Total Quality Management

V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (P.h.D) AP/EEE, DCE

28,JAN,1986
SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER IS READY FOR TAKE OFF

IT NEEDS 8 MINUTES TO PUT THE SHUTTLE IN SPACE BURNING 10,000 TONS OF FROZEN GASES & SOLID FUEL/SEC
V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (P.h.D) AP/EEE, DCE

BUT AFTER 73 SECONDS IT BURST INTO A FIRE BALL RESULTING - KILLING 7 ASTRONAUTS WORTH MILLIONS - LOST OPPORTUNITIES - COST OF APPRAISAL & PREVENTION 2.4 BILLIONS - COST OF ENQUIRY COMMISSION - LOST IMAGE
V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (P.h.D) AP/EEE, DCE

MAJOR CAUSE: FAULTY DESIGN

FAILURE OF A SIMPLE RUBBER ‘O’ RING IN THE JOINT BETWEEN TWO LOWER SEGMENTS OF THE RIGHT ROCKET MOTORS DURING THE BURN OF THE PROPELLENT

HOT GASES MELTED THE STRUTS THAT HELD THE BOOSTER ROCKET BOOSTER ROCKET SWIVELLED INTO THE MAIN FUEL TANK & RUPTURED IT CAUSING EXPLOSION

WHY?
V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (P.h.D) AP/EEE, DCE

M.Tech.h. LAUNCHING SCHEDULED ON DAY OF TEMP 28-90 F 28V. DCE .DURING LAUNCH THE GAP EXPANDS IN A FRACTION OF A SECOND THE RUBBER’O’ RING ALSO SHOULD EXPAND TO FILL THE GAP DUE TO ICY CONDITION ON THAT DAY RESILIENCE OF RUBBER IS AFFECTED MANAGEMENT CAUSE: AGAINST THE ADVISE OF NOT LAUNCHING AT TEMP <530F.D) AP/EEE. (P.BALAJI.

000 ARE SUFFERING FROM INJURIES COST : >Rs. (P.400 PEOPLE DIED 2. M.00.3.2000 MILLION COMPENSATION V. DCE . DEC.000 PEOPLE HURT 15.1984 EARLY MORNING DEADLY ISOCYANATE GAS LEAKED FROM BHOPAL PESTICIDE PLANT 3.000 –20.Tech.h.D) AP/EEE.BALAJI.

V.h. M.D) AP/EEE. DCE . (P.BALAJI.Tech.S) IT DOES NOT HAVE TOWERS THAT RAIN DOWN FOAM TO NUETRALISE ESCAPING GASES.CAUSE : AS IN BAYER (GERMANY) & UNION CARBIDE(U.

Tech.WHAT MADE THE AMERICAN’S PINPOINT BOMBING SO EFFECTIVE ? IT WAS DUE TO A HIGH QUALITY SEMI CONDUCTOR USED IN BRAIN PART OF COMPUTERS THAT CONTROL MODERN WEAPON THERE WERE 93 FOREIGN MADE SEMI CONDUCTORS IN A WEAPON 92 WERE MADE IN JAPAN . M.BALAJI. (P.ISHIKAWA IN THE BOOK V.D) AP/EEE.h. ‘ THE JAPAN THAT CAN REALLY SAY NO’ DCE .

IT WAS VERY DIFFICULT TO PRODUCE 3 DEFECTIVE PARTS BUT 3 DEFECTIVE PARTS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED AND ARE WRAPPED SEPERATELY.Tech.h.FROM COVERING LETTER .000 COMPONENTS “ WE JAPANESE HAVE HARD TIME UNDERSTANDING NORTH AMERICAN BUSINESS PRACTICLES.AN IBM FIRM IN WINDSOR. ONTARIA ORDERED FOR SHIPMENT OF COMPONENTS FROM A JAPAN FIRM AQL: 3 FOR EVERY 10.D) AP/EEE.BALAJI. (P. M. DCE . HOPE THIS PLEASES” V.

