I wanteg to start by adding this brief explanenon fOr the Engll$h raaders of tfil·s book. sure that many of '1101.:1 already know that 1 am Spanish ~nd my pdmary lal"t~uage Is castellano (commonty referred to as Spsnisl'1), nol En!'jIi!ilFl, I wrote thIs boO\( using my native langlla,~e. Therefore, I hope t!1at all of my thought:;;, 9:o:plarialiofls B,i1d id.ea$ been properly translated wf'l'tT the same essanea in whiGI1 'they were Qriglnally wrltten. ! apologise if thtl translatat:! text is not pene.ct In reg,ardS to s~ntence strueturs or in Ihe dal'tty. of my eli!preS~iDns,lf you fin~ some difficulty in undar&land something in this crook, IJlea~e wrtt me a brief emaH CClIntairilng your question. Upon receiving your letter, I win try to" 4,uickly providi:! you with a reply, eontaining. a prepae explanation.

I know thaI it ean be dlHioult tCl1ransiate one language to another whilfr carfiling all the same thoughts and eri'lQdons. Thls may be fQtemost when talking about the eornplexity of modelling and the use sf different words lab:elHng ens type of teohliiq'US. I ~hink· that.the available text and numerous lma,ges contained in this book wlll be S'uffl1,lienHor YGU to use It to the fullest

Thank you very much, m1,g@migproductions.oom

Many yean'; ago. the person who taught me everything modellIng gave me the answer 10 one of Ihe most impOI-

enigmas eHhls hobby: Why is modelling so complicated OlooLJrse, anyone can fina an explanation for such a dilemma, blllllEiycmd individual SubjeCtive opit'Ji'OI'1S, .. 'uw'u,C'U by d~lerll,"1 contexts and silua1ions, there tS an ..... '''oll,r\n Ihal unites all 01 UK Thrs answer is, the synthesis of book aniJll! summarises all the chapters that the reader will

JJDI~tllcal re!lacllon Is neither banal nor superficlal. It Is the _m~ll'I;l1 j)tlfar Q( ,all exiSlence and modalting exists, doesIIDd net Ol'Ily does it exi'st, but it keeps us from Eileeping

1& ll!sponsib1e lor our headaches 01"1 numerous occasions II1Is IS I'lOlImB, why did you buy Ihis book? ... Wsll, 81mb9C<wse mode II fng is impo,rtanl to youard you need to lind 8nSVI'ers tb ailiheen[gmas that surround you. You need to ;.IQ know why modelling Is trnportant for your own exls<lnd welfare. For some, modelling is tile only reason 10 others il is a reason 10 slay ~ndoors on a rainy day and il ~:; a m!hof Intense emotions. SuI thiS does nol my ilJ~Il a 1 que.s!lor"l. These are also questions, though

carry flO qU8s~lpn mark.

Try to look Insld'e yoursef! to discover Ihisanswer that a once s~Owej;f me. look eil:lep inside your peekers, even III you ~han your skin, bones and I~esh, Look there, reall!V is Intertwined with dreams and dreams begin 10 I!ue-. Ttlere ~s a: place ins,ide yourself where something . when VOIl see a pich,rre in a book that I;twakens your and then your mind sketches a vague image that

!a~es form. This image-Is usual~y a tank, a vehicle, a ,.wllh some colours, surroundings and isfrequenlly Inlo an imaginary d~or8ma, fulJof colours. aciion '"'~'""'''''-elements, This plaoli! is called the mind, but could

1'11111 thel which we recelva from the exlerior, through alld ears. mat place is like a huge blender that pressg lhat cernes from Ihe oU:Jtside and condenses il

into an idea: An idea that will prBbab!y end up becormnga bea.utffui and tlamboyant diorama or vigneUe. II IS the path of creation, out a p,ath that is born from within. It is the r,enecUon of our soul, our persenality, 'Our being. TllUS. we are often able 10 Identrfy wort<s by the earns author, because Ihey are a pari of his very being .

For many. modeHing. is their only means of cornmuntcanon with others. They use modeilling as a vshioie of cornrnurucanon bscauss they don't ach[eve Illese objeclives in their daily me. Preciseiy because modelling is lhe mirror 01 our soul, we can use ilIa communicate will1 others, showing them what we are like inside, such mat lurther explanations of our work becomes unnecessary

This is the grealness of modelling. Now you know why modelling is so important 10 us, Modemng can change our lives, il can make us better, make. us happy and can trsnstorrn us into HVing legends. SuI mode.l1ing can also destroy, defeat and sadeen us. Modelling also generales envy, j,ea.lolJsy and resentment. II can become a double-edged sword ... both dan" gerous and beneficial.

What makes modelling dangerous or beneficial depends upon how we use it, how we lntsrpret it and how others undersland it This is why it is 30 Important to have ans'wV{!rs to all the questions that arise, because only then can we achieve our objectives with total E!ificiency. If modelling is such an importanl thing. we caonot only walk the palh lull 01 difficUlties and problems. The teebnlques used are nOI important. it is not necessary !or everyone to spend 20 years 01 his life discovering !hem in order to be' completely satisf~ed. The ends are more important than the means. We should make our dreams reality as soon as possible. because the res! of !he wmld simply cannot waiL I am certain that magnilic€!l"I! ideas are brewing inSide our heads. i am also sure that you have i'deas Ihat can change the modelling world. that you possess the key to Ihe happjness 01 many mod euers, but you cannot achieve this because you are sm] struggling 10 distinguish a !i!ler 'from a wash of the difference betwBsrl alurrunlum and steel corrosion. Don't let this treasure escape you. Transform these ideas into reality and show it where there is someone willing to enjoy your creanerr,





Work place:

positioning the too's, paints, etc.

r. What should the work area be like? UentiJa tian, urganization, etc.

FfrSI (II all it should be oomtol1able, allholJgli nOI necessarily large. I'll" seen rnoceuers whom hays a very ~rg6 workspa.ce bul only actually usa a small part 0" it with an atmost microscopic Iable_ ~I is important 10 be close to a window, 10 help wtltl the v6'IllllatEon, td you, should try to avoid allowing direct sunlight to fallon the workbel1cl1. " you have a little €xtra space available 10 lake photos, tkin help you 100 make short articles aboul your models.

at lIghting should I use?

tungsten Ilgtd bull:! IS Ina most approprrats lor palnllng. awld Ugl1t Irom a t)ormaJ tungsten ~ighl bulb. aVilr~~s OUr sighLarad will gh'6 oUr models an

ap}mi'lJIJI1Ca"NH)'1llglit is a ,goad alt.ernative, IhOl!gh it vlslJlIllaligulI. The perfect combinalion is a neon CG~ling ana a 'ortls glass tungsten lamp on Ihe.

should the ligh t

'c~Ol.Ir lef! il you are tighl-handed. Th~S will avoid whl~[!. painting

should the pain ting

wan~ to be qule1i when painting: our models. we should

II small parMi mckln '!TonI 01 'Ine workbench. nen we will 811 the painls vJsibja and al hand sav:rng us tflll1e Ihen. if w.are 1oo~ll!g lor po.t~ of pa,int'in dark boxes 11;111 of male rial.



5. Wha t should I ao if I'm building several models at the same time?

II Is highly advisable to work Or'! two Of lhree projects altha same lime. In this way, if you g.e1 tired wi!h assembly, you can always pain! and vlee versa. But th'is means having these models al hand, close to, us. In tilis case, remember to always keep the model you are painting in OJ. sealed box La protect it 'rom the dLlst caused by planes and liIes. Iff dust faHs (In a nail-painted model... il will have a nasty fini·sh.

6 _ HOUl should I iuort: at my workbench?

II Is needless to say that our workbench should be orderly and clean. An organisedi table wm help us 10 progress more quickly. Place !he refl'lHmce books in f'ront of you and the tools to one side. When painling .• II is highlyapl?ropria!e 10 leave the paillts On'! one side and the brushes and tools on the other. When painting. we must be ve'ry careful with open boilles 01 solvents and paints, U we leave Ihem close 10 us or nea~ the edge 01

the table. II is quite likely that Ihey will end up spilt an the ground or over our model. Conversely, it is barter 10 place palnt bollles between the model and ourselves, bul never be-hind Ihe mode.t. because while loading Ihe brush with paint you can drip on Ihe model.


Tools: airIJru'sh, pain'tbrushes, compre'ss'or ••.

1. H#rar tiesic materials ~hCJ.Ufd J have?

A~~ally. ymll,lnly need a cutter <lod a lew flies 10 build a model. PlasHc brands such as Dragon and' Trumpelllf now include saver!l! ma!ar~als. such as phato-etched paris, lor which we 111'111 nesc some ather mora lactlnlc;;!.! tools suol1 as smal:! pliers. or clamps. In many I;;.!Sl'OS. you will "rehab!i' need a ha'lO drill 10 get seve raj pteces and meta! pans te m logetner. A .saw for cUlling resin and a compass lor dJlllrlg plestic wm be very·fnil' if we wan! to pertorm some simple ccnversions. In i:l_ny case, rememnsr thai inv,e"lingl in tools wW COI1- 'Orderably Improve the qu:lllily of our iilssernbly work.

s the use af an etrurus« essen Hal?

btlcal& wHh muoh pallono!!. Ihe· base colour can be applied 10 a model (applying highly diluted coats 01 Valiejo aoryfios wfth a ijnd Irn)S! wealhering anriJ envim"lmefllallJlfecfs call be applied with a paintbrush, including dustlm\lss and paint ladlng. 1I)V(j WIllI'i 10 ereate I:l. camouRags wilh soli borders wW we need 10 use iii suitable airbrush.


J. What type of airbrush should I tusue?

01 course, i'l sllou~d be B double-action paintbrush, if possible with su:llnl'ess slfiel body and parts, never plastic. J personally recommend the Japanese IWATA CM-B or the Taiwanese SPARMAX DH-102, althoLlgh ~l1e German E\lOLUT10N or Tam~ya HG·SF are suila.b!eenotlgh.

