Hew Haven, London: Yale University Press, 1977.) [9] (Stanbourough, Harvey. “Shakespeare’s Sonnet 144.” Explicator 55.Fall (1996): 10-12. World Shakespeare Online Database. Web. 20 Oct. 2009. <http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/results_single_fulltext.jhtml;hwwilsonid=QRZZ0SOCQAPDNQA3DIKSFF4ADUNGIIV0>) [10] (Stanbourough, Harvey. “Shakespeare’s Sonnet 144.” Explicator 55.Fall (1996): 10-12. World Shakespeare Online Database. Web. 20 Oct. 2009. < http:/ / vnweb. hwwilsonweb. com/ hww/ results/ results_single_fulltext. jhtml;hwwilsonid=QRZZ0SOCQAPDNQA3DIKSFF4ADUNGIIV0>) [11] (Shakespeare, William; Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Hew Haven, London: Yale University Press, 1977.) [12] (De Chambrun, Clara L. "The Inspirers of Shakespeare's Sonnets." The North American Review 198.692 (1913): 131-34. Print.) [13] (De Chambrun 132) [14] (De Chambrun 132) [15] (De Chambrun 132). [16] (De Chambrun 133) [17] (Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Cambridge, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1998.P. 605) [18] (Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Cambridge, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1998.P. 605) [19] (Trevor, Douglas. “Shakespeare’s Love Objects.” A Companion to Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Ed. by Michael Schoenfeldt. Blackwell Publishing. 2007. P. 225) [20] (Trevor, Douglas. “Shakespeare’s Love Objects.” A Companion to Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Ed. by Michael Schoenfeldt. Blackwell Publishing. 2007. P. 225) [21] (Trevor, Douglas. “Shakespeare’s Love Objects.” A Companion to Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Ed. by Michael Schoenfeldt. Blackwell Publishing. 2007. p. 226) [22] (Sethna, K.D. Two Lovers and A Worthier Pen: The Enigmas of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Arnold-Heinemann, 1984. p. 4) [23] (Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Cambridge, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1998.P. 605) [24] Vendler, Helen. The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Cambridge, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1998. p. 605 [25] Wilde, Oscar. "The Portrait of Mr. W.H." Artist as Critic: Critical Writings of Oscar Wilde. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1982. 152+. Print. [26] (Wilde 200) [27] (Wilde, 198)

Sonnet 144
[28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] (Shakespeare, Sonnet 144, Lines 5+) (Wilde 216) (Cox, C. B. "Bisexual Shakespeare?" The Hudson Review 40.3 (1987): 481-86. Print.) (Cox 483) (Cox 485) (Gray, Henry Du. "Shakespeare's Last Sonnets." Modern Language Notes 32.1 (1917): 17-21. Print) (Gray 17) (Gray 17) (Gray 18) (Gray 18)

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External links
• Shakespeare sonnets.com (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/144comm.htm)

Sonnet 145
« » Sonnet 145 Those lips that Love's own hand did make Breathed forth the sound that said 'I hate' To me that languish'd for her sake; But when she saw my woeful state Straight in her heart did mercy come, Chiding that tongue that ever sweet Was used in giving gentle doom, And taught it thus anew to greet: 'I hate' she alter'd with an end, That follow'd it as gentle day Doth follow night, who like a fiend From heaven to hell is flown away; 'I hate' from hate away she threw, And saved my life, saying 'not you.' –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 145 one of Shakespeare's sonnets. It forms part of the Dark Lady sequence of sonnets. It is written as a description of the feelings of a man who is so in love with a woman that hearing her say that "she hates" something immediately creates a fear that that she is referring to him. But then when she notices how much pain she has caused her lover by saying that she may potentially hate him, she changes the way that she says it to assure him that she hates but does not hate him.

Sonnet 145

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Commentary
This sonnet is unique in the collection, because it is written in iambic tetrameter, instead of pentameter. There is no explanation for this. It has generally been considered by critics to be one of Shakespeare's slightest works. Its fairly simple language and syntax, along with the oddity of the meter, have led to suggestions that it was written much earlier than the other, more mature, sonnets.[1] Gurr states, “I have not been able to find a single example in the period up to 1582 of an octosyllabic sonnet…no poet besides Shakespeare in this one curious poem wrote an octosyllabic sonnet” (225) .

Analysis Involving Anne Hathaway by Andrew Gurr
Though it is placed within the "Dark Lady" sequence, it has been claimed that the poem was originally written for Anne Hathaway, Shakespeare's wife. This was first proposed by Andrew Gurr in 1971. Gurr suggested that the words "hate away" may be a pun (in Elizabethan pronunciation) on "Hathaway". It has also been suggested that the next words, "And saved my life", would have been indistinguishable in pronunciation from "Anne saved my life".[1] Gurr says in his work “Shakespeare’s First Poem: Sonnet 145” that Shakespeare wrote this poem in 1582, making Shakespeare only 18. “The only explanation that makes much sense is that the play on ‘hate’ and throwing ‘hate away’ by adding an ending was meant to be read by a lady whose surname was Hathaway” (223). He argues that because spelling was not consistent in Shakespeare’s time there is no way of knowing for sure whether it was to her or not. He does think it is plausible that such a pun on her name exists within this sonnet since he does make other puns in various other sonnets.

Analysis by Other Critics
Michael Wood agrees with Andrew Gurr in the idea of this poem being about Anne and says it would make sense for this sonnet to be about her because, “He (Shakespeare) was vulnerable. Anne was twenty-six and knew the world. Reading between the lines, she would be the rock on which he relied through his life, supporting his career in London” (Wood 1978: 87).[2] Hilda Hulme disagrees with Andrew Gurr’s take in ‘Hathaway’ in her essay Sonnet 145: ‘I Hate, From Hathaway She Threw’ . Hulme believes that Shakespeare is not in fact talking about his mistress or his wife, as Gurr believes with the pun taken on ‘hate’ and ‘Hathaway’, but that he is talking about an Old-English colloquial expression, “For those who know the imprecation ‘May the devil take it’, in the form Deil hae’t ‘Devil have it’, the possibility of this ‘hate’ pun seems strikingly confirmed by Shakespeare’s ‘fiend’ context” (427). Hulme continues to break Gurr’s interpretation by suggesting that “there is, I think, at present no clear linguistic evidence in [Gurr’s] support” and that her research in Stratford shows no signs of “evidence at all to confirm [Gurr’s] suggestion that ‘in Stratford in 1582 Hathaway and hate-away would have been a very tolerable pun’” (427). Hulme explains this by describing how her research findings showed no relation or “tolerable pun” between the end-part of the verb of ‘hate’ (having a specific t sound) and Hathaway (ending in th). Hulme addresses her colloquial devil theory in Sonnet 145 which speak about the flight the word ‘hate’ takes by traveling from night to day, or from heaven to hell, as she had earlier suggested: I hate she altered with an end, That follow’d it as gentle day, Doth follow night who like a fiend, From heaven to hell is flowne away (Lines 9-12). Hulme interprets how the words ‘hate’, ‘fiend’, and ‘away’ in this quatrain are more analogous to the devil than to Anne Hathaway:

Sonnet 145 “In Shakespeare’s ‘fiend’ context, his simple adverb ‘away’ may similarly bring to mind the adverbial phrase ‘a devil way’ defined as ‘originally an impatient strengthening of AWAY’…As the fiend flies back to his proper place in hell, carrying away with him the ‘hate’ sense of the lady’s unfinished ‘I hate’ sentence, day follows night for the poet!” (428). Stephen Booth brings up an interesting point that other critics had not really mentioned. He says that a lot of people hope that it is not part of Shakespeare’s work due to the odd way in which it was written, “One cannot be certain that the sonnet is Shakespeare’s, but the effect it describes- that of being surprised by a sentence that signals one direction and then takes another- is an effect that Shakespeare is very fond of actually achieving in his reader” (500). He seems to believe that this sonnet is Shakespeare's based on the effects that this sonnet evokes.[4] In Schoenfeldt’s article he quotes a poet named Peter Levi who supports the theory Booth had over people not wanting this to be Shakespeare’s sonnet by saying, “The unusual and light metre of this sonnet, combined with its trivial theme, might sway a reasonable critic to believe that the poem is early and the pun intended…I find it almost too tasteless to credit, but not quite” (Levi 1988:40).[5] Levi says that as a poet he cannot see how this is something that Shakespeare would want credited to his work considering how different and mediocre this sonnet is to all of his other ones. Even though some critics do not like attributing this work to Shakespeare, it is hard to ignore even with its different format, the similarities it has to other sonnets Shakespeare has written. Heather Dubrow, on the other hand, does not dismiss this sonnet “as an unfortunate and unsuccessful game, with even the most sensitive of editors asserting that it is hardly worth reprinting” but believes that “this poem is not unimportant, for it enacts a version of the issue we are considering, the way the future can change the past” (224) . Michael Shoenfeldt adds that “the poem uses syntactic suspense to depict erotic anxiety” and that the “drama of the attraction and repulsion is made to hinge on our knowledge of the names of the protagonists” (131). Definitely, one can see an “erotic anxiety” in the poem’s opening lines as the word ‘hate’ is spoken: “Those lips that love’s own hand did make / Breathed forth the sound that said ‘I hate’” (Lines 1-2). Another building of an erotic anxiety is the steady list of body parts routinely named: lips, hand, heart, and tongue. If anything, the erotic anxiety is heightened to an erotic orgy of body language. This sense of giving and taking reminds the reader of theft in the form of love and hate, of stealing one’s love through delivering a hateful speech. Or, as Dubrow puts it, “This preoccupation with robbery is…manifest above all in the fact that it appears even in lighthearted compliments and jokes…a playful rendition of a very serious concern with how the future can alter the shape of what has come before” (249). That would make perfect sense with what Dubrow mentioned earlier, how the future can change the past, which is seen in the poem as a playful trick put against the poet in the form of crushing his emotions, which is quickly ascertained at the end of the sonnet. Either as a form of joke telling or sexual suggestion, Sonnet 145 reveals so little that many critics are hard pressed to find revealing details to Shakespeare’s early and later life.

