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Participles, often defined as verbal adjectives (sometimes nouns), are frequently found in Latin. Since they contain elements both of verbs and adjectives/nouns, participles have both tense and voice AND case, number, and gender. In Latin there are four participles, which are formed from three tenses, the Present, Perfect, and Future tenses. Two of the participles, the Present Active and the Future Passive, are formed from the Present Active Infinitive Stem (aka 2nd PP), while the other two, the Perfect Passive and the Future Active, are formed from the stem of the supine (aka 4th PP). Active Pres. Pres. Stem +-ns (gen. –ntis) “____ing”
4th PP stem + us, -a, um “Having been _______ed or _______ed”
4th PP stem + -urus, -ura, -urum Pres. Stem + -ndus, -nda, -ndum “about to ______” “about to be ____ed”
Thus, using servo as an example, the participles of servo, servāre would be as follows: Active Pres. servans (gen. servantis) “saving” Passive_____________
servatus, -a, um “Having been saved or saved” servandus, -a, um “about to be saved”
Servaturus, -a, um “about to save”