Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major

Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children



SYNOPSIS: This unit contains four topics. The first topic is about understanding of science in which you will explore the meaning of science and its elements. The second topic describes about current Primary School Science Curriculum in detail. Here you will learn about the aims, objectives and the focus of primary school science curriculum. Primary School Science Curriculum focuses on scientific skills, thinking skills, scientific attitudes, teaching and learning strategies. The third topic explains the learning theories for Primary School Science and the fourth topic is about teaching and learning methods using Inquiry and Discovery approach. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. explain the meaning of science and its role in daily life; describes the main components of Primary School Science Curriculum; identify and apply appropriate learning strategies of Primary Science in the classroom and explain the use of various questioning techniques used to promote inquiry explain the use of the inquiry methods in the teaching and learning of primary science Understanding Science


SCIENCE IS…. everywhere, using it all the time, scary, can be lethal, discovery, exploration, learning more, theories, hypothesis, interesting, exciting, expensive, profitable, intelligent, status

(Fleer.M, 1996. pg 7 ) A class of second year undergraduates gives this interesting collection of ideas. Are some of your ideas included here? The list certainly suggests that science has a complex nature and is likely to be viewed differently by different individuals.


Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major

Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children

What is science? Science is defined differently depending on the individuals who view it. • • • the layperson might define science as a body of scientific information; the scientist might view it as procedures by which hypotheses are tested; a philosopher might regard science as a way of questioning the truthfulness of what we know.

All of these views are valid, but each presents only a partial definition of science. In your opinion what does science mean? Meaning of science • • • • Science is perceived as an inquiry process, observation, and reasoning about the natural world. [K.T.Compton] Systematic knowledge which can be tested and proven for its truth.[translated from Kamus Dewan] Science is a set of attitudes and a way of thinking on facts. [B.F Skinner] Science is the system of knowing about the universe through data collected by observation and controlled experimentation. As data are collected, theories are advanced to explain and account for what has been observed. (Carin and Sund (1989) pg. 4 ) If you read these definitions of science, you will see three major elements: processes (or methods), products, and human attitudes. Elements of science can be visualised in this way: Science as a Process • • • • • • Learning science information is more important than to memorizing the content of science Scientific skill is a basic tool in understanding science. Process is emphasis on how the knowledge is gained. Using empirical procedures and analyses to describe the natural world It involves hands-on, mind-on and hearts-on experience It involves the formation of hypothesis, planning, experimenting, collecting data, and analyses before making a conclusion.


Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major

Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children

Science as a Product Scientists have been collecting data for centuries. From these data, scientists have formulated concepts, principles and theories. The factual data, concepts, principles and theories are the products of science. Figure 1 shows the hierarchical order of the science products.


Laws and Principles



Figure 1: Science Products A scientific fact is the specific statement about existing objects or actual incidents. We can use our senses to get facts. Two criteria are used to identify a scientific fact: 1. it is directly observable 2. it can be demonstrated at any time. A concept is an abstraction of events, objects, or phenomena that seem to have certain properties or attributes in common. Fish, for example, possess certain characteristics that set them apart from reptiles and mammals. According to Bruner, (1956), a concept has five important elements: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. name definition attributes values examples


Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major

Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children

Principles and Laws also fall into the general category of a concept but in a broad manner. These higher order ideas are used to describe what exists through empirical basis. For example gas laws and the laws of motion. Theory: Science goes beyond the classification and description of phenomena to the level of explanation. Scientists use theories to explain patterns and forces that are hidden from direct observation. The theory of atom, which states that all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. There are millions of atoms, which would be required to cover the period (.) at the end of this sentence. This is the example of hidden observation. Is the statement “the earth rotates on its axis” a scientific concept, principle or theory?

Science as an Attitude Do you see science as merely lists of facts, concepts, and principles? If yes, then you are overlooking an important aspect of science – attitudes and values. Scientists are persons trained in some field of science who study phenomena through observation, experimentation and other rational, analytical activities. They use attitudes, such as being honest and accurate in recording and validating data, systematic and being diligent in their work. Therefore, when planning teaching and learning activities, teachers need to inculcate scientific attitudes and values to the students. For example, during science practical work, the teacher should remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments in a careful, cooperative and honest manner. Teachers need to plan well for effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons. They should examine all related learning outcomes and suggested teaching-learning activities that provide opportunities for the inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values.

Reflect on your earlier days in primary school. What can you still remember about studying science? Can you recall your science teacher teaching you science process skills and scientific values?

With the help of concept map, define science in your own words.


Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major

Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children

Understanding science and technology and their applications towards the welfare of mankind Is there any relationship between science and technology? In general, science can be regarded as the enterprise that seeks to understand natural phenomena and to arrange these ideas into ordered knowledge whereas technology involves the design of products and systems that affect the quality of life, using the knowledge of science where necessary. Science is intimately related to technology and society. For instance, science produces knowledge that results in useful applications through devices and systems. We have evidence of this all around us, from microwave ovens to compact disc players to computers. Select two scientific discoveries that have been used to improve the earth’s environment. Also list some possible negative effects of using these scientific discoveries.

Well done, take a break now! Time for a cup of coffee before you go to the next topic


The science curriculum has been designed to provide opportunities for students to acquire science knowledge and skills. Later in 1985. The “Projek Khas” science curriculum was implemented in schools from 1968 to 1984. “Projek Khas” science curriculum was replaced by “Alam dan Manusia” which was taught to standard four pupils onwards. This is in line with the national educational philosophy to produce a progressive society competent in science and technology. It also aims to inculcate noble values and the spirit of patriotism in the students. This subject integrates knowledge from various fields such as geography. science and health science. Teachers were given guidebooks to help them teach science for all primary levels using the scientific method. which employs student-based methods. The present primary school science curriculum. English is used as the medium of instruction in standard one. Teachers are trained to teach using the constructivism approach. history. 1-6 . and to apply this knowledge and skills in everyday life. develop thinking skills and thinking strategies.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children TOPIC 2: Primary School Science Curriculum Historical Development of the Primary School Science Curriculum Do you remember how you learn science while you were in primary school? Are the children learning science the same way today? After reading this topic you will able to note the changes the Primary School Science Curriculum has undergone since 1968. The main focus of this subject is to relate knowledge to issues concerning society and environment. Table 1: Historical Development of the Primary School Science Curriculum Projek Khas Year Teacher’s Guide Teachinglearning strategies 1968-1984 Panduan Mengajar Sains Scientific Method Alam dan Manusia 1985-1993 Buku Panduan Khas Inquiry-discovery Kurikulum Sains Sekolah Rendah 1994-now PuLSaR Constructivism In 2003. better known as Kurikulum Sains Sekolah Rendah was introduced since 1994. Table 1 outlines the historical development of the primary school science curriculum.

8. 5. 2. provide pupils with basic science knowledge and concepts. dynamic. 4. The objectives of the Primary School Science Curriculum for level one are to: 1. Level Two The aims of the Primary School Science Curriculum for level two are to produce human beings who are experienced. you will be able to understand the key features of the primary school science curriculum. you would realize that the Primary School Science Curriculum is dynamic and changes are made to meet the demands of the society and the nation. the Primary School Science Curriculum has two levels • • Level One Level One is from Year 1 – 3 Level Two is from Year 4 – 6 The aim of the Primary School Science Curriculum for level one is to develop students’ interest in science and to nurture their creativity and their curiosity. 7.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children By now. provide pupils with opportunities to develop science process skills and thinking skills. develop thinking skill so as to enhance the intellectual ability develop scientific skills and attitude through inquiry enhance natural interest in their surroundings gain knowledge and understanding of scientific facts and concepts to assist in understanding themselves and the environment solve problems and make responsible decisions handle the latest contributions and innovations in science and technology practice scientific attitudes and noble values in daily lives appreciate the contributions of science and technology towards the comfort of life appreciate arrangement and order in nature 1-7 . create awareness on the need to love and care for the environment. 4. stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest about the world around them. and progressive so that people are more responsible towards the environment and are more appreciative of nature’s creation. 6. 6. 9. Basically. develop pupils’ creativity. Can you identify the main elements of the present Primary School Science Curriculum? After reading this topic. 2. 5. 3. The objectives of the Primary School Science Curriculum for level two are to: 1. inculcate scientific attitudes and positive values. 3. skilful and morally sound in order to form a society with a culture of science and technology and which is compassionate.

