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ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED
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NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION NATO STANDARDIZATION AGENCY (NSA) NATO LETTER OF PROMULGATION
1. AJP-3.9.2 – LAND TARGETING is a NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED publication. The agreement of nations to use this publication is recorded in STANAG 2285. 2. AJP-3.9.2 is effective on receipt.
J. MAJ Brigadier General, PLAR Director, NSA
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2 RECORD OF RESERVATIONS CHAPTER 1 2 3 4 RECORD OF RESERVATIONS BY NATIONS -vAJP-3.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED .9.9.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3.
9.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3.9.2 NATION RESERVATIONS .vi AJP-3.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED .
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INTRODUCTION 1-1 Chapter 2 .JOINT TARGETING Introduction Targeting and Targets Principles of Targeting Effects-based Targeting Legal Considerations Joint Targeting Cycle Target Nominations Coordination Elements Chapter 3 . Control and Coordination Chapter 4 .NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED .9.2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1 .9.LAND TARGETING METHODOLOGY Introduction The Decide Function Target Nominations Decide Function Products The Detect Function The Track Function Target Reporting The Deliver Function The Assess Function 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-5 4-5 4-6 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-6 .THE LAND TARGETING CYCLE Land Targeting and the Decision-Making Process Effects-based Targeting Targeting Methodology Targets Command.ix AJP-3.
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is already practiced by a number of NATO land forces. surveillance. AJP-3-2. elements thus leaving Targeting in the Land dimension less well represented. Scope. The Land Targeting doctrine will. This position is a reflection of the state of some supporting publications and the relatively new nature of some Land Targeting concepts and terminology. Each Component of a Joint organization will utilise a Targeting methodology that best suits its operational aims and capabilities. Applicability. NATO Land Targeting doctrine has been developed from a combination of existing NL. AJP-3. While the general principles of Targeting can be applied at all levels. through the Army Board. Targeting is a staff planning function that supports the commander and the staff decision-making process. It is important that a Land Targeting doctrine is established quickly in order to support current and future NATO operations. 0103. target acquisition and reconnaissance documents 1-1 AJP-3.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. and some Joint. 0104. the future AJP-3.9 and the evolving intelligence. NATO Targeting doctrine and terminology is currently focussed on the Air. The task of production was subsequently. These definitions are contained in AAP-38. in places. 0102.1. AJP-2. There is no contradiction in each Component using a different Targeting technique and there are fundamental differences between the Land Targeting Cycle and the Air Targeting process. The format has been kept generic in order to aid interoperability and make the methodology more universally acceptable within the alliance. The central theme of a Land Targeting Cycle. passed to the Artillery Working Group that has staffed the document over a period of time and during a number of meetings.9. Relation to Other Doctrine. The need for a NATO Land Targeting document was identified by the Allied Joint Operational Working Group in 2000.9. appear to contradict existing NATO publications and use terminology that is not contained in AAP-6. UK and US methodologies in order to support NATO land operations throughout the spectrum of conflict.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED .2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 0101. Land Targeting doctrine is directed at land operations and aims primarily to support headquarters at brigade level and above. Foreword. containing a number of supporting functions. Links can be made with AJP-01.
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9. The purpose of targeting is to provide a logical progression. provide targeting guidance and determine the weight of effort to be provided to various operations. prioritize. A consideration in organizing this framework will be the ability to coordinate. as an aid to decision-making. delivery systems and desired outcomes.2 CHAPTER 2 JOINT TARGETING ’No study is possible on the battlefield. one does there simply what one can in order to apply what one knows. one has already to know a great deal and to know it well’ Marshall Foch Introduction 0201. 0202. Component commanders employ forces in accordance with these priorities and guidance. The Joint commander will. adaptable to a wide range of circumstances and will take account of collateral effects throughout the battlespace. set priorities. This linkage between component targeting is 2-1 AJP-3. Joint targeting is a function within the military decision-making process that supports joint operations planning and execution. Targeting must be focused on creating specific effects in order to achieve the Joint Commander’s objectives or the subordinate component commander’s supporting objectives. Effective targeting is characterized by the ability to generate the type and extent of effects necessary to fulfil the commander’s intent linking sensors. The targeting process requires fluid staff activity across and between traditional functional and organizational boundaries. 0203. Principles of targeting span the full range of lethal and non-lethal application of effects.9. with the advice of component commanders. 0204.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. The Joint Commander will establish a joint targeting process within an organizational framework. integrate and assess joint targeting operations. in the development of solutions to meet operational objectives. in order to do even a little. Joint targeting matches Joint objectives. Targeting occurs at all levels of command within the joint force and is applied by component-level forces capable of attacking targets with both lethal and non-lethal means to achieve the desired effect. de-conflict. guidance and intent with inputs from each component and staff function to coordinate required forces and effects. synchronize.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . Therefore. Individual components and staff functions will further tailor this process to meet their detailed and specialized needs. are applied to multinational operation and can be applied throughout the range of military operations. A Joint targeting process is flexible.
