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Polynomials

Exam Review

1

A polynomial is an algebraic expression with real coefficients and non-negative integer exponents. A polynomial with 1 term is called a monomial, 7 x . A polynomial with 2 terms is called a binomial, 3 x 2 9 . A polynomial with 3 terms is called a trinomial, 3 x 2 7 x 9 . The degree of the polynomial is determined by the value of the highest exponent of the variable in the polynomial. e.g. 3 x 2 7 x 9 , degree is 2. For polynomials with one variable, if the degree is 0, then it is called a constant. If the degree is 1, then it is called linear. If the degree is 2, then it is called quadratic. If the degree is 3, then it is called cubic. We can add and subtract polynomials by collecting like terms. e.g. Simplify. The negative in front of the brackets

5 x 4 x 2 2 .

Expand and simplify. ! 5 x 4 x 2 2 x 4 2 x3 3x 2 5 ! 5 x 4 x 4 2 x3 x 2 3x 2 2 5 ! 4 x 4 2 x3 4 x 2 3 That is.x 4 2 x 3 3x 2 5 applies to every term inside the brackets. you multiply each term by ±1. To multiply polynomials. .g. e. multiply each term in the first polynomial by each term in the second.

x 2 4 x2 2x 3 .

Factoring is the inverse operation of expanding. To factor means to write a sum or a difference of terms as a product of polynomials. ! x 4 2 x 3 3 x 2 4 x 2 8 x 12 ! x 4 2 x 3 7 x 2 8 x 12 Factoring Polynomials To expand means to write a product of polynomials as a sum or a difference of terms. Expanding .

2 x 3 .

3 x 7 ! 6 x 2 5 x 21 Factoring Product of polynomials Sum or difference of terms .

MCR3U Types of factoring: Exam Review 2 5 ! 7 m 2 n .

Group 4 x ± 4nx and square trinomial ny ± y. Factor. mn 2 3n 8 Factor by grouping: group terms to help in the factoring process. 1+6x+9x2 is a perfect e. factor each B :1 6x 9x2 4 y 2 A : 4 x ny 4nx y group Difference of squares ! 4 x 4nx ny y ! (1 3 x ) 2 4 y 2 ! 4 x.g.

n y .

n Recall n ± = ±(m ± n) ! [(1 3 x) 2 y ][(1 3 x ) 2 y ] ! 4 x.

n y .

n Common factor ! (1 3 x 2 y )(1 3 x 2 y ) ! .

4 x y .

¤ ¤ ¤ ¢ ¡ 2 Product = 3(±6) = ±18 = ±9(2) Sum = ± 7 = ±9 + 2 Decompose middle term ±7xy into ±9xy + 2xy.g. Factor. n Factoring ax 2 bx c Find the product of ac. can I factor x 2 bx c ? y Check.g. e. : y 2 9 y 14 B : 3 x 2 7 xy 6 y 2 Product = 14 = 2(7) ! y 7 y 2 y 14 2 Sum = 9 = 2 + 7 ! 3 x 9 xy 2 xy 6 y 2 ! y ( y 7 ) 2( y 7 ) ! ( y 2)( y 7 ) ! 3x( x 3 y ) 2 y ( x 3 y ) ! (3 x 2 y )( x 3 y ) Sometimes polynomials can be factored using special patterns. Factor. . Find two numbers that multiply to ac and add to b. A : 4 p 2 12 p 9 ! ( 2 p 3) 2 a 2 2 ab b 2 ! ( a b)( a b ) or a 2 2ab b 2 ! ( a b)(a b) : 100 x 2 80 xy 16 y 2 ! 4( 25 x 2 20 xy 4 y 2 ) ! 4(5 x 2 y )(5 x 2 y ) Difference of squares e. Factor by grouping. can I factor ax 2 bx c ? £ Common Factors: factors that are common among each term. Factor. Each term is divisible by 7 35m 3n 3 21m 2 n 2 56 m 2 n 2 n. Perfect square trinomial e. Factor.g. a 2 b 2 ! ( a b )(a b ) 9 x 2 4 y 2 ! (3 x 2 y )(3 x 2 y ) Things to think about when factoring: y Is there a common factor? y Can I factor by grouping? y Are there any special patterns? y Check.g. e.

