3977 Leadership & Management

Week 1 Introduction to Leadership & Management
Mohamad Ahmad El Najm

At the end of this session, you will be able to:
• •

Define the terms leadership and management. Understand the relationship between leadership and management. Discuss the Trait, Behavioral, Emotional Intelligence, Situational, & Transformational leadership theories. Discuss the Scientific management, Maslow’s, & McGregor management theories. Discuss the traits & behaviors that contribute to effective leadership and management.

Leadership Defined
I suppose leadership at one time meant muscles; but today it means getting along with people. Ghandi

To be a leader means to be able to move masses. Hitler



vision. & Tappen. Groups. & (Drath. (Whitehead. 2007) Influence. qualities. & engaging others to participate. spirit. change. 2002) in a specific direction. & purpose Build commitment: motivation. 2002) 5 Leadership The ability to influence other people. & power to influence the thoughts and actions of other people effectively. 2007) 6 2 . & teamwork Confront challenges: Innovation. Weis. enlivening.Leadership Defined Difficult to define “Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” (Northouse. It is the process of getting people does the job by guiding them (Lansdale. goals. It is the process of using one's skills. 2001) turbulence Nursing leaders affect others by inspiring. & Goals Process Definition Involving the interaction between Leaders & Followers 4 Followers “Without followers there cannot be leaders & without leaders there cannot be followers” (Lyons. Tasks Set direction: mission.

  a  manager  guides.Managers Is to do what ever is necessary to make sure that employees  are doing their job effectively. provides directions. leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall. Weis.  directs  and  motivates  whereas  a  leader  empowers  others.        (Mintzberg. budgeting (Whitehead.  Therefore  every  manager  should  be a leader Farley  (1990)  maintains  that  management  preparation occurs before leadership and that young  nursing managers must be developed as leaders. firing. 1989) Effective  nurse  manager  is  responsible  for  insuring  that  patient care is given in the most efficient manner. & Tappen.” Stephen Covey 9 3 . monitors work Recognizes and rewards the quality Fosters  development  and  represent  his  staff  members  and  the  administration Hiring. 8 Leadership & Management “Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success. 2007) 7 The Relationship Between Leadership & Management Manthey (1990)  delineates  the  two. Tasks  Assumes leadership Engages in planning.

Weis. & Tappen. 2007) 12 4 . Traits (qualities) that distinguish a leader from non-leader are: • Intelligence • Initiative • Excellent interpersonal skills • High self-esteem • Creativity • Willingness to take risks • Ability to tolerate consequences of taking risks (Whitehead.Differences between Leadership & Management Leadership Based on Influence & shared meaning An informal role An achieved position Management Based on Authority A formally designated role An assigned position Part of every nurse’s responsibility Usually responsible for budgets. & firing people. 2007) 10 Leadership Theories 11 Trait Theory Leaders………….born or made? concerned with what the leader is. hiring. & Tappen. Every person can be a leader if he develops the necessary  skills and knowledge. Weis. Requires initiative & independent thinking Improved by the use of effective leadership skills (Whitehead.

Every person’s viewpoint has equal voice in making decisions. 2007) 14 Democratic Leadership Style (participative) • Leader acts primarily as a facilitator and resource person. controlling. Weis. • Dominates commands the rather group than by by issuing making suggestions or seeking input. 2007) 15 5 . Weis.Behavioral Theory Concerned with what the leader does. makes all decisions. & Tappen. 3 styles (White & Lippitt. 1960): • Autocratic leadership • Democratic leadership • Laissez-faire leadership 13 Autocratic Leadership Style (directive. solves all problems. (Whitehead. Demonstrates concern for each group member as a unique individual. or authoritarian) • Maintains strong control. • • (Whitehead. & Tappen.

Leader fails to set limits or state expectations. non-directive. • • • All decision-making is left to the group. & McKee  (2002): Welcomes constructive criticism Ask for help when needed Turns problems challenges to opportunities Maintains focus among problems Listen attentively to others Picks unspoken concerns Acknowledges other's perspectives Helpful and supportive 18 6 .Laissez-faire Leadership Style “Laissez-faire” = let it alone = hands off (permissive or non-directive) Leader assumes a passive. and inactive approach. Leader gives little. or feedback. & Tappen. 2007) 16 (White & Lippitt. support. The emotional intelligent leader according to Goleman. • (Whitehead. guidance. if any. Boyatzes. Weis. 1960) 17 Emotional Intelligence addresses the effect of people’s feelings on the team’s emotional reality.

