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an, ......•. _.'" ,,~,na,_'ysls

Bernard Leupen Christoph Grafe Nicola Ko,rnig Marc Lampe Peter de Zeeuw

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n"5ix~1 fjlJ(t .·!/ttlfl'si.( is .~i~.'1-l1 published l,n the Dnteh hlm"l'ln age rhy 0 I e Pu hi ishers jn I(J(H. A S!!C!lTl d, revised 'I'(Jini,~:m w,~!< pu'lllli;;h.cJ :inl HJ~3.

f)<'.!igll /itrJ .. !l!d(l'SI~~ is .fC"I~'I: j}lIbI~~hed ;cjlir1,u.hlln.cumJy ill lll:~!': Eut!;tlli"h 1:l.llg~l~gc i 11 uJ97 by @ HI ~jllI~)]e.i'"!;', \\1 merto n:iElwctf: I ~o, JO ~J ~ ~ ,'I R OUe,dOln. The ,\h:~~.Wi'll:liill.d~ (], and in the Uniteel SI:~.ICS of .'\,I~lr1~ri("~,. an.~l C:"na<ia by Va~l ;\lo~trnnd Rci.lllll:lokl, New York.

Co'pyri!:hn ·[1 lolllJ1 ·010 Publishers, Rm[CfJaln ,C1I"/u!i!r" 90 t>..j.:i:O 2:)1) :)

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Eve.1i since the Renaissance ~Ves[:ern culture mas beenplagued by a between the ie~3i. of the homo, .univerS{J;iisanll. the sheer v:a.r.iety of design disciplines. It WaJS only a mau~r of time before ,calls: to draw the tWI) dom:)ji~s togetherarQse. HQwev,er, what is genet:!!! iJ!nd what spedtkin the designing (if sudl. diverse ob~i!;}Cts as buildings, cities and landscapes.?

If architectural thjfi]~ifig is the Hmater en magist!'ll" of spaoe clesign,ilicn this rl)~1,'; 'cat! be~ulfiUecl onlyiftbe v:didity of its rules of.c:ump<lsition are examined. By merhodicaUy examining: theway designs fiJ together, dive.rg~!llg design tasks and ideas can he pla:c:ed in meaningfll~ oOJifr(l!ll1u:~O!l, The isslle!'eallybec{)mes interesting once the designs are ahstl'a~[ed~i1r,chil!ecmrl1il types, Ibrmal.m.eIliIils and ruies; of (:O[fiPOSiti.Ofi can l'nen be re.~mt'N)dllCed in iliIilodile;f context. Such experimental a.cti\,ity enables us tID nan::;gl'~S the limitatl.o:ns (llfboth subject ilirnd scale, bringing to light unexpected r:~Lati.o.nships berwce!narchitect!)r:lil1 urban and landscape designs.>

Is this aery to abolish theseautcncmcus d.isdplines~l Far fro:m. it. It is not our wish. to undo history, but to open thewa.y 110 developillgtbe design disciplline:El further. Boundary-hoppiing OlD be (10.111':; at any time; fitst, though, we should have an accurate pk~nl.lie of where those boundaries li~. M.erely dadfyingthe ar,c:hite(:tl.Jl'al grammar IS not eneugh; it is equally importaat m de;(£;l'mine the fiange and dYIlil!mics of each design disciplIne .. We need toi)alance the:ir atutifHlomy a.gainst their potential telaiio,~shlp.

This: book evolved during the dai:IJypra.ctlce of teaching design at: the Fa.culty of Arebirecmrear Delft .. P1l'csentlng design ana.lysis as a .. lin.kootwee:1l design. education and researeh, it Oillbrscol!lntless new points .or (';(Intact between the rwo, Inthat sense dilis study has burgeoned into. abro.adly a.ll'pllcalble handbook for spaee d.csigll ..

It is Olll' pleasure to pl:'eseml theknowledgebreegbr t:og:ethel'wltliIil1 these piage.~ for colleagues, sruule;rnts and ntbeJ:s with an interest in the sulJject to dlges~ and de\'dop.

JOlin Heeling, P:rol(:CSSOIr of Urban Design

A111,'; Ho~[ag. Prof~cS8I)f of Strl1(;fural DesIgn

Clemens Stl:..cll.herge:m; Proif(''Bsotof Landscape Afcl!tiOC~!1!J'!t Care:lWeeber.,PmfesS!C!r of A:rooitectura.1 Design

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.,. II

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4 Design~l.nd structure


Structure and truth

4 . .:1




J: Design and mlOllysis



'3 Design and IUH~:


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:; Desi:gn a:Dd typology

!.l3i 5,,2 The devdopliUCl1lt 0

YQ;.3 TYPtllogv ."nod de i:gn

Y'!I 5·4 Typo]ogy3il1ld

6 Design and icontext

6·'1 btmdjifl'!liUI

6.J, The naturrull.illlidscape

6.4 Theoul ivated. 1.ii!iiiJdscape 0,,5, Theasehitectueal lam1ldsCllpc

6..1, The d,e"ciopm,el1t of , dry !ilorm

6" 1 GrowEh .of the urban m,hll'ic

6" 11 The d,esigilOd Sl[Wl]Ci1UJJre

6.9 Transforming Ih{~ urban fabrie

D'rawing te,chnigues to aid analysls




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H Introduction

lJt.:\if!..'~ ,riiiil Aju/~l'si.! is al}UUl Ib~ b~s:ml'y and praeriec uf '1:~l,:hiICl;l~.r<11, l!.!d1<~n andlandscape ,dCClii,gn. It examines the din:rsllY of idem; on design ~n(J places II~!!: cniil.1,tiUIli yf design iri,~nllmCnl. in a historical perspective .. Providing material fur a me [l!tiud it .. I study of rhese designfields, it unfeldsan erdered S},SlCI11 which enables the '~U:'I( to dc!]~cn\(::mrs in~,uendl'lg designers' decisions and mrelere these to the resulr, It thereby introduces the an .. lytical drawing as ,1 wa)' to 1J1i>t1li:t:l 'iT1s:ilJ~t in~u ~hc prncess or desi gil ~ ng.

DiNCred at students, ~'~"I;PC'" ~lI1ldcoU!;;I!:"l!.IIe~ !llIl'Ot!ghom~hc lidd. lJ'fsil,ll fOul Al~a{)'sis rakes irs 'I:);~mp~cs from architecture, urban dlesign and, landsca pe architect me. Thoug'lit primarily intend ed [(ii.r IJ se in colleges, uts l)t(.md. i1ppmlld\t makesit accessible w [)Ibep'.~ ourssdc 1,'1' !:dut~~ti(m1!~ instiMitiom.~ ..

Sill ceth C II1lt,," six tics, m~tim] ~ such as analysis and m{!rpho:~ugi~allll~l.~\~,~'S~s have taken their place ~ n dcsignc:du(:atiulil ;'Iilii,d rcsesrch. 01'1 'l~.C: Ofil e hand, the discourse 1.111 typulugy mrn.d ITIIHphology has been unfurled in the Mctli~crranlJe~!:l. enuatries, particularly in Itlll} and! France br IVlunHori, i\rIllOI1~fH), Rossi, Panerai :md Castex, On the 'otilc,t, analysis of arehireetural struetureis mlgoing in, [h.e A!'lglu"Si!.i:QUiJ flfen" in the ~\'Q~b ~~fRtlw!;,, Bacon and ethers .. Ehnih, "r~lrn~dJes el!:~hllil: drnwin,g ,,~ .", 1,,,o1 to, .. flil'ly"cO; :l.n;'hil'(:<.:iUr>\~ SJtld urb'!i:!'s,

These appruaches have also been asubject of srudy ar Delfr UfllivCFSily, In. rhe An::Iil~~t:~wrc Facuhy, design ~liI,a~r;!;ir,; soon folloilllt.'iII a p3l~. of its own •. eruergiug in its present fo:rm. Dcs.ugI'U. ~n1Jll~rs;is has proved to be a first-rare did;]cliclOoll im. d,es;igrIJ education, and D,,~i~ji llIul AII, grew oui uf experience g:1IfH:d over d\e years .. MoiJ'i(~ [han just an imtroductiOll to design analysis, nllis book oftc'rs an t111i1tI ine of space design as a w]n'fJ~e. frOm. I.ndiv[du:l1 ll>uUd~il~ ~a urban and lilrn{]St;ape ensembles ..

Each chapter examines oneaspect or the dcsigil tield. O,l.ltj) Il~rl describes the de.s~gID process and rhe basic principles nf ,design :mal~'sis,wilh [Ill tlW!I·,::ic\\· of f~clors W he discussed in G~",pters ~ to 5. 1m Ch:l{)!cr .l I]uC designer"s fUI'·.milltl. iln:Sl~r~mcll'laFit,:l1tri1 and the ordering (~f space and material are

.. .ddn;~$·!;"L The '~hird Cha~lll;:r CXP~Of"S ~he rdtllionsilil) iJCI ween d"-'Jiigrl and use, 1iil.d the fmulflhl

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I} that bCiwc""n(l,es,i,r,1l ,I;nclll)\ tc-.chn.ology. '1J.'bcm. foU~wll· adh;l;p!~r on !)'pol~gy, whk;hesta:blish~':S It c:O:lilnecliimill I.>et",.cc'.~ ttlc ordlc" use and sU'uctur.c of Itn:d1di!lg;,;,

The fina~ ch3.pteil'C1(3m~mICs the re:lati.onsl:ii.p between dicsigl1lnil its Pl'-':@.grliplilli,cal and hi8t~.r~COlI co~~cxt It takes tile DU:iiCh landscape, a man-made I~illl!d.srnpe rhar has: gmwn I,Slyer by b.YCi', as ill d~d;lC!'ic mod~l "0 tnl,C(l ~1'Ul hiSLXJIf~~a~ rlliatiomtshij,l between CQ,lltle:xt and desi;gn .. An ilppl'nllix dOCllLlmenlS e!1.halllIDsl:ivdy the practical means. r{;ql;!if~d to rnak~ anahses;. it sets fOf,dll dill~ \l<)t~(IUS; d!:!Jwing'tcch_hi'ljU.coS land t()'I!!i;t,"S tll!t~s't,\ ~(1 SyiJrjlX:fS d.c\ll~ '\!i,itll ,cllrllil~' iu the btltll.

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II. I The design

\V]),oe"lCCf mil~CS II design, ,,'1netller lit be .<1 liluildlillg, p:lll't !):f a town OFiI. park, tsbasicilly ecneerned 'w.ilillU;!!';r;:m, I"mgtr~m~n:d.a location 0[[ !li:t:e. The progr~m (;1I,n. be .th:cd. ber~!rehalU:d .01' do:'::!!emlined ills the deslgn ~rt~,res~e',i. 1'~ul;:h lihe s~m];C; a,pp~i:es t'll) definingi'hc: sire, Ad,~liti.(many> des~glillers 3]\(: fa,ced. With a S€.dcs of fixed! precepts: ~nd unwriuen demands informed. by IIIpani,cll.l::I.r culture or mm'wtio:n .. FililiJJIUy, designs must s~d,sf~1 i;'(Imdili~ns of 11I~f[:dl'l(:s$ :and OOllSlnu::tion.. OeneraUy these' 3spects dv nul: :n.i!'>c· in a, liKed". I.ogi~al G'rdel',; des.igrung is: not a linear prooeSls,llIilft1t a sped:1k l::I'llk I.e<l!di:r:lg' m on.e md only (iI'll!; p(~siMI) solutif)n.KJ1,~win!1l; h~'J.! I~ fult!JI ... 11 ~It{:se rc(.1t{uit'emcnm and' ItXpL'lClalions is, one .of I:be malEtlJ p.rtJMcms fJl(."ing d,('signCifS, '\1!'ith ca~ll, rllmi,,~{a:, All .relella:nt .v.iiPCC[S need to be s~bjc:(;l:cdlX:! critical sc'UI.tiny ... Based on tlu::ilr cou!>ild,e:raJti:olils" oond:usrOlillS, and '\liew,,~int. must: inte.rpret the ('.lI'Sl{ and a<ljiiisit the reJativcimp<lltai:!c'C of~he!tilf~OUS ri;\qi.irurernents and expecJtotti.ol]s ... Tillis il.~t of inlcrp.r, isa prol!l!1li!ml!l'), !;t:ep' wh~I1C"rmlb;)rkilllg: on ;1J design.

N~I!. '!~C 111i;':Slgn~':s "i~w (If !he !:;l.sik leads t\~ a tl()f1(:(;llt •. A tcunli,\ll<p, need SOlly nmhinl& about the form ;l;iIl;~ dGS~g!1! l~ to ~dop!, ~'\bm~"'II,! h:~ .. ;>;:JlF~SSI)8 rhe jd~ .. t!nd~d)'ing a d~ign i1!W);d g~'i'~S dirl.';(:t!olD l'O destgn dtlcisi.o!'ls, O!fg_:z~n:g ~b~milnd I~ .. cl~d.i.n!g

... 'al~alllt8,. TheJ)c am: <I, wealtil!l, nf fonns" oo.n.c-cpt c~1t lake.;. it canlJ be 3. dillJg,ram, IIInlJ mustrntio:1lI 0'[ a test .

. A[ 'IlIruL'; affiL'e or ~be Fl'c,mcn :mibilem ]ea", Nou\'eII, fo:r~aml'l~e, I)efrll:'C:1 Slt'I,gle line is drawn t~xl.t:l1Bi\'e disc!il!ssj,m:l;s ~mtwce;1iI designel';s, a:ndl specialists ii'll (it:I'l:)in sl1bw,llr~J.s. t;1b.pla.(ic. Drawin.g: begins om"::;, ~'.bm iIJ d!CoSi.:FJp:tlofi of Ute. [)r~j("I.:l'---'aC()nC(~pl!-

is clearly I"ormt,d. 'This '\Ii(nk~(J:!l: mcthnd prilsllppoSCS Ibo~ha ~ras~ i!IlOW[l)digc (Jr the p(lssjbiliti~ amd! an a~~:lllf~ iM~g~flta.'ti~fl" ~

~'\;il. ~,;;)m~l~ (If SUdl \'~ib;)1 QI)f!cl)!)t'sis Nouv~.I.':s oo:rn.petiIDiotll design (<lif an o.pc\[illmu~ i~ Tokyo

(t 988). l'la.iWd 1~J[I.a se,ie.~ of diseusskn:t~ wi t!l1hl the !i)ffiL'tl,. th~ choke Fellil Oll tile ml.'!taphi'O.r €If a. ~!~I~ ¢~!tr~ll!lig case rQil' a musk-al runl!!t!tl'!mem:, Tb<: bl!!ild!ing'8 ~!(Itm'[O!f wouLd haliCC 3 <smooth blacifillish, ¢1If\tOO ::>om!),\\lhat M dl,!) rnil!~n I'b.(l.;l.l:(\f;'. Il1s~dl1, [he g£l.ld-c.o'loJicd tl1e8!~CI'S iiiOtlJlJ stand in t~e ilpa:CC" like jnsli!'um(''lll~s in :!J case, ~

~iI(;anmher mcdlod .of working is IDi:ftmpliicd by tbe Dlx,rcssiuJlisr:iu'ch:itc'Cl Ericll M~mMsollil;n.

Wb.en dcsigning die :lEinstcin'fuwecrr in ujl:.m at P(!¥I5!d~m, h~ b~J1with a 'i,l1:sl!OiI ~[m¢l)pt, Oi r!!pld sketch ill.u!!ull!ttng I!ww the oli)se:r\'iI!t:Ory was to illM~. The power of this S:klell~m., lil'eS less in its (''Grr{1c;i: aj)pHf'.:u:i(~11 li'f perspel;~ivc ~nllin in tile lini:~~-; g~vh[g the pdmlllJfY c1I::pcressive elements, SowitCI:iim(')! (he 'CUi!TI:CCllt :iilID,!10b!':s II skctl,;h of Ilhc section 'llliTIl,&Llgh dill:. buiMin.g, som.Ct~!nCS 9. f'Cw liJrnlcs im1icating the main form of ~h.e plan, The !lkeidJ. made by the l'"jnmi~b arehireet AI:var' A::litIJ f<Jr '1ne NC'lII:'; V:lllr apartmem buiMing (~~filJ) in Brenlcn is. an excellenr uillitlplc .of the iau:er' cltiCgory. In V!I~a.1 at ~1iS1 S\.)cm, Mo he ,cl]ruil!disih s~ribb~iWlJgs lies the essence of me Jicsigntbe dwdlmg:s fam~iltlg: eurwurd, and dl.C~c!iiull'ing cQmpae~'df~ul.;l:don !lpa~e, <lnd~n YnllL.\I<i~;f!t.: fru:lrut'agc lil~~will11U units {1 rruc'nNld forrll1l2limli):1n C()1POSIlTcC Ito sunlight, This sh;rdl also shows that Ai!I~o" wihJi~(; dimwtng, was searching fow the ,ig:hl sha:pc fu:r the curvi,u:g la~"d~; .it is ~ 'reffilarkiilblc regi~!1J:atl0n of cne particular mo:m.CrnTIl! in Ib.e dlesign p!:J)~s.

A!!;"liitl, tlil,eidlcil. he:hi~Jd il dc~ign. may ~I,\ .fixcd in a dilllgmm ... Tl'le ramnus. c,lr:llwirng: bjl Ebenezer H,owilIl'ld in, :1898 of tlli.c gardelli dt)1 can lseceneeivedas such, ~ Allb!l!llgh I low01il'id dJd 11(;'1. a seale hel!ow ii, !lis dr~gF::im prij! .. ~klE'S iniul'tnill!ih)nOlJnoOI :flllla!tfi)i!lc.'bil's nmJ:J, wim 1:1.0 ~mplic3tiorn; fD!r tllil,c actual ~~h~lpc of l:h¢ cit), ..

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8. P:rnrtf <l!O'>d II.. Unwin, !,I~" of Wdw)'i'l G~j\(reti Cit)'" If)O.Z I a garden. dl:y I:r.!s:ed. 00. I'lIDWl1:rd'8 di~&f'!m

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16 The prO(~I;.!iS'

Thus, d~\'dnpililg :Ii concept is 'QIl!l~!]~t MCp Inwiirds malldmg a desi gn _ IBetwcc 1I'I!i1,e a bsrracr concept all d the eencrete -design lies all em ire PI"OCCS:S, is non asimplequestion of translating one inm I~H; other; mther" it i.s a creative operation in which designers fonaulare it :possible formal elaborarion, rest U ~ <I~'li~~$! Qil~ :~~quinlrncn'Q&, and p05:!':ilM y n;jl;.\l:[ the sol'wuti(J!n m lIulj ust it f[u flJ),nffiHlr tes ~ i n:g:~ ] t is a ,(~P{:ti'l:h'c pl1tMJCSSW hoseeearse is parrl y eyel iealund jf}ltrt:ly di.fc"CliufiiUl, through which il Itun(k(ujaHy

g<l!ill.S dcp~h_ At eVClfY s.'ICp rbe dc;!iii:gl'!.;r (;KilmllliCs the possible oOl1sequem: .. '!.:s for subsequent SH:Pll and CrC;1D!Il!> m'l:rginsl""of solvi.n:g whatever umfiJrCM:CrI ptu'Mems mlbY ocuw_ AI: ,t:ad1 SIC-P he or stll: also lonks back to see whether I'bl;: ol!i~iml~ concept still holds or reql~iresm;od ification, Selti~g 'l'm-iolls po~n~Ic-~QlutiQ!'!s side by side for ClJl'!ilp'ilds-on can be i:mt~I?Qrnun alllilis,


AI :1. eertainpoirn in (~1C process concepts uysm,Uize into .1 final form Cor [llC design _ But how does the desilgner ani".., CIt a i(II,'n:lI! is designing ,e:omp'I'r,ahle to solving:t problem whose solution (in t:his cese [he fOlrlll)is c:rU-:ilpsulledinTh ~he I:l!sJ.:) This issue hilS I:,IUISed a pel'll deal of ink to How. UsuilIl~! iirevelves around tbe question of w~cthl:f [1!Jc demands made 'Of a desiga, p"rli(l!!t~rly in terms of 1!I~,erli.!l!l:l,;~ Qf 1:01:1 SlntC'lilon, generate (I, fortu, or I f 'I ill e form can be derived fl'Clim another source, 15, it possible, for example, 10 derive 'I.~H~ shape of (I maim. e.'i:p]idlly !rol1lJl the pattern of lines of meverneru through that room; or can a span dle,ri\',e directly from the bending

momeae d iagrilm? t\ nd if !Ii jil'n;c of mevement can generate forlll, slMIUId! the form of the structure tll,era d;e~en"lllJiile that of tlM~ Sp!:I<lI\ or vice versa?

The different points of view adopted in praerice U'eganlil'n.g [he relattoflls.hip between d,e~,iVi and ~S<; QilJ I!:I:H: une h~;l.d~tll (~ ,i~cs;g[l. and ,~1I'tic~lJ).rc on rhe D~h'~1' an: .oC<lh wilful ~¥! C~a~:*'T!> 3 a~d 4+ ["Csl'cg;:~ively" 1.1 ct",c, suffi ceit W say ~ha( pr'ogN!m.m31~ ~ <in.;! structural I"l1;q!lIFe'ment.s are nm exclusively able leo field f~l(; fo~ of <It:! l}biCl';~ !.II' ,~ompmH,~i_

K. ;"'I"j l'Ii~I'" hl'Y"'''. I' 'J<~~ .• ~,,~1 ~r",i'l i.m "r 11m 'ntcrhJ"~ i,,~ "~'~i nders

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Typo]o:gy Fe fQi!'!'!'! is !:!(lit deductible from I:hes:er~q~lIirem.ents a.loJ);c:,. lilliei!'!; hrQildly lSpealji!l!g, dtef-e are twO PO!lsibi~ili\es: desigm:,rs, must either draw en e,>;'perreillce nrcnme 'Up 'I!.'.ith a new fOM. Basing filrm on

ClI .. perience lSi the customary 'P!J100CdUI'C,\\i'here iii, ~mp~mb[e tas!::: in simillar eireumseanees has brQught ;S<ll'i~ryingr~sul'ts,a d!l:~igt!~F m .. :y d~d!il ~Q a.pp[y lit again, 'ro Ibe able to resort tD' experience, des~grn.ers must I'liave !i;iij.l"lsidIN:lbJe kn.owledg:e of compaF'Jbie soluti.!llns ..

P!):F ¢x'amp:le, dl~Y :must be 2Cqjll:l[n.tal! wilih mOlllliY !ki~d!s {If iSlt!iirs, Wli~d'ow~,. i,'h)QfS" a:udi foria" bulMi:o;S fonns" dwellings a:nd 'Urb31iila:y~Ults: IWIlIi!. he able to name tlhem. These are wllut we COilII (YPtf. Mor,e w.ill be S~W, iIIoo11t;w0.rking with trpc!iin Cbap;tc!f f).

The need ~Q p~lllic:e lim owiginal (tlrm may p;r,e:= 8~~[ il!>(.Jf: al1cwail, ~"'!'\ry typc; ~'<l'Sfi.r8t g:!v(]:rl s~[l,,,e at one time Qf' ii!:!lAther. TOQl'cJ!Jt:e a new fOrnil fo!"., ~y, a. 6ty spa.ce Ol',a dlCaIWell',tb.e desig;net !.i!suailly be~ns with ab:nr~ot geomeit,ieaJI s:ba.pe8, cubes, prisl'tu:, p~'ri;l.m1ds and l:he like.. These (Irimary geem~tri~1 forms illre inl~llectllal ,oons,trllct:10JllS (tibe ~Illed PI(J:lornit' .~().lidJ). The,-g, milglilt: also dc:ri"e a form ffQ~ n~~YIC, fuvLng (}f dead, suei'!J!a!!l .<l! teJllillril, ki,dn.e,y., S!iliilffil's shell, and sO on. To IX: Ollolle to mssrer Ilh.ese org:Ji1il1c fonns:" tlley 1:00 late erans! [uditlea:ng'llo.meiry when It cemes to tihc ilct.ual !l:ons'lrlJlctio:n of a b1.!llding.

Bearing in m.ifid dIe type Ilf task,tbe d.$~gnc:r chooses a. form hesurmises 10 bea su:i.ta.ble I)a,~js fbI: dIe design. Thus, a. stu.iI',s s~.(l~1 wO<i.lldl nOt be dl.c most popular shape fora tihea!tuaudi:t:ariuliI1I, 'lIo'her,£:. it ~'{1'"1.l1d!¢dIyraiii~ ]l;l)ublcms ·of s;jg'ht lin~s:. For a fll!blic .la~"aI:Oiry, ililiowevf'4:, j~ is "proven [[te;tfi!i uf O!rga! t~~ ~r.tn1'iti~Jl fl10m p't1hli.c ~o prj,.-atl':, as ;my visat'0'fW' Amst~rdillm M'm ~i!n;O\\i,. TUite <l:bo\'e j)~itb about ti}:rm. hold a·~ 'true fClrlLllic. LQdh~~dual parts of tiRe design as fbr the !tom,pillilt[olll, of rb.6St parIS, the oompae,te bll! I1!r ensembie, Herel too dte desigfi~f csn clJ()(~c bci!Wc¢J:! ()mlbillirush~~g ~hl) famliiliiwli' 'Itne t)lpe) and Inttodudng a fi.e~' ilibsi'ract Or l1Iatwlral farm.


D(;'Sigl1lng i~ :more than. jUM c,h(losillg 'iI form, PlreWotri:mg a meal iiSMt meJ1c~y a matter of bril!lJg~i1Jg to:gefliie:r ~b,e :i~gred.ients burrather or hOiw they Olii"'c p~ocessed, mixl'tl and! eaeked, ~Hmllarly" il1i design we have a " oo.!'" i~ wffilJich tile des!!gn is '''~repared .. to In itthe maltEriai forms: ;OI"ld s:piu.:e,S, illlC ;.ucf<'!!iig(Jd [flU} lh~ limil ,~~ompo8i1!'!OQ., the dtlfini'I!\'C d.eslgmJ!. At tItl.S SIJ:1ge eachelement endls (j{~, ill it'~ propel' P:1::R;l'; :J0cording to tine 'princiwles. @f iJOlillp€F :sil:ion. "rithout: Illis ordering prooes~ the £(."''>1.11'1:

WQuid be ch:;t~}s. Thi!: melihtod of (ll'deriml!;' :Judi t~ll~ '~On(1);p! empli(}y~d ~h:imatl)~)! diet .. t~ thcd~rr'JIli:i:(i.r" sppeatanee :lmd. s;tyEe: of :I, design .. Here ill where d:ecisi.0:nsarc criJiJiitd,e,,:lnd the desl:g,m£s rersonal Il'fef(hlitm.otl will prevail. Chap;tllT ;!: tail,:l~s 3. ,elOS0t look af wlt:l.t !!ioes on m, Fhis ·'bb.cik box."


A d esi;!;,:D. 1:3S~ i1lrsi(lllly ,colilfllp.rise.s 3. ~hU:l (set do,W'.n

in .~ br,ief) a~d a sirte. The silte j" ;~ cqml'iJfrU::Wllt of ~bc nf~lio!'nJ of "oont.t:X!l," if'll which :I. dcs:i:g,ll is. set. As the place w~ei!'e the ftlllllJle design ,lIlll-st be ,e}leell!t«ill, Ilh.e site is tb.em.o:st: 1l~II>'~bic p'-'1;r~. (~f t~rus ,cmu'!,\x[, I~ i~8i hr{J<ldl,'.g,t sense "CQ;t;!I(l;,::i:" inciudl)!; !h~ Itisto:ry ofdhc iili~e, tl1.e ~aci1j:b'TOund toli~e: d~sign task and rhe social processes infurming the <i(.'1filiglnl.

Un.dic:rs,ta!ll!ding these issues e:n:ha:rruc(,':S Ihie de-sign ms]i; and appredadon of the !file, :1:D!IUrn Ine design's pi:JI\illt£al.

On,oc a. dCSJgmJ is I'{;al~ll(ld it :p:re-S'(lIUS iI. ntW whole ill 'Oomb~1illti.orl wifh ils si.iuo'undi_rl,g"S. How de.sign ... ers regard thegil'l"ell ,mntle.x~ .mdl ~lOW 'I~ey respond I~ clt;mcnts pif\t's(::nt th(.';re is Ih(l S'lIuj(lC[ !.If Cha,pl~!i fl.

Material protegido por derechos de autor 8~~WlTl~I,'O: di~llJ'~m~ <.Or Ii"" d~~idlil !".",,-.;"S~;

1.2; The analysis

One W~Y fif gai:m~n~ insight inw~h,c prQl""(,,S~. of de~i!,!:ll~llg i~by fUHlllyziIil!,': l~xistin!_l: wOirk. Sm:h anlalyscll In; d~~i~Ii;)!1; \\ifh I hI; term "d!.'1iign analysis."

If (lcs'i~ningis a creative Illi'lJ{)CSS that produces somelhil~g that did nul nisI prCYLuw.,~)·. :m;JJ~p;i!i begins with I~C OU~Cu:rIlIC nf'~hJt pm~c!is anti thl:ll attempts to ~!:I at I he 'lI!!l ~h;T ~~-i[l~ i d (,:,]S .. nJpli"iru; i 111\:!i- This J.n:!.1 ysis, ~ ( ~1I:tn u Id be IUl i nJt~d 0IJ1, is pnxli(''aicd 011] hyp(J,!]u.:si,~; ut .~!( !HI! our i~lC!wimll ~,~) ~"\.lI1I1lMr~.!:t rhe th:sig-~ process.

. '\.:rn.:a~ysi~ is.,~ means of dnd'~fl~ng in~ighl into the I~I·ofcs~iun,. yet :![ can alsu ]W{)r\"C useful when IT'!:~o.:~m.:h~n~ ~ ~i\'l~'n sire, ~l hllild'~ll~ to bcecnverjed q, r a t~d):an ;JItx:~. t'n be tfilnsf(~rmcd. 'rlil!~)l!,gh! 11 e rcsul I s uf a de~iP'l :J[m:~~ sis (;lIn Hike I he form (If n w'ri U e ~l rut • ill crlJrC)Si !. .. lies I h is ~I~ ll bo: accumpanied by Jr;'lwin~s, models :md cum purer sirnularions.

In making :m ilml~ysi!i it is not our task w fairhfully ~cpm,j.u.;c the nb~<!O;'D under scrmililY InUI" rath~I' In ~)I a m~Ji.I:I1iu.lIS1; n:f i!s I,'lJ~lfl~"i!;nls ,~rw:ii!1 tu t]fi,c:: ~.l'l!1- I)'sis such '1~ its c,orm~J[lc~iliml. rhe rdali!lnship 11( ... hn:..:11 tiL\~il!!Ul ;mtl I:IJUliC);t. and l~.~t between design • •. :onst ru et i ona nrc] lI!icfulncss,.

BriJ1l~~n~ out such aspects 'i~ done b) r(:\\'ud(in~ lin !;),; draJwiiU.g ur mudel. This can just a. C':!.Kily inl-uhc []imill:il1J~' <IS ;Iddin~ inlurmation. In the remOl~~d e !· of this cl1"'IHC'r we will exam inc 111:u; possibi~ i t ies d:l$i gn ~ nal ).'~ ~g can uffer asi ngth e perfect llJu;dill~llI11 ("'r [he i''' rJ~"'''', l II., ,~r,'_\, i ng.

Prm;'I::>sing rhe ,drawing

Wh ... re;)!; ~l J1lmd~ll,;;)n provide three-dimensional I·CII~c~cn~·'~lions. ,1 drawing will never bemnrc rhsn

~ wo-ilimcnsione]. h is pU~li~b!C, thu'l!iigh, hlMjgg~~S~: nil p'apcl' a lh:~J,'d dimel1:~iu1.1. For this we enlist an ~llm1r of ~"'m\l.~ll'u!.;:l1 proJe~~li~'Il1i, fruM nl~iQrm; rypes ..,f p~.r~~ld Illllt!j,e'O:i ion Ih~">[)Llgfu. U hi igllli! 'pl~niccl iuns W perspcerive«, Thl: <lllpcndi:.; ('" )ii;.lwinp; techniques ro <li.d ~lnJ.I~;·~u!;"·) Imlh; more d!),c:I~' at rhe technical 'l'flt;!;IS uf IT)mjC!;limll dru\\·inl'\".

The basil!: material of ~ulalyliis aJnloS;liD1i.t1r·iaM.y cunsists or or.~\u!!:ra.phh: nr[l,ii projection drawing, of ~ he ~lcsig]\. These mighl he' skctl"hcs.\\."urkin~ dr<lwj~I!!~. '~)r t11,":'J.winlr-' o1:]!(;Ji~cd. ~y rneasuresnenr, yer drilWill11lp. made for ~,lrl;'liC!n.!"li(l:r:1 can SCf\'C file purj)n~i.': ,e4lmI~,\" well. The ~ni(nfm.;I[il)n ~mr(:d in these drawing types varies withlhe obieerivc of rhe

analysis ~houg'h ,III represent au abstractien of

rC;Jj ~ ury. The g:re;:n CSI measure (If :I'br;;I~JIL:ti{llrn is usually obtainedin presenrariea clh'a.wings, in which the: a,bj,ecl isgrenem~~r reduced mso~i:d 11l91'It:r VCI'SU:S space. Unlike wurlting dr1t\\.'ilfl.g~. !Jh~"" m:.dc fi:!)" presentation pm'p05C~ an: fl"equcmly devoid of n:fi::]1Cllllil~~. to n1::JJ teri a 1 and ecnstrucrion :riIl1 et hulls. .orrell even ~hc 'P~illit:'ipal measures are ~i1din~, :md lilt '-;I,;:;l!t; ,~)f Ih\: ,Jro.\\·i!'!!_{ ffil1!Y :hllH' W PI: Ifllle5~eJ at. !-IOWC\.·CT. ~hc IUc:ill and dearly urg,\I]iz~d i!1f~mn'!'riun t'I:!c~- p:!'C)\'id~c can he !lM!fl,d fin some I~'I)CS of designl ilnal~·sis .

,"Vhen 1!.na.lp:ing rgW1 of a cit)" [If ;In element of bndscl1pe our most h:n~mrtllm mol is the' tOI)og~'I.phical map. Drawn by surveyors, such maps provide derailed infoT'ffi<1!ti,on ilho~u hl!1ildi~Jg~. green !i1);Jl':C, t:tlilds, W1UCr lI'[Jd ~u lunh_ DMTi:r,l;nccs in level ali"<: dThllt·tecil[lsing conrourJmes. For the purpuse of :Ul~!I}'si3 th~s hesle material crm \)1: processed in several will·'ll.


"1'11,1; most c:~cml:luary I·c~:~.iliql.lll: os 1't.I[luc·li,uIL \Vr;

11180:' it primarily ro disclose the ~~tn!cWn: (If a design, l\:he~her the merphological, trrorogiC'll air Jlhysil:a~ structure, Te c;qI)OS(: the sen .. ierure 'm,cmm,s. omiiting from ~hc dnwim.g )'Ill il'ilf(~fmatilJiU bcarin~ [lit) relation tu thl: main "'O!TI~11~5i~iml0f'1~~CC ;mdH~'li~!'i:!t In a

t y]p!)logi .. ~~.1 r(ld~Ci~ i nil this means h·<lvin.g out such r:JInicul'II"S as irrelevant ob]ilille COl'rlerS and physirni p:~"j~<.":li!jrn!l in thu design, This mulluo eperandi is eq~m~I~IY 'lpplicaMie W ibril1.g:ing om the Imld.-bl:'llring srruerure, '~~l'ough then ~I is of cm~],,_~crCSU'k!cd w m;!~I:!li a 1 pb}ill1lg ,~ :lIJJla~.oF str~!,;un,~~ Ifolc_ To ,,\-n~d IOl!Oing Cl~t<Jlrc!:h CI' the anal y:r,~d objectin 11~c :red uelio~ drawiJlg, ~h~ co:~.iout.. orr'!.;'~lIg~ii':1!bll: [,l<lrts of the design an! ofte rI ~ndlJ(led as a frame of reference, 1l11lS ill :1 reduction drawing of ~ city on 3 r~\"c:r, the I'~'-C r IH, i neluded ,1S;~ ~"Cr ere II'u;c .

Material protegido por derechos de autor


Additb:m invelves im:mdJ~d:nlg IIlIforimut:ioninto· time (trowing that is d.tfu.e.1" non-visual or :no]Ji~,rchmte[;1tl!ll"," at It may bt [nlbj'm~t:iOfl abQut fUI'lt;tiol'lJ or use, er ten IlS !<o:ml):tl<ling alt!oul the undcl"lyin:ggeomctr~CllI syner(iJ., such as ,axesallldzoliilCS. Generally spea1lkimlg such IPf(!l:rm.-:rign i~ addled gJiJC¢ the dr:iwi:ng has been str:ipped of as much s!!l!perfhio~s a!ld disi:tilctil1ilg datil as, possibl~ (i.e. hOiS b~~1'1 l"edtlOild).


Dlf:lwi:n.g: the object for ana1ys1:s asthougb it ltad been llI.ken, tpart can bring out diIJerchl;tiofiship between oompoil]en~!ri or' aspects .of ~biC de~gn .. Juxtaposing or superimposing .dr;~willgs., giving comple,mcJlt,UI'Y Loforrnallio:DlJ, can 'be helpf~1 wli1lililnl eX1I!mini:n'lg t~,1l :re~lIltimil!simip bet\'l/lBe~ dijfe~CliUt s)'stems ~Il rthe dlesig:n, whether t~ese be s!;lve:rnl stories or sC'!N:il"lli. Illyeni IJ a I~ is ,,]00 pussible to draw the obJ~ct as mQuB:h it had b¢en blliw~ 3p,n:t, Grilphi.c~.lly term.edllne::.;;plowed ... i~\'ij', Oil!!! type 'of drilwiElg helps to pro:vidie irls~gltt into tile :rd3tmo~5.hjp I)e~\,'een. many dements.

G'~JOii.b~tti:;1l11 Nom, =.1' "r Il:<lm<, '7~~, DO-' fii:ir:i<:ltil:Ie 1111 tfutt [~II'I~ka ~ cli.drlcl'iDll lle~"'.:t:11 public and ~ri"llt~ SIl~'CI:. Noll; ,I",,, ,",,1 o:m~' I:ruo .tu"t'l as piJ.D:H(, '~~ee!:>UJt r,edj[ocestihJ.: in~crior 81l~C" a; \I'dl

Material protegido por derechos de autor




1111'\ --


Stp~~M .gt~tIl 1!~(!dJi!.!I"i"l c I)f'll!)l)~ 0.$ 0·' Cr. f! tf!dllS



.• , $.0.<;"" ,~"dJo. ""Im.ill ImS'tit<>t!"""" ~ G"""lf1 .jJ~til ~"d je.,rOlo("n

Poill~ilio, ViILIa. RotD!l-it" IS66r.I.'ltl7. !:;xlllod~d dfi!wi!ll: of,~I~rn~l!tl! ~l!o",jj_"jl:'.!'!iG ~J]!;l_n~ ~!~me!l~: gf !llo;; ,..j!J~.'~ «>!l'I~~~"n

[I~rrJ~.rill Tseharrr], dcsllJR dFliW;llljl' 01 j>,iiJ'" do 1:1. v;m~~t",i il)S.l Te ill,;sl:rnl:i: 'Iilit.; iii!d.erl)fiiO'lg 00fI-.

M~~~tlp~dtiW 6~p8re§~r~M~ffigi~tor

2", [ Introduction

h~ O.l~IHcr ~ we (,l;"PIl~'WJ the broad ~inf;'s ufth!" ,~~IC'.~L~n ~ll'm:t'Ss. We saw :hnw aspects sueh as fo:rm, Iypt: and context alfi:!.:1 the ord.c,illg of II design,:!' IU·!)~e.:s~ described asthe "bl.ack ~()li. ,> Chapter 2

la kes iI look ;I~ ~id e I h ~ H hll.!;;:l hnx.

l\t~uerinl, and space

Whcl!~l::r .J.t:sigTllrng a house, Ji>~lri ofa cit):,;I, garden, u pn~ or :1 bmlsc~]lr,. '1~~C design is predicated upun J, 1::0:11'11 position of s paces and JIlta rerial. In :~ house these are I hi.' rooms as ago! iris! the esreri 01:' ;111 dI interior waU~,in :I park Inc olpen spaces, paths and lawns :1!<O ag:Jilflsl tilt' trees, and in a I.:'i'ly ~hc open S:P'l!;C'S !If 51 rce 15 em J SlIUlUl"'~ as ,l!:l"l urn'l build ~ ng.~ [mel t rc!:s :lm~l;.

:\ c~ ~ ,"~,t i~'i\, take place in t he spaces; (his is I\, here I"IH: /"mf!,I'llI.U is sim:ncd.l:l:rmld:ly SIJC'aldng. form, place "rid the n .. '~~r1;!' of (he m;uc~i~J diet ... e the t.llmli!ics. ur ,!l.u C~P~("_ ·lrh!.l!s the q~"ll~.ty ,~)f.a square ~s. t::!)\·,t"rncd hy the rurm, place, nature ami f~lrH:l:i:[J:n nn1~ildin&\'>! around it, and th,~!i;IWD., II,~HI:r'\' <l!~d (IUa1i1r of [l1c enfolding' materials cl:c'!ermi1l1Ie the quality of a room in a bcuse,

WllC~l designers Of c!':ili(;~, !HUlS! describe how II de~i:g'1'I is cOin,lposed without the cJicl ,of drawings, thev resort Itl' [I.:dmlcal. i:l:n'lnls. ·file Danish architect Steen R"~l1I1u!i'lI;ri. lilr ("xamrh::. d.~!icdh~$ r<'Ul~adi[)'s \!illiaRnwn{~a IhlJ:s: "Most ~iun(Jlills, of all the villas was the ~~1-c~~I'kd Vi II;! R""'l~~' ~i~. ,~11 ~lm~lli't "'! !.mn: ble ck with a ]il:rge, co IOlnn,~u:l,ed port i co on 11~l fou r sides, As(;cflding the bruad flight of stairs 10 one ,of rhe purtkQcs JOU arc aware "I' the same composirion Of'M()nlS ils ill the StiWIJJ r1"A~hem ~:i\ frcscn ofl5Q8 by rhe IM]imn renaissance ])<lil!Her R1!philld. which shows a building' with <I like composiuon

- ed.), From the hroildl. Upc:llporlicu )'(m C:1~ICI" the burrcl-vnulted hlll~~, !I'[hidi,[[I:~ld[s you into '!!'tie circular clonu:J dum her lin [he U;r1tllt'. From I~f:re the axial line continues thlXl'llghl :I new barrel-vaulted hall out to tJ],c putl:k!~ nil the ~)t her side, '1,

T'.hc de::.o~ gil by rhe Swiss a rc:l!:i ~ "{;CI Bernard Tschumi for t&lie cempetirien fOlr Le ~"ln: de .~Il Villctlcin 1,I'aris hns been described as follews:

"The p~<'Un Is ·dmrn"-'leriz'~11 b~' d\crcgiUi.m,rly disposed foll~t$.~,I~ on the same principle bot each with its OWiU. p'rngr;\rI1 of ITf:! i viries, In ,()omprl:!l:i.tton. tl\c scheme is 11 '!p~bm :~ihrl!" 'ba~l'd on Ih~e~ :mmrmmU'liD$ Ji~I'r;;wrm ••

A PQ~~US grid of 1.2.0 x [:!:Om.C'lc't~ WI[fuJ iI. f(~~~y :1[ c'11cry point, a ~rid ",II$(~ t'hc~c~n ~d<li~!: W 1hj(; sur!l'!!Jl!P.ding l!!rb<lF! fabrric< Then there is " system of ~illes, a eovered axial intersectiea as m.1Ulit '1coess",,, il:nn:d:'l .Euu;i,fll~ /mJlJli!tl,{ult (irdl.l:.frrC.lllrak along rhe rheme garden s, Third, there is a system of pl<i:lnics~'l:rgel" spaees meant fOl.'open-ai.!" ncriv hics, bOIJ[II ded by taut ro".\'s of trees."

