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For other uses, see Wuthering Heights (disambiguation). Wuthering Heights is the only novel by Emily Brontë. It was first published in 1847 under the pseudonym Ellis Bell, and a posthumous second edition was edited by her sister Charlotte. The name of the novel comes from the Yorkshire manor on the moors on which the story centres (as an adjective; wuthering is a Yorkshire word referring to turbulent weather). The narrative tells the tale of the all-encompassing and passionate, yet thwarted, love between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw, and how this unresolved passion eventually destroys them and many around them. Now considered a classic of English literature, Wuthering Heights met with mixed reviews by critics when it first appeared, mainly because of the narrative's stark depiction of mental and physical cruelty. Though Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre was generally considered the best of the Brontë sisters' works during most of the nineteenth century, many subsequent critics of Wuthering Heights argued that its originality and achievement made it superior.  Wuthering Heights has also given rise to many adaptations and inspired works, including films, radio, television dramatisations, a musical by Bernard J. Taylor, ballet, opera, role-playing game, and song.
Contents [hide] 1 Plot 2 Characters 2.1 Relationships map 3 Timeline 4 Development history 5 Critical response 5.1 Early reviews 6 References in culture 7 Adaptations 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links
ISBN Published in English Media type Pages 1847 Title page of the first edition Author Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Emily Brontë United Kingdom English Gothic novel Thomas Cautley Newby 1847
Print (Hardback) 260 (Penguin classics 1994 edition) ISBN 9781932535143 (facsimile edition, Washington [D.C.] : Orchises, 2007), ISBN 0140430016 (Harmondsworth : Penguin, 1965), ISBN
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wuthering_Heights[1/17/2011 2:30:09 AM]
Mr Earnshaw travels to Liverpool where he finds a homeless. Mr Heathcliff. they declare themselves lovers. Because of this discord. It fails when Edgar makes fun of him and they argue. and six-year-old Catherine. This leads Hindley to descend into a life of drunkenness and waste. gypsy boy of about seven whom he decides to adopt as his son. Hareton. He vows to get his revenge on Hindley. they make their way to Thrushcross Grange to spy on the inhabitants. One day in August. Catherine. Catherine stops him and. having been caught by a dog. Frances gives birth to a child. he has to stay the night and is shown to an unused chamber where he finds books and graffiti from a former inhabitant of the farmhouse called "Catherine". but she dies before the year is out. a rich man from the south.wikipedia. the mistress of the house is in her mid teens. Hindley is eventually sent to college but he returns. he becomes master of Wuthering Heights and forces Heathcliff to become a servant instead of a member of the family. he Dewey Decimal 823/. they are spotted and try to escape. a few months after Hindley's return. Heathcliff and Cathy continue to run wild and. He names him "Heathcliff". as well as the mother and father. Catherine talks with Ellen. Hindley.8 22 visits his landlord. Two years on and Catherine has become close friends with Edgar. growing more distant from Heathcliff. explaining that Edgar had asked her to marry him and she had accepted. his dreams are prompted by this person and he has a nightmare where he sees her as a ghost trying to get in through the window. an attractive but reserved. to tell him the story of the family from the Heights. As they watch the childish behaviour of Edgar and Isabella Linton. while Hindley is absent. In that year. In the summer of the next year. the children of the Grange. Heathcliff is locked in the attic where. he is escorted back to Thrushcross Grange by Heathcliff. Hindley. Five weeks later. Soon after arrival. Ellen Dean. spending hours on the moors together and hating every moment apart. quickly learns to hate him but Catherine grows very attached to him. She therefore plans to marry Edgar and use that position to help raise Heathcliff's standing.org/wiki/Wuthering_Heights[1/17/2011 2:30:09 AM] . when Mr Earnshaw dies. three years later. has rented Thrushcross Grange in the north of 71126926 OCLC Number England for peace and recuperation. in the evening. She has an argument with Ellen which then spreads to Edgar who tries to leave.Wuthering Heights . He finds the LC Classification PR4172 . Unfortunately she could never marry the latter because of his lack of status and education. She laughs at Heathcliff's unkempt appearance and. who finds himself excluded from his father's affections by this newcomer. as soon as the sun rises. he dresses up to impress her. He wakes and is unable to return to sleep so. The Childhood of Heathcliff (chapters 4 to 17) The story begins thirty years before when the Earnshaw family lived at Wuthering Heights consisting of. is brought inside and helped while Heathcliff is sent home. Soon Heathcliff and Catherine are like twins. who lives in the remote moorland farmhouse