4. What is the difference between a simple and aoutm: action airbrush?

With a SilfipH'l action airbrush, It Is only possible 10 control the quantity 01 air Ihal is projected, while wllh II double action airbrush. both the quantity of air arld paint can be controlled. aUow;ng finer lines to be drawn. Hence you should a,lw1lYs choose a double acuon air· brush.

In question number 3 of Ihls section, you can see the recommended brands, but if you are unable 10 obtam these. make sure thai Uia alrbrush you buy has no plastic pieces, Iha.llhe brand offers spare parts and needles and overail, Ihal it has 8. cover on llie paini hOldur Furthermore, It should be light and Ine trigger musl be smooth acting wilt! short movements (up ana clown, baCk and forth) 10 control bolh the Elir !Iow and palnl.

Grasp lhe airbrush as shown in Ihe photo allowlng ilIa rest in your hand by lis own weigh!. olherwisoe your hand Will ache after palnllng When you paint linill tim,s or small scale models. hard Ille alrorush with Oolh hands 10 keep It steady.

5. How shOUld 1 select my airbrush?

Ii. Now should I use my airbrush?

7. Haw should J clean my airbrush?

First empty the alrbrush's paint reserve then pour In Ine appropriale selvenl needed lor lha paint you used, allowing il to soften Ihe dry painl deposjts. While squeezing Ihe Irigger to expel 1he paint and air, cover !he exit wilh a finger Of clOlh to observe how the airbrush regurgitates the pairu from im;iide 1M reserve. This will clean the Inner part ,or Ihe brush. Empty the contents and add solvent once a.galn. ThiS lime, using a soft paintbrush. clean Ihe' paint residiJ9S 'from the reserve and nozzle Fir'1al~y. remove the needle a.nd clean II wllM more solvent and an absorbent paper 01 cloth, When you pUI the airbrush away leave a lew drops 01 airbrush cleaner Of wlnduw cleaner lnside the parn! reserve.

What should the compressor be like?


AJlhQUgh many compressor models exist, it is advisable 10 have one with a quiet motor, in order 10 work throughout Ihe nrght wilhoul ool.l'1ering anyone. II should be powerful enough 10 gIve at Ieast 2 kitos 01 pressure. lilt also has a large reserve, It win allow us to save !OOt@~,

Can' airbrush with propellant from air but ties?

OO,because Ihe pressure oltered by these bottles ts very irregular and can oreale an excess 01 'grain' whe'l'i airbrushing. The botllas are' IIIry good lor painting something specific in ill basic way, but they are not advisable for advanced ml.fdeHing.

What pressure snouta I use?

jI'lIJW!lr;1( with alleast 1 kilo of pressure, Ihe resulting effect will be vary grainy and rough, Bu~ If you dilute the paint well (8 parts of ~ to 1 pari painl in the case of Tamlya) V{lry fine aM precise strokes can be obtained. With ValleJo Model Air paints, you must be GlI'ollli wilh Ihls low pressure, because !he paint will eMi~y dny illl [~,e nozzle. Add I pari 01 varnish or glossy Model Air and 1 part 01 diluot lI'Ie sams brand 1m eaon part 01 patn!. In Ihe case of Hurnbrol, add 60% or dillltani 1050% 01 paint.


With pressures greater than 1 kilo, the resuu will be a muon liner and p!.II""Hised grain. riner and more precise, but you run the riSk 01 creating 'spider's traJrs' due to Ihe excess pressure. This pressure is good for painting targe surfaces. such as Ule base colour

11. Can paintbrushes replace the airbrush?

We could say 50- Without going ar!y flHther, we can appreciate the Inc.redible wo~ks made by some Figure painters using pa.intbrushes atone. Any ellee! can be reproduced wilh a paintbruSh if you know how. Having the patience and knowledge required ls another ,maller, Only i.l you don't have access to an airbrusJ) for health or Ilnaneial reasons should we use the paintbfush lor everything.

12. Which pain mrusties ShDUld I use?

1. A flat paint~U'Ush is very practical lor applying a base colour, The specia' cui ot thls paintbrush wm help !.IS 10 apply Ihe pail'll 10, ailihe corners 01 our model..

2. The lIal paintbrush is essential lor blending decolcuratlon oils.

3, A short-haired rounded paintbrush is ussd lei paint shadOW marks and rusted zones.

4. Use an old thick paintbrush for dry-brushing, Never lise a flal painlbrlls~ IQf dr!l'-OnJsh~[lg_

5. A very hard brislled snort-haired rounded pa!ntlbrush wlll serve to apply small quantities 01 mud onto the wheels and in most hidden parts of tne modeJ_

7. A nne paintbrush lor painting details and profiling,.

'6. A 'cal's tongue' painlbrllsn is very appropriate for dispersing and bl,endlng rusllng effects and dirty stains,


, J. Haw many pain thrushes s'hlJuld I halJe'?

Alleasl 3, a round numbe~ 00, anomer round numbar 2 and another number 4 or 6. The hair should beerlner sable Or synthetlc,

14, What are the differences between the paintbrushes?

TIle main dmerences revolve around Ihe qua,Uty, bofh ot the haie and metal tube around il. The hair s.i1ouJd be line, uniibrm and aligned, always conve~ginglJt~he poinL Avoid .painlbflls.lles wi,lh open ar irregular hair. The metal lube shoul.d be made olasingls piece, M1h neiIlia, ilearns nor joint marks. This is because Ihe pa~nl and humJdily can psnatrate allh8se seams and .ioints wU51ing the inside, opening the 1;y~i.!:I!~-s arld freeing the hairs 01 the painlbrnJs~. Generally, only schtiQI or hobby paijntbrusnElslencllQ ee of this type, Always try loOU)! arti!)l's pai rtlbrushes.

15. How should f clean my paintbrush?

FilSl cleanlne paintbrush with water aod then use a specmc paintbr~i1 cleaner li!lishing with soap and wate~. To make sure Ulallhe painlbrush is perf~ctly clean, press il onto' a piece ot o1tlOOlooni Pilper while il is stm weI.

How lang should a p,alD thrust: te s t r

Wlltan o~1y know this il"f)mlIJe painlbliusl'i's appearartoo, as can be seen i~ the example photos. Also, the laet Ihat one of Ihe hairs Jeans tQwartiS Ihe CllIlslc1e 01 lhepail1torush is <I sign 01 wear.

Materia's: paints, thinners and otller products ...

,. What type of pain ts are available?

The market offers an ever wider range of products, although we can basioally distinguish il.elwnn wOller and oil-based paints. Amoog water-based paints are water colours, acrylics, alcchot-based acrylics, gouaches. temperas, etc. 'For example. Tamiya ac.ryliGs am alcohol-based. while Andrse. painls are n-eslly water-bassd. Among the aU-based paint!! are Ihe enamels. oils and fillars. WTltlJn 1M 1110 varielies are Ipainls especia11y designed for LIse wilh a[rl:trushes, paintbrushes and ather applications such as Ihe pigments (pIDmel1~ l'e Ihe only paints Ihat are nellhar waler nor oU-based).

2. What is each paint used for?

AlIl10ugh lhe·re are specialised paints for ereatlnq determined effec1s such as the fJH,ers or pigment, the maioritv of Ihe painlSlIl'E iii available based! on water or oil and serve almost all our purposes if used correctly. It is better not to give a specific use to each prOil and leave yourselj open 10 many more possibil~lies as well as the opiton 01 dlsoovering your own techniques.

3. Wila t IS an a ryUc pain t?

The acryJic painl is a ve~y clean and usually odourless p,alnl. based on waler, alcohol or acry~ic resins. lis main charactenstlc is lhal il dries qulle Quickly (lor example like some types of While spirit). They provide brig,hl colours and are appropriate IOF use wtlh an airbrush, espeCially the acrylics designed for an airbrush.

Wha f Is an enamel pain t?

II is'a (fftalively new type of paint belonging more to Ihe 20th CenlUr¥ than to pre\lio~s periods. Us main characterlstic is Ihal ~t w!ies quite a long tims to dry. ma~ing ~I quite f~exible when we ~aw ~o'lnix or blend colours. But it also emits a sl~IDng and inlf)n~ srrnell whiGh can be unpleasant at Urnes and harmtu! to \Of'f1£l !l-6ople, The colours lend 10 be loneddnwn and not very b[l!]fli.

Wh<at is an oil paint?

u js,,fI ~ery Mille material, highly valued among 19tn and 20th tJ;lnlUry artists. lis hlghdensily and o~ly tHlS!O make it a Uve~y paint 111J1lo! possibllilies, ,Elilhough it dries very slowly ard ~l1us reqUir€&g!e!lIIPBlism:e. The colours are very Inlanse and can Illlm~ wllli·enamels to accelerate Iha drying process,

Wha t is a pas tet pain t?


111& basisallV ~ pTgmerilluudened with Arabic rubber thal when dry can tie usedas a chalK or cnarcoat. The modelle~ uses Ihis mstanal to extlad the< dUSI ",sIng. !Ias. 8. prgment, The paste! contains many impuritiEls making it analmost obsolete product nowadays.

What is a pigment paint?

This is un.dou'btedly Ihs most reVOhlliooary modelling product of !he 2rnh CooLLJry. Ur11i1 re~nlty il was used primarily by railway !Md~II~&. Mig Produelions has now irl'~roduced p~gments into ~ world nf milil,uy modallin[l !n a more alabcrate way., creating ip6OI11~ CiZl10IJrrs lor use in surroundings, rus!ing and metal s, ' Thl5 pl~m6l1t Is not lha earrts 85 .01 pure pigmanl. because Ihe pgtnenls 1lS'8{l!Of IllOdelllngl are mueh liner and uner the applopri&tii tango (l1,oofOtim for qnodels. II can be ap~ried

jJooo o:r tl\I mixing iI with any other product 10 create eflecls I'Ie!IfiI seen Defore.


,8. What is a filter paint?