BOIEI descrjptions use technicalterms. OIU the (me hand" [hey dmw o:rl. concepts thll'~ refer to [he l'lem"lds of which '~Iil,C' (h:sl~n IS co i1IstruC!od---:folli.e.E, drtldar llrm~l!d tll'lmba and j!or,lit(}'fs. 0:0'1 I~le other,

nil eyi nell] de terms I hill d,cscribe ~l'OW these eernponents are treated and arranged inlo 3 w~ul,!:, such 'is PGiJif~ g.n:d ,t}I j 20 x .120' UN:tr:T:r <1iH] fil1u;ifirl prm.lli:IUJae ardl'l:II:CIlIf'n!rr in Le Pare {~e b. ViU.ene ami (l1l"iIlJ ""I,lt un the ViUII, Rotunda,


'\i~ry design, then, can be broken dow]1 iaro ~:p~tilll a nd :n1I'H'!w!:i~1 el.emcn~:.,,_ Sj)~ti .. 1 del'n~!l!!! i:ndude CUpbll<:lr<h,rooms rmd urban S(IU:'m;s, whereas duol' kf!Qb~. w<!U~,. b~ii:din~ Mock~, and du~~l's ofll'ee~ come underebjeets 01" rnaeeri .. 1 ·e~Cm'll,eIHS"

The eemponeats or elements rhar eenstinne a design. 01" designsred in !)1ll.rt with tenus refcrriu g: t,o 'c:x~,sting compo:nelUJts most lIsed 011 more rllJn11 On1IC occasion, such as the porticoes ohh~~ ViII" R,(Ji!oll.d ... 1ln:d T!ii!:humi'~ li~~[li~!i. \ty,(! canlJh,~~ !>p~.ak of Iypes (see Chapter 5):·

Smvu.: elemems ~re described il~ terms 'of their basic: geonll~l:dc fOirm., such as Inc circlIllar domed chamber, era triangular space,

The fanciful promenade (olJfronts 'us' with an e lem enr l;(llck i n~ a gcolfUel'rica]]y (tc£~UJed :Cor~". Evidently the designer shapedthis element ulcng i ntui Ii lie lines.

Material protegido por derechos de autor


The tetJ:th'l we crnp]oy to dl:o~('r~l~ ~bl:, o!\d.~dng of the des~gn can 00 traced! had in purt ttl the set: of rools deriving from .Eudideangcometry. TlhepoilT1I'S grid and the axial ~lne aile jllSI tWI) ex3,rnptes.

This ~rn~tr~1 ~oo.l kit consi.sts JQf the f",l1.~",ring::

- (ufg;ini~ing; lines atld! axial lines I!e.g, symmetJ:~1 ax~s, sp~1;ial ;I::t;;fI'S, and building: Un~, f,!)guf<l!~ing Hn.~);

- ZO,1l;e!i;

grids ~e .. g, ..'i gri:dfi, :tim:;gJidls, hdt gri.ds); :systems of mejjsun::~m.d. p.ropofdo!ill ..

Some ~ftbese tools ClIIl also, be found. ill:!. ,resentt,1lay Computer Aid,edl Design (CA!})' p:rogl"3ms:.


Every d]eslgll~s based on oeder. Tlhe need 1:0 or~e.r IS pnT!l'!!WtOO mQ!'i!l I!hili!l anything ().lse by (lllf ge,"efai d~s:if'~W arrall:g',!,l ~b(l 'World so :iSW m<l~(l lf~ilSil:,roo understand .. Tlilli,s,g: takes .p~lac~ as mucb on tbe teevc;! 01' .lian,gua,ge by assign.i.lllg (ems, aml.d .illtro-dneing cl"S'SllicMlons" as Itly plil:ysical inte:rvc<ml:io.n'S in the ellitvirurnm1il;Cil!t.

A scc0\1iId moti~'iC 1:0 arrange lOr' 9rdel1!' rellat:e!!, to produetion .. CbriJty of GrgaWJJ~zat[on. 1!> :iI. prerequisite fur ~llccl..'S~:fl,lny j)!iI!ui!1!g a dt'sign if!!!) I'r:lct:k~ (~';(l Cbpter 4.)'

,\ dlirdl moti!i!efol' IQrd't:rin:g nws to d.Gwith usc ..

It should! 00 clear t,hat am. 0l'g;miz~ s}!stem (If streets 0:r corrid.ors ,can :1;111 :prj:n.o:i:pile mean gl'ewt'er etUdency. At th.e :s:une time, Grde.ln,g has aroJet'O play inl :gai.nimg :t betrer lunde~'l":l.ndhrug' oflitrue >:p.:l.ce :around us' Of~e-rmg isa m~lI:ms ,ofdfllwlngWitrhil:f coneruoo!'C0IJIityandab5t!"lCt!Lhoughr.[!J!J a crt)' who!i~ 0:rder ~~ u_nClcil!, we only tend to get

'W:h@n~mpO$i:ng: ordEr, Jesi.gners use .11:01 only the geom.etry I:QOJ !.:.ilt, bUit:3ilsQ' ~ther pnndpJ¢s" Fl)!r ~xamp'l~, th¢co\!~1t !)( <tn!te<tion, a mOV~m~i!1!!:orit In3r.t.nive ,Can d~cta'f}e the !ltd!et of ill !If objects er buildings. P; pi.ct:<ll.riaill OODlipositiioili der~ved fi:'!)m painlting ean also pia.}\' a "art.

Tliius,.several ordierin:g Ilriril:c1(pllies emerge ..

'f"he d;lferilnce in. programs and b1ll.i1(1ingmethods,. changing !:';~rC!lmsr:mces· ::r!ld! i'1it~eiq'l'e} Qlf i:~:llS(t cu;L':t!!m~ti!~c~~varyi!'!g frpmj)~ac~ 1:0 p:la(1tl G;f 1)C!N!l :[mm. Jx:rwJ:\ to pen!(!:f!~gii'i'e' a dch per.spe..:tbie Ofl! centuries of spaee desiign, with :many stYles e,'oll"ing Gi~'er time,

i\l'chit:ec~ural :syst:e:m

Wh",!'! W!) s~~k of ~tyl~" WI); g(,1~fN)wany ~hink first M thellJll'pean:U1Jce,. the ('brm of tile elemems and du: diffcrilllJOGS i!il, dGcoiICatio[l. ),,(11: stile ilt!lS a oocond, mGl!eClJindamtma~ SJ1strnll thn f!"I!r,!ls, a ~e1tmQlif in this rnOliI;ltt;f: .. 'fhe art Msot(llrian Emil Kaufm.ann. [;31Is it (be: IIfchitec!und system, ~ An i!r..;:llitioo.;~yri!] syStem dficS('f;I!J(;'!i !h~ $l'f;i,tcttlr~ ,of d~8Jg;rns'Ofisid~rOO t'(), h(.;j()l!iii!' to ii,pardcl.i~<I!1 "'lyle,. the \\"'y dl<l elemenrs arc 1;0, be ,combined, dIe S\':!: of dCSoi:gJ! rools to rbc emp.l.o]fyed~liIJd tile marmer o.f thdt, employment ..

Arc:h.itcct .mG CAl) 'William Mitchell drOliws: :I. parallel in, tbis :rcspe~~ between language (lnlil an:;,hi](lc!!.I!;(l, Il~ comp<l!(:'(l:S l)rchtt~(:t!.Inll elcrrt!lrlts w:idil ~'l)~dil. as beilll,g: ordered to sildsfy the {)1)!ilJd:it~ons, oilanar-cbJ:tk':Ctu]CiII idiom er system.'

J~s.t as '!'!''Glfds :ire Id~liin0d [naooY<l!!II~eOOI gr~ch (,101\d itiloJ);g<, in ardhit!)C't,ur!l !h¢.s(l Ft,t~¢S dh;~!li':(i how irs elements are IlO be l.r:ansjormcfl. E\lc'ry lailillg1lJlagc: mast ha:"'-Cil 'U'fii:tj'&ulary of dem.clilltcs 300:1 3, gmmmur Oit QOlll!eot~Qll of sel:l':'im:posed rules.

In. jJri:mci:pille:, then. every Ielement: ~i~ ",.ubje.;t w ml!lmipulatimg', tmlJ!sf, or il:rjimnci'n;g HI luke its place in, tile ar.r31i1gc'rn:M~ OfCOnlllP'illlit:ion.'fh.i:s pr{I~~sjng IS ~t ~~rmt':S :110' nIOf1C 't!'!' 31lJ iI.cla.pitillg 1)0 sca1c,. dimenf.ii<!):!:! wndp:rop!)tltion, A~ o;dll,)!1S,p\fOC~sing is mere drastic. wid~1 clements being rGlrntcd., clisWl'l!cd. 01' tnJl1{.'at(ld.

Altho.ugh Ka.llIfma:nn anJ 1\!I:j~'C~be.n dc\',cloiPcd their ideas Wifh architecture illl min.d., thcse prilil.~ dp:l.e~ lUI: justas lIipplicaMem urban desi!&lllit amI 'la:ndlsc~1W 3ifdtlle~;mrc.

Th~ "~ay d!~ign~ .W~r I:he; c"(:Q~lIl'i.cs. have olfdtr~d th~ir dil)Sign:s, t!tl:!) '\t(K'[l:bl.!~i!:r:fand ~h.c;~ ~OQ~S they have used and tihe nlllcs: [0 w~.i,clill th,cy ha~ie ad~eTed~.lirul hOli\Ie; bceninfhieaeed by social ::md el1hl,ln11 ,ci1ang!; .. TIHl following analyses ,of eX3,mJples frulll ancient Greece to d:1.>C j)tcsCOt day illl!slti!'~C ho.W d,esigns and design too:18 have o:J!c'\!cloijX.ld. Ilboough tne .~ges," Th.ese pllirdcu.1ar eX\;1mples ~wve been ch.osen ibecaus;e ~hey cle:l.r,ly ex:bibit~r'1!.Iim. ul'rledng :princi.ples, and !lot: f~r lilli.e Slake ofh:ism.ric:al completeaess, Tine}! should in m!~1~"'y be r,egaf'ded ~,,:mattcIJrpt to prc('~nt ~h!) hlSI:(~r~1 (~f a~&il:$Dt1.u:e.

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2.2 The basile insrruments of elassicalarehisecture

One of tb.€: oldesttacls ji'Ot creltting ilr(]er is the grid. Thi~ 'Ordi$T:l!1ig "'l'!clp~~iiS :l1Ji!Tllli):!l n:~OUf:~ fiJr> eut cities. Milct:us i;s ~~te:n :r~:g;Itdcd lIS Ibe liirslt cily te be deaignedwith a grid, )Tet this p!;'l'Il be fil'l!lcrrnJd. ea:dier Em. A[{i.a Min.!:'!r Meso[potl1l!nrill" ~Jill.d in ancient {)fiill:aJ t;itics \'Iicr(~ a.ll'cadiy buil:t in. this wa~!.


Tille special m1e~(l.. .. igned ~Q t~e lonicciw of Miletills l.sp.roh.;1.bly due 1:0' AristOl~e Ib84·-;p.2 s.c.) who in his ooo.k Polilim presented thearchitect Hip[lod:a.l'O'Us 01 i\UL~~us <is !Jill) (I:rigiif!<lit:~f of .~~~ grid-cit)r. By p(JstJlI.I~~in,g I'Jl.a.t tlilegr.ldl's equal, nonhic;rll,d'ljl,; cl:i~jb'iQni_l)to bl.ocls (,'ITI!!!.I,hu:," 011" islands} best :;'i.ilted dile idc;lls (It[ dCirn.OCll'ilii:)', Arist10tle WI,\ie tll!i;egrid-t;~i.fyil,f! rud.l,\ologiciiJ ch:;!.t~,

TI1I.e liU:W plili'~ .lor M:i:lletu!l 1JnJ(emcil!'.g~daftcr the: dty's dcstnn::,thm in. Ihe mnffiGt willfu, th.c PeW"SIDall's,i:s based om: a. squar~ grid. Tllis. grid, which (;110. be oom::eivc:d 3S 3, system .of equi.d:isl!Jm alld int.llrsecring axial tines, sets rheeenrer U!;:e. of [hI). :Sp~l~laJ: d~Cl)t. !:ihe ~Ul,'(\r.\Vh()ru WJ.: ~imi1Jltio[! di~t<It'()d-j. the !1Jeld,s 0f dIe' Milet:allg£lidl might he ~~rn,a~]er Oli ~iuger> rectangular .01" square. A number of bl~~b were Ik.ep,t f;eein the cill!!' center ~o sh:e the msin ,d"ic b~lilld.~ 'imp and ~h.c forum, 'I'ilili;a! thl:: Grceksrcgard.ed. in as an org;!nli~-illg pr~!iI.¢~I'I.(:witilOllt dileOI ae~'t~e'k :it'Jf:emi{lfiS ise!ficlellt .frnxlm the Wilt)' i~ is d.raped (liver ~he uficvetl,gtou:md" S

Ha!'mO: __ F!Y and pT{)pOr~'~on

];1] "bil)ut 30!M:. ~hc Romat1a,rc(;~bjt1;x;t Vil'fl)!\tIYS wrote "ib,u; is i!Tgu.ably the fi.J'st ham:l!boi __ l< __ lk n~ ;!ifi.:l1it:ectu're,.lrgivesa clear idea of the ae$tlilie~ic 3:il~f],S of classical :a:ntiquil}'" Not omly dihI ;I, bl!lliJ'dillg' haee w i~3ds:f~' jir-mi!t<tl;S ~iirm,t\l"Ss)., commo·,NlIls (COmDUil.di[y) and ,<)(!RlIJ.'·',I$ ,~d.eligh![» a~c:Jltiltl'lcm:rc {'G:r ViwU\lius mea!'ll (J.r.d~r, 1iiN'(M';(;hy, {!1J:1!."(JpEiMel/~~., eM'tMIJji <lndl 5J'lnliMITJI. The ~:li!>r 0fin,CCPti rum: Vhrmrius. refers m h<l'nlM'lJ:I_JI.,!'l.@!t 'W th('; mlJn(i!f--lli~e i(l(lnnot:il:~iofiS [he word! "synlmeny" ~aslooay.·

Th!!se id(;.as g:l!i11lld CtJltlcr'Gte form in. Gr.eek tem.plc arc:hi.tcctUlre." One oJ the most ["mom;: G.reeik is .,md.(illli:n:~dly !h.e Parihcnun (c. 449 e"c.J,

Siuing: awp the A,cmpol.ii> in AE~le,ti't!':,. h: dominates the and.c!Il,t: dty"F'rolU. the fro.nt, the t~mrl:e'sc;om-' IHlsitinl) j.s (]Iuil:e basic, On iii, ~!illi'g(! pillalfmlrTIfll or &/'t standi eight C·r'l/;IIIIII.S. i\l)!()\!"e I~~ll: ({j:#l~.t :er"(j.w:nlllig e",c~of these isa great stnne beam, the {/;f;t/jjl:"u;~w. This as-~~m,b]O)g\l (If de:mGl!'tl> ~s w~~cll)d !:!HO a whole I:'yllt" Iyl!'qmmm~, the llll'g~: u'ia:ngtdar end -of the ~~;u:lcllefuacl:.: wo[

'rhe elemcnes inthis (:om.p!iliSh~.on ,tl1~ om equal foo1t[ng. A nember of :!]XOOnll:vor> serve 10' l.l:lrm.oni(Hlsly order II:Ml.tJ demerits (il,e. s)lrl.tmetry) In ,;t s)1swm oj'p."oportirm. T~i!'i syst<lm relates as much

In rihe me;lS'1lIIIcmcntS llild [yropolitiorls of .ml clement as [0 tlhose of IJII.': cLilifi:l:orlillJj:los:i'iton. The Greeks regarded du: SYS®CIU of proportion ;I'~. "fr{i ... en music," ami titmc llh!>li).lnl:C plroporl[on~ it eomprlses .U'e in [:let ,d~rhle>df~om mU!1il;,<!~1 il'!!li'ITloniG8,l-'JO\\II)'\It::F., the \,..:r:101l8: tllC-:uw!':s OIl this lISf!lll!ly have been fmmd Ijo c(lllTI!ililC!: whl1 the c\li~~c!!(:;e of dlt: actual m~:S!.l:tcment$. The R~!tili;s·san,{)e ~n::h:iM~C:t ALbeni {14i',!lil,-t4."i':::) d!~cFibes tffil!~ pl!t!)n()m~IHJn as follows,: ''''We ddin,1o; ~a:rmo:nIY (IS ~~';lt~onSiQ'ni!:m:: .. ~ of sounds which is p:.kas:I!IlUt to the ears, Smmd:s mayhe ~fJW~

(]ir higihc-Vildfucd •. '1'11,(: l.ow<i:r'-pitc.h.(jd a sound, the bmg:'Cf l~e snring dl!i1i: crulJlir,git; vl'lc h:ig!truer~''pijclhcJ!, '[hI': J>ih,onc;r !:he strill~, F':~fllll rhe di 1'I:"e;~e:~' L'fm!I"a'llIS b~tw~(\Qthesc sOijlfi,ds <!flEe ttle \l1\r}'ing h~:rmmonles which the' "!'ti,;~c~t~. hllvc ·cli!!>siliedin~o set munlbcr", l10r.~ellp(~lnd:i'ng: IiO the l~f:~ialil~m:s~.ij}s between the; oonSOlihUU strinll,:!l •. " Arch:~tec~s 'C1UlJ.loy a,J:I, ~hese mlmbcrs in the Illo.Si cO[l'\it~nk;nt mlal1l~;l!(:r' ~iI!)s .. i.b!.le: they usc thC<ffiI in pai,s, ag in .Injling' OiIH II romn]", p:hu;1I,\, Of opeliiJ SfP"(l(\, wh~!'!) only two dime-n!llo~s are oO!lsidl)f-cd, width ~ndl.~flgth; ~n~ tl'!!)}1 US!) the:m also intihlr-Ces:, !l;~(h as it! a pu~Ih': sitting room, ,~CT!il!tl; hOllse, llil~ll, illTld! so on" 'when lli:idtlil: ~c~r.tN!S (,0 length, and thcy want th~ height tnrelate harm.onim;!sly !j() botb,'

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.Mate.rial sy";st~m

Thefleer pians of thcst:and~nt ~~pll;\i'f;l,~ I!k~wjil~ de~~JyaFfOl!m,g~(I. pm>'!!'S lin!) dw~ d!gc iJr~he <:ib!oillg 5!yI0ba.te, wbich can b~ entered On all sjd;cs fti}tt! I!l!u:ee steps, In. t;bec'e:IlJt",. of t&e t£ml'~~!); is 3 ·"':IIlIed. spllcee, the Cl'li4. AI: the front and OilC(k af tbis tW1(>;reemed cella stand a, seeend row ~f (lolumms. COlumll:5 inside ~l1e u:lb are also set in, a. mw,

Though nl'N:l I[I);_'mJple is a. plastic and spalla~1 object, designers dCcSo:ri~be it i:nteJm5 of materia] dements whic'h to~the:r Jefiimn:e the l'empk.'s oornpos;itiop.

A sY!lt'!;\tn 'Q)f imaginary lifie8Of rl'.H"S rcg!.thu:c du) pm;:il1.0ilii!il"lg of tfu~ m;at£ri<llell!lm!lIil~5.Wil can dffisti,~~hJ'J tllI(l' t}'p~'S or aX~-~YSilcl! to do ~o: ~h~ .~ym.metry O/;J.(is' ilimd, ~JiJ,e ma.1erialllxis. A. sy:mrnel\ry axis 31.ocng tlhe length of the temple regulates dle minor s:y.mmetry of the temple" Tlliu: pesirions of ~Il,e ~e3.t11y ranked ·I;QlQiJuudJes ~1!'e clete:rmined by malt:e,rial!, organi1lmlillg lines: that. run ~b[o!lIgin, the center Q{f~h!e, eolumns.

This Gntire aJl'lCi!I}' of matGriill ·C:lem(!Jl~s (columns, ~ympa:[la, :wllch.iu'a'i'es:j land the ('ools used m order mem. (liI!l><eS, sysn:ncms. oJ pr(ljWrtiOI"l), 'come~ under d1C l1!~ading 1]lf m:)t~i:;d f!~'S1~~,


The dist.11l.ces between the axes dic[Oll:irnl~ ~~.e positi.ofJI. of the eolumnsare called bays .. This bay m~Ol~ur(l:m~nt dJl)5fi¥'~ (r,om ~h~ ~hi!;k~~~" (~f ~hll. (~tQm!1J, depe:!l!dingQ~ the rf~pori;it!)nal sYNtcmi;i_j~cdL Tille bay, which in G:ree:k templeerchitecture I'el:lted, only to the centcr-ee-eenter distanee ~etrwcc:n ('OIYmn'8, '!t)()k ,~)n. fln" grl)~t('f imp!)r~1!!~cG in R..omanesqlXc and Gmh:irc aJ1c:birrel:!lu[e. The emergence of ehe groin ya~hgal\'e, rise to 3. system

..... her,e:by ~he I):.IY regulates Ihecompooltion.of ~h.e tmilding ... In G~!hic cMhedra1s the eelumns adhere to agrid of mattlr.~il axes .. Thus, a ba:yc3n roe

dC'flll!ed a~ '1~e zone OOI'We~t'I 'tworn3~e,f:.i~1 axes,


In th.e fOUflliCC<IlI!tb century the ,Qldes ofcentnd and. m(lTthefn lttl.1yde~'!lillQ~ed! intf) mlghtyr~:T)i!lbU(C"S Tlhdr ",·ealthl!>".:ls ba&ed.on tlil,c ~eJl1JlJPCSI~OI]'S d~"'~lQFm¢nts [iii. n .. dll.iHldin.dU!!:lry dlUfi[lg tifruis period.,. Th~ :riSilOf C(iillm{,\tdal. pr(18~n.t}! btt}ugru p:rof@u:mdi Ciliatlges 1:0 thesncial ~tri,:iC!urc (If til1(l pirou.d (,ity-state.., .. 'Jlhe :ttI.onopo~y on the I!Titl:l;S:J\CIr of kn.o'wl.edge dl;~t the C~I:ucib had held tor c.crH!l.!l"ie.s

crumbled, Withllhe; emer~n{l~, of th~ ch:y aeademi.I.'~.thl,l: Srlt!olt-cof iilJfluCll.oe the monastery h .. d ~;",d (lilt the devdo:prnel1t of relligiflu:S 911.clphilowphical ~d~a8 s~ifi;cd i;!) the Not ol.uly did the Church's illllrllmmce on Ilili.IlJdnggrad!1!lall~' d!lminish, b~t also Ihat of f'l1li;giOIll.:I'S:I whole.

l\<lan d.eviilope.di an ever SI!rong:ilr p{J<SltimJ. ;il,! diM) cenrer of ihe wotrld-\riew. This gmu.lual transitien [l'Om a felldall E:illiOpe ro a new srn.:i!OlIill order was eehned in tne sllil,m in major 3.rchirec.ulf31 ooWl,';nlis~ !lion!;, ~ow,nQ!t only did ~I1.Yj\~Il!es de,termiJle the bistoty ef ,Jcsi~, bur also town :aud ceuntry !~OlJl!>e!i., giltden!iO!nd i)rt1biln i>l",n,~ {!If th!)thinklne; l.!!'bOlI! ditl).

P'a!Wtl:S' tastes r~flecwd more thsn :inytihilll.g else the, examples of R.mlllam, and 3S mUielliJ, as was ~heIDI known .ofG:rcc~k, :mliquity. 'Thls l't~birlh of ~h(JI0S1: :mdent d,,;lliz3rnoiDlrS takes the Frcm'~' [1)ame Ren.aisSl!:nce"

.Following tllle line nf the ~Jilcien~s"gco;m,ciry tonk a pruminent pnsitloll run. Itcl1aissancGarchitecture, Elemt'ilUary :geometric systems: and. Il'rct:~sc s:,:{8~(lmS of pro(pordmrl, wereregarded as rtlll objecd\'cc medium between the dlvint model 1'0 be e:mul'aJled and hljm~fi Cj\~;1!tiOfi. "TIt~ sq:!l!;,!j\(l; dl(l cube, (he eiwell);., the s;pfu.e,e" for' e:.::ample" were regarded as being alllOlllg' the elemclilt:s of tilil:c dilline 1lI00el, thus ~liJ,c Il.ecesslt'y to a.ppty tl1:cm. in, i:bt: orml'igul'.:ltl.O!Il 01 blllildings .. This belief, which can be fOllnd. ill. Ill,c writingQf ~h~ pyrhagJ:}f:~st~,. P'I<lt()I, .sG.\1~f:::!1 writ(;fSof,nd (he n'blG." W!lS i~vigot:!.u,~ :and reinforced. d.urWmJlg medieval timcs~llld. espec:iaUy during the Rell:ltl'sS'll.noe,.";

F!f~m l:1iU;$1 @ill man ·1\!1IJsl()\(~k~d u(:H)n as: the meas,1,l1t; of all tihings. as !! "cast" of tbe divine model, Man ~ook over frem m'usi,c as th.e bas:is of the p'ropo.rt[ona~ ~y:S'T!Cillil,,, Va:rious ~nrnetrk devices were' de~';eroped tJO tr3:1ls!b.rm human measurements in~o p'roport[ona~ I"cllial'.i,O:Il11~ip-£;" One ;fIf the best=k.IlOiw.n. examples IS dl.c .clrawin.:g made by Pr:lJl:lcesc::o tli GiOf:gl(l MaF[inii,n 14912 s:hio\\1Img 11. plan. una church based On ti1J1.l pw!)p~].'r~ir)fil~ of the: bU!lilJall: iJ.ody.

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Bt;~ide~ ~,l!':I)1t!nnU_\ g('Q.rn.l;;u'.il'l11 t1rms, ~.bc RC~lali8s:Jnce arcMr'~(lS used lticrilrt'lry to G,omrQi the urd~ r~:'ng l'[' ll)pWt;'(· and m'llll:~~{li. K"3I!ifivm1:l.~1. ~Slit'tts uh~1 lusr h(:t~lU);<:,,~I~I~; .lmiq\il~f) ,mild II~I:

1~J1 Ji~;;~f"l'eL~ sed the ssme \!~!lffih l!it!il'"_\ :itl~I' the ~amc fQ),·m·~ does ~lJ' M~aLCI>uh~( rit!~y,!OI-n~rl:d th~ ar(;hilcctrilJf:11 5yS'H~rn, h~ hi,~ hm.ll.: , IrdtifafmL' 11,1 IIiI; -1!fl! 0/ {f'i'lmm, K~1Ilr:m1lJ1n d~crib€~ [ht:~I,jff\::'I"Cno~ b.<;'t.1,II,een che ltr.!;hire<.::mnt;1. ~,}'SH~ln 'uf cl'ili.J~ici1.1 ';JrI[~q~!iity ~nJ '111<11 of ihl::nt:'fin~!>"lMrh:t: (,~lld rhc n~i;u'~lIe) p" rulltJw,,~ "The idcnl qf ql!'~m!il:;Hiv(J r("r!~,cri~m li\~ii<.! mt ~[J 'thi: Jh:nai;;S:1(1'll:~.W'1;: hum' hm\, rrHlch lhfm~h~ iN I-h;:nrist;~ gl.\v", tu rhe "Goa"~t'(,:tt' mca"Un;;rl"1.<:,n!;.",_ !:N.t itw:H~ inIPIlJ-Wl:~I, ,ctrl.J fill' more~t!;tnilk~;n[,lharl lht: r(_';l~!-fuJ.ul!rtllll of ~~I~l-frnl furm;;;, wao therise nr:l new Qnmpw;iliu:II':1J ~I'.im:i'p'k: ~h~ P".ilI;I,~ Tn)W .$lululd ~I! pr~';j!'n I,!!'d VJ.u_t rill I )<i n ~{:!Hlt;T~,~t i(,;"lll~ W;~!itd'~-il'):g~l>atw.n~hiF~ OfsiZ!1: lInd .. in m.ildJ.em'~I~I:'lI n::dp~'"l.lcil::_;'; j,y'.H rh,.::)' ihn~~W hc !.l,iffll:r~~·U ht(!.:i :'it,; "~lip!;.r~P1· ·j:n,d i'flf'(::iri(~'r ~o:[l1PfJ'~:';lfIlt~., Su!.'n J~ 1li:crcncia I~(ln would hsvc been sl'r~mge to antiq n itl' .. , atany nH e withi..1.'l the md il'ld ual b~ril.dI~ illig, The Ilmmw~di(lVa~ "11~l1p()t:jrim', whii,il:1 C'm1Ph;i~ sj,:ed !he· L~i(fi:!',(;n[n~ues (Jf rbe paiJits m31~C' of rhe 'I.']wk ;]I h'fer~"!!~,}~ (~f wc;I'I.-~h<jl~ip'li]]ql ~IQnu:§I:t;8:"

ln () rder In ~ K .. ;1111:11l~ rhe D)fo;l.(o]'jng 'I) d nciph::!1 ():f ~ln,. R~!'l.1ii~~.Fl!i:I:, !'\H~ '"ilbs ~~.~\rtC b(;il'n ~hc)~cn a;:.,~h): !,)hjCt:i uf !l!;lr ~t:r'~,I'y si ~J- .Tb,G 'nl'~l''\'L ~ li.u!'l')liHi~'i ~.~'l)rr 'i~ ~!lc main focus ill Ihe ~:r'S~ nf these, th,e) Vill;]

I~ 1,~(}odll'; "rile ~.c<.1mld,. ~h,1i' \' j,llcOl. Melli d a~ f k~o.~e, is E.X<]lnjm~d :ri~al~nly in terms of the ~~ome'lrk: urder ;:I nil q:i'lm ptl'''ll-IO lit of 1 he ~af'tkn:<

111 the mid ,~,i,,,teC'nt h ;.;;eJi'!, lUI;)' a I'H!W 't}<~}C' I) r c[!umr.~\hmJ"~C cinli.r:g:cd .in norrhern It'lll},', Such Imus€~ \\"jJr~ i1l1,~;L:;h;;,d l~l'll· hrgc f~roning !)rlr~rn"i~<i!l and ~~I'~\ {'-ll :IS ,t ~(:tr~';II' {tli' ri~lM '! O\l!' n-d w,el h:.g\~ fl'l~fiI~ l'hdt whcdiflg' :md cl~;Lljn~ lil th'!; t:ii'y. :(S~~ 'lIse, th .... Vilb {;mo j~ CJ~:a~'l(,l: 3.} "I"Il,\! iRl:'mliss,mce :In,1~:lle~J litnlk!:.':i. pllU~inu (lUnll'r1:h:Llt,t:d utLcd'l w this th:vdopmcru. ] ffiis ~~;'(;,~" t~o'~gh l~ditJldt.! o;r,acr.i'll_.lJ; h:lIs !TI;iJ\1t., l he; \'.iI13 .Rm ","ilj,\\; host ~~ In ,-~nl"t~ uri b~g.] Ii] 'iv!

r ),671 nilt- [If the pa r:.lcl:if1!i1.1<J;1 i.;- t;;~<lm.p.k~ uf ~h:,il;Ji~~;ll;];!C~ ;nt;~,~l~(:nrrlJ,

Cln I;h~ G'!;_.r~:\d'[lr of rhe "'~lh, P;llkl1i:1i~1 'cuntmHcd the cmnplJ~,cttml '~)~-"I1"'.;1ir.l'ti:11 4fi! rlg; -"~'!l1',nc~J:') afNJ ~:,r.opnrdQ'Il, To 'dl'c:(;'~' ~h!: re:q~tir~d hicr,,\pchk (;01'11- p osi tio III i 11, the efcva ti:OIl, stmn,e dCfrrCtlt;<; I) f~ he ,ilia di}In~n:u!.' the <;;om'pm~ttun mO)r~ thiul '!Illwt5,. Fm

Marerl:J.f pro eqtdo por nerechos {JC autor


instance, ~h~ fQniC(l(}~ dt;:r~¥ed fr~)m G~~1)1Ik tt;1'IiJp~~ fw>oni~ !i~ ~t:f\,,~~~ by b~:i!!!g: !I~~ (lIiI the fQi,lf :oid!ls; @f rTh1e block. Oil the :symmetry axes, as self9lufficient elements,

On theint("f~Qr" the rn;}'h~,ri,,1 ~s wr:iI~.~rily th!; c~Ynt~:rr~rm (If ~b¢ ~P;}t:i:)] oorn.pO$lti(lln-nh\l residue h:ft afoot me :op~ces EJ,1ive been defined, where the srrucreral COntlponenlS of the buildillG: ~I'e to bc' fO'illmd.. Yect til e surface of the material flg;lLIIF(:;s pW1uine;nitly here too, !lion j~slil'l defining dn: spll>ce~ form bll!llt as ,i'l t.ealJ'el" of i:ma~ry and! :meall~m1g" T~le magnili!oemt frescoes pa.il1itJed IMer on the !l~lIster !iydil!re~ gh'C the ~I1OC!i(lf 1!il1! I;':;('tt<i d~m~!1~io~.

Space sys~m.

In. the quote at the begi:n.niliilg of!~e chapter, Rasmussen describes 'I~e Villa Raw!flIda as a Mod. He then lil!J)es onto describe Ute place of the porticoes in terms of this block, R~smlllJsseWlJ mkes his G!!plnralttion. lll)doors threugh ene of I:~Je port.icoes..

If his descei prlioJll of t1iu; l'xterior d lsS'(;Clts; its CtDrn:poshion imo ohi:e(j[S:" inside RmlDl1l!lssen dis:tinguishes spaees; the b<1Jrnel-Villlbed hal] ;lwtd the dr'Ollar domed eham~~f it! r:bec('fI~er. F~t)mit we can ~o!1,cI~)d¢ rhat Iw~likethe,f'\1rt_hen(ln,tIhe oQmpQsitiQI'l (j r dl!,I;!Vi II!! Rom!1lda is based as much 'O!lSPIlC(: !'ISO"! I]:'Ul'erl:a1. Because d'D.c Qrderin~ "f m~tel"i\ll i!J![dol-derin:g of sp'lloe adhere to their own !'II~)tt of rules" diesig[1lers dist.il1lp1ltS:h 1'\\10' distinct :systems tthat m'g'Cthe:r shape the oOITlpo!'litjoif!;~e m!lm'l;wial s)ls~ema[1;dthes:p!!oe system,

In. 11 is de_~cri[Jli'olli of tfu:e villa, Rasmussen Jlemwl"i;s ~h.u the rooms in PaUa,dig?s builcl,i!lg COIn onay be seen one "t 1I.Lim~. Y eu arc either in une ]100m, or in all~{heT-the roomS<!R disltinct cJl~iries,. To 0rga!lru~ze the discrete rooms (du: spatial elemenrs] in the COH1POsivioll,OlS a w:itoEe'; f01!]]"dio I'I:SOfIrS; to perspe~l[llve Ivilil a cellJ~rlll vanishing PQ<IU't, one tOf the majIDr ditoooveri!cs ,of the Renai:ssltllce,

The Vi1bi. Rotond!'! s~dm:gsrM!ilii~ In $eq~e~ce atong alii i:magiulIl1l axis,the :sp~:ce axlE. Such .:11 eoncatenation of spaces we d~Ii[lI~ by the ex,ressiv(l Ff~nch word ,~,1¢ladl!. T'he space axis, like iii'S counterpart the martrerialSlx~s., in pdltdple dii",[des the demcii'lt

(dle space) imruto two equal parts, Two suchaxes orgal'lltze the basie ]ayom of tile ".;illa and tie it in witffill the surrounding Thus. P311 .. dio brought ~o bCSiIi ;a l'eil'8pect:ive (TllilI[led, In the door openlfrugs ,of the s:ul'fOl.Imdi:n:glanilscape;.


T~~ iOliqllcn¢~ of rooms set: Olfu~out rhe dFcul~r hall <!il'(l ;lrtilflJP;~ al.()lng a ooc(lrn.d:ary sysiem of;~ xes, In the o:rig:ina1 desig-IlJ these axes ran dlfO~,gh the heart of ~be roams. I [I tffi1e design as: huilt theywere shift~ e~ 011 re!1!fi;f.f:reeing rhe Illkld!Te of the rooms 1~l)r (:'l];c~l;H:i(liri lines,

Material protegido por derechos de autor r.. P~I"~i" .• Vi~]. R"umol',i'h"

.'\. !'~rl~<liQ. vm~ ~J)I'D1"]~'1 1;:00--1 j6,', Secli1lJil.lplallJ .11<.1 d".-.Iiml

Material protegido por derechos de autor

r J
<, 7

~ ~~ ~
'- ill
I--:~ \J ~ Plano metric redllttioil ~M,,,,i,,S ,\p"tilil. ('Qmpg.Jriml of Vil'l>l. Roool'iJiJa,

1·.",P!lCj~"C dll'llwifl of !l.1II1l1~de lhro:lll!h MiI'i1ErR:~£i ~tegl 0 por derechos de autor


.t=:~ +-"~

Ffljn~."'_-'J !l j ~ii"'r~i" ,,~ ... rini. i1i'''gr~lllI "r "

~~ul'i:b ~)!;lo\ d<Tin',1 ,mm ihe i''''~'''r,i''I''';",f ,J1< 'I .. J~oi:Uil';~'<I', Vjl!~ R<\.w~,n~. 1 ,f~'_.f;]f)~,

!>umon ;h",l\ ""~""'i~~' i>i'mncllk '8~!Y\Vii'll> .xe;;

M~lo!,.R.lYIlf'ji~; t~JI&bl'lwrn.g itF.[I,PJ):tLill~. J r:. au "'(lCU 'Hr Po!'r .!J"lrf/s ~t,jr,I""~'~"I1'('

V~lla ~QI!!nd~, Cl[pll)liI;;liI. vie\\' r~ducing ij 1.0 its Material prategida par derechas de autar

dielit.'lI1miilJllli e1em ms

DISXi(iN f~!\!1!) I\NAL'IS!S ]6

f'i(:toriul system

In m~\,,"~ng: a Im;l,dsl:apc an3.I)iSis ~f 3g'J.u:h:n design

DI_Qildin!:', lUll i1 design from c~t:.rn~cm.t:lrY g~{)metr:cc form!i,hc.'msl:~I"I;s su'bdi,-idcdi into sm<1Jller secendsry clc!:l!~~~!'u~- fiJrm!>. !i~hc~ ri!l~ 10 <l hk~~rchic and usually central i:r;(;d composirion founded on a g~vt'U'fr'if ~l'~/erll. Rcp~tesemil' g rhe geometric srrueru reo this );ysHom u;;.:;s Ewu;lid!;,I]!l !;1;'1).nn,CITY to rcgrul:ate the spece ~ml material systems, and rhus dw geometry of lin: W~.H)! e CO'MI)OS il~.OIl. The' greatvalue accorded gCOTIilelr~' ill []1C litc'Ilaissm:u:;e g~s,eil II major' role at that time.

I. iI ~~~\lbtl.~tl'~ \: II ia rhis urmngement of 'the s-pa'~ l ~II, l;I.:;nm;1I1, nr !iP"~~ !iySII;:UU~. di\-iik. the cube-shaped hlock illln. a number of elementary geomctrn.c spaees, Th~ twu "ymln.ll~lry "!!,,S l-iH'1;M !h.:; ll!;'!Untiizl;d

cum pusil inn.

In hix itT,,~.i,,!;' Th« PfJllf: l1{W.('~ lJf_t/rdJ/'l'fmm~.