J o in t T a r g e tin g H ig h e r T a r g e tin g A u th o r ity J o i n t T a r g e t in g P r o c e s s /C y c l e M a r itim e T a r g e tin g P ro c e s s /C y c le Land T a r g e tin g P r o c e s s /C y c le F o r m a tio n T a r g e tin g P r o c e s s /C y c le A ir T a r g e ti n g P r o c e s s / C y c le S p e c ia l F o r c e s T a r g e tin g P r o c e s s /C y c le Figure 2-1 Joint Targeting Targeting and Targets 0205. Military targets match the levels of warfare: a.1 below.9.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . Strategic Targets. Operational Targets. guidance and intent’.9. The distinction between the Operational level and the Tactical level has become less well defined as technology has advanced. The Land Targeting Cycle fulfils that function at the operational and tactical level for land forces. Targeting can be defined as ‘the process of selecting and prioritizing targets and matching the appropriate effect to them taking account of operational environment and capabilities’. or political objectives. Maritime. equipment. force. are classified as strategic. complex or installation. Air and Special forces will have complementary targeting methodologies and collaboration is a critical element of the execution of targeting at all levels of joint forces.2 outlined in Figure 2. b. Targets deemed critical to the enemy's capability to conduct successful campaigns are classified as operational. 0206. Targets that influence the overall war effort. 0207.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. A target can be defined as ‘an area. All components should establish procedures and mechanisms to manage targeting functions. 2-2 AJP-3. function or behaviour identified for possible action to support the formation/manoeuvre commander’s objectives. capability.
2 c. Tactical Targets. The targeting effort relies on the coordinated contribution of headquarters and staff functions. Delay. Limit. Disrupt. to achieve the desired effect. Divert. Effective targeting is distinguished by the ability to identify targeting options. Exploit or Damage. Targeting effects are designed to influence operational outcomes and are the cumulative results of operational actions taken.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . Targeting is a rational and iterative process that seeks to manage effects in a systematic manner. 2-3 AJP-3. The immediate consequence of military action. Targeting effects can be categorized in two forms: a. Targeting analysis will consider all possible means and the art of targeting is to achieve desired effects with the least risk and expenditure of resources. The terms above should not be confused with terms used to determine the degree of damage or duration of effects on a specific target. are classified as tactical. Effects-based Targeting 0209. Effects tend to be both cumulative and cascading in nature. c.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. b. Systematic. These terms are not mutually exclusive and several terms may be applied to a given targeting objective. Deceive. Effects are likely to flow from higher to lower levels as a result of layers of targeting effort. Interdisciplinary. Targets that produce immediate (or near immediate) effects on the battlefield. Targeting is concerned with producing specific effects. Degrade. 0211. or to the outcome of current operations. suppress and harass. d. Delayed and/or displaced consequences of military 0210. action. Principles of targeting will apply regardless of the component concerned or of the prevailing operational environment: a. Principles of Targeting 0208.9. These higher level aims might include terms such as Capture. b. Indirect Effects. Effects tend to be compound and the end result is often greater than the sum of individual operational actions. The process is focused on achieving the commander’s objectives.9. Direct Effects. lethal and non-lethal. neutralize. Such terms may include the traditional artillery effects of destroy. Effects-based. Focused. Effects terms will be used to describe the commander’s targeting objectives.