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Sonnet 145

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Interpretations
• John Hurt, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics)

External links
• Shakespeare sonnets.com [2]

References
[1] Andrew Gurr, Shakespeare's First Poem: Sonnet 145, GURR Essays in Criticism.1971; XXI: 221-226 (http:/ / eic. oxfordjournals. org/ cgi/ reprint/ XXI/ 3/ 221. pdf) [2] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 145comm. htm

[1] Essays in Criticism, A Quarterly Journal of Literary Criticism: Volume 21, Number 3. Pages 221-226. Shakespeare's First Poem: Sonnet 145, by Andrew Gurr [2] A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets (Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture, Pages 33, 127, 132-133, 274-275, and 303, edited by Michael Schoenfeldt [3] Shakespeare's Sonnets, Pages 500-501, edited by Stephen Booth [4] A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets (Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture, Pages 33, 127, 132-133, 274-275, and 303, edited by Michael Schoenfeldt

Sonnet 146
« » Sonnet 146 Poor soul, the centre of my sinful earth, [...] these rebel powers that thee array; Why dost thou pine within and suffer dearth, Painting thy outward walls so costly gay? Why so large cost, having so short a lease, Dost thou upon thy fading mansion spend? Shall worms, inheritors of this excess, Eat up thy charge? is this thy body's end? Then soul, live thou upon thy servant's loss, And let that pine to aggravate thy store; Buy terms divine in selling hours of dross; Within be fed, without be rich no more: So shalt thou feed on Death, that feeds on men, And Death once dead, there's no more dying then. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 146, which William Shakespeare addresses to his soul, his "sinful earth", is a pleading appeal to himself to value inner qualities and satisfaction rather than outward appearance. Lines 3-6 question as to why he places so much energy and value into outward appearance (which may be considered as social or physical) by using the metaphor of a house gaudily decorated and painted but having nothing short of famine within. Why dost thou pine within and suffer dearth,

Sonnet 146 Painting thy outward walls so costly gay? Lines 7-14 reason that inner enrichment is much more important because the body is ultimately subservient to the soul, and is far more transient. The ending couplet proposes even though death "feeds" on mortal bodies, the soul will be eternal and therefore is victorious. So shalt thou feed on Death, that feeds on men, And Death once dead, there's no more dying then. The sonnet is notable for its uncharacteristically religious tone and call for moral richness, whereas most sonnets treasure earthly qualities of beauty and love. In its vocabulary and vocative address to the soul the sonnet invites comparison with Psalm 146. [1]

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Analysis and Criticism
Although Michael West has persuasively argued that this sonnet is indebted to the medieval genre of poetic dialogues between soul and body [2] , the extent to which the sonnet actually presents conventional Christian arguments about the relationship between body and soul is a matter of considerable critical debate. John Crowe Ransom counters an older tradition of reading the sonnet in straightforward Christian terms by making the general observation that the “divine terms which the soul buys are not particularly Christian: there are few words in the poem that would directly indicate a conventional religious dogma.” [3] B.C. Southam makes an effort to build on Ransom’s passing remark in a more developed argument about the sonnet which seeks to show that Shakespeare’s speaker is inspired more by a “humanist” philosophy that ironically undermines a rigidly Christian “rigorous asceticism which glorifies the life of the body at the expense of the vitality and richness of sensuous experience.” [4] Southam’s argument for an ironically humanist poem is countered, in turn, by Charles Huttar, who attempts to bring the poem back into alignment with a certain Christian worldview: for example, Huttar claims that “these rebel powers” that “array” the soul in line 2 refer not to “the physical being” or body but rather to the lower powers of the soul itself, the passions or affections. Understood in this way, the sentiment of the poem appears in accord with a certain Christian tradition that rejects “extreme asceticism.” [5] However, in a long discussion in his edition of the sonnets, Stephen Booth critiques both Southam and Huttar as engaging in “oversimplification” [6] Booth tries to split the difference between these critical perspectives: “It is as unreasonable and unprofitable to argue that Sonnet 146 does not espouse an orthodox Christian position on the relative value of mortal and immortal considerations as it is to deny that the poem generates the ideational static that Ransom and Southam point out” [7] In Booth’s view, conventional Christian ideas and images “coexist” with seemingly contradictory un-Christian ideas and images: “the incompatible elements, points of view, and responses . . . do not undergo synthesis” [8] For Booth, Sonnet 146 contains multiple, sometimes conflicting, elements that cannot and should not be reduced to a singular, univocal argument about body and soul.

Missing text
The missing text at the beginning of line two ([...]) is generally attributed to be a printing error, as in the earliest version of the sonnet, the iambic pentameter is significantly broken and "sinful dearth" is repeated on both lines. Therefore Shakespeare's intention for the line is a subject of heated debate among scholars. The most popular guesses include "Thrall to", "Fool'd by", "Hemm'd by", "Foil'd by", "Fenced by",[9] "Flatt'ring", "Spoiled by", "Pressed by" and "Feeding". See also: Shakespeare's sonnets

Sonnet 146

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External links
• Sparknotes analysis of sonnet 146 [10]

Notes
[1] On the influence of Psalm 146 on the synchronized theme and vocabulary of Sonnet 146 see Fred Blick "Psalms and Sonnets: 146 and 147", 'The Upstart Crow, A Shakespeare Journal' Vol. XXIII (2003): 91-103 [2] Michael West, “The Internal Dialogue of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 146,” Shakespeare Quarterly 25.1 (1974): p. 109-22 (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 2868888) [3] Qtd. in D. A. Stauffer, “Critical Principles and a Sonnet,” The American Scholar 12 (1942-43), p. 52-62. [4] B.C. Southam, "Shakespeare's Christian Sonnet? Number 146," Shakespeare Quarterly 11. 1 (1960): p. 67-71. [5] Charles A. Huttar "The Christian Basis of Shakespeare's Sonnet 146," Shakespeare Quarterly 19. 4 (1968): 355-365. (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 2868492) [6] Stephen Booth, Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997, p. 512. ISBN 0300085060. [7] Booth p. 514. [8] Booth, p. 515. [9] (2004). Sparknotes:No Fear Shakespeare: The Sonnets. New York, NY: Spark Publishing. ISBN 1-4114-0219-7. [10] http:/ / www. sparknotes. com/ shakespeare/ shakesonnets/ section11. rhtml

Sonnet 147
« » Sonnet 147 My love is as a fever, longing still For that which longer nurseth the disease, Feeding on that which doth preserve the ill, The uncertain sickly appetite to please. My reason, the physician to my love, Angry that his prescriptions are not kept, Hath left me, and I desperate now approve Desire is death, which physic did except. Past cure I am, now reason is past care, And frantic-mad with evermore unrest; My thoughts and my discourse as madmen's are, At random from the truth vainly express'd; For I have sworn thee fair and thought thee bright, Who art as black as hell, as dark as night. –William Shakespeare

In William Shakespeare's Sonnet 147, the poet describes his love for the addressee of the sonnet as a 'fever'. His reason and lust have been at war, but lust has ignored all advice and now all is lost. The poet is becoming mad with passion for a lady whom he knows is no good for him. He had convinced himself the one he loved was good when the opposite was true.

Sonnet 147

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Context
Sonnet 147 falls in the realm of the Dark Lady sonnets (Sonnets 127-154). It falls towards the end of the Dark Lady sequence. These sonnets, unlike the sonnets which refer to the young man, are typically angrier and are usually referring to either the Dark Lady specifically, her relationship with the speaker, or the love triangle between the speaker, the Dark Lady, and her additional lovers. In the second grouping of sonnets in which sonnet 147 falls, the speaker’s feelings toward to dark lady change several times. Sonnet 147 is another turning point in which the speaker reverts back to anger towards the Dark Lady. There are several theories as to who the Dark Lady actually is, if not a fictional character, however there is no substantial “proof” to allow these theories to be considered truth. [1] Towards the end of the sonnets, beginning at Sonnet 147, the speaker returns to his previously disturbed state. The image of feeding within sonnet 147 is a continuation of imagery begun in sonnet 146. In Sonnet 147, the image of feeding changes from feeding death to feeding illness. In fact, as to the image of "Feeding", Fred Blick has demonstrated that Sonnets 146 and 147 are are influenced by the correspondingly numbered Psalms 146 and 147 and and that they are designed as a pair. In the case of Sonnet 146 this influence is found in the vocative address to the "soul", in the synchronous correspondence of argument of Psalm and Sonnet relating to "Feeding" and in the remedying of ills. In the case of Sonnet 147 unhealthy "Feeding" and the healing of love "as a fever" brought on by fatal "Desire" which "Phisick did except", is seen in Psalm 147's "feeding the young ravens" (carrion feeding ravens, symbolic of Death) and in "medicine" for the "broken in heart" (see Psalm 147 verses 3 and 9). [2]

Sexuality
Like many of the sonnets written by Shakespeare, sonnet 147 was written to or about the Dark Lady. There’s an obvious sexual tone to the sonnet. A jolted lover is describing their inability to stop loving their mistress, who has not seemed to remain faithful. The sonnet itself seems to be sexually ambiguous, there is no reference to gender, so one could argue that this sonnet is homoerotic or heterosexually based, but due to the couplet describing someone “...black as hell, as dark as night”, the general consensus is that this sonnet was written to or about the Dark Lady.