called "Wuthering Heights".W7 2007 inhabitants of Wuthering Heights to be a strange group: Mr Heathcliff appears a gentleman but his manners and speech suggest otherwise.Wikipedia. looking and acting as a lady. Edgar comes to visit Catherine . With a new wife. Frances. Catherine returns to Wuthering Heights but she has now changed. even rude woman. She says that she does not really love Edgar but Heathcliff. When he falls asleep. There he asks his housekeeper. Unfortunately Heathcliff had overheard the first 9780140620122 (London : Penguin 1994) http://en. before long. the free encyclopedia Română Русский Simple English Slovenščina Suomi Svenska Türkçe Tiếng Việt 中文 Plot Prologue (chapters 1 to 3) Mr Lockwood. the next day when the Lintons visit. Later. and there is a young man who appears to be one of the family although he dresses and talks like a servant. the same person that Lockwood had dreamt about and the mother of the present mistress. Catherine climbs over the roof to comfort him. Being snowed in. in November. a boy of fourteen.
He despises her but encourages the infatuation.Wikipedia. He makes his way there and she fills in the rest of the story. Cathy. Edgar and Catherine are married. Isabella. With Heathcliff now the master of both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. During this time. When he embraces Isabella one day at the Grange. Cathy and Linton begin a secret and interrupted friendship. After five days. He finds that Ellen is now living at Wuthering Heights.org/wiki/Wuthering_Heights[1/17/2011 2:30:09 AM] . This is the point of the story at which Lockwood arrives. While he is gone. Isabella flees Heathcliff and escapes to the south of England where she eventually gives birth to Linton. The day after Catherine's funeral. there is an argument with Edgar which causes Catherine to lock herself in her room and fall ill. Catherine gives birth to her daughter. Although Cathy is attracted to him. Heathcliff's son. causing Edgar to disown his sister. Six months after the marriage. high-spirited girl who has rarely passed outside the borders of the Grange. Ellen had moved to the Heights soon after Lockwood had left to replace the housekeeper who had departed.Wuthering Heights . While Catherine is ill. seeing it as a chance for revenge on Edgar. Cathy meets Hareton on the moors and learns of her cousin and Wuthering Heights' existence. mortgaging the farmhouse to Heathcliff to repay his debts. In the early hours of the day after their meeting. Cathy has no choice but to leave Ellen and to go and live with Heathcliff and Hareton. having grown stronger and richer during his absence. Edgar hears that Isabella is dying and leaves to pick up her son with the intention of adopting him. This continues into April when Heathcliff begins to act very strangely. Heathcliff hears that Catherine is ill and arranges with Ellen to visit her in secret. the free encyclopedia part about not being able to marry him and flees from the farmhouse. now eighteen. He disappears without trace and. Linton dies soon afterwards and. Catherine is delighted to see him although Edgar is not so keen. before he leaves. Heathcliff has been staying at the Heights. Heathcliff returns as a gentleman. seeing visions of Catherine. she retreats into herself. and then dies. Ellen and Cathy are on the moors when they meet Heathcliff who takes them to Wuthering Heights to see Linton and Hareton. after three years. Lockwood finds himself back in the area and decides to stay at Thrushcross Grange (since his tenancy is still valid until October). Ellen and Cathy visit Wuthering Heights and are held captive by Heathcliff who wants to marry his son to Cathy and. he hears that Hareton and Cathy plan to marry on New http://en. Ellen is released and Cathy escapes with Linton's help just in time to see her father before he dies. Heathcliff wants his son with him and insists on having him taken to the Heights. Hareton had had an accident and been confined to the farmhouse. although Hareton tries to be kind to her. Lockwood departs but. Three years later. After not eating for four days. Hindley dies six months after his sister and Heathcliff finds himself the master of Wuthering Heights and the guardian of Hareton. gambling with Hindley and teaching Hareton bad habits. The Maturity of Heathcliff (chapters 18 to 31) Twelve years on. In March. In August of the next year. Hindley is gradually losing his wealth. eight months after leaving. He is buried next to Catherine. His plans are for Linton and Cathy to marry so that he would inherit Thrushcross Grange. he is found dead in his room. Heathcliff elopes with Isabella. seeing him as a romantic hero. Edgar returns with Linton who is a weak and sickly boy. a friendship had developed between Cathy and Hareton. prevent her from returning to her father before he dies. Epilogue (chapters 32 to 34) In September. while Edgar is very ill. The fugitives marry and return two months later to Wuthering Heights. After being ill with a cold for some time. Cathy has grown into a beautiful. falls madly in love with Heathcliff. at the same time.wikipedia. Lockwood decides that he has had enough of the moors and travels to Wuthering Heights to inform Heathcliff that he is returning to the south.
