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Impact of riverine structures on fish of the Jamuna river
Mahmud Hasan Tuhin1, Rezaur Rahman1, Munsur Rahman1, Tarekul Islam1, M. H. Sarker2, Shahad M. Chowdhury3, Munir Ahmed4 Abstract: The Jamuna is one of the largest rivers in the world. The width of the river varies from 3 km to 18 km but the average width is about 10 km. The river is in fact a multi-channel flow consisting of many different size channels, and of different patterns including braiding and meandering. It also discharges a large volume of water and at the same time brings huge amounts of sediments. Due to high discharge of water and braided nature, the river has a severe flooding and bank erosion problem. Every year, millions of people are affected by flood and erosion that destroys standing crops, farm and homestead land. To protect from these flood and bank erosion, different riverine structures such as embankment, revetment, spur, hard point, groyne and bandal have been installed at different places of the bank of Jamuna. Due to the construction of these riverine structures, the connection with flood plain, natural flow and environment of the river has changed. The ideas of fishermen about the change in species composition for the construction of riverine structures have been collected by using PRA technique. The study identifies the different species found near different riverine structures of the Jamuna River. Jamuna is a good and important source of natural resource like riverine fisheries. Once upon a time, more than 100 fish species was available in the river. But near the riverine structures, a change in species catch is observed. Flow modification was visually observed and the opinion of local fishermen was collected during survey and it is found that, for construction of the riverine structures, the natural fish habitat and the river flow are modified. Thick layer of sediments are found near CC blocks of revetment which supports fishes like Baila, Baim, Chingri etc. Near spur, scour hole is formed where some infrequent species are found, which were not available before construction of the structure. Fishes like Air, Baghair, Kalbaus are now available near hard point. KEY WORDS: Jamuna river; structures; flow modification; fish. 1. Introduction The Brahmaputra-Jamuna River, is one of the world's great rivers. The high water and sediment discharges are generated by the monsoon-dominated floods and the tectonic setting, which provides abundant sediment from Himalayan uplift into the subsiding Bay of Bengal. Structural, climatic and auto cyclic fluvial processes have produced a large multi-channel river in Bangladesh with individual channels up to 5 km wide that can scour down to 50 m.
Institute of Water and Flood Management - Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services, 3Inertnational Union for Conservation of Nature, 4 Technological Assistance for Rural Advancement.
around 2. shallow submersible char land etc. homestead. sub channels. It is estimated that between March 1993 to February 1994 total 5044 tones fish was captured from Jamuna (FAP 17. commercial land everything is destroyed by the river bank erosion. Riverine and floodplain riverine migratory species are most common in the river. Valuable properties. 1990). Figure 1 shows a cross section of the river containing such Oxbow lake formed in char land Channel formed in char land Sub Channel Flood plain connectivity Main Channel Figure 1: Different fish habitats in river (Source: CEGIS. annually a huge amount of fish is being captured from this river. 1995). 2007). For the protection of valuable properties. A good numbers of people lived beside the Jamuna river was involved with direct fishing and fisheries based economic activities like direct flood plain fishing. it contain different fish favorable habitats such as channels. recent widening and westerly migration and exhibits rapid bank erosion in response to large floods (Best et al. For the meandering pattern of the river. Riverine structures 2 . The river system has an intensive problem of flood and bank erosion. crop land. it is clear that. The Hydrology Directorate of the Bangladesh water development board (BWDB) refers to the whole stretch as the BrahmaputraJamuna (Banglapedia. Between 1970 and 1990. transporting etc. oxbow lake and seasonal pool formed in char. But the riverine structures change the natural flow of the river and flood control structure stop the connection between the flood plain and river.1 million ha of floodplain were removed from river fisheries production because of the construction of levees (Siddiqui. 2009). once upon a time the Jamuna River was an important source of fresh water fish for our country. 2.13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference The Brahmaputra-Jamuna has experienced large-scale avulsion at the end of the 18th century. boating. Its meandering and braided nature is responsible for bank erosion. 2010) habitats. More than 100 fish species are available in the river. From this statistics. For these suitable environments. treading. Jamuna is an important habitat for the fishes. different bank protection and flood control structure have been constructed in this part.
13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference 2. which protect bank from direct hit of the river water. 2010) Bangabandhu Bridge Sirajgonj Hard point exposed to the open river. these types of structures are present. On the basis of river morphology structures structures and are for flow characteristics Most protection are the i) constructed. The head of the hard point is Figure 2: Bank Protection structures of Jamuna Source: CEGIS.1 Erosion control structures Different structural measures are adopted by Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) for erosion protection. erosion common Kamarjani Hard point Revetment with Cement Concrete (CC) blocks. Revetment protects the bank from direct hit of water flow. Among all. So the water directly hit and diverted. Hard point is such a structure. Scouring creates a vacant place beneath the toe of the revetment and for that reason it fails. and vi) Geo bag revetment. Figure 2 shows the overall bank protection structures of the Jamuna river. v) Bandal. iii) Spur. ii) Groyne. Revetment with CC blocks is the widely practiced erosion control measures in our country. In Sirajganj and both side of BangabandhuSpur Bridge. iv) Hard point. Figure 3 shows Geo bag Revetment Spur different bank protection structures present around the bank of Jamuna. CC Block revetment Groyne 3 Bandal Hard point . wave and scouring.