Analysis and Criticism of Lines 1-8
Robert Appelbaum is a critic who wrote an article on Sonnet 147 in The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare. The following is his prose paraphrase of the first two quatrains in order to better understand Shakespeare’s language: “My love is like a fever; it keeps longing for the thing that strokes it and only makes it worse; it feeds on what makes it sick in order to gratify a volatile, pathological appetite. My rational mind, which would act as a physician and cure me of this morbid love, is angry because its prescriptions have not been followed, and so it has abandoned me. In a desperate condition, I now find by experience that desire, which rejected medicine (or which medicine proscribed), is death” [3] Appelbaum begins by discussing that the first quatrains are entirely subjective in outlook and the poem develops metaphysical ideas, similar to the poems of John Donne. “It dramatizes a condition of the inner life, at once physical and mental, through which an individual has failed to prevent himself from falling in to the extreme, unhealthy madness of love[4] ” . He argues there are statements that each dominate the quatrain in which it appears. The statement he talks about in the first quatrain is: “My love is like a fever.” Appelbaum suggest that like a fever, this is a love that burns. More importantly, this statement addresses the pre-modern medicine belief that fevers didn’t happen because of an infectious pathogen, but because of something that was eaten. The feverous subject continues to desire this food that made it sick, even though to consume more of this product makes the disease worse. The statement that dominates the second quatrain is, “My reason has left me.” Appelbaum explains this as because the speaker’s reason has left him, he cannot keep himself from continuing to feed on the cause of his illness- and the idea of death approaches.

Sonnet 147 Therefore, Appelbaum concludes that these quatrains “develop the idea of a man who, having contracted a pathological condition, has spun out of control, in the course of which a truth that is not truth at all begins to form in his mind: “desire is death" [5] Next, he examines the idea of the divided self. He says that one of the most interesting aspects of the sonnet is what if offers to the psychology of inward experience that was taken for granted in Shakespeare’s time. There are two instances of the divided self. First, the poet is divided from his own passion. “This is a division of the self where love and desire are experienced like an illness, and the illness itself experienced like a gluttonous fever” [6] . Then he spent time discussing the idea of eating something “cold.” He writes, “In medicine of Shakespeare’s time, a fever could be triggered by eating something too “cold,” though not necessarily something cold in a literal sense; it may be a question of something “cold” in a medical, analogical sense. The body would heat up (literally) in order to compensate for this “coldness.” But as the body was heated up, the individual might then crave to eat more of the “cold” substance to cool himself, though the effect would only be to trigger more eat. So a deprived or “sickly appetite” would be avaricious for a substance that would seem to make the individual better but could only make the individual worse” [7] . The speaker asserts that this is what love is like. The speaker desires more and more of the person that makes him sick with love, and “feeding” on this love-object ends up making him sicker. However, as the speaker gets sicker with passion for a love that is harmful, his reason is still able to tell him to stop. The second instance of the divided self is a division between one’s rational mind and one’s passionate behavior. The rational mind can prescribe a treatment for the passion, for instance, tell it to stop eating, but the passion is too strong and continues. The speaker believes that his reason can actually get angry and abandon him, making him desperate. However, he’s still conscious enough to recognize the most stunning idea of the poem that “desire is death.” Appelbaum says Shakespeare’s thoughts of the rational mind vs. passion foreshadow Freud’s later idea of the conflict between Eros and Thanatos (or the life drive vs. the death drive) and the Ego surrendering to the Id, while disregarding the wisdom of the Superego. Helen Vendler also looked at Sonnet 147 in The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. In her criticism, she focused mostly on the language and word choice of the sonnet. Her ideas are that certain parallels in rhythm “foreground” conceptual resemblances. For example, the subject phrase “my reason” matches rhythmically and positionally its verb phrase “hath left me.” At the same time, “Desire is death” matches its parallel which is “past cure I am.” She argues that the alliterating chain of words disease, desperate, desire, death, discourse, dark tells the story of the poem. She discusses that the paradox of the sonnet is that the “madman” is in actuality perfectly clear about what the truth is. Because of this, we cannot believe him when he tells us that Reason has left him. Carl Atkins provided his criticism of Sonnet 147 in Shakespeare’s Sonnets with Three Hundred Years of Commentary.” He notes that the first quatrain is an extended simile of a patient with a fever, keeping himself ill with things he doesn’t really like. This does not follow according to Atikins, because any cure “based on the theory of the four humors would forbid a feverish patient food” [8] . This is based on the modern proverb, “feed a cold and starve a fever.” The simile continues with Reason acting as a physician and the patient ignoring his own damage. Atkins describes that lines 7 and 8 have caused some difficulty of interpretation because the phrase “I desperate now approve” is unclear. He and other scholars such as Dowden interpret “I desperate” as “I, who am desperate.” Some critics such as Schmidt defines “approve” as “experience,” but other critics argue against this because there is little basis for that in Shakespeare. The line “Desire is Death” (line 8) is central to the poem. It should be noted that there is a biblical reference here, as Romans 8:6 reads: “For to be carnally minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is life and peace.” This simply means that if one follows the appetites and passions of the body, death will come, but if one is spiritual they will live peacefully. The speaker in Sonnet 147 is preoccupied and “mad” with passion, which according to the bible, will lead to death. As to Sonnets 146 and 147 considered as a pair, Fred Blick (see above) has pointed out that "Desire" in Sonnet 147 is on one side of a metaphorical equarion. On the other side stand the "rebel powers" of 146. The speaker's "soul" of 146 and "mind" of 147 are afflicted by "rebel powers" and "Desire" respectively. These

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Sonnet 147 afflictions are equivalent to "Death" which "Phisick" and "terms devine" could forestall.

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Analysis and Criticism of Lines 9-14
Continuing Applebaum’s Modern English prose paraphrase, I am past being cured; my rational mind that should cure me is past caring for me. I am frantically mad, ever unable to seep. My thoughts and words are like a madman’s, at odds with the truth and poorly articulated. For I have sworn that you are fair, and have regarded you as beautiful physically and morally, although you are “as black as hell, as dark as night” Vendler has an interesting way to look at this sonnet which most all critics see as a decent into madness. She notices the etymology of the words used in the quatrains vs. the couplet, seeing a distinctly “elaborate Latinity of diagnosis and explanation” in the quatrains, and a “predominantly Anglo-Saxon lexicon” in the couplet. This decent can be seen as a devolution [9] Latin is the language of science, and the narrator begins as very diagnostic. However, in his lashing out in the couplet, he puts the more base words, the words of true emotion that were not overrun by the Latin language influence, into play. [10] Vendler also sees the dichotomy of the first person self-referential tone of the quatrains and the second person exclamations in the second quatrain the couplet “departs from the self-referential tone.” This tone is very important as Vendler makes the assertion that the narrator is not mad. The narrator abandons his hope and reason, not the other way around. [11] “He says he knows what Reason says, but he no longer cares to observe its mandates.” He also describes his actions as like those of a madman. This Narrator has given up on civilized life, instead agreeing to rule himself by his emotions, after he forced his Reason out. Vendler further backs up her claim by noting the rhyme structure in the couplet, “perfect symbolic blance—6, 4, 6, 4” Vendler sees this as a perfect example of “madness’ of thought and protection.” [12] Stephen Booth, who writes with a language-based approach, has one very interesting note. He says three lines reflect popular proverbs. Two Shakespeare uses include “Frantic mad with unrest” and proverb states, “Desire has no rest.” Along with “Black as hell” being a common descriptor in Shakespear’s time. But the most interesting was Shakespeare's use of “Past cure, past care.” Meaning a sickness that could not be cured should not be thought about. However , “Shakespeare is here not merely reproducing the proverb, but playing with it, for he has here inverted it. The case is past cure because the physician has ceased to care.” [13]

References
[1] Appelbaum, Robert. "Sonnet 147." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare Voume 4: The Romances and Poetry. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. London: Greenwood, 2005. 1266-271. Print. [2] Fred Blick. "Psalms and Sonnets: 146 and 147", The Upstart Crow, A Shakespeare Journal, Clemson SC, Clemson University Press, vol.XXIII, 2003. 91-103. [3] Appelbaum, Robert. "Sonnet 147." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare Voume 4: The Romances and Poetry. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. London: Greenwood, 2005. 1266-271. Print. [4] Appelbaum, Robert. "Sonnet 147." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare Voume 4: The Romances and Poetry. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. London: Greenwood, 2005. 1266-271. Print. [5] Appelbaum, Robert. "Sonnet 147." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare Volume 4: The Romances and Poetry. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. London: Greenwood, 2005. 1266-271. Print. [6] Appelbaum, Robert. "Sonnet 147." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare Voume 4: The Romances and Poetry. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. London: Greenwood, 2005. 1266-271. Print. [7] Appelbaum, Robert. "Sonnet 147." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare Voume 4: The Romances and Poetry. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. London: Greenwood, 2005. 1266-271. Print. [8] "147." Shakespeare's Sonnets With Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Ed. Carl Atkins. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2007. 360-62. Print.