Making a general statement about the relationship between a manipulated variable and a responding variable to explain an observation or event. volume. Planning and conducting activities including collecting. VI. Making quantitative observations by comparing to a conventional or non-conventional standard. Defining all variables as they are used in an experiment by describing what must be done and what should be observed. Scientific skills Thinking skills Relationship between thinking skills and science process skills Scientific attitudes and noble values Teaching and learning strategies Content organization The main elements of the Primary School Science Curriculum are briefly described as follows: I. Using past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions and make explanations of events Making a forecast about what will happen in the future based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data. Describing changes in parameter with time. IV. TASTE AND SIGHT TO FIND OUT ABOUT OBJECTS OR EVENTS. direction. III. Giving rational explanations about an object. scientific and thinking skills are utilized. Examples of parameters are location. V. object or event. weight and mass. Scientific skills encompass science process skills and manipulative skills. events or pattern derived from collected data. Making Hypotheses Experimenting 1-8 . Naming the fixed variable. figures or models to describe an action. graphs. Using observations to group objects or events according to similarities or differences. The statement can be tested to determine its validity. Scientific skills Science emphasizes inquiry and problem solving. analyzing and interpreting data and making conclusions. In inquiry and problem solving processes. Using words or graphic symbols such as tables. Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: OBSERVING Classifying Measuring and Using Numbers Making Inferences Predicting Communicating Using space-time relationship Interpreting data Defining operationally Controlling variables USING THE SENSE OF HEARING. II. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation such as conducting and carrying out projects. size. TOUCH. and responding variable in an investigation. SMELL.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Do you know the main focus in our primary school science curriculum? Primary School Science Curriculum focuses on: I. shape. manipulated variable. Science Process Skills Science process skills enable students to formulate their questions and find out the answers systematically.

and modify ideas and products. Clean science apparatus. One of the objectives of the national education system is to enhance the thinking ability of students. problem solving and decision-making. The ability to formulate thinking strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching and learning process. is able to generate original and innovative ideas. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that involve various steps. A person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination. Store science apparatus. Note: If you want to know how to apply scientific skills. apparatus. This objective can be achieved through a curriculum that emphasizes thoughtful learning. please refer to unit 2. Handle specimens correctly and carefully. Teaching and learning that emphasizes thinking skills is a foundation for thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved in the teaching and learning process. skills and attitude in an effort to understand the environment. Activities should be organized to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in conceptualization. Thinking Skills Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to integrate knowledge. Draw specimens. II. A person who thinks critically always evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. 1-9 .Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Manipulative Skills Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills that enable students to: • • • • • Use and handle science apparatus and substances. Each step involves various critical and creative thinking skills. Thinking skills can be categorized into critical thinking skills and creative thinking skills.

Arranging objects and information in order based on their importance or priority Examining information in detail by breaking it down into smaller parts to find implicit meaning and relationships. Identifying views or opinions that have the tendency to support or oppose something in an unfair or misleading way. Finding similarities and differences based on criteria such as characteristics.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Critical Thinking Skills A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: ATTRIBUTING Comparing and Contrasting Grouping and Classifying Sequencing Prioritizing Analyzing Detecting Bias Evaluating Making Conclusions IDENTIFYING CRITERIA SUCH AS CHARACTERISTICS. Combining separate elements or parts to form a general picture in various forms such as writing. concept. QUALITIES AND ELEMENTS OF A CONCEPT OR AN OBJECT. Making a statement about the outcome of an investigation that is based on a hypothesis. situation or vision. features. Understanding a certain abstract or complex concept by relating it to a simpler or concrete concept with similar characteristics. Using past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions and make explanations of events. Producing something new or adapting something already in existence to overcome problems in a systematic manner. FEATURES. time. samples of the group. Making connections in a certain situation to determine in a certain situation to determine a structure or pattern of relationship. Separating and grouping objects or phenomena into categories based on certain criteria such as common characteristics or features Arranging objects and information in based on the quality or quantity of common characteristics or features such as size. qualities and elements of a concept or event. Creative Thinking Skills A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: GENERATING IDEAS Relating Making Inferences Predicting Making Generalizations Visualizing Synthesizing Making Hypotheses PRODUCING OR GIVING IDEAS IN A DISCUSSION. Making a general statement about the relationship between a manipulated variable and a responding variable to explain an observation or event. shape or number. Recalling or forming mental images about a particular idea. or some information from. drawing or artifact. Making judgments on the quality or value of something based on valid reasons or evidence. The statement can be tested to determine its validity. Making a forecast about what will happen in the future based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data Making a general conclusion about a group based on observations made on. Making Analogies Inventing 1-10 .

possession of suitable attitudes and knowledge enable students to think effectively. 1-11 . Mastering of science process skills.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children III. creative. The mastering of science process skills involves the mastering of the relevant thinking skills. explain why you need to infuse thinking skills and science process skills in your lesson. It is a mental process that promotes critical. The thinking skills that are related to a particular science process skill are as follows: Science Process Skills Observing Classifying Measuring and Using Numbers Making inferences Thinking Skills Attributing Comparing and contrasting Relating Attributing Comparing and contrasting Grouping and classifying Relating Comparing and contrasting Relating Comparing and contrasting Analyzing Making inferences Relating Visualizing Sequencing Prioritizing Comparing and contrasting Analyzing Detecting bias Making conclusions Generalizing Evaluating Relating Making analogy Visualizing Analyzing Attributing Comparing and contrasting Relating Analyzing Attributing Relating Comparing and contrasting Generating ideas Making hypothesis Predicting Synthesizing All thinking skills All thinking skills Predicting Using Space-Time Relationship Interpreting data Defining operationally Controlling variables Making hypotheses Experimenting Communicating Based on your teaching experience. Relationship between Thinking skills and Science Process Skills Science process skills are required in the process of finding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematic manner. analytical and systematic thinking.

Thinking rationally. Being kind-hearted and caring. The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally occurs through the following stages: • • • Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. Appreciating the balance of nature. These attitudes and values encompass the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. Appreciating and practicing clean and healthy living. Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values Practicing and internalizing these scientific attitudes and noble values 1-12 . others. Being diligent and persevering. Being fair and just. Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. Being systematic. Having analytical and critical thinking. Being objective. and the environment. Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. Being confident and independent. Being thankful to God. Being flexible and open-minded. Realizing that science is a mean to understand nature. Being responsible about the safety of oneself. Being cooperative. Daring to try.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children IV Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values Science learning experiences can be used as a means to inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. Being respectful and well mannered.

Science lessons that are not interesting will not motivate students to learn and subsequently will affect their performance. to question and to investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment. constructivism. The choice of teaching methods should be based on the curriculum content. Sometimes. scientific skills. besides guiding students to carry out experiments. In experiments. However. Inquiry-discovery emphasizes learning through experiences. Students should be made aware of the thinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. The teaching and learning process should enable students to acquire knowledge. Thoughtful learning can occur through various learning approaches such as inquiry. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. and the availability of resources and infrastructure. This involves students drawing up plans as to how to conduct experiments.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children V. teachers should provide students with the opportunities to design their own experiments. Experiment An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. Inquiry generally means to find information. and how to present the results of their experiment. Through activities such as experiments. it may be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and principles directly to students. 1-13 . Learning activities should therefore be geared towards activating students’ critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or rote learning. Learning through discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles of science are investigated and discovered by students themselves. The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and learning methods. Different teaching and learning activities should be planned to cater for students with different learning styles and intelligences. and mastery learning. Thinking skills and scientific skills are thus developed further during the inquiry process. students investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves. In the implementation of this curriculum. contextual learning. where appropriate. Teaching and Learning Strategies Teaching and learning strategies in science curriculum emphasize thoughtful learning. students’ abilities. students test hypotheses through investigations to discover specific science concepts and principles. the inquiry approach may not be suitable for all teaching and learning situations. students’ repertoire of intelligences. The use of variety of teaching and learning methods can enhance students’ interest in science. how to measure and analyze data. Conducting an experiment involves thinking skills. Thoughtful learning is a process that helps students acquire knowledge and master skills that will help them develop their minds to the optimum level. They should be challenged with higher order questions and problems and be required to solve problems utilizing their creativity and critical thinking. and manipulative skills. Teachers then lead students to understand the science concepts though the results of the inquiry. master skills and develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated manner.