It IS a very current and innovative paint especially designed lor

making filters on ve"lcles. II is oil-based, but (hies very QuIckly,

9. What is a' fJrimingl1aint?

, - _, - '&'I

_. ~


It Is a product ,especially designed to be applied as a foundation before painlin!lthe deiinilive base colour. 'Many plasllc models lend to have an oily and extremely dar~ or very light coloured surface, wl1lch makes 11 ditficullio apply the base colour. PrimIng leaves a smooth and unilorm surface in a neutral grey colour whloh wl,ll assist us in the application of the base colour. II is necessary 10 use this prod'uc:1 in a well venli· laled place.

11. UJha t is an acrylic resin?

II is a product used 10 aggluUnate other products suCh as p.(g-menta with plaster a.nd earth that are used 10 create mud etfects. If we dilute them hig.h!y. we can use them to fiil1 U1e pigment onto a surface in dusllorm. When diry, th~ are extremely hard and transparent. They are lotally dillerentla· white gllll~.

1B. What ts a liquid mesk?

Ills a viscous and. dense product wtm::l1is ap~lie(j 10 a with a toothpiCK or paintbrush handle'. It narcens IJpofI t!fIi as il rL was latex, but [I can latar be removed 6<tsily arid W' damaging tria paint undarneath. In this way, we can mas some 01 OLJf model's delaHs while applying anethar C91!11r il. n ts also uselullor creatmg 1'81nl chips and camouliag&s


12. Which prodUf:'5 are used to apply tiecets?

They are liquids thai M~p 10 fix and adapt decal's to the model's surface. These products

serve as an adl1esive and furthermore ethll~nale or reduce the thickness of' the· transfer's plas- 1ft support. E!iph product IS different Qindll is convenlentlo fol~ow the producers' guide1ines.

14. How many types of sotuen tare there?

AlcohOl, nj\ro-celllJlosa solvent acetone and water nsett are the mool commonly llsed solvents in modelling" Water. due to lis speClial cl1aJ1'lctQrlslics: can also serve as a dilulant.

5. Haw should a satuent be used?

r 3. What are sotuen ts?

They are agenls capable 01 dissolving a pain! or rnatarlel, even when il is in a solid or dry state, Although dry paint can be diluled fl is not rsoommerdso, because all the paint's proper. ties are destroyed by the solven! The solvent is no] a dllutanl,

lila 0l1~ Bd!IJS<IDle to U.$£! them for cleaning tools_ and when we want 10 remove incorrectly applied palnt, Bul you must lb_B careful. as rIIBIYj Sillv'\lf$ CClI'I (l~slroy plastic and resin" Tlrle nltro-cellujose altaoks porous materials such as paper, cardboard and p~asled'.

A iIOIYentlS an aienllhat diminishes the COncentration of a liquid mainlallling ils chElracterislics and composlllion. The dllutant II used 10 dllule pBu'IIS ll1as fa:cilita.Ilng their applicallo,n wilh an UbMh TheOrl!tlc:Jlly, a solvent does nolaggre.ssively

IIIIICIk an alread~ dry «llollr whalever the paint type,


1 7. Can 1 use a sotuent as a nitut es: t?

II COLJ~d be used, but it is nOl very advisable. as solvelifls are very aggressive and can damage our models. bul if we know how ~o use them, the}l can be a great nalp occasionally. Waler is a good example of this.

18. Which dituten! should I use?

Many specific dilulants can be found 111 the markel, almos! one for every type 01 paint available. although the manufacturers themselves are allen unclear about the difference". whiCh can be counterproductive, IDr Ihe modellers. Also, generic and non-spe,oialised modelling products can be dangerous" even illhese are sold as 'dllutants', Never acqulre a product lhal IS not directly focused on modelling if you wanl (0 avoid unnecessary risks,

Although Ihey are half way between a Solvent and a dllutanl, cleaners are 'chemical prOducts specially designed uniquely tor cleaning leo IJllllllny cases. Ihey include soapy solutions. Thus, you should never use a cleaner as a dilutan!.

a re terae« f?

II is a go! or liquId thai serves 19 slow down the drying processing some peints, mainly qUick drying acrylic paints. Its rnarn drawback is !ha! ~ oltlH!llhe grlglnal colour making tl mom transparent ilnd reducing its covering capacity"

Whalls a drying eccetere tor?

H 15 a product thilll speeds up ina drying process of certain palnts, especially slow drying oils, Gasoline for cigarette lighlers can be used • s arymg a.ccel!lrat6r lor oil p a~nl s.

Whl h prooucts are snaiJable for making wa fer?

L'.an~ branl:fS IIOmrrielcrallse ... ar'OLlS prOducts 10' slmurate water. Some olfer an appearance more like gelatioe than thal mdicated tor a ~. se we 9t\OUJO be very carelu" Waler·based products ale ,avai~abIEl" as are rssm-based ones. The latter, with two COmp0n8f11s ars n1Q!i1 IliallsllC. Ihollgh ~My are smellier and more complic-aled to use.


5.2. T£CHN"QUE'S

a} CONSTRUCTION as a support l'or painting

Planning a m10del ,before ,pa;nting, prellaring 'fhe surfaces.

I,. How should I breakdown my moae! for fJaintiny?

The best w.ay 10 pam~ a vehicle IS by breaking il down inlo reasonabl;~p sIzed parts, IITlat Iss,BPa~ating the wheels, turret and tha:;sJs lhough some Iragils or tricky elements can also be, handled separalE~ly. This wi'l help us. 10 painl alilhe alemanls wah grElalllf PIOClSlOll and cemrert,

.2. Should I arrange the tools before pain ting tnemr

II is advisable not io stick !hem onto your Iilnk, as you will Ihen be ablajo palnt them more ~reclsely and Cheanly, bul fllsn'IIiIWll)'i It. I easy. espec~a!!y when !he took. are fastened by various paris of Iha lank IlSell such as clamps. In tlllscasB, we should leave lhMlt.1 on IhB, tank and V8fjl carelUJlly pain,1 th9m at 1na end .

• 1

Should' paint the wheels and caterpillar tracks prIOr III

We II!! ~SIon<lll~ ob~iged ~o slJck lhe wheels and c81erpillar Irmcna lank We shQuld onty do so If ills absO~LJlely nsces~ T~ora IS <I special section on how to pain! eats rpflla I

~ iljll!r been glued on the model

r"clmiques I

., When should aerials and (raglle elements be saaeo .

AJv,"¥ allllB eM n' I'hB painlirlq process beC9LJ5F3 we wlll probably break rhem il we sue ... IIlern tJelcveband

. HtJl1J s.hould I uroceett WI tti Scfwr.zen armour?

AJw~ leave the Sr::/1lJl'i!!l11 structure glulld and pam: 1I,e- armour JII;II~~ 6l!paffi"~11' Ir yOI,l also leave tl,e SC~LJrZmi structure sepa'ill!'. H Will e.a~lf~ lal[ 011 lhe model Whp.n you glue II MIQ ths

tmk This nseause '/0111'1111 be gluil'9 II over an already painted ~utfaol

6. Ham stwufd I uuin; IDose elements?

To paJn! armour, mudguards and Olr,ar small details. you can [!repllle II SII)lporl as shown In lhe Image uSing Sllcky rapf.l_ Thrs ttw cI~lIIl~S' ami easiest way

So;wM BIllall plaCB~ should be p<lInled on beth sides and C311 b~ IliItJ wll.h a SIJ1~11 too Cr UJOlhplclo. and srw::k with .supergJue..

'yiJ~ can llX me:' lUf[~r and small eternems cruo oor!]!'!:; or rami ilmj me 11~p. rhus <JvOldln~ lIle need to Hlk~ HI(~ IlIl.I'Jul u ~Ilur IliI~~,The oplHlIng " Ihe bollo""S 01 Ihe IUIlPts an, vetv apprl;lpli,lll' lor I\nlclmg Illem, thougt slwavs USI119 laiex


HJOllIO I remoue

turr t In order

Always, ller::alJse as wen as flelplllg us 10 Imld Ihe laTlk, II will illiow us 10 access the paris hidden beneaih it

r 1 'I. ~U!l SllvLJltJ j:la,r,l til [I e itlSI(I~ purees ~(!p,jJ'ilI!Jly II VOIJ <;11 k 1~1 ,111)1."1 , tl . .., I til, VI ty 'lfIhr:u~1 HJ pell rill lr:~'Iri!.!ely, 011. "vUlyllllnq has I)ue palrllr,;d {llue II IQ[Joerher ;Jm:i mjl~k II r: 11,11 'II~"IY:'- rlr, 'I u e»INri<l1 parnl ng precess h;o.s been cr mnl('lecJ rornnve lhr: masxs WI'r. some nuers

Should I trea' the surface be fare

Ils"-ghJy eavts.aljle 1,0 crean Ihe~last[c: pleeesct the model ldIaoap and waler lullbll1glhem wilh a brush. Leave it to dry ItI& 01)611 B.'I and 11 wrH then be ready lor paln!lng., Tna model ulacas ol1sn ~ava oily remains lrornlhe mo~Jds, whlGh would lI .. n ItnDBdHOr!I1! wh'in palnllng Ihe base colour.

How shoufd 1 plan' the pain fing

WIIlhould decide whIch pariS 01 our model can be painted 1IJl8I'iI1!l1~ and which ones cannoL Prepares the plecas 0 n'I supporI$lD IIVlllcl havli'i9 10 (ouch Ih am with your nands.. Always apply a pllmsr e~lall!l If Ihe model inc!udes photo-elched or II1II&1 p;l1'IS Rnally.tly 10 parlll' a 1J Ihe pjeces a! the same time frill Is.. ap~ly,n~ !he W!l8h to;gll the separate pieces, then \I1e ruSIIr.g affects. !he dusUness, e!c ... 1;111 at the Same time. Dorl'l Pl'n1ihe rerm"al OOdV III yQ~1 model. unlillinlshing it and Ihen bKlin 10 palnllllB,laooo paris from scratch. That wOIJild be leaJly ~endjjllnt!.