Sonnet 147
[9] Vendler, Helen. "147." The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997. 617-20. Print. [10] Vendler, Helen. "147." The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997. 617-20. Print. [11] Vendler, Helen. "147." The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997. 617-20. Print. [12] Vendler, Helen. "147." The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997. 617-20. Print. [13] Shakespeares's Sonnets: Edited with Analytic Commentary. Ed. Stephen Booth. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 517-519. Print

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Sources
1. "147." Shakespeare's Sonnets With Three Hundred Years of Commentary. Ed. Carl Atkins. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2007. 360-62. Print. 2. Appelbaum, Robert. "Sonnet 147." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare Voume 4: The Romances and Poetry. Ed. Joseph Rosenblum. London: Greenwood, 2005. 1266-271. Print. 3. Vendler, Helen. "147." The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997. 617-20. Print. 4. McNeir, Waldo F. "The Masks of Richard the Third." Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 11,No. 2. 1971. 167-186. Print 5. Shakespeares's Sonnets: Edited with Analytic Commentary. Ed. Stephen Booth. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 517-519. Print

Sonnet 148
« » Sonnet 148 O me, what eyes hath Love put in my head, Which have no correspondence with true sight! Or, if they have, where is my judgment fled, That censures falsely what they see aright? If that be fair whereon my false eyes dote, What means the world to say it is not so? If it be not, then love doth well denote Love's eye is not so true as all men's 'No.' How can it? O, how can Love's eye be true, That is so vex'd with watching and with tears? No marvel then, though I mistake my view; The sun itself sees not till heaven clears. O cunning Love! with tears thou keep'st me blind, Lest eyes well-seeing thy foul faults should find. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 148

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Notes and references
• Shakespeare's Sonnets online [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 148comm. htm

Sonnet 149
« » Sonnet 149 Canst thou, O cruel! say I love thee not, When I against myself with thee partake? Do I not think on thee, when I forgot Am of myself, all tyrant, for thy sake? Who hateth thee that I do call my friend? On whom frown'st thou that I do fawn upon? Nay, if thou lour'st on me, do I not spend Revenge upon myself with present moan? What merit do I in myself respect, That is so proud thy service to despise, When all my best doth worship thy defect, Commanded by the motion of thine eyes? But, love, hate on, for now I know thy mind; Those that can see thou lovest, and I am blind. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 150

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Sonnet 150
« » Sonnet 150 O, from what power hast thou this powerful might With insufficiency my heart to sway? To make me give the lie to my true sight, And swear that brightness doth not grace the day? Whence hast thou this becoming of things ill, That in the very refuse of thy deeds There is such strength and warrantize of skill That, in my mind, thy worst all best exceeds? Who taught thee how to make me love thee more The more I hear and see just cause of hate? O, though I love what others do abhor, With others thou shouldst not abhor my state: If thy unworthiness raised love in me, More worthy I to be beloved of thee. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 151
« » Sonnet 151 Love is too young to know what conscience is; Yet who knows not conscience is born of love? Then, gentle cheater, urge not my amiss, Lest guilty of my faults thy sweet self prove: For, thou betraying me, I do betray My nobler part to my gross body's treason; My soul doth tell my body that he may Triumph in love; flesh stays no father reason; But, rising at thy name, doth point out thee As his triumphant prize. Proud of this pride, He is contented thy poor drudge to be, To stand in thy affairs, fall by thy side. No want of conscience hold it that I call Her 'love' for whose dear love I rise and fall. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 151 is the 151st of 154 poems in sonnet form by William Shakespeare published in a 1609 collection titled SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS. The sonnet belongs to the Dark Lady sequence (sonnets 127–152), which distinguishes itself from the The Fair Youth sequence by being more overtly sexual in its passion. Sonnet 151 is

Sonnet 151 characterized as "bawdy" and is used to illustrate the difference between the spiritual love for the Fair Youth and the sexual love for the Dark Lady.[1] The distinction is commonly made in the introduction to modern editions of the sonnets in order to avoid suggesting that Shakespeare was homosexual.[1]

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Exegesis
The poem starts with an admonishment to the Dark Lady to not accuse the speaker of sin since she might find herself guilty of the same; specifically her infidelity to the speaker by sleeping with the Fair Youth.[2] The speaker's sin, on the other hand, is to betray himself by allowing his body rather than his soul to steer his actions.[2] It uses the body as a metaphor for the male penis, "rising" and "falling" with an erection when aroused, and so reduces the speaker to nothing more than his phallus; by giving in to his desires he enslaves himself to the Dark Lady.[2] Sonnet 151, with a "bawdy chronicle of erection and detumescence," contrasts with Sonnet 55's "grandiloquent expression," but their theme is the same: "what changes, what remains."[3] Sonnet 55 "celebrates ... love and poetry that endure[s]" where Sonnet 151 "contemplates the inevitability of change..."[3] Sonnet 151 has been compared to a verse by 17th–century author Joseph Swetnam—published in 1615 under the pseudonym Thomas Tell-Troth, in a pamphlet titled The Arraignment of Lewd, Idle, Froward, and Unconstant Women—satirizing the vices of women. "The woman's best part call it I dare / Wherein no man comes but must stand bare / And let him be never so stout / T'will take him down before he goes out."[2] Both poems imply that sex subordinates the man to the woman.[2] The extensive bawdy imagery of the poem, from the "nobler part" ("penis") in line 6 to the "rise and fall" of line 14, has been discussed extensively.[4]

Meter
Sonnet 151 is a typical English or Shakespearean sonnet. It consists of three quatrains followed by a couplet, and has the characteristic rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg.[5]

Syllabic structure of a line of Sonnet 151
Stress Syllable x / x / x / x / x /

No want of con- science hold it that I call

In film
This sonnet is one of fourteen read in Derek Jarman's film The Angelic Conversation, which discusses homosexuality. It is the first poem shown in the film, the only one not read aloud, and one of only two partially and not wholly portrayed (the last two lines of Sonnet 57 are also omitted). Only the first two lines of the poem are seen on screen. Jarman is attempting to challenge the idea that Shakespeare was solely heterosexual. In the context of his film, the opening two lines seem to communicate that conscience and ethics come from sexual attraction.[6]

Sonnet 151

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References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Matz, Robert. The World of Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Introduction. p. 111. ISBN 9780786432196. Matz, Robert. The World of Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Introduction. pp. 131–32. ISBN 9780786432196. Matz, Robert. The World of Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Introduction. pp. 149. ISBN 9780786432196. Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. pp. 525–29. ISBN 0300019599. Ward, Jean. Shakespeare: An Homage To. Lulu.com, 2008. ISBN 143573288X p. 338 Pencak, William. The Films of Derek Jarman. Jefferson: McFarland, 2002. ISBN 0786414308 pp. 87-88

Sonnet 152
« » Sonnet 152 In loving thee thou know'st I am forsworn, But thou art twice forsworn, to me love swearing, In act thy bed-vow broke and new faith torn, In vowing new hate after new love bearing. But why of two oaths' breach do I accuse thee, When I break twenty? I am perjured most; For all my vows are oaths but to misuse thee And all my honest faith in thee is lost, For I have sworn deep oaths of thy deep kindness, Oaths of thy love, thy truth, thy constancy, And, to enlighten thee, gave eyes to blindness, Or made them swear against the thing they see; For I have sworn thee fair; more perjured I, To swear against the truth so foul a lie! –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 153

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Sonnet 153
« » Sonnet 153 Cupid laid by his brand, and fell asleep: A maid of Dian's this advantage found, And his love-kindling fire did quickly steep In a cold valley-fountain of that ground; Which borrow'd from this holy fire of Love A dateless lively heat, still to endure, And grew a seething bath, which yet men prove Against strange maladies a sovereign cure. But at my mistress' eye Love's brand new-fired, The boy for trial needs would touch my breast; I, sick withal, the help of bath desired, And thither hied, a sad distemper'd guest, But found no cure: the bath for my help lies Where Cupid got new fire--my mistress' eyes. –William Shakespeare

Sonnet 153 is a sonnet by William Shakespeare.