mangrove swamps. Application tools such. science centres. research institutes. Visits to these places make the learning of science more interesting. graphic presentation software and electronic spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of data. To optimize learning opportunities. Project A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an individual or a group of students to achieve a particular learning objective. Teachers should play the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions that stimulate thinking and getting students to express themselves. video. Models are used to represent objects or actual situations so that students can visualize the said objects or situations and thus understand the concepts and principles to be learned. Learning of science can be enhanced though the use of external resources such as zoos. Discussions can be conducted before. meaningful and effective. computer. Project work promotes the development of problem-solving skills. Through the use of technology such as television. Use of Technology Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in enhancing the learning of science. Visits and Use of External Resources The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in the school compound. No educational visit is complete without a post-visit discussion.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Discussion A discussion is an activity in which students exchange questions and opinions based on valid reasons. Games require procedures that need to be followed. In role-play. and Internet. the teaching and learning of science can be made more interesting and effective. and independent learning. as word processors. during or after an activity. 1-14 . games and the use of models. time management skills. and factories. an activity that resembles the actual situation is carried out. an artifact or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacher and other students. museums. Students should be assigned tasks during the visit. Examples of simulation are role-play. Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for the teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. Computer simulation and animation can be presented through courseware or Web page. students play out a particular role based on certain pre-determined conditions. visits need to be carefully planned. A project generally requires several lessons to complete. radio. The outcome of the project either in the form of a report. Students play games in order to learn a particular principle or to understand the process of decision-making. Simulation In simulation. Briefly explain how does a visit to the museum help in your science lesson.

At the same time. A suggested activity may cover one or more learning outcomes. describe how students benefit when they are involved in science projects? Briefly explain how technology has made your science teaching more interesting. in the process of teaching and learning. In general. The learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are given with the intention of providing some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved. more than one activity may be suggested for a particular learning outcome. Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style of learning of their students. A learning objective has one or more learning outcomes. Each theme consists of various learning areas. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. take a break now! Time for a cup of coffee 1-15 . Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurable behavioural terms. Teachers should avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcome separately according to the order stated in the curriculum specifications. the learning outcomes for a particular learning objective are organized in order of complexity. Write the relevant learning outcome and predict the scientific skills and values involved in carrying out the activity. Teachers are encouraged to design other innovative and effective learning activities to enhance the learning of science. each of which consists of a number of learning objectives. VI Content Organization The science curriculum is organized around themes. However. learning activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated manner that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomes according to needs and context.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Based on your experience. Well done. Select a topic from Curriculum specifications Science Year 1/2/4 and suggest a learning activity other than the suggested learning activities given.

Children’s perceptions of the physical world are affected by the limitations of their cognitive structure. a teacher should try to understand what a child perceives and how a child thinks and then plan experiences that will capitalize on these. that is. learning depends on how you think and how your perceptions and thought patterns interact. We succeed. Can you make the child curious all through his or her life? To maintain the child’s curiosity in science the teacher should know how the child learns and sustain their curiosity throughout the lesson. throughout history. We learn best when: • • • • • We are learning about things which are important and have relevance to us. Cognitive learning theories like Bruner. Questions such as “What is a shooting star?” and “How can birds fly?” have been asked by thousands of children and have. when we can see an improvement in the quality of our work To understand how children learn we have to know the cognitive development of children and cognitive learning theories. What we are learning is demonstrated and accompanied by clear instructions. Knowing this has helped science curriculum developers to shape experiences for children that are within their ability to perform. which assist effective learning. Jean Piaget proposes that children progress through stages of cognitive development.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Topic 3: Learning theories for Primary Science Science begins with the child. Ausubel and Gagne offer various types of learning. The constructivist approach says that children construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world through experiencing things and reflecting on these experiences. Do you know how children learn science? Research and practical experience tell us a great deal about the factors. According to cognitive learning theorists. We are able to practise and to make mistakes without being judged. Piaget’s Theory: Cognitive development Cognitive theorists believe that what you learn depends on your mental process and what you perceive about the world around you. In other words. elicited a hundred different answers. 1-16 . We are able to discuss our work with our peers – including the problems we are having alternative approaches to our work. The Piaget’s theory offers fresh insight into the child’s cognitive development.

and plenty of tender loving care so that the infant becomes motivated to interact with the people and things in his or her perceptual field. The child has difficulty understanding that objects have multiple properties. is able to isolate the variables in a situation . The child does not “conserves” attributes such as mass. 1-17 . feel. 4.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Stages of Piaget’s Theories are: 1. He or she is not completely aware that a block of wood has color. The child’s ability to solve complex verbal and mathematical problems emerges as a consequence of being able to manipulate the meanings represented by symbols. Concrete Operation ( 7 to 11 years ) The child can group objects into classes and arrange the objects in a class into some appropriate order. height and depth all at once. Practical applications: Piaget’s Ideas for Science Classroom 1. The child understands the mass. touch or taste their presence. Formal Operation ( 12 years through adulthood ) The child is able to think in abstract terms. or number. hear. pleasant sound. Preoperational (Representational) knowledge ( 2 to 7 years ) The ability to use symbols begins. The concepts of space and time become clearer. weight. volume. weight. Sensorimotor knowledge ( 0 to 2 year ) Objects and people exist only if child can see. 2. human voices. and is able to understand their relationship to one another. 3. area and length are conserved. • Provide stuffed animals and other safe. weight. The child has some difficulty isolating the variables in a situation and determining their relationships. Infants in the sensor motor stage ( 0 to 2 years ) Examples: • Provide stimulating environment that includes eye-catching displays. pliable objects that the child can manipulate in order to acquire the psychomotor skills necessary for future cognitive development. Anything outside of the child’s perceptual field does not exist. Although the child is still focused on the “there and now” early in this stage. the child can use language to refer to objects and events that are not in his or her perceptual field.

Any science activities that should include the observation. Give three reasons according to Piaget’s theory why teaching and learning aids are important to ensure effective learning.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children 2. have them listen to other children’s stories about what was observed on a trip to the zoo. height and weight of objects or count the number of swings of a pendulum in a given time. A key part of the process of doing activities might appropriately be “pre-lab” sessions in which the child writes down hypotheses about outcomes. width. twigs. Preschoolers and children in the primary grades ( 2 to 7 years ) Examples: • Provide natural objects such as leaves. Children in the elementary grades ( 7 to 11 years ) Examples: • Early in this stage. consumers. offer children many experiences to use the acquired abilities with respect to the observation. animal/plant. time and number. stones. you should be able to introduce successfully many physical science activities that include more abstract concepts such as space. provide opportunities for the child to begin grouping things into classes that is living/nonliving . • As this stage continues. collection. Select a topic from Year 4 primary science curriculum specification and suggest two learning-teaching activities that suit Piagetian’s learning theory. • Toward the end of this stage. Possible projects and activities include the prediction of the characteristics of an object’s motion based on Newton’s Laws. the making of generalizations about the outcomes of a potential imbalance among the producers. • Encourage children to make hypotheses about the outcomes of experiments in absence of actively doing them. For example. and sorting of objects should be able to be done in some ease. and decomposers in a natural community. 3. The middle school child and beyond ( 12 years through adulthood ) Examples: • Emphasize the general concepts and laws that govern observed phenomenon. • Towards the end of this stage. For example. provide experience that gives children an opportunity to transcend some of their egocentricism. etc for the child to manipulate. 1-18 . classification and arrangement of objects according to some property. 4. children could measure the length.

Inductive learning Role-play Concept formation exercise Practical activity Other activities Student definition of concept Figure 2 :Inductive approach to Instruction Experiences with instances of a concept or principle Discovering and forming a concept or principle Figure 3: Inductive Approach 1-19 .Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Bruner’s Theory: Discovery learning Jerome Bruner’s research revealed that teachers need to provide children with experiences to help them discover underlying ideas. Inductive approaches to learning rely more on providing students with a range of experiences. Rather than being faced with the teacher’s definition of a concept at the beginning of a topic. which means going from the specific to the general. which gradually increase their familiarity with new concepts. Using ideas from one’s experience and applying it in another situation is also an example of inductive thinking. concepts. or patterns. before attempting to draw these together into a coherent understanding of the new concept. Bruner is a proponent of inductive thinking. the student’s understanding of the concept is gradually constructed as a result of exposure to a whole range of activities and experiences.