Creating de texture's:

foundry mefal,sand moulds, eJChaus f' pipes •..

1. How can I creme the faun,dry moulded me tall tenture (aflied 'tanks)?

Many World Wa~ ~!!anks WElle mau", from paris cas! in Industrially moulded pieces, which gave tMmextll'a rIgidity as they hat:ll1o wel~ seams thai IrequenlJy caused vulnerabUity.These :foundry pieces had marks and very IrregiJla.~sMapes IMal can be simulated with tha IIR of Wes, drms and Ihen joined w~lh dUuted putty. Try 10 combine smal,llamfnati.ons with more rongilUclinallines.

How tall I create the texture of sand mDulds (Russir:J'll tanks)?

The SOvllltS USed acefm!iar loundry method to ihat of the EaSIern IIlhas during ~he war, bliliney used moulds 01' inferior quality, ISIIg pressed sand to make copies, which gave an extremeIylOligh lexture ifl aimest aillilejr lanks. sspecially the T34 and JS Wl6S Til repre.sel1! IMfs result. we can use CAST A COAT products.. s~ally deslgnedilor Ihis effect.


dllfemnce DIWMlan ms sandllexlure and Ihe rnodsl's or'rginal surteee can be seen,

can' create the texture or plate (German ta'n,ks)?

iJ500' a v!lryaffitlenl me!l1od ror armoLl,ring their Ina he8\1y tanks, They USeD !hick steel

wh!eh provided fI'le m defensive elf1cisl1- plaJe!l' nil!! II very f)peClaJte)(lure with larnlnaitre9~"" shapes Ihat man be easily made wah a drill. M1eI\ soften Ih= Ilnlsh Wilh gluB and a line I~re.


T~8 difference between the steel plate and the rnodsrs origlnalsurfac9 can be seen.

4. Haw can J make an enneust tuo» ienture?

By' uSing Tamiya putty and an old paintbrush. II wm be easy to create a simple texture, leaving Ihe putty 10 dry a IIItls, 10 later crsalelha texture. applying pressure with lihe paintbrush.


can'l create the tentureot' a chipped surtece?

wtildes l1ave d1lppa(i ensets, due 10 the facllhat Ihe palnl basa coal had peEt~ed due 10 external tactors, Somellmes a ~hell, shrapnatural ~lerTU!nt5 can make a lanka rea'l !eliel map. To, crea!e these effects, we use MASKOL r!quld mask 10 make IhEl chips. AfterWD Wl~ apPljlTamlya pUlly olle! II Wilh a·i1 old paintbrush. Once the" mask is remoVE!CI, We obtain this specta~i9xlufe.

6. How to make mud texture?

AlthOugh it Is bailer to make Itle mud a~ lhe end ollhe painting precess, we can atsc do so al,lhe beginning, mil'ling, Tamil/a putty wilh sail or sand and app!yil1g it to Ihe surlace wllh an otd pal,nlbrush.

pecisl effects:

mpactsJ imperfections ....

. HoUi can I create impacts on WID I I tan#(s?

TIle World War U penelraling shell" ['eft oratel-~k.e reatures on highly armoured surtaces. We· can crealEllhese effects using an electric soloortng lIOn as shown in Il1a photos.


Currsruli)" more compre,x shells are llsed, lem:flng to leave curious effects on the armour. The most 01'1'91nal Is undoub!!'dIV thllL&IDIn here, found on lheT55's during the Gulf War. The mlssil~e clea.n:ly perforales Ihe amour, but it leaves a. curious alar·shaped rtI!ltll We will use the solder and Ihe milring machine fot this.

Ffxing a normal wheel with a drill or lathe, we· can eliminate the wheel tread and make the small cnannels prodllc:ect by bl,lrnJng. ~ lilque is 110t easy, !:Jut can be acrueved with a litlle patience.

I TechnIques

2. How to create modem shell impacts?

3. Haw can I metce burn t whes'Is--?


How csn ., meke wheels with damaged tread?

Wllh a cutler, smaliglDCves com be made on the whBell'read. Alterwards, !he surface is sottenso with 1118 ...

.. ftl'i"II-efchings and aluminium ,guns

How should I handle an etsumnium ph.D tCJI-efchedpart before painting it?

Wliitll palnUng a mol:lel with pho!o-eolchings or a.llilm'inium cannons, we a~ways complain that Ihe paint doesn'l adhe!s as, well to Ihe

maiSl as 10 I~e plasl!c.To avoid tiltS, we can pass a. line liIe over l~e ,s~rtace which will assist in Ihe slmnger aeheston of ~he p'a!nt IQ Ihe SIiI1aca,

Tank. painting seMmEl (hacei un esquema o tabla para ,asta secci6n)

ihose' mooelJers who have trouble [planning iii oomplate paintInll prooass wUl flnct some basic suggestilons for fils majority Q~ Ilhesa cases. Of COUrslil" this is just an example' and each modeHer c:aJII creal:e or develop varia:liQns, but thissectiDn will ul'ldoubtedlyserve as aMIe.renoo for the least: ~rt

Each point corresponds to a questlon lin this book. so If you don't know how tf;) make one of 1hem, loot for the answer in tile' book's Index.


1) grey base, colour 1} base colour
2 sand base colour, satin airbrush 2) satm vamish
3) liliers 3,) filters
4) washes 4) washes
S) fading 5) fa,ding
6) chl'ppsd areas 6) aluminium chips
7) chips 1,) pre-dusting
8) running rusty chips 8) dry mud
9} rust streams 9) oil effects
10} p,re~uS1ing
11 ) dusting
12) oil,eftects
1) colour base 1) base ool:Qur
2) satin vamish 2) satin varnish
3) fllte,rs 3) filteIs
,4) washes 4) wa.shes
5)1 fadIng 5) fading
16) runniing rusty chips 6') running rusty chips
7) pre-dustlng 7) rusty comers
8) general dustiness 8) pre-dus1ing
9) route dustiness 9) general dustiness
10) dry mud 10) route dustiness
11) 011 effects 11 ) wet mud
12}, fresh mud
1) camouftage base colour and camouflage 1) base colour
2) whi1e airbrush colour 2) white ·aJjrbrush colour
S) whtte colour In mapping 3) white colour in map-pil'1lg
4}1 whife chips in negative 4) white Chips in negative
5) fUters 5) flft,ers
IS} washes 6) washes
7) running rusty chips 7) running rusty chips
8) rusty oome:rs ,8) rusty corners
9) pre:-QYs1lng 9) pre-dusting
10) wet mud 10) wei mud
11}1 'fresh mud 11) fresh mud MlNGLE·TONED GAEENTANK

whHe base colour ohips

mora chi~,Pled areas $p(Ingectlips



rusty comers rul'lnln,g rusty ool;ps

f) pl'HflJsting 10) WBIIT'!ud

1) green base eclour

.2) filtenl'

3) fading

4) washes

5) !runnlngl rusty chips 15) p,re.au8Ung

7) watermarks

a) dry mud

9)1 spilt fllel

W) Grew footprints



sand bale colour camouflage colour satin!lS:mlsn




washes RJnnlngl.~ chips

9) pre-dusting

10) general pl.gmenl dustingl speeiflc dusting

12) split fu.e1

1) base ,colour

2) ,satin vs'mish

3) washes

4) g'snaral pigment dusting 5}' oil

6) crew footprints


base ,colour satin varnish waal'!as

light pre-dusting 011

CI'8'rN footpr.ints

1) basllH,olOl!.Jf

,2) satin varnlsb

,3) filters;

4} washes

$) pre~dustlng

6) mu:t(iIJ dustil'iles:s

7) general pigment: dustiness

S) sp:llt fUlel


baseoolour washes fading

paint chips on a II1J!Sted area, runnfng rusty chips pre-dusting

general Jllgment gusting

1) base colQur

.2) mapping

3) washes.

4), m.apping:

5) weali' wftll dry-brushing

16) chips a p.aintbrush

7) a,ged rusty ch'ips

8,) fading

9) chipped areas

10) large rusted surface

11) rusting Mth plgmsl'llt

t:iO general pigment dusting


1. What is priming?

II ls a layer of paint applied before thtl base colour. A gpectftc primer is generally used, applied w,itn a spray can or·airbllJs~. A mJUlra! grey >coloured prImer fS normally usee, 10 highlight any possible assemblyf1l.ulls .and 10 help cover Iheo,riglnal p''lie COloUf.

2. When and what should I prime?

Terrains, metal caterp'illar tracks, very dar:k plastlc models, .anel'very large vehicles ars !.he most approp!i.ate for applying a pnTlllll'. although a~mosl allY mooe~ can be primed. Yo.1,! should be very careful with small modsts or mooeis with very fine detail. bell!aJ.l&ll tl rr:I well conlrolJed, the prtmercan hide lhe details.

IFor I,nge mocle'~s or those with not rnuoh delai!. we can use a. grey colour Andrea priming spray, bu!. fOr very line elements, ~e 000 with la.miya paints QrTamiya primer:

NEVER. except iJ It ~s done at the begil')niln.g to MJust Of protect Ih£:! base COIOl.H OQ prepare !i1e surface for decals, and lransl.~r.l or_ varnish is [ust used lor specific etfects. It a model is varnished at the end. thrs will make all our model's brends uniform, ISilVlrll,l ~ R . and boring ..

The Model AIr- yarn~sh by Vallejo is very good 1m use with an airbrush, among !he acrylic varnishes aM among Ihe enal'llpl!i: 1h&!ie1 HUJmbrolis Iwry excellelli; exoepi the mati f~nish. Before using a varnish, pertorrn a lest with an old model.

5. tunicn primer shuuld I use?


1. When should I varnish a model?

2. Which uerntsn should I use'?

3. Wilen sneut« " use a gloss uerntsti?

You can usa Tam~ya. acrylic yarnish combined wlt~ Ihe base ~loullliI alder 10 prepare a soft <llOd appropriateMSi3 rOf the waJilws, rfl:lmbrol snamel varlllsh can be used mb:;l'ld wilh ~rowJl colours 10 j:mx:lu;r:e oil and spill ILJ·el effects.