Synopsis
Sonnets 153 and 154 are filled with rather bawdy double entendres of sex followed by contraction of a venereal disease.[1] The sonnet is a story of Cupid, who lays down his torch and falls asleep, only to have it stolen by Diana, who extinguishes it in a "cold valley-fountain". The fountain then acquires an eternal heat as a result, and becomes a hot spring where men still come to be cured of diseases. The speaker then states that as his mistress looks at him, Cupid's torch is ignited again, and Cupid tests the torch by trying it on the speaker's heart. The speaker becomes sick with love and wants to bathe in the hot spring to cure himself, but he cannot. The speaker discovers the only thing that can cure his discomfort is a glance from his mistress. See also: Shakespeare's sonnets

External links
• Commentary and analysis of the sonnet [2] • CliffsNotes on the sonnet [3]

Notes
[1] (2004). Sparknotes:No Fear Shakespeare: The Sonnets. New York, NY: Spark Publishing. ISBN 1-4114-0219-7. [2] http:/ / www. shakespeares-sonnets. com/ 153comm. htm [3] http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ id-169,pageNum-156. html

Sonnet 154

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Sonnet 154
« Sonnet 154 The little Love-god lying once asleep Laid by his side his heart-inflaming brand, Whilst many nymphs that vow'd chaste life to keep Came tripping by; but in her maiden hand The fairest votary took up that fire Which many legions of true hearts had warm'd; And so the general of hot desire Was sleeping by a virgin hand disarm'd. This brand she quenched in a cool well by, Which from Love's fire took heat perpetual, Growing a bath and healthful remedy For men diseased; but I, my mistress' thrall, Came there for cure, and this by that I prove, Love's fire heats water, water cools not love. –William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare's Sonnet 153 and Sonnet 154 are based upon a poem attributed to the Greek poet Marcianus Scholasticus. The poem describes how Cupid has his love brand stolen by nymphs. Sonnet 153 and Sonnet 154 are described as Anacreontic, after the name of a Greek writer who wrote love poems. The poem not only presents a different version of the traditional Petrarchan mistress, but rather a Dark Lady (from sonnet 127-154). This sonnet also flouts the idea that the poet can make the subject immortal through the authorship of their work.[1] The portrayal of the mistress in this work is different than those of any previous Renaissance sonneteers because it abandons the courtly love tradition where the poet elaborately celebrates the worth of his unattainable lover.[2]

Interpretations
• Bohdan Poraj, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI) • David Tennant, reads this, alongside several other sonnets in From Shakespeare With Love, released in 2009 as a celebration of 400 years of Shakespeare

Notes
[1] Duncan-Jones, Katherine. "Playing Fields or Killing Fields: Shakespeare's Poems and Sonnets." Shakespeare Quarterly 54 (2003): 127-141; p. 141. [2] Duncan-Jones, p. 141.

External links
• Shakespeare's sonnet guide to Sonnet 154. (http://www.shakespeares-sonnets.com/154comm.htm) • A rare Sonnet illustration for 154. (http://www.english.emory.edu/classes/Shakespeare_Illustrated/Frost. Cupid.html)

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Music and Entertainment
A Waste of Shame
A Waste of Shame
Genre Written by Directed by Starring Period drama, biopic William Boyd John McKay Rupert Graves, Tom Sturridge, Indira Varma Kevin Sargent United Kingdom English Production Executive producer(s) Richard Fell, Sally Woodward Gentle Producer(s) Editor(s) Location(s) Cinematography Camera setup Running time Chrissy Skinns Anne Sopel Richard May Tim Palmer Steve Alcorn 90 minutes Broadcast Original channel Original airing BBC Four 22 November 2005

Composer(s) Country of origin Language(s)

For the novel, see A Waste of Shame (novel). A Waste of Shame (aka A Waste of Shame: The Mystery of Shakespeare and His Sonnets) is a 90-minute television drama on the circumstances surrounding William Shakespeare and the composition of his sonnets. It takes its title from the first line of Sonnet 129. It was first broadcast on BBC Four on 22 November 2005 as part of the supporting programming for the BBC's ShakespeaRe-Told season. Its screenplay was written by William Boyd and the film was directed by John McKay.

''A Waste of Shame''

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Cast
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Rupert Graves - William Shakespeare Tom Sturridge - William Herbert ("the Fair Youth") Indira Varma - Lucie ("the Dark Lady") Zoë Wanamaker - Countess of Pembroke Anna Chancellor - Anne Hathaway Andrew Tiernan - Ben Jonson Nicky Henson - John Shakespeare Alan Williams - George Wilkins Nicholas Rowe - Richard Burbage John Voce - William Kempe Tom Hiddleston - John Hall Christopher Fairbank - Physician Ian Hughes - Thomas Thorpe Clem Tibber - Hamnet Shakespeare Tom Mison - Young Blood

External links
• A Waste of Shame [1] at the Internet Movie Database • BBC Press Release [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0491232/ [2] http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ pressoffice/ pressreleases/ stories/ 2005/ 10_october/ 20/ shake_four. shtml

The Dark Lady of the Sonnets

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The Dark Lady of the Sonnets
The Dark Lady of the Sonnets is a 1910 short play by George Bernard Shaw on William Shakespeare and the "Dark Lady" character in his sonnets.

External links
• Playtext (copyrighted) [1]

References
[1] http:/ / drama. eserver. org/ plays/ modern/ dark-lady-of-the-sonnets/

''When Love Speaks''

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When Love Speaks
When Love Speaks

Compilation album by Various artists Released Genre Label April 23, 2002 Vocal, various EMI Classics Professional reviews Allmusic link
[1]

When Love Speaks is a compilation album that features interpretations of William Shakespeare's sonnets and excerpts from his plays by famous actors and musicians, released under EMI Classics in April 2002.[2] [3] [4]

Track listing
1. "Be not afeard, the isle is full of noises" (The Tempest), performed by Joseph Fiennes 2. "Live With Me and Be My Love" (from The Merry Wives of Windsor), performed by Annie Lennox 3. "As an unperfect actor on the stage" ("Sonnet 23"), performed by John Gielgud 4. "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun" ("Sonnet 130"), performed by Alan Rickman 5. "Why is my verse so barren of new pride" ("Sonnet 76"), performed by Diana Rigg 6. "Who will believe my verse in time to come" ("Sonnet 17"), performed by Richard Attenborough 7. "That you were once unkind befriends me now" ("Sonnet 120"), performed by Paul Rhys 8. "How oft, when thou, my music" ("Sonnet 128"), performed by Juliet Stevenson 9. "When, in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes" ("Sonnet 29"), performed by Rufus Wainwright 10. "Being your slave, what should I do but tend" ("Sonnet 57"), performed by Janet McTeer 11. "Tired with all these, for restful death I cry" ("Sonnet 66"), performed by Alan Bates 12. "When I consider everything that grows" ("Sonnet 15"), performed by Marianne Jean-Baptiste 13. "Let those who are in favour with their stars" ("Sonnet 25"), performed by David Warner 14. "They that have power to hurt and will do none" ("Sonnet 94"), performed by Siân Phillips 15. "Those lips that Love's own hand did make" ("Sonnet 145"), performed by John Hurt 16. "Come again sweet love" performed by John Potter (John Dowland) 17. "Th'expense of spirit in a waste of shame" ("Sonnet 129"), performed by Ralph Fiennes

''When Love Speaks'' 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. "Thine eyes I love, and they, as pitying me" ("Sonnet 132"), performed by Matthew Rhys "I never saw that you did painting need" ("Sonnet 83"), performed by Imelda Staunton "When to the sessions of sweet silent thought" ("Sonnet 30"), performed by Kenneth Branagh "It is thy will thy image should keep open", performed by Fiona Shaw "Mine eye and heart are at mortal war", performed by Henry Goodman "No more be grieved at that which thou hast done" ("Sonnet 35"), performed by Keb' Mo' "O never say that I was false of heart" ("Sonnet 109"), performed by Susannah York "Look in thy glass and tell the face thou viewest" ("Sonnet 3"), performed by Timothy Spall "Some glory in their birth, some in their skill" ("Sonnet 91"), performed by Peter Barkworth "How heavy do I journey on the way" ("Sonnet 50"), performed by Gemma Jones "Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea" ("Sonnet 65"), performed by Jonathan Pryce "Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore" ("Sonnet 60"), performed by Richard Wilson "The quality of mercy is not strained" (from The Merchant of Venice - Act 4, scene 1), performed by Des'ree "Sweet love, renew thy force; be it not said" ("Sonnet 56"), performed by Tom Courtenay "Since I left you, mine eye is in my mind" ("Sonnet 113"), performed by Zoe Waites "Be wise as thou art cruel; do not press" ("Sonnet 140"), performed by Edward Fox "It is for fear to wet a widow's eye", performed by Trevor Eve "So it is not with me as with that Muse" ("Sonnet 21"), performed by Imogen Stubbs "Devouring Time, blunt thou the lion's paws" ("Sonnet 19"), performed by David Harewood "The Willow Song", performed by Barbara Bonney "When my love swears that she is made of truth" ("Sonnet 138"), performed by Richard Johnson "When I do count the clock that tells the time" ("Sonnet 12"), performed by Martin Jarvis "What potions have I drunk of siren tears" ("Sonnet 119"), performed by Roger Hammond "Not marble nor the gilded monuments" ("Sonnet 55"), performed by Richard Briers "Sin of self-love possesseth all mine eye" ("Sonnet 62"), performed by John Sessions "Let me not to the marriage of true minds" ("Sonnet 116"), performed by Thelma Holt "Music to hear, why hearst thou music sadly" ("Sonnet 8"), performed by Ladysmith Black Mambazo "When forty winters shall besiege thy brow" ("Sonnet 2"), performed by Caroline Blakiston "No longer mourn for me when I am dead" ("Sonnet 71"), performed by Peter Bowles "Love is my sin, and thy dear virtue hate" ("Sonnet 142"), performed by Sylvia Syms "Why didst thou promise such a beauteous day" ("Sonnet 34"), performed by Robert Lindsay "Not from the stars do I my judgement pluck" ("Sonnet 14"), performed by Ioan Gruffudd "My love is as a fever, longing still" ("Sonnet 147"), performed by John Hurt "The little Love-God lying once asleep" ("Sonnet 154"), performed by Bohdan Poraj "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day" ("Sonnet 18"), performed by Bryan Ferry "Our revels are now ended" (from The Tempest), performed by Joseph Fiennes