even though Hareton has no right to the property associated with it. Characters  Heathcliff: Found. and has experienced life at Wuthering Heights. His position in society.org/wiki/Wuthering_Heights[1/17/2011 2:30:09 AM] . Earnshaw and reluctantly cared for by the rest of the family. He and Catherine later grow close. by extension. Such abusive treatment has led many. Hareton Earnshaw: The son of Hindley and Frances. The character of Catherine has been analysed by many forms of literary criticism. She is presented as a character who straddles the idea of a 'culture versus nature' divide in the novel: she is a local of the area and a servant. an unknown woman to the family. However. Catherine Linton: The daughter of Catherine Earnshaw and Edgar Linton. unaware of his true rights. Catherine marries him and not Heathcliff. on the streets of Liverpool. She views Heathcliff as a romantic hero. despite Catherine's warning her against such a view. Ellen— her given name and used to show respect. but critics have found his character. and indeed the former dislikes him. including: psychoanalytic and feminist. affect the other characters are two points of her character discussed by critics. The latter strives to teach him all sorts of vulgarities as a way of avenging himself on Hareton's father. Isabella is only ever shown in relation to other characters. Hindley Earnshaw: Catherine's brother who marries Frances. and becomes an unwitting participant in his plot for revenge. After being married to Heathcliff and abused at Wuthering Heights. without status (Heathcliff serves as both his given name and surname). and the differences between Edgar and Heathcliff. he is a very weak child and his character resembles Heathcliff's. Catherine's life is almost entirely detailed in the first volume. Hareton speaks with a similar accent to Joseph and works as a servant in Wuthering Heights. with a capacity for self-invention. as an apparent bystander. and presumably orphaned. and Nelly—used by her familiars. to consider Isabella the true/conventional 'tragic romantic' figure of Wuthering Heights. He spirals into destructive behaviour after her death and ruins the Earnshaw family with his drinking and gambling. Nelly Dean: The second and primary narrator of the novel.wikipedia. who reside at Thrushcross Grange. his revenge and its consequences are the main theme of the second volume. and has implications for all the characters of Wuthering Heights. Whether Nelly is an unbiased narrator and how far her actions. Edgar's life and mannerisms are immediately contrasted with those of Heathcliff and Catherine. Yet. Edgar Linton: Introduced as a child of the Linton family. though without its only redeeming feature: love. though unaware of her parents' history. she is a spirited girl. His appearance regularly reminds Heathcliff of Catherine. She seemingly suffers from a crisis of identity. and their love becomes the central theme of the first volume. she is also an educated woman and has lived at Thrushcross Grange. the free encyclopedia Year's Day. Hindley. Heathcliff and Edgar). Earnshaw dies.Wikipedia. http://en. especially feminist critics. Edgar is very protective of her and as a result she is constantly looking beyond the confines of the Grange. is often the subject of Marxist criticism Catherine Earnshaw: First introduced in Lockwood's discovery of her diary and etchings. This decision. to be profoundly difficult to assess. have been read into by feminist criticisms. whom he discovers only as he enters his teens. Nelly has been a servant of each generation of both the Earnshaw and Linton families. owing much to his status. He marries Catherine. and only reveals this when Mr. unable to choose between nature and culture (and. she escapes to London and gives birth to Linton. initially raised by Nelly but passed over to in effect Joseph and Heathcliff. This idea is represented in her having two names. he is taken to Wuthering Heights by Mr. but only under the direction of his father. Isabella Linton: Introduced as part of the Linton family. Her decision to marry Edgar Linton over Heathcliff has been seen as a surrender to culture. Heathcliff is typically considered a Byronic hero.Wuthering Heights . The former works to instill a sense of pride in Earnshaw heritage. Linton Heathcliff: The son of Heathcliff and Isabella.