• Encourage children to make outlines of basic points made in textbooks or discovered in activities. Emphasize the basic structure of new material Examples: • Use demonstrations that reveal basic principles. have the class make models that show the stages and list the stages on the chalkboard. Encourage children to make intuitive guesses. Pose a problem to the children and let them find the answer. For example. have the children observe the phases in a variety of ways. • Have children maintain scrapbooks in which they keep collected leaf specimens that are grouped according to observed characteristics. • Using magazine pictures to show the stages in a space shuttle mission. Examples: • When presenting an explanation of the phases of the moon. Examples: • Ask questions that will lead naturally to activities-why should wear seatbelts? And what are some ingredients that most junk foods have ? • Do a demonstration that raises a question in the children’s minds. 3. 4. • Give the children magazine photographs of the evening sky and have them guess the locations of some constellations. Present many examples and concept. 1-20 . 5.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Practical applications: Bruner’s Ideas for Science Classroom 1. Examples: • Ask the children to guess the amount of water that goes down the drain each time a child gets a drink of water from a water fountain. such as direct observation of the changing shape of the moon in the evening s demonstration of the changes using a flashlight and sphere. Help children construct coding system. Example: • Learn how scientist estimate the size of populations by having children count the number in a sample and estimate the numbers of grasshoppers in a lawn and in a meadow. Apply new learning to many different situations and kinds of problems. For example demonstrate the law of magnetism by using similar and opposite poles of a set of bar magnets. Examples: • Invent a game that requires children to classify rocks. and diagrams. levitate a washer using magnet or mix two colored solutions to produce a third color. 2.

a concept or principal is define and discussed using appropriate labels and terms. i. a child learns as a result of the child’s natural tendency to organize information into some meaningful whole. these approaches often fail to value the understandings that students bring with them to the classroom which. have practical applications for science classrooms. In the deductive strategy. It can involve hypothetical-deductive thinking whereby the learner generates idea to be tested or discovered. which stress preparation and organization. as research has clearly shown. followed by experiences to illustrate the idea.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Ausubel’s Theory: Reception learning and expository teaching According to David Ausubel. are difficult to change in cases where students have faulty or non-scientific understandings of concepts. Deductive approaches to learning are appropriate on many occasions. Ausubel says learning should be a deductive process. and the second phase requires students to find examples of the concepts or principles. Teacher definition of concept Problems Practical activity Examples Figure 4: Deductive Learning 1-21 .e. The deductive approach can be used to promote inquiry sessions and to construct knowledge. Overdependence. The first phase presents the generalization and rules about the concept or principles under study. however. may result in passive learning and an attitude amongst the students that science knowledge is black and white and that there are correct answers to all problems in science. learn in a variety of ways and that they have their own preferred learning styles. Ausubel’s theories. children should first learn a general concept and then move towards specifics. The teacher’s responsibility is to organize concepts and principles so that the child can continually fit new learning into the learning that came earlier. like all other people. Reliance on deductive approaches also ignores the reality that students. Additionally.

2. Examples: • Outline the content of particularly complicated lessons. pronounce. Discourage the rote learning of material that could be learned more meaningfully. Examples: • List. • Organize the materials needed for a science activity in such a way that a sign indicates whether they are to be used at the beginning. middle. Examples: • Children give responses to questions in activities or textbooks in their own words. Examples: • Ask the children to give examples related to the science phenomena observed in class from their own experiences. Use advance organizers. 1-22 .Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Receiving ideas and explanations of a concept or principle Experiences with instances of a concept or principle Figure 5: Deductive approach to Instruction Ausubel’s Ideas for Your Science Classroom 1. 5. clouds. • Use pictures and diagrams to show various examples of such things as constellations. Use a number of examples. Present materials in an organized fashion. plants. • Explain what conventional and alternatives energy sources do and do not have in common. Focus on both similarities and differences Examples: • Discuss how plants and animals are the same and different. • Encourage children to explain the results of science activities to one another. etc. or end of the activity. 3. 4. and discuss science vocabulary words prior to lessons that use new science terms • Role-play situations that may develop on a field trip. animals.

that is. there must be a chance to practice developing new solutions to problems. 4. informing learners of the objective (expectancy) stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) presenting the stimulus (selective perception) providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) eliciting performance (responding) providing feedback (reinforcement) assessing performance (retrieval) enhancing retention and transfer (generalization) 1-23 . special attention was given to military training in those days. Gagne outlines the following nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes gaining attention (reception) 1. Gagne also contends that learning tasks for intellectual skills can be organized in a hierarchy according to complexity: • • • • • • • • stimulus recognition response generation procedure following use of terminology discriminations concept formation rule application problem solving The primary significance of this hierarchy is to provide direction for instructors so that they can identify prerequisites that should be completed to facilitate learning at each level. 3. 8. Gagne’s theory is very prescriptive. the learner must be exposed to a credible role model or persuasive arguments. For cognitive strategies to be learned. 7.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Gagne’s Theory: Conditions of Learning Theory A) Description Although Gagne’s theoretical framework covers many aspects of learning. This learning hierarchy also provides a basis for sequencing instruction. each learning level requires different types of instruction. In this theory. to learn attitudes. In its original formulation. 5. 2. five major types of learning levels are identified: • • • • • verbal information intellectual skills cognitive strategies motor skills attitudes The importance behind the above system of classification is that each learning level requires a different internal and external condition. 6. the focus of the theory is on intellectual skills.

and phenomena but also contrast them. Verbal information Examples: • Have children recall science facts and concepts orally or in writing. outlines. objects. Briggs & Wager. find similarities and differences.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children B) Practical Application Gagne’s nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes can serve as the basis for designing instruction and selecting appropriate media (Gagne. Intellectual Skills. Attitudes. 3. diagrams. as cited in Kearsley 1994a). 3. Gagne’s Ideas for Your Science Classroom 1. 2. Cognitive strategies. • Model the use of advance organizers such as diagrams and lists of key words prior to children reading science material or observing videotapes of science phenomena. Kearsley (1994a) suggests keeping the following principles in mind: 1. journaling. and predict outcomes. and other techniques for retaining ideas 4. • Model the use of mnemonic devices. audio taping. Whenever possible have children not only compare organisms. Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned. 1992. Example: • Select content and experiences that are relevant to the child’s daily life and intriguing to the child so that the child develops a positive attitude toward science and chooses science-related experiences during leisure time. Examples: • Have children “invent” rules that govern processes. Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes. Learning hierarchies define a sequence of instruction. In applying these instructional events. Examples: • Encourage children to find their own ways to remember information and ideas. 1-24 . • Emphasize the search patterns and regularities during hands-on experiences. 2.

Activity 1: Make a comparison between Bruner’s theory and Ausubel ’s theory.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children 5. simple tools. Acquisition of motor skills. 1-25 . Activity 3 Think of 3 ways to inculcate positive scientific values among students while conducting an experiment in the laboratory. measuring devices. Activity 2: Choose a topic and describe briefly how you would teach using inductive and deductive approaches. Example: • Through the use of discovery-oriented experiences provide children with opportunities to use hand lenses. etc.

Constructivist teachers encourage students to constantly assess how the activity is helping them gain understanding. With a well-planned classroom environment. what a person brings to new situations. Traditional class versus constructivist class The table below compares the traditional classroom to the constructivist one. the students are urged to be actively involved in their own process of learning. There are three principles that make up the theory of constructivism: 1. the constructivist view of learning can have a number of different teaching practices. it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments. Each person constructs beliefs about what is real. explore ideas and assess what we know.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Constructivist Approach What is constructivism? Constructivism is basically a learning theory based on observation and scientific study. the students learn how to learn. real-world problem solving ) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. A person never really knows the world as it is. In the constructivist model. In doing so we may have to change what we believe or maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. To be constructivist learners. It is about how people learn. we must ask questions. filters out or changes the information that the persons’ senses deliver. 3. Constructivism proposes that children learn as a result of their personal generation of meaning from experiences. The fundamental role of a teacher is to help children generate connections between what is to be learned and what the children already know or believe. The teacher makes sure she understands the students’ preexisting conceptions. This gives them ever-broadening tools to keep learning. and their desire to reconcile what they believe and what they actually observe. through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world. The constructivist learners are active creators of our own knowledge. When we encounter something new. their own abilities to reason. 1-26 . students in the constructivist classroom ideally become “expert learners”. In the classroom. What a person already believes. In the most general sense. By questioning themselves and their strategies. One of the teacher’s biggest job is becomes ASKING GOOD QUESTIONS (The constructivists acknowledge that students are constructing knowledge in a traditional classrooms too but its really a matter of emphasis being on the student not the teacher). 2. and guides the activity to address them and build on them. we have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experiences. People create a reality based on their previous beliefs.