Attention should be brought to that fact that actions taken at the tactical level may have effects at the operational and strategic level.9. Proportionality. Planning should consider the risk of unintended consequences alongside the routine consideration of Laws of Armed Conflict (LOAC) and Rules of Engagement (ROE). this concept means that incidental civilian casualties and damage to civilian property cannot be excessive in relation to the military advantage to be gained. c. Military Necessity. it means whether the risk of incidental injury to the civilian population caused is so indiscriminate as to constitute a direct attack on the civilian population. where and how force may be applied.9. usually in the form of damage unrelated to the military objective. which will usually be restrictive in nature. will define when. LOAC forms part of international law and are characterized as being either Hague or Geneva law. ROE. An emerging subsidiary concept means that there must be a distinction between military and civilian objects as well as between civilians and combatants. This relates to the means of warfare and methods of combat whose foreseeable harm would be clearly excessive in relation to the military advantage to be gained. The former relates to the conduct of operations whilst the latter relates to the protection of persons and property. Unnecessary Suffering.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. The formation/manoeuvre commander should have an expectation that a military action will make a relevant and proportional contribution to military objectives. The basic concepts of LOAC are: a.2 Legal Considerations 0212. In relation to civilians. 2-4 AJP-3. Targeting at all levels will always be governed by the parameters set by the LOAC and ROE. The global impact of a single unintended event is likely to be out of proportion with the actual incident. Distinction. d. with the least possible cost and using methods and means of warfare that are not prescribed by international law in attacking a military objective. Therefore a legal advisor should be included as early as possible in the planning process in order to ensure that all relevant issues are taken into account. b. All formation/manoeuvre commanders must instruct their forces carefully on the ROE. 0214. It is essential that a targeting group knows the ROE and is able to apply them correctly to the operations in hand. In relation to a civilian population. This means that belligerents are justified in applying force to that extent which will ensure the submission of the enemy at the earliest possible moment.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . Effects can spill over to create unintended consequences. 0213. There must be due consideration of any collateral and/or additional effects as a result of the targeting process.
2 below. A joint targeting process might look like the cycle of activities in Figure 2. (No AAP-6 definition.) 2 No-strike List. Attacking these may violate the law of armed conflict or interfere with friendly relations with indigenous personnel or governments. A consolidated list of selected targets considered to have military significance in the combatant commander’s area of responsibility.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. (US. Also called JTL.) 3 1 joint target list.2 Joint Targeting Cycle Target Nominations 0216.9. (US. c.9. Also called NSL. Also called JIPTL. or installations not planned for capture or destruction. Joint T argeting C ycle C om m ander’s O bjectives C om bat A ssessm ent C oordinate E xecution F orce A ssignm ent C apability A nalysis T arget D evelopm ent Figure 2. (No AAP-6 definition. Joint Publication 1-02) 2 joint integrated prioritized target list. Joint Publication 1-02) 3 2-5 AJP-3. These can include: a. (US.2 Joint Targeting Cycle 0215. complexes. Joint Target List.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . Targets and priorities are derived from the recommendations of components in conjunction with their proposed operations supporting the joint force commander’s objectives and guidance.) 1 Joint Integrated Prioritized Target List. b. Joint Publication 1-02) no-strike list. A prioritized list of targets and associated data approved by a joint force commander or designated representative and maintained by a joint force. Various target lists may be developed by the joint targeting organization as a result of submissions from higher authorities or from component Target Nomination Lists (TNL). A list of geographic areas. (No AAP-6 definition.
The deployment of coordination elements at appropriate levels of command will aid understanding and reduce organizational friction. Also called RTL.) 4 d. A list of restricted targets nominated by elements of the joint force and approved by the joint force commander.2 Restricted Target List. An essential element of the joint targeting process is to take into account the needs of the full range of ’clients’ and to manage resources in order to deliver the commanders requirements. (No AAP-6 definition. 0217. (US.9.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3.9. Coordination Elements 0218. 4 restricted target list. Joint Publication 1-02) 2-6 AJP-3. This list also includes restricted targets directed by higher authorities.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . It will be important at the joint level that a common understanding of component commander aspirations is developed and maintained.
The introduction into service in recent years of sophisticated systems able to accurately detect and track targets together with new effects systems has heightened the profile of targeting. to achieve desired effects with the least risk. Targeting Methodology 0305. then further identifying the subset of those targets which must be acquired and effected. time and expenditure of resources. The objectives of targeting for a particular campaign or operation should be stated simply. 0303. Land Targeting is an integral part of a military decision-making process. Targeting aims to focus capability to create specific effects in order to achieve the formation/manoeuvre commander’s objectives. both lethal and non-lethal. The emphasis of targeting is on identifying resources (targets) that the adversary can least afford to lose or that provide him with the greatest advantage.2 CHAPTER 3 THE LAND TARGETING CYCLE Land Targeting and the Decision-Making Process 0301. targeting is concerned with producing specific effects in a systematic manner. Targeting objectives must focus on aspects of the operational environment that could interfere with the achievement of friendly objectives. formation/manoeuvre commanders in rear areas may benefit from the application of targeting principles. In achieving the formation/manoeuvre commander’s intent. from high to low intensity operations and throughout the range of lethal and non-lethal systems. Land targeting seeks to describe the activities conducted by the elements of the Land Component in support of both Joint and Land Component objectives. but authoritatively. 3-1 AJP-3.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED .NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. Effective targeting is the ability to create the necessary effects through the synergistic coordination of Joint and Component capabilities.9. Denying these resources to the adversary makes him vulnerable to friendly plans. This activity is complementary to other component targeting processes and is conducted in all operations throughout the operational framework in both current and planned future operations. 0302.9. and should be clearly understood across the combined and joint environment of operations. In addition. Targeting has utility throughout the operational spectrum. Targeting objectives are not mutually exclusive and actions associated with one objective may also support other objectives. Effects-based Targeting 0304. to achieve friendly success. Targeting methodology considers all targeting options. Successful targeting enables the formation/manoeuvre commander to synchronize detection systems and effects systems to attack the right target with the right system at the right time and place.