P a II:Jdi(l' ~xpm,lI'Ids em h.i~ pnJipuniotul, system ,\1'11('1 argues rO'f simple ratios (! :",,! :-3,!:4 etc).'? In rhe 11h'lny ~oo!' plans of his designs illustrated in the Fonr Ilfll}k~, the pruporrionul measurements are !,'unn:'r~·~d intc r~-al nnes ~X~l[(:ssl;~lin Vkcn~j1)il fee~ and. .h::sign:w:;J with a P lin piaN_

Tllegocmllcllt')i of rhc reaaissmsee :gardelll E~rl)"iiJJ'll'iI [" Rl~ iJJ,aiM>iUcrIl'l;l~ i I was t:Uslon'il.iUry for wc.~.hh}- cilium; III ~il\"l::I h·~)use O'ill:sh_lIc tbe diY,

In Florence the members of tllcri.dln. O1ind powerful :\:k,(]id f:llnil.y of bal1i!(,rs ll.ttd variocs VI.I.I:3!.l buih for !h!;'li1 iln 1:111; \"i~~Jility of rhe city_ On~ Q:fIhc!i!;' i!i ~h~ Villa Medici (11458, 1~.4i6l.) at Ficsolc, sci un aslupe. The- lin;~ stone ·of ,hi" 'fiUa was maid more tli];~n a eeruury hr;:f{J,rl: I'h~ Villa lJt(lUHilhs w,\s. built. The ~""f1:J~:rn .~ ~t",c;11 ed ~u the ~i!:II,I~~ ,d~,~!;nds the slop e in t"'-u In~t: terraces. In dil,clIss;ing P:allJdio·'s Vi.lh Rotomht,. ~l[~ concentrated on the interual organizatien ofthe I.:Qm'po~il:ion_ The well-preserved garden of the \I il b ]\'I cdil;i prQim prs us to' tum W tlhc order~11t;: principles of I.~,C Rt.:::lmiS~i1nl.ct: ga.n:len. In ~}def. such gardens h01:d. agecmerrlc l<1~-o'lJl besed oil 11 grid whose '~l1l'~113J orgnniz3'tloli'l ~·!mk ills cue from the r~ll{lnlma. IIt:nl'C the gcUl'lllci.r~·, cllc:riv.ed from Ih.-u nf I he ~mlls~, otglUl izcs 1101 h gan.lcTI :I nd panorarrue '-I.e'!.\-,

we di~til~gtl.i;s!h ~wo systems, the Jfli,~loriiIJ~ S}·.sl~~man,d ehe SP!I(:<: s~is!em.!I"il'he"p<Vl';es)·s,em rdM($ to the ~1."_irl laYUlul of spaces, planes and terraces ·comp!·]s.i],lg ttm,1; g'lrden and so :~~~Y1~OnjimO~~.~ with !h~ rerm of rha I name asused in in e [\\'0 ji;Ij':¢going '~I;("t~QJi,' ·of Ihi~ chapter. The picruri .. Isystem B;I1l!i~!'. 10, the elements thM dictate the imag'C' and how they arc orgauieed ill theeomposiriea, Inthe Villil Med~c'i these Ollie P-~I'1:iC'lIbl'~Y ~lle discrete compenents ~md oblecrs placed in rhe ~jI)['l[la] '~}'SICM. such ~.R:~. fOtiil.tains, lakes, clumps of ilrt;"::.~ :lnd steps but (I:I~lJ I1IO! inftl(lq1LlcIiU:ly "mylhol{lgic:al" componenrs such as c~n:sailJ ~!'iI1"_U temples,

There I!; 11 pamlle] ro be drawn between thisconcepr and that ufl:h~ "material system." 1l(l!h r..a!!!)!:! ·co!'wctn t~C[i]lSl)hrt;"Sw]rh material 1;1Icm~1i!s; if the main fo~'~s when "J];!iy;.:ing a bUliidil'lg is rhe material as st r'~ctur,]] cemp onent, il~ the case of Iimdsl'ilJIC "",:hiucC'[ it is ~ be mareri ~Il, as bearer 0 r illla:ge an d meaning (Il.Ci]OC~~e IIiMIW l;)ictnri.'l~.) I:h,,~ f~1!turc~ rnoreh (_'a\1i~~r_

Gardl~!:I d(.~s.igl'l. mu,. is 'gmCfIII!;'d b)' a !!;trl,l.~tl, geotti.etric syi>CCnttl.,. rh e system of 11 xes and ]~IIIe_" d!cfining [t~e garden's composhinn, The R~lI!",iilS<lnCe wnsa time of experimcming \~ti~h gt~om.ctri,t: !iys:u::n1:s whose precise measuremersts and p1fiOpnnio'l'iIiI:I relationships re'.!]leCled[:~1!e divine 1tI(~{11C]. The .gc[jmetric sy~t~m. with if" anendent prnpcrriens W<lS laid over !.heexi~lil'ag ~.MiIt'lSiC~]lfIC; ihls \\las 1:1]1(: ci'!:ydtv~ll~r'" way of sl;:~li!'lg his stamp 0'0 l'!he surroundilTigs.

If \~C ~<!~~r~I:Uy .ul<1!ly:;::e the g:a.rde~ lit Fiesnle we ~l[ld that rlre mCl!s!Wl:ement system can be reduced to amndule of.'i!.'9' meters .. n The sqlJ:U'C' of 4e x 4 :t1I1Ill"

d ules can be reg'll:rded asth I: basis :for t~egarden's r~rth-~f design. fJC"riv'ed f,'om rhe gemnetry of the hou:se, [his. square dccc1tmin.cs Ih:i! of hOI:hwupper and lewer terraces.

P~~tc<:diFi '~~ers, the two terraees are primarjly Q~.nt:'d to (h,",pii:rm!<)!'I'l~ across ihe \'~Iilley of [lle Arno and Florence. The elemenrs ofl\1C! p~cttorial system play aseccndary parr in the design, their i) being hy andlarge geared. I~O Sil"t:n.glhcm,in.g the pilI1l0~mllliil-<JIri)emed oomposlliOl.'., Thus rhe tnajof pictorial elements, a spring, II sCi of steps and an !llr'lalT!~ma~ l1!kc, an, set on ~ symmetry ;IN is wl1lich crosses the terraces in the ,(Ii~eclion of the Arno.

Material protegido por derechos de autor

QRO~!l: /l'NU ~QM?O~~l·~nON

AIru)ltl'ierimp(lrrnnE ele,ne.nt fu ~he IQ~g_ perg;flla: 17

para;lM to tile retain:ing wall, Agd~J' W~ltj~1l

~_I1i(l»,dt this P(;:E'JJ'ol;a,. '0.11·1: ·has onley Ito loo:k to o.n~

.side 00 haV'C aconr:tt:J.llal 'cie'il' of me ArlIll!)lIilid

F.1(~re~c'£. 'The j\"Cm:gl,lla. simult3n:6U~s~~ p.RI>"iclies a,

:fores:rollfnlJd :;~ID;d fi:8.mes t:h¢. vi"w i~Q fJra_~ tho;: .~ lie.C!' grf

d:epdl in the l(lndscap.~ is, enhaneed, As the ,m.ethod

of oo.lll1positio'l]otme· R.enaissan00 g1i:rden relies

me:!f\illji {).,!).geom~1:"J [rhas g'ill.C1l r~~ ,~o Ell:e oiIncept

of "I1Jir;nai !'Mgir~g._

Matenal protsqido par nem8hos 0(> ausor

l;"'''''';:1f"j of th" \ \n,I \1~,I).." r, ,,,,,1., 1~51(· I' -t~~.!

~~ 1/
9" I I~
I • tL
-I I ..

--.r,-,' .

• ;:.~ II I

23 Transformingand . mani.pulating 'the classical. system.


walls are curved: and. dille d!et~,il1< di:swrted, all eI:enlents 'Of dte '';::Q;mIIX'~:iti:om, ge:lli_ug i~ il'm unhrnli.:c:n . mO,,,lernefil:. Tbccurn(.\f;'S of ~bc Gn:lio\!;: cross arc :r,elm;o\'ed ;I,mdi furmisililed~~iiIJll. ;I d0'ui::>l-c C'ulumln, lihr tLhe same purpos:e. To qJY@!e C1l,S!:c:.\, "[lorromini ~nce again resorts 10 the: procedure .of ovedappill;ei spaces '!I'llhose prilll;;JpOlI [c.l!turc is i'hillt 311 e!l:mlemt:s nf ~be Sp:l.tilllar.mllgeml,emt :spill o¥er dtcir bOlllndarlt'S, Wltll! the sp3tia~ units :001 lllo.ger d.C:lIrl)1 d.cfiu0d.,

:a.1I kinils of melati0.1L'i are possihle.'·1i

BeClY8e tile division between irs sp~ces 1,5111- I~jstinct, l!;trQqull 1!fdli[~nH\~ cit" b~ ~;td in ITtJny di:li1icwen.t"'i,"ays"

lu!633 th() Italial'l allcihtiC{)ct Fril.;Jjoesoo BorromifJIi desi,gned. the ,chu:rc.h of S., G!:rlo alle Q .. ua~tlt0 Funtane In Rome (I633~[661) .. Slt1l3tudi at 3 'Gl'OSS'r~ds 'YOililru a. ftUmtilunilit ellch (.Iomer, tille QU:a!ltll'iO Fo:ntaneis ~[le:raillyr,egal\d.ed as oae of ~be maJor "c.hie~re!l1CJlt!i .of Reman B!'!~}q1!l;I,l;..~~ Baroque s.tyic cmp.loys; Lb~ ,samC: elcmentsils R~~ais..~n~1); styl~ il~d e'\'ell resorts ~o tile same set: of design ~ools;, JiCaufm(l!I):Il 1lcsse.l$ ~liIat the 'Ibroque and Renaissance Olf~h~!~ctyrill ~y!!t~!Oaft: bllSkall~r 'I he Same, HowewJ:, dIe 1kt1~.1,\ ~fOY!t!Q !)XP~!i~Jrn:l)<tlili:ng l!'!ise.ntrJaUy clj:ff~f(lf!'t!~

'n~c; :pi!:i!ldpala~ph:!I,!!! ·Qf ~he Bamqye may be deSC!l'lbed! :IS I:he deslre tlll~mpl:ess wiidl. ~,pI3.y of {om, !l.paee and H.g-ht rb'ycreadn.gsp3Q: whicfl., 1.I1i11ik:c its: Renl:lissauec eq~~v:~illCiIlt" is: n01.{)o,g;cr' dear[y defined.

Ifwe sFudyuhe plan ofBorlromi'lilli's QU31UO FI\I:'iltilM it IS imm~i:l:[¢IYilipp3:ren! that druc dC;lir ~-mn(;'lrlcal schema 'of tbf; R_,enOl!iss~!i'!(ie has ~e~« made way f~r (! mucc_h !lrno~(;CQMPli¢>'!t~do!t!) in whkb conCIl'l"e and oomre.xwaUs :iII~te.rn3te> evC:lii. ott dlelagade ,of the church.

l\fal1l.ipula.tii.on. (1.1" p.c[C!jjJ)cetivll

In .~V()fi!:(;~n(It!~~~!].!fY Ff~!i;C;~. di:irin_g the days {Ii' ab:.olult[sm, ;(~e s~YI.e g\tn~~Jly r~f~f:J\~d 1:0 ;is llinm!:h B~utl<l\.1.e e,,~Lvod. '1'0 dlslin'Q:u.lsh it: from, sistt':Cm.t'heemJltl.n:y B\ill'Oque, the term :f.rcm:::h Classi.cistml na5i been adapted ImJI thi:s !book, Versailles, its 1l~II:lcc:, :ga'rdc!Ils 'and t{llW~; isoWl:c of '111'ruc most complete .~illl;d e~he:rent C'xamp~cs of ((bis style run wmiielil gc:o:rne'tr:;r and :tJ!te malllipui;l,llion: otf peil"Siulcth,c: I'i;gu~~ stronl!:ay ..

111,.661 the F~cnoh ki1il~ l..~:t:lis XI" dccid0d w haee b.i,s flltlter's huormg lodge expanclediO[(i :l, (~Jmp!cx~'it_1Thol!!!t parallel in ;!!Illlis,to!i),/. He ,cu:m;miss[oll,ed !,he fiami}Us landscape :trehite:ctLc Notre to matte:a !n,cw desiig:n (£o.r lillie :g;a:trl!c,m. The e.,x:t:ell.slioilm to th!.); p:lI:l'j~ was ibl;l WQ;fk of !h~ 1i]1cll!tx;';i';!)s. L~ V,,~ and! Mafisa:rt, To c(ilmpl~eiie tJll.c oomp~c:>l, a new eeurt {;,aJpit':ll 'W~$ hilt at the f'f(i~t '~)fdw pala;c~. Th~ [!JlOOCMlll'f desigm:iiDgaJliJ,d bui~d:ing: Ibene"", Versailles !:(10k mOire ~.b.a:nti;l'iiiy Yl'lUS.

Palace, gardens iI!n!d town WCIIC W c.:~:p'rC8S, 'Iihe; Ilb~ll!l[epower of dIe Sun King iml a ibe},ondcomp.a:re. '1\" this end. dilC sp30e,.,qrgami:dmgj' system of ipe.rspecti\ie de:\'cloffi}cd! .tlll [~,e Rcna.iS'sance was cc6n~'erl~edi int0an i;JJsuumcirn! 1'0 m:an:i'P'!ll~!lC' vlSlllal perceptlmA.,

One (If the mo-st i.mporl.:allt elements of ~b£ ;g;:rrden d!esigninltrndlllced tl};}dillie"tlhis was the ·I{~ng\::isuall olIxis. Thi~ \\~S Oi~ (lP~fl ~U:irOF V~S1\l, :d{)llgwI:Jj,~ one lookc~ m,li frnm ~!!t!,\ Grand SilillomJl ef the palace aeross dIe f;(~"F t-e!'tace,. the Il'ilrtcrrc g;lnllen and Ibe Gra,mdi CA,mal to, t~,c hO:fI'WI1I.

Where :j}aJl~adlro e:mp.loy;ed a visual aXIs fo lil!ilk his VilIa,Rl!J!to.rld", w~ib: ~be sl.!rroundi:ngfi.etds, Le Notre',s g:l!eM axis was .~. mcailil.s ['Q.r tffil,c Sun Klimlg:'·s, p;)iace ~O domi[late~hc Wrirld., .U lln!)!;li.c:r

T:!'ansft:Jrmatioo of~:(unetr:+,

The posi!jo;mim!g of ~hc pmafS rootra~'S rrU)[ (lr a dell!r~ult: Silll'l!Cl:llre based 0:11 3L~ieS:il!Iil;d bays;. Tillie I'mll.l"S are in faclin.oorporat:e-ci into dle lUl.dula.tI1ons of itn.e :fll~d.ean:d the inte,dor, .(Jo!l!'romini S!l!b-ol'dinates ~Ih liIetail and large elements such ::IS pmil.l"S, and tympana '1:0 a gre~l; .m.o!,'em.ent dllWUgih dl!e: space: {so:m.e 'l'lomrn.e:n.taJtors speak of d!ynamics :i~ tbii:s :f'ospt,'Ct}. TransfofmaJtiolli is :Ii keyn.€IIion i~ 1.l1iI;lltllfSmn.ding dle BanJqiilil.t-Ih!.); ~tUjf~ system,. the elements, geolilil.et1ry and detail, all are the p,rod!uet of t.m:llslu:rm!lf.i.0:J:l,

A(1(lQfdJl1lg tli'!!h~F~Ll'lch ar(;ibit~cti,if<ll thoori~t Caste:.;, dte m~in s'h;lpe 'Oifbe QJ.:!a:trro Fonrsne 'Col.tli be concei\Oed! as 3. Greek CrOSS OOllfro:lllted by a .reetan~le----a lifOlJn£fiUl'tl'lo'l.l;jon yj,dd11l.g;IJm.!·

T"h:~ ellip:tk~l dl»)'ncc can 'be ILtndt1'fsrQOO in. terms

of 3. similar l:rans:liol'Dla,t.i.on,. in wh.i.cb. the geomet.ric s.~':stl!,m is ,~.o:l1igated along' a ;sIngle 3)(i5 .. T,o ..... eld ~oget~1.W !I:i('\ j)~~naJ~d !bel d~m(i ,ot! p¢nd¢1l1jV!1S th~

Material protegido por derechos de autor


IH,Slt'l:-l ANI) i\.NALY.!lI,:;;

\:'.;r~i! liI,.-S:~ n1!~I~' ~hl i!~1 in Pl \,"J~m'I.~!,.!,r. Hn\~ ~"Iil. ""<I:;'OI1i I "",,,~h {>mml e"".1, The vertical ,cat" or ch..; "l[':Cli)llft ~111~ hl,?l,;ll ~~.r1~g''';~~I ... 'i1

42, I\'ay, Le N6nre used it tn :place the palace an dH! world's ce IUel".

T1lniefirst phase of the garden I,~rgclj' followc{] the b}~iOtlt of the e.::is:ting Renaissance garden, This part oh~e garden is domi~iil!cd by the grid d.cri\iing from the original garden, The second ph~se wm, to dig [he Gnlllid Canal" i\ basin of colossilliellg~h, set on tlle prim:ip~ll axis behind the palace. "I (I increase the perspectival cllcc'l: of [tu: IL\ds" Le N&trc Immi,pulated, ~he perspective. This lie did Ol'nl tth,e Ollie hand by v.~.ry~t1ig the breadrh of the vista, from fifiy mC'IC',rS fU IIl,c fi"()!I,n m one hundred and fif~y in: l~lC biUCk.givIllJg;ln effect of fODC.5IilonCn~i1g"On the oth~¥ hand, he intf(ldw;"1;d a hill into t~~ perspective. By h,~"ing the vista termlln:.tle 'lg~il1~~ ~ It~'H; h ill M the fiu end, the perspcetivalcflcc; is even further [engrhened,

In the second phase of the park layout, it Wi!\> the vistas that ~Jlicd rhe CO[J1POlSil:ion. Heine: the O[!hOgfJ.nul grid :;i\'esw~]yw star-shu ped it venues 'im

lJilUCrnS ce tiwol!gh ~h'e \\'oo(kd t<':rrlli!l-

1.1: N~3ITe used the vistas here w bind IOgetli1:er the v~l"iom; cum posears of the pm:k, such ,13 the S.Ul'! of the Gmnd C~ll<lI and the more northerly 'Grnmt Trianon .. The method of eomposirion uSlcd for I~\C Fru:clil garcl:n. one strongly odcmcd ro the '!iusual

1"01'»1, has been described ~ls,jormtll sMging,

Ahhollg'h lLe NOire's means cl,~,f!er from Borromini's, here ag,l~11 everything is geared toward impressing the Ob!lCI:ITt:T the m:m]I)ulatio]], of visunl p"r<:e'pdon'~~'fromil'ni 'ld'~IlI''''' hi,s, aim t~l'm~gh rransforranrions 01 geometry, Le NOofl'C t~w~gh the p ower of dne mani p ~~ lla~ed p ersp eceive,

The ell'eeil uf the grid

Set b don:: '0 ht~pa~ace in V ersa illesis 11 large sq !13~\l, forging a ~ink 'between ~h,e pslece and the WWrnl, HUL!~oO is the fOl<l.l puinl of the trio of'1I'C'lmes: that ~OIJlVCI'gc OIl the pal;lt1!l; The centeal avenue,

~. vista one hundred meters ,aI:I"OSs., extends forwmxl the :grt~lItt ~xi!i behind the palace. The other twu diverge FI'!l.iu it imo the northeast :md oo:l,I~bea~:!. 1rtlgt:'tno;v thl,'l'>o; foni[~ :) ~o ..... ~all!"d "patte-d'oie" or "go(l<;c-fom .. " Thisis another motif rl"l::'(~~lelJiltlJl used 1'00 mil];lipl!]aiell~e perception Viewed from. (he ~qu"rc die !OU:g'ics,tiJo!l is created that the two outer J,n!mICS are 31 right-angles to each other, giv~llg the e~roc:t of looking IIl.m,<~g~~ ~] widc~anll'le lens,

The COfasc(iJ,u enoe of t hese a venues for the town is

Material protegido por derechos de autor

CHt.IiJI':' AND cOMPO,sir116N

that there 'ih~' p;!.Jac~' ~me.~ imo 'l'ie\Y act 'ii"ilri0US ;Jj

~.QilllS-~ diu.!> im~~l1g iilpawer: 011. t,h,e .E{)WI'l.

'The perllp<;:t:lJ"i'l!J ,eiltectof !he, f'rincip,;tl.~m~, Is:

I'itJoogtb.em.ed fu:r~h:er by assimllt1till:g: ~t~m, th!1.l pi!b~ ~s !l ser~~s of ever smalJe£"pt1e.fa:tury space>'! ..

T11le- 001.'iitl itS'e:lf is: built 11"0 ~ grid!s~rBteT:lilJ suehas tWIt ~vpJiedb)l (he Grook$ in Miit:tu.s:,. give:rt dl;jiE J;'i¢re the neutral and :3tt:im0S:SQ~:cwhO'i~ 1m~"'Jiroo :grid is g;1.vel!i II rorm.illr~wl)~ki1?_g.'l'lte nc.wptii:J:cipi,es pC ereruti;ng> '''gi-een ~~fUils"'5iuch ~, L~ Nf)trr: h,Ojd done in the ",ark, .. ve~ecarrj~d .further in rhe to,,:m's dJC:isi_gTI.ln. this d3E;t! .not llbe ,~re:en mas~ bll!: ~he ~ass' 'Qf Utlp,aljl buHd;i~g~" ha ... ~een "~holliJw~l(] .Ol;lt'l. 10' ''''~O:li:~e stroe!S ,",I'I(!1sqmmes. T11<l: t:b ree~~Iif;;;nlJeRtioned avenues funoE·ion 3S v.istas lind dlWta%~ tifufl

!n:[!,lfi lilI),Qu;l:pf. the. ~I'ba:n l"XliI1Jipos:itrol'J.., In additl01Ii" sql!;I.:ri}~ ~r:e ~il~;i!'[';& :It it "'''1mb er ~f IUleJ).!Ilett:$i.Ql1s im tile gr~d. ",me.n phdlJll,t tffitJ)SI) SPil'ces· ~ail: the ~ffia.ll, fabric f'Ofl:uilJ 3j(S:liIm~nt;ulue_h ~ 1';:!'ittmwy and oHt1iIlt..'i.~i6i.l t'? the 'l'iO'l'i1,S ]l~ayed! a mAjor pa;-r, S!'[P.eri,mpos:ln.g tlJjs t01'ma~ ~~ ~%,~""m of:lvenul'iil aJiI.d S(j'uar!Mi: om t'hl:lfctJtl"'J:lg:rj!dbwu.g):i ~ 'i1 hicFard'tk ~I'der ta Ui!e l!o,,",'I'I, The "l·pecial p'la.ces thus e-f-e~t~d .!$:loe :t9'~I;i~y 'huildings.,.

'J'1il.k formal ~proce~sin,g of the g#id ga."'e rise t~ ;] ];lotillIl th<1t~~()tdd 11e:f~ist for mil·1i!Y yw,rs .Olli the . Cl&sical oTB{jra:gll,'d~'f1 ~!ld wQul.q] :inf]ucll'lte~h~ des.igns of milllOiY cidetll.lj) $0 tb.~d~~~M.l[lfthe' nIIl~ 1rerntruu '~nfllti'y. txampl:ell. ifidudleeight(;~'!lifb~ and flilii:~t:ennl:t"'¢i:ltrl!l'y[>i1l1S:, . ~~d llinetee~~h~;;.eQ,tY:r)! ~rJin :uir(,! '~l.a}rMn.gmn,

Mate-nal pro:egJdo por ourcchos Ii' t,".~ill."..,lew' ,ur I~e Il':!ro~!l

au or

,2.4 The picturesque and the nanrative

W1i1ili;' Ihc CklS}jtJ,;:)jI.!;}.'~m;.m 'in1S:(!:J::lll~raHy ;itCl;qjr~d. aflll:l,;~mqu\tred E~rlJlp.c in L"0Ufllks$ nl.d;}lMs. ci~htC;:;':"~lh~o;;c:nlur~ E,nghmc.l \\-il,IIJ.l"1;NCd ,\ d(fn~lnpm~n.1 ~,f g!'Ii;l,l imlwr~~flc(o (i,r efn::~ ~l;ndc~e~liiri1"it:d) Ihi!' the fU'tllf~ Llf ~~mIpu~}6n!1. "fhe irlcrt'it~il:'01 Clm,;ctn with ~!,Utlrt" rH.I,1 rq1;',m:iec;l ,I~ jUt ~m!U ..... n!':iIl~UIl'S phcc::l'1 omcnon wi, h i~{;; own \1;i I u.c.";-:Ihi",\ M rhe tinae uf Jt'·~1iIl .. JaCIiCilt'S R'Ll!l!i~t':Ju whu IAi'~d i.hlll natural ·~'aILlcdlc·,rc~o.$lihmd.~'Pcd w 1L !~1lI1.knq' in

I (In d:>;capc a rdlite:ct'(Ir.C~l;l'SL 'pn ~c~c~lJ..'t~ fro:nrl' !!lilt uml

lMdls.t'-ape Rmri. ,"U.: m~ g!!m-n~,:lfi,(; onlerlng: .

pdllrdplcs prevllknt in R'enaiSlJaR(1l a,nd ~'rer:t<),h gard(:!:!s, h:id 111itk lt~ do wi[h form: in narure, lksib"J~t'I]> ~('j'lug!hl ,[~th;;{r means. 'fh;: rr!l~Wer t:~tmu bt'StH~~ ,~I'c:hutec;tllre;~:rJil j;'l.I'ly Iram m,nalems j'g] t hit d:,!;l~~ '~c)dJ. A 11.(lrn,bcr o,f 'U};l,[ib; fn:n;l1 til!? lP"ripd ,II-u]utd 'I 740, t;'T-c,ldy in t] LC!~l!J cc.lth is d'r'~·~I{Ip'tneU1:I. Mt!S~ 1l01(;.W~ lnhy,llU bits,: pilrks, is ~h:H I:t~(:) W~l'fI de"jK!l·~d ")I I,itl:: m\:lt"rlj ur b~' ll;rn.U.!J&llllS w~rh no true ittCMt~~HIt"lI~ rf<litJing:,

Oni!:. of' the best I)reser\,'cd [»lrb in 1M" series !:.

S(IJ!JithwlI'cl, q<l~iip\etl i~. f'J41 b~ []ue h~nker Hel'!.fY BfJal:c. I-J O.ilre d~J~IQy~d ~h ree 111ea;n~, or '~,':ri,;ing ill a ,. fIIacturaf' £Cilnn-,dri!>Hll,n:izi~~ exist ing lUTn1l'C. cump'm;,i!~.[} ":';-(.'I:n'l;:,,,<> :~:~i:R!g m~thn(l~ (;yilcdl'i'"m p:~i:ntli'lg, 'lliid t he flf'l'lc-lhrmli.',.'hrqiirjlH:.

:\!i h;~W];I;,h~d r~ i .~"iJi,d US] n ~ t,'k'ffiJC'o btl"} gj3!)!TIcn-~to ~nf;tr.uCt flh~ 'liI'u~n ;!;:~.~IIW,of tlu~ pal"k H(~lI!r(lh::, dlC nusueal t:uIHOoUl!" f.d (l1lt:gruurni dirl'lllc; the I:mrk's i'mmllo I "stc~le~ of prt:Jjcdil'll g ~1 l'c~,~~:I:'H:~ dc :ly st{:,tti 11(:1:t}!'~ '[h~ I.D.tsli:rJg la.J1;t~;oc;_np·:\: 11(: rurned ll)

ilr,jRiIJ [,miNt IhelHI rure :rlread~ rhere. 'l'~~ i~~ !;tc' ~'1id. i13' pidi nig out t1:,;ll;;t.lil'i:\ elemenes inl [],1:t: j;llifid'.lcapi::.

\lVc i;..;iil reurrn W Ib:i~ iJr;;\miHi~if!,g- of 1l •. tUH: oiru Ch:1pl!c[' ,(~.

The pierb11'11)!!i[I[L1.~ seene

In ullder i'tt:t~t:-ni1 i fI whttn:. dR' n i'!'l'h1.igIU!i :£i,gu.r~d :111. rh..., pa'rk'~ {,I(llirl.p,l:;iriuJt. hl{}ll.rc iumed :m pahnrn!k hr"pir.~di b~' ~hC' way the ~e\lefll,ecnth-;c';:i1I(.nr)l hnd"t.-a~J" ~uiIlH:r" 1;'Ur;i'l'p;os(fd !h0ir !l"nvaS:~$, Ho,we bJ.i,h up 'hi~ IMFk lIrmil'id •• st:d~~, ~r i!l~t'~~~. nne ~~f ~hc!l!! wn;tkcd intu rile !lJIir~ 'iiit~"'dl~- hl':ing~ '0 Hfl! ~. sceoe hy~b e I;;'f~[l(:h i JJ1J.s:f.~~,PC p'J, Claude Lorraine. The ell3];!l'plc Hoare used Wij:s his ,,~it1ling Clili$/ n~IJ'lj ,rtf DrillS J'r'uli 4"lj~'N~.

Th'c ~hojee or n~lldc ~1i~:; 1Ii:i11 h" ~ha!'ic-e. fo'r hts ~\I'~JfH Illli?' ~uJ:MI~' r.doiJ:et:~ a. (;J;Jmj\l(L~lt ir;lnii ~ !cch~~icqu., dlill PI'.c p(l'rk des~ril,<!-n; [he teols d10) i·i;:~]UjFJ:d. Tire' an Ilismri1l1.1 ~md O~ude eXp'~rI Nb.ft:el ll:.j~}I.&l:l~shl:r:;4; r SLnmn'll'r7!~!'i di'i!S~ ~~y J:i'~t1 e p~'i\i:t:hpl,c~ as (oll,~\'6: Chnl'4e ~l~,a, de:ad) !!il!1!>I,ingulsh...,(1 flil"CgtrQ1und aad haici.k:groumi. l3;elw!llen ihes1: ~~lert: may bee <!; ~Iarr.n'~ I!Ol1 !l·t<l,nt.;);!n in g Ii f"w l;i:rge 'm~iS"sl!:S" Lilrg'€' f~awrcs with ~e\~1 d~t:JilS' ~'l.c .jl'I~ees ~lun.lJ: {be: d~ag:on;)1 in the foregr(lufld.I-Hgehliglns an ~n~ r,J? ~Q'riJ_ sideso-F the "~CI2!1C (fi1.nvc lin: "oj'l'lJ~hiifh.>u, Q,mdc !;Jelen appih!$ W !lillf !;idc ~)r t:he P\lj'~[i~



(J!M))'!,;:R I\,N:PCOM!"I,)!!~l'!ON

gradual ttillliisitions in tone :~Il;d color froM lill'g,e si l- '1$

liionLI)llttcll: in. the fQfc~grol!lnd tl)l sm':IJ~l(l!r f'@:rm:s,im tie had"grouTId .. OinJ dH: mlhl:lI' hand., the eoatrast be.

I:W~ i()b~ecls ill! ~h~ fo!"~g:l!Q'l!!1!d rutdMc~grol!~d can

be estreme, as much inceloras .~n. scale, A~o!tther

sty]istiiC fr.illciple is his lll'ieldil1lrg .of sim!pllie', compact


From then on; ~h)(lSC paj~tf.ll;jy ~cC:lll1!ijqucs of eoml'ositiiol1J w(}u~d ~8C6m eincreasingly ~n:lll:tcn~rual i~ a]\I,;~~tClcrtural and urba1Jil dcsigR!1IS p,icluresqul? uagj,.ig. En EngLi~lh gard(l.!\ d~sign thes~ p!"indp']e5 U"1l:!1s&atd i!l!t~ thre sm; ~:If (;1!);cEli scenes iii'! d~~!i.ib~d i!bI)~ and die placing of tl)h~ects such as temiPrues iOJ rd~~ion l~ differcnce£, in level. T~e e:x:isd:ng narural landscape served a.s: 3J wuikd.roiP to't seenes,

Bur: siml"I)"applying illufus "p:ictu]je~uc" composition!!1 technique was m)le~:noiUJgh f~.r H03.l'C eo acMe\'e his :!ill'l1. F 01" this [ne~ll0{1 presupposes for each CO)"!il[!l'on~nt abm;icpif~miii>ef~(lm wl1icJ!i, ~h,(\ seeae can fFOCe.ed! .. 1'0 soh',e~his plioblem HO;!]le

loohd to l.ite:ra!l:Y sub.iects.


T.hornftn;:3d ... e

Heare ordered his SiCeIIH!~~ruolilig <I. ro~!te throlllg~~he park. iP'.roJ;ectedi afO:u!m:d ill,. this ruuteiII;liIstr8i.~es t.he wandierlf];g,!i of Aene:!i1> as described in 'Virgil's:

OdJlSsi'y.nle surrounding: I1:i:Us Sf.Wi: ~o set the SOl:mlIe, so th~tt the pIII".k 'CIIllI be r,eglll'ld.ed. SIS: a sta~ 01" as SlC~nl}-pail'!,ti~g i~ which '.!'isioors bli>Cumc!j-p~(":I,ters. The roure leads them pll£~ '!3irio:us buildimllgs 3nd seeaes visuaJly episodes limerature.

TiheroUiIe as tK:;o,rer o:fl'henarrnrive" I:Omp:lI:I~le ~o the pertor\lltw SUiI' of ooLlu1O'i.d bearing the film, cantakeen jliinym~ble forms. OnJ}' t~e e:tder IS; impli:ll\l;aiilt. The fO[ttlili m~as: lilltle infi~e~ce 'On the ~<!ft'i!~iv~ (1$. ~h~\:vay il. film i~wo!;!:nd (II'! a !'(l\lID crr Id"tt I),i!'!g i~ l.Qorpso!l! ~h(l ifllioo!'. Wh<!t j:slml~r~!l!ti;$!~~ f'l)oo and oom.posiriofl of .~~ piCi.~";1;'$qUi) !lO~j)l'! thel'l1sehrcs a:ndlriwe~r erder (li\l"cr time. Stl~da:" if

paintings, ~i~,ese segments of 13nd.smpe serve to

ll!!'!fo,ldthc mUi!',l:tiv~,

']ike diJi';,l!llty wi~h this methoo IJf ICompcsitiQ:1l is d13;[ each oOln])oiIJ:en~ exerts an influence OR dD.e o,d'.us" Indeed" the main m(l'[ffif ln .0111: scene Clol'I.l.d ~11 be the ~tili¢~et ofdu~n~r, ThJ:s m~1'!!!l!~rnii~ M1!.kilil:g sueh a seeming1:!' f~ee design is .il. lung and lil~riOI.l~ i~ wlilJi:eEli e'!i'C!'l' ch:ang<l in. OM I! OO~~~ has ~o l)~ censidered in t(,l~!i ,of ;aWl the otiil'!lffl.

Material protegido por derechos de autor Pian (If Stem rhead crl<lll"~


0.;;,' .. ,1;.",1 I ,~.", "I I !.r/n , r/',j/, ""'>r" 1~1)7.;1

Thi~ l>.linl'''~ 'i .. ~ l.h~ m.l,b'l flJrJlJi~ l.'1lrll~n I<j' Mat 'I ra.ll rO!2f,_lIo per .'i1[, u ,hJ.!.,J


aut r

2.; From distribution to composb.ion


alollig iI. p.rii'l,cilP':d~xif>. A~llbm.1g1~ the hiJdldin;g IS. nm:r!l;:ei! b}' 11 l~rofu:sil)lli of en:filladCc<i and~ oenament, the classieal Sjffl(~m seems ~:i lir.'i't tuhaveheen respected ... Howevcr', certain ""~iPccts(lif the Pr'~'.i1i Op~ra HOlIS(: 'W(l.rl)n(lW a~ lil(l dmCl. l'~e~I~l)n~t ~ shlfr In. [htl ardTl:i:ttK~r's c~nO(l!l"n fOlf c"(lrtniFlJ elements ,of the ffp:uial o(Jmpos!tiQrl.

Onc of Ibe ~ending <"f\,*,lllictuft:l sehools j~EIlf;(Jpil rduri:ngm(\ '~iglhl'!)t),ntfuOl!~tI. ru!llltl[l\illliruth rcentnriilS '( ... 11:'; Lh~E;JoJe des Ile!lltix-Arts in P:n[s, Thi", ~llool g;f(lW ~ut il'f lillie ACOIdlhn.i.e Royale d' Ar,ibite'~I!1.!re !><:I; tip tlu:r.irng Iberrc~gn of LllIlis XIV in 167 I. Thl} aim {Jf the AC'.ld!emri.c Wil'S to t:eae!ar a "tim.erucss:" 3:rchit:ccll.Il'C. "fl) do $, its dilroctOJi, Jat.'qr1!J;~~Frillmn;!;Qis B1omd:dl

{I 6rl ,-1686) 10fi1:J!ld. haek to I['he tenets of VilfUVll!1S. DurIng thl: r~xi~t~n~ (If tlh() At'ad~mie iCnd 'h~ Ii!t~r ~y~e ~h'"1! Be~u~-A~~f') th~ idc<li~, ei!!I1{)d from V:i:truxius uaderwent many modiiii:cati:oJil's, and smits in r~lil{l!il$~ mth~ l!l.~,l"'(tilsing compl~~h~ (lit .t!h:~ d~lgttli ta!ikls and thenoodr am.olil;g mset their pllf;'iynal ~!;amp en thi.: wO'!'ik. A:t:!'h~8<!ml); tim:e., SUp'parF for rhese mndimca!tton.s.\\"lIS slllagln in tile quest (!)f e(1':;f!lruam rrnillnrs in:IiJiChJrnctlllr,e. T~esc shiEts \!IJ'I'mm the d:tliska] !>!i'»tem m~e: ('bc :Eco]e des &i"!.i,i~-Ar~s,. which t~ ~gen!!l';lUiY" Ol!s. ... od:)~w wH~ :I. p~riyd ifl! w!hie'" a w~l,tl)<f: ·of !!tyl~':i! w't'f(l ~kiUfuUly intefWYVC~, :!.l~ inllli~f:!)~tiQg ~ubj\X"t fur :n::~aF<ih,

II:!! thc: cigil')(Ie!1i'h il~tYIy progress{"d, !he l:Jichumrny within cDIIssic;ism 'be:oam(l(\~iCr more sbarply de:fi:ru::lC!'I. Along with :In :amhirocmr,er,esting' 0:1:1 et.emarl tfUtrl1lS there wC.n~ Ule cdti:cs (If ~b.rC Ikl<l!i!xA:rts id.e:ts., rhe Ratl.omdists.'t'fu,ese [nclu:d,e a:rchil:ec:.ts: who !l'1:re.sscd ;-atbcr than pJ!OIycd down tbci_nl'rulXlmces 0:( lecbn01~g, pl"Og,res:s ~see Cb3!pler 4). :tn J;r'IiiIUOC r!he~ d!i"¢1'gi!l!gQpini~!:!sl!.'er~~ m(ld(!; manifest by (,he Foundingi!'! ~7~" of d!!) E..!;1QrePoM'gehnlqll~. OP(l ~f its pci~cip;!1 t(r;!.~I1l)fS W",'! Jrcan Ni(:ho~iliS l.()ui:l Du.f!l.:_IJcl! (17(!Q-r834). W(l wtll j;!l!k~ a !tU)fu de(~Ued 1(1( •. 1: air the E(xlle P![}I¥lttaniqij)e in rChaptJ!;r 4. root the present cruu!Vt.t~r· follows the Wsto:ry of ~.rnte likilllXAns:.

On~ of !'h~ r~!iJn:l!;~l(Js QfB~o~-Ans arcllit:~,t1u;~ is Charle$ Gatnier' ()JiPc,r~ House, 1:1:1 185.' a romptt~t~on. was ~,eldl eo design .~ new ropera. house, a'! pan rof tLhe u"nsr~rmati~n pf;OCt-S~.l:!n.d!1).:f III Ol.fldl dle prdi;\c,f of dl~ Semi] ~lZpaft'mem.j Baron Geo~g{'$Hallssmii!!iJjn" Garnier's win!liifig design was built jn ~874'

:Sl"oodly speaking, the bulld:i:n.g: has allthe typical. l1Iine.teentililc~entllry hal~r:n .. :rb: .~. clearly .o.rganizcd plan 3dhcr~ng I)() the iPru~~llii~ing .rules I) f classical ()c~lnposiJtion thit.! arli3ngl'8 rb.llJ~'S of s:rmmllc(rical .curm


The ~,iS'TiIJIiY oftbe Bcam..:-tlUrlli brougiht J shift in the w:'.Iy Im.;llllan is org;a:ni1J~d .urud. in i:l'le L'{l.n~ti!)t:s TISCldi iif! that end, OfighlaUy ihc lItodO:l:Is of (J~.;,Iribn.tirm !m.d dli:~p.()$#ifj~ derll'i,!)d fn)tn VjtrU\rju~ \i1Gorll used to d.l:s(;rR~ !:h~ c()mpositiio~ lmd ord~r in .~ d~~ign.. Thecnncepc nf t:.(jmp.(j.~i!i()n :p:~c\"J!ll!:Ilt in pa:iming sint':;~ tb.(l Rr~~;l,j~~,m~1); I;~nwr~ the archiu;.ctl.lfatll discourse ill I!he seeend half (!If the nineteenrh CCtiUtrj1 ,1,1: Ih\; Ecol", dl,1 Di:<l;],llH\J:!lS.l~

'f1i1.e emcrgem;:e: of tltis MCOl\'\"IIS ,I£companjvd hy

::Ii I'n:~W w~ly of d'esigning .. U 1"1111 rncnGOtllSLfUl:t1I:1,g: the main sltaf'C of J. hliMidin;g \\~as IIW"~IJI a qlUJ:csti.G'n of rdi"i.ding up '~,(l Sp'<ltce8 (dl'Slrlbuti(i:lli) OilIer I~:l' (If:ltl~C \'oIIYm~ inil,(::eofdan"!)wi~h~~:i) cl;tSS~rc:l1 pnt,I)'rflof bnys :)rll!!J ~ymmc<rFJI, Th~ new br:lc£s im'ol"lng htrger :md[X!rdc!!!r"'~b mere £;<!)mpll)l.>( [JfOg;farns I,lshr;;rltd in bYlihe· emergcing :niWl:etteeilll:l'l-00n:iury mtluopolis, nl::ul!c new dJem'.!I1.ds on designers, The sheer' scope an.d ri:mnp.l.cJo:it,r led tli hi.iild~~lgs hejng de',"i!;~eil as an asscmhbge 'Or "comp~i6oll" of massesand ~~p<lc:e:s .. Tiki! main slilape of a b~ilding w:as; no illonger ::u:hiel'e:di by dilddin:gllnd. .s.ubdivid:ing a . ..,ingile crui:IY. (A:m:!lb~!;g <lQmp(m~nts,. 'com~!:Sing\\l:i~h.denl.enls, gitin.~d ~n.l;t~acsii~g :)sc(':ndO)fic~.

Th{;c(]lne~pw,,1 shift f~om r!:liS!:ril>udofi 'i0 r(:l)mp(~!ti!)f!. 1):111 lldc.!i!:io:nal s;ig;nlfica.nC{;. If dcsigl"l1(i\ ln iJleR0Ilai'!igll"ill'>"(t[l~ ordered 1:0 'fefrc,c! the divine and futl.yITue modiem, tll:e perslJcOa1 II)' and i:n.dil1ldu:llity of the designer took an ,c~'er gl~catc.r hG<ld 0n the des:ig:rl di\.!l'ing the t;cn~urics Ihal: foUow~ ed, This fact is made evident if we c~rls~.dcr tb<lt th~ mfl:l~}! a:rchif!ccrurnl. eompetitions .regarded 0:righ~.alil;y (1,$. a pr-lm;l!!,j.' ,co!l;ditioJi!~a d~'I~Il)pm.(J[![[ marlS ij.tirlll with Us ..


Panlltcling ~he rise ef theeuncept of cO!TIPQ~iti<!Jn is. t:halt ef t!he par!i.~· Dcri,'edl Ir0:ml!iThe French ej;PJies~~ion «'pl'en dre parti," IlO make 3. dil!, It relates to [he main isl'1apc:: or Olllff.aiJ form 0.£ the: scheme; these

Material proteqldo por derechos de autor

f)I,SIGN I\ND 11.' II 1 Silo

d:t)il' tlw J:L"~m jW'm·f'tw(.i/.tfrI~·I' i~'~h~1 ~rl'\:d I~I de- 4'H

,;~',H.,c thl: inill;cli state '!If a !:l~.bigll, The term Was

needed ro d~lln\l d~f;' main s\, wbkb b)'lhe:!l \"~'M,

no lti'figi:' r d(Jt,uih~I):It.' ; 11 «'rrwi of !{~;i1l n~ R~'~, ~Umh!i.'T

!~f Il~rs -18 nd one of rhe dass'i:cnl ~ 'l'ciS)''>.

The dc~j¥[1 for t'h_t; !P~ri~ OpCf"~ l4Iom;;~ Illi,uk~ in smne inCClsur.e ~,Irilm;:i.tio.mll phm;e ill 31'chil<:>eHl!"C.