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Personnel

''When Love Speaks''

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Tim Atack – mixing Richard Attenborough – liner notes Peter Barkworth – performer Nicholas Barter – liner notes Alan Bates – performer Barbara Bonney – soprano Kenneth Branagh – performer James Brett – producer, engineer, mixing Tony Bridge – mastering Andrew Brown Peter Cobbin – pre-mastering Tom Courtenay – performer Caroline Dale – cello Des'ree – producer, performer Ned Douglas – engineer Manfred Eicher – producer Trevor Eve – performer Bryan Ferry – producer Ralph Fiennes – performer Anthony (Tony) Fisher – engineer Geoff Foster – engineer Edward Fox – performer Sir John Gielgud – performer Henry Goodman – performer Ricky Graham – mixing Charles Green – clarinet Barry Guy – baroque violin Maya Homburger – soprano saxophone Ash Howes – mixing Martin Jarvis – engineer

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Mark Johnson – engineer, mixing Michael Kamen – piano, arranger, composer, conductor, producer, liner notes, executive producer, string arrangements Keb' Mo' – performer Annie Lennox – producer Robert Lindsay – engineer Anna McGarrigle – accordion Kate McGarrigle – banjo Stephen McLaughlin – engineer, mixing Don Murnaghan – engineer, mixing Michel Pepin – bass, guitar, producer, engineer, mixing John Potter – performer Jonathan Pryce – performer Alan Rickman – producer, engineer Diana Rigg – performer Iain Roberton – engineer, mixing Prince Sampson – producer Joseph Shabalala – arranger, producer Imelda Staunton – performer Juliet Stevenson – performer Stephen Stubbs – tenor saxophone John Surman – lute Brian Tench – engineer Gillian Tingay – harp Robin Trower – producer Matthew Wadsworth – lute Rufus Wainwright – piano, vocals, producer David Warner – performer Richard Wilson – performer Joel Zifkin – violin

References
[1] http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r586705 [2] "When Love Speaks" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r586705). Allmusic. . Retrieved 2008-11-18. [3] "Rufus Wainwright Discography - When Love Speaks" (http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ artists/ rufuswainwright/ albums/ album/ 209663/ when_love_speaks). Rolling Stone. . Retrieved 2009-02-01. [4] Koenig, Rhoda (2002-02-11). "First Night: When Love Speaks, The Old Vic, London" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ theatre-dance/ reviews/ first-night-when-love-speaks-the-old-vic-london-660329. html). The Independent. . Retrieved 2009-02-01.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403067120  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Chuq, Clpo13, Dpayne1912, Galileo01, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, Stumps, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 6  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403068725  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Chuq, Clpo13, Ewulp, Galileo01, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, Stumps, Xover, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 7  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403068568  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Chuq, Clpo13, Dpayne1912, Galileo01, Jak123, Micmacpaddywac, Mild Bill Hiccup, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, Stumps, Trashedcan, Trixi72, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 8  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403068639  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, Clpo13, Dpayne1912, Francium12, Galileo01, Isopropyl, Jak123, Mandarax, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, Resident Mario, Stumps, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 9  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403069195  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Chuq, Clpo13, Galileo01, JHunterJ, Jak123, Pjoef, Skumarla, Stumps Sonnet 10  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403071915  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Chuq, Galileo01, Jak123, N5iln, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, Stumps, 4 anonymous edits

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Sonnet 11  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403073520  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Chuq, Dpayne1912, Galileo01, Harryzilber, Jak123, Pjoef, Vbbdesign, Vladsinger, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 12  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403074323  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, Chuq, Clpo13, Galileo01, Jak123, Kazikame, Pjoef, Sean D Martin, Sean Parmelee, Skumarla, Tubby23, Vaghestelledellorsa, Yellowbuddy, 16 anonymous edits Sonnet 13  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403075507  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Clpo13, CubBC, Francium12, Galileo01, Jak123, Piano non troppo, Pjoef, Skumarla, Will231, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 14  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403079562  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, Chuq, Clpo13, Dpayne1912, Galileo01, Jak123, Pjoef, Yohhans, 6 anonymous edits Sonnet 15  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403080054  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, 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Jak123, Kdurkin3, Olaf Davis, Old Moonraker, Pjoef, Rdau, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Skumarla, Trixi72, Vaghestelledellorsa, Wiegenlied, Xover, 14 anonymous edits Sonnet 21  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403099063  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, BD2412, Bozonz, Chuq, Deathphoenix, Jak123, Jlittlet, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Skumarla, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 22  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403099839  Contributors: Addihockey10, Chuq, Deathphoenix, Haverpopper, Husond, Jak123, Jlittlet, Mysdaao, Pjoef, Ryanm8655, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Skumarla, Stirling spinner, 8 anonymous edits Sonnet 23  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403100202  Contributors: AgentCDE, Amir Safavi, Another Believer, Cazo3788, Chuq, Deathphoenix, Disneyfreak96, EVula, Fraggle81, Jak123, Jlhughes, Jlittlet, LilHelpa, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Skumarla, Smokizzy, Warut, Zzazzenn, 7 anonymous edits Sonnet 24  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403100762  Contributors: Chuq, Deathphoenix, Dethme0w, Jak123, Jlittlet, Piano non troppo, Pjoef, Ruakh, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Skumarla, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 25  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403101845  Contributors: Another Believer, Chuq, Deathphoenix, Folks at 137, Gilliam, Jak123, Jlittlet, Pjoef, Rjwilmsi, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Skumarla, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 26  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403102522  Contributors: Chuq, DH85868993, Deathphoenix, Jak123, Jlittlet, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Skumarla Sonnet 27  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403103733  Contributors: Chuq, Deathphoenix, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Skumarla, Winndm31, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 28  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403103789  Contributors: Chuq, Deathphoenix, Doc glasgow, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Skumarla, Uncle G, Xover Sonnet 29  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403104148  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, AndyJones, Andycjp, Another Believer, Chuq, Courcelles, Dstlascaux, Giraffedata, It Is Me Here, JFreeman, JLaTondre, Jak123, John of Reading, Jreckard, Kablammo, MC10, Modernist, Muhandes, NawlinWiki, Nisacz, OlEnglish, Olaf Davis, Omphaloscope, Paul Barlow, PhilKnight, Pifactorial, Pjoef, Riana, ShelfSkewed, Slubills88, Stumps, Taam, Tbsdy lives, TheCatalyst31, ThiagoRuiz, Tjmayerinsf, Trixi72, Vaghestelledellorsa, Versus22, WikHead, Wikipete, Xover, 78 anonymous edits Sonnet 30  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=406683952  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, Chuq, Download, Edward321, Folkartscholar, Galileo01, Godwallop, Jak123, Jeff G., Joeecker, John7son, Leonard^Bloom, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Rmcf, Roger Davies, Roscelese, Tassedethe, Thrane, Vaghestelledellorsa, 22 anonymous edits Sonnet 31  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403113375  Contributors: Chuq, Deathphoenix, Haverpopper, Jak123, Jlittlet, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Xover, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 32  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403113821  Contributors: Chuq, Deathphoenix, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 33  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403240863  Contributors: Chuq, Deathphoenix, Haverpopper, Jak123, Jlittlet, Martin451, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Vaghestelledellorsa, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 34  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403241816  Contributors: Another Believer, Chuq, Deathphoenix, Haverpopper, Jak123, Jlittlet, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, X!, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 35  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403242898  Contributors: Another Believer, Chuq, Deathphoenix, Haverpopper, Jak123, Jlittlet, John of Reading, Pjoef, Rjwilmsi, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Trixi72, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 36  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403243536  Contributors: Chuq, Dacatch6, Deathphoenix, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, 10 anonymous edits Sonnet 37  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403243769  Contributors: Chuq, Colonies Chris, Deathphoenix, Jak123, Jlittlet, John Vandenberg, LilHelpa, Mailer diablo, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, Pollinosisss, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Yahel Guhan, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 38  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403244842  Contributors: Chuq, Deathphoenix, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 39  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403246444  Contributors: Chuq, Deathphoenix, Dougdigdag, Jak123, Jlittlet, Jordanp, Malcolmxl5, Olaf Davis, Person123222, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, 9 anonymous edits Sonnet 40  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403246546  Contributors: Chuq, Davewild, Deathphoenix, Jak123, Jlittlet, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Warut, 8 anonymous edits Sonnet 41  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403812178  Contributors: Deathphoenix, Ed!, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Tide rolls, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 42  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403980890  Contributors: Deathphoenix, Drbreznjev, DuncanHill, GregorB, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, Trixi72, 5 anonymous edits