In this context. However. Command. energy and attention of the formation/manoeuvre commander.2 0306. The threat posed by a target may be lethal or non-lethal. A target must contribute to the attainment of a military objective before it can become a legitimate object of military attack.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. Control and Coordination 0308.INTENT DECIDE FUNCTION ASSESS FUNCTION COORDINATE DETECT FUNCTION TRACK FUNCTION DELIVER FUNCTION Figure 3-1 The Land Targeting Cycle Targets 0307. capture or neutralization offers a definite military advantage.DIRECTION . Deliver and Assess. A continuous and systematic method of analyzing the enemy and the operational environment within a given geographical area (sometimes known as Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB)) is a foundation of successful targeting. Detect/Track. Targeting methodology is based on the formation/manoeuvre commander and his targeting staff performing a continuous but fully flexible cycle of the functions known as Decide. a potential target does not become a target until military action is planned against it. It is therefore essential that the 3-2 AJP-3. Potential targets include a wide array of mobile and static forces.9. capabilities and functions that an enemy can use to conduct operations. THE LAND TARGETING CYCLE COMMANDERS MISSION . equipment.9. Targeting is a command responsibility that requires the personal time. military objectives are those objectives that make an effective contribution to military action. The key is whether the target contributes to the adversary’s war fighting capabilities.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . or whose destruction. The methodology is outlined in Figure 31 below and details of each function are fully explained in Section 4.
0310. The format should be adapted as necessary to reflect the staff and time available for targeting meetings at all levels of command. 3-3 AJP-3. priorities and degree of effort to be accorded to targeting.2 formation/manouevre commander understands. augmented as necessary by other specialist staff. The formation/manouevre commander may delegate the detailed control of targeting to a clearly identified individual or staff section (with the experience and authority appropriate to the level of command).9. 0309. The detailed composition of a targeting group (see Section 4 Annex D) will be subject to organizational/situational requirements and will vary with the level of command. the targeting cycle.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED .9. Following direction from higher levels of command the commander has to give clear direction for the aims. Key members of a targeting group will be representatives from the intelligence. Targeting and intelligence synchronization is best achieved by means of regular targeting group meetings. and becomes involved in. operations (including fire support representatives) and other HQ staff cells. plans.
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Effect Target TRACK FUNCTION 8 .9. The methodology has utility throughout the operational spectrum and can be used to manage lethal and non-lethal effects.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED .INTENT DECIDE FUNCTION 1 .Perform Combat Assessment COORDINATE 7 .NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. of those. 0402. This methodology provides a systematic approach to enable the right target to be effected with the appropriate system at the right time and place. The purpose of this chapter is to describe in detail the land targeting cycle methodology that has been developed to assist the formation/manoeuvre commander. The functions are not necessarily phased or sequenced and may frequently occur throughout operational planning and execution. in making these decisions.DIRECTION .The Land Targeting Cycle 4-1 AJP-3. The process is shown diagrammatically at Figure 4-1.Identify Target Areas 3 . and his staff. THE LAND TARGETING CYCLE COMMANDERS MISSION .9.Execute Collection Plan DELIVER FUNCTION 9 .Establish Target Location Standards 4 .Input to Collection Plan 6 . The land formation/manoeuvre commander must determine which targets presented to him are of the most importance to the adversary and.2 CHAPTER 4 LAND TARGETING METHODOLOGY Introduction 0401. The process provides an effective method for matching friendly capabilities against the most important targets in order to achieve the formation/manoeuvre commanders desired effects. The methodology.Establish ISTAR/BDA Requirements 5 . Deliver and Assess. which he must effect to help him better achieve his own mission.Develop Attack Guidance Matrix ASSESS FUNCTION DETECT FUNCTION 10 . Detect/Track. It is a dynamic process that allows those involved in the targeting process to keep up with rapidly changing situations.Identify Target Types 2 . The Land Targeting Cycle is based on a cycle of functions.Manage Collection Plan Figure 4-1 . tools and products described in this chapter must be continually reviewed as the situation develops and updated on the basis of situation reports and combat assessments. Decide.
