Introduction

Industrial Relations attempt to explain: 

Variations in the conditions of work  Degree and nature of worker participation in decision making

Introduction
Industrial Relations attempt to explain: 

Role of labour unions  Other forms of worker representation  Patterns of cooperation and conflict resolution

Workers
´commodities that were subject to the natural laws of supply and demandµ

Workers
´As an ¶Input·, i.e. as Factor of Productionµ

Workers
´An Individual differ from Employer only in class of Interest µ

Managers Classical Theory
No Distinction Between Manager and Entrepreneur The person who brings together land, labour, and capital and puts them to work

Managers
Specialized Management

A Person Capable Of Comprehending The Organization's Various Specialized Functions And The People Engaged In Them

Managers
Participative Management

Hierarchical Structure Based on Specialization and Division of Labour and with Established Rules and Regulations Governing Behaviour

Managers
Participative Management

Managers Consult with and Involve Employees at All Levels of the Organization in Organizational Problem Solving and Decision Making.

Laissez-Faire
Owner Or Manager Has Responsibility For The Welfare Of The Workers Only Within The Immediate Plant Situation

Paternalism
Management Has A Social Responsibility To The Communities In Which Its Plants Are Located

Stockholder V/s Stakeholder

Stockholder
Investors of the Organization. Shareholders, Financial Intuition etc.

Stockholder V/s Stakeholder

Stakeholder
Have Substantial Interest in the Organization, E.g. Customers, Employees, Suppliers,

Stockholder V/s Stakeholder

Short-Term Profit Or Long-Run Objectives

Change in Workforce

Changes In Demographic And Social Characteristics Of The Work Force

Change in Workforce

Labor Demand Required Skills Job Diversity Labor Laws

Assessing Workers· Interest

Ascertain Worker Interests, Expectations, Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs.

Assessing Workers· Interest

Traditional Method
´Survey, Questionnaires And Interviewsµ

Assessing Workers· Interest

Revealed Preferences Method
´Direct Observation And Measurement Of Observable Behavioursµ

Voicing Workers' Interests

Means Workers Prefer To Use To Assert Their Interests At The Workplace

Voicing Workers' Interests

Individual Action
´workers with good educations and high occupational status are more likely to assert their interests individually rather than through collective bargainingµ

Voicing Workers' Interests

Collective Action
´blue-collar workers likely, form unions and bargain collectively to promote and protect their interests.µ

Voicing Workers' Interests

Participative Decision Making
When Workers see a link between strategic managerial decisions and their own long-term economic and career interests, workers want to have a voice in those decisions.

Work Careers

Managers
Recruitment On the Job Training Job Rotations Promotions Retirement

Managers
Competitive Pressures 
Rapid Changing's in Business Practices, Skill, Knowledge Crash between Work and Family Life Refresher Course, Conferences, Counselling

Blue-Collar Workers 
Initial Education and Entry Level Training Period Trail or Job Matching Period Stable Period Retirement

Blue-Collar Workers
Attitudes Toward Work 

Expectations  Interest  Job Satisfaction

Service Workers
‡Service Sector Jobs Vary Widely ‡ ‡Have Higher Income then Manufacturing Sectors ‡Income Varies with Education and Transferrable Training

Service Workers
High Women to Men Ratio Difference in High Paid and Low Paid Jobs High Part Time Workers Vulnerable to Changes

Technical Professionals
Scientists and Engineers Mostly Engaged in R&D Involved with Application of New Technology, Idea or Discovery to Commercial Use

Technical Professionals
Interest and Concerns
‡Employment Security ‡Long Term Career Opportunity ‡Recognition in Field of Work

Technical Professionals

Career Path
´Duel Ladder Systemµ Promotion to Senior Assignments  Promotion to Administrative Positions

Organizational Design

Specialization Of Function And Separation Of Authority

Organizational Design

Participatory Management And Flexible Work Systems

Union Management Relations

Union
An Association of Labourers in a Particular Trade, Industry, or Company, Created for The Purpose of Securing Improvements in Pay, Benefits, Working Conditions, or Social and Political Status Through Collective Bargaining

Union Management Relations Union Organizing 

Through Election By Employer Government

Union Management Relations

Collective Bargaining
´The Ongoing Process Of Negotiation Between Representatives Of Workers And Employers To Establish The Conditions Of Employment.µ

Union Management Relations

Collective Bargaining
´Agreement May Cover Wages,
Hiring Practices, Layoffs, Promotions, Job Functions, Working Conditions And Hours, Worker Discipline And Termination, And Benefit Programs..µ

Union Management Relations Distributive Bargaining ´One Party ´Winsµ Through Hard Bargaining Comes At The Expense Of The Interests Or Goals Of The ´Losingµ Party..µ

Union Management Relations Integrative Bargaining
´Integrative Bargaining Approach The Parties Engage In Cooperative Problem Solving In An Effort To Achieve A Resolution From Which Each Party Benefits.µ

I.C.F.T.U.
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions ´Founded ² 1949 200 Member Organization Representing 12,50,00,000 Workers in 140 Countriesµ

Labor Unions in India

I.N.T.U.C ´Indian National Trade Union Congressµ
Founded in 1947 Largest Trade Union in India

Labor Unions in India

A.I.T.U.C ´All India Trade Union Congressµ
Founded in 1920 Second Largest Trade Union in India

Conclusions 
Policies and Institutions that can meet Workers Expectation are Essential for Growth and Development of Organization How well an Industrial Relations System performs its functions has a major effect on the welfare of individual workers, their employers, and the society in which they live.

Open For

QueryÙs

a philosophy or practice characterized by a usu. deliberate abstention from direction or interference esp. with individual freedom of choice and action

a system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control in matters affecting them as individuals as well as in their relations to authority and to each other

1 pl : the statistical characteristics of human populations (as age or income) used esp. to identify markets 2 : a market or segment of the population identified by demographics

Scientific Management F.W. Taylor Human Relations Elton Mayo

1 : a set of questions for obtaining statistically useful or personal information from individuals 2 : a written or printed questionnaire often with spaces for answers 3 : a survey made by the use of a questionnaire

Behavior Science Studies economic factors, having an effect upon behaviour in combination with social and psychological factors,

Challenged by Adolf Berle and Gardiner Means. The Modern Corporation and Private Property

Owners (That Is, The Stockholders) Played No Direct Role In The Management Managers Generally Had Insignificant Holdings Of Stock

Specialized in A management Function Understand and Apply the Rules Direct , Motivate and Control Authority of Decision Making

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