Groynes are also permeable and impermeable types but in our country impermeable groyne are many in numbers rather than permiable groyne. Groynes are also constructed for the flow diversion. In Bhuapur of Tangail district such protection work is present. But in this study impermeable spurs are considered. It is very active in sub channels as erosion protection measures. 4 .13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference Figure 3: Different bank protection structures Spurs are both permeable and impermeable. Revetment constructed by geo bag is also a kind of erosion protection measures. Spurs are constructed in the river for the diversion of the flow. In Bera of Pabna district geo bag protection work is observed. The flow is diverted for the spurs and a huge land reclaimed on the other side of the spurs. Bandal construction is also a new idea for bank protection by diverting flow by using bamboo pillars and mats. Groynes divert the flow and protect the downstream side bank.
crest width 6m and side slope 1:3 on both sides. Figure 5: The study area 5 . 3.000 ha lying on the western side of the BrahmaputraJamuna and Tista rivers. it was verified with different literature. Figure 4: Brahmaputra Right Embankment (Source: Banglapedia) Figure 4 shows the Brahmaputra Right Embankment (BRE). analyzed and after that the data are used in the study. The embankment has been under constant threat of erosion by the Jamuna river and needs relocation further away from the riverbank. After collection of field data. near different bank protection structures. The secondary data was collected from different published journal. Data Collection The study is based on primary and secondary information. The average height is 4. By this way primary data was collected from the field. In PRA. no flood control embankment is constructed on the left bank of the Jamuna river. It is 217 km long and extends from Kaunia in Rangpur at the northern end up to Bera upazila in Sirajganj district at the southern end. On the other hand.5m. FGD was conducted when fishers were back in bank after fishing. reports and from FAP 17 study.13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference 2. Construction of the embankment started in 1963 and was completed in 1968 at a cost of about Tk 80 million. FGD and KII is mainly used for data collection. PRA a technique of social survey is conducted. For primary data collection.2 Flood control structures Brahmaputra Right Bank Embankment One of the first embankments constructed in 1960s to provide flood protection to about 230. The primary information is collected form directly field and the secondary information is collected from detail literature survey.
for non protected bank downstream of the structures were selected. shows the primary and secondary vortex in scour hole around Sirajgang hardpoint. Pabna was selected. 2) During monsoon the return flow become very much stronger than dry season. roughness and the configuration of the bank protection structure. 1) The flow pattern is continuously changes due to changing morphology of sand bars. 4. For observing the change of the river flow. Figure 6. It is also evident that the deep scour hole is located near the upstream of hard point. revetment and groyne of Shariakandi of Bogura. 4) The velocity adjacent to the hard point is amplified up to 2 times of the approach flow velocity. hard point and Enayetpur spur of Sirajganj and Geo bag revetment of Bera.1 Near bank protection structures For construction of the bank protection structure. the normal river flow is affected. (2010). Figure 6: Primary vortex and secondary vortex in scour hole 5) Primary vortex is formed in the deep scour hole and it rotates anti-clockwise direction. The flow patterns near the bank protection structure are as follows. 6 . ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profile) data of river profile was collected by Nazim et al. Here the Sirajganj hard point is considered as a protected bank. Figure 5 shows the study area. protected and non protected bank of the river was selected. For the protected bank.13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference For the study. 3) The magnitude of velocity is relatively higher in the mid-channel. At the same time a secondary vortex is also developed and it rotates clockwise direction. Flow pattern 4.
. 5) In deep channel. Less depth scour hole formed.2 Flow pattern near non protected bank Without bank protection structure. 1) Regular flow of river. Only a slight water vortex was observer near non protected bank. Figure 7: Flow pattern upstream of a bandal structure Figure 8: Velocity vectors along vertical planes Figure 7 and 8 showing the normal flow pattern of river near a non protected bank. 4) Near eroded bank. There is no disturbance. 3) No water vortex. Some features of non protected bank are given below. the river flow is its natural state. so there is no turbulence and no high water vortex. 2) Water flow is normal. Slight back flow observer where fish take rest there and collect their food in that place. slight back flow found. high velocity water flow and clam wave.13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference 4. 7 .