4-2 AJP-3. 1 . This stage will consider the Area of Operations and identify areas of targeting interest. Decisions must be made early in the process as to what can be defined as a successful (or unsuccessful) attack. 6 .Develop Attack Guidance Matrix (AGM). Target types and categories will depend on the nature of the operation and the range of effects available. d. 0404. 3 . It may assist in setting priorities for intelligence collection and effects planning. The effectiveness of staff effort in the Decide phase will probably determine how effective the operational targeting effort will be.Input to Intelligence Collection Plan. It is important to match appropriate ISTAR and effects systems in order to engage targets. most involved. b. as an executive document allowing rapid engagement decisions to be made during current operations.Establish Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) Criteria. f. c.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . Only effective BDA can assess that the effects desired by the formation/manouevre commander are being produced. AGM should be developed for each phase of an operation and for different operations. 5 .2 The Decide Function 0403. All dimensions of the battlespace environment should be considered and limitations such as protected areas taken into account.Establish Target Accuracy. The AGM provides a consolidated. how they might be detected and whether target tracking is required.Identify Target Areas. Targets will be developed into target lists and further refined through intelligence collection and the need to manage the dynamic nature of the formation/manoeuvre commanders’ operational requirements. Targeting input to the intelligence collection mechanism aims to provide a focus for the management of detection systems. The capabilities of available detection systems and effects systems will dictate technical and procedural limits that should be established. There should also be decisions concerning the direction of systems to obtain BDA. This function is divided into 6 elements: a. operations staff estimates and the intelligence collection effort. tabulated support tool for operational targeting decisions and is the culmination of the Decide phase of the cycle. The matrix is intended to act.Identify Target Types.9. part of the cycle and will take the most staff effort. The Decide function is the initial. 2 . Targeting takes place at the same time and in parallel with. as far as practical. Input will identify priority targets.9. e. 4 .NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3.
probably different non-warfighting targets. Attack Guidance Matrix (AGM). in so doing. Targets and missions beyond the capability of the formation are passed to the next higher formation HQ for action. given the systems available. A key to co-ordination for both planning and execution is the exchange of trained liaison staff between HQ’s.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. Decide Function Products 0407. track and attack asset availability for the prosecution of their formation/manoeuvre commander’s targets. d. Targets and missions may be included in orders or guidance from higher formations. The HVTL is derived from consideration of the mission. The HPTL should change according to the phase and nature of operations and may be used to focus the intelligence collection effort. c.9. facilitates future tactical and 4-3 AJP-3. ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . Some of the product possibilities are listed below: a. Target Selection Standards (TSS). to enable the selected attack weapon system to achieve a successful attack. The HVTL is normally generated by the intelligence staff. An example of a TSS matrix is at Annex B. The HPTL is a Command decision and should be disseminated accordingly. The staff must know when the requests must be submitted for consideration within the target planning cycle of the higher formation. the loss of which would significantly damage the enemy's capability to achieve his intentions.2RatDraft May 2005 b.9. These targets may have a direct impact on detect. An example of an HPTL is at Annex A. Target Passed to Higher Formations. High Payoff Target List (HPTL). The AGM provides detail on specific HPT's. Targets Received from Higher Formations. High Value Target (HVT) List (HVTL). It allocates assets to targets and.2 Target Nominations 0405. TSS are criteria that are applied to possible future targets to determine what degree of accuracy and timeliness is required from detection systems. The result of the Decide function should be a focused targeting effort and a series of supporting products. The synchronisation of these missions with current operations may be critical to the success of the mission. There will be several categories of warfighting target and. enemy intentions and vulnerabilities. and direction provided by the formation/manoeuvre commander arising from the formation estimate process. The staff must include these targets in their own targeting decisions and assign the proper priority to them using the guidance provided by the commander. The HPTL identifies those HVTs. when and how they should be attacked and any attack restrictions. Some possible categories are listed in Annex A. 0406. the loss of which would significantly contribute to the success of the commander’s mission and which can be effected. HVTs are those assets.