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Sonnet 43  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403980900  Contributors: AVand, Da monster under your bed, Deathphoenix, Haverpopper, Jak123, Jlittlet, LAX, Morged, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, So God created Manchester, Special Cases, Wsvlqc, 15 anonymous edits Sonnet 44  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403981920  Contributors: Deathphoenix, Hermione is a dude, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 45  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403981956  Contributors: Antandrus, Deathphoenix, Eliz81, Jak123, Olaf Davis, ParalysedBeaver, Pjoef, Sean Parmelee, Sjakkalle, 5 anonymous edits Sonnet 46  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403982015  Contributors: Dragonsofchaos2005, Jak123, Luna Santin, Olaf Davis, Signinstranger, Trixi72, 10 anonymous edits Sonnet 47  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403982056  Contributors: Folks at 137, Haverpopper, Jak123, Jlittlet, Signinstranger, Skyezx, Trixi72, Ttony21, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 48  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403982390  Contributors: Jak123, Olaf Davis, Signinstranger Sonnet 49  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403982398  Contributors: Jak123, Olaf Davis, Signinstranger, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 50  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403982404  Contributors: Agroking, Another Believer, Jak123, Mr.Z-man, Olaf Davis, Signinstranger, Xover, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 51  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403982417  Contributors: Bekahhw, Jak123, Maximilian Caldwell, Olaf Davis, Signinstranger Sonnet 52  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403983799  Contributors: Jak123, Olaf Davis, Signinstranger, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 53  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403983811  Contributors: Allen4names, Chuq, Cremepuff222, Haverpopper, Jak123, Jlittlet, Signinstranger, Skumarla, Trixi72, 7 anonymous edits Sonnet 54  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403983816  Contributors: Asnidtker, Chowbok, Jak123, Jlittlet, Signinstranger, Trixi72, WikHead, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 55  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403983849  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, Auréola, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Chuq, Crazycomputers, Insanity Incarnate, Jak123, Jeff3000, Ling.Nut, Lock lord, Mayumashu, Mercury, Olaf Davis, PatrickFisher, Reaper Eternal, RetiredUser2, Robk755, Sciurinæ, Skumarla, Stumps, Supertunaman, Trixi72, Xover, 44 anonymous edits Sonnet 56  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403983860  Contributors: Another Believer, Jak123, Ntomlin, Olaf Davis, Signinstranger Sonnet 57  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403983823  Contributors: Another Believer, Chuq, Doc glasgow, Olaf Davis, Pperos, Signinstranger, Uncle G, Xover, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 58  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403983831  Contributors: Amir Safavi, DH85868993, Discospinster, Haverpopper, Jlittlet, Kbdank71, Olaf Davis, Signinstranger, 7 anonymous edits Sonnet 59  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403983838  Contributors: Drmies, Muhandes, Mytwinki, Olaf Davis, Signinstranger, Tlazopan, Trixi72, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 60  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403984690  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, CasperGoodwood, Dave.Dunford, Francium12, Hmains, Jessielenis, Jlparnis, LilHelpa, Olaf Davis, Rocosm, Signinstranger, T-borg, Trixi72, 16 anonymous edits Sonnet 61  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=336582639  Contributors: Jak123, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Signinstranger Sonnet 62  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=336582730  Contributors: Another Believer, BirgitteSB, Jlittlet, Narcisso, Olaf Davis, Pat Payne, Pjoef Sonnet 63  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=336582857  Contributors: Excirial, Feeeshboy, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, 4 anonymous edits Sonnet 64  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=336582996  Contributors: Britlitrust, Feeeshboy, Gaius Cornelius, LilHelpa, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Trixi72, Zoicon5, 4 anonymous edits Sonnet 65  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=406154840  Contributors: Another Believer, Arjayay, Atorgerson, Cvalent2, Feeeshboy, NickCT, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Trixi72, 7 anonymous edits Sonnet 66  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=390296179  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, Arcturus, Freivolk, Galileo01, Olaf Davis, Sgt Pinback, Vadim i z, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 67  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=390296196  Contributors: Belovedfreak, Brenont, Btyner, Haverpopper, Jlittlet, Olaf Davis, Philip Trueman, Stupidity419, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 68  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=336583505  Contributors: Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Rich Farmbrough Sonnet 69  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=336583580  Contributors: Jlittlet, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 70  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=240981399  Contributors: Hal peridol, Imasleepviking, Nathan, Olaf Davis, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 71  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=371513709  Contributors: Another Believer, Jake34567, Olaf Davis, Raditzu, Rich Farmbrough, 5 anonymous edits Sonnet 72  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211631033  Contributors: Chriswiki, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 73  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=405006779  Contributors: ABShippee, Adambiswanger1, Bobo192, Darklilac, Epolk, Feeeshboy, Francium12, Gaius Davidius, Galileo01, Jlhughes, Joobdude, MONGO, Mac Davis, Materialscientist, Merovingian, Mild Bill Hiccup, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, R33S2, Sumuhoza, Treeinthebog, Trixi72, Ycdkwm, 22 anonymous edits Sonnet 74  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211631061  Contributors: I need a name, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 75  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=339563642  Contributors: Lkjhgfdsa, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 76  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=396750271  Contributors: Another Believer, Inkweasle, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Steveweing, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 77  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403175126  Contributors: Jak123, Jlittlet, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, Seth ze, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 78  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=371193814  Contributors: Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Pjoef Sonnet 79  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=406502432  Contributors: Hemlock Martinis, Jak123, Maziebooks, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 80  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=359582711  Contributors: Hemlock Martinis, Jak123, Malcolmxl5, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow Sonnet 81  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=371359557  Contributors: Alksub, Hemlock Martinis, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 82  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211957980  Contributors: Hemlock Martinis, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 83  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=246574696  Contributors: Another Believer, Hemlock Martinis, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Tempodivalse, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 84  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211958702  Contributors: Hemlock Martinis, Jak123, Olaf Davis, 2 anonymous edits

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Sonnet 85  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=266404411  Contributors: Hemlock Martinis, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 86  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211958841  Contributors: Hemlock Martinis, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow Sonnet 87  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=396254881  Contributors: DuncanHill, Hemlock Martinis, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Samu3l, Trixi72, 5 anonymous edits Sonnet 88  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211959418  Contributors: Hemlock Martinis, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 89  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=342468755  Contributors: Colonies Chris, Hemlock Martinis, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow Sonnet 90  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=212442565  Contributors: Hemlock Martinis, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 91  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=323334862  Contributors: Aluo, Another Believer, Btyner, Fred Bradstadt, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Rich Farmbrough, 6 anonymous edits Sonnet 92  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=318961140  Contributors: Kernel Saunters, Nonagonal Spider, Olaf Davis, Oxf806 Sonnet 93  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=352535217  Contributors: Galileo01, MostNutsEver, Nishkid64, Olaf Davis, Pascal.Tesson, 4 anonymous edits Sonnet 94  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=338863982  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, CasperGoodwood, Francium12, Galileo01, Johngribben, Nick Levine, Olaf Davis, Scottandrewhutchins, Trixi72, 17 anonymous edits Sonnet 95  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=348390999  Contributors: Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 96  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=269630649  Contributors: Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Shoeofdeath, 8 anonymous edits Sonnet 97  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=396743601  Contributors: Andyman1125, Fieldday-sunday, Haverpopper, Jlittlet, Olaf Davis, Old Moonraker, Pian0playa714, 9 anonymous edits Sonnet 98  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=361118191  Contributors: Jlittlet, Kernel Saunters, Olaf Davis, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 99  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=286909994  Contributors: Arch dude, Jlittlet, Kernel Saunters, Olaf Davis, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 100  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=342498482  Contributors: Antandrus, Olaf Davis, P2esp, Paul Barlow, Slicedoranges, TubularWorld, 8 anonymous edits Sonnet 101  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=254682680  Contributors: Intgr, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 102  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=318828977  Contributors: Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 103  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211961994  Contributors: Deb, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow Sonnet 104  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=395916700  Contributors: Flipmylife, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 4 anonymous edits Sonnet 105  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=358812174  Contributors: Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 106  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211962166  Contributors: Jettprograms, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow Sonnet 107  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=230764973  Contributors: Co567t, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, WikHead Sonnet 108  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=251863504  Contributors: Jak123, Olaf Davis, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 109  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=393912184  Contributors: Another Believer, Matchups, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 110  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211962750  Contributors: Olaf Davis Sonnet 111  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403154624  Contributors: Alpha Ralpha Boulevard, Emeraude, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, 4 anonymous edits Sonnet 112  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211962757  Contributors: Olaf Davis, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 113  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=246583165  Contributors: Another Believer, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Wingspeed Sonnet 114  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=387057368  Contributors: JoshuaChristia, Olaf Davis, Susfele Sonnet 115  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=399608657  Contributors: Black Kite, Corvus cornix, Fram, GuillaumeTell, Hersfold, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, PhilKnight, Singularity, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 116  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=404519129  Contributors: Aitias, Another Believer, Antandrus, Archiblog, BD2412, Bagehot33, Barriodude, BiT, Brianga, Chaucer, Conrad Leviston, Delirium, Dudesleeper, DwightKingsbury, Epbr123, Excaladbiur, Favonian, Guy0307, HenryAyoola, JamesAM, Jessebuckingham, Kari marie, Khepidjemwa'atnefru, Landrumkelly, Ling.Nut, Lithfo, Lithoderm, Luna Santin, Marek69, Melmann, Mendaliv, Midgrid, Ninjakannon, Olaf Davis, Ponyo, Possum, Psyche825, RJB-nl, S, Sbp, Shaz91, Synchronism, Tbhotch, Tdohert3, Thesis4Eva, Trixi72, Ucucha, Vrenator, Willscrlt, Winnow, Woohookitty, Wrad, Xover, 95 anonymous edits Sonnet 117  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=212064260  Contributors: Butseriouslyfolks, Olaf Davis, Roger Davies, XLerate, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 118  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=388838653  Contributors: Buey36, Olaf Davis Sonnet 119  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=246591193  Contributors: Another Believer, Olaf Davis Sonnet 120  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=388838637  Contributors: Another Believer, Buey36, Olaf Davis, Swerdnaneb, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 121  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=344434158  Contributors: Butseriouslyfolks, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Roger Davies, Steveweing, XLerate, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 122  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=375477209  Contributors: Butseriouslyfolks, Danika467, Olaf Davis, Quinsareth, Roger Davies, XLerate Sonnet 123  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=345260535  Contributors: JesseRafe, Olaf Davis, Sir Bradfordshire, 6 anonymous edits Sonnet 124  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=212391218  Contributors: Olaf Davis, Vladsinger Sonnet 125  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=400735370  Contributors: DVdm, Olaf Davis, Vladsinger, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 126  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=394681975  Contributors: Hans404, Keepssouth, Olaf Davis, Vladsinger, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 127  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=385583694  Contributors: Auréola, Olaf Davis, P Ingerson, Tjonesster, Tyrangiel, Vladsinger, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 128  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=404241542  Contributors: 97198, Another Believer, Olaf Davis, Pipatron, Pjoef, Psychiker, Roscelese, Vladsinger, 9 anonymous edits Sonnet 129  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=404241557  Contributors: 97198, Andycjp, Another Believer, CharlotteWebb, Dr. Robbinson, J04n, JNW, Mygerardromance, Olaf Davis, Shirulashem, SlackerMom, Stratman07, Vladsinger, 10 anonymous edits