Assessment includes student’s works. and points of view. CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASS Teachers have discussed with their students and help them construct their own knowledge. rooted in negotiation. embody misconceptions. Table 2: Differences Between Traditional and Constructivist Classroom Alternative Framework Students enter the classroom with pre-existing ideas about the world which are different to those held by scientists i. Students work primarily alone. Knowledge is seen as inert. Teacher’s role is directive. Teacher’s role is interactive. observations. Knowledge is seen as dynamic ever changing with our experiences. in physics. the impetus model of motion rather than the Newtonian one of inertia) Techniques To Identify Alternative Frameworks :• • • • • Interview Questionnaires Prediction Observation Explanation Displacing Misconceptions 1-27 . as well as tests. rooted in authority .e. Process is as important as product. Assessment is through testing correct answers.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children TRADITIONAL CLASS Teachers disseminate information to students and students are recipients of knowledge. alternative concepts will not be learned) are not easily displaced (and will not usually be displaced simply through revelation of the scientific explanation/concept or at the behest of the teacher) can coexist with scientific concepts (in which case they are only used in situations perceived as requiring a "scientific" answer/response. Students work primarily in groups. Research indicates that student misconceptions about things which have a scientific dimension or explanation: • • • • • are extremely common (unsurprising given that children have been thinking about and coping with the natural world for many years prior to their exposure to a formal scientific education) hinder understanding of accepted scientific explanations (until they are discarded by the learner.g. but not in the student's everyday thinking about the world) can be found even among the "experts" (research indicates many scientists and teachers unknowingly retain misconceptions e.

try things that don’t work. The students discuss these and other methods they have heard about. They use many techniques in the teaching process. The teacher coaches. When one of the students comes up with the relevant concept. their activities. suggests but allow the students room to experiment. and talk about. and how their observations and experiments helped them to better understand the concept. They design and perform relevant experiments. Students keep journals in carrying out science projects where they record how they feel about the project. 1-28 . and decide on one to apply to the problem. the teacher allows students to reflect and to construct their own methods of measurement. the teacher seizes upon it and indicates to the group that this might be a fruitful avenue for them to explore. then guide students to help them find their own answers. Applying Constructivism In The Classroom The constructivist teachers pose questions and problems. One student offers the knowledge that a doctor said he is four feet tall.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Misconceptions can be displaced and students will accept a scientific conception if : • • • • the student understands the meaning of the scientific conception the scientific conception is believable (this means that it must be compatible with the student's other conceptions. the students and teacher talk about what they have learned. Afterward. the visual and verbal reactions of Active – students create new understanding for him/herself. learning is Constructed – students come to learning situations with already formulated knowledge. the scientific concept must be seen to be better than the student's prior belief) the student progressively gains expertise in using the new scientific concepts (a slow process requiring a long time period and gradual building of knowledge through experience). she focuses on helping students restate their questions in useful ways. This previous knowledge is the raw material for the new knowledge they will create. Groups of students in a science class are discussing a problem in physics. Reflective – students control their own learning process by reflecting on their experiences. Learning activities require students’ full participation and they need to reflect on. Though the teacher knows the “answer” to the problem. Example An elementary school teacher presents a class problem to measure the length of the “Mayflower”. She prompts each student to reflect on and examine his or her current knowledge. the scientific conception is found to be useful to the student in interpreting. ideas and understandings. moderates. ask questions. Another says she knows horses are measured in “hands”. explaining or predicting phenomena that cannot be satisfactorily accounted for by the formerly held misconceptions (i. In a constructivist classroom.e. Rather than starting the problem by introducing the ruler.

although surface area and aerodynamic properties can affect the rate of fall. TO AN ABSTRACT MATHEMATICAL SOLUTION BASED ON THE SIZE OF A WATER MOLECULE. She creates an environment of discovery with objects of varying kinds. SIXTH GRADERS FIGURING OUT HOW TO PURIFY WATER INVESTIGATE SOLUTIONS RANGING FROM COFFEE-FILTER PAPER. INVESTIGATE A TOPIC AND USE VARIETY OF RESOURCES TO FIND SOLUTIONS AND ANSWERS. The teacher provides materials about Galileo and Newton. One reads the temperature while another reads aloud the time interval. 1-29 . Together they interpret the data and discuss the results. Students explore the differences in weight among similar blocks of Styrofoam. Some students hold the notion that heavier objects fall faster than light ones. They collaborate by doing different tasks simultaneously.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children This process makes them experts of their own learning. wood and lead. Evolving. CREATIONS OF NEW KNOWLEDGE. She leads the discussion on theories about falling. they can pick up strategies and methods from one another others to the project. A group of students carrying out an experiment to determine the melting point of naphthalene. These ideas are temporary steps in the integration of knowledge. DEPENDING UPON STUDENTS RESPONSES. An elementary teacher believes her students are ready to study gravity. INQUIRY BASED – STUDENTS USE INQUIRY METHODS TO ASK QUESTIONS. (2) how the student learns best and (3) the learning environment and the teacher’s role in it. or insufficient to explain new experiences. The teacher helps create situations where the students feel safe questioning and reflecting on their own processes. POETIC AS WELL AS PRACTICAL. The students then replicate Galileo’s experiment by dropping objects of different weights and measuring how fast they fall.students have ideas that they may later see were invalid. At the same time another student tabulates the reading and draws the cooling curve. Constructivist teaching takes into account students’ current conceptions and builds from there. TO PILES OF CHARCOAL. When students review and reflect on their learning processes together. Collaborative –the constructivist classroom relies heavily on collaboration among students. They see that objects of different weights actually fall at the same speed. either privately or in group discussion. TO A STOVETOP DISTILLATION APPARATUS. THE TEACHER ENCOURAGES ABSTRACT AS WELL AS CONCRETE. Periodically the teacher reads these journals and holds a conference with the student where the two assess (1) what new knowledge the student has created. incorrect.

Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Teaching Models Based On Constructivist Approach Needham’s Five Phase Constructive Model This learning model was proposed by Richard Needham (1987 ) in his work ‘Children Learning in Science Project’. Further reading: Needham. the generation of ideas. and teacher’s input. Needham Five Phases Constructivist Model is shown in the table 3 below :PHASE Orientation Eliciting of ideas Restructuring of ideas PURPOSE To attract students attention and interest. small group discussion. project and demonstration. Experiment. To apply the new ideas to a different situation. Discussion. demonstration. METHODS Experiment. problem solving. Experiment. concept mapping and presentation. group discussion. University of Leeds. To test the validity of the new ideas. Table 3: Needham Five Phases Constructivist Model Adapted from “Buku Sumber Pengajaran Pembelajaran Sains Sekolah Rendah. P ( 1987 ). restructuring of ideas. video and film show. Teaching Strategies For Developing Understanding in Science. ideas needs to be improved. To determine the alternative ideas and critically assess the present ideas. 1-30 . Explanation and exchanging ideas Exposure to ideas conflict To test the validity of the present ideas. to be developed or to be replaced with scientific ideas. To accommodate ones idea to the scientific ideas. To realize the existence of alternative ideas . It consists of five phases namely the orientation. application of ideas and lastly the reflection . R & Hill. develop or to replace with new ideas. Writing of individual’s report on the project work. reading. Jilid III” ( 1995) ms 15-16. To be aware of the student’s prior knowledge. To improvise. and personal notes. Development of new ideas evaluation Application of ideas Reflection Writing of individual’s report on the project work. Small group discussion and presentation.