The practical application of this function is the execution of the intelligence collection plan. 0408. Clear and concise information requirements must be given to the systems chosen to detect given targets. 0411. Some systems produce actual targets. accurate manner. These products should be briefed to and approved by the formation/manoeuvre commander or.9. Appropriate systems are tasked to acquire information and report their findings back to their controlling HQ that. The AGM may also identify target tracking requirements. The Detect Function 0409. In particular. Duplication of effort should be avoided unless it is required to confirm target information.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . while others must have their information processed to produce targets. Target tracking supplements the detect function but is distinct from it since target tracking requires specific asset management decisions.9. if time and circumstances do not permit. Many of these tracking decisions will have been agreed during the Decide phase and will be articulated in the AGM. The Track Function 0412. Targeting staff must bear in mind that systems used for tracking will generally be unavailable for further target detection. Once detected. During detection the intelligence staff supervises and co-ordinate the efforts of assets to execute the intelligence collection plan. there should be no gaps in the intelligence collection effort.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. e. Combined HPT/TSS/AGM. 0410. HPT’s that cannot be immediately attacked. subordinate and flanking units and formations and joint systems) be used efficiently and effectively. which are planned to be attacked during a later phase. must be tracked to ensure that they are not lost and to maintain a current target location. BDA is further discussed in the Assess function. The information collected and processed is used to update and amend the HPTL and AGM as necessary. where appropriate. Those targets on which BDA is required are identified and passed to the intelligence staff/section. Targeting staff should be active in this process in order to maintain the dynamic nature of the targeting cycle. Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) requirements. or which require validation. reports the information to the tasking agency. allocated systems (and. in turn.2 logistic planning. At the same time. those with superior. An example of an AGM is at Annex B. The targeting priorities developed during the Decide function are used to expedite the processing of target information. It is essential that all available. HPT’s must be detected in a timely. f. Individual products should still be developed and maintained to provide a decision audit function. It may be useful to combine decision products and an example is at Annex C. 4-4 AJP-3. to the person nominated by the formation/manoeuvre commander to control and co-ordinate the targeting effort.
Management.9. Important targets may appear outside the decisions made during the Decide function. 0420. may be used to attack the same target. 4-5 AJP-3. For planned targets. and if. so the challenges of managing accurate and reliable sensor handoff increase. for any reason. carries out the attack. 0419. The final tactical decision is to confirm the selection of an appropriate effects system for each target in line with the AGM. 0418. they should be attacked. by the Targeting staff of the collection plan seeks to exploit the intelligence collection process in order to ensure that targets are not lost prior to engagement. As more sensors become available to the intelligence co-ordination responsibility. If not. 0414. The decision to attack opportunity targets is based on a number of factors such as the activity of the target and the potential target pay-off compared to other targets being processed for attack. Target Reporting 0415. This stage in the Cycle is intended to ensure the efficient delivery of the most appropriate effect. As the intelligence collection effort is executed and target information is received. not on the HPTL. or type of system. Opportunity targets. if so.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . General. Matching lethal effects to conventional targets may be relatively simple while the application of non-lethal effects to CRO targets will prove more difficult to manage.2 0413. his system cannot meet the requirements he should notify the staff so that further analysis and checks can be carried out and/or another system can be ordered to carry out the attack. The primary activity during the deliver phase of the targeting process is the application of the desired effect to targets in accordance with the AGM. Once all tactical decisions have been made the appropriate staff issue orders for the designated system(s).9. a check has to be made to ensure that the selected effects system is available and can conduct the attack as planned. There should be a requirement to manage sensor handoff in order to track targets. to target analysts for evaluation. are first evaluated to determine when. it is forwarded to the targeting function and. this decision will have been made during the Decide function of the targeting process. In some cases more than one system.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. It is important that full target reports are given. The attack system formation/manoeuvre commander determines whether or not his system can meet the requirements and. If. the targeting group must determine the best available system for the attack. Nevertheless. where appropriate. 0417. These opportunity targets are processed in the same manner as planned HPT’s. The Deliver Function 0416.