O~tli>id(,'fed ~t! IJI'! r~ .. 'E~l11) we "~M sdU deli 1'1 ~ h ill> iI sin~l~ v!lJ~um(;. Tllis. pic.:lu[i: cJl.ilIng!C;S if we: ind,ld~

Ihc OIddcu enreanees 011 [he ~<1S,! and \!'eSI" sides. rhe pH)m)iHH;e~~ i1y~:m1 eel' !illd {he ~'l'l~"delicts abifllvc [he fi;1i[!1\Ju'S "tl!"~' Seen J!mm ini;.id(~. the ~l)ll1pO~it~Yl1 i~ iJltl}"1 hi [lJ!;' OlU 11 !Iim]pledis M~ib~ ti~,n uf l'Ot)nlS ~I i rhi~~ II !>i:IY gl~ o:nlll r. The (;;Ol'ill ~)'Icl>itrvf t,~c SC~IJ en>:€ o r prindpOlJ " indl.ltJing tl'nc fuy.ev-, S,l(lt[ -:llld main O1i~di[ t:lriiJ IlliJ, WWfC ¢Ie \,;l!l~" d~~ig~l i ng; In t]H;' "'CQITI-

posi ng" of lIpa eus .

. ~II ~~l'dl>C

fI tbird term n, 1l1~pe,ar in tin: llirrL~W;:~I1:tt. ~enmrJ' is 1J1{luk~', whn~h littrr'lHy m(',<1~.~ l"I.·hefe ,he foot is rbn:d •• 1 p,u:e or Slep [Qfward,,>.1<1 In .8ea Ull!:-A rrs )~,,~'g'c[]n il. rcrt~rs, I'() rhe dllt .. ili'~* ohhc d~.'>i~n. rhe Sl;tpJ,c,ncc ~jf ~'p"'"e~. tll'ln!ii:d~~d in wn:!l~_ of M~WlJmr.::rH I'll rou ~l the Im~M~ n:g- Thj;." mafc~~ :oo,tke3 Qll.e aware. of rhill ilmpacluf Iheel'lllladc ~!1d rhe s'fuift ill

dHII1II(; [wm ,I)ni{: $,Im~t· w !h·e I:Ul'i.-,. .

In l'lh~ P'lri~ JJr!;;r~ HQl(~1: the 1Il."lrch .... is ernpluy(':(i no! o!,l} <lS l hOl"izonu], linear ~jr,~ulll.ti,"N:bru "'ring mit H\cl':l'lfilaclc~ it is a ttlll[:t: thin undulares fi:j,;,.:'Iy ;Ltnr~~ ~.tllir.Oi up 'll:1Wlllgln the bul](Hing. \iVe.~~1! tH:n~ I he influence of rite: I)~ctur~&{;j:~~ .EngJis:h i:Jiicl!Sl:"PC :l>'lyk.

Th~ staircase of 'i.fl·C Opem .. l lel~s<) is illc dimtHi uf Gll.m!,t::i's dl:sign ,EnL)MU fI'i,cri "€f, s¢l'i.rlg'!8 ndhC'!:~~g: seen aN~'l\H:rc l!:tlis.t.clr'l !h,L: 1I;\;fl ur ~iigh ':Ir~nl"' ..

Th~ :filmJj.!jS smlrr up whkh lh~ rmMi.(i' );¢:; or s~u~.!,·~s h'l~' in C;;':1mi!:;;I"!; h~l'Id!:i beceme II li:p'eC:tit~he tlMI .hll'~l\:n:; '~tl Ill!Jldl,1 Ill!! fn:rfmrm!l.lti:e ~ns!,igc.

Mmelldr pro u.QLdCJ par ~i!!1"0ch0S co aumr $(011 r,~ th!,e !~I'i~ ()I'~". 1[11 ""'"

:W 2.6 Towards a. new


Tlhe tll:rll ~f the Cel:lUU;lfl' !i.r!i,l gi~Il'1 chan~~ inEurepea!'! i!Qt:ielli. "flit!;: 'iii~Cl qf iM!l,'j,~ri a 1 '9~pir~l:i~~. ~i;~rid. a tetn'!C::Pllr1l!tiQI\ proeess rhar "'\~\SP'! tm; -, 'b~jJ~ envil'(,)j'i nftn'I' a]oog with h, Cities· swdlc.G! into m.e!U1<:iP9Iises. Th.e tran;sfol"ma:r:iolm. of Paril$ III the hoJinds fit i.ill po;.;!l,'iCt liau~~mi!~n i!l a, go~ciI.e;ql~p;l~ (Jf mils. prue~s$" Ncmi tl;chm~ques3:m!, :m,aiie!ci3.hiimpactcd '!)n~()Ciefy., ,c$I, iron.steeJ:. ghl!>~and reinihroe.dcqpG~[e n1ali:i~D"g [h~i,r 1f!~tr~!ll!.Ce in bu:ilwn~ C{}n~tli\:I:c~iol'i" The vca~ ~llhca\lals;n th~eCO," ,HId h:cb:nr61ngy iI~ppeil"ed ttl ~e c(~nrn;.i~!Js; ~lt:e iur~e to 9iistrJver :;.. ne:w ~orl'l'l'ali(iil[)m. and new o:rdcri,l'Ig principles" .<lJld the clt"Sirefl;r 'l! 1jl.'~W .architcC'[\.an;l s~ei$Gd ji,Teii~"~i!i thaI'! ,eVe:!'. J!ii~MC~ ~tilirniltQ the p~riot,l" w~~e ~cddifilgwh~r¢ tm, Si!:;l'n~ht ;uld!"$$e~~jm.:g wJ!oiI~ 'Vc'll'I:~~ !h~cr!!~siCiil ar-ch'ii'«:IU1tal s;,j'$.~em ~1l;d,

On!nJt rtheili!'"chi'['ecis caught '!I'l)) il'l. uili's \fOJ:!lC;X of challlg~ was the ~:rI,Iss:eI,~· de~i;gra.el" Vru:;tOl), Hum a , :1'~ib"'l1T1iJ"&d ':.1$"0ne of [h.e [l1;!,O'r rep're:s:<m rntill~ (}if An Nouv(.<liIJ,. His OOrll:I1L~Wi:ion:s ooa!ldstedlarg't\~y of d\\lenit~g.hGuse." [nit· ~h.e :\"e:ll-lliH~e.led. Th€;Sc were citiz,¢rls who, havl1i1g' pro~pe:i'ed. :~il ~Ile (;;~Io!l ie's, Or in '~I!I:~ ms~ 'Qf indu!>tr) •• pe!l"llti'tred tli1errnsely,e.s (!: hOiUSt!: (If a:mple propo-rJ':i0!1*,' TihJs upper er.~11 tlf S!m:fficty was ~b-~tere!ite"d in new,s and (Qr1illl.s· to .cXR!1!;~(keir el<1!:Il:. Tifu'!i l\rt NOYIft;\l:u 1ll1Cb'hl,l(;[U(~ '()(' Hort.'l p~~ ~hJeITI ju)St. tlitis, In 1'!)9'() Horn cv~m built a hoil!?e fOIL: hi:m51eif in tile ~fWI' sfyl.e.

Mmem]f pro 8Qld(J par oerechos {JL: autnr

ShiJring a~ ... cs

Tr1!~~lcd ill the lk-;:~I!x-,:\~:I!\ Ir<idiii[JIli. Hut~IIM(ld(: ~pa..,m;]li~ auempts i!1! 1ili~ work Qu go bl:)"t)lI!d rhe ru I.~s u:l1 I:~,i"si(_,::ll urchitcc !tIn:. .\ I ! lie level of dCi;I~I'1Hiuil he I:lr~ly rC'PhcL'd!,;b~sil:(I1 onlfUiIllC:nllr with ~. filrmLl.i :>ymm( culled from (hI:! orgauiewerld of plants. ,[h.u ur f~ r g:rl:lll..:r si~nifi~mlJ.~'" is th ... r Huera attempted to l:hllrlge the entire system 'Of d~s~ica I urch ~ ~Cl:t'LI~'C, feu nd ,~I"i ons ;Ilnd all,

.Ii,e c'>amirni:J. she effects o~· J~yrnmcl'r)". lis ow~ hOIl~~1: exhibits nn inrricare gmm: oftag 'played between syimn;:ir~' and ;:t~}"Inml:!r)'. 'The sl'rii{t ill lilIe 1JLtCS uf'lIH: ,.P'IC~S gh·ts ris~ W:J Jiilgmml mevemcus in 'll;]lI[!" I!.~' hurun1dilll!' the ~TnuC'!L1n: of irnn ,1:[ul sled F[OI'tL~ h.](J. the spaces flow fn:dy into one' another. Th is !.:IT,,:cl i, 'best observedat ! he p()Iinl W~.I,t~~1C the 'a a ir .m'in.',~ a , ~h~ lIPp~]' ilnnr. I J,t'~T the inrricate :play (if SlX1Il'CS makes it impussihle to gauge whether une I~ ~llII h e !;t;! i rwell or 11'11:1 ivin g :room,

The EI\;:Lulc u r ~ 11..:- Il UYS": Ii kewise rC'ill:o.:-lS I-I()irt,~'!i C)lll!tmuion >01' the S,\·l~lmc:trY"llii}"mr!M.:try rel~linnshill. I lere, stone, mmJ fnlmC'",,~teci beams and posts ;]'11 J Im"!l!c ;I rem; ~)f ~~a~s J!m:tlomi mile.

i\'IO\ICiIllC nt

Uy shifting the ~p<1!liJ~ "xes HnnJ also brc<!b Lhnmgh tllc classical II"C:'J.lMCIlt nflhe spnce system. lie c:u:1l,nr~~t~,; the (:UIlu::I'I~'n~~i;on of auteaorneus !i]?::H;Clo; i~, an enfilade fUT a compusiuon !If spaces tl'n"t£ Ilm\' '~)lW inll! I he '11mthcr.

I ~ I~'rl:a cun ~ntl~;I:l!i ii~i>~! iul C"Ti\l ~~(i!l~ rion!% 041 bcg,~ III' be ":I;~~C'ricnL'C't.I lliwu,gh mcveruene, by walking Ihmugh t.he house, Unn,i sln::nIglhcl1s ~hc as yc[ ,q~]ilt~, st;1I ic J!C;lIlX-.''ltrBi cunccpr uf rhe marchc, elevated by G;tf'~ilc:r ill the SI;1i:f~'l~ Qf rhc Op\;ril IloUi;i;:, hy introducing axial ~h~fls and ill,tedoding "p:ll'l:~. ;h;tl:fldi~lg Ihe stairs, visitors to Horta's house ~hcmsdn:s ira iI r~.o! 011 imermergirrg 'll:lCIC"~,

Two ~'!.. .. rs aftl;r Hurta moved irtw ~j,s own house the "'i~~ltw~IC" .m:hlt.:d Adolf Loo!> wrote his n:ld)I"<lLl,d ~slmy OrtWINt'l,u ~INd f:rimlt.21 in 11.)01-1. It 1'.ajl~ :I~')]inst lin: architectuec nf rhe S()~o,;ssim1J. ~~~C Yicnnc!>c \'aricty of AJiI :-':UIUVCIlIUli (see also Chapn:r .. ), 1:'l:J[S lansc in I~is IC'1([ earhe near-tvrannicnl will of rhnt m.UYCI'II1't:Il[ to g'ivc S,lml)C to 'l~d lh;~or;lt'c !,'I,-,rything,

I}cspi~c his criti..:-i!,n1 ~):fl-lli)fi:[l'~ \,icnI1ese cml:nl<::I"p,l:rl;S,\\'C' ~h'1Jtl: !lcelhat r .oos :'I.dopttcd. an

:J,v~IIU:~!l'J3rJc position !,;om~Xlnlble to that or Horta. The experiments Louscarricd uut on the ~1,Hildamc'!)!, or the classical architectural system wen; l.ikewi'se~.PI,]ied: mrespectable dwelling: houses, ·of which the Mo,ucr House of [~p8 IS a g(]{}~ cx:.unple,


Viewed from the fr~l1it, rhe ]\'Iollel' House looks like <I sk'l!~whhe t.ox o~ 1111r~]IollJimJ'~ pmp[)rti,olls, Stripped of all ornament or classic ror!'l":m'~idiom rhe fll~ade nonetheless adheres ttl such ~[JImpositin~;11 rules as ,:ymmCl'ry, harmony andproportion. \iVhoc\"cI"CnferS ! he house 01 s:md ies theplsnsan d N[lt~tinns elm,ely is rmnspnrtcd 'W qu i (I.: another world. Here as in Horta's ,buu.s..:', i5> a 1)13~: ofaxia~, shifts and S}'mmell:.1' versus asymmetry. As with

.1 luthi's, hUU,H,: agilirn. ~pil:ce~ arc !]utt b(lJrde~d on <ill foUl' sides as h~ ~~le classIc stvle. Yet unlikJe the

hou se in Brussels, the )\,11 ollcr Hense lacks 1l,11)' trace of ormll'!:lI~n!. The t'(lG'rIlS seem tnhave ji:lll~Q p:~~y !iQ_} rampant i~Oll1Ioc;l:lsm. _.:ri'~]l blut;;k-sh;l.pcd massesand !ip~~~C!i a~.'C viHl.1lJ1ll1y lil1)!1~~ !ilrikin:l'\'.

nether typil,;~~ deparrure fl'om Ht~m is the W~ly Leos approaches the !::Otlll)OI;~tion ofthc sp[lJQ;es.

If the pareiriens between romns i:rrn, .Hm:t~l·s houses arc er a .di(;~tcd hr ~p~(,"C.~ thi;\! intersect, in Lees' eaeh room remainsan entity :111, itself. He :rmly redueetlre parti.timJI berween I'OOlms~t times to II difference in level, a narrowing or :I. IiIN:r (~f L'ldumifl", yClin ~ .om;: hm:L~'(;s rhereis no> IJo!.'Sib]c (J\~ll.Ibl_[~,bout what b-dmlgs I<l which spaee.

In smrk (,'{l'n~rI!Si 10 Ihe .mnJ)gh- dsual ,~:rn~dding of rhe interior fmm I:he ()~t~ld(:w(]'.r~d ofrhe d~y, ~mluurs one is cnnsI3.m~yilil\"ol.n:d ~'Il a lfoU1llC {If !i~'!Oio~ ~od being seen, Thi:-; hil!;l:hl.;. \'i:~I1l~1 ~'Qm<1C'1 between rooms and the 3xial !lhift 31:1nJong them fa,~j,lihH('S shis !lILl.[crninillg gam.c, a li~a,gi,ng: of ,ic'i iil~des and reoms pn),mming' '11'Le occupnne m 1b('Wr, Thus, YOIJ. em) .~oulk along II diagoml~ sigh! line from the seatabove the front dour through the entire house to. 1li1J~ g1:lrd,cll beyond: (see alse CI1:l,pU~r :) urn ;!,IC/gill!r and use}.

Th,e\\,ny Leos constructs the space 10 these

pri l1ic:i:p~:cs in a si ng.h.: volumeis term ed R.ll1Ill11[0li11

(s p'1C(;-..pbllj.\Vher'e.'s the cnnmini"!l: vohnitl(' Q r rhe housesmys l:m~ ;m(1 n:gui:n. rhc R[lumphm prnll:i!lcs c,'ery lfOQII1J1. in the house wi~h the pusitilon and :hcughl its lI!>C :md to.1I: composition:ls, 11 who,lc. ~l']n;e Mlllllc:r House seem, r"'O'nl1. Ol.ltii~ de lIU9JS a o.:lass ical

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o:rded!il:g of syrnilWl:cuy proportion, wlille frem Insid:C ~t anlU\i!!!!I[S to a f:re(l compo8J'!:hJ!1 in I:hr~~ direetiens of relMi;veily all~onom(J!llS ~ms. 21


.~ yt'ar arh.'T the Molk\r House was ,oomp:I(':[(\(I, lPrench :vom<SWlctti(ilIl"'~rker:s were IP'1iI!nmrg'[hehlliiJiS:h~ ingtqu,chi.'s !:Qal1iothi.'f w~hjtli; bo~, tb!i, ViII:. S"'I'{jI:~ ([!}'M})I :SlandiIlJig to the w-cSt of P~r~silll;d. d:esigocd hy Lt O}rlYusl:lM"" If 1~lorta'se,'I(.peT~m.Il;n.IS wI,l;Tce.insp~ r ed! by tbe potential tlf new materials such las: seeel :a!nd g~;I,~j; Li.' Gu!"bu~j~-r dJ!'~w l1!~s Jd~;I,S: frum ,h~m~;uli.'r!IlJ rCons[ru£titm. method! of rcinfb.ft':ed. eoncrete. Tillis, t~c:h_:_l1!iq~g(lanowed! him 110 ~!i~'i.!: the l!);l.dbj;<l.f;~lg strucmre and! Il'he m3tef.l:l!1 f{:'qlllilN;d ®o panitio!ill ,off rooms: quirte indcpcJ)(jj(1cT:li:~y. This: r(li'liisimiJ, of the 'lnatert:d syste:1llS .a(h'OCalea by hin;]' ""o!!l~rd JiJa'i'e du: g~eilt~Sl r'eper,cUcsstGns for medem ar,clli~e()tu:re.

Thj) adva!l!~~g~ii !!!l,dco;!Ws~qY\l'nc~~ ~fdtis Sl)lurtiofl, Le Cur'(b;ush:ir claimed, inspiilled i]iITI to estalb.llisihi his rGeJflbrat~d "tj,v'(J poil1!liS t~f a new aro;ibitreoture";

I ooillilmns (pi£otis,), :2 liher·oof gardclill (t;o;~it~i3Jrdilill),

3 the free Uoor p~aJn (plan, 4 the strip wilttlt!lW (fe:n.etrc CIl. ~onguer) and::; the fflle fnt,;:rlde (r:~ii'lId:c Li:bJie)p;l

Tall ViUa. S,l'liOl(l can 'be r .. prded! 3S a built manifesto of Ltc Gorbus~l'J':S lJ\\'e I'OlIllS, Ofl;h(~sl,l;, the plan. IJibvc iii 11Iil:Q,ucs"ionably !1l1Ci most imp(lnl!tl~. [Ill die Vina. S:av@jie dllis prillJ;<;iple ~s feflected inJl ~ :~C',fi~ of ~lymn~ pJ3~(ldl Q~ .. gdd with an almos!: 00'thlC elltoo,.

L¢ rOJr 1:IIl;S~f:r ~jd, i'N)we.\I~r, permir Mmselfnilll:or deviaftorrl.!i, :rr!):!TI IJilis gi~i<l 00. a few p0:Lm!'s. The :trrangem.e·t\t nf tliI.e tWIllS andl POS;ilioil!! of tJhe ~'alli~ are free olf it ar times. A 1,IIrQie w'I111, c.l.In:i:r:lg: .treely between !:I'm l':{)luml'l!S !YO tbe gmund! floor J:etll'Ct~ the idea. of the plan liibI:c dl.e stTu:nJJ!!iest. The eleva!'" timlS f'1it~w th<: vma Sa"ure's sdll r'3ir~)' cl<l'S:i(i~;l.l olrdc:[i~rg; diti.'se ooing ina taut b1l,rlillW!'I_::Ji, symmetry and p.r0m>o:rrti:onr. rL,e rQ)ribus~c,r ~.iI[Jlself de~ri,bes sueh a 'w~l as :1 fr,ee fllif~de, 3 no]ln~bea:d;JJg rCk\!'ll.:tlOI1 Itt:m can bcsubdividcdl at: will. Yet here tile divls.i<m ~f t_heI8l.;"ade is nJ:.icil! by the siz!l 01' tihe bay.


R.oun~: 1IIl'ChitectUl'\ille'

BilStd~ Ih.c phtn nb:l\(; Le COfCbuslcr '~!nl)Toys 1l!Mther 1l1ClInS, to o.rga1nl7£ the ,coI11p<i_}"it!IOIJ. of "pilcef1 in the Vi1hl S~woyc. Concern with e:\pt~ri.C:lldn,1!: the design ~hrough movernent.with theruute as WB ha\~~ eneuunrered II !l'\J!c("£'~si.vcIJ' in l':n,gillsh Iram.dscapc urchiteclrne,. (he Parrus Opera, HOllse illIilId Htmta's: own ~oll",();,It'd Lc C)rlrysi:tJ!' !~CQi!1:cci\fe !he rcOutc ilrchi". ~(;ctiU!mlel)lr IJIromr.lUul!t~:rd':llrc!'ljntJ(:,

T'hIicS (;om;eplctops op If! tlliJ:e Villa. S:l'\roy(~ :IS :I r~lItclha!t .indlld!~S:J :f,J1IlP rcachingt'hwlI,gll the rool., n~, ;tl1is, mean!; 11e: emiullc:ipalte-cl1 1Iu,(: e:q}Cr.k:llli~ ~h:rollgJ!J, mOllemcnti:nto n d:isc~rlvc element in tbe ~(l1;l'5I/S CiJ,mpos,i;([(lIl. Bl1i1'C':lliffilig thc route as:m 3utiOflOirlr:lOUS r~~lliemm.(l!lil:t Le O}rbusi,cr s,iclcstJ<:lls the composinio~iII prO'M(lm:s (Df 'IJlrueEn~glisb gaTdl'" whereby ,e,'c:ry nl0d:i:lit"r:ioln in a ,co:rnp'llmcm l!1JJI:ue:n.oes: the ,oom.plliilhm :a~i a whoTe.

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(;.11]' .• "";1)" 1';!~f",m"Hi< "r Muiller ~ I,m""

\1~lb S~,'o}~IC" f.xp1:Ud~d .l"win·~ dMded ~1l1);) ~IX'IW ~.!Id· <tf1;l~~If1('3[1 ~'iliem8



', .... "" "

Of-SIGN I!.~[j ANIU ... YSIS

2.7Unbollnded spnce Sb rrl'!1,t(;hm,I~(' dt;"iig:mld b}7 a ~ .. iJincl-rn;ll::l;r and the wid ow ofa hlW~ e r? !lefore emilJ.rki'f"l g 0'1'1 'til is

The hi!oI'!lr~ of MlJd·~rn archieecture, as\,. i~h tin: it should firs:1 bepointed QuI that

En gl i!ih ~~ln~l;ll. 1m!. ut~ ml n n:;lal~n; IJ'utsuclt::fll \I.·:&lu,

II nh'll1l 1~C'rcJI b} e xeess k~'U)\\ ledge, succeeded iii! bum:hi]]~!llcw dc\·,dopml:ll'l!\. :\mmm.g ~hC5C ean be plal,lcd lin; >Ilf.;hilt:(;!S whu joined forces wil~] painters ~11 the Dc Stij~, J:1.1'O\CIlICIl!. Ollie oftheim- most imp,utant themes \\"1S "the liberatinn of space." rhe reieer i C'11 <If e\ cr> c~m.s:i .. ;:a I '':UIl fine lil~ieJll! of space. The, n;~<\n.!c~l ~Pta(:c no longer as a 1!mil~ bounded b).' \\~JUS h~ua, ,.. uni versal realm, fI<l,g (Jf th:(' universe. ,l\:l:"Chileo:w~e was 110 longcl' informed by the n>C<I!iin~ of space but hcm.;cfi)r~1ig c!'w~ikd the nMrk~~lg our ·of p;-~ri of lh~ uni"el'~1l1 S:P<lCC-

The eendirlons the TH!\\' ;m.:hi.tectureh.ld w

sati!>l~ have bl;;"~~ described b)' "rho;!o \;111 DI~I:!;.hUlT:I!. rhe rheorist '<I[ I)c' Still~, as It,lIo\\'s: "The 111''':\\· archirccturc is a nti -eubi c. t 1m J t is W sa:. h does, nun Il'~; W freeze I he di Il(:,enl: f ~L]] t:t i onals P:l,l:(: cells in {l'l1t !':lo1i~!1 !,:ub,_.. Rather, i~ Ihrul\s rhe fUfl~~i:C}rml SII',U:;'; cells (,ts \H~~I ns the ovcrhmging :1)1.1I1C5 .• balcony

\ ulumes .• etc.] (1l:l1IIr~fugall~. fr'UIn the COre of 111C c~~be. AmJ through tbis means, height, \~ i<itth, depth, illiUI t i me O.C. an j magi nil w}liour"dlill1 ension alen fity) ai~pnmcho:); a w,m]'I,: 1'1(,'\\, plaseie expressionin QlpCli'l spaces, In thillw;]) archirectare acquires a more ur less Il~llt~1'!!!= aspect that. su 10 speak, worb Jg~inl'l the gr~\ i!:uuoIl1lJ~1 fur(\f:s, of nature, "'N

In I:hl,). text \'''1'1 DOt.'llb[ll'Z bl·t.~I.h wlnpmctdy "iill. '1 hI' d;l""i'.:.~1 pr!l1l;!'1f:ol!; "r iI ~Mb-';: ,·"lwIP·!' •. !h·;d<:d i'lu, ~!.'I!:"suifidci)l spaces, Spaces mw.t now into mil: another; Ihe volume (tbl.: b'0';';) in \~h'il,;h ;]~i elements are enclosed must hI;; broken upcm,.

I I.Oft:!. designed his spnees HI (lo"wg<:t her, thou gil in his ease rhe "splice cells" si ( \\ it hilfl ~~1 0\ 1:, .... 11 volume, \'a'rI! I)oc:>burg hoped ~o achieve .01. "t1C\~ pbs!i;;: CXI~l'C!.siOin·· in buildim,g~_ T .ike LD;[)~, he di;;{;In(."Cd hirnsell' f~~)m {lm:\mcm. ~n iDc Slijl ir W~.~ replaccdwjth ar~"I"~tio: r(Jnl1,gi~'.ing: th~! i~ IVhnUy new. One oflhe lin.esl exemples of rhis newarcbirecture is the Sd1l't,dcl" l'~(mse (g'92,),).

In !I'll; 1:,11f1)' H};M)S G~tdt R:~cIHld .. architect and fi.:lluw member (,)f D~ Stiil, for and 1m cuna'bonniu.n wil~~ Truu Schwdct-SdjiIJrlidc.r •. tilt: house that bear~. her ml~m:. Terrnmaeing a iCI'lI'.a·cc, il1Jis 'sirnplc (h~',elling \\'~IS to be of :scnl.lnal innuencc on in'lc:rmnio.llHtll arcln.iwt:nm~1 dist"Oursc' inlhc 'I.:'nSllill:~ Y'c"crn!,W~e~ C!;;lo.:t1y lies [he power of Ihis

f'ree cO!m.pClsi~joil1

b should be dCilli that 3'11 arclutecture stripp .. \tI 'completely 01 all llo'lSSti:"li~ leatures ~~<\S no furtha use ICYr u set .of d;'lssilc:a~ hUll.s to Girder 11lc compesitinn, his pointless se(ll.'chillg the Schrader Ho.1llSC' ~Qr Ill!CS. bays, cnfil::ldc. ~ylU;llllel.:ry and preportional systems, The quesrien, t~eTD, is. how did [(iClv!:MI1I'tlC'~ his d.e!'iCig~? I&-k 1,I;;~d two !~'PC-~ of ml:~..,sm!hi~ end, The fi rst "''l!:~ SCIU,IJj'\cd paper, n sim pie de \I ice resorted I'D by many modem architects, ~,ieweld, however, rlidn't use this gTOll.llt~ m nf~uly arrange tl,1I the ekillM~iiLt~ of the de!'.i:gn n[l a ~t:i:d uf one Ii:U;I\;r,

I:~e trc::ucdi'~ as i he brua desr of litH:!l 011 I }i., nlllu:r ~h;lJl a bask prupottior~~l.l. sysrern. N0I1(:'~hch:!>.<;; if wl~'ll~udy the Schroder i-loLlse ill. plan it I:. no:! j:M diJficnlt 10 roc:onSnlJlCIT this oIH~~me'ii:r grid ..

Th,e I::ompollicion of [lle hm.J;sc' wilho'lilt ~1)::t~~ lincs, gTicl and b;"y ~s v:rIHI.ld fr·ec compU~iligIl, giveTh

neither the architect nur the dil;lil~ h&d 'C:Il~o},c:d a standard architccrueal educi .. tijHI.\7Ii~(;re.a s Leos ami Horta wen: c!(]nsumd~ .. g:rapplillg' v,vii'fu s},mm.!;tr)' and harmony, Rietveld designed the Schnider I~!)usl: fmm 'nh,e perspective of ,] quctidian pnlgmu.U!tism ..

F](IIwirl:g space

The home's patti is infurrncd b~ planes set freely in !ipa:!,"~. h is om du,' upper flhmr dil'lr Riel\ich] and h~s client be~1 succeeded: ill1~r.::a~il~l1g: De Slij~ ide<lsol1 "lOmp~'~i~io!l. Subdivisible w~~h .."Iidill!il' p;Jlld!;, this li"'ing <Ir'(,1! can be conceived as (linc large openzone or Hgw.~TII s: S:P,lCIC, extended into un i vcrs.1I ~ space b); d:rav,\'ing: out the roof pl.l·ne. l~le~\-cld slr<:nglhencd this effect by omirting the mullion of the comer window, so th'l~ when rhe w~mlm\'s of rhe dining area arc opened this corner is entirely free,

Rietvekl's space concept, i~ contrast 10 the s~m:ngl~ centralized gconu:try of rht: Renaissance,

is cCI1'I:1fil.'tig'll. As \\tr. Uot:Slm1fgcli.ffi)I'csses 11 abovc, "The 11C'\\ architecrure ... throws m~t the lin'lCl~.umll space cells. from the core of [fie cube:

V:tn D'lcsiJllrl:l' \\limldlhilHIH .. ed best I:(J have eradicated gr:~yi t) entirel y ,II) thst ,III 'p1",n~s and volumeseould li~eT'l.Uy flO~1 in SP<1l:CC The illusion .or imm1ll:eri~]lit)l is an idea !l1<11: has hauared modem lm::h~teC'iurt: ever since.

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dIe iiJchiti,lcts Iladaccx:pood (he t"'~ttiiit!lng jmlll!i!,cit~c of nl1,(: G\rth.(l!.goD .. I.syst~rn .. R:ieill'!Cld was: I~nother' to i:U[~ to tlh:c :rul!les: of ,comj)Qsit~olil, in painting' to ~'~Il;dle rll.e frec onll1:pos:i.d!){11 :in :ucbitecture.

Tile Beailllrx~Ar[s ac~demies carried du:sc prindplecS ~hr:o:tlgh into o~lr m"n.ce,nlt1iJ:fY" whereupcn ~1'n,C R:u.ssian WJWr:rler' ano:.l &,r \Va8sil~r Kandirulilsikygavl! drucilitlJ a. mntempona'11 slant,

O;n;eW"JY oil' ool:'IJlroll.,ng free cempcsltlen 1£ the; I'i.~~odal Of' "pa.LQterliy c.l'e,,"Cllilil~ru,I:li~g tih.e com.po-sillioJrnJ in line way it pa.ilil~c;, wouM d,Y!, Itis a ql.lfsti.on. 'of th(l I'~a}l (li( Ilni':~1 ;:Ind dis:tln.ot~OJi!-t(lo ~lt<!n~1 s:.Lmi~arlt:ies lb\M:weeJ:tLh!:. elem~l~ts ~r Iilwc. OOrnp!J!Sili'!)![1 ~el1idl to llack gf darity, liDO. >lJhl!Jlty dj_!ltinClt~:(mti to C:hAOS. Wh<ll i,s needed is; an empiidc;)l pr()ce~s: ~() strrkCI~~ right ibill~altce, w:idll darit!)I"tfJuifm and ,I)II:I/lmil:~ I~C k~y '~O!:l~!liPf$,. Th,,~~ i;:~rrmS are s,tir~ ~t${;:d in d~sign 'cd!l;C<ltifJtl, today.

narirty in this oo.ntex.t :is pitted~!;a,i."~~t lack oOf cGlarIty wnd ,cJn[os, The woril t~nliion e.:xp:resses tile dk\gree W whichthe d,t'sign stilltlillDal~eslhc ~mll(gi!n_alinn, and is t.!he IJpposit'C of ~cdiium.We come' at:rosS1 iihisCUJiu,:eprin ,;he la:sbKand'ins.k:yscl hi" Sll.IdlcftlltJl at the Halllba!lI~1.

Kamdlfumsik:jl instruc.ted meJ1l!1I ro l11IiIIlilc analyrnl'al dnwi!')Jg(; 'of ~cln":Hr~. The stucll,tl:)[S I,wgtlJi! by dnrwIn;gia! ffiudl.-r()dutlejJ )I~.ndition ~f lih!). siibj~r, By d:rawimlg No-c:illed. "line,s .of t.cns:ion" (if.!) a. second byer ,of l'fadn;g pu:per,lihey OQuld then make their miI!CJ:pfilMat!OlilJ of~hti P~oJ~c~. The~lif!es Wl,lre flO 'r1cjpresent tine te;nsion. between ~hc opposing' dements in. the 'COmpo;!iilion.~~ Dynamics is 3. 00ncept we <tneount£rud earlierin (ll)nnttiion with [IbiS BlIfii)qUG. It is meant to Gxpressa suggestion of mOl'(lmllntam1:d chao,gtl. In mode1'[1 arehiteeture, and! t~il,t .of ~ and OJntitruct,1vism in :pa'nicular'" ir designates: Iii mod!c jjf' f~rm,gi!i_i~o,g that is not ffilamlOn~oUl~ in '(ibIS d~ssicarl sease, :m a'rc.hitectlue rhat wants tJn e:-;:press tim!);, 1'1) 'Ihlsend if ml<! .. b!)s I[t~jl: 'of 'f!.:.·u~rnepfo.. :pO:rti~fiS afid lTI!om;-l'Gc~t"i!!!ptru[i,!'co!'n(lrs. Axymm~~~'rr and II sense of floating are m'he:r fa,voTed. themes for e:l::pl'lls!!;ing 110cde:fatiO!ll a,l1Id time.

Light, ail' and SPrilJU;

Tihu preoe,di:t!g .sG<;~t.i~QS of t~is chaplter migblgi'il'£ 'I'ffit~ imprcssf.o:n. that €lrder,u1:d comlIDsi~[on~lre txltlush'ely the domain. (ill" tllleli;!.~ prh11lte hnuse, T~js is, not $0, of oourse,. Though rheheuse has irru rn;l;~y C"aS(lS !i~v(;\d~s .il! "labor.Jw:ry of fOiiim, "~b~

new d.'cvdoP:IiIlCilll'~ :ilfID o.-cler iUTIld."ompositio:1lI of It:lilc design have il1l Il!O\\'3:y heen I1t~tl'.i(,tm:l tJO this ibui.l.ding· [live .. There hlJ:¥'C occm, shi.Cts at: a 111 r~rh:'ln !.h:slgn. k\lel. t~,. 'i>S we s!lJ!~lllj sec ...

At the end .of t:h<.l IlJEnGIGll:ln! in the roe~l1Jming ,of [his une, '('lui!) Wn('ilp~: of ~1iJ,(l elassie (,"i.ty crime under L11lc.~ca~:ng tllmek. 'file Jl'prunllg' Living' condirions in the smtlln:)s Qlf l'ffin;cl:arg~!lin~l\'{:nth~ntlif.:r i~,dY~!'fia.1 m;l);tffipo:liscs \\!I)f;tj d1!) main ('a!lSI): of tihJils criticism.

Pr~g,rcsshfe~~enh:eetcswh(io joined fur(;tl;i!in 19,2B, if)! U~.~ C~n!Wl}s ]m:(lwn!!tion;1!~i': ~'Awchil(;lC(:!l.!'1). ModJell'lle {CIi\Mi)1 .solllght ~iU:W (iI.rdeifi'.i.ll;g m.otld.!i for ~Ile city" modle:ls th:a!~'ouJd plrovide .lil:'!:ll11i" air ai(i~d! sp"J.~!);. 'Jh~lr id,(li!~ dG!fiv~d on !h<: O~G hand f~()m Do Sti.jl'il In!ot[Of!!i· l)bQ~t SPOlO(l" "fild fi~ the I]!thl);f flrQJ;1t !!nc p[!'incipJc!! of ~rg3:!TI!iz;i~!; S[J<ilCC in the wo"k .nflalys:is condllllctccl by ~lliJ,e A:fitl!e.ri.c~l!tiU cF.'1iV'. Taylor,

1:'lfuie dty blnck, IIke~fu:e C'Oll!ll:i:mcd space, needled 0iPllLTiing up. Onoe the: pc.rimet1e1" block lud bt.'C11 Iilmli;cn €Ipcn, the urban tallnic fra.gmcmed imo drilscr",te 0b~c:c(s, ILool::cd oU this W';ly,llne: dtj' ce<1soo being .~ sy.stem of 8p:rI.(i~S: ghlln[!; shape W {ibc city oocame a question ,of orgalli"Jng' @blccls.

Tile; rhydlm o:fre;pl:lddofi

Gfi!;\ of til;(l most pl\~)t'Utlrpiclil (lx1lmpl.i;\,s ~f thj8 dlclle1opnI1,cn:! is. t!he SieJhmg 'WcsthauNcn, built oo(w(".!)n J9~9 ;Ind~9'3!" This fraltn!tfur' S!l'bUr:ib foti!lrn;cdi iJilift ~f ·ilttwmbld<!)li8 c:,XWI'!!i!Ofi ~I() Il.1atc,ky mastermindedi by !'be city arcJrnilJaai E'rnSlt Ma:y. This extensien scheme was itself 3. com~mcnt {II i'he S{){;ia~ nOl!lising ~periliJilClilits berung earrieduut rum, FilCill1~kifuri: p.riol1w 1['9303" Jlt i~rnt(l time of th& soclald(\m~~){;l<IticWe~milr RG:,Public,

The die sign ~u['Wcsduuslln was m~d!c' by May in ,co'llaliffirattOfill with tbe iir'\:lliioc~ H. BocltLtn .. As diig.. tinct to the free ,co:nll~positi~m of De Sr:ijl, t:ilC 'l\lylor (lfgaOiZ'adQlIl mod(-:] fl.i!lt;li~ns OlS <l l'ill11: :)r,!)hillc(lI~!"J.1 8}1src;m. I~ Wcsdi.!!t!!O~m: 1ifl! :i.n1!]l'~!s of the bous.moM work p.rO'\IWd,edl the sp'rru;J,gboa:rd. from whicb tG ,e~aJOO., rate a s.!'a.ndia'l'd d ...... elling in. :III its details, Taking !:he themes of light" iI~irand spa~" M<l!)' and 130chm de\'e~oped an icle31 h",",USCI}lpe:, pla.d:n:giit il1.01i,1iTI1 ideal l,tyoot type so [halt rhe hQ'U:fi.tlg' blocks st:t'!o!:-x1 fr'll.{t 1m, "(;osmic'" .space. A 1!I'I,cordJc~lly en.dI~e."s rc'petitiolill of this layolllUl: type ~Il,em. produces a :s'treet:" Il,eigibroor~ h.ood". distrffiot ami SbillIng. The measurements, dici';I:ood byCi.!W!i(:iiomtl !l~l).(.!s" fix ~hll dl'5hlnC(:.~. be-

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S9 [W~e"1'! bloch. H~!tC "r(~po]'ti(),!'! mi!k~~ lvay foi' an efficienl s},stc:nn of the d:imcnsions accordiil!lJg to lise"

A new aesrhetic ID:11!d emerged, dte aC5ttlle~ic (JIf [lil:f.Jc'hO!Ellt"l produ.crj~I!. Hallmsuks of 'l~ru61!l)sthe:!k~ ar,e repcdcioo; rilyrhm and I~,e employment of m!~\l'eFial rha'! is abnracr and m~ill!J!li,ctl~ in ;a,p'pc'tl:ra,nCf:.

Whofver~risit:s ""lestbausc]]j will see that it is raoee than the Tayl!Jri7.ed expression .of ,In idle .. l, Though <lilt units ilJl'e o[rgalli.ze:di i 1'1 raws, the[iaill sector I~ as been. ,e~e"i1,te.d abeee ilu'St !-i~~ilUJg ilU! a line grid wi@' Mocks thfOllgll ~he !1Ppl~C!lltiorJJ of oorit!lilili !1op:hist.ieaood resuurees,

Dr buildiing: up tbe blocks, 9:s.ymluetric:aJly" NLa)' C,!'C1IlcS small disc~[Xlnd~s between ~hem" This is :1 ga,me'p;l:Jyeilwith mirrQ]' i!ll:il:~es:, :a~d g~~upiiligs in odd orC,ICU numbers. I-!:e ~elrmim:l~es the Sied.l,ung: '\'I':irlh ht~~er blocks ef pmdlJ"":3lcccssed £1 ats, J\no1ller faetnr is that 'Westtbuuse:1ii stands on agently s.IGlp:iIlg' site. The ll'UIttcrfe1'ooce between the grId of ww hOl.lsing and ~fueincline;s in t he si~e is a fllllithe:r enricihm.ent of thescheme.

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Cnmpl)s.i-ril'ln of objects

Beyoillid ". small '~lPei!j'M<1!d of !!fefuilj(le~s ~nd phmners the: aesthetic of re;peni~ilon (:tIiled to nutle a:ny real he3.dwllY. One of du: imteresting: res:pOII'ISeS, to the mOllotony ef the new housing an:h:itec!'tI1J'e is und01Llbrn:ed1y tth:u of the: f'rel1,d~. llrchhect E!m.ile AiJlalid. Ff;(l~~!iJe 19,5010 0]'1, Ailhl'lld desl:gn,ed several rc.sidential a:r~1l1Silil the l)erij)l'u:m-1' 'of Jl:).ris,sl.lch as I?llliltin. {1~155-!IJ6o}"

Fo]!ow~l1lg il'nl [~le Itl'llldiliol"Ul of tlliIDe modem o,enl tOW bous-in..g: yet <1!"Cf8C to the I'rincip]~ of Taylor, AilLauil de~i,,'Il1l~d P~iltin as <icomp(1l5i~i.on. ·of Qbjeots placed freely iWJ space, The; result i:s 3. !>I.~,:r of lig-ht and shadow, pllial'llting land visras,

The m.ealll~, Ailhud resorted 'lt1'\'I'!J:1'"C 111:11 irod to two types G'f ~bJ eel: pon Ih:-atlce-S~t'd flats and :Io\\'c:rs. The ,orch flats are j~ MDm divided irl~l) rwu t)lPCS of la :rout: rectangular b IGcks Set 'tOi!,"Cllmer rum l' and ~eW!dy b:illoil\lilWg' ('l(}l1fig;!IratiIHlS wlm~cl can. be 'SIit'ung together illl II long dell<lt~ollJ; dli:5 I:n~e:r ~YPI: is characteristic of Ai]]a~d. Tilis SOrUr1alln ill fOllll1ld in v,ery of litis S[1i1.e1J1JleS in ever varyin g ,comirgur:uiol'ts, ol'feril1;gal:t Uil:llimlted :!'ange of forms.