and application phases as shown in the table 4 Interactive Model ( Faire And Cosgrove ) Learning is an interactive process (which actively engages the learner) not a passive exercise in transmission of knowledge. Learning begins with an initiating event.g. • • • • a question to be answered a problem to be solved a challenge to be met a discrepant event to be explained Learning proceeds to children actively engaging in the learning process by: • • • • • • • asking their own questions stating their own existing ideas proposing hypotheses designing fair tests investigating and exploring refining their ideas stating and presenting their findings 1-31 . This constructivist model is based on the premise that children come to the classroom with a body of prior knowledge that may or may not be compatible with the new concept being presented in the science lesson. Interactive learning promotes development of scientific process skills.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Osborne Generative Model The generative learning model. which motivates and directs the learner ' s attention to the task of learning e. challenge. developed by Roger J. This teaching model outlines a series of steps for a well-designed lesson. The learner must be able to connect between prior knowledge and new information to successfully construct new meanings. development of conceptual understandings. is both a model of how children learn and a model of how to teach children. the preliminary. Wittrock (1983). Osborne and Michael C. focus. student ownership of process and products of learning.

is a time for the students to compare their own ideas with those of others. It is up to the students to test the ideas and eliminate ideas that they determine don’t work. We suggest that students be given opportunities to examine at least five situations to which the concept can be applied. the teacher then knows she/he will have to include time to develop those prerequisite concepts. Students present their findings and exchange ideas. the teacher can refine the students’ understanding by providing one or two non-examples of the concept. The teacher facilitates this by helping them figure out how to test out each idea. Table 4: Phases Of The Generative Model 1-32 . Although this can be done individually. and challenge and test their explanations/ideas together.provides an activity (which may be a hands-on inquiry activity or a brain-teaser) that gives the students an opportunity to play around with an example of the concept (such as playing around with objects that sink or float). This is an opportunity for the teacher to find out what prerequisite knowledge the students lack or what misconceptions the students have that may interfere with their understanding of the concept. the teacher can present the concept. i.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children PHASE The preliminary phase . do not. The challenge phase . or it may include a quick demonstration or activity that provides a discrepant event (an activity with a surprising. challenge. The students often automatically experiment with the materials. This can be as simple as a brief pre-test. and volume. on closer examination. Conducting these activities in small groups is very effective. Class members are encouraged to debate.. the aluminum foil boat does not appear at first to fit the standard concept. examples that look like they should follow the rule but. When the teacher determines that the students are cognitively ready to understand the scientific version of the concept.e. If the preliminary phase reveals that students lack that knowledge. The application phase . and test each other’s ideas.includes any activity that allows the teacher to find out what prior knowledge the students have relevant to the new concept. discuss their results. The concept must be redefined to include boats. it is a powerful group learning activity. unexpected results). teacher may find that some students may lack a thorough understanding of the concepts density. The focus phase . A lack of this knowledge will block students’ ability to put together a sound understanding of buoyancy. This will help deter students from automatically applying the new concept to all situations. while the teacher encourages all the students’ ideas and provides them with challenging questions about their explanations. In the lesson on buoyancy.provides students with opportunities to find out whether the concept is applicable to a variety of situations. Students in small groups conduct an experiment investigating buoyancy of several objects. Teacher explains the concept of buoyancy. we would include objects that students would expect to sink. Finally. mass. but which actually float. To create a discrepant event that stimulates the students’ curiosity. New examples may provide new twists on the concept that will lead to a new round of discussion and testing ACTIVITY In conducting a lesson on buoyancy (sinking & floating). students debate and test out their explanations.

Sequential activities in interactive model are shown in the schematic diagram below :Preparation Teacher and students choose a topic and search for information. setting the time frame. Pre-requisite Knowledge Teacher determines student’s prior knowledge Exploratory Activity Students investigate the topic through reading . Jilid III” ( 1995 ). challenge. apply. refine and extend their ideas.g. grouping. access to materials. defining expectations) probing children ' s ideas offering guidance in the formation of hypotheses helping children refine and focus their questions helping children set up their investigations providing feedback and encouragement in the children's design of fair tests challenging children to test. Facilitate the learning activities by:        defining the learning environment (e. Comparison Additional Questions Observation Students present their findings and teacher observes for changes in students’ concepts. asking questions and discussion Students Ask Questions Students pose questions regarding the topic Doing Research Teacher and students select questions to study in greater detail. ms 67. Figure 7: Schematic Diagram of Interactive Model Adapted from “ Buku Sumber Pengajaran Pembelajaran Sains Sekolah Rendah.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children The teacher 's role in an interactive learning environment • • Provide the initiation to learning (by posing the question. Reflection Teacher guides student to reflects on what they have learned and how they have learned. 1-33 . problem or discrepant event and motivating the learners to the learning task).

Activity 3: Choose a topic of your specialize area and discuss briefly the teaching and learning activities using constructivist approach.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Activity 1: Define constructivism and its attributes in science classroom practices. 1-34 . Activity 2: Discuss the various techniques to identify children’s alternative framework on the topic electricity.

and to learn through them. and the recognition of abstract patterns. 1991. Inc. Musical/rhythmic intelligence is turned on by the resonance or vibration effect of music and rhythm on the brain. • Intra-personal Intelligence This intelligence relates to inner states of being. • Interpersonal Intelligence This intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication. thinking processes. logical/mathematical. Logical mathematical intelligence is activated in situations requiring problem solving or meeting a new challenge as well as situations requiring pattern discernment and recognition. and spirituality. • Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence This intelligence is based on the recognition is based on the recognition of tonal patterns. and on a sensitivity to rhythm and beats. and noticing distinctions among persons are necessary and important. and physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body. intra-personal.e. IRI/Skylight Publishing. Interpersonal intelligence is activated by person-to-person encounters in which such things as effective communication. IL. self-reflection. dance. including various environmental sounds.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Multiple Intelligence Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory states that there are at least seven different ways of learning anything. body language. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports. • Logical/Mathematical Intelligence Often called "scientific thinking. verbal/linguistic and visual/spatial. and creative/interpretive dance. numbers. interpersonal. which control bodily motion. drama. including such things as the 1-35 . • Body/Kinesthetic Intelligence This intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. metacognition (i. thinking about thinking). in education we have tended to emphasize two of "the ways of learning": logical/mathematical and verbal/linguistic. and awareness of spiritual realities. Intra-personal intelligence is awakened when we are in situations that cause introspection and require knowledge of the internal aspects of the self. such as inventing. musical/rhythmic. self-reflection. working together with others for a common goal. such as awareness of our feelings. In addition most all people have the ability to develop skills in each of the intelligences. Much of this material is from: Seven Ways of Knowing: Teaching for Multiple Intelligences by David Lazear. Including the brain's motor cortex. However. and therefore there are "seven intelligences": body/kinesthetic." this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive thinking/reasoning. Palatine.

as well as by various kinds of humor such as "plays on words. and pretending exercises. or poetry. • Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence This intelligence. Well done. and engaging in active imagination through such things as visualization guided imagery. by reading someone's ideas thoughts. and other humanly produced sounds. Visual/spatial intelligence is triggered by presenting the mind with and/or creating unusual. which is related to words and language both written and spoken. Verbal linguistic intelligence is awakened by the spoken word. or poetry. and "twists" of the language. sounds from nature." jokes. which relies on the sense of sight and being able to visualize an object. patterns. includes the ability to create internal mental images/pictures. percussion instruments. • Visual/Spatial Intelligence This intelligence. take a break now! Time for a cup of coffee before you move on to the next topic 1-36 . dominates most Western educational systems. and pictures. shapes. or by writing one's own ideas.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children human voice. thoughts. delightful. musical instruments. and colorful designs.

act only as a clarifier or facilitator. and deferring views and interpretations. principles or generalization that they are forming. instead. 4. gathering data. Avoid telling answers or suggesting what students must do next. suggestions. Encourage and reinforce your students in taking more responsibility for making learning discoveries. pp 280 ). Be supportive of their responses. Strategies and Methods for Student-centered The steps of inquiry as suggested in the inquiry model are as follows: 1. 2. 3. ( Instruction. designing experiments. solicit and accept divergent responses and probes and redirects. formulating hypotheses. Teach students how to phrase or write the concepts. children are being encouraged to be the discoverers of the nature of things. Children need to be engaged in ‘real experimentation’ and ‘discovering things by themselves. understanding that additional evidence may lead to new “best answer”. Ask open-ended and high level questions. The figure 8 illustrates the basic steps in using the Inquiry Model Set up the problem situation Provide experiences to bring out essential elements Set up experiences to bring out contrasting elements Learner applies concepts or generalization Learner forms concepts or generalization Figure 8: Basic Steps in Using the Inquiry Model Source: Lang R. and drawing conclusions about problems. Active participation of children in science lessons is possible through inquiry and discovery methods. Encourage them to act on current verified “best answer”.H. 1-37 . What do you understand by teaching primary science by inquiry? Inquiry Inquiry is the process of defining and investigating problems.& McBeath A. 5. but insist that they back up their comments with logical evidence. 6.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Topic 4: Teaching Primary Science by Inquiry and Discovery In science.