Example Combined HPTL. BDA results are received and processed to determine whether or not the desired effects have been achieved for a given target and the results are disseminated to the targeting group. 0422.2 The Assess Function 0421. 0423. attack systems to make best use of available combat power. As such. BDA is the timely and accurate assessment of damage resulting from the application of lethal or non-lethal effects against a target.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. Effective BDA accomplishes the following purposes: a.9. or not. It provides formation/manouevre commanders with an estimate of the enemy’s combat effectiveness and residual capabilities. Targeting Group and Targeting Meetings 4-6 AJP-3. Annexes: A. At the tactical level. 0424. MEA is an assessment of the effectiveness of the selected strike system and is generally an operations staff function. Munitions Effectiveness Analysis (MEA) and re-attack recommendations. known as Combat Assessment comprises BDA. BDA allows formation/manoeuvre commanders to get a series of snapshots of the effects current operations are having against the enemy. or redirect. As part of the targeting process. Formation/manoeuvre commanders and their staffs should always be aware that resources committed to BDA are not available for further target acquisition and development.9. BDA helps to determine if further strikes on selected targets are necessary. The effectiveness. Examples TSS table and AGM.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . Example Target Category table and HPTL. The production of BDA is generally an Intelligence staff responsibility. priorities for the use of each type of detection system may have to be established and promulgated. 0425. Assessment is the concluding function of the targeting process and is the determination of the effectiveness of attacks on selected targets. The need for BDA for specific HPT’s is determined during the decide function of the targeting process and the requirements for it are recorded on the AGM and in the intelligence collection process. b. Formation/manoeuvre commanders use this information to allocate. One method of assessment. TSS and AGM Matrix. B. C. The combination of BDA and MEA will provide staff with the information required to make recommendations to the formation/manoeuvre commander. Assessment will be a dynamic process and will be a constant feature of the staff effort. D. of a particular attack may require different attack options to be considered or for the formation/manoeuvre commander to alter aspects of the plan in order to meet the prevailing situation.
2.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. Each target category can be subdivided to allow the targeting group to focus in on a more detailed classification of targets.9. 1.HIGH PAY-OFF TARGET LIST (HPTL) Priority (Note 1) (a) 1 Target Category (Note 2) (b) ISTAR Target Classification (Note 2) Weapon Locating Radar MRL Tank Unit Surface to Air Missile Systems HQ Mobile systems Remarks (d) By type 2 3 4 Fire Support Manoeuvre AD Large calibre first 5 C2 Trunk communications Notes. The assessment will be based principally on the relative importance of effecting each type of target in order to achieve the mission. Target categories will vary according to the target sets and the operational environment. The tables below give some suggestions for target categories.2 ANNEX A TO CHAPTER 4 EXAMPLE . Warfighting Target Category C3 Fire Support Sub-Category HQ Locations Communication sites Rocket artillery Fire Support Centres Ammunition Main Battle Tanks Infantry Fighting Vehicles Mobile missiles Static missile sites Bridging equipment Mobility equipment UAV control stations Weapon locating radar Manoeuvre Air Defence Engineer ISTAR A-4-1 AJP-3.9.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . This column is used to denote the priority given to a target.
ISTAR or Air/Aviation categories.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. A-4-2 AJP-3. a UAV associated with an artillery system may be considered under the Fire Support.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED .9.9. The importance of the UAV to each of those systems and the relative importance of each system to the targeting effort will determine which category is most appropriate. For example.2 EW Air/Aviation Weapons of Mass Destruction Combat Service Support Communication Nodes Ground Control Radar Sites Forward Arming sites Aviation fuel Long Range Rockets Storage facilities Lift Ammunition POL Bridges Tunnels Crossroads Lines of Communication Non-Lethal Targets Target Category Popular Support Sub-Category Politicians Teachers/Students Military/Police Factions Politicians Supporters Prevent Violence 3. Target categories will not be exclusive.
9. 3.TARGET SELECTION STANDARDS (TSS) Serial High Payoff Target Delivery System Accuracy (a) (b) (c) (d) 1 MRL Battery Rocket artillery 300m CEP* 2 HQ site Rocket artillery 300m CEP* 3 AD missile site Artillery 100m CEP* 4 Fuel site Artillery 100m CEP* * All data is for example only and does not portray realistic values. Acquisition Time. It is based on an estimated doctrinal dwell time of the target. B-4-1 AJP-3. The accuracy with which the target location must be established to permit the nominated strike system to engage successfully. This has implications for the choice of the most suitable systems.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. Lethal and Non-lethal effects may be considered. 2.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . TLE = Target Location Error. Selection standards for non-lethal effects may also be developed. Acquisition Time (e) 10 minutes* 45 minutes* 2 hours* 12 hours* Notes. The maximum length of time from acquisition to attack that the target information is valid.9. EXAMPLE ATTACK GUIDANCE MATRIX (AGM) Serial (a) 1 2 3 4 Legend: HPT When Delivery System (d) (e) S Cannons D MLRS N GS Arty N Atk Helo Effect(S) = Suppress Effect(N) = Neutralize Effect(D) = Destroy Effect Remarks (f) SEAD Counterfire Plan in Preperation Prevent Movement (b) (c) Mobile ADA I MRL A Regt CP P Reserve Bn P When(I) = Immediate When(A) = As Acquired When(P) = Planned Notes: This is only an example of an AGM. Actual matrixes are developed based on the situation.2 ANNEX B TO CHAPTER 4 EXAMPLE . 1.