When should I use B' matt ,lJarnish?

U&e a rna:llacrylicvsrnish 10 accentuate I.he dry mud: sHee!'

When should I use' a satin uerntsn?

Qlicalhe decals or lransler$ are placed on the lank, apply Va~JeJo $Olio IIiilmilm WIm sn alrbrush.

8'ase Colour

1. How should I .apply the base colour?

You should 1101 attempt to CQV·ef 11m. wnola surface at once, but ramer YDU shou1C'1 ;:l.pp~y severnl coals and transpararu Jayers 101 help the painl'S adherence 10 th.eSllrface. II you try to cover

the whole surface at once. you run the risk of app~ying to thick DI a coat losin~ some' 01 Ihll d.elalls.l$'1 eacn layer dry between coats, even II they are transparent

Z. What base cotanr snouta I apply.?

II s ~~~l'tlp1iala III begin wblh a Tamiya base COrOLlT. as Ihe-s8' colours are nighly resislant as bases, although the colours are no\ very realsllC. Once !he Tamiya base colour hied been applied. you can apply another base cctour base from the Vallejo Model Air range. as they oller ml)re livel~ andl appropriale eoleurs.

3. Can a base colour be

decofaured, (a,ded or Ugh t enea?

Yes Dy mi~ing tne ease colour with a lighter colour, lhilugh mls technique Is becoming outmoded lor many.

4. When should I add gloss to the lJase colour?

GIos5 &~o1JJd be added right Irom Ihe oeginning, es;peClany fot 00!.1h eolQur applie~ atterwares 10 craata Ihe camouflage parches. II we la1110 do so, Iha camoui'lage wll! appear diHerem from Iha base colour aJ1d will produce a stranqe enect.

t . When should I apply a camouflage to a model?

Overall when you are sure of how you are going to ,ag,e and ereate Ihe camoufla~ged model's surroundings, II fIru am OIlSUre,l! to pr,aclrce with some monochrome models before Bmb'9rkingl on a camouflaged 'OnEJ', There arealso some models thai life l11li lop lhe af:lplicalion of camouflage, because rt breaks up Ihalr lines, and shape. On the other hand, other tanks aid IIIe appl1!il81l:lll Qullages. especiall'y large scale tanks.

2. What type at camouflage shout,d I choose?

Choose one mat adapts well to your skills, That Is, don't try to make an ambush camoul,lage i1 you don'l know how 10 makrl the a'ble' number 01 lillie circles. II is also trnportaru to know III you have the paliance reQLJJred. A well painted mode~ wiih jU5t (me ,Simple camoullage can be quite plea,slng; bu! a badly painted modeJ wllh a c:ornph~1( camouflage will disillusion Ihe '~ubrJc ill Ia.tgi

~. What paints snoura I US,f3' tor a camouflage?

Well diluted Tamiya paints are a magnificent choice lor out camouflages, aJlhough Il'Ie problem is thai tile colours .availalllB ~ ~ogue are nol very appealing. Vallejo of'fars a greater variety, Ihough ~hese colours are diflicuilio USB.


5. Can I apply the base casaur with a sp'ray pain t1

Yes, b)/ uSlog one oI the nomerous sprays avall'able in Ihe markat lor Ihis purpose. This ean replace the use 01 Ihe airbrysh to apply Ihe base colour.

4.. Can J create' a camouflage with ,a ,pain tbrusn?

Yes, allhougil Ihls requires a certain degree 01 skll!. Use !-Iumbrol, cotoms over an acrylic base. D~lu!e Ihe Humbral painl te the consistency of milk and apply It wHh the paintbrush In a single brushstroke.Il you use acryliCS, li'oU .should apply 'be'lween lour and six highly' dil'uted coals, With Humbrol paints, just one Is sufflolent


5. What are maSKS?

The~ are prclectlons 10' cover or protect certain areas to avoid pa[nting over them when lusing an airbrush or painlbmsh, Both adhesive and air masks are ,available areas, The ,a,dhesives leave a clear border and I'he air masks leave ill hazy one.

6. When should I' use masks?

flolasks are very useful if you don't possess the skill requimd for painting a camouflage !reehand or iI you want to make 11 hard bordered camcuUag6.

7, Haw [an 1 dram S' t:amouflage freehand?

II is \'6ry Important to hold the airbrush confrdenlly. Use both !lands lor Improved' prec1sion.


8. How caR t create a camouflage using bom ,paintbrush

and airbrush?

Whsl! you crealslfuge scale camouflages or have a la,rge surlace 10 paint, YO'-I can crsatea camoullage with a m~xed lsehnique .. You should ITrsl draw the camoullage borders with iii. paintbrush using acrylic patn:ts. Apply at ~easllhree coats, Afterwards. lilline centre 0'1 the IcamouHag,e wllhan a,irbtush, avoiding ,going roo close to Ille borders.

9. Wh,at pressure should I use in my cCJ'mpressQr?'

For large palched eal'l1oufla,ges, you can use a pressure '01 between 1 and 1.5 kilos. For line or spot camoullages. usa HISS p1a~ {less than one kilo) and dilute t~e paint h~ghly.

18" ,Haw can I paint 'panzer grey'?

Haw c.a'fi " ,paint an' 'allied green '?

u. Uow can I pa'in t ,8 'three- toned semi-hard NATO camouflage?

Use ill seml·.lransp!lfllnl tracing paper iby means 01 a mask EIte~, In order 10 achIeve ,s,oI1ened oordet'S.



14. How can I create a desert ,r:am,rJuflage?

IS. Haw can I create

a minter camfJUnage'?

r.~. How can' ereete a ttun- tone cobra camouflage?


, 7. Hom can I cree te a tnree- tonea hard-bordered camo'uflage?



'9. How can I create circular ambush camouflage?

lB. How taR I create two-toned son-bordered cemoutteqe?

Uu Inis technique lor veh~dBS with campl'ex shapes where you canno1 ap!l1y an air mask> Use Blue Tacas a mask.

Techniques 1

Decals, Tra,nsfers and Numbers. Positioning and Protection'

The most common and hdghly used are water deoals, dry transfers ~nd damp transters. There are also adhesive stendls for nul1'\llell and insignias. The pholo··etched stenods are similar 1'0 adhesives wllh the in,ccmvenience 01 nol being fixed 10 Ihe surface nd I1GI foldable or adaptable 10 the shape of the vehiole, hence they are not shown here .

t . How m,any types of decals are there?

.2. How ShflUld , use adhesive s tenetts?

j, HoW should I use water decals?


4. HoW sh'ould I use dry transfers?

TeeM/qlieS '


6. HoUJ should , pro tee t the decals ano treas Iers?

Once Ihe decals or transfers have been poshlonec, they should bill varnished wilh a sal~n varnish 10 protecllMm !rom IatereHaQl Turpsnl!ine for example does not attack an acrylic base but it can destroy an unprotected decal.

7. ,on which types of surface should I use tiecets ?

Alw.ays glossy, hence before applying a decal, YOll should a.lways apply a gloss varnish to 't"El area, This will prevent buildS! under the decals.

, ,


I. What colour stulufd fhe Zinmert! be?

Ihoogh ,'he,Q ate numerous theories all the origins.' colour 01 Zll1IliTJsrh,lt was actually 8 greyish paste, similar 10 the colour of Tamlya p1JU~. pelhaps a little lighler and perhaps snghlly yellow, Henc~, II we make I'he silpemicial chips on Ihe Zinmerll biyar, thi'S!! shO!.!lo be a bleached Illght grey colour, ll the ch'lps lIru deeper, the resuHanl colour should begr,ey. even if '1M lank pllmli1~ cololJr were red or anojher colour, because itlB linmerilleaves incrusted remains ion Ihe original surface QI t~lIlank As arlu.!ic license, we could p!linl the priming layer

led II WI! &0 desired, 10 Iprelvida more colour 10 the rest oj tI1e mlld~l. bullhi" wouldn't be vel)' correct

Malha. Wlr'j ~nteresllng and realistic opUon would be paint Ihe I!hTps fn 1M base colour, ~he same ,colour in which Ihe tank

WIS pSinlsd. baeause the bmks were often repainted ~n the lronl a.rn:llhe chips Wefl3 usually covered with grey ,ztnmerit.


HoUl should I pat" t the ztnmerttr

Thl! cthips Ire painted in a light grey colour and a Ugh! or gloss is later ,app.11edllo the lower borde; to Simulate ths reliel, We can do the same lor Ihe upprarparrt.lhlS lime uSing a dark colour. Once dry. lhe best way 10 age itle Zlnmeril is with very soft dustings. You should ~r usa a palntbrusli 10 emphasise texture.


The mter is a painting technique t!"lal is used to enrich, unify and vary the lone of a base colour, Ills usefu'llor iJllllymg alilnk wlGll cample·;.: and conlrastlng camouflage, of 10 'enrich a f~at colour and also to vary the base colour we would like 10 bring Ihls 1M!Irr!!j eeleur closer 10 a more apprcpnala one, The r9SI.l!tii!lg appearance should be slIghHy saun.

The should be app~ierl with a sOoft founded number 6 pajnlbrushl. The Pillntbrush should be dampened with the 'filler" am not soaked. Tirle palnlbrLJsh Should be passed over the suliace enos and no mora Ihen twice, avoiding !he accumulation 01 paInl In ners or detaiis. A sUghtily matt surface will hslp us 10 apply the filler. Many layers of fflter can be applied, but the model dry 'for at teasl two hours in between coats. Special fillers can a~so be appilsd, that ts, a diHerenlly coloured filler ror ea!;" parroUh. tank, whIch will provide a more realiS1lc etteet,



, . Wha t is a' filter?