if dotted it means adoption red line: wedding. Isabella Linton born (late 1765) 1771: Heathcliff brought to Wuthering Heights by Mr Earnshaw (late summer) 1773: Mrs Earnshaw dies (spring) 1774: Hindley sent off to college Hindley marries Frances. Bronte has been often commended on her very accurate transcription of it. Relationships map  Key: black line: son or daughter of. Mr Earnshaw dies and Hindley comes back (October). bearing the name of Mr Earnshaw. Heathcliff and http://en. possibly to mark the completion of the house. if double it means second wedding pink line: love blue line: affection green line: hate light yellow area: active heroes violet area: external observers Timeline 1500:  The stone above the front door of Wuthering Heights. Zillah: A servant to Heathcliff at Wuthering Heights in the time after Catherine's death. the free encyclopedia Joseph: A servant at Wuthering Heights who is a devout Christian. He speaks with a very thick Yorkshire accent.wikipedia. her marriage to Hindley is unrevealed until Mr Earnshaw dies. Nelly Dean born 1762: Edgar Linton born 1765: Catherine Earnshaw born (summer). 1757: Hindley Earnshaw born (summer). Lockwood: The narrator of the book. is inscribed. Kenneth: A doctor in the nearby village of Gimmerton. Frances: A generally amiable character. he comes to rent Thrushcross Grange from Heathcliff to escape society but finally decides he prefers company rather than end up as Heathcliff.org/wiki/Wuthering_Heights[1/17/2011 2:30:09 AM] .Wikipedia.Wuthering Heights .
I detected the date '1500'".Wikipedia. Cathy visits Wuthering Heights and meets Hareton. many critics were also intrigued by the authorship of the novels. Frances dies 1780: Heathcliff runs away from Wuthering Heights. near Halifax. the free encyclopedia 1777: Catherine visit Thrushcross Grange for the first time. although very small. One is Top Withens. a friend of Charlotte Brontë's. its structure does not match that of the farmhouse described in the novel. The Atlas review called it a "strange. Catherine remains behind (November).org/wiki/Wuthering_Heights[1/17/2011 2:30:09 AM] . a commissioned artist for the Brontë sisters' novels in 1872. It supported the second point made in the Athenaeum. F. Hindley dies. The inspiration for Thrushcross Grange has been traditionally connected to Ponden Hall. Catherine dies and Cathy born (20 March). While very grand for the farmhouse of Wuthering Heights. Chorley of the Athenaeum said that it was a "disagreeable story" and that the 'Bells' (Brontës) "seem to affect painful and exceptional subjects". the hall had grotesque embellishments of griffins and misshapen nude men similar to those described by Lockwood of Wuthering Heights in chapter one of the novel: "Before passing the threshold. and especially about the principal door.Wuthering Heights . near Halifax. and is therefore considered less likely to be the model. Heathcliff comes back (September) 1784: 1797: Heathcliff marries Isabella (February). at a time when the background of the author was deemed to have an important impact on the story itself. above which. but adding that all of its subjects were either "utterly hateful or thoroughly contemptible".  The second option is the now demolished High Sunderland Hall. that is located in a isolated area near the Haworth Parsonage. More likely is Shibden Hall. beginning his narrative Mr Lockwood goes back to London (January). Mr Lockwood goes to Thrushcross Grange and visits Wuthering Heights. Linton dies (September). Whilst most critics recognised the power and imagination of the novel. suggesting that the general effect of the novel was "inexpressibly painful".  Critical response Early reviews   Early reviews of Wuthering Heights were mixed in their assessment. Heathcliff dies (April). a ruined farmhouse. among a wilderness of crumbling griffins and shameless little boys. Mr and Mrs Linton both die 1783: Catherine has married Edgar (March). many found the story unlikeable and ambiguous. Linton born (September) Isabella dies. I paused to admire a quantity of grotesque carving lavished over the front.  Top Withens was first suggested as the model for the fictitious farmhouse by Ellen Nussey.wikipedia. West Yorkshire. but commented that every chapter seems to contain a "sort of rugged power". near Haworth.  This Gothic edifice is located near Law Hill. inartistic story". [note 2] H. Edgar dies (August). [note 1] Released in 1847. Yet. and was where Emily worked briefly as a governess in 1838. http://en. Mr Lockwood comes back to Thrushcross Grange (September) 1803: Cathy plans to marry Hareton (1 January) Development history  There are several theories as to which building was the inspiration for Wuthering Heights. Linton brought to Thrushcross Grange and then taken to Wuthering Heights 1800: Cathy meets Heathcliff and sees Linton again (20 March) 1801: 1802: Cathy and Linton are married (August). and then returns to Wuthering Heights (Christmas Eve) 1778: Hareton born (June). to Edward Morison Wimperis.