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C-4-1 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3.2RatDraft May 2005 .NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3.9. A = As Available. TSS AND AGM MATRIX (BLANK) TSS Attack When (f) (g) (h) (j) Strike Asset Effect Required ROE (verified) Remarks Priority HPT (a) 1. 4. 4. 3. 1. H = Harass. 3. 4 = Time of Acquisition. individual’s (Legal Advisor’s) initials or applicable paragraph number from the ROE. It may be indicated by a simple check mark. E = Exploit. TOT = Time On Target. 3 = Static or Moving. (b) ISTAR Detect Asset (c) (e) ISTAR Track Asset (d) BDA Asset /Criteria (i) (k) Notes. Attack: I = Immediate. 2 = Minimum Size of Unit. P = Planned. TSS: 1 = Required TLE. Di = Disrupt.9.2 ANNEX C TO CHAPTER 4 EXAMPLE COMBINED HPTL. 2. De = Delay (hours). N = Neutralise. Examples of possible effects: D = Destroy . 2. Completed in conjunction with the delivery standard matrix appropriate to the target category. S = Suppress. ROE column indicates that the attack meets the ROE.
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2. General.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . 3.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. f. Participation. b. e. They are supported and advised as necessary by representatives from specialist staff cells. intelligence and the various staff cells are key members of the targeting group and must attend. and targeting objectives. c. the formation/manoeuvre commander’s intent. Staff Branch Formation/manouevre commander Senior Artillery Staff Officer Targeting Intelligence Operations Artillery and Air Defence Air/Aviation Engineer Electronic Warfare Information Operations Outline Responsibilities Provides direction/intent Principle staff officer Manages the meeting/agenda Intelligence input Current and planned friendly operational picture Asset updates Asset updates Current and planned activity Current and planned activity Current and planned activity D-4-1 AJP-3. Targeting group meetings accomplish the Decide function of the targeting cycle by providing a forum and format for discussion and detailed coordination. To identify targets to higher formation (e. d.9. Tasks.g. The meetings are chaired by the individual responsible for targeting whose primary role is to keep the agenda focused on the mission.9. operations. To co-ordinate ISTAR and attack systems. Tasks of the targeting group may include: a. To assist intelligence staff to identify HVT’s.2 ANNEX D TO CHAPTER 4 TARGETING GROUP MEETINGS 1. Representative staffs from the plans. To produce and update other Targeting products. target nominations or requests not to engage certain targets). To produce and update the HPTL. To continually monitor the current tactical situation. The frequency of the meetings is dictated by the operational situation.
2 4.9.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . D-4-2 AJP-3. Appendix: 1. Agenda. A possible agenda for targeting group meetings at divisional level is shown at Appendix 1.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3. Example Agenda for Targeting Group Meetings.9.
2 APPENDIX 1 TO ANNEX D TO CHAPTER 4 SAMPLE AGENDA FOR TARGETING GROUP MEETINGS Serial (a) 1 2 3 Event (b) Roll call (vital to avoid constant repetition) Focus of meeting and changes to the formation/manouevre commander’s intent. influence of weather. Confirm areas of synchronisation that need to be resolved.9. Current enemy situation including any BDA received. Responsibility (c) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 D-1-4-1 AJP-3. Future intentions.2RatDraft May 2005 ORIGINAL NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED . Review of targeting priorities.NATO/PfP UNCLASSIFIED AJP-3.9. Review HPTL/AGM. Current deployment and availability of assets. development of HVT and HPT. Overview of the targeting battle and any changes to responsibilities between LCC/Corps /Division/ Brigade. Summary and time for next meeting. Review of the mission and concept of operations concentrating on any changes. Summary of targets engaged and results. Confirm attack systems available during the next period and confirm HPT’s to be attacked. Intelligence assessment including likely enemy actions over the next 24/48/72 hrs and changes to HVT’s and HPT’s. Review intelligence collection plan. Update by ISTAR and staff branches concentrating on: Significant activity since last meeting.
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