g. x { 4. x2 7x x 2 3x 2 x2 9 x2 4x 3 A: 2 v 2 B: 2 z 2 x 1 x 14 x 49 x 5x 4 x 5x 4 x ( x 7) ( x 1)( x 2) ( x 3)( x 3) ( x 1)( x 3) Factor. y . x { s2 State restrictions. x { 0. x 4 x2 Simplify if possible.MCR3U Rational Expressions Exam Review F . State the restrictions. x ( x 2) ( x 3)( x 3) ( x 4)( x 1) ! v ! . G 3 For polynomials F and G. Note restrictions.g. m2 9 (m 3)(m 3) ! 2 m 6m 9 (m 3)(m 3) (m 3)(m 3) ! (m 3)( m 3) m 3 ! . ( x 1) Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions e. m { 3 m3 Factor the numerator and denominator. Simplify if possible. 3 5 Factor. ¥ ! ! ! 2 3 x( x y ) y ( x y ) 2y 3x xy ( x y ) xy ( x y ) 2 y 3x .g. 7 State restrictions. ( x 1)( x 2) ! v ! v Simplify. 3x 7 21x 14 x 9 2 Simplifying Rational Expressions e. a rational expression is formed when e. . Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions e. ( x 1)( x 7) ( x 4)( x 1) ( x 1)( x 3) ( x 3) ! . x { s1. ( x 2)( x 2) 5x 7 . s 1. Simplify. 3 State restrictions. 3 5 x 10 ! Add. 3 5 ! ( x 2)( x 2) x 2 Find LCD. m { 3 Simplify. Write all terms using LCD. Simplify and state the restrictions. Note the restrictions. ( x 4)( x 1) ( x 4)( x 1) Note restrictions. Note that after addition or subtraction it may be possible to factor the numerator and simplify the expression further. State restrictions. Factor. y { 0 xy ( x y ) Subtract. Find LCD. 3 5( x 2) Write all terms ! ( x 2)( x 2) ( x 2)( x 2) using LCD.g. ( x 1)( x 1) ( x 7)( x 7) x ( x 7) ( x 3)( x 3) ( x 4)( x 1) Invert and multiply. A: 2 Note restrictions. ! v ! z Note restrictions. Simplify and state the restrictions. ! ( x 2)( x 2) : 2 3 x xy xy y 2 2 Factor. ( x 1)( x 1) ( x 7)( x 7) ( x 4)( x 1) ( x 1)( x 3) Note any new restrictions. Simplify and state the restrictions. Always reduce the answer to lowest terms. G { 0.

1 a 1 ! a ! ! ! 1 a v a a a a2 a a Simplest form The index of a radical must be as small as possible. 2 12 5 27 3 40 ! 2 4 v 3 5 9 v 3 3 4 v 10 ! 2 2 3 5 3 3 3 2 10 ! 4 3 15 3 6 10 ! 11 3 6 10 Express each radical in simplest form. 2 3 . and a is called the radicand. Simplify. 2 5. 5 7 A radical in simplest form meets the following conditions: For a radical of order n. the radicand has no factor that is the nth power of an integer. e. n is the index of the radical. 3 3 is said to be a radical of order 2.g. 3 Different radicands 8 . you add or subtract the coefficients of each radical. 3 5 Same order. Like radicals: Entire radicals: 5. 8! Not simplest ! form 4v2 22 v 2 Simplest form The radicand contains no fractions. 8 is a radical of order 3. is called the radical sign. 4 32 ! ! 3 32 Simplest form !2 2 Addition and Subtraction of Radicals To add or subtract radicals. 3 ! 2 ! ! ! 3 2 v 2 2 6 22 6 22 6 2 Simplest form The radicand contains no factors with negative exponents.g. n Exam Review 4 a. 16 . 29 Different order Mixed radicals: 4 2 . 3 5.MCR3U Radicals e. . like radicands Unlike radicals: 5.

.

.

Collect like radicals. a u 0. Simplify. b u 0 e.g. 2 2 3 2 3 3 ! . Multiplying Radicals a v b ! ab . Add and subtract.

.

.

2 2 .

2 3 3 .

2 3 2 .

2 3 3 3 .

.

.

.

! 2 3 6 2 6 6.

3 ! 2 18 3 6 2 6 ! 16 6 Use the distributive property to expand Multiply coefficients together. . Multiply radicands together. Collect like terms. Express in simplest form.