DCE . V.BALAJI.h. • TAGUCHI DEFENITION OF QUALITY :QUALITY IS THE LOSS A PRODUCT CAUSES TO SOCIETY AFTER BEING SHIPPED.D) AP/EEE.Precision and Accuracy • • • • FORD AND MAZDA PRODUCES TRANSMISSION FOR AUTOMOBILES MORE REJECTS FORM FORD NO REJECTS FROM MAZDA DISMANTLING THE FORD TRANSMISSION REVEALED THAT THE COMPONENTS FOUND TO BE WITHIN THE LIMIT WHEREAS MAZDA COMP. M. OTHER THAN LOSSES CAUSED BY INTRENSIC FUNCTIONS’ (P. WERE FOUND TO BE WITHOUT DEVIATION AT ALL.Tech.

What is TQM V. (P.BALAJI. M. DCE .h.Tech.D) AP/EEE.

M. (P. DCE .BALAJI.NEED FOR TQM 1700 1800 YEARS 1900 2000 V.D) AP/EEE.h.Tech.

M. STAY IN BUSINESS DCE RETURN ON INVESTMENT .BALAJI.TRADITIONAL MODEL DEMINGS QUALITY CENTERED MODEL IMPROVE QUALITY PRODUCTIVITY UP REDUCE INPUT COST LOWER UNIT COST COSTS DOWN PRICES DOWN INCREASE PROFIT MARKET INCREASED IMPROVE RETURN STAY IN BUSINESS MORE JOBS AND BETTER V.Tech. (P.D) AP/EEE.h.

D) AP/EEE.BALAJI.h. DCE . (P. COMPONENTS MASS PRODUCTION STANDARDISATION INTER CHANGEABILITY V. M.HUMAN CIVILIZATION CULTIVATION INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION COMPUTERS MANUFACTURE OF ENGG.Tech.

NEED FOR MEASUREMENTS QUALITY OF PRODUCTS QUALIFYING PART QUANTIFYING PART SPECIFICATION ? PRODUCTION GAP MEASURABLE MEASUREMENT { SQC cannot be o use when tolerances are close . M.ic<10 um} SQC to bridge the gap to control production through inspection V.BALAJI.Tech.D) AP/EEE. (P. DCE INPROCESS INSPECTION .h.

SHEWARTS/BELL TELEPHONE 1930 1935 1945 CONTROL CHARTS .INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS . (P.A.QUALITY STANDARDS .D) AP/EEE.BALAJI.TOTAL QUALITY MGMT 1960s . M.COMPANY WIDE QUALITY CONTROL V.Tech.QUALITY ASSURANCE .h.DR W.1924 .WORLD WAR 1950s . DCE .

Conformance to requirements.BALAJI.Tech. DCE .CROSSY V.D) AP/EEE. M.Fitness for use – JURAN . (P.h.WHAT IS QUALITY? ”Totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to meet STATED OR IMPLIED NEEDS” –ISO .

DURABILITY *10. USABILITY 14. RELIABILITY 9. AVAILABILITY 13. M.Tech. FEATURES 3. MANUFACTURABILITY 12. CONFORMANCE *4. MAINTAINABILITY *11. REPUTATION V. PERFORMANCE / OPERATIONALITY/ FUNCTIONALITY 2.BALAJI. (P.h.D) AP/EEE. RESPONSE 6. AESTHETICS 7. DCE . SERVICEABILITY 5.DIMENSIONS OF QUALITY *1. REPUTATION * 8.

D) AUDIT OF PRODUCTS AP/EEE.BALAJI.h.7 6 5 4 3 2 QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT TO DEFINE VOICE OF COSTOMER IN OPERATIONAL TERMS (CUSTOMER ORIENTED) PRODUCT & PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION FOR MORE ROBUST FUNCTION AT LOWER COST FUNCTION AT LESSER COST TO CHANGE ATTITUDE & THINKING THROUGH EDUCATION AND TRAINING (PEOPLE ORIENTED) QUALITY ASSURANCE INVOLVING DESIGN. DCE (PRODUCT ORIENTED) JAPNESE STYLE CWQC 100% QUALITY LOSS FUNCTION (COST ORIENTED) . MANUFACTURING. FOOL PROOFING (PROCESS ORIENTED) 1 INSPECTION AFTER PRODUCTION & V. M. (P. SALES &SERVICE (SYSTEM ORIENTED) QUALITY ASSURANCE DURIN PRODUCTION INCLUDING SPC.Tech.