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Sonnet 130  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=407048512  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, Eagle Owl, Elroyz, Flowerkiller1692, Francium12, Ginsengbomb, J.delanoy, JForget, Jamie.parkinson, JimmyJameson, Jitterro, Kangxi emperor6868, Keepssouth, Killiondude, Kndiaye, L Kensington, Maccraft, Mboverload, Ntsimp, Oda Mari, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Red dwarf, Renaissanceboy, Rich Farmbrough, Ringsjöodjuren, Sceptre, Topbanana, Trixi72, Ukexpat, Vaghestelledellorsa, Xivaldi, Xover, 91 anonymous edits Sonnet 131  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=397102285  Contributors: Olaf Davis, Vladsinger, Xover, 5 anonymous edits Sonnet 132  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=396027504  Contributors: Another Believer, Olaf Davis, Penguin01, Rramir16, Trixi72, TubularWorld, Xover, 9 anonymous edits Sonnet 133  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=396023354  Contributors: Mpoppell, Olaf Davis, Trixi72, Vladsinger Sonnet 134 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Sonnet 140  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=331971379  Contributors: Another Believer, Olaf Davis, Vladsinger, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 141  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=351298012  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Burnzje, CanadianCaesar, Cassandra423, Cool12345sunsun, John Cardinal, Labrt2004, Natwebb, Olaf Davis, PeeJay2K3, Pjoef, Rich Farmbrough, Srnec, Uncle G, Vladsinger, Wrad, 18 anonymous edits Sonnet 142  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=322129420  Contributors: Another Believer, Olaf Davis, Vladsinger, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 143  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=343429362  Contributors: Chowbok, Ninly, Olaf Davis, Vladsinger, Zelmerszoetrop Sonnet 144  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=396158730  Contributors: CommonsDelinker, LilHelpa, Olaf Davis, Sonnetgroup1, Trixi72, Vladsinger, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 145  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=399582856  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Another Believer, Galileo01, I left but now I'm back, Jak123, Mhaake, Olaf Davis, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, Registrant, Roscelese, Trixi72, Vladsinger, 4 anonymous edits Sonnet 146  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=403167281  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, CanadianCaesar, Francium12, Gonzonoir, Mild Bill Hiccup, Olaf Davis, Trixi72, Vladsinger, Xover, ZephyrAnycon, 9 anonymous edits Sonnet 147  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=402948721  Contributors: Another Believer, Biscuittin, Dan6hell66, Malcolma, Olaf Davis, OrangeDog, Pakaran, Shizzy9989, Steveweing, Tide rolls, Trixi72, Vladsinger, 23 anonymous edits Sonnet 148  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=362562321  Contributors: Jak123, Olaf Davis, Rockfang, Vladsinger, 3 anonymous edits Sonnet 149  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=317991573  Contributors: Acwazhere, Jak123, Olaf Davis, Stormbay, Vladsinger, Wrad, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 150  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=211070110  Contributors: Jak123, Malcolma, Olaf Davis, Vladsinger Sonnet 151  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=345904447  Contributors: DGG, Drmies, Espresso Addict, Fabrictramp, Flewis, Jak123, Malcolma, Mike.lifeguard, Pjoef, Rjwilmsi, Ron Ritzman, Uncle G, Vladsinger, Wrad, Xover, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 152  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=361913289  Contributors: Academic Challenger, Jak123, Malcolma, Nonagonal Spider, Olaf Davis, Pjoef, Vladsinger, 1 anonymous edits Sonnet 153  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=341918877  Contributors: Adambiswanger1, Caliginous, Galileo01, Jak123, Lawikitejana, Olaf Davis, Vladsinger, 2 anonymous edits Sonnet 154  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=402686543  Contributors: Another Believer, Antandrus, Bpmullins, Discospinster, Francium12, Galileo01, Jak123, JuJube, NawlinWiki, Nscheffey, Paul Barlow, Pjoef, Sceptre, Signinstranger, Ugajin, Vaghestelledellorsa, Vladsinger, WTM, Ycdkwm, 21 anonymous edits A Waste of Shame  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=342469658  Contributors: AxG, Fratrep, G.-M. Cupertino, Lightmouse, Neddyseagoon, Spartaz, 1 anonymous edits The Dark Lady of the Sonnets  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=349050209  Contributors: Danyoung, Neddyseagoon, Swarm, 1 anonymous edits When Love Speaks  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=401189722  Contributors: Another Believer, Chicgeek, Koavf, Supermalt, TenPoundHammer, Tuesdaily, 2 anonymous edits

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Sonnets1609titlepage.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sonnets1609titlepage.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: William Shakespeare Image:sonnetsDedication.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SonnetsDedication.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Galileo01, Juiced lemon File:Miniature of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, 1594. (Fitzwilliam Museum) cropped.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Miniature_of_Henry_Wriothesley,_3rd_Earl_of_Southampton,_1594._(Fitzwilliam_Museum)_cropped.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Beao Image:william_shakespeare.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:William_shakespeare.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Thecrazyhorse Image:Wriothesley southampton.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wriothesley_southampton.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User PKM on en.wikipedia File:Dedication page of The Rape of Lucrece by William Shakespeare 1594.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dedication_page_of_The_Rape_of_Lucrece_by_William_Shakespeare_1594.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: William Shakespeare Image:HenryWriothesley 1594.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HenryWriothesley_1594.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Haiduc, N4nojohn, PKM File:Henry_Wriothesley_3rd_Earl_of_Southampton_after_Daniel_Mytens.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Henry_Wriothesley_3rd_Earl_of_Southampton_after_Daniel_Mytens.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: After Daniel Mytens (died 1647) Image:Elizabeth Vernon Countess of Southampton c 1618.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Elizabeth_Vernon_Countess_of_Southampton_c_1618.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Unknown artist File:PD-icon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PD-icon.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Duesentrieb, User:Rfl Image:Shakespeare.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shakespeare.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: It may be by a painter called John Taylor who was an important member of the Painter-Stainers' Company. UNIQ-ref-2-b72cb2fb11e67de1-QINU File:Emily Bassano.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Emily_Bassano.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Nicholas Hilliard, 1593 File:MaryFitton.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MaryFitton.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Originally uploaded to en.wiki by w:User:Curtangel Image:Sonnet 18 1609.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sonnet_18_1609.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Wrad at en.wikipedia Image:Sonnet 144 Two Loves.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sonnet_144_Two_Loves.jpg  License: Free Art License  Contributors: I s a c - F r i e d l a n d e r File:When Love Speaks album cover.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:When_Love_Speaks_album_cover.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Another Believer File:Star full.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Star_full.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Conti, User:RedHotHeat File:Star empty.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Star_empty.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:Conti, User:RedHotHeat

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287

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

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