A. demonstrates) Active/Dominant Passive or active GUIDED DISCOVERY EXPOLARION OR FREE DISCOVERY(INQUIRY) Facilitator Active Active/facilitator Active Source: Carin. Inquiry means teachers design situations so that pupils are caused to employ procedures research scientists used to recognize problems. R. In between this expository-pure discovery continuum lays guided discovery. misuse of inferences or generalizations that are too broad but allow your students to make their own correction as far as possible. The essence of inquiry approach is to teach pupils to handle situation. Teach and encourage students to distinguish between “healthy “ and “negative” skepticism. and Sund. and explanation which are compatible with shared experienced of the physical world.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children 7. 9. Teaching strategy Teacher role Student role EXPOSITION (teacher lectures. pp 91. to ask questions. the teaching method is thoroughly expository. when neither is given. 8. Encourage student-student interaction and sharing by stressing support and cooperation rather than competition. Discovery Discovery is the mental process of assimilating concepts and principles. it is pure discovery. Point out any errors in logic. to apply investigational procedures. predictions. Teaching Science Through discovery (6th Edition) 1989. which they encounter when dealing with physical world by using techniques applied by research scientists. Figure 9: Dominance/passivity of science-teaching methods 1-38 . you may defeat the purpose of inquiry. instructs. Discovery processes include • • • • • • Observing Classifying Measuring Predicting Describing Inferring A lesson can range from free discovery where the teacher’s role is minimal at one end to pure expository learning where the teacher’s role is maximum at the other. and to provide consistent descriptions. 10. for if you supply corrections. When both rule and solutions are given. Be sure to identify errors and verify conclusions and generalizations in nonthreatening ways.

principle or law. which is required by the science syllabus. Discovery assumes a realist or logical approach to the world. Inquiry tends to imply a constructionist approach to teaching science. Later you make inferences in trying to explain the result while you are interpreting the data. and guide. investigation. and encourager. Inquiry should not be confused with discovery. you define the variables operationally. the older children. which is necessarily present in inquiry. They are experimentation. If the manner in which a variable can be manipulated and the type of response expected is clearly stated in the hypothesis. resource person. the more they will initiate work with you as a facilitator. Discovery concentrates upon closure on some important process. the less you present. then much of the work in planning how to collect data has been done. 1-39 . the situation is planned to provide data that will either support or not support your hypothesis. specify the conditions under which the work will be carried out and you are set to carry out the experiment. The younger the children the more you must present information and guide them. In this section. and structure of ideas. Then you relate the data to your hypothesis and then finally. Guided discovery science teaching/learning tries to help students learn to learn. Experimentation An experiment can also be defined as the setting up of a planned situation. you make another inference to come to the conclusion of the experiment. You observe and measure the variables and repeat the procedure if necessary. organization. fact. Guided discovery helps students acquire knowledge that is uniquely their own because they discovered it themselves. After that. and demonstration. It is a matter of internally rearranging data so your students can go beyond the data to form concepts new to them. Inquiry is open-ended and on going.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Guided Discovery Guided discovery science teaching/learning methods blend teacher-centred and student-centred techniques. Guided discovery involves finding the meanings. you will learn three inquiry methods commonly used in Primary School Science. Guided discovery is not restricted to finding something entirely new to the world such as an invention or theory.

However. This is because students are not undergoing all the steps of experimentation but merely carrying out a learning activity. 1-40 .Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children The experimental process can be summarized in the following diagram: Scientific Problem Theory Hypothesis Conduct experiment Observation and data collection Data analysis Findings/Results Conclusion Figure 10: Steps in Experimentation Students involved in experimentation should follow all the steps as shown in figure 10 so that they will master all the science process skills. when students are given the experimental procedures and asked to carry out the activity. we do not consider this as experimentation.

Demonstration Demonstration is one of the common techniques used by primary science teachers. although in some biological examples the changes might be slow. More sophisticated investigation will be more complex still. Illustrative is largely predetermined by the teacher with one main route expected to lead to a conclusion. Predict – Observe – Explain (POE) In a POE activity students are given a situation and are asked to predict what will happen when some change is made. the students are asked to sort out and to explain the differences between what they expected to happen and what did actually happen. Therefore. Having made their predictions. This has previously been the bulk of practical science education in many schools. Other types of practical work in science include demonstrations by the teacher and illustrative work conducted by children.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Investigation Investigations are one of the types of practical learning involved in science education. Predictions During the prediction stage. an investigation is largely determined by the children with many possible routes and outcomes. It is not totally predetermined by the teacher. 1-41 . the purpose is to allow the teacher and the students to become aware of what they are thinking. observation and explanation. these do not form a series of short steps in a linear process. The strategy is readily applied to many situations in science. Investigations involved a number of interrelated intellectual and manual processes: • • • • • • • • • • • Hypothesizing Questioning Planning Experimenting Measuring Recording data Interpreting evidence Evaluating evidence Making inferences Communicating Predicting Although set out here as a list. Next. although the teacher still manages the learning. the change to the situation is made and the students are asked to make careful observations of the results of the change. The key feature is the division of the demonstration into three parts: prediction. with several internal loops within the overall cyclical process. The wide range of understanding held by the students about the situations emerges in the discussion. children have to take decisions at many points in the investigation. In contrast. Investigating is more complex and cyclical in nature.

Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children A number of conditions apply. 2. this should not be the rule. Explanations The process of reconciling students’ predictions and their observations. situations are selected in which many of the students will be able to make correct predictions. Explain how experimentation and investigation can promote inquiry learning 1-42 . It is important that on many occasions. Often it is appropriate that is be writtenreducing the threat for individuals. the ideas of right and wrong are irrelevant. 3. 1. the situation is sufficiently familiar to allow students to suggest an adequate hypothesis and to offer supporting reasons why it might be true. It’s important that commitment to a prediction is sort from every student prior to the observation being made. which is the final stage of the strategy. the differences between their predictions and observation and often further experiments will need to be suggested. However. Students should feel able and should be encouraged to take risks in making their predictions and to talk about their reasons without evaluations by the teacher or the class. commenting on different aspects of the situations or even seeing quite conflicting things. Situations in which students to guess because they don’t have sufficient preknowledge are not useful for the POE technique. Students will need a chance to talk with on another about their explanations. The situation must be one in which students feel comfortable making a prediction. While students are making their predictions. Sometimes the teacher will deliberately choose a situation in which the result will be a surprise for the majority of the students. 4. The teacher must ensure the students observe carefully and that they discuss these observations. Observations The activity may be done as a teacher demonstration or as a student activity. is usually not an easy task. Often two students will observe the same event in very different ways.

It is the way of evoking stimulating responses or stultifying inquiry. for instance. You might. you ask: Everything. You might begin a new lesson by asking a challenging or thought. p. (Dewey.provoking question to motivate your students. questions have been considered essential to effective teaching. Questioning Procedures Although questions vary widely in their content and form of delivery.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Oral Questioning What’s in a question. in essence. there are certain commonly used steps in the classroom question-and-answer process. use questions as a pre-test to discover what your students already know about the topic or what aspect of the topic interest them most. 1933. the very core of teaching. Get attention of all Avoid • • • • Wait 3 – 5 seconds Ask question Student must understand question and know conditions of response • • • • • Spread question among volunteers and nonvolunteers alike Call for response Call-outs Chorus answers Repeating questions Repeating answers Run-on questions Leading questions multiple questions Blanket questions Yes/no questions Poor distribution Wait briefly after students has responded Have students respond to whole class Figure 11: Basic steps in asking questions 1-43 . There are many ways you can use questions. It is.266 ) Since the age of Socrates.