Aillilltid took ~1li~8-(l ~llreel)lc~e]'!~-~owerll., roclt~liI;gular and curved M~cb (If Pn)fctHtCCCSl'Oedl fla~,-al1d \I'orkcd them imo iI virtueso{IIsitioa, Pantin s~al:lJds whe:re two r01!d~ f~Jrk, widll (i(n¢

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hnt<! \~.,\' "",I ~ I J,,,,,llm, I'J~iIl <;IF 1,1 ~",'h",""",.~ f<L~id_"mi,IL"'_""I't.t .• · rt'l!Il'~furj. tftt~ IU.1'

prun:g J;]lit'ilng: Ih[L~I;I'il:hhS, lilf!!t.C _g:feen Sp:J!C.I:. ,\ d",-,atio~ stringing 'wgcther the ~mlC).wing perchI!(;~t:~(i.l blocks d~'~l~,es· tlli: mai~l sh~ll'-i: of ~111f ~lrem., ~r.hi:~ l",all ~n"i r;.']~", u hi r&:,c eem t",~.1 (:x~~,ns(; !~f b'l~i:~ nf ''i~ng.u ~1I:' c~1:n a m"lcr ,o::o:RI:sisting ;l!!;i 1.t dces. o r ,. '.g'cnlly m,lli1vg bw]'J, and '~~lfe1!'edf;;r~~rolt)~, of trees, The l,otal pr:;.m:ur sehoul is !>'iITuat~d iWfC!ol!('" The

lu Ivers !It;fnd 'Iil(jrl~fur ~n tI HI1[1l"1i (If thii~ pl'i nci pa I ,el!;m4tIl'L Final\:!" ~hmi: 1'0 a ~q.I'l'lW0 flK housing 111lt! sh[lp~ "R')!i.g thei !lE;~IFS.I,;(,"litJg !fiflutc,


'{'h~ IIJ.)i'()~t ufPili1I<tin j,,\,)1 iypk':lJ.l: j::~:I~l:\~ik, ~Ir ,t frl:!'·<;;form oomposhi,on, 'iVhe,~,ea5, [he I:icc amllfm.M tms of Do; Srl,jl were s:tiH~,cstr±ckd h)' Ihcrighi angle,

.'\ i 11<1 uti dmp~ the t\rtht~gu~~i ~{)1~tl0nc:nti'ji.flI~_ P:mrio"!'i compl1!J,i[]fj~l ~q:,: mueh of Mutts.!!!:'s h)yfltli l:nU:a~~_~ or "D'ecClup~~." M,<!iti~$(' patlll",")dlb(: o.;1)m· pt~r1~nt>' of 'h~lii' <,1(IIIi:1'I>'I3~' him::;," 1f" CliM them 'out.' and ~~mlbkd t'hcn~ iinto' t~~ oomptJs,iti!!l1l hl: '''\1(>

Ii mii!,l~i li:ke: wi!lt· l~~~)d IlCCf,; ]]1 s ~}"'" n :8oIIJg~ mnrcri al: he desjgn~ed his QW1l types, hi~ loW~rS a;!~cl cut;'l[;,;d ~~nd stmi,g:in Moc:~, W\1JiJI! t;H:r~' mi(! of ~r:-1 chlmCm~ is hilBed O:nl;i h"tJ[J;,tili;tC'!!'~l:'vrd<:(, !hl: c~m];ro~idon ~5 ,11 \,\"hrne qtn unly be lIti;dtrt!lb,wd :IS ,~ rn;c-rm'lI'!~ CtJ-lfag« wlmse ilI"J'M'l.g'!enlCAr. O;t1l.CC aft.un l~i'~~,l;ll' rheprin-

,d pJ(i-S .-of pict0ri ai !,';(J111po~ltiQn: :I't\d N,') ~'Y:li n'~ifl.!:!.

h i.~ tem~p'!i]~1l' ~,t! r~ld{!:c' d\c"''CIIrI~)~~sid,im L~r.~:n u:r~,l'm t:il~~mblc rlf this .size: In plalJi, ih:aJ is, f[t'.llfl~ abuve. TI\~ user, 11Qwc,Vcr, will Cllipe(ie:~u:;e t'h!: ,dis[ri.::,. prin,atHy ,i~ gr<.Yrid k"cL This mesnsthar if such 11. f rCI: ICOIiip.osi.timl i:-;w In: ll' fur fi\~im:~km fUl'J~~ri(JI'Iing, III win n~ed tl!!lf1ll1~(j,.'S ~li:t,u q~blCJ cunstil:iJt ch~d;;1~lg.n !J1'o:~n:(Ile\!.(::L ln [[fu:1: ,,~ght(lltl1dl~~:rnUU~J' they used pa.irl'lJl' [ell' l his PW'PI1~C;J> lm.,cJ,' tlhc:[I 11l('~de11> 1111 ,J rh:re~"diITlrns,i(Jillll Cl;lmputl):f !littilul:;lIimi:S h"l'e h~C1~ !Iddcd HI the rep~~~±r:e,

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I~rnilll ;Mllil'!i1" p~1i "fPa'itIl:l1ll ,<SijJcllual ~1ll1~ ij<;;' (: ?e}t"'f. ftt)~fiat'P"i. r~1~~1j~fW -~rk au or

nt!!J;!' !'~ns, i'~i5-1960 'J9:O:;;; 1\141

2.8 Giving shape to the indeterminate

I~~ the IJu!.ing' det",tlle~, (If the twentieth rCrltllr} there iii OrL!.:C '1g:'li n ,I rad ical sh i ft :i 11 i 11~'lS ~ nd \'3.1 u es,

ufh;n termed P:",;lIrrr",l"ruI.nu_ L I1illilke: uther "h;11Ih," !'nslflWth.Tn i;..m isnWI tI wor I II \ i'':'1 ,

The \\ IJn~ p~hn:lril~ refers til a !<~si,cm (If altered eund i lions:'" H en ce I h e rt' i;. n u "rH)o,slInod ernarc h~t"et!lr('" a~ -uch, hm archnccruee created under rm" ~ m(ll~l'rtl cund ~ l j. )'Ili~.

.:\ m ~Iii~ i hl:l>l~ conditions art' certai 11 soda la n rl cult ural phcn orne l'I:Ji)(.:~mi.g~.Il g III I he ~c{![lIldh;ulf uf this WITIUl'J. 0[1(; such iJh~n'[)mcnu!1! is ~li",~\!sM,::d under "Ill .. pOM\\:arpcuiod" in Chapter J- Anot1hc1i

i ~ ! he seeping t"~~~ uf! Ill" ~n'''"JI i tl!.:il logic"., Th e d~miM; of the m .. jor "is~m;" h;),~ hwu.ghl nil'hi it 'till increasing ':Ilishduef inthe existence uf nsinglc rruch, The !i!~,m:;h tllr OIlJl' truth .h'lJ~ gi\,.:n \\<t~ W the lr,t'<l~,~z;nilm ,lUI. n:;~~ut) l"lHi h~inM:[pt<::led in lii:lrt.1 thtT,,:n:nt \I a ~", ,\:> c\ press .. -(I 11: a mulr i form sut~ile~},., (, :0'(1 i: lHir~n,[ \\ irh Iht dc,cOl} 0 f t he major "isms" i,s, '~h, Ui,ul ion t h.1I l~t: t~ pen fiI1I at]!.!.:'1 is th I;; Ilea!>t Unt: nisi \' e uf '~~li~ rrrll!~ Mllu~iuns fur n:!;:ulm.il1g secierv.

~n ~'\Ir .J'l~. dl;~ign tasks ~\n; on C\'~r more complex r'~nlfl~ and pmg!";Inls, are hc>[mm~ng more l'il:j,('m:'~nd indeterminaee. l·mgl" in the sense of Il'redic:tions ,\Imm~he limm: use of a buil u hn~ seem IU belosing their ';I~U!:, I:':,\,el') no[~on ·of~. single ! ;1I'I::h i,t,:c~lIm] l» ~;II~m seemstu repel, mHI Ikxi·'biW~'. m~~lti~imnil:\ and s!ral~l!:\ ~U\C become the I.e~ \\ urds, AliI Mlk,. all archircetural means 10 d;]'!c. all forms :In:: there for Ihe 100kurng. Speeel, mutahilirv, hilj!:h-spccdcm'lgrs ~lnd high-'~rt:rd dn~srminll~nnl1 or i!'!I~'rm"~n~"n ,~irru!~m\: I;'~\: ;i\~· a .rI,;!1II;~S ;u111 set tVd'l)·'~ sl~ml:mb,

'Irlle' issue IlCO\\ i~ hOI, and \\ ith whM means can rmm be ~i\·'.:n In Ih~s unpredietuhle world: how can \\'1: !'lin: ~1h'lPC W 1~~J; i;1(i.t;'t<:l'!n1irmtc;' T~lC sheer elan gCllcr:;uctl h~ rhls qU':S:1 recalls the urge fo'r innovalim~ inthe ~\\'I;nti~,_

All 'ill':r'lngCnil~n~ in b:ill~:r.,;

In i I);'!J, Pan-is wilnrssrd a eomperition II1l'lt kept many m i~~ lis m work f~)I' tl Ion ~ ri i'I'lo.;. A. .. 1»11"1 of ~h c SO-I:;I ~ ~c,J "',lira rid ll>miO:"bl, ", :Pa r~s \\ as anmH:(~wb'l) Ollil~1. l: il~ rm rk ., for '~h ~ ~'\ em ~} ~:r~;c1il1 ur~:' 'rlle s,iil' ..:ho;;cn \1';'1<; Ol forma <,la.u13htc:rhlJl ~L~.e !>d :l.g~.i nSI

an {Iuti}-iJ1g "'LI'pc'~hig~\\:,]y on 111(;;l. J·CI'l V~~~.eite.

The pmgrnm, as pruvucatjve as il was '.'Ig~c. called fm-ct whole sequence ,~)f urban :I.{::tidl~t~s including a museum, amusic conservatory, JJIlIMC'mllS ftlcillities lIn sports llndg;:lnlC:s" theme gardens, (astronom ical, 1l1et("\(m)!og~t.]], (,'I!:), amusement centers ,p]I~~yi~1 g ~] elds and ;1 space lor open-ai I' O'JIII;Crl's. Briefl}, the program covered all inner cit)" act ~ viries t heh ousin g O;:Q'l1!~ ponent be~n g I'",·d by gnrd;:;ns <l~d p(~rM;)nld,

T'he firsr rri?c \V-~, W,lll b} till; Swiss-born arclsirecr Bernard Tscbumi, His park design c~n be trgr~I'(]{)cl :II; n num her uf prj nciples discussedabove, sraeked icrl. layers, BdID~in:g the pm.!mU!J~~tn eondition, 'fsc;1,um; hasar his d;gposal design resources engendered by rbree ~h(,usilnd years o:f Wl:sll':'rn architecture. Rather t1in,t1.11 degenerating :~Ih so many of his comemporaries inro 11 Ms!o'ricizin.g use !if ~rLhit,elIUn'l~ clemcets, Tschumi lk:pltl)'lO merelv rhe desig~l tools arlAI 5\Y:'I'':IllS o'f b!,g,~j'I'IC ems, The Iascinari rig thi ngahour LJ. Villette is th ;It it brmgs rcgether the disciplines of ;I.rc;bitoc{U~c, Illr'hllll design ~U1(] landscape architecture.

To beable 10 handle the j,ndeICn'illil'liiC\l ~\S well as the ,cumplcxit~ !.If the pro~1t' .. m lind 111.(: eomfll!pl.ica~('d SiH:, Tsehumi invested ~'lis '''TFk de$,i~r1 with several system" al"ran~d in i~}",el's. ElIch system has its uwn pa 1'1 HI pl~y ill the dc!r~gra_

The hlr:g'C open spaces forr phlyingllcl:ds ~~nd upenair concerts Tl>t:humi expresse» in u t::ml1pn,ut~un uf "S~u1frace~'" This layer ;llsf) dd'Un('s l~(; :1I:~mllld p~"n~ forEhe hlrgel: ni:!j.ecis, ~~ld'n as the science museum and the auditorium.

A second layer 'COcrlSUSI!i nl"~inc<" eennecting ~i!],~s and limc<111' elemems such as rows (If trees as \\,,,-;1 ~ :1S routes, The most s igm ificant (JOin ponenr ,of ~hi!. hlyer is, a meandering route e)lh~llldil1g tlwough ~hr; park and b~'ari~g simiihl1'il~CS to the I.'outing system of El'u:lish picturesque p~,I'ks.l'hi!> is, undeubredly its prime source or inspiration" \vi'~h the I)i~e ~,hif;(o'rem:e that 1h(:I''I: is nQ n.unltl\'C demerit attached til i I.

S!,;(lll"m;1;_~ or if]] ~ gery ill ustrated hy perspeet i ve design sketches do :sug:(.!!:~t, however, thar this route \\:(15 p~annet~ as 11 cinC'lfmtogrnpllilk (f'ilmil;) sel'ie~ of ImLlges,_

Tu iH:.'ComtiTIudall: the 'l'ounl~:es~ m~mu eumpo-' lI1iCl11:S of ~fiJ.e p,]rk program sueh :!:~ ki(~sb" vidl;u

Material protegido por derechos de autor


pavllions, In.f;o:rmatiJO:n ,cemc]',s and ac~ild day center 63

Tschwni e]"oornted as(lql,!ence (If small brIgh[ red! bl.lliM~ii:gs\¥hie:b. he ciJJs forlie8" The !'d(i~!1(le I~O El'lI.g~iISh landscape gardlemJiswouJ,d nowseem to be ,oo:mpl.ete. VarioU's explan:rtn:ry ~&X~5p'ro"jde 61!ll':llher ,e:vid!einlcethat Tschami's pr,ima!l'Y poi!At 11)1" dcpariU:urB lin projM;dn:g eh(l romiltg SYi'~em and vislIally pictorial system ef follies andmws of trees '011:10' the ,c~jscl:ng: shulti,o:n ~s the: composiitltlJ:lal t(l!:ih!ltiqt!es ,of idle E.1lg:1ishl:alldscapegarocnP 19IGwcver, ~o avoid! lilu~ oompleNity (]If pietJLiK>&ql!lii

- ~he pro,g,fam W0l5 ,,,I~dy ,eomp1icaood enl)u;g:1:uhe diiSOO:DllIle>clted me dlifllere:ttI sysoc-ms omd ~<1!itl I'-b,~m ~oQ~I)' (ll'ruC above ~he other,

From ~~at mllimen~ ~~,e park's compOSrt1.Oin seem,Ed (jl1lllte simp:~e. R(JI'Utiilllg 8ys~em in ~ht:5 "limes" ~:lI)'cr, lalll"ge Spa(lES ~Iil du: "su r:£~CC8" layer andisol tilted! o\)jeCi~$ in the "poin ts" la.yer, eaeh h:liS ::li s]'s$em of i~s: own. Su:pel'~trJPQ!Oing the ~h:rl;e l<!iy~~wQu.ld co!lljlllre dlC whole.

With tlui.iS a.ctof disOOlmecti.oni:ll~o layers, ~OW~ e:~r, T~chmmin.l)~ only ~Mesrel1l'ped. th.epmlblJl!nt raised by pti.ctmresqme composlrional tedtniqllfes, b!!t

lost ~QllJltro·.1 of the desip instrumems needled 10

Qrga[1[lZC the park Tschmnl. had m] himself about tlue SIlCC~S of [his oper~tilQn ~md endowed one of tlue~hroe layers. that ,eomrainingme: fuIli(!:S, wi'l.l1i a s~[;ial p1wperty. By pbcil1lg the femes at 1)~e ilnevsectiens 'of <11. grid this la.j1er took Oil a structurally determinative function while ser¥~l1g <18 ori,(lttiataOfl sY$;r;em for thOSI';u£mng [be p~d:..

The ·do:mit:liifi~ w~Jle Tscbumi i!oco!"ds ~o dle ~ mEtric system imm,cdjat~J;y br~ti;gs to mi~d dl~ Renaissance g;lrd~l"I. As in the Vil]i! .Medici where thegrid HllJb the g~l]1den 00 the house, here Ute grid of fo:.lliesis designed to relate the pilll"k ro ~ile WWmII bCY()iIi~.

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B~I1!I<l1J'd T5l:'ln'~.n:,i, Qi!oSi~n o!.rn"rii"lJ: MI"'t<; d"i:IJ Vill.It",. I ~J,. 1'0 ,,1iLilW Itho; COilo"pi or t1is &,gig"

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,'\ (;!JrtlpatJolc p'J~tml)dt."r11 dl\'>li~1'I <ItniHide ean be

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l'](!milmr~ fmm reeem ~n:.hil~CII.ll";d h.iSInr'~·. Th~!W(;

m'l:; n,~JI dil:~ .. ·1 ~.t~ot(."~ lnit, ·a~ i 11 ',I);~htlIlli'!i design .•

relate I() the \dchJiit~g of design instruments uJ

i.l i m::rin g 1'l'i1!i n, L\ ba.'lj,c bnnwlcdge- ~lf f<':C.C'11 r ;tn::hit~i.:t\.n';JI hi .. rtlfY is cmwgm ru ir'l!\'C1~~ tllmrnln.:r IJf fJrilil,dl}II!);-E~MJ. "plan libre." the free lacade with ·'ft:niftn: ~~l l"n~ij;Jr," Ihl.l·(Jl'iSpl~' m"d:!.:red gl~7jng ~'~i'niIli;'c,':TlJ ~Ir ;\O~ie~, n:lw d~nial of gr'I,\;iJ~ J(:r.i"i:.Li frml:l' n~ Slijl and .~ L(m~illn 1I1111t\n~r Hr ~I'nghl~ Rc~ujin~ this pn~~')l'lbJ~ eunjures 'LIIP visiunls ui' ~n ,~n:hill:cmf~1 t: .. ~hjjg. ff~~l1gh this l>f:ats~tuk (('scItth~~I.i'!":1: It) I hi: ~(.'it !.I~I S,iil'l~(i em,

A~ T1>o.;htmtl u~ed _, grWIG ~cm::J1"n lJi1e cornpesi-

I i.!m UI ~lif,< enrire p~}rk design, so Keel h~lilSO nlHs felt <;(Hldl1g. ;I[!~, in1;ITILIIIi!C[I! :;;)on'(:'r (J".j:l\'t~!;:d in a lm:q1- pi~nninj1: '~-=h._:nl~ .h;tn in ;1 villa ~ic~hnl,Vi' il\.v('!hm!ll ~l!lIfac.nCl>. ["hI: Ioll':ll"ling- 1:1,1 .:lrt'J.H~jn~ rne entire cGmplc:;,: 'OHlIl[HJ.~·hi:';H i,nl'" three srrips rUllflill§ h:ngi.h"'·l~l['. al"m1O!:l rhc shl.'. T~H' eemral :-:UilIe ls fiUn~1t:r ~Ihttd,ctl il~,i!) Ihr,t:I::..MJlb/.nnl.t~. 3tric,' !;¢plIlr.;!.do:m :lmC)Ii~ tilt. ~uC1lo 'lS;tu~li;Oxcr""d h 5 .1 gt'C,H dCi>-.igtl frf§t:dnl'li] \1" t~ Il ~ n c;f~·h. ZC~l:~!ll~, then, is Inc: klL'1i1 rndl:ri!:1i uf g,r'''''i~tl'

~,hh pc hi ! he -j·n:dt:'1I;;.rm inare .. Sell I'll g nut "he com pnSifi{J:n'I\I.'i~h Ih~: 'li!.i '.If h~lts Of 7!OIl~is !It'thimg JM~W" The j.'01mdiliioll fi:lt .-h,(;I1~tt'lGillh\1 RCSoC1Ht4.'li (;SA'Iii) ~!La .t:!r.-:"d}' J~C\ d[J~II;j,1 ,cr)nil!'l!:l p~i m:ipl~"~~il I~ ~ ,;iKt'C-'I .Hll~ "<!\.c.,,liii.'~. P"ird~ ,~,; ~.It,,::,'-w:ll, i':u1iJin'i;" b .. ,~:atlilt <1ppl.itt.l: hl ,~dJ;em(."_'i! r-e>qll.iril1g 1kX'i"biii~y (illring. rhe 'd,;xigJ1 ~t:..t:;i?\ a;~ iflJ orb<l]1 plan s and designs: to.r t~r!te Ill! ikl i~l~~" tn II uenciC\1 h) rhe n()(rr-:~)·..:fl (\Ijf divi~tlm Ill' lim t:1 i',mo; .~~ ~!,mC' N.c,\ Yllr], ~ky~~tllper> (n9lflhb 'th>: I>!j\\flli)'''.n :\lilJelil" Cluh) fin th\'"' uD.\? b,nl~da,,]d the laYUl.H of Dm:dl puMe]'!>- U])f; ,ribbons of

bmd mol.t! '\1 ~~n;r un rhe ur,h~r, K'I~U~.hiJ,;l.~ h:J:; n.;inl_t:r-

:pnd!-'(i Ihl' wirnin,g ~n.::..rn.JmeJ1L '" lie licFst f~Ortl..-i~ m

~! in ]m d.;·~-~y,:m I'~JI' tbe IJ~pl.e·m r'fl:sJdet:tti.3! are a i):l

AT]~,<ij-t i'(l:!m N nrj h (I ~Yl J- i IJi'lH). l'ilI h i:s nM, Ii. (IAlce's

.. ubmt~i~Ul It! Ime t<l Villt'~tcl:onir(lt~.'l'i(;ln 'nllis means

(.'\'1;'0 inlirrrm:i1lh!:cmi!1e d~!\J[!:11. liMA'S pfOpq~jll

di\ idl;:~ tho.;_ ,~o~np.lcu: pl;;llllli][J.g !I'r-C,<i1 into UP,>!~I~l;l1

strips, Thk~\";il.y Koolkm" bmpttd m givCc NIl(!p~ lu _.

i1'1.di!;t~m:a pru!_!;li':lm without mjl.~ing ',.:um:n.:lC \;t'1t:C-'

m:t:lil!; anOUI h,),\~ the ~~heme WlIl~ t,~ be ilC'fihed out,

ln pr!ncipk. 0;",1.\ \ em.rr CQI".J<is£.,>; of I\:~~i an la-

,;eriptioll on ehe j,\rtlLmd, ~l~les ro hep rt1.~ction5

MarellJt pro UigldCJ par ~i!!1"0ch0S Ul aumr ~'''1 j<;;.;i,!Ii!lil.l"" \'\11 ... <ll!:~r,'1.~:t. ~,H'~~, l'm'l

O;!tl)ER ",NO G()M:[>O,(;Il'lQ:N'

apar:t., Every znlle': has iss flwmr i~llin: remltis.· oonr~ 65

bes.idre.s ~ str~.po,f·¢Qrn .fi:ew.s,! a :sb:ii,p oont3illJ~:n.!!; mod!e,lsofpl:;l:nelS, .t1nd;3irliotFH:r a chlllidr·cn'!i-

z"O(l. 1\ ",1lm.kbread!hwisll aeress I'l'lC Slt.ips .wo1JJldbe eX,llJr:ient1"lld:JB ·imra~ .. ~pUi;:ed ~oge~ll!<l' ~a .:ll :1l1m

- fiJm m£i:rnta,~~ as" 8. sp~n:.e.;ol1gm.iz:ir:ig plJi~n@ple • .!'J!

Using li"lJst:rumen~scli;l~~~y c3I1ig¢! !:GmJ~~dQ~ !jueh as zomin:g~! 1t!(l\1l;t\l~ ~!ld .tl!~..n~, f!lll!;;e"s th~ 'q.'Ii!¢Slio.ll of wietbe[" "these I..'an. Iii:c oounb:damt\ftgin.5"U'cr:meJi"ts f"Q!r re~l!lA:ilng sp:;J1J;!.1 (;QmpOSmp'n~, or wh"~theli th.(l:)' ate USB-retaiL""!' woh .. We ~MU tetUl'fi to' t1..ese :stII:F Jeers til the foll!iJw~ng{h:iptel'.

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Rl!ml(.,utharus, rulll~i.timi dwilf!l fiJr Pl!f~ 0;1" !~"{;Item~> T':il!liS.1983

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'.i'~ Mmem]f pr0l8QidCJ par oerechos {JL: autnr

3,.m Introduction

[)F.SI('N i\:-'~D' iI:>fAI.!{SIS 70

The prc'c{.'din!!(' chapter l;;;, ;u various \\';l)'S of nrcl.~rin~ material, dCS-'l'dhing matter <lml space

b,':grd y i 11 absl ract terms. I I discussed how, since t hie ei ~h teent h t::~~~ I u:r~' l:i~'~f3 rv, n arrnri ve themes and dn: 11cn,1cptiol1i {~r SIY,N;C have b~.x~~lmc ~.h;tt;'rtiJlini]1g 1]1,-' tluenees on the develnpmcntof archhccturc. This aarrarive elemern bridges the ~ap between hunran perceptions arnl ;l!.:tiun~,

',n:1 j~, chapt e r e ,.;]mitH:~ the n.:I:rlimuhip bel ween use of [iw b t~~tl c:nd,n:Jnm enr ami • he act ual SP':l!Ce, III rhe ("IJIltCliI: of Ihis [mul we shall fut:m; on how :mr~ltl, conventions and Je'ffiill1ds gcnerateel by the '!IL~t; !If ,1 llUlllllliJg ur ill ci t y are evenruallytranslared inw ~m .m.:hil;<"L;tl,lr,)l b[llJ;U1.agc.

John Summerson has described the relatjun between hurnanacrivity and buil~~i1ilg, ".~ fi:~Huw~;

., ,-\rdljl'I,;'~IYf";. hy virtue Elf irs <!o;ll,:!~JI ~imil<!t~.u!"!N,

can exp!!()~. our capacity [or drarnarizing ourselves, fo:r l1ei~b ten i rig 1 he 31;1 ion of ord i nary H:f~; it ~iiiTh

in .. 'n:m;~ mII1]'s Il:;y.:J~;oh)gic~11 sumue 10 an angel's, :\11 i:his ii lJ,m:s, through its irrevucable lIu:3.chmcnt to fW,1l rt lun. The tI r.nl1:;]liz i 11111: 0:1" 11IOYCl.neil gS~.P:Pl:G:p~'iilIC In ;1n,;~il.;ct~IIFC {:md impossible without archireeruec], mO'\'cll1~C'l1Jts like cll1Jte!"in~ thl'1lUg!,h a dom', looking out or:1 \r~lldo\\'-m.cllln~jng steps or walking OIl II l\:rJ0J~~I:-is ~u1'll1~!hing wif~,\\··lhdi~11 music Ih.'i~ 1"1(]-

t hi ~rlg: fu d u. 111,',.; is arch iICCIU~"II;"~ Np'Cti.:il~ pn)ll-imu:;c \1'11 ichon I he ~ml,;' ti1c1l'l.d 1,;11:111 srricts uts mnvem en! and nn I he HlI1I:rilik1'll.~H~c" ilt~ mcanti.ll.g," refers III archircctural examplesat the- seale !If;JJ 'huilding .. lt requires liUk~:Jfon., h(J!I\:- 1:\"I,::r, 10 i!n .. ~inc th .. ~ his \k~cd~liun hulds jOst as true I;;r tho: ~PJl,'"C in ~. ;;i~_\- .u fllr ;1. p~.rlk. Terms like: s~wu:r or windlow caneasily be exchanged for jerrace, arcade or s,:ljumc',

The i:U~~m~ il1~ secrion lOOKS aI a number of case ~llll,JICK, :U1al~.'"jllg the architectural themes tho'll cmt:~:'~1lt.: \\'llih r";!il;l':c~ to ihc~r use ;IS well as t~le 1\'<1)' these .hc~nIC3 have evolved in the his(C,ry of Splice design,

'lfhe de.~lg!'l Pr(II;cssgen!erally bcg"1J"'I!> with the ellen •• nr <'"f~mmi!isi[)nilng body Cllm'cyingw the dcsi.gl1;c!· (heir ideas on how J scheme ism f~ncrimli,. As discussed in Chapter r, the practice tmla~: is IUslmHy to llrilW [UI? 1Uprtljj:ram or lis! 'of user n'~l~uir..:mt:'1'w;,

- [he !nkf; Thispractice is not ;IS 'U.lEOFn;li:iic asit .nig-li"It appc-~r·. ~.hl1J~- designs 11]\~ ba:.>cti uri ncombim~(iQ!! of requirements f~.m11ul;ued beforehand !l!!I"!d various demands ;u~d wi~ffiiJI:~Jie!,.'1"!n.lcd as liD gt'ru:rally ~1)p:I'ica.ble as w be t~ke,~ for g:r~ntcd,

.l)ilFC:r,cl~ tia ted II se

Inlliuenced b) tedmoln~i:"i and sm;:jill de\ldop'meIilt~ such as divi s iOlu on~oor ,in d us! ria lliz;'l~ ion and i n('re'\!i!~d mobility, citie. .. and htui~lding-sb,lVc O1IC[ dllc centuries commanded i~1~~," diffcre ~u·i:i.torJ :;P"<'1~~ u.~ "1C~ommod.1!w m;"w .u:ti\i"i~icl>, This isa process dl<!! is slilll);!l]fnld~l"!g ~od .. .y _ Thc"~l; h1!lf!lf nile twentieth oen tv! ry is f~11I of examples of such new\'i!lcs: w:alchin:g Ide\'isim~,\\'nlling iUt ~\ cotiJilPIi.l~~r or u.S~llg ,1 saunaare iusr three r.mdQM eases of activieies bmug'ht al:HlIlF by tcdullOlOIt'k-a1 discoveries or socialehauge.

n! aClsi'Hi\'C los! rheir origh1iJlh1e:irlil'lg. ,,\,ihe:reas in~~I:lier limes prml'!!ldlllg fire W,lS n ]'l~)Q ... rious ~f important oceupetiun, to tum on a gas hearer (If electric cookerthese day, iii ~iWc mnr!; thilD "

rm . .iiiilJe flic~ of 1:~C wds~. Burne- ,~(;tic)r"!!i 'h;)l"c underg:lIf1e II s:huft i.1l meaning. Fcrinstanee, in jcw:ish rradit~IOIl boillil,g milk and cooking meal s!,:]>;jJr:).td) wa~ url!!:~~l" a question of hytj:icm:; they could c:Lllil)" becnme contaminated in the hot desert elimate, In U)Uf gwm! 1;t;!'!H.!f)' lhis, custom has lo~t I~a~ panil;:'ul<llf m~:ni~g 1.\;ilh dH.~ <ld\'~nt of lfcf~igerMion 'I'ml llir ,n;ondiriol.l1Jullg, Yet it is still done to this day, being part of the lristory andidenriry of aenmmuniry, Tln;:lJct llil,ltS, g;:Ji ned 3. ritua! s~ gn iticance.

Material protegido por derechos de autor

Ln.tGrpreting usc demands in t:_he design Tw~ plaollo an :a.c'i\li!yQj;c!lpi~ i!'!! thl)c oonl~lit ~)f soc:ie~y ~s IlI.I!l1ject W change ,o\;er cllm.e. ,cllil<~mil!;:e .is invariably I)f,cyrru~ql!!.i',,:!) for the sb<!p", ,of the :SP"i.,~ in whieh these, 9J1:1'i"iti,e~ OOC'1.II". SpaCt: design is net just a case ofuao:filaring; sf)oiall"eqI.!Lreme_ms: ill~o use; it ifi'j()J~ tll.~ ,Mslgn~:r's inl!I)1]):r~".itjOFl (I:f t~(,\~ r~qUiiteJTIl;{ll!ts, Illi tlite .fo~lil(1w:ing J,a'tagrnphs 'we ""il.IIOO using elialIq)l'e~l:m:m h:iswry ~o ,examine the :rcla.tionship, bl):!w"~!1J dl~slgnLflg.i.fitecfpr~Ung a_mc.l socia.J pradicc,.

This modest hmrne~' dUQ1llgih [lnil:C is dillid,ed inm t.~11fOO pilirtS. 'fIne .first discusses pjf(ljects fro:m befo:re 1900, [ill period largely preceding' the Industriaill Revgl!li~[o!t, Part two d~ats with Hi!); p~ri(ld i)!)~Wel);tl 1:900 and ~94$, a time span w'hieh fI~w !he ,(lrnergcncc of \Vcsl(:rn ~lila'5S8(J(~~ty and In wh~(.-h "fiJncti~)na-· lism" WiI'.i. :arcbitieCI1.mdstream. The ~l1ird part uses designs to ex~mine how arcibitel:ts,. urb"u p~aruter:s and btnds'.'apc aniltllIelW. tn'IVC: n.':>fl:ll1ded siill¢1.:194i~:; ~!) tbe rapi.dly '~ihillmgil"l,g n.eeds of ~be bigihly de·.tdolX"d. sueledes in Western E:U.1'OPIl and! Noatl:llli America .. This n-ipatti.tiofi sll.<l)oldllGt be taken. toor:igMI~I. ho;Vi'c\'Cit'" Meas 3!bout rUl1!ctlO1U!al orgi1!!l!!~1!ldo!1J like those pos!u]atoo by an;hl~e",1J; ill dlic!9iOlQ5 Wl)tcn''! bM!\ '~)\', i)y! w~vc ~hl) otl~C(lme: (If a ITlUil:i'l. ~Ol]i~eW p:rooes.'l. A niluocc'C:llt:lil("eliIUI!I]' G::X.aJ'llp~(\ demonSi't;j,tcs thai ideasahout how i)e&t t~ confiJgure spaees in. ::I house 111!t1uen.ced d(!Stgnin~g from G-ar~y Well, l,)ng; bcl"t-l:l'c thee '~'Cun()t~onalis':" "rehi:i:ei:r.s ol1ommitl:ed I'l:u:ILr rda,~] If!diic!lltor,sw' pap"'!;,

3.20 Aspects of use prior to H}OO

In. the l:I.i810.ry of siP~ce dlcs.i.gll in EY.rQpc,.the 1]1':g;"~ Ili~atio~ of society and the ruTe @li' the individual witl1l~in. ~t h3N'1l 'Pirl~)\'i:d.(ld. kill!S ~.o an n~d.cF.s f;\ ·of dcsilgn. This illso Ilold)~ true for !:h~ Ripman d'!lilj~i!tlon;. consi.der the siPMia1 imlilerwentiO'HSC'ITr.ied out: in lil'fg~ ar!)'lIs oI{E;yviJp<.l lind anu,IIld the M.ed~tii:r.ranc3:n under RO'.maJliiJ rule. Tffitl.l Roman Empire w~s !il1[lr jus·t the 'Product wJ£lnc d!t}i"stattc's desires I~)r 'c;'jp"IilI~:iOin" Over ~~lJ].e itbccaw~(: irl(l.Iei!!!rngly ~. poH~klll body tihalcompriscd. the cmitJic wo:ul.d 21S irwas knewu then, and w'[ch lJoUQ~it~ citi'-ocns I)y giL!l;\ra:nI:f."eN of safety OJ!nd PC!!C<l, !h{) Pax Romana, P.lanmingimi)if-' \~n.tiio:ns.-(l',spedally I'he 1a.)ling orLl~ of aninfeastruenrre of roa<i!l,.aquOdu.Ct8 >l.nd defen!'i~ worb" dte drnilling ao.d qf (aImb,nd .. ""1 the fClundins; of necwd~ic~pla~cda dlc:d:sh~e, role in .ach:ic\"~ ing that aim. Such i(lpi:.!'lilio[!s !)!f!1l!bled iJJom{) !iO I,;,,~I' order aC]J:ml5 a '~Iast region and ~o evolve a no!lIri,' UFbarnl! culmre,

SI:r1Cl: rulcs (ur Up' RlJmilll (Jol.oni:a!. ~cul.ementsi1:!Slled frOIll eonsiderericns as muc.h [Jlr"u;tkal II!; rdigioycs .. The ~h;tpe {)flh¢s~ dtii)SW:il.~ uii:ijJJ.II~' l\i,',u. Their ci:rc;l!rnr'!,lron(:~ ~I;!S fi:'!(ld at a! (Xlf(trn(lI1ThY inwhjeh the priest! dm::cdl:md by walking the line the city lI'1IU1M:l!!. t~~ Ihllmv. CUliltri'l:ry to tn.e· Greek notions. about: now a city sbol!lld! be l(lid nut (ooe ~Iil Chapter 2)., the Rurn:l;tl iu(tll .of order ~mb:r!1t,';()d~\r!1:ry fOlWt:, It had w :imioh'e a~I~lle\;ds.

~ therectilinear ~~YOUi: ofstrcet:s, thel'! ,of f~r.mb.nd, the sim.ple (lfigllniz';lti(l!lIw.itliim th.e city walls, ~V(,1n !hel i!'!!~~m!l1 sOlbdh,js:i(!ln (.if pr~'I'aiic houses .. ']'he same spaaial relarionshipswere\rl1m tor OIt an Iih;es(l lcv¢b., rciiOltiornS:hipl; th;;lt in turn were an e.~p'rcssi.~n Qfthe easmic order of 111~ g:{}i1s.

Thl.lB:, [beci~iGs W(l(f(l 'laid out in a checkerboard pattern .. ':1'1'1'0 main !itreers--thc "eudo'" ri.uminig north-suueh and tlbe "decumanus" 'C"8t-W~Stdiclate<illlililie ali.gnmlml: of 1:ii1,{l entil"(l dt)' gridl.

The (fui.fll: wher,e d\csc malt11 streets iWlJrClfScclx:rd., pfcfC!I3.b[y Inthe middl~ oJ th!l dIY, g~'lc the ~~)sitioillJ of iJne city center, At this jfijQI'S(lCtlon stood tl1,1j forum ;!nd lmcremp!es, the (ItiliJ,e!'civic buildinl:}s o.tbemTII being: ana:nged al.oll'ij: the two ~i1J~i!i: streets. Lini[JJg' these streets were shop.s reached from arcades andl ool.(mna&cs ... Thae bluGprim was: as

M alerial protegido por derechos de autor


Isimple as it was d!ifferenlt~a.tlld, and l.'lOuJd be en- 101cedinaUI pans of i:heE:m;pire and UlliJ,derstoOO by each and e\'llry ciWlt:l1.

Transitions between pl!JbUc and private The .rrllyou.t of st!r,eeu,~i~e 'I~e use of eolonnades, is

a guod! ilI,1iJ!Slnlion urI he grearinteresethe &omans IDo-l: in ,e:lfec!ting gradl,lall.unsitiOil1S between ,one urban. terlf.i.l:0ry and dl.e neJl.t~ Vi.u:U,\ de~otes an ex~em:sivepassage IU' rhe w~ys ,ofpre'"enri~g unhwkhy and {loW wind:s~rom. blowing do,wiIiI the streets, ancll tJhe dmmdf:r Ub.a:nius who in about 300 A.D.. dJescl"ilbedi sever.a~ Ro~n dries in Asia Minor, ,emrhasizesin his !'~port ~ne gl' tnu~sitiuns b!).tw!~~ i!'!dividY.<l!lllou~cs, ci":i,~b'-Qj]!.Iifigs: and tlb:el street S,!:IlI,Ce" "'As YOI.l walk :a[olllig them [I:he main ro:l:d:s] you find! a seceesslon ofp:rivate. houses w]'th plJ!blic bl!!lldings distrllH!'ted :Ltnong Ithe,!1l at :i:nterv.ds, h.ere: .~ temple, t:herea bi!t:b ,estalblis:hment,. at sl'toh disl:Ln«'S that ~htly are: bandy fo!'each quar!1w: and i~ eadl!ca.'ie: the, e!1JtliuU:e: is inthe eolonnade, What does 'tJlila,t mean, and whalt is d!l,e lJearin,il' .of (bis lengithy descri.ptloIl?Welll." it seems

~o me that dte' pJeasante:st,!i'', and most: p.rofil'able side of city life is society and. hllmaWli in(1,erwurse,. alildJ t!h,at." by Zeus" is trllll:y a €i.ty w~,ere are fou.nd..'~ TMs gT3diu;III tram. ilion between dty and indivIdual dwelli"g"oot""~.oo publieaud privaltc, seems aliso te have been lih;e :rul~:ng principle for orgOl!niz[ng the <~doml:!s," '!hl) h.o·I1!~ of tll~ w~U-to-do Roman 'c,ltlzen.

Perhaps we should! first look bri.efly :lit tbe: origln of tle: '!11~:~[d "ipr.i·.rat:e,'> lit de::riv(ls from I:l1.e La,tin verb "P.l:l!'v.wl!," mC:Luing to dcpru~'c ot£. Fo!:" the RJUliUUt8, the priv""te ~ej1.lm was dire s(lac.e or ",:hich society at la:rgc w~~ .(J.!!:pt'l'vcd. For thj)ill S~CeW;l'i! i!'!lti:alty COMmon PJ'o!peift:l"fl'om wl'liicn indivlduab 0011](1 parti.l~o:lTI! uff small llDllS fox thCHOW!1! needs, Th~ tra:d:iliollal. 'Ro:m~;JJcily house was an almost literal trnJilslartio:n. of this idea ... Vi.I!ru."ius deserlbes i~; "We ml1.i!lt .. " C,!)jJ_s~!le!ll'he pI~!iteiplt,,~ {J._Qwbich sh(!lllldilbe c'l)nstructoo tJ1m5e apartments in p.ri"a,~e heuses 'which are m.~mt fur thc: l:b.em5eh:'{:s. :and tibose wihi'ih are to: be shared illl common wifh olllsid.ers. Tb.e :p!!'i:v:ne room" are those~nl:0 nobody has tile right. to enter w~Jt1'tom :lin. [n~':ita:t:ion, such as bedrooms, dmmg rooms, f1uhl'ooms, and all Ol:b~rs used for tb.e liike tpl!lliposes, Thecemmon il!retilwsewhi.c:h il!!it~' gf the


peo'pille havea 'perfec1t :ri~t to enter; even 'wi:l!fmllt aili imwlt'atl(Dc:n: ~:a is,. 'eW'l!!'ramruc(:cQ\l,I s "I;1iVll.()dia, PC!FlS,tytcs, ~ifI,daUI imlltended. for the like pu:r:posc:_ 'el

T~!u; origirnd Ro:man ll:ity 1iJ.'OUl!!CI as ir cx~stc>d .€~om l:btl four~.fu.c.e:llJtl.lry B.C. on:~ar~s Ihroughou:t Central Ita~y. consistoo {~r nn more ·t~arl a. handful of small nloms cJuS<te,~ed aJl()und a lil~gel"., oOpen-rf.>Ofed. space, ~b(: "'!'!!tn!urn." In the: a!fiYm~';l"s a altar, the firepJa.ce and diiuin:g table; thesrn!'.!lillN r~ms ~rv~ ;L,! bcdfQI:);ms" I~¥ing 11.1omslindfilw·uge SiPllce. Mm"ement rhreugh thehousewas ~rganlz;l\d.~dong

::11 1.o1illgrumd.li1l!al :rl!:'I.'fi., ThC:I!'l!~!:or t:~!~j'itJ(j !ihl!. :iluhiffi !:hl'QIJl:gb l:b~ "f:a!l(l~~," :~ twarf()W pa'!~g()\\r!ly betw~n t'be s'hop!f ,un I'll.£: S!.f(lIM, IklllLfld tihe;Ufhutl lay Ii ~:imiti] walled g'1rdien I'ellched hy ~ pil!~silgc.

From. the second oen!:ury 1]:.<:. on, this element:Jr~! principle of a 'cenl:rlll opcnsp3l'lC suu'ound'ed! b~! !'OOms: ",i~S c:.:~~etll~led~Jt rhe r'C~F widl one Ow more "peri!! .. ;' These were rua~" similarly ,open g;:Jf'den rooms til} wMcb l'he family 'could wiiiilld.raw. Tbe peristyle begasn life as a sp~ce c",,"c'e,ssible to the pubill~c~ Tbis seeond large gJilt1iJerililg' space for the f~milr can. :also. rn: oon[e.i~'ed, however ,illS an element r!hat brought out mare tlrua.;l! hefore I:be ~rivMe narme of the hause, If t:l:ie:alriUlIll mn'l'eyeil II) the out';sid,c w00.rldl tffil.e tradition ,1'Ii1dl !IDC~lall sl;a:t:us of t~lefamjl.y, the per:isIJI.e waS:li11 ~n(ur:mal d!omes:t!c s~paL'e. An.lJ!thc.:r f~WIt of tllG altflJ'ud f{;illatlonJsiMp between p'lIbl.i.c and pli'jl1atew:l.sthatlihe lransjrion from h.G!l!!~ ~o St'rlll,1:l' was formali:1Jedi by i!i!t~od.udng an entrance hall, the "vestibule, I

Repr~sen.atiioPil,nd utility

The LaSt ~:!'mplc; pl;lOe!1 tb¢!M'!!1!l'hasis (I!l !b~ dilftr·enee bet ween (li!!b.Lic !!~d p!'i"ate spaJ:;oCS .• O~h(:;r ;lSp~(:~tS !!T(l n!!gl~t'(\d~s:l f~Sflll~. such :as [he .ali~;lIg !)f room", wlth~espeel ~o ~h.e whrud t~:~t: Vitml'iur!> wriit~!!, Or Utl.i po!!i!ion oJ[ 1i~c; andlla!,11 ~p;l!'~ -the kitchen, f~r instance.

In tbe next e:;:amplc:, whic.h takes us almost [300 yeaJiiS cI(loS~ W Oi.lJr 0wn t'i.mlJ:., the f'{~u:s ill ()!I'l qui~~ anotlliteT aspect. At dl.e end of tihic·liCtccndll. ceru!.!!"Jl tihegreatest source 00fincome of the Venetian plluiclans. siliJJilfted from Overseas trade t!() filttning un tthe mainland of tlile Veneto in n.Qifd~e\!st[t:il1 y" Mm.t of this lowlY~llIlg ooggyat<:a: ~ad just !been (;onquCct,,>d by Venice and rcqu:iredi oothpadfying and duining. Tllu::,n.ew mli:ng' d:l1sS of ool.O'n:izing eitizees needeoil {iUtpO~t~ fO pV(I('laim ahr«).iIJd th.e new arller ss well as

Material proteqldo por derechos de autor

\1113 .l".nll>. ,.,.,,, rl1r<l'lll.h !;'~j;I l~'i.lh" ~,,~1 ,ll,m~~ '"', hl.ociln", j,,-rm ~."<.l,,

r,lla I!'~m", 11\ r.,1~_,1 ~""I'" and r.:'.ll"ri~ "I ,'~m[,;11 r:"""Ji<ln

Mal'r al r ro egld POl' fHe ho I au! r

faoilru.h1te oou~\(}l{)f the inUTlensc(ll' of :f<tiFmla.1!ld. Thes:cutJrp(r.iffi' It'llk rncl!!:mape of\l'illasl'ihiC:h orner r:hil~,s!lY, [he oo.untr)' ~.ouses of dle JFtOl\enti~1; 110blli{y ilnd ddzenll' :m.;,! il:i dirn-ecn OJmlF:.u:~~ wilh ~he vm;a Ro~orHl:i (k:s);;rih~d earlii'~t" Wg;:m(l ;Pet pli!II;e.~ :rOT h,ea~thy rural d,~velts'io~. ,1.0 the vi:Uas of the Veneto the ideIiIO'h',Q.untm1'~fe W3~ ~n~T'0nled with. l~e deJllands made byag;dp\llnna!1 Itl1u'.rp:l'h.t:,; 1'l;il;l:ildy iiWlll ,()'i,luvi~w ()<f the Clilite area u:d l:hevJ:sliid pr~serr..:::e 'ufi~ new (lwl!le,l';"ln U'll~se hPllOOS, lh~e '\1>',lsg,re:ile:r ,emp:hasit en ruw.r.esel:ilmnOIIl amI tbe 'st1lgiiI1lg. oJ peaeliwsuhat. re.flect.ed tb:e':soc:iall fj~atus or Hie ,i;rrCW:1l0clil:rf> than [)J! the di81imu;fi\Jn'behve~I]. publuc: afIJd prk,,~~ These idem; sho'w dm'l: acti\l.itie:.<;, OOnSHl:u:ti:on ;luld -arehlrecrure alike ,rerc 'Q.rg_lI.m)'.e(iin l~ d.eHb~raUl: rnQv~ lEO ¢x:Dres~ 'th~ rrew !if}ci<i!1 ·\'}atanJ:e.

'TIl£ VtI]a .Emo (! .ijlj-I s:'65), de$igne4. by Andire" I"all~djo., t(\~S~isl'il.ofth[li'eepa]'tS, twO' oftl'le:m wil~gs h~ul'lill.:,}dncn'mol"e ·utiti'ra,rian, spaees, Hem are the kitchen, \li'111;(;; uCU1'IT" SiI'alb:l:es f~bhc bitf~.s~ ;Il'1dH'i1J!¥hld~ !IS wccH .ui; rOm:l\~ t'<nf !:t~[j]g ~ip ;<rilJd 'G~g~ . fb:r the~O:;;l!rrkr plgeons ns!W to ()Qmlm~mtea,t,e'willl1 r:he cit)' Gf Vel'llc'c,wher<:tlieuwliiJer had his 'pollti,()~ f.I~li~t;Q!'!!L



..,. '~

YCI: [ht.~ most striking fl~n of 'Ihe inllikling ii; till: eemn\! ~a'i'i~~~ofl wheru dn:: .11l'lI!l'aiiber·s ,~)f uhc nWi:ler'~ frun~ily~hr¢d. ·wll.I:.1Il 11:01 ~~ ;the ciry. This 1l'~l\!iliM .SIt!) I1iCllt~y (l!l'l Ihe.~,;;:is s(wlW~lkrJonM~i~el's long; [11M b.Qth. ~i8CCts ~'I.~d <]ot;;e~~9.." the e;j\:ilru. Thit: cenlra~ p01l!itimn pf l~i:l(C r~idehtiiil l)lod al .. n:g tlllis' <!Xis: tii'1?r(ts.~lilts the:~el~tti.on of laJ;td~wner to agralii;tn r9P,ula:riol!!ll :xs .... '91:i 1151'~$.l:lldjze~ the .unHh:;nlom11 tIIf](lcal, !iil'Iild cosmic orders. Unlike the Roman tU\?'Tn hbi!S\t:, the !;ieIlJril] pa\'ill~om: ~",hili}its; little dif:t\;crc:m:e herween dille J)ublkly acc("Sslbl.e· a nil priv:.t~ 7j,(H'!ie'~, 1\11 ,~Pil~!> an;~ I',~pres!,i;)u.(!!ive ~ecepui.oll .Oll'e'/lf' 1I:l'i.d as ~'uch l'eJDect the gmner's',,"ocial poo~tion. This ~9~d:s most filiI' rhc :~o~msS'e[ nn ~h~~lliJcl!~i~g:'s, rrxi,So: rile' "I<:!!gg~ll"

(~l oo.I~Il:rJiad:€d g;iUel:Y) and dle "saia'" {~m'liti,n harll, ffitef~d ~[l, :ella:! 'Oftb:.'lT fitnm a. hifO'd:d 'MId C::>:ln;mcl.}! dfro~\'n-OIiB,r Ilight OfSltl'\'l-S, Th~ es;roif:e \l"[t!l fwm tool'n!! iind ~~!~ IQC!al pUD:ubuioFl '"a" received lrere, The otber fOGmS, in: rhe l'f'lN~~if}n na:"l'e II repi",flSent'l)i~IVG.chil;rac[er !QQ, y~t wer~ I;l:'>ed ~n ~I !P"!;!li~ !tfi<i~j' udi:~l' ''''ll'''~-f(i .. dining, sillegping and

!.'O :OI~"

Whe.roos tbe dill:POSlti0i1'i ofspS!c~s in dl€ l!;[Idl;)J1~ It9m,!(1n. town house 1:l!ii:l11gh~ ''! ~bte d:ldl:oi'omy

!!!II' • .1 •• III .'" ... " • '.


i\lMi.r"" 1%!I~.(Uo. Vi'1~~m~' (!5S'lr-I:;!>.sl: l'b" ""l1il d,.,¥:>!!,iml

_ r<'tI.",~[~ti\~ 'P'Iw, _ !l"nu''''tfc ~pac",i; a ",tl ~m .. !,'i:

Mat or I;;J I nr ~{)ltJo por dm0Ch S JO autor


O[S]'(;N ,~N]) "'N;!!L '(SIS

or a ru>1'i\.'ilH: zone MDd a ocremnnial ~cqJlJellee or 7,6

entcrim,g. P\llIil(]'io"s s,i1!;lcem~.-!;,"Cntlliry villas cU!W,lIIi1'luh:d il represenearive pnl$ram. This, \V,iI.$ expressed 3n:Il,~,tectur:JJ~ly ~}' ur'g'll.niz:ing ~~.l.e building so thai Ih.e dnmestie !lIHICCS were loanecli in! ~he W]UI;5 hiddclil behindruws 'of pillars,

'fhe ci~y at the dawn of rhenes era Uill1ting Ihc Midd,I,~ AgJ:"E 1:1il,c European cit}' underwenra slow but st~d)' prneess of grawth. Most ]-:lIfopcan cities d.Cliel()ipedbr ~hf;l lI(,"Cre~ion of ito, I:t:gu!ilr c)![ensions. The shape ~rthe city \'l':[!SU~Ua~,~.}' d,clcJtl1l'lim:cd by the topography of the landscape, Urban activity uadeewent (I similiur pilttrerltl. of dilfc.rcll,ti1Hl(lmI and';cI,tio,l'I, onethet ll~c1 been sh']pcd by YC;llfS of pracrice. 011 en (his W!;lS,

~,)a,mllclcd bythe SO~i'l]1 structure and d~,,,i:s:ioli1 of hlbur i" ehe UI.r1bal:l [ommttnit~,'. Citizens were subdivided inluprore"~s,iolJla~ groups: potters" tnnners, dr;lpcf •. , turners c,t['pcmCl"lO, 3ilJd 00 (ofth, These distinctions 'Ililid the a~I;!'I'iti~~ pertainiag m o~~ o'r other group!:J!n still be fOl!lnd todilY iIiJ the names or streets, WQdiplillCCS dlal might have been 0\ source of disrurbs nee in dlJC densely b l!it~~JlIj) citi es were ~ol:arcd {lIn Qr beyond the pedphl;lCY> III J\m(';!£;'rdam.

~ hc~'h~[lp i!igc(Jmp"m~.~~ could be fuul'!!d il'l~ll~ n;[lrbo1t 'lTe~. :l distrfuc~ Il~ some diseanee froM the center.

The areas in whi,eh huildings for religion, (it}' administraeien, discipline andetlucarkm \\,en; concentrated conslitU'~ed discrete elements in the city. Chiil)I\I:!' 5, ,,·h ichexam i nes 'nile gTo!';"lh Q r medicral Alilils~crdllm,illUdLI,des, several utrnwings that mu.s,t!',ue this process 01 spiining llJil urban aetivirics.

This path of ste~,dy growth was radicaUy clisl:llUlrbcd frolm, ~IH: foureeemh cc:n:mry on. Fo:r this varieus rilC10li"S are to blame. he develepmcnt of EUI'OI,ean ml,J,e>~~e l>r~ktlu~mgh of [he b;;)nki]i!]g econorny and! fromlh", sixteenth centl.!l"r the rise of overseas tnlJd'(l-:l1I these bnJ'I.Ig-llII: abulIII fUl'ld.a-, mcnlld (;!lIltm;11 and social dJj~wuge t~at would grl!'lIlly affect the evolmiolnJ of [he E!lIropean dry.

III the l~rC'\;io!!,l!!;dil.apterwc~:':llm.i.ned the path (iihnby design !hroughllThe Iie.i'llljs.~~EM:e and cady B~,mqJue pCli"ktds.\r\fc \ViII no\\,' conceatrate on the way aeeiviries inihe period 15:5°-165°. whether l1I.ew o'r reinterpreted, had an imp~c;t on urban CO/rill. Here, by way of il]us;tl"atioln,. we will look more eiosely ill two examples I~at are p<[tmdiigma.ti(' of the rC!c~oeI.op'mc'rlts, in '.mol,'leall. cnuntries: R,l]me, t~e h~b



I", _ ~ .L-, r-· ~ ..... ...__.

---~...,__...- -. ,..' --- ~

1;t!'t:mi:.eill:l~I~~lIIh-i:l;'II1 mr}' cil~)r' !"~~Il, I'I:w <11.:11 m",h, an dl m.i" .I •• rncl" ~~id o,,~ d:~Ln!1S the INil~ of Si:~tI!~ have been FIJ\~ri:iUl

rvliDl~j iilh(>\rir1gEf(Jili\a :fB!t~h't~r.~il'liiilm,;.id e autor

.. ",neoli'",. b"I" ve '<;TIL m"L1lI"m~nt"1 b"illri!~n]!:$

of [Jhe Cou.n.t:e,r·"'RefGr.mati.on in lib.e CillthGlic C~urcb., :!1'!d A1i!'ls!~rd!!!1!l!, dtt.1 eatly 1:)(iU~'I)i,'S. IDe:tJC!hilftl: ,Cli!;,)! par C'~~nllfiCC,

This ~ilillc of two ,dries 51'10"'.'1> ~batt\!!,(1 dist~m::t drl\'lng fur·U.,<Ji can hia\1e~ a d'edsh'll effect on ,cl~y :pJlIlltfllilllg" during otile and. the sam.eperiod! .• ElUllt '1'1"111 also, shi)w dl:3i1 the il1!t£r~"entionsand. 'Ihe means empJo:yoo. are dIrect'lyrola:t~ III these forces .. To pm it in tihe ,simplest 'tcnmi: in Rome's ease '.!here were pJau t'O weinnillr~ mll$h :)~OO!ilil!llotllf(l;l.ndl>l:;l!nning dI!l' ,ullthortty of the Cl1u_j\6~11i, undem.!ncd <15 it l1Iad been by the Rd'O:rmadGtl, Ams!l;\rd!!tn,b'y ICO!1!!:r;!st,. u~dl.l'rwc~t :iI !!!l;owug'1iI ",>tDS.fOfimiilll;j'on. during 1.l1e iiellenrtee.nJtfl century which would 11I1ti.m:u:ely u:nif~i ~he, ~spect: (If use and the need for~pl'esent':llioil!ll among the new ufib:an upper dJasses.

Exp.ressing ehureh :a.ut·hllrity ~n dIe Holy Gt,y

Wiben 'p'op~ Sittll18 'VassllllOlcd (lfficc in IS8" tJliil';IC was IiJt!t]e left Gf the, illustrious .P3S£ of ancient Rome I)tib:er Mna hawiif!Jl ~fr'ums: andmemerles {If beue!' limes .. tJhe aqueducts had fallen ililt:G dJisuse:, the m.edievall city had ibeell.restriotea Ito the 3~ea. :along l:IiI.e Tiber .. The .bills ""ltn tI,e a'tild . ent "fOIa" amd! [eml1'l~s: liliY iIlIlo':lstC Si"e (OT,l pilgrim ehun::~ or two.

Th(j j)h!!l1J!)'!1!l!bll:fkedi en i.I,uFLr!gLh~ I){Jf!JtUici!'j,;~ ~f S~x~us (1585-1590) hid ilil:Utn.ber oJ resoluteaims, One ',V:as to create a new eci;ilil.~mic basis: fGf the by then imj?Qvcri:shcd Chlllfi:h stat"", This was effilcted by res!I!ming k.rigat~oW!()f dte hilIsll!r!Jd s,timu]<I!i~g i.n.dil!1S!try widilliill. few we~~.='l.imedi:nteI"en~i!Ot1s .. 'F'llite mosl:l"ltmOUsaSptel: of the plilJn. !towlwe:r, had quh<l a:n(nhe>l' obj<::cd,'c, By la.ying out a,mi.n.g:l';J'l]ouS :system {JfUnks ootWi~C,f:I the .sc:~·cn.tnai(w pilgrim cburdles, SilUUS, and his slIoeesso:roS made. Rome what: it: Sitll~ is toda~';i 't!b~ I~Cccfiter 'of ~bc Ca.thl)~ic CbUfi':Il."

The pOIP'C expilb:ite.d ctl'tailtil ~i:Sll:lil:g ·c:lernu!JilI'~. :Flrst .of all, tihc,re were seeen dl:urC:hes~'.isited by p'i:lg,rims t~U ~i1:Y sC3.t~ered over diu: ~nbnil!iilJ,re01i ~l!;t!!lide dtt.1 medil.lNai. wilihrult the Willi b:iili~~ byli'be emperor Aurdii;ln ii'll 2:71 B.C.

Anoi"lle:r pOliJl1lt of d!e,part;lI,re ""'l!S an old ccremlmial ,~usl'Qm.11iIc :Pl!)l)cess.:i.1iXIl, whIch w;i!~!teLllle1:plc'led in t' ,cQJ1iliexJt ... ln .rnany eultnres ~OIililI1n.unal e'll'e.rn.tsllrc :aolM'mpa;JJied! by prooessroms (lIf 3. rel'i,gl€!us or sec11IIla, :IJaN!lle ... TMs Is an eNtre1illlel.y ill.1:u:ient phenomenon, 3 :story illu'Stra:rei!l In :IJ pagea:m,t sometimes illi\'o.l\:·it1.g


actors and semetimes irnagCSGilrri\ld inthe ptuce.ssi:o:n. This pageant rooik tile for.m of .. linear mevemear hetweelJ certainpeines iln tbe~:il;y or its .. MaimlJ l-U'(J!tlIgo:ll,lsts. supemamerarjes; iflecta:t(m:i~;]l] ihad a part to play in tfhepublic perform!ln.ce .. This tradition reached back :in \V,,'SUCil'.I:l ,cl"ililation !lIt least as fa. as anriquity ,as eanbe (Jibsc£ved in the a[(~hilYectJtlli"'C bu:ilt 'to accompany sueh wrocessi,alJs. At t.!he :For!WiIiI. Itomll'lJum,. tor' instance, we (;<a!!1! s;!il] 8~~ the Silf~~ot tl'hm:'!phalarcb~ thJ1o~,gh wbidiJ, tile retu.rninigvi.ctlOf.ious war[.iors: p;a~Si.ld. In the MJddle, Agc:s., m!lb:tly fi~lig1Yl!S P!:(i.cessiens were 11'1'nsfarmedl :i!nlt(l mutes, lind these were el!pl.o~ltedifl the new plan fur Rome.

Si.);Ii1!1!l;JIndlilis succc:ssurs ::i.dOpi£d :JJ Si'[IlIICgy ill. smai] smges"f'il'St,. Ihc~' positioned o:OO[i&I:s 3:1 1:(1)' points and places .of pi!lgdru01ige" !IS 3.c'O:mmnn :aurib'lllte. Tmese indlluJ;edi tile entranee to' the dl}' at th~ Pl}rl:ai del PO~Jlo" Ihe lihlU,.(;!il. of Santa. Maria Maggi.ore, tbe ca.tlill.\dil13l of St. John Lateran and

Sr.. :P,e,te,r'!l. The. obelisks, ser as [(!i1l:Y l'I'eJie <lit an ~mport:l:nJt ]oeliS ill f~nt Qtf eaeihltn:dldi!1!g, toge[ihe:r p.rov~ded an as yetin .. :isible networ'l( .of po.i:ms in dIc' city I!'lng on tbe pilgrims' W3}1 .. In the next stag:e, ! netwm'l; w~s v.icslIall), iml'rlml:ed: on tmc for.m. of the city by the 'Qbdisb wi,h ill ~ys~e.m of r<futC$.Urban Sq;U::).fes were :subS(JtJjtlell.tLy hdd il'lJ plaOI.l ar:U\l!!!J~l ~'b~ ,obiiIL~lial.WiLh LI1!~1) ifi~~n'!m!ion·5 tbe c(iJJun:h. secured fo·, all dme tb,e oren Sp.1CCS witbi.n. tlhcl!Illll:swhich ~n.lyl:iller wl)uld become part lof thcoity pti)pe,,", .• o\s dill new ;S'it{::cts: f(}lIl}wed a slra:~gbt linc:,.Lhe oomioCl!ity of mO\fcIDm:!l!l11Jt:!l!long Ibemwa:s'i'.isible 1:0 Fbe flHgrim 3.1 all times, Mot'e than. that, the n~w 1.t1!ks ..... \l:fcllC s,ijl!ir~d ~o a. bl'andt1.ew mod~ of I'ral'l!l:port:,. the horSi,l-{J!,t;iWn t;lI:r.hl:ge.~

Sl~FI!ls v's p'la.flWa:1>fI() 'haphazard! p;itl'iliffl lim: ;i re!i!pOIl:S~ prediclIIoo en use, Then.llw system of rouMS !rutved t(l .cl'HI!fifiel. d'l(i HfI:O"'IlIlfl,(l!il:l1l. Jut .• n.g proce.ssin[Js fn}:1iIll I:tOe place· !lif dC"lJ[i(J.n to rbe Il;(lxt. Major points ef i:rr.rersecl,i.onOOl:wccm: reutes nOI".. ,comblinedi "",hill I:liIe dead .. sir:ailghl stcreet:s i!m.llJl~c oooli,-,b int'(I .:IJ dgb.!.-k!, i:il,~i.lyt'\o'ad s:YS!~ITL The 'Cim; ·ofRome had Ch.ulj~ed fur g.()j')d, ilitl:d heneefoxdl!J wm.dd ,lI'main in the ha:m'!sof ttl!:) C]~iIil!!idl,

Li.vLJ:ligand wottdng i~ t!he m.ercslllti.l.e city

In CflntJrast to l~om.c, dl;C' de!i!'d~p:liI1lell~ d:l!ill: !l.m,sterdam wouild. ull.dergo during the seventeenth centu:ry

Material protegido por derechos de autor

dltl.I\P! ~,pl"ing fWIlI till.: 1IiI! ~Il' aruler, Titl;:'d.ddllg" fl1rct(.; ~dlirad tho.; prw.;tss [if ,,;hang(,' ,h~' III .'\.rnskt'(1:11:11 'SR\,·'.\ rt )Ie ~I; ~'IfWL er r~f .UIlH'I11,.! ree, Hu'rg.l.!l.mtIlg jWn :m.d "IJ:rmTto,:r~::i,;Il JO::!II itil:'\> ,md Ihl.: inf1lIl>: Ill" rd'u]!;(!o,;c<; I\'~m~ rh.i! !i~I!.III~;t'L"I1 ;.leI heIF.I~lni:l~" S¥)l'lin MId P'urHI,1;f;11 (':!tu,odl a dr'Hl~ :~[W jl(Jp i1~:bi 1011 i nerease ~lt the ~'!~d u]' 1Il1," ~ixlt:.~lIl:h 1.:t:111I.1f~\. ,Ln j, .'1135, w'[,rk bt~g~1l ml !.!·),lcmlin:g 1 hI; ~~~~ iY~1 h rll,ITi: I'II~>\ t.':InJls, ~r1 Il !It\;n('~d h~ urban tde .. " rn~'n~ rl:ag R~ll;ai\!irimL~ ;JilJtim hn}m~ m1till"coJnt'[I'j..:' rCt'lI1u,ril~ .The mcdiel{al ili~lli~ic~ll l,md phy',~~d ,I major p;lr! ill .b~\~ing Am'\tLrJam I ilee rm;;,n .. '1!t1li.h: ~M\\ 11.' TMs ~ r~ldil ion ~'id:d .. "{.i doli .'H'l!~~lk~1 h~1 ih .;mll finn l'lti 111" the 111:.W "\:I.;nl'iml! Jmlg deer P~')L'; much lik;a '~~lr>se inrhe L)'ld~'1 ~l,~.!". ul'! h\\'!l I\"~r~ :r~L~tl UI1I!. ,~~.cmll the 1'1':1\ canals.

'rh<.:' e \ 0 ~U! ilill IIf I he ';~,~H,l hn,US\: "hon sclear J} h11\\ ~h~ \\~~hl'li m1i.llmll'(:~ III' rhe r~'~~lT1:g m~n:h.:mr c:I',lMi \~~n' I nU1~~<l11!11inl'll lI~c I'Inllr pta:n~ "fl~' ihe arch il.t:ct illT '0 r I h~sc 1!1"'li:m!l g houses,

,."\1 'IJ~'L' da1H1 or 1:11 .. se\·i::1l1I.:,entlh, t.'Cnnu')' therype nf t~lwn house b!:ln g ~l u iii t. i:n\llui~rrd:tf]] sliIl ~[d~ ~H.'!'~~I «) the nw!l i!;\'-,iI ~ r,l!!it i(J iii. \- 11J:;;~ ~\',J;;r~: \ ];I"J !:Hll'P:\!: i n1 .d~si~n. ~!,H.l ;! ho !<itTwd ~S. w~lrd:Ll,ml5Wi ~ml shops. The 1ol1g, 1'l'~t'1!,(m Ni'H~H'~ (!,r p]t1t suncsted ;'111 l~rbo:<rni,.,1Uin!'l trh~n::h~ rhe fmw ~t:'Cli1)n t)f]l'n: h~IUs~ (Ih~, "\ OIurhHi~'''\ l:_'Un'!.r~lileJ UR' b!.lsinc;:~:'> prclTI~isC1o "H.l~lR·I-m;;k Ml.t;lio:r1 [the "achr .. ,rhub;·'); ~h!:ihing: ~lJ\!Iil.I'ttcf'L Smm,'tin1.C!; the laH!i:f' ~~',jl~ ,.r.l:1i:SCtlliir li~ ~t l):;LtimlCnL Si:(~ ~~r Ihe' phf~ pcmiiuing., ;1 ~l:t~HHl

"ltd, It'rh.1J il' WN. ! )nC:ll b ~.~i.~t hT~ i1t the rear fUie addl,[iijn~ll lhjng' ,~lf £umt~<;! '~r'1Ci;" Th~]' ~IPfl~r strmes ,,[ l'ht' ··'l·,t",r]lY.i';"-U"'LhtH~ M!> [~lClI'() dum [~\ ~~ or Ihrt1t' :Jhu\c Ihe~ru.1:lnd fij~!.w-,,()ul~~ 'I'll.' lJS:cl,! ~[}r \HW~ ()r M'tm1'!l:" ~l:" well us ~lwdlii1Jg-> The Il~i. itling' line beiween llving.and l\'urbn~ WW' <>!1;'lhi,ng but ~hm'pl) dC'1'I1~nc'.\jcd 9c1i1d mad.: il"· ~~"ly llhl'o~lgh rile ~nkl:dlt: of rhe" hULLSC.

i\~, til", prm,.p..:ril) nl the :il'l\ r!;¥~.~,Mi. !tl:!t\I, [111<: ne'l ntblltl din: (}\:mC' Ln ~~xpc<:~ :, dornicile be~lIil~;~ Ii'O\"~'!, :'11i1t1 1'C'II~t~tin~ its r~~c'n\tl: ll!.;q~,ir(!'d ,;;:I,!'!we,. :\" ill' lfi;'SIlII,. the fh~ur Ii~an I~nhc fi.H:li"c:hilnl'huu;iC evnlved in lC;)[l'i ,.~ml bnmuh 1l1'ftm!,l:h'ml [h'~ B"I !.;nf'cc'J;t[h· 1.,£!lIli1f~·, Th,: b"u,,"cl:mih ill I ()J~.1 on ~,;,:ei7:ersl"'~,!;clu: w Philips \Titig;bm,n:;>' !k~ign ~o;,<1 [)pical t:x01mplc t,f I~h,(' cH~q:FJ:''',:Hcr u'b'~in';l.i~~n dr~l\\'11 bel '>\'1./(;]1 flltH,~ r('n"'~, ill \\-h~dl"_\m Iw ~L>::ll rhe ~)h)'!:ik"lt dl\'~l!iiyn in!!l (h>;'elliflg- :Ind Wt)tt (th", bU$inc:>st In [he mn "I'fJOV'huis" i[( i! rj"om S~IJ~iT:'~ll!d Qtr I'or I'hl' nmrrs.{!'Cl;

1.1 .~. ---::=l I" ~

" ~

;' 1·

", ... J:: 1

"'\m~[I;,'f't.I~:m .• J,-;.!IW~fJ]v. .,f rJu~~ 'ail! ~~1 ~1J;::t'''''''''~''''nI ttl,<; ~';\:D.:a:!'"

·\ff1.t.· ... ~1 rn, "".;1 j"l1i fh,.,~UJ;J:m. 1) '~l'k" I. i:'l"I~ ::r.c~ ~nh";l"l!Illh-L!['n~ L~E'.~ L.:lIIlt-:.Lr 11;UJ~L


M_Jr~~f'B"~1 ~L por


I !


DtS~GN /lr;.'rti: I,iS~

79 1li1 tin rhe :ldmilYlstr\l~;on u:ndisuilTbed.,· the ~1if~C;-ffiom ,~t c9mp'tok !.C)lTiC¢), The "achttel"bt.!is' ilt read'l'W] ~lG!l:g (l_;ne\vdern~:n~> Hl~ OOl'l'idar. TITi~s dcrrn/(J1iri1! "'fjJtlUi sk~:rt£ the J.l]ter'ioJ.:o:~!tt,. de!iv(;[+ng, light into rh~ ]$vitlJg quarters ar the rear and ib'~ Ypp~r !llJO:l-ics ·gf t~:~ ftipn:t secr~iJ1'1.\. 'f"ili'i,e. int.cJf(mJ s()hdi ... i~.iQ]]~}' fl;lllcti~YI'lcil![1 be dearly read 1;1'1 the f::l,"'a.d:e, TiletSifiai lIDl.Ul·e'il.diJwW](l-];rlligh~ front spa ee :mdl i,;h(Jra_£l:(l:tl~tic lifdn:g beam are:11 rei'lli~{Itle'f (~r.hs. connnereial ongi<iJ$-

Phllip, 1luig~'!:is., hfl.~ ~Jt KliiZ$):"~j~du J I <) in Am~f"1~~fl1 (I (!"!I},··~.hh'Rtilln ~iild pI:'",,, or,~1!liI stare, The ":~,,"'d,Cll~I~ ~fio"tI'. dl~.llnic!: as"~' dis!irn~t; sligJI!~Y '~'s.;d spa.e" f[l tb.l>friJnt ~.~tj"" <If th. '!JOIlS<:>

_"-';"'-'5CI;1)()[\ f)r-d~"i-.,,,,,'14 -(o:]:\lidli;,g-) _ f:toil(.~i[)fI·"r "",,,dmiJ (~'OO'I:J:itii·· _ <)(,'_Fri.dW' le.,,(lililg eo .. ~d}wlw~


Mmem]f pro 8Qld(J par oerechos {JL: autnr

rrI':S~(lN ""ND AN.'!.L Y:S~:,j

80 f'~h:u: schemes fOlr wnd:. iliud clwcUing

In. 594 ~hL': Dutch engiaeer Simon Stevin wrute V(, o,:rdcm:rlg der sude-II, :I. bC< expounding the firs'~ llnd most impnrtant town pla!1!IDIing theory POSI.ic.d in the Dutch lang~a!l;l~, .In ~t Stevin 1U~Ml pWpGI!ICS a nu mber ofideal diag:r.ams of'1 mercantile town with an inla ltd }l"i"oor rh <it <Il""ClIl".atei y reflect t]rn;ewoj1 ciries ]le~lly were l!.IJ,ed arceatury's end,

{-\~ the same time the recall plans for idbl.1 cities dnm'lll Up' before then, particularly ~In. ha]y,. Slevin's diagram is predicateden fuaceien and on the Duu:tJ town as It exi~tcd at the CIDJd of the flifu::cmli ct_~[\tllfy. ~I abandons the idea of it rlldi;a~ 01" CCl:'!tlCalimd (.;o[lfigt~rn (~O n. ill feam re ·of most Ital i an ideal-city plans, Thi s \11':4~ a logical sIC p .iIlln ~\t l n Dmd'rt m~n-;lrlJ'~i~ewwns commerce oceupted a rOlf mceeimportanrplace (hOlm, [he QUe5l!I:Oil of defense .. Rath er than being l'a.di'111y disposed, his di~gr;lIl. links residential and commercial bILJl~Mi[\gs to thJi1ee canals;e ~e!lgthwise through inc town. Square W ~i1Iis system ofcal'il~lls is a zone .c~crv·!;d fOFcummuna.1 spaces and bl]i]ldili~ for :tdminist •. 'I1- ~io1'll.] educarion and COffilllcrC.i('" H1.'ft; a rethe prinei-

pOl] market, dne eburelr, th~ sehcol, the j)oorfuou"~c 3nd~on the w:ty edge--tlle r,o}'a~ coart. All other :public fad~i]i'es serving the!crs. of (he town are

S'!;:t ·on fQl!.I!li squares di.Sl:dhmcd eli",!]ly across (he ~OWI! and ,djoubling as specialized markets.'

I!llits characteristic simplicity, Sv!)vi1Jl,'s schema hi as oec[l (I f Slemi'liUll influencct 011 ur banexpansions in the N"'i~erlllmh and Northwest .Europe 111

gen em I. This ls beeau se it r"-"8lJOnJe-d to the functie- 11<11 reqll iremen IS of rhe DeW ~a:rgel"-sC;]Ie commerciel networks of [~e seventeenth oel1!l!~liy and pmv~d<1d a clear framework 3Uo~~ing a Logical place 10- Itliiljn, urban aC'~ilri~ie~, Moreover, the;am ,(.;a[l be extended ill. all d irect io ns all d is eminenrl y su i red re mercantile UH"llS., one ,of whose p]i·operti·e~ is e~"pilllli" 51(111. Not only impou;m,! because of rhelnflucnee it has. had on town plarmin g pract ice, the tn:<!tise gives

us a pict lire of ch amging ideas 0 r11ll11e dispoS;lliQ~. of fU!1Jctions in the SCvi:TII~(O~mth-(.;eIttu:rr town.

Si niL~1 ~j~ S ~l" .~I~ di!:J(] nf ill. nlc:~c~ru'i t._: tn'Y!. ~~ (frum j '"" ,1, ,""/I'PJ'J'I~ MO' mwm)

commerce _ m~f~;;I.' _ ~\il'l~"!!~I;:ii"l!)l

Material protegido por derechos de autor


ltooms '\i'0FSUlS, circtli:uiow.

The villas (!If Andrea. [''allad fuo \V(':re a ~lmlaJjol" .9011ln'ce of iJrnSp'j:rSlIiolIt for' archi,1ects i~ other EiliJ!ro<pean OC)Illriltries,.En:gl:i!:nd wss a particular esse in point; tlll:re ~~e nld landediJentty and the new class o~ afljhIU:nJi~ merohsnrs became illu:irrnilJ!:ed jlrl, the seventeelll~ and! eighteenth (,Cl'lru:rles. Tl1 e r~sc of this new social grrroup, ran paralh:m m,rlile, eme~,Ct; of a new build!ing tYl'e dD.~t wOlmld prnve of semina] lfifiue[l;ce (lit Eilli~isb a:rroj,leCtl!ru d!!i!frlng: the n.e:llt ~I;ree centuries: ehe comury house.

froce(ld:ing from 'i\!~U WI1:1'I) 't~l1iA "modern'" c1;a,ssh:, l\Ump'l~ and Old English intemal arl";;ln'~ ments, the c;clll1itry house !,md.e'\:¥elflt a m~j,l)!t '!:I1""n.:~e in tihe seventeenth ,cenru,ry. If the northern IuliSiI1 v'<i (lxl:iibil)cd mlO de:li~~~ subdlvisien in~o public and pfwvilInc rooms, I'bJe .En.~gl:i:sh. OOIlDttry houses wer,e inform.ed by ideas, (1.11 di:fFex!:lilLt degtcesof "'publkPe;<lii-" As can. d@!!rly be Si,iilolUi in dlulplans of the Villa Emo and d~c 'u>I~S:hill HQIUls:e dlesi.gned by fratt in [650, tlite made :;l distincdoll Ibl}~ rweea r>OOlIlS bemoIJ:g~ng ~o Mu~ hOlllSlCl-O,I'i'OeTS and the .:::Il'Cl,d.ar101n :SpOlic:e. Other [ Imll d'u: sixteenth~OO~lIry [1i:!i~I1l!n ,,~llas :lind Ilmch like Vililglboons' Cililliill hOilli~s the :!i~p<i.r(!ll;io!:l! i!!itoroooos was integ!';).1 tothe English enuntry hO!.liSie. tl diisli1'!crion was made oot\\!'eelll servants and t~e owner's fitrn.ily and this was e:lipte~!ied in, thespiltial lliJri'U'I. 'F'~e architiec'i: M!itl$~lfpQsi~d tthat the eentral l"un~leIlgth co:r.tidor w;)s d'telte ~(I pre'iO(l~t ;l!~ (lcellpj~r(l(lm frmn bei~g dlS.l:lUipted by poople ~~:iJ'lig it as, a W!1!}' And m the fest ofthe house' meservilllWM" PfllJt~CA:!'!iidIlU.eS;, shoald IUU be :seeIIJ thelr duties."

Trm~s larose <1 ('3:rm.ore diirereHlll1,ted floor phUl ·of cruridots and roOOWl!!. II'm tl-!~ seve:nltee:nt~ ceDro.)! ~h:eR I'(jIoOm~;'!~ ill Palladjl)'!,! villas-we!fe still ci.nseIyi:nIBnimked, ~Ul 'later 'mey adwievc.d greater Imd:epe1ild~l'lice to utcLI'Il;1!uely beeeme :iB,cc:es:s:,ble only (mol II all.liidor. The "pc.a:oe.s oocame more and m!)~ Ilbrooms ~Iil I:h.e present-day sense,wLth the: resu1t .at each 1II'as im;:rea!iii.nglyi:nt0£1dc.d£ol'a. parrieulaz acti,vily. Thlls" the l:}'pi'ClillEnglishcclimlltry h01lllse emerged in the dgh~eentiIi Ilmi1d lII~n,e~eeiillth ,ce:IJ!;u':Y:

a ~:lir:ge rrll:rarn residence' liIiIIe' names of whese rooms aLr~dy tdll,ls mey were for ome kind! of 'LIse olrnJly"

A 1l0i!l;SC ,1)( this tYIJc is a 1S1Ilm (If l"& {ali specific activi:ties and arnlbieID;ccs djcti!ll~dI tly (Ii'tlw.e~til)il~' ~lTre dining renrn, ~he b.r·eilkfasf ~m, ~e JibRry=-;)~d

the dr3,\7!':i:n~ (originally "'lid'l.dtllt'llilig) room f'Oir the: lad!~lls 00 retreat 'IU frrolll the smckescreea produced by the m.en ..

If~r:rr~; ~~id~fro~"'J~ilr::Cho~I~~J'autor

I_I ~IlIT.lcl!o:r

------ ;11_"


I,mul"m (lflif!lJ""hll'~:)', iiedJ[mu Sl,l\l~'"

(r'ri~ .17~"), """.hI ~le'\'llt'''~' "['l,e pi~rJ~ alD~l St\~!""n' jj.f " ne ",. rh~ j,"~L".:;;"h,,,,' ·I.R" ;iJ~C!"l;ol ,),c!':"'I~t;J)n .,f " ')'lI'tCdJ1 LOl1dml to",~hrJLlSe fCft tl"" wdt-I')'.J.fI' ",hl~"" .,nhc; ~'1!lhW<;;flth om,n'l"J TI~c 1l-ill.ld1\':.ll.L ~~I~lLdill!l he'to\\' I'ht'.p!l'·l""~t <IF [he 'If!mr~ .1ml ~i n, Ith~ kil~h.~'l, 11>.\ l'ltll.l1f.!1 ~n;l ~\""n'n.'~· '1(1'''0''', TMi: Ji"i!',i'fO"'l1 YI"~., ~1~1II~1f1' !)IiI th" j!11l!llfd IL(..,f, '1'h'1- fil'liL fLO!). is " .• nee Itll.,; Lhe <>lh~!"ilOO l..,,,,,,I,,,,~"<: d:r~""~)fl: "'!!fjro ""11;,,,11 ',~,,,Ir.'t~ ~·h..: .tj\.'l',t, 'lI'h, ·r.".! 01' ,ill. "'m.~)" I"

'~;"'",~ t,\,~.r· !j~ "e~ir<l"m. .

t'i>l'r"",,;,Cib "" li ,,.,,,g ...x.;m _I,!o;.o:!nx"n.; M_f,f;l'i1I6i\@I"~'f~,)1 rura hos

r II





aul r

Sita~dardJi~dt)n ~nd sp~ifie~dt)n :l:tl,eiglltecfitb-ceiDturyli:~iligl:i;sih tOwill :housc<l, tliu:

S:limechamgc;s an'; Il!bserva;b~c:i:n. the rc:la:tioOi bct\!lCC;1lI dwdlll1l,&' and dlft,;ulat!tolil areas as jn Ihe ~Iilllias of P::l.lill:l.di'O .. Alt tI]jli"~ time tOO, these hllNseJi elearlyex.ihlibiilt t.cndem;y 'wihiiih ""~B; to ~jn I.;JJ !>1fi'!lgtil d'<l!r1ng th~ next r",no c.entiuFl.\ic"S!. Town hOllst's in LondullJ,Elatliu all' Edil1lbm:gh were oommtssi:oned nul: bJ' indi"idliHII5 but hy building cmiLt:nictors ",i_lmn tllaiJ[ for :iii markel,. ~:nd in!deed ofren spl1Gul;tt'l'ld w~tht~esc I1!Olj)Se8. The new ItOij,~. had I!) satiS!)l ~n.(ll'''Uy K~epMdl CJ:pOClJni.(Jilll; dIe}, CJj~l.illd :JlO IJJJilget ~ g.:\~JfCd iJ} !!ldh1:l.iJ!ii!1l1 li,i~pj OOCilll!~ at till) time of building Ii ~ta:S! fJtle11l .not km.o!wl1I\iotllO! the <i)tl)OiIP"'!1:t.S ""'(!luld be. The Upshlldwas: :a grea~eli tendency t ..... ward!s: u:n:if(lr!llIity and !S.t~ltdfl:rdi~(iiJll! than inthe ease 'of HI(,) b~gi,l fW~l,is!<!ndi~g hou~~, The usability of II .. b.ouse w;~s ~!liau:ged hy the presence there of spt:cMfuc, ditTcr:in.g SI]l:l(".e8. fOT tile different acthlitrues :lsse.r::ill!l:ed by ill t"OmpLicatedi s}'Sttmil of com'entlo:rns 'wiliiru the sneial :stal:Ufi of time O€Cl1pa:nts.