MCR3U Conjugates Exam Review 5 .

Same terms Same terms .a Opposite signs b c d and a b c d are called conjugates.

When conjugates are multiplied the result is a rational expression (no radicals). e.g. Find the product. .

5 3 2 5 3 2 ! .

5 .

2 .

Factor a number into its prime factors using the tree diagram method. 3 6 2 180 ! 2 2 3 2 . b u 0 b e. a u 0. a .g. b R .g. 3 2 2 ! 5 9( 2) ! 5 18 ! 13 Dividing Radicals a ! b a . 2 10 3 30 2 10 3 30 ! 5 5 5 !2 10 30 3 5 5 ! 2 2 3 6 Prime Factorization e. Simplify.

5 180 60 10 3 2 5 .

.

Exponent Rules Rule Product Quotient Power of a power Power of a quotient Zero as an exponent Negative exponents Rational Exponents Description a m v a n ! a mn a m z a n ! a mn Example 42 v 45 ! 47 54 z 52 ! 52 .

a ! a m n n mv n n .

a { 0 a m 3 ¨3¸ © ¹ ! 5 4 ª4º 0 7 !1 1 92 ! 2 9 m 4 a n ! n am ! .b { 0 b ªbº 0 a !1 1 a m ! m .3 ! 3 2 4 5 8 5 a ¨a¸ © ¹ ! n .

a n 27 3 ! 3 27 4 ! .

27 3 4 .

MCR3U e.g.g. Simplify. Evaluate. 2 6 . Exam Review e.

3 0 3 2 2 ! .

Solving Exponential Equations e. so rewrite them as powers using the same base. (0. e. 2). (4.g. Solve for x. Relations can be described using: an equation an arrow diagram a graph g 2 y ! 3x 7 8 -1 0 7 in words 6 -3 ³output is three more than input´ 3 -5 a set of ordered pairs {(1. Evaluate brackets first. so Domain = {x | x u 5. Domain = R Range = { y | y u 0.g. 8)} B: Domain = {0. (4. x2 ! 2 x ! 22 x!4 When the bases are the same. State the domain and range. 3. 3). 8} 4 2 Looking at the graph we can see that y does not go below 0. y R} C: y ! x 5 What value of x will make x ± 5 = 0? x = 5 The radicand cannot be less than zero. ¨ b3 ¸ © 3 ¹ © 2a ¹ ª º 2 ! ! b 3( 2 ) ( 2 a 3 ) 2 Power of a quotient. (0. x R} Range = { y | y u 0. 4} Range = {2. equate the exponents. y R} . Solve for x. 9 x 2 8 ! 73 Add 8 to both sides. Note LS and RS are powers of 9. 3). b 6 2 2 a 3( 2 ) 2 2 b 6 ! a6 4 ! 6 6 ab Power of a product. 8)} 2 -2 a table x y 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 function notation f ( x) ! x 2 3 x The domain of a relation is the set of possible input values (x values).1 9 ! 10 2 1 ! 2 10 1 ! 100 Follow the order of operations. 9 x 2 ! 73 8 9 x 2 ! 81 9 x 2 ! 9 2 Simplify. LS ! 9 x 2 8 ! 9 4 2 8 ! 81 8 ! 73 ! RS RS ! 73 Don¶t forget to check your solution! x ! 4 checks Functions A relation is a relationship between two sets. The range is the set of possible output values (y values). A: {(1. 1. 2). Thus.