DR DEMING VISIT DR JURAN VISIT QUALITY TQM /QUALITY CIRCLE EUEROPE/ USA INDIA 1950 1960 M.Tech. (P. 1980 V.D) AP/EEE. 1970 DCE YEARS 1990 .BALAJI.h.

DCE X QT X QC .CWQC = QM X QA Quality Management Top Management Commitment Quality Assurance to the customer Quality Teams at executive levels Quality Circle V.h. M. (P.BALAJI.Tech.D) AP/EEE.

ADDITION DCE . (P.D) AP/EEE.BALAJI.h.TQM CONCEPTS CUSTOMER IS THE KING RIGHT FIRST TIME BENCH MARKING SYNERGY IN TEAM WORK INVOLVEMENT VALUEM. V.Tech.

DCE .BALAJI. (P.Tech.D) AP/EEE. M.h.CONTINUEOUS IMPROVEMENT EDUCATION AND TRAINING PREVENTION Vs DETECTION MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT V.

Tech. DCE . M.CUSTOMER IS THE KING V.h.BALAJI.D) AP/EEE. (P.

(P.RIGHT FIRST TIME V. DCE . M.Tech.BALAJI.h.D) AP/EEE.

D) AP/EEE. DCE . M. (P.Tech.BALAJI.h.BENCH MARKING V.

SYNERGY IN TEAM WORK V. (P. M.BALAJI. DCE .D) AP/EEE.Tech.h.

(P.D) AP/EEE.h.BALAJI.Tech. DCE . M.TEAM WORK V.

BALAJI.D) AP/EEE.Tech. M.TEAM WORK V.h. DCE . (P.

D) AP/EEE.BALAJI.h.INVOLVEMENT V. M. (P.Tech. DCE .

M.BALAJI. DCE . (P.h.CONTINUEOUS IMPROVEMENT V.Tech.D) AP/EEE.

(P. DCE .CONTINUEOUS IMPROVEMET V.Tech.D) AP/EEE.h. M.BALAJI.

h.CONTINUEOUS IMPROVEMET V. M. DCE .D) AP/EEE. (P.BALAJI.Tech.

(P.h.BALAJI. DCE .Tech. M.D) AP/EEE.CONTINUEOUS IMPROVEMET V.

DCE .D) AP/EEE. (P.BALAJI.Tech. M.h.CONTINUEOUS IMPROVEMET V.

(P.UNDERSTANDING OTHERS V. DCE .h.BALAJI.Tech. M.D) AP/EEE.

Tech. (P.D) AP/EEE.PREVENTION Vs DETECTION V. DCE . M.BALAJI.h.

BALAJI. M.PREVENTION Vs DETECTION V.h.D) AP/EEE.Tech. (P. DCE .

M.D) AP/EEE.h.BALAJI. DCE .Tech. (P.MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT V.

D) AP/EEE.MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT V. (P. M.BALAJI.Tech.h. DCE .

PEOPELE BUILDING V.D) AP/EEE.h. M.Tech. DCE .BALAJI. (P.

DCE . (P. M.h.BALAJI.Tech.D) AP/EEE.NO BLAME V.

SENSE OF OWNING V. M.h.D) AP/EEE. DCE .BALAJI.Tech. (P.

ATTITUDE V.D) AP/EEE.Tech. (P.h. DCE . M.BALAJI.

BALAJI. DCE . M.838 B V.BRITISH AIRWAYS • 1981 • SHODDY INDIFFERENT TO PASSENGERS • LOSS MAKING 137 MILLION/Y • OVER MANNED • 1991 • FOURTH LARGEST • 235 AIRCRAFTS • 160 DESTINATIONS IN • 75 COUNTRIES CARRYING 25 MILLION PASSENGERS • PROFIT: 246 M • TURNOVER : 4.Tech.D) AP/EEE. (P.h.