1-44 . students will be encouraged to let their attention wander. To encourage your students to frame their replies in complete. allow 3 to 5 seconds for a response. and changes of position to secure and whole your students’ attention. • Distribute questions realistically Encourage active participation in lesson development by matching the difficulty of the questions to the capability of the students. to avoid sending negative messages about certain students’ abilities. however. by rows). and management problems are like to ensue. pause for 3 to 5 seconds before you call on a particular student to respond. your lesson will drag. a student answer may lead to your next question or to a redirect (passing the question along to another student to obtain clarification or comment) and.g. to emphasize that answering question is part of a cooperative learning experience. become part topic’s development. • Use “wait time” Once you have named a respondent. By so doing. well-worded and well-constructed statement. • Pause productively When you have asked questions. In fact. • Require courteous group behaviour Train your students to raise a hand if they wish to volunteer an answer. Avoid choosing responders to any set patterns (e. This courteous behaviour. selecting students from among both volunteers and non-volunteers to give answers. secure the undivided attention of the whole class. you will reinforce your students’ sense that they are part of the classroom teaching/learning process. Learning to use wait time effectively takes courage and perseverance: at first. Do this tactfully. Treat incorrect responses as “deferred successes” rather than as failures. This practice provide students with “think time” during which you can look about the room as a signal that you may choose any student to answer. gestures. if participation is predictable. You can use eye contact.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children The suggestions below can help you frame and use questions productively. while that wait time may seem long to you. which gives the floor to one person at a time. and that all students share responsibility for lesson development. • Distribute questions widely Distribute your questions widely. and that no one “of the hook”. it seldom does to the students. you must give them time to think their answers through. allows you to acknowledge correct responses and use them more productively. thus. you may fear that if you wait 3 or more seconds after asking questions. Also train your students to direct their answers to the whole class and not just to you. • Secure attention Before you a single question.

Therefore. Further reading on Levels of thinking using Bloom’s Taxonomy and Processes –Critical and Creative Thinking please refer to Carin. R. or feels about the event. Many of these questions guide children in discovering things for themselves. and Sund. there are three classification systems that can serve as a guide to evaluate questions. Divergent questions (open-ended questions) Divergent questions are those that encourage a broad range of diverse responses. questions answers Use convergent questions to guide the student and to evaluate what he or she sees. Divergent questions stimulate children to become better observers and organizers of the objects and events you present. allow you to adjust your teaching to present ideas again. and reinforce the “correct” answers you may be looking for . 1. These questions evaluate student’s observational and recall skill. pp 157. Convergent questions help direct the student’s attention to specific objects or events. Convergent and divergent 2. answers questions answers answers Today’s science/technology/society complex problems often need more than one solution. knows.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children How can you use different kinds of questions for different purposes? According to Carin and Sund (1989). Using divergent question will broaden and deepen your students’ responses and involve them in thinking creatively and critically. Levels of thinking using Bloom’s Taxonomy 3. A. divergent thinking is a particularly important skill. teacher acceptable answers. Processes – Critical and Creative Thinking In this section. help them to see interrelationships. you will discuss the convergent and divergent questions only. They also sharpen the student’s recall or memory faculties. or go back to less complicated ideas. and make hypothesis or draw conclusions from the data. 1-45 .160 Convergent questions (closed questions) Convergent questions focus on specific. Teaching Science Through discovery (6th Edition) 1989.

Can anything else be done to improve the design? 4. What do you think I am going to do with this material? 2. What ways can you make the lights burn with the wire. and battery? 10. Is baking powder a producer of a gas 5. What thins can you tell me about the world during the time of the dinosaurs? 2.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children 1. Would you say you have sufficient information to come to that conclusion? 9. Do you think heat caused the plant to wilt? 6. Identify whether the following questions are convergent or divergent Answers Convergent/Divergent Questions 1. switch. to make them more divergent? 1-46 . Which of these animals would you like to be and why? 8. What conclusions can you from the data/ 3. What can you tell me about pollution in this area from the photograph? 7. How do you change the other questions in 1.

or provide concept terms in the assessment. Contain labeled links with appropriate linking words. thinking skills. Contain sufficiently clear. Be based on a few (say 10 or fewer) important concepts in the subject domain. Construct a concept map to show your overall understanding on the Primary School Science Curriculum by using the following key concepts: Scientific skills. 1-47 . Either permit students to provide their own terms in a subject domain. Be labeled by students in their own words. scientific attitudes. Be structural representations generated by students freely and not constrained by a given structure. Guidelines on how to construct a concept map Concept maps should: Be networks with nodes representing concept terms and lines representing directional relations between concept pairs. Contain cross links such that relations between sub branches of the network are identified.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children TUTORIAL QUESTIONS 1. curriculum specification. Be hierarchical with super ordinate concepts at the apex when the subject domain is clearly hierarchical. teaching and learning strategies. unambiguous instructions to permit students to search memory in the desired manner and to establish appropriate criteria against which to test alternative responses.

robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency. science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children 2. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy. how can a scientifically and technologically literate citizen contribute to a progressive society? 1-48 . The National Science Education Philosophy aims to develop scientifically and technologically literate Malaysians. Can you identify the characteristics of a scientifically and technologically literate citizen? In your opinion. dynamic.

and to interpret data. interpersonal. In the discovery approach. logical/mathematical. products and attitudes. This approach teaches children to define and control variables in experimental situations. Inquiry means going beyond the known information to gain new knowledge. There are three commonly used teaching models using constructivist approach. Ausubel’s Verbal Learning model says that instructions should be systematic and given in a deductive manner. Levels 2 year 4-6. children are permitted to manipulate material and to investigate on their own. as well as to hypothesize. musical/rhythmic. The teachers’ role as a guide and advisor in the student’s search for information rather than as a giver of information. Basic to student-centred instruction is the teacher’s ability to ask stimulating questions that facilitate creative. namely. critical thinking and the manifestation of multiple talents. and therefore there are "seven intelligences": body/kinesthetic. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • References 1-49 .  Sensorimotor stage (0 – 2 years)  Pro-operational stage (2 – 7 years)  Concrete-operational stage (7 – 11 years)  Formal operational stage (11 – 14 years) Piagetian Theory implies that all children follow the same developmental pattern regardless of culture and general ability. intra-personal. content organization and teaching and learning strategies. The three major elements of science are processes. In guided discovery lesson the teacher poses questions that lead the children to investigate a common problem. scientific values. According to Piaget’s cognitive theory. students’ involvement is active in the learning process. thinking skills. Science is regarded as ordered knowledge of natural phenomena Technology uses the knowledge of science to design products to improve the quality of life. generative model and Needham’s five-phase model. Primary School Science Curriculum is divided into 2 levels: Levels 1 year 1-3. In constructive approach students tries to make sense of what is taught by trying to fit it with his/her experience. In the experimental approach the children formulate and test hypotheses. Inquiry in science teaching applies to any procedure where children are involved in problem solving. Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory states that there are at least seven different ways of learning anything. In Bruner’s discovery Learning model. Gagne’s Learning hierarchy is based on the idea that all learning must proceed from simple to the complex in well-defined stages.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Summary Science is the study of natural phenomena in a systematic manner. children undergo four stages of cognitive development. Children perceive things differently. The primary science curriculum focuses on scientific skills. to experiment. interactive model. verbal/linguistic and visual/spatial. Questions can be classified as convergent or divergent.

ppk. Teaching Science Through Discovery.learningmatters. Washington./constructivism. R. A and Sund. T(2001). London Esler W. Wadsworth Publishing Company. R. Trowbridge.W. B (1989). L and Sanders. Curriculum Specifications Science Year 2.. Sexton. http://www. STAV Publishing. M and Hardy.C (2000) Teaching Secondary School Science: Strategies For Developing Scientific Literacy. Allyn and Bacon. Curriculum Development Centre. Teaching Science For All Australia.C and Franklin.K and Esler M. Better Links: Teaching Strategies in the Science Classroom. 1-50 .. Merrill Publishing Company. 7th Ed. Martin.W and Powell http://www. Johnson. Y. T (1996) Science for Children. Ministry of Education Malaysia (2002). USA.. R.htm http://www..L. Bybee. Prentice Hall. 6th Ed.Module 1: KPLI SR Science Major Unit 1: Teaching Science To Children Carin.K (1996). 2 nd Ed.. Singapore.(1990). Integrated Curriculum for Primary Schools.. Kuala Lumpur. Australia pg 7 Grant.. 7th Teaching Elementary Science.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful