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TEST 4 CVS

MPhil. Part 1
Maximum Marks 70, Time 75 Minutes
1.
a) Enumerate the CNS neurotransmitters and their specific receptors 3
b) Write down the mechanism of action uses and adverse effects of Ramelteon 3
c) A patient is complaining of difficulty in falling asleep, he has been advised non-
pharmacological therapies for this condition, but in vein. Suggest the treatment of sleep problems
in this patient; write the merits and demerits for your treatment. 4

2.
a) Show the biotransformation of benzodiazepines using a flow chart 3
b) What are the dose related therapeutic uses of Aspirin? 3
c) A patients is using Buspirone, for which condition is this drug used? What is its mechanism of
action, Merits and adverse effects?

3.
a) Write down the chronic adverse effects and drug interactions of ethyl alcohol 3
b) Compare and contrast Phenytoin and carbamezapine regarding their mechanism of action and
adverse effect profile. 4
c) Give the therapeutic strategy for infantile spasm and status epilepticus 3

4.
a) Enumerate the factors that play a vital role in uptake and distribution of inhaled anesthetics,
briefly explain any two of them. 4
b) Katamine is an invariably used intravenous anesthetic, what are its properties, mechanism of
action and uses? 3
c) Briefly discuss the structure-activity characteristics of local anesthetics, which local anesthetic
has less cardiotoxic potential? 3

5.
a) Enlist the clinical uses of botulinum toxin 3
b) Enumerate the drugs used to treat acute local muscle spasm 2
c) Briefly describe the on-off phenomenon in response to anti-Parkinson’s medications, suggest
ways to minimize it 5

6.
a) Using opioids as examples, describe and illustrate with graphs what you understand by the
terms potency, potentiation, efficacy, partial agonist and competitive antagonist 4
b) Enumerate the newer anti psychotics, give the treatment of syndrome related to use of
antipsychotic medications 3
c) A 40 years old patient consumes alcohol and presents with acute attack of gout, enlist the drugs
used to prevent and treat this patient. 3

7.
a) A 5 years old child suffers for attention deficit hyper-reactive disorder, enlist drugs used for
this condition, give mechanism of action for anyone of them 3
b) Give the drug of first choice for the treatment of a diagnosed case of bipolar disorder, give its
pharmacokinetics, mechanism and adverse affects 4
c) Briefly describe the pharmacological effects of paracetamol. Outline the mechanisms for its
toxicity. 3