Air. Pangas. Some uncommon and previously not available fish species are found now a day.1 Dominant fish species near riverine structures Near different riverine structures the following flow and species were observed. This information match with the above ADCP data. The possible reasons are given below. Fish species 5. Baim Tengra. fish is less available. a thick layer of sediment is deposited. Baila. Baila. Kajuli Name of Dominant Species As seen from the above table. Katol. Baila.3 Indigenous knowledge According to the fisher’s knowledge. 8 . Chingri. Puti. Puti. Boal Chingri. Puti. Baim etc are found. informed during KII. Kalbaus. Baim. 1) Near revetment. 5. Tengra. near riverine structures the habitat changes and species composition also change. Deep scour hole Spur Thick deposited sediments near dumping cc blocks Groyne Thick deposited sediments near dumping cc blocks Bandal Simple river flow Chingri. Kajuli Kalbaus. high vortex. who are catching fish near the hard point. that less fish are available near structure. Table 1: Species found near different bank protection structure Name of the Structures Revetment Habitat Characteristics Thick deposited sediments Hard Point High velocity. Puti. Fishers. fish is less available in high vortex (ghurni) region.13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference 4. where sediment preferring and bottom dwellers species such as Baila. The following Table 1 presents the findings. Baghair. because of habitat change. Rui. And for that reason.
where species like Air. 3) Almost near all structures. Baim. nursery and grazing field for fish. Figure 9 shows the erosion and accretion due to construction of bank protection structure. 5) Bandal dose not affect the river flow too much. Tengra.1Habitat change due to Erosion protection structure Riverine structures damage the spawning. Flow diverted for spur Canal or connection with Flood plain Char Land Spur Erosion Accretion at the mouth of channel disconnected it from Main River Accretion Bank line Figure 9: The morphological and flow changes due to construction of spur 6. where fish is usually available. The shallow char lands are acting as spawning. deep scour hole and vortex are formed.13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference 2) High water velocity and high vortex observed near revetment. nursery and grazing fields for fish because fish feed are available there.2 Habitat change for flood control structure 9 . As a result. but riverine structures divert the flow. near spur. 4) A back flow is formed beside groyne and spurs. Baila. Conceptual framework for fish habitat change due to riverine structure 6. Kalbaus are common which prefer high velocity. Puti are mostly available. 6. which directly hit the char land and erosion takes place. so almost normal river flow was observed and the common species of river are available there. where bottom dwellers species are common. The construction of spur diverts the upstream flow and down stream of spur huge land is accreted that disrupt the connection with canals. Almost all of the same species are available near groyne.
Figure 10 shows the Migration cycle of floodplain fish and the disruption for embankment. And this is also a main cause of decline of fish in Jamuna (FAP 12. 1992). 2008. Embankment Figure 10: Before and after construction of embankment (Source: Adpoted from Rahman. Construction of flood control embankment cut off this migration cycle. They spend some important stages of their lifecycle in flood plain and again come back to the river.) 10 .13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference Flood plain – river migration is very important for the migratory fish.
Bank Protection Structures Flood control Structure Groyne Divert the natural flow of the river. new and uncommon species are found. Bottom dwellers such as 11 . But when the natural environment of the river is disturbed by the human intervention. high turbidity. flow type change. causes morphological change Spur Embankment Hard point Revetment De links the connection between flood plain and river Erosion and accretion in char land. high vortex formed.3 Overall causes of fish decline due to riverine structures Figure 11 is prepared from the identified causes for fisheries resources declination due to the bank protection and flood control structure. nursery and grazing place of fish are affected Fish decline in the Jamuna river Figure 11: Flow chart shows the linkage for fish decline and bank and riverine structure 6. Conclusion Natural hydrological and morphological characteristics are important constituents of an ideal fish habitat.13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference 6. For the river Jamuna. rising of the river bed Migration. it become unfavorable as a fish habitat. Due to change in habitat near riverine structures. such situation is common due to construction of different riverine structures. spawning.
Lovatelli and P. No.High velocity preference fish species such as Air. (1995). Such types of change in species composition are observed near different structures.A. 12 . Rahman. (Editors). Flood Plan Coordination organization. Rahman. pp. UK. In A.Main volume” Overseas Development Administration. 2008. Siddiqui. Rahman.R.H. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. FCD/I Agriculture study. Government of People’s Republic of Bangladesh. 127–140. Philip. Main Report. 7. Vol. G..13th Bangladesh International Geography Conference Baila. 17th congress IAHR APD 2010. Julie (2007) “The Brahmaputra-Jamuna River. FAP (Flood Action Plan) 17. Environmental aspects of surface water systems of Bangladesh. University Press Ltd. 1. Baghair. New Zealand. Dhaka. Baim species are found near spur because of deposition of thick sediment there. Auckland. and Roden.H.. Hoque. M. “Flow Field Around Bank Protection Structures Along the Jamuna River”. Sarker. The author also praise to Mohammad Nazim Uddin. Paper no 3d043. FAP 12 (1992). Chichester. Bangladesh” Wiley & Sons Ltd. 1990. 8. Ashworth. “Final report . IWFM-BUET. References Best. Flood control and drainage development: Physical Environmental issues. Capture-based aquaculture of wild-caught Indian major carps in the Ganges Region of Bangladesh. Capture based aquaculture. 508. M. PhD student. M. for providing the ADCP data to fulfill the research and the paper. M. James L.. (2010). Acknowledgement This paper is produced as a part of research project “Hydraulic Profiling of the Important fish Habitats of the Jamuna River” conducted by IWFM-BUET. M.M. Holthus (eds). M. Huq and Conway. Nazim Uddin M. Rome. Kalbaus are found near hard point because high water velocity is present there. Ministry of Irrigation Water Development and Flood Control.F. M. Global overview. 21th to 24th February. S. In: A.FAO.
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