These fa~t!l are evrdelilit in the lloorplallliS. \Vihe,r,eas iIll most of time. earlier named'cs 0:1' b.Q'llseSi the fI(!fIr' pl:ln COJtSistfld of m01llrn!s 'witho:m any :(:w!!'tlheif d~slglla:tion (Jf tF9[!,cclu~, tn tbCi Errugru!tS:bl'(lwn 11m\!~ d'ti) rooms wt!ir~ nl)[ (In]y !~~I'.Uddy ~lJ!lm~d bl!!! :p:to"ided. w~d\ dimCJL"i!om~: i!dpulatcd! try oomiQtllio~. "nrn.l':p<l1i:nt 0.[ departure of h']!.Iildin;g far a ma.r.wt't !?( antl7ij.'m,(l;U'~ I:!s~t~mj)(llll)d builders (frfim. n.ow 0.0 btlild'i:n!g(;(Nj'l.,.a~lfH·s and !ri'elid!Jpt;rs} ami archItects to C'.xpf;eS\I. dw<:ll:img 'plellsure or eomftnt~n me:1JS'llIr:libk (i¢i!'m!S and Ii:gorccs. The c::>mmj!)hl (Jf t!he' Eng]j:silii hOI/ISe sbows cl.e3!dy h,ow req1!~rcmen!lS iliodl F:casiibUity, ir~ r~guliilti(}Jl!laml the cb.a:n,ge ~n pl' led 1:01 :a ;J:C:Vif killld oJ dwelli:m!!:'.:"

'fh.elim.ilding' of ~arge residential :d:i8tr~.c!t.Si in London :imroouced to f:urupe the dis{iIlCl'ioilil ibetween! the O~y (tb.ecen:lf,T of oomm~~rc-e)~!nd tb.e suburbs~s:er"~~ for d:weJI!lng .. This ibwllgh.nwiltb it ratite .. I changes inthe ~OW!ilJS(;ap!';, N0LI)n:g~t p(;Ssess~n:g .~. clear boundary., th.e IJTIlw.og;radil!lalllly {,'l~~d 'withiits S!lrl'~ll.ndlings by WllJ !of the 10\'lI(:'rfi~ and il~"S~ de.IiI~1l d.e.vtlloJl.m.~nt ol'l:hll~illd,e~ila] ;l~~:. Themiddlle--dass move; .from. dle !cit~1 center eoinc[ded wldl its pereelved Ijfcesl~IJ.e :~s iI Ilrotected in!t~'1'iorof l\um.C:ly warm .. '. kep,! 3.parl: fwm. the r!iWfi~~ !of urh~!it I'll<l!!lty. Int'$1'lor!1 Uk{l dwse ushered! rnrncnm'loTl ~f!(lg!'t1jfurt. The G!)rma~ w:rit'¢r Wally! Re.njamin would. ll~tel'desc!'iibe ~.ili!Ji:S dc,+,elopment

thUB:"Fot UilC p!r!\,i!!~ indli\'fdu:)l, !:h~ dw~~li~NI Sp'41~;C is fiIOw in rJppos.i.'tj(lrll to tih.ew~.[!I!;p~acc" The j'jj!fS~ (lOin.l'id.cs with tm,cintc!rIuf .. 'f~i1Ic !ll:fficc is~omj'lk\~ mi.~ml:'O!ry t(! thi!! SP'.l.~ for dwelling. In iilitc Iilfficc ~hc in.diividualmkesrealityinJto :a(\GIJunt .. He [l!nw re(juircs of the imclrior rhOit it sholwld sustain him in his illlf1~iio!m.'!O 'I'his d'Il'leIGpm~nl:marke~ tme 'bcgllm;ruing"'. tl1f rhic residential distrikt, 3. .rntnwjlmct.i()ltal area from whiehevery (,'pe Gf dis!Urba.nCI) is exdudcd.

DwclUng' :a~t:l!d ·oo:_mf@rt

[n Uti) ~[nl)!:I)!)1i'!!;h !()efif"':r~1 tihcE:n:glisll id'~i!s of <lomfon !eo[IDtLrlUCcli to be dC\'elQjXld i!ll!d refined, Whli!le i:ndllSlri!a!i d:~'l,'ch~pnrnll:~mll! inLunden \1!liMl the other lar~e cities gcncrlIt.c.dnC'IV building Ins ks {:ntltiofiS, I)ffl'l~ ~Yi.l.dimg~,. fil~t:~riGS ;)Tld th~ liki:l).,

the sl~l,"bllr bs :g;rew wifh the f.~l!1{JIiln~i(JJl of the r.lllil'!\v;!y nctl'l!(Uirli:: and! li~ll 3:fl'h"JI !of ~hc illmilcrgt;(mn.dL 'Illilc delD_3nd!s made :001 d:wc[lffilillg c.omfuflt t.y diU.l r~ch eitisens 'and the middle class exPJlflJdcd: ~;I.;cwisc; ~~~illl mO:JI~ facilitrulls were Invemed ~o ma.1i:e home life mOI~C amenalhlc.. D~'cilliing comfort tlh:us. bC(.1;looea subjeci of s~llId,y ~or' architects.

.E1!:cmpJa.:y in tbis ft:;SI'U~C[ :I.rct:he jl!lIwnlllighcirng' dj:lig:r~mtSn:lOldJ¢ 'by l~'; :rr,ijhi!IQcl Cha:rl'c;s VO}!~~1 at th~ be,ginfi~fig (l:f tl1:~~ CI)!iU'llfY. to them, V~YSCl' i:ndiia:.les :1:10''''' Ilhe mr.ious: "oth'ilties. tllking p.lllLlC in the bt\:lme l~lQul'd be,st: 00 arrangw In the; inl~rCc .. t,~. ",r oplimuffi 'w'lsli~'n'e. O[ljg d~"'S[gf! ·of fuJis in whkll VO}i:i1~~' !exploirtced the d:iagr:n,l/s VI~JiS: the: cd.ebrnted cOllntry h.~nsc inthe Lake Di~ulcl .. The :suiITIl~ligfu,tillg and the: vi(;w (Jf OioeofEnglalnd.'s mosit famooslak{,lS, Lake Win.dl.l:rmr;I'e,. spa.\!fnutl! a division in!o dWil)liing S.PO!!.~.s WiiJil afine P[USpcc~."nd" WLIl.g:. The h~pO!!"titi(m is cxp!r'CSSf.ld im!! the hOUse'L~ !IfN!l.gwnc::nt as tWo!lid'j.Qi!1ing~~LYmc!i, in which dlil; SI)WViii;lcwing :Ql:c.up~cs II :po£:>i:tioD !iuboJ!ld:iml!tc i,(JI lhilit ot'r,hc volume ",o:nJIl11:ining d1!c' :rc~i:d.en~c,u

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84 J. • .J Furactionafisrn

Ch.,I~, \"u.'"'"Y. m,m,"' OJ" 1 ... llo \V;'l.l"rITf'~i~ ~1!)ClIi).i'I~",

Ih i'ri g rLM~Jn!1. _ ~t'n·anl~· ·~",·iii(ll:

With rhe lurbulc!lr develapment nf rhe indusrrjnl metropclis ill rhe nineteenth eenrury, ~E)USIW1g bOC'.tn11': a social prnblem . .Lml'g>t: g,on:ps of people had to' be giliCll ,a.Cl;u(!n~od;[uio'l 1[1 ,1 shorn space of time.

Until then, house=:buiide:rs h;ld. f~lliem. hack 0111 ,I gencrsl consensus 0111 functinnality. Moreover, the easks such as these in our exampleswere sn,,:ighrforwnrd,.<l[1i(l orne'll involved providing single solutioas fair weald1), ind~'I'iduals. This chil~ged iJllJ the nJinlelee~th century, and large estates of r~[Ji,dh' erected 1II1JSanl~:u'J dwellings were am ple proof of (litis. change, As the mCiliU. fo I" housi n:g: the: ind~st~ial \I'(~~rkcr wcre limiledi. all all[:CtUIr~'lt became l:oclIIs.ed ,on \!j/'1];U"""~ stricrly [U',I(;eS:S:JIllji and fil!l{:i',I:.j}~fQl.

Sepnrat ingl:bc func rlons

The rise ~1Il. the 1:I.i neteenth century of the big ~n,(Itilis:[ric~ andnew forms of transport made I1.CW demands 011 the \lIayrides. were out. With the tlJl",rivtIJl of the milway" forexample, rherewas fI new mock of tr:!l1:spor[ 'Whkl~. could [I(I( simply be slotted inmthe existing urban f;lbr~c, I:mt sli,ced.~~uuugfu it il1ls:iCOId!. As i:n,dus[I"Y i ncreased ~~] scale il:lilld nonre~:idetl~lal bssi ness OCfllI'CS s])rnng IIp-anol:lltc r pllJ(~n!O'n:u;IiIOilll first (~[l(iOUI:I·ttC1t(ld in Londou-e-rhese

d ~ cu~ed the !P'Pe;JrilIlI:C 0 f t~is find {)til er eiries in EUrD'pe and No:rth An]eri'~~l. Gradtmlly the industrial areas and eommereia] eenters became s~~p"flIN::d

fW!TI the f'es.idc:!'!~ial districts, Th;~!:kvdQrrn~n~ t\':)S largdy (!!Ij e [0 I'l:'Hllrlt:~[[!1l' ihe cost 01 land in tllllie commercial centers rose so s:teep:~}l tliLott i~ew were in ;~ pflS]ri,on m live ~I'I these :11'1:1111>.

After 185:Q the quamy of llu)u:!>ingcam(~in.ror increasing caneern il'lnilrll ~Il:'llkt: Df,-~pi)d!':,l:I'Iics rhar included ChO]l;fi! <li1Ld tulJ.(lt(~O~I:!e,i,i,~L In aM.;! I~O solve the proWI..":.ffl uf 1I,I'{;.it:II'I:l' k~idemliaJl'I.rea:; rut (he urban m3SSC!>, rhe M'odc'rrg srchitects united illlC! A M (eong-res 1l1tematiOinai1lJx d' Moc'kf[l)ll) advecsred >I distill ction bc~ Wee!1J <!f'!:>IS f(-,r liv~!l g ~~,d working .. This POllU of departuee 1\13S reworded !1I1i1Jd systemized by le Corbusier in the Ath(f1J$ Ch.,rll'p· (~9JJI' in which he set clown the s~liict di\1i!ii~)n imo IJ~p.dlill:g. WQ~k, R,m';f'(ll'i(/~I' <IIfNl 'lh~/I.}pt~rltw·my <IS the obj(!;ctivc I)f urb"n p'l:!mm.ihg,

In 19135 t\m!!lerdam"s [:l'hy!>ii,;1!~ phwming ag:ency led by Cornelis ""m Eesteren drew up a General

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Extelllsion 'lara (AUP) ~atg,'ed. 'emlltirely on thee.IIM pro, The scheme [ookas iI'S ~ma(:l[i:rag poinr the eakul:u:oo. futute growth (!If Arm~telrdlUIl. Tilltis grnwtirn 1'V';l'f): 1l'OCQ·mmod:).ted b)' d.e"e~Qpi!\g a number of suburbs sep<lJl'aood from o:rae: anmiher b}1 greemJ zones,. f.'ach I1csi.den:tial 3!rea had its: ~w.n. daily i'ac:iruii£ies] di:rClOdy der~"eJ from. tb.e funcdon (!!f dwelling.;

there wss n(ll ,commerciallleme!l' there, It was assumed thattbe male I',es:idents 'WQ!'J..-ed ,cilsewl't~(l j~ the iC~ty; in tlii~ fiel'i' western doC:kJ!l. rOt ,example.

!.ec:realtroI1J1JII 31'\eaS sueh as Slo!cl"p.las and 'rlc Am!lOOrdilmSeB~1!l ..... ere an DmpQI~aflt effiemllWllt .of the pl!!i!l! .. Both '!)O~ti!lye: th~ nadit.ruo!l! of ~he sa-called pi.!blic I'!lwk.~. p;.trb inw~!c-Ili! N.lcwellltto!lotl use plays, ill spedalpart illl the desi~. Thus: l1he .A:mstelJdl,unsle Das] a rowing caarse, an aQ:1.I311ic S(pOlrtS center. a jlliaypol1lldl, nn open.-:lir th(:~r(ll", abrmd;ll}~ 'P3Jtlru and 3. fa:m~.

F!lncti0.n~~ J'1).1~tion!l·i1!nd mO~I(li!'!!t Taiking' ~liicir cue from Americillil sde:mdsts: s:\lcb as F.W. TlSiylol"., the origina.oor oh~b,~n~m,c millnlli!!!e,., mmu, dlcrill~H:::don.aUl!lu a:m:::hir,ecis made ll1!!i'e5ljgadOES in the I9:i:OS ~nto ~ow tin divide lIiP 3. A.M.!' plan. ~o' gi\l~ i~ mOl!x~mum!ty •. But t~e, tooi things a step f~rtheiJ' .. Not dI~d ittitey orgalIi~e6mlU::Eio",s; tke"y set Gilt to determiine tbe 1Uh.l'hJll~m diml!llS.lOI1S l;!'i!'(I!!'.lSa:ry. :Fo[mn and function were ene .and. dlie SOlilue, du:y dec:~:lired, 01" .ltatiltu::r the' flillucti.0n ",rod:uced tihie: rorm., and the old pn!llici.:ples w€:rce no Iolt.g<ll' applirnible;, "]F,OI'm fcllo,ws flJ!ru:tiO<I!." the e~dl@ ·of d~e: American architect Louis SuUivan,. long served as il c:lim:chy slog:llm1i .. ,l ThJsoody .of Meas ,crops up lilll du:: app:roitch GJ1eoo· Schijne-Ultotiky, tile designer of [ile "Fr3I!1Uwnet Kiiicbe" (192')". a model kitchen. for sOI:::M. housmg. She IJoncei:l'edbcl' design as :I machine. Her icil.e:J.sissuoo .. Irum.thcaiboo!l'e suplposrud~nth;):r :I fnncOOI!I imp~tCSl ai. fOm1. In. nil!' lk~tchM aU11;cllio~s we!f~ p~diClt.!l!'mi!!:ed! and de'!'~toped 'DUt 'of ,ei.~()ti.O.micreq.~irem,c;n:ts.l! ErgonO'mir:s iiOl ~he littIJdy into, the mest ~ea]~EaJy and least I:i[;ing' postuJi!lslior the human rbody [11! dilfe:rcnt acrividcs. Tihisr(;."Starclii. d(wdo~lld! ditlll"iliig lihJll "iJ.w:est fil:lr efEicielilitproductio:n teclln[(j!ues, ini:ndu'8!try but. ,vas soon se~zed. UpOilil by ajdi!.it!)~ts~j];d translaood lum the shape of the SiP01ice. The surface needed for01i prescrIbed. lilJl:ti\!'i~'y cantibli.l5. 'be defined] qllamcil:alti.vdy .. Acrlvldes se[vin,g :11 oomilOOOnJi aim, such las the P[~ pa!l'aJtiol'l of liood.arebliOlIght rogeldi'tel'lll. fI1!TI.ctiioD1s

anJCI de:s.cribed in ,qlla.nt~tati'ye terms, It is ntu,cn possiMe 'W :lix hefo:relil~ndthe feq'lliremencs for use in. a (functional) prtlr,ram. Desip resea:rci'i: sub~ seq~e!\dy tiI.!:rttS, tome sl~ !l!1!d PI)~ltjo~ air !~C 5p!lc(; these a(;dvrries de~a~d.

M 6~'tl ~ ~h\l~~,Uf&lr&1. IW'cfr9RI~ru; autor

Uei!~n 1lJ~II.l:eellllh-<lell(lllijl Londou

i\ rmn;,dtiilIl. c..; ... n",aI :1",1"".;,,,, P!~:!l {All I'. "H~J

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dCA' UJ'l,

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N Ilii'tp.II~d.~ u liD ,"hi""", \Clri:lolilll.WI!I tril\i:!r1liHlil !!L1!"'in. l'!'''P I!! hilld f,:I .. ~H!I~l '" 11ori!t ~J :r.~;,

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11IDU!i!T.ltiolillii of ~n~mic studies inio en~' ,cofiwmmil ol.ljfnng demesne mi\i'iti~


,0\1\ u i\ "'ALYSl.'i tI

Day f.lnd nig:I'u use

The above studies into rhe most functional of

"~tch n rlluminate jlil,st one ilSPCCI of mass housing. Other researchen have tried to man out even more

y tcmaric"lly rhe activities than take place !.lily i~

djJ~' ou I in :I hou e. rami liar example is rhe series

[If (li(lgnllllS mad e hl; t\ lcxander K I,<:~ n of how a house :is II ed, Klein proceeds {mill the (act rhm movements and al.:l]\l~i,C's can be di.tinguished depending on wh rher tile} occur by tla.y or by night. B}' ii.xing exactly when particular actions take place, he hoped to be :Ib~.e io say .~mm,c~hing abour the bare IlIlll1immn of space required. l\ IIiI example tlmt illu-

rrare .j hi appruach well is the scheme JI I. \<,111i1, den Brnek submitted ilil 1935 to the influential competiuon for low-ccstworkers" dwellings. The UlSC is stipulated with ~f'I:'lt precision, even for different times uf the d"lY- The various functional l1i!!liIS, l~,'ing n,I(lliIl and bedroom , kitchen anti b a dlrnol1l1!WC are gICIUll'cd wirh .~ rna eimum objecriviry. However, this objectivity 011,1,) pertains if [he space is 1I ed as the designer envisaged it."

Slutlk, ,ll'lill.- <If I11m..,IllCIlI ill ~ ur:tJIIL"l,~l arul • nlJlJt'rn pIJil (Aln,l.mler 1,.1,1';". r<J,l1 J

J lrI. 'an L]~~I Hnte-'k. <"111'<.' too "mll'~!iui'''11 ior I!""...._~"t .. ",ler' h"u,illg 111,_15). Fum;,heJ ilr.,r ,laml


JJ'I .... n tl"[1 Urn.!., ."'1') i'" Ci'fI'p,!';rimnlJ tOlT I"W-I,lI.l workers' I'luu ing, 1.o"'.I.r'" dra .. iJl~ ,h,,,, inll" day .mil niglll I,,,,,

Material protegido por derechos de autor

T.lllie uri.lit.y tC~)~e

Dill"in'g :.a!'!d imffi!edl~!lll:dy aftC'J: ,;V orM W:ar .11 i:1iII America., the [Ol.u[try where Tayl.or did his f~~e!ir.clJJ, an;:Mttcts rb(lg<1!1l d!e~i'fiing: litera] "machines 3, l:a.abi~ ter,' A m.aj<nrpQl!u of depii.l't1.ll\e In d!Ollllg SO\W.S Iih;'ilt 8(:1>::11 Ilousc.s ge:nera~ly centaln facilities (s~y for oookin;gallitd.ahluflol1.iS) llIIb()s~ phi<ierrHlllt is dictated by pil"esall d dU(;lS. Alf.!inst th~e l'trl)tml spaces 2lJre set 3. number nf£erve,i liv~ng' reems or iaedro()(ms who!'.1~ fOHI] is W]uJcl1 ~ess, med. The d~!ferenoe between Ser1i'1UiiU and served info:rms the dicsiglUlJ

made by J1t[ld . !P~el&her in [9'4.~. A nlechanical OF utility core ,co:lill~llIilning the req~isi!:¢ servicesshs liwrnlly [n ~be centef or the house which has eVeJ")\'~ thing of a dillis;rnm of fiJilrumfons ~omeW llfe,

The p!"(:fab:r[c!'!l!!~d! \)ilithroom that ]Bud.Minster FIJ!U~[ designed LIl19138 is 3lrguaMy the Il1GSt extreme ,example ·of a des:igrn concept [n wl!JffiI::!lru pro{tlJtt '4110' 1!(;ft;1CtiliWj :~nde",!!,0nomi(.'S ;]I]11J enlisted ~o determ ine the £fuiliPC 0f plldof a. brLWiilJding. The ofl'-~I1Ie-peg ~.mlilr 'is calculated ,e",,3cr1y in accordance with the g,pace ~st!mcdl neiC~ll:ry !!fid can be: t:rSliliSpOifted. to any site wit~out d.i:limwlty.


_1 .. $Ui;,.~~ II!: .!mIfifi.i!9: III ,_'rn~~~lI

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iCD:r,~"u"". ",.1\1.ti""s'hfi"s, and! f!ln~d(ln'lil o~!!JIm1iion

l;ij}1]~ Ii~tcllll!g; li~·in!l rooms d!!r!; "-,,~c!i!!gll; b<.w·wm.iJ 1_ sereiees

~NIIi: OO'Ifo!J!! zr""~' ~ \\Io!Il ~!iI' g;IIIIIT'~IIlS,

Mul' S'tm!, Q!'1I!;r;UlIi of dail~ ";l\'~ul.c ,er' ["'mily ml'l<lli>t:.!' h9ll51

Mr ~~fjl~~e . i rQf~6';tflr~ 1f1'&"ipd e autor (~oo8J


IJesi:gn. ~~:'i:areh ~\~Id, praeeiee ;d'n:r Wf~lilc.l W~r !!

:\[ICI" the S!.."OOIld WOl.r~,d W~r the ideas of the fUliinimmlist av,u'u-g,m::li: hCCllrtllCI'I10re par~ ;lnd parcel of :!i.'1;m;rll't building practice, This certainly hdd I{~~ j'\\luh i\m4;ri~1! when, du,ldrlg RJJOS1;,'dt's preside r1C'~'., gOUT n111C[I t p lans for heu ~jl'l.g brge ~;,:c!iO!1i~nf rhe,11(l1~<lli'l)n W~I'C drawn ~,p rOlr ~h,c

~1 rstt im't'. V l'1ljh,('idc:Js un [i)H.SiS housing and l~jjb"'rl ~lbnn~ng: developed b~- prewar .~~chih;ctS\VC];~~ of far moee la!>til'lp: il'ln~,H:'H;e 01'1 tIC\:c!QP,mientl> im Western Europe, III SL';ln(,~inav~,~" Great B:riltain, West German] (as IIW3S then) and [11,1: Nelhed~lmlds in, ~~::.lriticlJ~ar. these ideas ami the quest for the (;0:1:],di!lo:m5 fur ,iml "Existcnzmmirnum' \\,rre C:jjuciaJI~: impnrl:Jm fbr rhc pracrical HISI-: '[If rebuilding those cnunrries.

Sumc y.L.';)rN Il~r!lfc the war th,~ German. arclritcct cllld .~~gi!w!!r ~~r~s,t :"4cuf!;n plU!bli!>lu;d:l wdgfu~y 'I-olu[lll: 'c!1!lirjl:(t B(jIlI"'.1'mwr.filrhrr; ("9.1,6),- Thi~ b(.m:k., ,I vcrjtnhlc treasuretrove of'ill(orm:Jtio:rn 0111 the surface areas necessaryIar ev~ry imI!J~Ji!",ble d<l.ily '1I::llvily,. grew during the fiftics into <I s~ill1Jdard opus Slilll L\~l1sulll:;(ll:od~ly t1y miU1l' :),rci'lircc:'mral pmcrices. Neufe r ~ and histeam measured cl'erythung, freru the dimcnNinm (If 1h~ srnalle .... r dm'o~oN:: lind the most d,&idcl'lt hnN':;~. WO,linl 'hi '~h,c measurements nill~C!i~iI.ry fill" optjrnum l;ir\;IU!~ati(ln in'l .. I;:lf~ induor car park. P,enil~C<lling the fJ(/Mmm'1,rfsldm: is d'lci~c-a Iha!'~ d.l,(jr!l,~,gh ~llal.ys,is ~)f [I buildilng'~ f~.m:r,;ti{l,r!!!; is a 1I!"ln~1 c",,·~~)i.n lu produce ,III Qb~ee~~,y~ Though nrher wr:llrc:rn l:tlil!~ 11,11' e wnrded rhis oplimis,l:ic tcchn1iuc:~,~tic [rll]ll. uf I.boughr 1I1Iong mill re visiona ry lines, Ncufcrr's book Ilia. been ofinllSiimllbk lnflucnce unthe ~\:ay archirecrs I;himk The ~funcl:inn!l~~,,1 body Qf ideas also millie ill,!,"Q<lds into the Jaws and sMmltmls set by govemmem such as the

'''n,~ aries," III e [11i nimurn su rfaee areas ~n :f~rce in IJI!!Ich suo;i"llmU!'.

1'0 snl ... e the problem of ~na.s!> reconsrruetion,

:I. rrmJigim,i:' quantity oW rc~~;ifdh .... as done into ITI:1xim.izing: rhe d(c·~:~g1i1. mmcdl~' ~al~l]g its CUIO from fLU:unctiunal rcquire:nlnJcm:s. Aistl nf gHlwiug influence 011 dc~i gil d urin g ~ he fi f!:!CS ;\!'iI d si:o.;~il:~ were rhe socia I and n<l!~!,Jr;l~ sciences D'cd!>i{ln-'m3 lidng mechanisms ,lnln,d ma)!imij?:~~g I"'UOCSSlCS had] been

i n vesrigated be fore then ,IS pa n of the war effort,

an tI this eontiau ell ~nto pe~u::r'tilnle. The design was now IJo.,>ull:.rt:tl, :.~~ :111 arrangement in tbree

dimrnsiolU:s 11m! cOI\!.I~.d be reproduced in ~m:icll)' empirical and r:M:il)n;d mndc:~s" Formwas TUI .~ml,gl:r the self-sufficient category it had been; lhillking in forms prevented desi gners from adop ~ill g: a plUJ l'eI)1 scientifie attitude untrarnmelled Ily trnderion or persenal sentimenr. \r.,fe can incl udein this ,(]C'"e!opmen'[ [~~ e work of Chrisrophcr A lexander, '\II ho

br'uu ghl:UIJ, [JC w tech nliq ues fw:nl mat I'IICill'lru,:ttIcS :J nd enmputerscience ~Q :'IHaiU'l an ailS:iii:3!Cti.(j111 of

t"rlld.ltifl n,d arch ~ 11L.'~UI nil cnn ccpts. 1Ii' nlc hypet hesis behind ~hi!l line of ~hG~~ght W<l~ thait kitehea, bedroom, garden '~mlllile ~ike evoked t,oo rigid a pict'!lI"C ~h,a;t ruled out all bUli! a pl'edi~I)O\Sed atritude and made it ~mpos,,'J:ib~e to make a "~)un:" 3I13~ysi£"

Thug, i~ his book iVo/rts .m tllf ,S)rmlirtsis oj" FIJmi, Alcx:UldcF sets out to lind a gt:nt:raJIliy npl~lk'~hlt: :i.p]Jff!3ch 10, ~(]~ving dc,sll!!;ti problems. A dcsi',gn Illii!)Mi:Iti. he d:t:f1int.~s as I~h'e "~1qi]i1femt:nr~, which hliilll; In b~ !i:ll,!:!.'li Ikt\\I~',,1] th e 'i>c requirements, hil! ~!>."illnS, :m,i~~~HdM!,~m!lhip:-; Ih'lI make t~Clrn ditlic~~~i 00'

fu ~ fi ll, Ak~xan clCf iIII trod uees S~ IC'I'II:;I1C mClh~ Idi> to trace and then analyze these re'131 ~IlRS hips., sn ~h ill the structure of rh.eprobl.em is bm[lgliIt our alldll~,c sol urion presents II sel f 10 gica II )I.

Material protegido por derechos de autor


Theqeeseien of ~[I\V to f1C[lI!;C the use. and f<l'rm of a. schcmel'~~l'f;'l~d8Jmnd 11~~ been. with us ever since as akceyiss:ue in the discourse <lJ:tt101l:gillrcliliieeets ;'Iml betweeiil nlii(lm, i\~d dl.e pl!Ilblic, "jf"Qd",y, it is imIIM).~sible to nail down the exact nature 0:[ this rd~~i.on:slh.i". The :rb~k;\"~I1.g c:>tampll)s look at two lilte!'iof !!![pproach .. ",riousl,,· lio~llowed by postwar designers, On theone handi, :I]hey keptCryillig ~o pilit i!'n!Cl) perspec"tive the ObS()S8i,re nature (II r a "prisrine" functional order b~i appealing to 11le...:lbili.t')f. On I:h~ Qltlu:r, th!W r'\1ig:ardcdlfcs(!!!l'dlil1.g!hecill!l~ufld oom:text of iliI1i actilliuYlo be one of dl!l~poi~l's of a:p'pliCllti>@1'I from which tn r,e1:!ll~!:I"Pf~lrr. r~woifk,,~dC1ipIQin d:te functiomll pl'Ogrnm.

W~i~e, Altxa~dlel' proceed!edl rromthe prindple th~l~ apurely scieoltific antl]}rsi'S ,of ~~m'u'! [leeds and activ~tie5, sellso:ln:edi wilh psycl1,ol:ogy and! e!lper~c;n.t~al Ie;!mmg" Cililt pfodi.lce a :g.oOO desip, this. nchnOC[,afi.c o(pdm:ism wotllid betritici.'Zc~ in the p~rigd folk,wj~g ('95'0. The stinging crwtjcism of younger ClAM :recl'uim suclli as Ald0~1lI1E~'£k 1liI1d1 Pemer' amrud Aliwn Snurrhson \\I3S d[~dy ~<ti!lly !lIt ~I!:g rblilid faith in progrus Il.uborod. by the inheritnrs oJ prewar fl.lm~ni,on~.lism .. Va~ lE.yd W(!!I11d wriee; "'They [the ':mod!c'[n'~\rchi.~fJcts JQf the pOSt\V1llf fooonsl'ructiDIl~d" II have p~t ~he~1! a!lplr.lid~.!'!s foi' !>ocial wfi$rtt!oID! a par witih !l!:relIioocl]lfe wad have inre'>'crsibll.y :!iluujug')lled archiileCltmc to their :rai:lmml. way of t1ruillking:" .nleJi have w3n~ed to tiline d\1: false nO:!:e!! i~ tile !!~ale p{ li(~ ;!ltd remo,re the notes they d'idmil'twant ~o ~eaw. But rheee is w:mething wrong wi:t~~hl: WSiY drueYi!re: going' IIbolID( ~t,. illS t~ m11lly notes have bee'm r,e,mo'l'ed and tile

~t are all mf!OO t.he same. '1. The stance adop~ed by the fu.nctiOiilal:ists of pOSDY;ar reconstruction :m:thl:c·cd ~:P:i4iC'l d!csi~!t te " mi!l;;hi~e~e"red W pregress; I~ho'lll~fu with no I'CgSiM fo,r nnlil~':s less quorl:tiii.:1iI)l,e !!leeds.


....... "Li!:_JUi

M aterlal proteqldo por derechos de autor

The ILm:i,,,,ItI~sal~ly of IlSI!

An dU411~;m example of [usr such a search fur the ml~,ming of human ~r~i\'it)" b Ihe IHirk of the

.'1i,. Iller ilc;m archiree ~ I.n~i ~ K ~l~.n ! ~ go i - HJ,q).

K.ilbn reieered rh e ide" th;! ~ ~ {I object i vely ol'£'lniz:e fm:u::ti,om. was, enoflg~ in itself to produce a meaning(ul building. He Iri,~d to rranstorm the program of ~I bl!.lilding: intu 3.11 t'J5<,'.lf;: which he ~~lled "the huiiding'~I\;in w exist." He put Ihi!> Ld.~llJpmn::.rfun~·in~C) \\ on~!i in text "Order is" Ill' 1960. II includes the f!lll~wilil':

"'Th~ ~~;twn: of space n;'fkct!il\"~'lr i~ \I i:l~is ~o he Is the 1iWlldituri,UIll a St1":'~.lli\:".ruu. m is il an t~i1]"

I.!i th,.; ml!d i tmi II m :I 1;:1'1:'11';\"1:: 11I'l srrum en t

kep.'dw BM:h or Han,11-;;

~}I.a.\t·tI by the WIH.lU<.:tOf

~,.r is il .. CUTII\'C ~1Iti on h a II:'

In the nature of ~,Pfl("1C ~s rhe sp~rin :!rld the ~\;il~! to .;"iM ill a .;:>crl,~:il1\\"ilY

U,e~ignlll'lnlu~.t clo~d_l" fn~l~m\' tliult Wi~~'~l

Kahn !.lis I ill" the ta.k (If de;;igning a building infO an ,m;.~helyp,,1 caI"q;!;mry of human ,tCI:i,-iri~s" lIhl!sci!l-' dlUd,(:~'I~,~ II"tnkpbu;, ~~.t; stu,Iy., d~c hO~S1;, the street (lml the g:,]thel'i:ng: SpI1CC. Aga.insl these "served" space," wh eI"C daily lifeisenaered he phs t~,e "scrvcnt" l>pan~!.~thc \\ ashroom, plant roOMS. and lIb, ]ikc This di~lin!;lim'! is cru!:i,,] 'wi1i!lerpl"ering theplan, [n\ view the hu~Miflg'!> "will"-in fun.;i: inn,] I i,,1 tc I'n"l:l s, th e ~s!"!'rn ce or the p:mgnllnwgclh!l"f \\ II h 11I:i,f:l1 II f I~ hi: bu i Id!in g ma I eri!IJ], gcncruresa :lilr·.m.WI'tJ'I! ai ~rst glunce seems a

f\d~ n ing (~f I.~IJ idL~J~ of ~'h.c liulll diO!nal~sts h e imerprers i~! such tl wa~: ,t~ to engender a modus upcrandi almost di:l.rncl:dudh oppmOl:d. to theirs,

The c-~!>'!;niC;~ urlhe pmgr;l1fli mot ordr reffeetsthar \\'hul;hi;; wt'quiv~d :~i)f d'lkil;;'flt [!!1~ hut resonates with dB; d~cpo;!'.~~ dc!;i res "ml \\ishco~ of 'pcgple for freel(\OlJl and sel:lIdly. An example or this tl':li:rn nf thought is l~,ei"lca !1mt the SCI"V3n1 SJ)~ICCS "demandl" :I cylindrical :~~milJ and that the' served shm.I~ld be

re.:Chl:rl gu hi r .

~ n h is !.Io.;;; f[)r I~C S"Ik ~ nst i ture at ill." J el la,

(: a 1 ifom iii, Ka111l l}lIS~CS t h 15 q uest ~orl hie essence

Q ft~c task ~ u ("0 the \"C ry heart of the bu i ld ~li1g pregram .. The il"n,slitut,e subdivides inN) throe complexes, eaeh servin ~ 11 Ilr~ "'(;~ pal aspect of I he research ins,lulllU:: the prj,\ 111(; dwdling sector, the semi-public

bLiliMimg. i)f the n.'5CiJJ~·dl laboratories and the publicallyaecessible Salk 111Ice~:~,ng cemer. In, [~r design, these [iln'!" com.pk1!1(;s oj[ bl!l~!dimg$ {d1e ITIcl"til'lg (1;0- ter 1113:> never buill) arc d ist rjbuted across t he sit~ !ill Ihil~ mQ"'"me!l~ from OIIlC 10 the other necessitates pil:!ising dWJUlg~. the research sector. he prominent place accorded 1:0 oolh dwelling and meeting '1:OIn~ pIClI.'CK, reviewing each uiher :1t;'fOS:S the Cllpans~ 'Ii~!;; t wo medieval cas [] C1':, impresses nil every visitor ~ hat rhe research seeror ~s ll1 uo way th,e dmll i nant element. The impr.; ... -ssion, if i1ii'1~.thing. is '!I~al' the designer wished '10 im,form the scienrisrs '~l1at t-heir rcseareh work is {j11J~~" part of .. ~01f~r so.:i;ll~ ent~uy and I ntll:c(~ '~I'n,au ld i:i11b:; up :i scr nlP.t j)llS,i!i,on ,OIS, much lfm;;]Jrds the cnmmunity a. rewardsthe indiv~drr..~ai rnembers of that com:nl,uni~y.

ln the research llmildil'llg iesel f'l11.e "servant" spsces (:~J:iI ~ h is case dlle not lncoml,s klerable utilities) are made suhord inane to rhe "served" labolnllOl'Y .Ire", Nonetheless,lhey 8fC., as 'in so many 'of I:elhn's buildings, fiighly articulated and rcsnlurely present. 011 Ihi!' m:;l .. ::>io~ he ;]Jl;'h:i(:;l1t'd this by ill!~eg;ra!illlg' t~wm with ~i1Ic structure, ~h~ subiect of vliH! nC1H clhllptcr. This imcgr:l.ri(J1l PIFOr:C;;'S genemres aboll,e

e .. ch libol<lw!ry [eve] a solid ser \i ices floor w.hus.e heigJl.t is specified by the "vierendeel" system of OPCWl, gllil"dc:rs, comp,i:s~'ng ir, The vierendeel spans the eM.ire laborarory, k:<'bviil.g bd~)w ;1 !1 "served" space utterly fl~xiMe ,1S, 10, internal mbcl.ivisl,on.

Material protegido por derechos de autor

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Salk 11l£1Ul1t~ Ilt~ rhree n!~i!l ~O!l:lm

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tJ+rflh:.LFI,a:gl:t t1'1.1r .. nf~ tJ.'clu!I"'i ~~ II'h .. ,i~~"1i!iL1j !I'~ L,~{.dl: ,h~~l

Twin J1Ib~nu~ni:n.~

One of til[;' mm,1 Ol,l!S{ll:lj!,c.n ~it.k~ ~f llpg;rnMllic. l~m\!iim,ul1;sm as i.! ma L1,ik,m:u i tsel f1t:1 the lii ftics WiI'S tht~ arehhcer Aldu \Cail E,yt:k, 1:IT1 th~Jl~t~ Jl'ilrs: hCW~l~ une t}f I;]ac .. ~"n'iln:g mcmbL'n, fIr CII!.·M wh(), w~niid ~;i,[(:t !wh.lcVc.lilmc l,~. TCJnlfi, l\" II'! hh: \~'rifili~and li~uiJ:diflb'S' be a[h~rn"p[~d ,'el'~ <tilrly om, m OvC1'lN'Inw Ih!;;·. IIrlt:-Jirute"ia.s~ol~.~tI, .lili tm.l dt';I:H~U'l (I,pprooth :1"1'0- i~~ rhi.: fUIH:!lml:] li1>I~.

in t!J;e Orph~m.~gtil1 AIh!lU.'hhllll (:ltH.!)) V;,1rQ '~::)rd" ~k'.,,,tgn:,,,cl ,~~ cun j1,~~~~~.1 !()i.['! 0 f"p.!!,u~~ Ih,,1 \\!QfC ~ I I[)I~(,.~ ",t1n1;Jll'Jleti fH'lil ,~wcl'l~iipijng, n:1ilM Clll,ltern'ed \'an [~d, 111 [hi.!. b;II~h.ii n.g Wib ~hll: lrdat krm:>hlp b !:I\~'celi'l, up POl,:,;,! les ar l.frill p/1r:,umll!iW: "1P{;1'i closed, Ll;i ~k!t=)~'lf1';)iJclc" sl1la]l big, much Ht,.~c,. r1'l'a.U) few, It wm. his' a~m rllm each (tni~ shri~ld [lirlclic," «lI~Qr:num{nj;sly :",1 ;(\,1'(1' R!i pa~:!' or~'bl!' l';jr~~ru,[i1il·~~.nlll·iming it. V~n E~ I.:.k 1;{)'! lh~ ~!!l!hml,~m 1r:~~~Jj"!'lship he! ween ~{III'I'p~)J!l,C:tus:.____,c.t:r"hmhted r~icr:i"'l'i{l;l'l\i" 'd.~, this: was ~qll,~tI'w.\:(l by l he {~II\ Iii an;:'~'!i.t,~¢t'!i-H~ be 'l1);; i mH(l'fW,nr .IS th,.: i:umponc:r:I.[slbt:m:;c;1\ es, By 'I~:yl:rng ~tW!lS on these re~ilii0:ns'hip~Uld l)1'l tb.31: ht:'iwct:f1 ~lc[idtiJd.'i ~m:l huih f,)lWm he S,1Ll:ct:iC4'dcd in milll:.~ur~ t\'cry 1'i~tch ;;;1)!l9~ :i!. '~'p]Jn;o" will;! 111c)fc thO!!i'! one: meening. "f,f1'l;!'I EJl!~ u!';~s. !b~ term '{I~IIyl.'I!'m~',· If} d~!~ml:! that each'l'~ element (,';lnie;;: ~W() or more 111!t.;Hlil~~~< li'Hll een he: pc:J:"t:t;ycd simuklrt:oouL~dy,

A guo~i ~)ohiI111}.k of h~cw h,~ r.m'S· Ihllff i.l1i.UI~T:.J.6ti~'t: i.s rhe ~~ntLy ZOllo .. ~iJ dw Clrph'H~II,gott. Tilt' \fi'Si'~u'r passes b.en.eMh a raised ,\\. h!~ ~ If 'he b'-'!l~~d ing ~ .. hie h lC;J:.,h him ~·to a JO~ifL, A Tlljno'r IHodif,ll:m';on iu rhe li'a"'~I).g p:l1'Icnt <tile! tlNeJ hJW ~I:iti.r ~H"ld:~, iIlllllll!'llll:H;(, tlie'huiMing pr[)ptT, Thc~1J g:l'Slu.ri:'$ &\:1'1'1: tI! d~r~iar~'I.~G} fU'I.d give: [OHn to rh,~ ~P.."l'l;; b~i'\\fl)\Cn the Ol'ph~lml'~ and the nll\.sl·dr; w~~rld, The rrlnn:1rk.n ~~[we.en c.xtedof'Mi:d irueriur i~, .. (~~'lll'i1;:d fUlfIller by .• l ~cmi-pnhlk Tn •. U bt:~)o,nd. .thc mainentrance 111 .. 1 beckens ~o ihe .\\'{llI'"lcl OLtt$1l.cLc yQI SiJflt!I~l:UU;Qusi.y Ina.k..." clear to the l'isitf.l'w tiltH he is ~n[~:'·i'ng ,1 ""bihlren·s' world, 'trlle. '[:il{ire i~'1J!ildillg thelil, am be I!icg:lf<'1!:d t]!; u ~C'I".i{':. nf U(ltl~h',l'O":; l~l!ll Uh;'i~Hdy t{l;'l.;!lh1 the furl) I.'!mta~ncd .ihml~iJul'k~ un cthllllLppn '~~,'d. T:brc !>pa,£c forms ~i'ttl It) tbe ;,mp:'Il"I. of I;b.e!>{;' s.etllili~j\'It:e". }\ ~illli it:(]nfLunhtJ' !.If '1t~·h~;i:!;."Ct ural d'!-'rtJw~l~ .fi" vbL;: bl:l~MiA'g's [drtrn: dl)J1lIl1;-lik~ ,~m(;l, Jo;ii'cul,~.r ~rmnlglu, :111.1 pa\r'li~i~111 wslls nl"~wi€;~ and glas.s lU \'Ili:l.lti0M hl~t ;I~l :\l~i: jn an (Jj<Il.~)[)gm131 p3nl.'i"n, These' Higc t.h~r '!I'idJ~h.l: t:I.HTI C.T{;!~C· ~l:IU:I'j;, ll~fferem::c:s in Am.lf 1~\"'c.1 and mkrtll's at IJndp"til~d

places, eonstrnee a eumplex sys'u~m of polyvalent ~p<!Ul:S imlC!'!Jdoo to i,\.n(lQl1f~g~ chjldre:nw apP!'(iprhr!e comer of the building fOf tffiu:jr owi1Ii ends.