If a vertical line can be passed along the entire length of the graph and it never touches more than one point at a time. 4 4 2 2 Inverse Functions The inverse. The vertical line test is used to determine if a graph of a relation is a function. so line test. f 1 . 1 . b) f . e. If you have not already determined f 1 ( x ) do so. y ! x 7 and y ! x 2 15 are examples of functions. 3x 1 y! 3x 1 Rewrite f (x ) as y ! 5 5 3y 1 Interchange x and y. Given f ( x) ! Evaluate f (3) . y ! s x is not a function because for every value of x there are two values of y. maps each output of the original relation back onto the corresponding input value. Using f ( x) . 5 5x ! 3 y 1 3y ! 5x 1 5x 1 y! 3 5x 1 @ f 1 ( x) ! 3 3x 1 .g. and the range of the inverse is the domain of the function. 5 Evaluate 3 f (2) 1 « 3(2) 1» 1 3 f ( 2) 1 ! 3¬ ½ 5 ¼ « 6 1» ! 3¬ 1 5 ¼ ½ ¨5¸ ! 3© ¹ 1 ª5º ! 3(1) 1 3 f ( 2) 1 ! 4 Evaluate f 1 ( 2) 5x 1 3 5( 2) 1 f 1 ( 2) ! 3 10 1 ! 3 11 f 1 ( 2) ! 3 f 1 ( x) ! You want to find the value of the expression 3 f ( 2) 1 . The graph of y ! f 1 ( x) is the reflection of the graph y ! f (x) in the line y ! x . 3(3) 1 Replace all 5 x¶s with ±3. e. 9 1 f (3) ! 5 10 f (3) ! 5 f (3) ! 2 f (3) ! Determine f 1 ( x) . if (a. of a relation. f . then the relation is a function. x! Solve for y. That is. The domain of the inverse is the range of the function. Evaluate. so this the vertical relation fails the vertical line test. replace all x¶s with 2. You are not solving for f ( 2) . It is not a function. Evaluate. then (b. A: B: The line passes through This passes more than one point. a ) f 1 .MCR3U Exam Review 7 A function is a special type of relation in which every element of the domain corresponds to exactly one element of the range.g. it is a function.

4 When applying transformations to a graph the stretches and reflections should be applied before any translations. Reflect the graph in the line y = x. y ! 3 f .g. For the example above. -2 -2 y ! f (x) -2 -4 -4 -4 The inverse of a function is not necessarily going to be a function. y ! f ( x) 2 2 2 1 Draw the line y = x. p ± determines the horizontal translation. If k k < 0 then the graph is also reflected in the y-axis. If you would like the inverse to also be a function. First. If q > 0 the graph shifts up by q units. you may have to restrict the domain or range of the original function. If q < 0 then the graph shifts down by q units. If a < 0 then the graph is reflected in the x-axis. as well. Transformations of Functions To graph y ! af [k ( x p )] q from the graph y ! f (x) consider: a ± determines the vertical stretch. q ± determines the vertical translation. If p < 0 then the graph shifts left by p units. The graph of y ! f (x) is transformed into y ! 3 f (2 x 4) . Sketch the graph of the inverse of the given function y ! f (x) .g. If p > 0 the graph shifts to the right by p units. factor inside the brackets to determine the values of k and p. The graph y ! f (x) is stretched vertically by a factor of a. x R} or {x | x e 0. The graph y ! f (x) is stretched horizontally by a factor of .MCR3U 4 Exam Review 4 4 8 e. Describe the transformations. 1 k ± determines the horizontal stretch. x R} . the inverse will only be a function if we restrict the domain to {x | x u 0. e.

2.

p ! 2 There is a vertical stretch of 3. 1 A horizontal stretch of . 2 The graph will be shifted 2 units to the right.g.x 2 a ! 3. k ! 2. Given the graph of y ! f (x) sketch the graph of y ! 2 f . e.

.

2 2 2 4 4 4 4 Shift to the right by 2. 2 Reflect in y-axis. 2 2 2 2 This is the graph of y ! 2 f . Shift up by 1.x 2 1 4 2 4 Stretch vertically by a factor of 2.

.

x 2 1 4 4 ¦ ¦ 2 y ! f (x) 4 § § § § § § ¦ ¦ .

When a " 0 the parabola opens up. Factored Form: f ( x ) ! a ( x p)( x q ) Standard Form: f ( x ) ! ax 2 bx c The y-intercept is c. When a 0 the parabola opens down. f ( x) ! ax 2 bx c . e. a<0 -4 .MCR3U Quadratic Functions Exam Review 4 9 a>0 2 The graph of the quadratic function. The axis of symmetry is y = h. k ) . 2 minimum -5 5 maximum -2 Vertex Form: f ( x ) ! a ( x h) k The vertex is (h.g. 2 2 f ( x) ! 2 x 2 12 x 7 Factor the coefficient of x form the terms with x and x. The zeroes are x ! p and x ! q . is a parabola. Complete the square to change the standard form to vertex form. The maximum or minimum value is k.

f ( x ) ! 2.

x f ( x ) ! 2.