2. What do we Reed to apply a filter?

Sin tncusuies WLers are the most appropriate '1m m0dellillig •

. CeC8USB' Ihe colours are specially deSIgned for mmtary meeet~ing and they posses Ihe peneet quanlity of colour. Simply sh!lk.e them vlgorou.sly ,and they are ready 10· be applied with a ~ainlbruslh. Fiilers can aisoce applied wfth enamel painls and some dllutants.

3. How should I apply a filter?


4, What is the aitterence between a filter and a wash?

The mter .serves to modi!y t~e base colour and enrich a surtace in a unilorm manner, whi~1l the wasn serves to highlight the details and l1li11101& panels using a. much denser and opaque colour,

5. When should I apply a titter?

II is always advisable 10' apply fllters to a mod'el, as they provid'e us with me first feal aspect and leave an adequate surface for the later tlPpllcatlon Qf Ihe' washes,

6. Can a titter be r,ep/aced by another tectuuque?

wnen we create wear effects with oil paints. this technique can cancel (Jut the filters, overall il' we apply a 101 of wear '10 the whOle model surface. B!lII once and lor ail, il ls better to apply the lilters fks! in case some areas are lelt 'unworn',

A Sin Industries tilter lakesappHlximal'el,y two hours 10 dry completely. It we make a hand-made filter Irom turpentinE! and ell PIl;Inll. model should ee left fora whole 12 hou~s 10 drry between li1ters.

7. Why aaes the filter #laue a glossy finish?

II yo~ create a lilterwitn household means, usin.g turpentine O~ some poorly recommended type af white spiri!., we run the risk thai our Ililer wrli havEl' <I glossy finish. or even that it will never completely dFY.l'his slicKy appearance is the fruil of having used all inappropr~a:te turpentine. But a well :!Ippried liaer can I(lave a slighlly 'satin appearcan.ce, espedally after a third filler, but it is a[ways dry.

B. How to'ng doe's a filter take te dry?

9. How many filters can I apply?

Only you can d,*ide that, but il is norrnat to ap.ply between !h,ee and five fmers 'Uotil achievin.., :ne desired appeara.noe'. You should consider !hal. !hesuperpositjon of the filters darken" illg the base cotour is irreversible. Allt~ough yo~ ~an app~y a Hghl coloured li~ter. this wiIJ not prevenl the da.r!«3rning 01 the model as a whoill. Don't 'be afraiL1 to Investigate applying strange filler colours. You can apply a blue or orange w~lhoul Ih~ colour being to· r1oticeable, Rernernb(;!r Ihallhe fillers are a vary subllebui1d·up or colours.

18. Wh,en wi'll , know when I hS'U8 finished the filter phase?

Nobody can help you there, as you ate 1M only person who knows tns clirn!:llon your nasa oolour should! ti!tke. II yOur bi!lsacclalllr Ie ·grey and you want to mak'9 it more yellow, apply as many yeltow fillers as you see fit ullti~ your idea is reacheq.

11. llJllat cotoursaees shuuld J use in tbe filter for a panzer grey tank?

Blue grey and dark brown are the mosl appropriate for Panzer Grey tanks, usually 100 neutral and monolonous.

12_ What colours should I use for a green tan'" filter?

It your gl"een is too toned down, apply ochre, orange and Drown 'filters. Ii tha green Is 100 yel~rr\ll or bright, apply grey. da11< grll6n eM dark b town filletS.

13. What colours should I use tar a three~tanetl German tank?

Ochre :brown and light. brown. III the' camoullage is very lively. apply grey Inlers;.

14. What colours should I use for' a tuntte tank?

Ughl grey, ochre brown and b~ue grey.


t ,,}'lour should I use for II $,andy cotourea lank filter?

oc:I1res, VS1fOWs. greys and light b,rowns.

at should I use 'or a three- taned NIITO tank filter?

grey, grey·brown and dark brown .

• 00IiI cline cldllille;chnlqu as and also one 0'1 Ihe most oetnmCH'Ily uSEd, 001 unlll \lery recenlly, nobody was really sure ft' was: I" fact. everything but dry-bru'shing has, been

fIIecj waihlng'. But I! Is necessary to defuna exaclly what a _15 In order 10 progress and understand mod'slling. The $OMlS to ~Ighngh! details and vehicle panels with the

lin of cleating grea1er depth Ihus iincreaslng the contrasl

In allow US to beller appreciate the different shapes of cumodel

, Wllat do J need to apply a wash?

A diU brown paJnl mixture can be used, with oils or enamels, dlluled wilh 80 '0 70% 01 ouutant, A son, rounded number 2 or 4 painttxusl1 SMluld be Used. If our model's base colour is enamel, Ihan an acrylic wash can be applied, diluting mem witn water and laler GIIi:I1flQ some' alcohol.


3. How should Oil wa's'h be applied?

Wilh a mixtl)re of dark brown di.luted with ttlrpen!ine, the paint should bl;'! deposJtea at the cracks and details of Ihe model, wilhOut worryhig il thle etfeCl Is !lneVEin. Leave il to dry lor a f,ew minutes andi Ihen wtth a clean paintbrush moistened with turpentine. [he wash rnarss should be, br.endad unlil tney are soh and: well defined.

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rep-e5efllr. aU lfl.e cJjrttMSS mixed with 011 afldluel remains tnal collect around Ihe riw1s and .01150 accumulate around Ihe hatchway CO~Nld lloor crEllk!i. They' generally represent accumu.iated dirliness.

should I ap'fJ/ya wash?


II is a !ectmiquB for lrepres9'nlfng the marks left by Ihe rain anc! hurnfdity on Ihe verlicaj panera ot vehicles. Genemlty. all ~Il\cles always, cOl/l!1!reci with some dusl When the rain or dew falls ovet iI, Ihe dust is dragged down the vertical panels. Ihus !lgm,~ll~lIl. of verllcaJ Irnes or various intensities.

2, What is reauirea to creete a rain miJrk?

A water mark can be made with dry pa.intbrush and a right sand or earth colour with ns corresponding d~lulanl.

By using Buff and Flat Earlh paints by T-amry8 and diiulln'g II with 90% water. Vertical lines are traced on the panels wilh a roundei:I brush. Iryingllo vary the thioknesses of Ihese lines and aVoid IlIliowdng them to tauch eachl other, Ones dry, Ihe prOCf!SS ls repeated, bii tl11s lime adding new lines on lop ollne ol'd ones.

Rain m,arks

1. lllha t is a rein mark?

5. How should I apply a rain mark?

4. When shOUld I apply a rain mark?

Whensver our vehlcle is In a dry area, where tt has previously rained, especially on vehicles w1ti1 large areas or highl~ cenlmstirlQ ~ oullages. Try 10 avoid applying throm' 10 sand or light coloured ta"ks and vallieres, where tI1e ,eRect willl'lot be well appreciated,

What are fading effects used for?

The lading slml,lla'U;lS Ihe delerioration produced in lank palnts by sun and raln action. A wear effect wlll improve Ihe !.ank's appearance, ~all ii It was III plain ~ol(jUf wtthout any camol)lIage, though they can also 00 used on c:amoullaged!anks.

WhBn $.hould t use a fading e ttee t?

Oil paint wear can be used whenever the model i,s painted wi~h acrylic paints. If Ihe base colour is enamel, you run Ihe fISk Iha1 Hle proJoIl!jeIl ~osure to ollhe base colour 10 Ille ail paint can damage the base colorr,

How can I cree te nortznntet ureer?

small IiIIIl!nlilies{)1 oil are applied 10 Ihe surface. slartillg with ~ I~hlesl paints arnl ffnishfng with the darkest ones. bOling able 10 (lSI;! a-ny COlour from white, yellow oenre, blues (lor ~een coloured tanks), greys and Lhe, whole range of browns. OI'Ice Ille colour pelnts have ,been applied, they are blended

wifh S' ctaan paintbrush, moislened with lurpentlne; fri a circulf.\r ~llQl1llntH the paiFlI,s mixed weill, removing the excess paint.

5. Special preceutions to be taken with fa,ding.


4. H,ow can I cree te vertical fading?

II ls applied lin ElX'aclly Ihe same way as the horizonlallading, bllt using a nat paintbrush 'to brand tha palm with vertrcal movements.

You should' try 10 a.pply Ihe appropriate quanlily of oil, because by app~ytng too much. you run Ihe rislil ,of obscuring Ihe damlls. FIacI darkest colcurs closer 10 the details and comers, as well 8S for 1M, hatchways or zones protecled from Lhe sun. Ttle Ugh' COlours be 11'1 the areas most exposed to the light. Don't pass lhe paintbrush over !he same area too much when blending. or you Will ~1lIL9 removing all the painL You Should try 10 reach lI1e polnl w~ere Ihe paint is mixedl w[lh the background' wilhtlUllosjng II or ecMlfl~ too much pa[nl. The model's su!1ace' can tie moistened beforehand with turpeatlne, especially If the nnTsh Is toe mSjIt, Applying IIII! effects after the wasnes and 'filterS cal'! be very appropriate •

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I create a aeeatoure Han?


ladIog caused by !he sun-can also be oeated with p~Qmerlits, Fading ptgmenls from Mig !"r'oductions will be used lor gre-en and' grey They are nOI vel)' appropriate lor camouflaged lanks. The plgment is applied wll'ha POiinlbrush 10 the ver!ical panels. Irying 10 IJIIUfItn wrrleallines. AfterwardS, lha excess dust will be removed with another pain~brush.

shauUl I cree te a pigman t aecotours tion?

~t:JrIE. we IO~BI !o!:reale Ihe fa;ding With. oils, or simply when-Ihe mooellslinished, the previously ,applred fading Ilillect very setl or Sl,Jbt!e: In this case, to intensify 'Ihedecolourati.on or lading effect, we can use this techntque to t:Or'ltras! our final

cansiderations for using pigment dec%ur-atian.