Scenarios (1:1' use

In th~-jr designs Kahn arnd V!l1'nJ Eyck seem. 0]11 ~Il oCCilsiolli tn be in search of deepe, meanin;gs 'In rhe a()ti,!i~ies: 'of everyday life. They alillld,l: to the: universal, timeless quality ofthese ,;lcnivlties, referring us, to archetypical 'OF l1i5~of.ic G')(ampl~s 1[1 an:hioooture, The \VI'itil'lgll of Va!lil Eyek il'l particular otten ducribe t!he relation between built {\()!'rnI and! dail}' l"ituiI.lsi1is these occur ImlJ no~-Western societies to atremion '10 me eereamnial Oli' rimal nature .of wl1~t might seem purely obje(;tiveaotivi~~es in West'em society. This emphasis 0'11 tin: '1:~ltu:rr.1ll signifi.c= :al1c¢ (If Ian act allies hi:m.witlit d!csigmc,ms. who at nrs[ sigID!t ~!l~m I!~d¢d i!l! a!lotEttiit di~tio",.] lBiilrn<itd Tschumi. for example, or RCJiI'! Kcelhaas, If Van Eyck laokste rhe l,mi.,rel'Sal meaning ef an. "ct. Tsehumi i!~d Koclhaas are mail1lly eeneemed with qUestiOmiLOg blind ;l,ccepm1rulle of 3, given fimcti.oo .. 1'0 this endt'hey resort 00 techniques such. as dlose de\.dopecll in Russian theater and film in dt("; IWcnties ~)r directors lib .Eisenstein and MeyerhoM. nn the \\IOIi'!:: .of dl,esc two men '6'~'eryday acts not tiuatC'1(ceptiGn:d in themselves were iselared, magnified, s:l:lged and linked by montage to otheraces. The im.pact of such m..;mttOliges stems from the fact that the exeerpts fl"(llm life they ,comain am ma~ !'reem quite unrelared, imbuing 'then} with ::1. !"IC'W, dro!lm:JJtk meaning.

In n, Matr/~MJan Tr'(lU.~.~ffN$, a S~ql,1C1M)~ of drawings mad e in 1981. Tsebumi d raws atl:ellllion from dli.s vantage point to the relati€ln ,ofareltitocture 10 use. Saeh oonoC:j)Es as oonfl'Ontatiolli ancl w~icl'l strict rlJJl1!~tion,:d:ist iln~~ysis decreed. sh01!lild IJ.e ~arJ)ed-ta_k1: eearerstage in. his arg-b]meillit . .As he writes in his iJ!lilr~ duetion to (he 'Transcripts, "t:hGY illli1:1 ~I) maintain these ,oonu:u:liclio~~ in :<1 dy~~mic manner, in :<1 new reciprncity and coatlier;" resccning: 1:0 theabove techniques used. hy .Eisemste1I],. En::1I pmeess of dc~ !iuni/l'arl::Mli{n!: be draws newaad s:orprisin,g parallels between fcragrmmts which, lihiough strallge 3!Tld fio(n:o(i t~ the tlnJocusoo eye, ,tll~i!'nal:eLy reveal once mote the all too familiar patterns. Tsc:hlJimi describes his mMll!lsoj)cr:audi lh~s: "By going beyond the: eon'l'elll:~onal delinitjon of usc. the Transrri'Ptj' U8(: tl1.eir tenlativ,e form~t to expl.'!l:Ire unlikelli}' co[lfrontatlons.:'!B


In the mid-eigheies Rem Koolhmlls entered

- as did 'f~cllymi-!'!htrgt-<$cal(l oomp¢li~io!i fbw

01 new park en a former shu.tghle.rfu.ollse site in Paris, ~he Pare de la. Vi.IIcue. Kool.tIl33s'sd.esign takes a ~lallf)if!g tool wielded b~' the funerlonalists

- zoning-e--aed l'(lil1.tcFpl\llti$ It. The impact ,of this s;[f,ar.egy is dmt if brings into \,jc:w Ii! tool (hat t1~~i.1 then was ri:cver directly visible. This he does by introd.ucing differences in hard surfaces and in f~antjng., ThG Clones: of useare d01ll1sd andvisual~zed by dear divkling lines .. Th~s:, the vi.ilol' lilas no trnuble ~:lkil1ig in more than ene 3nJ.rrhy simultaneiJU:s:]y, in ~fia[ each has its own distinct ,'[sual :;J.f[ribmes. The image c{lnjul"ed 1lIp by a particlJIl!l1' use is underpinned by simp.le fot:mlli means; :in thisease these migl1.t be the differences, bCI'1\'(l(l!il rlI.~ gfiliSS of t~ e sports htlld, ~Ile v::l_fio~s i;yp~s of hard surface and rbe rodl)tgf;l;.~!:! !"ylbber Root" (If the tr a i~iln!; circait, That belts designated for q~i~e dlispar".te a.criYitics are placed adjacentl}l 01,11,)' Ildd.s to the drlltUMic effect. This ames Kolllhilas witb. the world. of ffi.lnl where the m, tectil1Jiqucis used, eo present sequences of acdons <!litd observadens as isolatede\;ems rUIiIi iIlmpid !>llcoeSSlon.

f1~ffi_t J {jifj!llh~~ ~jh Q.'il9uii,:;it.'fiB~. ".f1tL~b autor

(N~_81). Dm;wing of,. sequence

1~I):rm and nexjbjlil~'

In the dc\'du~c!l. western world, made d.i,zzy by tlae ~h\:~~1r ~pl;~d !If i ~d] 11I~}logi C1iI] a ml social ad l'aJll~es"

arc hit'ci,;t~~,rc ~ nereasi II1gl~ con fronted wi!h OJ {~i1cMllla. The huih envirnnment h;ls in irself n eharacier of permanence, \\·ilh the btlilding material dlc'Cli\d} fix~nE=: the use uf a building or urban ensc.lIlil,b lc and creet ~ng cond i I iQ ns forthe actions in and aruuud it. B..,n\'een the life "'paTil of aiJlJ;~dillg

an tI the I ran S renee ~ ~ pi frin~ hu man act i \' ilY I here liesa fund1Ha'n~ntaJ mntraductiml .. [[I the design prm;:c!'~ thi!; l;u!1lr..di~liun can be termed the Hrfprfii.clf/lJdl'.I)' II/flu: prlJgmm fo~ rhe designer, Once a bt~~Ming' or part of a cirv has been completed ~[ \\ ill almost nm--:.uia'bly be ijmed. urn. ml1t!r t'barn is 5uggc;;kd in the brief Tlais unpredictability, di< b, certain ftLrncl~unalist arelurects as C-Jrl~ as Ihe ~birti!es -take the mabile met'l'n,mk~:l,~ core discussed earlier in rhis chiipn:jj· has ~t:d in sume ~~re,\s, of design, te demands filr :I greater Ikllibilit)- in usc.

TIl<: term ne:l>.ibilility f!reliuppOM;$ :I, number ,of objl"Cti\,cs. F~~'"I, the pl;JC~ITN;m of the material ~:hm.!~rd nul obstnu:t flJ.lUI'C 1i1mdiliJanion~ in lise. I~ ad di ti ['11. the i ssue flf we~ !,;.I.i:pi ~ el\ iSI i n!j: h~ ilt

struct ures in \' iew of rhe d esi re fo·r du rabil ity .1111

Q"'I..:/l'tel!lfl "',,,r1~j.~~. ,k"igil r,~t l";Ii\!: de h; \:ilkll". ",~, II I' ... .'s""'.t;'m <1m". inl'l

cunSUMc:r ~mdlJ,cts-]"af> become i'[H';Fe~$inglly reic'!3:rtt irn I he ~,,~s,1 decades ami is now often :I considemtien \\ hen designlli,g II new'~d.~~lg or district.

This, mil'i~g for flc...:ibililY csn lead roa multi-

p licit}' of ofrell wid e- r,\11 gi ng SO]U lions n r 1\1 h~ch olnly :I few have some bearing nn nur l.lrgm:a,l!l:IU. Despite this diversity we can make' our II number or p~"in;;:ip~ll lines, In this limited survey, three I'CS]!)OIlSeS are particularly worth :r:l1ntitlning:

ll'le posrponing of deeisicns on rhe pl.accmc'.lu or m~lleria.l u nti ~ I he last ssage 0 f i he design prucess;

- !l.pp~yi[).g !itimd,an.li7.~'d ;Jodi dilef(;~Ufe rcplil!.':t;:,ablo: building elements;

rnmbtllJg ;I ,C1islinction between ~lIcd (bearing) dl!m~ms aTiid n':pla(~able O[]~R_

These approaches are n01 mutually exclusive and can often be (ouml together in o!lle M1CI the same project,

How the desire for jleldbll~(l' is expressed and then 1r:~l1s~a~cd ill.iO'it design depends alrnose cil.tirdy wi'll I~e 1Ji;jI.Un:: ~f the ill:l>k,,!!"or designing a buiMimg C0111pmK'd (If I<!rg:e spaces (eg, lor industri a 1 f:l.i rs and sport] Ill: events) He:. ibi lity means something quite different dm]1L ~t docs when applied 10 housing. In '~h,erol~, sections, we will usc I~i.~ differenee iii internal ar~l1~menl to illustrere how vaeious buill \liol'ks dealwith this desire fOI"tle:.:ibility.

FJ.cxibility ill housing

Fle)iilliilily is net .1 IlJC'W theme in housing. The prewar a\j:mu-~ndc: !i~g;II,'ded freedom in use as, a prim,c ()bi~~I;'i"c.te Corbusier's pl!\~, librre cal'! be seen II!> Oll~ of 'he c a rly examples ill which lhedolm of interna 1 su bd ivisi 0]] is, lLc::hi eved dli,l'ing nne dcs~ gil process b),'quitc dchhermcl~' dmwii'l.g a distincrion between ehe loadheartng structure and the W<lJi p'lrniti'Olts., The dlcsi.gner eouldt ihl:iTh ~< dtti~iOilS nbeu I 11le sl1,~,pe of t(l!iMS al. l\ C(IU'l'lql)l\rml\ el y 1:11); stage, when the K~1fllCIUI"[l and rhe cu:nlj]!)<sili.a<n 01 the r,l~adc had in p1fi.ncil':~c lung been ihed.

lticwdd's Schroder House is :I perfect t'N;;tmpllic of a.illI:r~cmpl: '10 replaee I~C coci1dvcii\:Ctl ,,]il':~$ilJn (If the ho~~c with a Il~,.ible plan. [)weUil!1lg fOlf l~j,!;tv,(;ld was a conscious act r,"q~i,ring an active

ani tude" Tll~ s' OQn \' ict ion und erlies the arrangemen I: of'lh,e liVing filoor of Ihe SC'Il~ikl("r HOII~st'_ Each f:1l"et u I" d \I, clhng--\l· ash]o g, sleepin g, elltin:g- n:qlJ ires lnak~,ng: a choke; OIl each new oceasiun the

Material protegido por derechos de autor


oCCUpanUlilJl;ed to (J(;1cidc and til!C!! act '!):ll. that 97

d!e:cisj:o~. Thus, t!he baltmFO(U(m is m;s\!ea.I.llld. b" opening afoldiiIllg' :partition, a:ncli tabl~s Jlild beds can be f>r).I,d-

00 <lW:i!!y+ All this is ~!l! illl'lll,trn,ciolJl ofRienre.l!d's

!lt~empt '00. !e;xploit W~Ul we p¢ii~est effiei.e'Rty tile limiood.s:pacil ~.vlll.labme: bedlmo:ms beenme part of

du,: living rQO:InJ~ during' the! dll,yand :sliding paJrtitilioml!8

rule Q:1.i~ tllIC:: id(;l! ,or'a! !iingl~ peorrn:)J!ern subdh,tSlon,

O~ly the i\it~irwen,.s:ervjoe shafts alnd :SiiIlj~iiry

fadl,i,ries are fixed.

This tfmlltmcnJl: aUows the :i:nJl!I:M'Jor of the Schroder Hotl!rean aSllOnisMrn.g nUI'O.DeI' of possiMe uses fo.r a

su:rf,,1Xi '<lwci'!! of .tel'!. by seven merers.!· Andl yet :I. des~gfi as rigorofiisilis rhis would! flot Ih~ ... ~ been possible if t1he client" Tmu.~ Scltrii(](l!'-S:Cllriider, ha:d no'I' a.lso been (jcrdes[gm:r." ~nd if she ~m,dRiet~'eld, had not slhiulld. the s:ameid,eas !on dwe~liW!!g'.

!Gel'lfll.inly i:n19i~1J! such an mtf:rior WOiLIrud. ~ave been. unuMmbble in itollsil1.g" At rhe end o(the twentje~h. oemli!iuty {lite e~ample ()fD~ Stijl pf;I)V~S eo be asrelevant 8!S ,e"e;r, ~o j llId:gefl'om. som.e recent hJillusrung pl1)it~ci'S (sec the illustra [cd eJr3.'lll:pj.e by Dtlifi~et, Van del' 'Ferre in A~'ml)i!id:tm's D!iI:"per~ blJiM;1'l!: a.rea}, IilI ml}~~ eases ~h(l desipcr:s choose! 1'0 ~oncenlmtel:lle !>ervi.ees of the ~o!ils(l'~n a OO!,(l'.

This cere hpo!lIIlW:[i,ed. se that me; ~ooP<!!!lJS can furnish t!iucrenmililrul1:g space all they see! fit.

Again, mass h.uus~[Jg is one of tile areas in wihufuc:fu ;aw~l\itec~; h;we ~(jiedw llIugment me of ~~~e,a:dll:ptatiGfiS 9y ,emiJ\llOying :;t,,~di!,!idI demerus. Of relevaneehereaee du: attempts in ~Wwki, eountry by rihe FOllliUd'ml:ion (0[, .A:rchi.tecwru.1 Researcb (SAil:) ""'0 frofi~ 1'964 plilis!b.ed tht',J)ugb 3progrnm of illlPlied lXl~rCh lnr/) the possi.bilities of pre:falDrlcatrng loa.dlbeal'ing 'cme'rnents <tl'l.di se,lS ·of deta~h:;!bl(;l unirs,

I:n "lAIR's solll!twn the di,uijjlCtWfi between l!~rer and infl'3struCiJlllre-ibodl of them. the ,community"!! lle,sponsibiJity-allJd. il1ldivi.dua1 infii]1 kin is aceompanikld. bW ~t"w.d:;!,rdIj~do~ of ehe elements l'e([uriJ,'~ .. :;./\!'tp'f:'oposcda. !iUJllpOtrt :se\'ern1s,tories.

hlgl whosi!lloQi!' pl.lIu..s ;tre lli~ft I!InslLmotmed.

Only the PQ::!iHotlDr ~be entr;tru;;e, the !k:irti:hclIiI ;Judi me ba,TffilJroO!II1l arefixed belo'v~lu8!nd" it is up' to the oocilil~:l!l1!rs lo furnisliJ f.h.e livinl!: space ..

SA.R developed .lI procisi.0:n ;w,~i,~g: sJ,!'flem desipedl to. ensure opu~IT:Il!m 1.IS'e of ttll,e Jr!Q1il!~. This ~n:ing tOOk. ~1rS. cue from dl:el:ia!J1!~ of !:h\(l !'(IOr-nS· andlth:eir pGli·idon in dile loadibell<l".il'lg 8tilUC1~rc. TI1i~ !!~ii:I,!U iii ;j s'llIlM.ivjsioni I'cr h ouse into r:hl'!el:! zenes set plI:ralld W,

Gwit ~iehre.tdJ, Schrild.t .. HQU!e.,I!J19l' I~"'!f!<; d~"':;"Bi" ,,,,f·th,, living I.",,·d. SlidIfi.;p~itil'DiI:!i ;rubdilltde' lilI" spaee ~Ildl i=_. use PCt.eJlI'iat~

O",iii~, VOflI der 'f,,~. n.~buun :h~liIIIill'lll'. 1~6!!l!llf,1lalim~ ii~:lJr(!iliiii!: d erec h OS de autor

Il:lt.:S.iG~ A.ND ,\.NAI.Y81.S, 98

\I":in~ om: used .1S IS, customarv for' the lil,-ing' reems. Bt:'twl:l:n Ihc~l~, anll the third, inner 7_onecomaini;J,g servi eesis ,1 S! ri I'!, a "~l~r:gin" in ~A ~ ~1;~m]Iilul)ogy, ~IHuw~n~ F(u HI,;!);ihil.ity in the :;'OI1!CS" ,dimen:stol1Ls. The ]ius,itiun ufwall rOlnituorr'TI~ and Sl:i"'/IOC shafts adher ... ~ .... :l measurement srs:n:m rhar enabtcs the i.lclm:h'lblc units t'o be r,],;\~cd ;)un:ordill,g ~'O the

I!(X:IJ 1,,11'11 s" \\ ishes, Th i's 'me;) UlI,; th.)J'~ OI,;CUP01JIl,!S are dra \\ u in to I he des if!;n 111)[H;;\:~Ii~ it O1Jls.a ~oes, some Wily i!) ,tt:hic\LllP: ~he desired fi,t;'~d)um of choice with'ill1i an ind W;( rn.a~ n ~cd h uusing systt~nl,l<I


FI.ex.ihrmly in udHw!da:11

In dmnCSIIC ,t:om.SirUClion rhe drive t(~ IkNibi~~t¥ bro!:lg~ll: bOD:~l a dustilThG~ion between IroOld'b(;l! ssructure andihl!ThU. and a r:adlcal sranrlardiearian, ·fhis strnte~, is nu less irnpml;!]1I: ifi)f rhe \}u.ih:lillJg of oHk'lCs;in \~hi(h file ~er~ti!C'mship ltu':t\vl:en ool.umn grid 3ndl intill is usually tihJc PU]1i:J1 of departure fOlr the entire design,

Tl'IrI:11 iIIg11IIn. rhe [Iced for flex ibi ~ i, Y may :~ rise in cases W]n,Cl] hll"ge s'llaces obtain nlther th,]n .1 S[rlwn.g of smaller ones. To [loSie Ihis chaprer we will examine two examples W~U~1; freedom . .ol s~'LIJ(li\lisiml has to do with providing an ,r./.rlif;d{j'i (l!:m'J~f',

One of rhe IllOS( s:pecmclllillfo£ sli.!Icm 1;, .. ,,1)& i1'. the geod.esic dome p,roposcd 0)· llw:kminster Fulk;t in 1962 fOIi P laci ngr)\'er j\!1 ;'I 1:1 h,li ian 10 protect it against ai rpellu t tOli1J, In lmri$ apueal ypricvision the ~ml'd<J'pililg structure is no more than ~ "kinl;'nfold,-, ingu:rb<llli life amid separating it t:~Qm the hostile climate outside. Fuller's p'mp~~~1 pushes 1\1 the \'C~'Y

u~ _, Inoo.1Di~' 1m 11m InOOrl I '!!III II II 2Zlrl I .l'fI:! II • ~r ~ ~ m i

i DDDDDDDD~ ~ DIJDDDDIDD~ i nDDDDDDID~ ~ D~D~,DDDD~ I! 'DDDm[l]IDDD~' !! DOgODDDI III! .~ Ell 0 DO IrI;ill D l!:Gji!! c:::J i~ ;OIIElJ DIID D'--I L -II c::::::::::Jlii!

"""""'. '"--r~~~"IIIfII!! I \!DIll mill ;!!Q11!1 ZlI! III.'! II m :! 1


1M all I~!

I!i.&WI LaJlalnl.~

EEl ICWiI Ii'iI.W rl!I iii I!lillIl!.!I LlI

..... ..".,!"J'·c. i..W 1\.~F!I'1rDE!'Kl:I"li;"""T~~I~! I'" ".1'<_- ,I",,,,_·_~H

I SAR3D2i .


o,"",;"W of ~AI~ rn .. 'lISl!R~ !tip!!~~~!e~1 /i"r liyin~

and ,Io:EI""~ ",on,,,, in • ";Jl:!~I" d" ... Uh'il! .mll. HJtlj M aterl al proteg id 0 por d erec h OS de autor


[llO!lruri,e-r.s of arC:hjtf!ctQ;.r! ... The CD1tj n: :program :i!j. 1)1),

l~mi'ted to!an,c ;lSP()'C! of;l bl,lild~f~g, J)rdte'CtiOiIl

. against the enh[la'dli~g dimflW-~lhi:n;g fl}frh~f.ii> ,~id about rhe!l(i;el;}hhe;-dQ'me.~1

This pl:~e£ilij1pati.i:ln¢)l~e' to create alii even djmate. remrns in me ""Iwf"k of the English '3rcb:iJtiec~' Om!<ln :f'!l.l!!t!;f. wh(lworked \\'il,b Fuller on II number of: peojecrs in 'the ,early 1'97'OS. Here it is 3Cconlp,3n:ied by fi fine :FornI). en thy 11"cIO!Ho!lL~h~r b.etweeJl freedom i:il I,IS,C and placi:nrenI of the 'C,QiiI.stI'I!IQtiOl!11'nOlrtt;;l'i,als., F05ter often I"fali.zedi 'tb:efle:xL~ bally he s!J:ove; ~fwt 'by. dc:si;g<fiJ i,ng .a .u;roued .f/ted, an ondmlfererrli;i~e:d oonr..i:rnef (! r :;;t(:!)j, li]:uimI,in iumi and g:1a;ss.12

g00d eX<lm,pk of 1'101';' tl'l!ES point of departure oon:tbilllcd: '.ith a. ~tiltc--of-t:he-art qlJ)!<i"fYct!t)U and

. tltOlare "'~trol, (;lin preduee II building is the S:rinsbllry Ce-n1tn: fur the Visulli - J:ts. in Nerwieh (Ea,~t _ nglia) .. This arts center brings: t,ogerbel' inan enormO\i!- irtan.gar -al'le~b!ltimll- -ga11ery fo I: the ,,",sl

Sl)i(J!i~ur)! 1U'[ 'C(ln~ctjon, aspace for .spei;ial ex:hib.i~

lions, the s.c:l~oo] offule ;;rriS onbe .Ifleil] uoh~ersit}· ,"

ill. nrIlletiT:lrg .room·IInd ii· r&>t,aur:!ltflt. The (~pellJ SP::fUCC'

with a tl"OOi'l' SY.f-fjC~ ~a of H2." I'll x 2.9 1.1] i,fj

spanned by s.te€l pmtals. This -stru'Cturq)' (lo!'lSdUlte.<;

a srns:I~t! zone :ilhlc to heuse all ser [cessani.r3I:Y

f::lcmt~es and dl'f: ![Ie.tllls,-,,:J/;ry s:t:riI1S. Gi ven this: skin

providing,~ Ilmifonn 'indoor climate the hall is, ill


!IJ~~ f~Ii;'i S:~lf.ij;~ .... rl' c';:';,lii'j! Ii;tr tho 'V~im~1 Ihl:!i;, :I:in~ .. !',i:ln lind ~~:tc;icinjj

IlESl(,~ A?>lf.} ANc\:I.\'~n;

principk, fr[;d~ subdivisible, Thus, the lecture hans; 100

(d- t~~ 'id){)yl nftfine IIrl'-; it~,~ set iri;(lCpcndecrlt 'of rhe

!Il,lal"n .·!rll!;l.w,r\:"~ they i:lluld IR\,.cnitugt.d m'~"l=fl

rt;lmn-.::-~1 \ril hmJ;1 the tH::t'tl 'It) ail:.~r ir. TI;t.1$, InJids.

C'{]u:dly (!!oi' th~ separation of d"H: liliic-h<l!l frnm' rlre

fL'Wa~!r~llfi,t. t\ II olth~r' .:(~ml?(l'neH1:n; uf ~.b e pm_gr~rn

t).~('tl~l.\lh'l:- main sllao.:c, The ll'l~etlh.l ... "·~lh.!m.1: and

,gr.(.,rt height h>cp M,;!i'"lfledrom Int;CJ'k:rirJg l,rhh

<:lyt~h wher t111~hl1~'" The !dlOlc ool'n~s' il~nl'Sf>~t"); artall

hU,t cnipl,l, pc:rf~('rlr I:r:lf'r..:d: 1IS:iembi~ hirrlgi'lr (liicr.-

i ng: .:1 n an 'i:r~ci,11 ~ n ~ iL'~}n n;li~tl.~ rllr ~I· C( Il~:J,g(: crfl\iidcly

. t~in:T.\i'f: a":li-.:ilil':'x" .\11 in ,~IL the :':l..1irc:s,oU'r) Centre 15 "II dUtl~~('fI~ (');"mp"i(: uf a b]j~Minl:! in w~'il.:h~hc d_{~!ikc Hi t;h e !ip(!clm:ul~1" f(i1ttll II; I ill; UIilP[ecl.iCr.lbi~i f.1 .ntd rr m,;j'l:lJ C!J tl [i b. I~~~~ h:,~iS It:d ~O.'I ~']1.i:qul'l' :;:1:tW:llJr~ which when seen fmm a distaneehas much tlf~l brcreil templj,l.

Mat®nal pmtGqldo por 08nJ8ho8 oe autor


[llO!lruri,e-r.s of arC:hjtf!ctQ;.r! ... The CD1tj n: :program :i!j. 1)1),

l~mi'ted to!an,c ;lSP()'C! of;l bl,lild~f~g, J)rdte'CtiOiIl

. against the enh[la'dli~g dimflW-~lhi:n;g fl}frh~f.ii> ,~id about rhe!l(i;el;}hhe;-dQ'me.~1

This pl:~e£ilij1pati.i:ln¢)l~e' to create alii even djmate. remrns in me ""Iwf"k of the English '3rcb:iJtiec~' Om!<ln :f'!l.l!!t!;f. wh(lworked \\'il,b Fuller on II number of: peojecrs in 'the ,early 1'97'OS. Here it is 3Cconlp,3n:ied by fi fine :FornI). en thy 11"cIO!Ho!lL~h~r b.etweeJl freedom i:il I,IS,C and placi:nrenI of the 'C,QiiI.stI'I!IQtiOl!11'nOlrtt;;l'i,als., F05ter often I"fali.zedi 'tb:efle:xL~ bally he s!J:ove; ~fwt 'by. dc:si;g<fiJ i,ng .a .u;roued .f/ted, an ondmlfererrli;i~e:d oonr..i:rnef (! r :;;t(:!)j, li]:uimI,in iumi and g:1a;ss.12

g00d eX<lm,pk of 1'101';' tl'l!ES point of departure oon:tbilllcd: '.ith a. ~tiltc--of-t:he-art qlJ)!<i"fYct!t)U and

. tltOlare "'~trol, (;lin preduee II building is the S:rinsbllry Ce-n1tn: fur the Visulli - J:ts. in Nerwieh (Ea,~t _ nglia) .. This arts center brings: t,ogerbel' inan enormO\i!- irtan.gar -al'le~b!ltimll- -ga11ery fo I: the ,,",sl

Sl)i(J!i~ur)! 1U'[ 'C(ln~ctjon, aspace for .spei;ial ex:hib.i~

lions, the s.c:l~oo] offule ;;rriS onbe .Ifleil] uoh~ersit}· ,"

ill. nrIlletiT:lrg .room·IInd ii· r&>t,aur:!ltflt. The (~pellJ SP::fUCC'

with a tl"OOi'l' SY.f-fjC~ ~a of H2." I'll x 2.9 1.1] i,fj

spanned by s.te€l pmtals. This -stru'Cturq)' (lo!'lSdUlte.<;

a srns:I~t! zone :ilhlc to heuse all ser [cessani.r3I:Y

f::lcmt~es and dl'f: ![Ie.tllls,-,,:J/;ry s:t:riI1S. Gi ven this: skin

providing,~ Ilmifonn 'indoor climate the hall is, ill


!IJ~~ f~Ii;'i S:~lf.ij;~ .... rl' c';:';,lii'j! Ii;tr tho 'V~im~1 Ihl:!i;, :I:in~ .. !',i:ln lind ~~:tc;icinjj

D[SWN I\~n A:>J,U.Y!W;: 102

The wuythat dcs~~:ru'::IF.~ appnl,lch the mMC'rial at Iheir .!i~rM;..,'lI lends i~sclr W~, variety of interprdati~m!i, ".I.'h.ude, aS~t:riillg: that ar,ehilcciUJJrl; lkrl\"L':S~i.nJ.q Ull"UL"<lhl y Inml~tH' demands ITIaclcby !lu; material lrn,,~ ,.\: been ~s li'n""ml~' an mOl,lm;-cd in [he past ~15 ptl~l'lIhuions d;I'imin!;\ eXJI;!ly the opposite, The ~illh~l'l~l:C the building structure hal; Llp-Oll the Ih:~ig'n IllI\(JC~S~ .. ran he dc~crihcd m;in~ one Of other <\11~lc~m lhe dlcmanlls structure makes on thl.: (lcsig'l1,

l lwe arc io consi der the sign i Ill.'1ln(:~ uf h ~uiilld i ng t,t:;clil nl)lug~' :! nd srrucru re jn C'UI'I'CIIt ideas Oil dl'signrn., this can !-Ieafeci,. be done wirheuc due regard rOI' developments that began with the EIli~igbtenmicm.t and [he Industrial Rc\"olmio:t1l, The CI'o!ution of science and ih~ ~!:~\l,nolllgk°,..1 ~nug~''Css b!;l,Ii!1Jg I\vmn this C\;QlmlOn have been of incstimeble i~]fltlc[l!;;eofl architecture, The sc-ic'l1Jritic attitude Mk~lpl"ed by Inany l~leol'is(s '!nd architects nnrwi'icd the ideal nf a rarional architecture, am architectuee dictated by m1:del' and reason, -]"0' gi\'c I"JIlgili"ll,e shape 101~is ide<tl a so~id> objective design fundamental was 'required; th~s was louncl by ~egard:ilU.g structure asme essence 0] buill I(mn, W II h 31:1 olhi,el:llh-,e and efficient use of the means ~\"illl'lhle. From then 011

a building could b~ described and dt.'Sign,r;d ~.n terms of fUlnJL:ti()n and eeonumy.

New advan ...... :sin buiMi.llg" techno.logy were lln~onlpnnied by .1 surge of C)1ciI crncm:1 abnut rhe 1l,rhie-nlI1lClllS .or !cchnnlol!\~' and a:rn IUln~lilalu:ablc rai~1::! ill! p!'Q"~~s. Thill Il:ch]wll)gy ,md science \\'l)uld 1>1J.bSCfllIClliIl~; become part ~)f 00 r d,ti!y til:f:e [ent rhe concept of structure acurminideolugicnl eharge, with cffic~cl1icy and eCOilOlm,y il'si:mplkit eouditions, A thorouglfu ~ffil!Qwllcdge of :1pplicd mechanics, hClI~inJ:(, ventilation and 1:l'l.C lill::c., :U1t~ [If materials, \WH1M thus bcwmc;)n i'ldh,pc!'l~"1tM e element of 'he: :m::'hitcct's dli1:i~y practice. The 1:.16:1 r:C\\' decades ul i his eentury ]h"WI:: seen im:U,e~lslng dou bts as 1'0 the bo UUl clk-ss,nc:ss· of .~ echnolegicsl and ecenomie progress, As, tl. result, building tec-hm,ollogy andstructure arc b"ck U'U'ld'CI' professional !lCTUlirlY though '[lOW Icr:l. a much mon;:\',llriegncd perspective.


ln a ~~nl:l';}lsens;(: structure refers to thoseparts of u Im~~ti~no=- (hm mlk~: up the A'iids on the b'l~~Ming artd carry Ibt:mn d,U\\~l I'll the FOUfl~<1Iti'oll!i; p, •. rtirions, on the uther hal'lld, serve ill ,cliar,ilc ~PilC<::S il'ltu .. n:·t ;lI'Id tJl'Y, n·.~.rm nrul (;n~d, dark :lnd ligJM.

~11 \r~s~ul1an:hill:":11JIn\ri,,-il: blliMln~s wo.:rl.: fo·r 01 li)on~ I~m~ built of brick and stone, A!> 3, rule these mJ.teria·is (;u!JIUlh'i:r:IO:dahe functions ·~)f S'!!lppu!rt and p<lniriJull in till: ~Rnlll; MTI,u;~~qr,,~ !;On1pn!lcnL During

t ~H; :~~;;I "., [I ~'~'H'S, I!()i\\'-CU.T .• since lh,. rise of I}._·d"um ("Iljl~h'u("11'm~ in ~u:d aml"cin'Wun:ed cencrete, the bearing' <;;t.mrtmcm, measured in rnererial, has slc.~.tliIJ tlccn;~,scd. ~f rhc priln(;ip~.1 structural issee when buiklingm brick ami stone WM, how tu il'l~h uptm.iilt;'"S, with steel and concrete it \\':110 th ... OPP~!SiIC, Hnw were rhc openings in the- SII"W;tUrll! fl"ilme: 10 'be fil.k:d iml: Ofltn the- d3Jt1di~.g :lind wall structures

w .. .rc nol primarily ~mltlht<lrjn!!,. Sirlce then ~:hb

dist i no,;~i! m bel \\"r.1I.;'~1 Stipp 01' ~s an (] nea-bearingwalls ha!; b\'~~!lnl'!: ~t::no; r.JL In Il r!h~r In ~h,''!iQ,;:rib\: all facets ill' the rCl'llioll~h~p between desil!:'11J ami srrueture we req I! i re the t:wu,! t~C'.~t p~)~si h ~c dc-finil ion (~f lh C ';:'!'n~· c~pl structure. b. this ·!;h~pi!l.;:r WI.; ,,'ill understand it 10 mean lhe entire lJ1<Itai(/! ilSpUI ·~',f~. huuldin:g as determined h~ lhl: functions Cli supperr and parrition

Material protegido por derechos de autor

4.2 Unity of for.m and structure

Wbe,n lIln,alyzing· ~he rela!~io:nsrMp between !lcliign and SllJitlc;turil" the link I:}c~weeJ"I s!'riucturoalilJd bl!lill jiorm is pwbalbly me mosll~g,icall plaee m begin, This ~Iilnk is det:e:r.m.irted hy t'lle e:.!terrlit to W~J.d!11 tl:1.~iJul1t fonn sillris.:lics tine tr:anifer Qljom: i:1i'l1 th.(:sITucturc.

The (ull.o!,K examplesillustrare dIe :rcJaliimilishir ibelwll1l:n the form and ~l1e paa}1 (l(f furees illJ the :SU'iIllI.'i[Urt:~.

Add.itive: land i:nt:eg;I".a:ted SIr.ructUi"c TheG'l'cek I!cmp:le di$c'llIss~ in Chll,pl(er 2 is:1IlI e"'~iI!Jj[ ,oCa building in!l\'bich (be tn1!W(lttcn bUIlt f'<.l:!:'m !ll'rud ~!"a::llsft.:r or fhl"C<]: reS !!omcw[1,at 'C01tl,. p~icated. Its decS;.ign .Y!ra1i. Jic.nncd less by tlile stnmgtll PTiJNrJj''t$ IOf the m3!t:Cr::1al t'h:m hy and fOrl1llJal c"finsjder;ili~lls .. Fur ex3!m.ple!,~hc marble of which II~!'; t:t'mple.ilS tUil!ilt:ltS sC3!rl'!c:ly if at: ami C:J:p3Io],e of It)lk:l11!g up /J(.t;t/it!g :!ij'l(.lNI':IlU., lOo Ith~l: tu liBII\'1l L~~ ari,:.hlm-v~ ~p<l:!l tbe diS~:;ln0e betwciC;n tVi'l;> pillars is rnu:,'(:hanj(<illYIlQ(: thernost log;icalsoJiI,lHo!;LUS[ng ~he Ilrtih.i.trnv'!: as ii. Sp~1li1 puts i.t ilIil:d.e.Iti;('(DSi:oli'l:.

Iloi"tC1Ccf., by m3ki:m,g; t~c archhfil: .. "Cc~n;ccdlngly hea\'y and pI1a:cimg' a. large number <J)r s:1!ll'pon:s

(~he pillars) at !int1JrtilJi~el""iials SQ the span wi.dtfu. is do,,",!}, tlile, tensl:oll StlreS'."! is ~tscil_f rkept to a mi;JJ~rnum ... The enermeus mass of du: st:aekcdl elements (basto':tncnt, plllilrs and means Itflru!'!Jt th(l !'£mpl(l. "j~Wt~d from ,l i.liS!'ltIl(lIl, c.Gmpr~~ ilmtJo an all hilt :i_mpelile~nbliC voJ1!lme tfil:lIl s,tail1lld,s, out in boldl rtilief aga:Lmit its Sl,:!fff§,!!ii!Thd:tn~,· What ""<Ii! :iJil!idilimly considered a dliflicult~dat~o~<shi~ betwec~ ~)Uilt ftJ(rma!1;d strueture is of great si:g.n:ilfica:mcc ill rl~~ sculptu~~alimjlat:t .orf 'lio)um<;,s so rypka] of Grm~ aj;ohi~ectl.Ui'-e.

The r~a:n.theo1!l in Rome, ·""llkb. we can regard as st:rlJ:c1t!;l!'1llly the i(::oU!'!iterpOIrt Qt the Or,cek t:empk,b (tn~ '0[1'1:1<; iiTI[l:l'~il:ihl(:~:i!i!h'S of tni); pifi.ndpks (\Ir rbuiil.ding in Ii,tonc' as d!u'lI,CJi:.pcd tilnifuoc ~y ~b(l Rom~ns .. h was builr in m~mJ):ry (!If eil~Sll:r Au~slus in .1 .. 1;11; A.D. CihiilnC~ei'isl:i.c of }tornaD. arltchi.roctu.t--e IS its deiP10ymenr ,of lliI.u:l~ llif.1'l1 doml! .~.Iij!IIt·.I'Ur~$ .. Beca:use uirhcJr (Pfm, !;h~f~ is Llu:1~ if <l!!JI4' oondmg sl'l"~'S~in fihcsc sttuctutC!l, cDablitrl;g ll~i'ge s:pans i~ s:t'(lnc and ill the eonerete dle'\reil,~.pc..d by dtc R9m<li1l,,~, ",nit the Jei;JJf@reed \ This enormous te:dmicarille a p

fon~'a!fd ,el1ab~led the jROiffillIl ma800[ builders W erect lmild:ings w:idl vasr :space.s free 01 ~~upj:lM1rl;s.

In Inc ,P:i[lthcIJlj) the clreular dome ",pans 43 meters --an ~[:h~C1!i'emc:m tllil,;l!t: would lon,g remain un,equalled.

A,cl.';t'pting tl1:l1l: the stone matarjal l.lood. '~o1L1ld on~y be put iin eompreseien, diris ~PQn W'3S nnly made pessilJlclJy ~.pp.l;yi;Dg tJile plri~cJ;I"I:1,] of till,] ilfC.h. fustlch '''IP.mill the transfer of force is derived from l;bcqua1~ ities of the an. ,u.dfiulJ.l. ~'l]flIOOiJ[C [1I1c1'1: is in. ll'rin:cipl,c oltlily t'rlmp.t~ts,!ifm.\V1I('11 ( t:omlll.res!l~O:IiU andihlf' t'Crlston Ot:t;l,If ln ~I. sttll~lI~re,. we ~~. SIP~,,:k of.,.,!t}t of f()lfm~iJlJd EitruetYf\~.

Wit'b (!he atJ1".iV:;lI. of!ll'i:[fi~.rm spa.ns ~b.", dlik~:tiru::tiolml tYllk-a.1 'Of G:rc!1k temptes I>ctl1i'(\(~fl suplmrt (pillar) i1nd load (arc,} gradl.lilily d:iwppcilrcd su druJ~ :8lPaiOl O1~d ~"UppO!l"[ t.c(Ca:m(: one. T~i:s fl.H;ing of d.cment!> we 'c~!u IIIl illugmlj~tlll't~·lIl,;lu~>e. This is the '~rpposit(, of Ihcad,liiti,",c principle o:t1 which (~l1c&k tf'mpllie building' was ~ased. CelDlltrndcs ~Ia!~cl', ~ill. ~hii:

Middle Ages, theintegrated srrucrurewould reach

It I'.frijl\rls!v.mtl 'p{'akwj:d11 Gomlc '~"!l11l)drllll;ujWmg. Th(: uOli~fl.l..f of roree l~ smn~ SbrIlCU'lf'(lS had a \tefl' di1'l:ct infiuc!1J()1,] onthe f'O'fmof d'H~ ·c.:!iilt!)tli!, In the GmMl:i.e pCiriod the (,bjc.cti.\l'<: lIllIS 10 iJu.ild !lsl'l'igilTIl 3ml 9Jslig.hlwoc,ighl.3S possibille. Thcresl.l! dng cathedral spaces the Oot:h.ic buil(lcf1i saw 3S iIlllsl:rJling the Dl¥IIl:C' an eartihl. Tile !C'11cd~c"'ill ma!iter' bui.~!" succeeded in bu.ild.img 811.;JI. talland l.ighrn1Ci,gbt !I~a(;es aiITI11~1 ~y ffilliWillil:g the !b< f01lm ".{l~~!JI, .. .tdy S3Ii'sf), 1iI1C ~pihl)1 {)if rU])C~'i ll'ru Ih~ structurc, 'fhis pri1ncipl(l of;l~ l,tfiambiglJ:(IYll rc:l;ltio!'!:s'hip betw~Ciil!! built fG:rm land stl'lICHII'JI. transfer of fOiU'!1l~', eIin'l:iilli~ ating :! m:!xi~iim (if m"t(l;rjj~1 fwoo t!lt~ built f(Jlt!11, wC'Il.1di in rih.e ni.netce:1l rib cenulli}f wnn'idl~~ the :g.rulmdwQirk fOJi :l. Vilhoilll~l :new arehirectura] idtml.

Material proteqldo por derechos de autor

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