Add and subtract it. Square this number. To find the ycoordinate for f(x) simply evaluate f(x) using The y-coordinate of vertex f (2. Factored form: e. 2 6x 3 3 7 2 2 6 x 3 2( 32 ) 7 Bring the last term inside the bracket outside the brackets. g ( x) ! 2 x 2 10 x is a vertical translation of f ( x) ! 2 x 2 10 x 10 with y-intercept of 0. The axis of symmetry passes through the vertex. 9) . 1 7 The axis of symmetry is x = 4.5) 10 coordinates for the vertex. Both x! ! 2.5 x ! 2. maximum/minimum value is k. Maximum and Minimum Values Vertex form. x f ( x) ! 2 x 2 6 x 7 2 2 Divide the coefficient of x by 2.5 is the x-coordinate of vertex. Determine the maximum or minimum value of f ( x) ! ( x 1)( x 7) . x!4 f (4) ! (4 1)(4 7) f (4) ! 3(3) f ( 4) ! 9 The vertex is (4. Standard form: e. The zeroes are x ! 1 and x ! 7 . It is a maximum because the graph opens down.5)2 10(2. The minimum value is ±9. To find the y-coordinate of the vertex. x! 2 The x-coordinate of the vertex is 4.g.5.5) ! 2(2.5) ! 22. evaluate f (4) .g. . The zeroes of f (x ) are equidistant from the axis of symmetry.5 the same x-coordinate. 5 are the zeroes. 2 Factor g ( x) ! 2 x 10 x to determine 05 zeroes. 2 f (x ) and g (x) will have the same xf (2. then find the axis of symmetry. Determine the maximum or minimum value of f ( x) ! 2 x 2 10 x 10 without completing the square. the graph opens up. Factor the perfect square trinomial inside the brackets. g ( x ) ! 2 x ( x 5) x ! 0. Because a is positive ( a ! 1 ). is 22. f ( x) ! 2( x 3) 2 2( 9) 7 f ( x) ! 2( x 3) 2 25 Simplify.

y ! x 2 4x 2 5 -2 -4 4 2 y! 5 1 x2 4 x -2 -4 Vertical asymptotes . For . Factored form: f ( x ) ! a ( x p)( x q ) 2 zeroes. you should f ( x) f 1 . If D ! 0 there is 1 zero. As f (x ) increases. The graph of y ! f ( x) You may find it helpful to sketch the graph of y ! f (x) first. Use the information above to help you sketch the reciprocal. You could sketch the graph of f ( x) ! x 2 4 x to see where the function increases and decreases. If k = 0 there is one zero (1 root). f ( x) f ( x) 1 always passes through the points where f ( x) ! 1 or f ( x ) ! 1 . is defined as use the following: 1 will occur where f ( x) ! 0 f ( x) 1 1 decreases. and x = 4. To help you graph y ! . The vertical asymptotes will be at x = 0. 0. Standard form: 1 zero. before you graph the reciprocal. The zeroes are x = 0. Factor it. If D " 0 there are 2 zeroes. 2a 1 1 . D ! b 2 4ac If D 0 there are no zeroes. f ( x) ! x( x 4) . f ( x) f ( x) 1 1 " 0 . where f ( x) ! 1 or ±1. For f ( x) " 0 . increases. and x = 4. Vertex form: If a and k have opposite signs there are 2 zeroes (2 roots). The zero is x = p. For f ( x ) 0 . Check discriminant. The zeroes are x ! p and x ! q . f . The vertical asymptotes of y ! 4 b s b 2 4ac to solve for x. f ( x) ! a ( x p) 2 To determine the zeroes of from the standard form use the quadratic formula. ax 2 bx c ! 0 use x ! Reciprocal functions The reciprocal function of a function.MCR3U Exam Review 10 Zeroes To determine the number of zeroes of a quadratic function consider the form of the function. Sketch the graph of y ! 2 x 4x Look at the function f ( x) ! x 2 4 x . As f (x ) decreases. If a and k have the same sign there are no zeroes (0 roots).g. e.