like many others. it saw the book as "wild. and Heathcliff. Sarah Lancashire. Jessica Keenan Wynn and Katie Boeck. eliminated the second generation's story (young Cathy. This is the first colour version of the novel. The unidentified review was less critical. narrated by Beowulf and Sexy Beast star Ray Winstone. Critic Sheila Whiteley writes that the ethereal quality of the vocal resonates with Cathy's http://en. He composed. confused.Wuthering Heights . This adaptation. The novel has been popular in opera and theatre. Charlotte Riley. References in culture Main article: List of Wuthering Heights references  Adaptations Main article: List of Wuthering Heights adaptations  The earliest known film adaptation of Wuthering Heights was filmed in England and directed by A. In autumn of 2008. Linton and Hareton). and the promo for her debut album. The Britannia review mirrored those comments made on the unpleasant characters.org/wiki/Wuthering_Heights[1/17/2011 2:30:09 AM] . The 1992 film Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights starring Ralph Fiennes and Juliette Binoche is notable for including the oft-omitted second generation story of the children of Cathy. Taylor. The 1970 film with Timothy Dalton as Heathcliff is notable for emphasizing that Heathcliff may be Cathy's illegitimate half-brother. arguing that it would have been a "far better romance" if the characters were not "nearly as violent and destructive as [Heathcliff]". including operas written by Bernard Herrmann. Works inspired by Kate Bush's song Wuthering Heights is most likely the best-known creative work inspired by the novel that is not properly an "adaptation". It is unknown if any prints still exist. MTV produced a poorly reviewed version set in a modern California with the characters as high school students. and Andrew Lincoln. and his story-arc is altered. with Heathcliff and Cathy renamed Alejandro and Catalina.  In November 2010. Wuthering Heights. considering it a "work of great ability" and that "it is not every day that so good a novel makes its appearance".Wikipedia. He also directed the video for the song "Women" filmed especially for the website and featuring Jennifer Korbee. The character of Hindley is portrayed much more sympathetically.wikipedia. it said that it was a "strange sort of book—baffling all regular criticism" and that "[it is] impossible to lay it aside afterwards and say nothing about it". Although the Examiner agreed on the strangeness. Bramble. It won the 1939 New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film and was nominated for the 1939 Academy Award for Best Picture. starring Laurence Olivier and Merle Oberon and directed by William Wyler. It was Bush's very first single. Carlisle Floyd and Frédéric Chaslin (most of which like many films cover only the first half of the book) and a musical by Bernard J. sang and produced the tracks with Robb Vallier who also worked on Spamalot. Mark Ryan launched a dramatic musical adaptation of the novel. In August 2009 ITV aired a two part drama series starring Tom Hardy. starring Kaya Scodelario and James Howson. emphasizing the "great power" of the novel and its provocative qualities. the free encyclopedia The Douglas Jerrold's Weekly Newspaper critique was more positive. disjointed and improbable". director Andrea Arnold concluded principal photography of a new film adaptation. Adaptations which reset the story in a new setting include the 1954 adaptation by Spanish filmmaker Luis Buñuel set in Catholic Mexico. and gained acceptance over the years though it was initially poorly received.  The most famous was 1939's Wuthering Heights. V. Hindley . and Yoshishige Yoshida's 1988 adaptation which set the story in Tokugawa period Japan. In 2003.