15 \'8fy IrnJlOr\aJ1!rO~ lrill' Stlria.c~ '10 be slig~t!y mett, so Iha! the pigment ednerea efficiently: OthelW,ise. il will be sulfidenl to moislen Ihe with a Ii!!le IlII1Pllfillneor acrylic resin highly diluted with waler. A lina~ solution is to varnish Ihe deoolou:red area with mati varIltOOugh this will ,exDessive~yelimina.te IhB' desired effect.

I5-p!;IlIIaps!he ol~&st and mO~1 popu~ar mol;lsllina teohnique. It represents wear caused by mabing, Ihal is, the wear action caused bF/tItk$ and SIIlO~01 erona tree trunk. Bul they nsver represent the fading of thE! tank's·p_aJnl. because Ihe paint peels. 011, when com~ 11110 C\lJl:ta~1 wnh "lhe crew Of-6xl!lrnal agellts and produces ehlps, A few ago, Ihis teohnlq!l.e was used e_ld®nsive~y by' many

10 highHyhl tile details 01 a mode'l, wHt!aui. fretting if lh~8 IS lotally unreal and a real lanK is never aClually produc-eil. We can dIdy ~9!1 oi:tufr uSes: 10 Ihf! dry-b!iJShIITl9 process. much more :appropriale 'IOf achieving more raali;stic effects, though these are far ~ IfOOl1l1e ~roci>SS' ori;gfnal applicalions.


2. Wha t is dry-brushing used far?

Drv"brushing can be used 10 represent wear from r1ubbilng againsl any malerial or porous object suoh as cement woad, S10ne ~ rains, ale .• bul also to imutate the eflects of rust,ed zones and large chipped areas.

3. How clln J pertorm dry-brushing?

A large rounded painlbrush will be used, fr possible an old one, because !he rubbing actlcn can ruin parnlbrushliS. Palnllsloatle:l the pBinlb~ush, wnic~ is thell1 dried ..... Dlh a cotton clolh or absorbent tissue unlil the brush i.s aimesl clean from paint. wl1h !lnJ~ a Irace remaining on Ihe brush. Then lhe dry paintbrush can be applied over Ihe desired zone, rubbing Ihe surface In a oln:ular FInally, one should emphasIse the fac;llhat ills always best to use enamels la, l~ls tecnntque,

4. Using dry-brushing for chipped' ar,sas

Dry·brushing ean be usee to create crups, especJally all vehi· clas wllh a:nolhe~ colour applied over tne ease colour. as is Lhe ease with winter or desert 1,181110100. We silould combine ~his technique with real ~hips a;ppli:ed by a brush'.

Using dry-brushing tar rusting


By USJf1g a dark lUSty brown colour, we can Imitate worn and rusted areas caused by prolonged usage. Abandonee! vehicles ate tdeal to pIJIln s option into practice.

Using dry-brushing tor cleaning surtuces ..

Sorflsdmes. after applying the washes, we can see how some areas hav·g ended IJP a lit'tle dirly andlltle result is r'lelti1er dear nor clean. In llils case, we can apply a very light dry-brusning to the afmOled areas to clean and purify the details, uSing a similar colour \0 Lna

~ mrauf, bulnever 100 .light, as this will produce' iii "rock" appearance.

Chipped paint

I. W'/)at should I knou: about chips?'

Chipped erfecls are the most desired and haled by rnedellsrs, tJeca1JSEI il you know how Ihe create them well, you can break MIJa(tS, but if you apply Iham badly, the model. Will' end up in

the: rubbish bin Or on Ihe least valued shelf. Chipped pafnt is Ihe mO$t rebel,l,lous and diflicull 01 aU the effects. You should pradlce1l Ill! and lake Inspiration from nature jf you want 10 !i'.l'ealelt1em successfully. They are also extremely random .and always manllesi ~hemselYes in the least expeoted way. They Mil ul1d61lbledly and will eennnue 10 be your nlghlmare and tle'aclMhe lor lFIe, unless }lOU manage 10 domlnats them !Ike Ci:IWbQy riding iii w.ild bull. The chips win play with you, .it win lpall you to believe inal you know how 10 do it, bul only when you are practiCing on aJ old mode'J; when )/ouare painting.a namboyanl and fscantly painted Panther or Tiger, it will

d'ecelve you and transtorrn itse!f into the most norrific of forms. The 01111' solution for this is to oos,erverea.1 chips and to praclite BioI. The paintbrush, painlus·ed and your pulse can he~,p 10 mOlke the best chips effe:cts.

4. .Howc:an 1 create chips with a paintbrush?

USJJlg 81 number 1 or 0 paintbrush, w.EI dilute lhe pari'll unfila quitBllquid paste ~s o!ltalned, which w.ill allow as 10 draw Iha chiPs A very thick paint ,";11 produce too Il'Iiol< chips and ·e:xoosslvely diluled pall'll will produce rounded and gelatinous dn~pOO fI~e1:!5.

z. What should the chips look like?

A.reas surrounded by small gaps and scratches.

3'. W,here should the r:hippedpa tenes tse positioned?

As a general role, thay tend 10 appear nea~ ths Sdg6$, batchwa., and doo~ borders" Oil Mndtes or lighl proteeiors, fn horlzonl,M ZOneS, IFul.1 of rOO!stepstlnd an Ihe upper parts of I.he cannens,


How ran I create chips with' a running rust effect?

Slart by makin9 sm.aJ1l chipS on the h<Lndltls most prone 10 receiving hils, or damags, 10 laler creale smalter ones il"l ths most central and laleraJ areas, by maKIng small polrrtstoqethar ~l!1 other thicker ones. 0," Ihe thicker ones. draw a line verli~lline willlal8f' be ljeOOed wdh B dean paintbrush moistened with while sp.iriL These chipped areas should be created with enamel [pain Is, A iouch 01 dark IlleIBl f:aJl R1~o be apptted III some 01 them, to simu.late the r;lffec! of conlinuous usa,ge ..

6. H,D.W can J ere» fa chips With the sp,onge tecnntaue»

M01sl.en <l p,IOlee of sponge with a IitUethink acty!iC palnt, Dry it a little with absorbent llssue and p~ess Ihe sponge oVer the surface of your rnocet to achlOlw thee'Neels of a highly corrcoed and pe!ller! area. 001'1'1 abuse lh~s lechl'1iqu!l). because lts exeess can result somewhat unreal.

7. How can .I' create c.hips using flry-lJ.rushing?

Sit using lJ1e dry·brushlng technique and choosing a d.arlo< flUsty colour, to imitale large chipped and rusted areas. look at the sedion on dry-brushing 10. leam more about thus lechnique.

Corrosion and scratches

Use a vel.y line painlbrush anti acryl~c paint 10 oreata Ulis type of efleCls .. lrl'Je· scratches were causee by rubbing against a sLlr1ac:e with aJ sharp.ofoolnled Surface. and tllecQtrQsion spots crigi~ate<:J from water entering between the metal and painl of a whicle,lhus c~eating stlIall ru~1 spots.

. _~. ~ ... ,_._~...-~==.- .~a

~~ -...._ ..... , . ~~ .. _ - ~. .

.- _ -' - __.: - - --.....::.'+-<-- , -- - .... --

9. Nega five a'n'd positive chips

We can d!slinguish between two Iypes 01 chips, depending 'On whelher the chips affects the paint occupying a large surface area or iI the chips is just a small pari of this eoloar Covering the, whole surface. The red circle inaiDate:s an area with positive chips. painted with grey paint over a while area. The green ci~cle indIcates negative chips, ~or which Willilra paint was app'lied over a grey base.

1 B. Chipped wood

These t&!1d 10 have a longitlldinallor'm, followi~g the direction of Ihe wOod ,grairL Lighl coieurs can be used to im~al9lhe d&an v.a:xI lila! is, exposed unoarnaatl1 the paini proiecting it.

, I. Cbips an Did rus t

These are like tile chips on !running rust, bul on a larger scale, mora C100(lfy grouped logelher and wilh a greater coneemrancn Of iUS! slreams. You can draw a small line iiI Ughl col'oured paint Oller the chillS, in order Lo Im~talll tile eftecl of r:arsad paint.

IZ. Recently rus tea chip's

ThIS Iypo is p£!rhaps the most common ot ali and works v,ery ~ 00 plein coloUied vehicles wllh very complex camoufiages f'lm1Iy. chips should be crealed with a painlllghlsr !han 1M baSa coIQIl~; on lop 01 which another slJghlly smaller c;ttippeQ area wllj be applied. 'this lime L1s1ng' a dark brown emur.


This section will serve 10 describe alii those chippedeHects that are produced 'on ncn-corroslve metals, such a?, alJJminlum.and leM aluminium ,colour willi be used 10 represent these eNects .. You must be very carelul witll the lank, we!a1lines, as IIUlSIilI'~oo,JiI'IJ 'and' ~ead newer rusts.



mpre.sellw alilhoslil fnegiJl.Bf patches Ihat can be detected on a tank but by na.lme are not really chips, but rather irregular ran• Cfealoo stains. TIle term mapping oomea from three-dimensional progr,Qm$ where textures are mElp~edl on three-dlms.nsioMI .-'0 gIVe them colour; In the case -of modelling, this means the 8!PplicaliQn one or more layers of smalll patellas as ilthay were maps dCCll1UnanlB and combinillig tharn with olller techniques employed above and below them, produce very deep and realistic effects. This is n ollM moslil'lnO'o'aGve allld lillie known of all thetecFllniqUles available.

BDW ran I creete mapping?

.,UIlng an wylie paint, smalllrmgular pailn!ed

IIIII'Id Ihe!ank's ~nlours, The paint is lell to dry and 'Ihe IIIIICBS!IIS repea~ad unlilille desired in:len.sity is achreved. Ch:eOOO1PI' led, dust and other environmental effecrs ars used .lII1OPthan lh9 exaggerated mapping effects.


5. tttuu can I ereete rus ted mapping?

This option requires Ihe combination wifh dry-bnlllhiflg~ technJque. You shouJd beg~nl by app:lying rrregular mapping stains \Gl~1il1 s.oIIiIi them wllh dry-brushlnq, mus oreakTCiI'g U~ejr hardness. Afler adding <;llher rust andlduSI a'ffeels over this, II vB'ry reali~liC'fIIShA.!l sHed achieved.