MCR3U Exponential Functions f.

x = 2x 6 Exam Review f.

x 4 2 2 Exponential Growth and Decay Population growth and radioactive decay can be modelled using exponential functions. y ! a x or f ( x) ! a . SAS r y U ¨ A ± future amount P ± present (initial) amount i ± interest rate per conversion period n ± number of conversion periods x A b c C a B .initial amount t ± time elapsed d ± doubling period N (t ) .amount at time t Compound Interest Calculating the future amount: ! P (1 i) n Calculating the present amount: P ! A(1 i) n t ± time elapsed h ± half-life N (t ) . a " 0. x R . SSA Cosine Law a 2 ! b 2 c 2 2bc cos A Can be used when you know SSS.initial amount ¨ 1 ¸h Decay: N (t ) ! N 0 © ¹ ª2º N 0 . Transformations apply to exponential functions the same way they do to all other functions. Growth: N (t ) ! N 0 (2) t d t N 0 .x = 2x-2+3 6 11 4 In general.amount at time t Trigonometry Given a right angle triangle we can use the following ratios Primary Trigonometric Ratios y x y sin U ! cos U ! tan U ! r r x Reciprocal Trigonometric Ratios r 1 x 1 r 1 cscU ! ! cot U ! ! sec U ! ! y sin U y tan U x cos U Trigonometry of Oblique Triangles Sine Law a b c ! ! sin A sin B sin C Can be used when you know ASA. AAS. the exponential function is defined by the equation.

sin 2 U 2 cos 2 U 1 ! cos 2 U Work with each side separately. When you are done. The cycle is the smallest complete repeating pattern. and y ! tan U are shown below. 2 Trigonometric Functions The graphs of y ! sin U .MCR3U Angle Conditions Q Exam Review C 12 When you know SSA it is considered the ambiguous case. The equation is max value min value y! . y ! cosU . The amplitude is the magnitude of the vertical distance from the axis of the curve to the maximum or minimum value. S ! sin 2 U 2 cos 2 U 1 Periodic Functions A periodic function has a repeating pattern.5 © ! sin 2 U cos 2 U cos 2 U 1 ! 1 cos 2 U 1 ! cos 2 U ! RS Look for the quotient or Pythagorean identities. 180Û. 360Û« Vertical asymptotes = 90Û. Prove the identity.5 100 150 200 250 Period = 360Û Amplitude = 1 Zeroes = 90Û.5 y ! cosU 300 350 y ! tan U Period = 180Û Zeroes = 0Û. 270Û« 50 -0. You may need to factor. The period is the length of the cycle.g. Since LS=RS then sin 2 U 2 cos 2 U 1 ! cos 2 U is true for all values of U . 180Û.5 Period = 360Û Amplitude = 1 Zeroes = 0Û. The axis of the curve is a horizontal line that is midway between the maximum and minimum values of the graph. 270Û« -1 . A 90 a b sin A a ! b sin A a " b sin A aeb a"b # of Triangles 0 1 2 0 1 A B b a b sinA C A B A " 90Q a b Trigonometric Identities Pythagorean Identity: sin 2 U cos 2 U ! 1 Quotient Identity: tan U ! sin U cos U e. y ! sin U y ! tan U 1 0. 360Û« -5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 -1 1 y ! cosU 0. write a concluding statement. simplify or split terms up. The equation is max value min value a! 2 y ! sin U 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 5 -0.

g. k > 0. k > 0. e. k k The value of b determines the horizontal translation.g. e. The value of a determines the vertical stretch. called the amplitude. 360Q 180Q The period of y ! sin kU or y ! cos kU is . It also tells whether the curve is reflected in the U -axis. The graph is stretched by a factor of this value to determine the period of the transformation of y ! sin U or y ! cos U . The graphs of y ! a sin k (U b) d and y ! a cos k (U b) d are transformations of the graphs y ! sin U and y ! cos U respectively. y ! d is the equation of the axis of the curve. 1 y ! cos 2U 1 y ! sin . The value of d determines the vertical translation. The value of k determines the horizontal stretch. The period of y ! tan kU is .MCR3U Exam Review 13 Transformations of Trigonometric Functions Transformations apply to trig functions as they do to any other function. known as the phase shift.

We can use k g. 45Q U 2 2 1 .

x = cos .

5 0.5 1 g.2x +1 1 1.

x = 0.5sin.

5 50 -0.5 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 -0.5 -1 f.x+45 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0.

x = cos .

x f.

x = sin.

x -1 .

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