Philippe (2011-01).edu. 2. ^ a b Paul Thompson (June 2009). ^ "''Wuthering Heights'': Publication & Contemporary Critical Reception" . and Agnes Grey the third: "The third volume of the book is made up of a separate tale relating to the fortunes of a governess. Many reviews of the game use an older link. ^ "Later Critical Response to Wuthering Heights" . "Wuthering Heights: the home of the Earnshaws" .brooklyn. Wuthering Heights can be Wikisource has original text  http://en. and Susan Gubar. E. New York.brooklyn. Omnibus Press.cuny. 8. Notes  1. 4. The fifth has neither a date nor source.edu.cuny. Retrieved 11 October 2009. Terry. New Haven: Yale UP. 9. ^ Hafley. ^ Gilbert.Wikipedia. ^ Robert Barnard (2000) Emily Brontë 10. the free encyclopedia dementia.cuny. "Wuthering Heights" game. ^ Tromeur.edu. Myths of Power: A Marxist Reading of the Brontes. Academic. Retrieved 3 June 2010. ^ Wuthering Heights (2009(TV)) 13. 7.Wuthering Heights . 15. Sandra M. Douglas Jerrold's Weekly Newspaper. Too much too young: popular music. 53.unseelie. 6.wikipedia. 4 March 2009. ^ Wuthering Heights (1920) at the Internet Movie Database at the Internet Movie Database 12. John (2004). 2005. Wuthering Heights comprised the first two parts of the volume. ^ Eagleton. 4 March 2009. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. 9. and that Bush's high register has both "childlike qualities in its purity of tone" and an "underlying eroticism in its sinuous erotic contours". ^ Wuthering Heights was released alongside Agnes Grey under the pseudonyms "Acton and Ellis Bell" (Anne and Emily respectively). The Villain in Wuthering Heights .org/rpg/wh/index. 17. 9781844494897. Dent & Sons. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 3.html . ^ Whiteley. ISBN 1844494896. and the Britannia. The game is distributed free on the Internet by the French author Philippe Tromeur. 2000.brooklyn. Academic. ISBN 0415310296. ^ Emily Brontë saved sections of five reviews of the 1847 version of Wuthering Heights. "The inspiration for the Wuthering Height's farmhouse?" . 2. Bibliography  This article incorporates public domain text from : Cousin." (Britannia (1848)) References  1. Retrieved 11 October 2009. ^ Mendelssohn. J. John William (1910). p. but had only seen parts of the Olivier-Oberon film. London. ^ "Excerpts from Contemporary Reviews" . M. Waiting for Kate Bush. spy. ^ Paul Thompson (June 2009). p. Retrieved 19 May 2010. 14. January 2011. P. or detective story. 4 March 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2010. the Examiner.org/wiki/Wuthering_Heights[1/17/2011 2:30:09 AM] . 5. Academic. p. Retrieved on 2011-01 from http://www. Wuthering Heights is also in the company of novels that have inspired a role-playing game. 'Law of the Moors' essay External links Now in the public domain. ^ Ian Jack (1995) Explanatory Notes in Oxford World's Classics edition of Wuthering Heights 11.  At one point it was revealed that Kate Bush had not actually read the novel. despite not being a fantasy. Psychology Press. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Imagination. Dutton. Sheila (2005). of which four have been identified as having appeared in the January 1848 numbers of the Atlas. age and gender. Retrieved 19 May 2010. 9780415310291. James (1958) (PDF).
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