 2000) It  is  characterized  by  adaptability.  and  vision  enough  attention.  Doesn't  assume  that  one  approach  can  work  for all work situations It  is  important  to  understand  all  factors  affecting  work  conditions  in  the  work  environment. 19 20 Transformational Leadership Bass & Avolio (1993): It  gives  meaning. Through trust and vision the leader empowers the  staff so creative change is enabled     (Leach.  inspiration.Situational Theory (McNichol.  It  recognizes  the  complexity  of  work  situations  and  encourages  leaders  to  consider  many  factors when deciding what action to take.  united. Leaders  will  communicate  their  vision  with  the  members to inspire their commitment. and purposeful. 21 7 . 2005). It  guides  nurses  towards  achievement  of  the  nursing vision. Goals  of  the  leader  and  staff  will  become  fused.

so workers more productive Emphasis on eliminating excess staff and increasing productivity of the remaining. 23 Human Relations-Based Management McGregor X & Y (what do the managers believe?) Theory X Opposite viewpoint Theory Y People don’t like to work very hard People avoid taking any additional responsibility Work can be motivating Meeting their own needs would make employees enthusiastic towards teamwork. & Close Supervision (McGregor. 1960) 24 8 . Punishment.The Managerial Pyramid Top Management Strategic Plans CEO President Vice President Division Heads Regional Managers Supervisors Middle Management Tactical Plans (first-line) Management Ward Managers Charge Nurses Team leaders Operational Plans 22 Scientific Management (Fredrick Taylor) Stresses on ways to improve the productivity of each worker. productivity & creativity Managers should: Provide guidance Encourage growth Managers should use: Strict rules. Analysis of work: Work by piece How much time needed Giving a properly designed task + sufficient incentive.

non-specialised career paths Characterised as a “democratic” management style Theory Y Objective setting (Laissez Faire) Theory X Autocratic ight style m in Your re nywhe m be a ntinuu this co Theory Z Democratic 25 Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Physiological. collective decision making. Esteem. Lower order needs externally pay and conditions 26 27 9 . Safety. As the person meets the first need then they move up the hierarchy to continue satisfying the next needs. Love & Belonging. Maslow’s theory has been adapted and recognised by many managers.Theory Z Theory Z: WS Ouchi. promotion from within. Maslow contends that the higher order needs are predominantly satisfied internally usually through the work place. and Selfactualisation. 1980s Well managed companies in US and Japan had lifetime employment.

& Tappen.28 Management Process 29 Effective Leader Qualities (traits) • • • • • • • • • Behaviors • • • • • • Integrity Courage Initiative Energy Optimism Perseverance Balance Ability to handle stress Self-awareness. Weis. Critical thinking Problem solving Respecting individuals Developing self & others Skillful communication: Setting goals & share vision (Whitehead. 2007) 30 10 .

Educating nurses in leadership and management. Scoble. 324-330. control. Geriatric Nursing. Weis. J.. K. T. 27 (2). Journal of Nursing Administration.. organize. 170-173. (1995). Nursing Economics. (2000). & Ryden. 18(3). (1992). 33 11 . 2007) 32 Extra Readings Aroian. part I: Profile of the future nurse leader.. K. 149-156. & Tappen. M. Ballard. Vision 2020. Johnson. and direct Use reward and punishment effectively to achieve organizational goals (Whitehead. current credentials and educational needs. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. Patsdaughter. 33(6). J. DONs in long-term care facilities: Contemporary roles. 13 (3). C.Effective Manager Qualities (traits) • • • Leadership skills Clinical expertise Business sense Behaviors Interpersonal • Networking • Conflict negotiation & resolution • Employee development & coaching • Rewards & punishment Decisional • Employee evaluation • Resource allocation • Hiring & Firing employees • Planning • Job analysis & redesign Informational • Spokesperson • Monitoring • Public relations (Whitehead. M. 153-154. (2003). & Wyszynski.. Krichbaum. 2007) 31 Good Leaders & Managers Good Leaders • • • • • • Good Managers • • • • • • Envision the future Communicate their visions Motivate followers Empower followers Lead the way Influence others to accomplish goals Inspire confidence Take risks Master change • • • Coordinate resources Optimize resource use Meet organizational goals and objectives Follow rules Plan. Weis. & Tappen. The need for well-prepared nurse administrators in longterm care.

R. D. New York: Free Press..). Transformational Leadership: A response to critiques. D. New York: McGraw-Hill.). B. California: Sage Publications. R. In Chemers. P. R. White. (1989).. Leach.M. The Human Side of Enterprise. (2005). & Tappan. & Avolio.J. (2002). Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Leadership and Followership. L.References Bass. Journal of Nursing Administration. Autocracy & Democracy: An Experimental Inquiry.M. (1960). 34 12 . McNichol. M. (1960). (2001). R. New York: Harper & Row. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 14(45). Boyatzes. (2007). 24. & Lippitt. M. The deep blue see.A.G. McGregor. 91-93. 35(5). (2007) Leadership Theory and Practice (4th ed..F. Cultivating Inspired leaders.). West Hartford. Whitehead. CN: Kumarian Press. San Diego: Academic Press.K. (2002). Weiss. 228-237. Philadelphia: F. Essentials of Nursing Leadership and Management (4th ed. Lansdale. A.S. & McKee.K. E. Mintzberg on Management: Inside our strange world of organizations. Mintzberg. A. Lyons. How to be a model leader. Davis Company. D. Goleman. R.M.. W. M. S. Nurse Executive Transformational Leadership & Organizational Commitment. & Ayman. Jan/Feb. Drath.M. Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. (1993). Leadership Theory & Research: Perspectives & Direction. (eds. The physician Executive. B. Nursing Standard. Northouse. (2002). H. (2000).

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