Central Budgeting .A ROUTE TO CUSTOMER SERVICE PEOPLE FIRST 1. ORG/CULTURAL CHANGE (a) PATTERN BREAKING Demanning 59000 to 29000 Painted new Removed .Old Performance Appraisal . M.h.Poor Information Retrieval V. DCE .Tech.Unnecessary Levels of Management .BALAJI. CUSTOMER FIRST 2.D) AP/EEE.B. (P.

(b) EXPERIMENTING
Service Oriented Market Driven Participative Management

(c) VISIONING
Select NEW PERSPECTIVE and Accordingly REORGANIZE-RESHAPE

(d) BONDING
New ways of DOING, THINKING, LEARNING , INTERACTING V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (P.h.D) AP/EEE,
DCE

TOTAL QUALITY MANANGEMENT
Genesis & Philosophy Evolution Teaching of Quality Gurus Definition of Quality Quality Control Quality Assurance TQC TQM CWQC

TQM Concepts
Customer is the King Right First Time Involvement Value Addition Continuous Improvement Prevention Vs Detection Management Commitment People Building

TQM Tools Old 7 Tools New 7 Tools

TQM Techniques QFD FMEA SQC SPC SIX SIGMA KAIZEN TPM BENCHMARKING

Quality Systems
ISO 9000-2000 QS 9000 ISO 14000

V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (P.h.D) AP/EEE, DCE

TOOLS
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V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (P.h.D) AP/EEE, DCE

CONTROL CHARTS
CONTROL CHARTS

V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (P.h.D) AP/EEE, DCE

DCE . M.h.HISTOGRAM V.D) AP/EEE.Tech. (P.BALAJI.

(P.D) AP/EEE. M.Tech.BALAJI.JUST IN TIME V.h. DCE .

DCE .BALAJI. (P.h.Tech.D) AP/EEE. M.JUST IN TIME V.

M.JUST IN TIME V.Tech. (P. DCE .h.BALAJI.D) AP/EEE.

BALAJI. (P. DCE .Tech.JUST IN TIME V. M.h.D) AP/EEE.

h.D) AP/EEE. M.ZERO DEFECTS V.Tech.BALAJI. DCE . (P.

h. DCE .BALAJI.POKA YOKE V.D) AP/EEE. (P. M.Tech.

BALAJI.Tech.FAILURE MODE EFFECT ANALYSIS V. DCE .h. M. (P.D) AP/EEE.

h.Tech.D) AP/EEE. DCE .BALAJI.SINGEL MINUTE EXCHANE OF DIES V. (P. M.

DCE . (P.BALAJI. M.QUALITY CIRCLE V.Tech.h.D) AP/EEE.

(P.h.BALAJI.D) AP/EEE. INTRODUCTION TO TQM V. M.Tech.UNIT 1. DCE .

DCE .BALAJI. on-time delivery and the satisfaction of the customer V.DEFINITION OF QUALITY • Quality means conformance to specifications and standards. • Quality is the conformance to requirements. • Quality is fitness for use. M. • Quality means productivity.Tech.D) AP/EEE.h. (P. competitive costs.

M.D) AP/EEE. The requirements are the needs and expectations that are stated.Tech. generally implied. • Excellence in everything.BALAJI. V. DCE . • Quality is what the customer says it is. (P. or obligatory (ISO: 9000-2000).h.• The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements.

QUALITY PLANNING • • • • The objectives of quality system are initially listed.Tech. which includes planning for the customer-supplier partnering. informa-tion processing.h.D) AP/EEE. The needs of the customers are listed. DCE . The customers are identified.BALAJI. infrastructure of the organization. The strategic planning. (P. M. education and training. V. total involvement of the organization.

(P.D) AP/EEE. Providing the infrastructure. and for optimization of the design. Design and development of the processes. M.Tech. V. and training the personnel. Quality improvement: Optimize the process capability and the quality control measures. provision of resources. DCE .Design the product features that satisfy the customer's needs.BALAJI.h. establishment of teams.

QUALITY COSTS • Quality costs are defined as the elements of costs associated with non-achievement of product quality as envisaged by QMS.h.Tech. (P. V.D) AP/EEE. DCE .BALAJI. M.

BALAJI. DCE .D) AP/EEE.• External failure due to actual Cost This consists of costs incurred non-conform-ing products or service after delivery to the customer.Tech. (P. V. This includes: – – – Cost of investigations on customer complaints including necessary field service. M. Due to design deficiency the parts are redesigned. Returned goods.h. recalled and retrofitted. Retrofit and recall costs.

This consists of : • Design failure cost: Cost due to design inadequacy.Internal Failure Cost • Costs associated with non – conforming products. cost of scrap. repair and reconditioning.h. (P. which includes design corrective actions. rework due to design changes.BALAJI.Tech.D) AP/EEE. DCE . M. such as. V. rework. and scrap due to design changes.

Costs associated with nonconforming product/service discovered during operations. scrap costs. cost of purchased material replaced.Purchase failure costs: Cost of purchased material rejection. during material review. during corrective actions.BALAJI. and internal failure labor costs. rework of supplier rejects etc. V. suppler corrective action costs. Operation (Product / service) failure costs: This covers a major portion. rework or repair. DCE .D) AP/EEE. M.Tech. (P.h.

Appraisal cost • Purchasing appraisal costs: Receiving inspection or source inspection at supplier's facility or incoming inspection and control program. (P. laboratory support.D) AP/EEE. process control measurements. outside certi-fication V. Manufacturing (Operations) appraisal costs: Machine set up pieces or destructive testing. DCE • .h.Tech.BALAJI. M.

BALAJI. pack.• • • External appraisal costs: Test during field during field trials of new products and evaluation of field stock and spare parts. Miscellaneous quality evaluation costs: In dispatch rooms.h. (P.Tech.aging and shipping.D) AP/EEE. V. M. storerooms. Review of Test and Inspection data. DCE .

purchase order technical data review. AP/EEE. V.D) DCE • • .h.Tech. M. Purchase: Cost of quality assurance of supplier parts. continued survey of customer quality needs. supplier rating. and supplier quality planning. Product / service / design: Cost of translating customer needs into designs and documents for manufacture. (P. supplier reviews. including field trials. and contract and document review. including feedback.Preventive cost • Marketing / customer / user: Costs incurred in collection.BALAJI.

Tech. M. DCE . (P. cost of changes in software. V.BALAJI. Hidden quality costs • Cost of redesign-wherever necessary.D) AP/EEE. cost of changing the manufacturing methods because of the inability in meeting the quality require-ments. and the scrap cost that has not been reported..h.

Tech. M.Cost of lost opportunity Income lost by orders cancelled or lost. (P.h. due to the loss of good will.BALAJI. V. Loss of prospective customer.D) AP/EEE. • • • Losing to competitors due to the inability to meet the customer's requirements Reduced number of repeated orders or quantity in each repeated order. DCE .

M. DCE .Loss of customers.Tech.D) AP/EEE. (P.BALAJI. who change to competitors to fulfill their requirements V.h.

M.V. (P.D) AP/EEE. DCE .BALAJI.h.Tech.

V.D) AP/EEE.h.BALAJI. DCE .Tech. M. (P.

D) AP/EEE.Tech. (P.h. M.BALAJI.V. DCE .

D) AP/EEE. M. DCE .V.Tech. (P.BALAJI.h.

DCE .Tech.D) AP/EEE. (P.V. M.h.BALAJI.

D) AP/EEE. DCE .BALAJI.Tech. M. (P.V.h.

V.BALAJI. DCE .D) AP/EEE. M.h. (P.Tech.

D) AP/EEE.Tech. DCE .V. M. (P.h.BALAJI.

DCE .h. M.V. (P.D) AP/EEE.BALAJI.Tech.

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