1. What are the colours ot rust?

How tv understanding rust

Whal COIOUf is rusl'? All ci:)1ours? No, otllalmoSI all ollhem. Bron~e produces an oxide gre.en ,and in sl1;lel and iron; we can f~nd' gr.mile, ochre, black. grey. red. orange and eV8n Gark b!ue colours. We shovld not lirnit ourselves 10 saying I,hat rust IS a specili:c colour reference in a. c.atalogl:le. We should adapt our C-(l10Cif to each sltuauoo, lor example lighter more orangey rus1 colours are used lor g,~en lanks and browns !if,S used for sand !:oloured tanks .. Whenerealing burnt venicles, we should operi up our whole colcur repertoire 10 traln our l'Iye$ to mi>: cojoun'S ... 1$ ua II \I. This is. what happens in tllS realily.

Why dD desert uetitctes rust?

~ IS very s.lmple: 'Ille Old~ising agent Is nol water, bUI (,atheril IS oxyg:en, which is where the word olddi~e cernes. HEmcB' a desert vehicle is JWlI;;.5 rusla:d as one, In Europe. Now, Iha rust slreams on desert vehicl:es are quile a diffenml maltllr .. Although it dOBS not rnfll very muth In m:a desert. I~ ~~ nue that on the IiVWII campaigns in Tunlsla, Ihe rains were so Intense lhat tile roads were flooded. Generally

am! Wllh Ih!il e~ollptlon 01 the wi:ldesl deserts such as Ihe Sahara. among others, 11 rains a ~ol more than we Ihlnk It does ln North A,Iriean l!Ild Mldlile EasI~r;noounlrUes.. Hence, you should. not be alraid to .gen~rQu$ly rtlsty.our vahle!S should you so desire.

l. Rusting the corners

U£lnga dark brown enamel or Oiil paint, Ihe lHloslappropriale areas lor rus!ing ere' pa~nted. Alter a lew min LItes. these stains ,;U8 blended with a palnUHusl1 moistened wlt~ whil'e sp! lit.


4. Rpl1Jying surteee rust' with a paintbrush

This lechnique combines variOus materials that oHef very realis:llc ~esults. We commence by palming 1M most protected lOOOS In number 62 painl; r,andorn~y cff!ating 1M rust streams. Afterwards, with a similar colour, large chipped areas are orealeo (hal l'iill l,tlier unlHed wilh oxlde pigments.

5, Surface rust with tenture

This 1echl'l~que oanbe US Old lor vehicies and highly "usted and delerlomled metal parts" Fir~l, the chips am p.ainted in rust colotn (large qlle:ntit1M), then a mixture of oxide pigmanl pain!s is made wl'II'1' pr"u:ter and acrylic rash This miXIU~e is d,eposil. eel em the surface" applying pressme with an old pa~ntbrush_ Once dry: the finishing toucnes are applied io,the w!!ole, area Wiln pigments ~jxed withl turpennne,

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6. Rusted chips (see section on chips)

7. How can I create rust streams?

A vertical Hne is drawn with oils. or enamels and lo;lter o,lend'ss with a lil1Je wh1!@"spiril and asoa cisan pa[ntbrush.

8. How cEln I create rust with pigments?'

A smatl Quantity of pigment is deposited' on lhe 'surface and a few drops ,ollurpen.line is rater added to campacl Ihe protl!lt:t

9. Hnwr:an J rust fI large surface?

In Ihis cass, you 'should combIInEHlther techniques suet1, as mapp~rlgs (see seenon on mapping), rust slrearns.and chips created wilh sponge,



Ill. How can I rust an estieust pipe?

The quickest. way 10 rust an exha~'st pipe is tty using pigmenls. We commence by adding the darkest pigme:nt OOIO~IS QI'8T dish-brown acrylic base, Afielrw<m:1s, Vlie will apply the lighter rust colour,foClJSing on the parts that are more exposed 10 Ihe dust is applledi and everything is blended with a rittle turpenline. For more lntormauenon s'xi1aust pil:les. refer '10 tile section .

. :


I1I13C1Jy t~e ~pO§l!e QI what Our rnottters and gmndmothers do every day with those porce'~.ainfigures thallhey keep in !heir shelves "'~fde Thal~. Ihe aIm Is 10' add dust 10 Our models to simulate the dirllness et lha baltlefield and dirt tracks. The dusl'illg tech· .. are Il'a&y locreate'. ImJI l.t w'e abuse Ih em, Ihe results can be C81astmphiC.

should I 3Pl1ly' s pre-dusting?

hIgWy dlluled1amiya paints and appHed with an all~bnlsh .~ry IRREGULAR !a)mf of dust on Ihe most appropriate .. 5l1C1111li llie I'1Orizontais areas around Iha turret, uncer• ana iQwS! pans 01 (he- side panels, This phase is very simple. bU1 v lallo ansble the la~er appl1catlon of duS!ing with 1P i g . ...

How should I ereete a ge,neral dust effect with pigme'nts?

)I)U srtQuld h.svallm! appllad a pre-dusting layer 10 ass'lsl the JII9fIIanl5&l~ng, Alt(lrwards, we will p~Qceed to apply Ihe darker pigment rolours Ie the most protected zones and lighter colours IllIIIe zones !hill are most elCposed to the light A lew drops of turpentine are ed'ded alld Ihe mixlUl'e is stirred very gently 10 85$15I111nll) Ihe cracks and fissures and dlrec1inglil away from lIIil am s more prone to contacl by Ihe crew. Once dry) !llhll, resWi is not convincing enough. we can moisten ~he area once agatn, 10 oorrect the par1lhat we didn'! like. II is highl,1" advisable 1tI&l3fl With light pigments



tit ~nclucled In !he- same- manner as for gener· tills lim~ using!! d[fferont colour on eech wheel, vea!er cnFOmaUc rrcMness. It is very important to ~l{jl'OOnl 00101.115 darKen when wet, but rElgain apfI8Branoa when dry.


call I crest« a specific dusting effect?

U$ll1I115 t~ll'hmrqu8 10 CjLJst'sma~1 a~eas with g.mater precision and control. App~y the pigment directly with a paintbrush, over a malt ilia, has: gl~ad'V b~en Ve:ateo wilh a pre"dl.lsting. Alierwards, remQ,J,e the excess pi;gment wilh a small piece 01 gauze or your



1. When should I apply mud?

Whenever you see glue stalns or when you have made some kind 01 assembly error, mud can be used III covar u up: Fo~ is cleady not a jCke,- but until v.ery fsc9ntly, mme than one. m.odeHer has usee noble mud tor such an incii.gnanl m~sslcn. M~ usoojU$t 10 cover up mistakes, because mud is oneollhe mosllmportant etementsot a. mod'eJ and it ~ nol a!wayseBS1lII) Mud has a worldi 0'1 ils own, ils own physiognomy and behaviour and failing te Ilnderstand IhrS means making mud Ihilloob or the 8xc,emenllro.m some strral1ge type 01 ,a.nim'al. Hence the ·Iime has. come 10 pay tl'IOIe aIIenlltJII 10 Ilnls rwot1 ment Ihal we all love, though !i remalns too unKnown 10 the modeller. Wlliloul going any further, it wc:uld be easy 10 110Il!l invests Ihree months painting ~ wonderful mode.l'alnd. as. the, el'ld spends lust five minutes in a.pplying IJ. horrible Claatn)" mllll priate lor a "reaklasl toast than 10 rep~sent dry mud In I(IJ~sk. A specific Iype of mud cOIn lake save ral' days. e5p8~h1ltlt II ~ enrioh it with many blends and forms::

2. Haw {;'a.n I make dry mud?

The{lrejjca~!y, dry mi>d is less wl!Umjno~s, than f:resh mud. Ffrsily because it doesn'lllave Ihe water 10 mols;len jI and s,eCOfl(Hy because due 10 ils dTy;ness, it has tess adherenoe capacity and falls off easily: Dry mud C-arl be made by mixing lighl ear1h colour pigml'mts wilh p:laster or line pumice Slone. III a matt ac;:ry~lc varnish is, added, Ihe mudi"s final appearan.ce will be improved. Apply the mix,juwe with an old painlbrusl1 via Ih8' wheels and Ny -10 orsate Irregula,r patche.sover them. A~way!;; apply Ihe mud over the pre-dusted lone.

tan J r::reate damp mud'?


II mIJd Ina' has begun 10 d,ry, SI) drier and w e ner areas can be' present at Ihe same lime'. Mix earth eolou] pIgments (medidIIr~ ClIIGlJIS) with pras!er, amyiic re;sinand gloss acrylic '#!.lJ"l"Iisn. The mixture shollI'd be applied wilh an old paintbrush On 01 t~a tahk ana lelt IQ dry. Once d.ry, small !ouc!1es are applietl with lighter pigmenl. colours 10 sirril~late the drier zones .. always apply mud (War an area Which has at leasl recewed a pre·duOiling.


4. How can I metce fresh mud?

Fresh mud always has a very dark appearance due to the liquid it contains. But lresh mud should no! be Interpreted as II II runny chocolate. fresh mud should have· a lumpy and rough, but never gelatinolls appearance. To mak'8 it, you should mlx dark mud pigment colours with plaster, acrylic resin and gloss varnishes. H should be applied with a paintbrush on !he ,mol"" = .... lank and then lelt to dry. This. type 01 mud should always be applied to a zona that !has already received a genaraJ dLlSbrig.

ts ablJut Caterpillar Tracks

III! IatIks always r-.s!sls Ihe mooeller's skilL 00 many occasions they doesn't know hOW 10 palnt Ihern, whelher 10 posmen tank or 10 pain! !hem separatety and olhsrn don'l know now 10 wear 1hem or treat tnem, Ma.ny believe Iha.! the cale~lPillar

always be ruslad, while this is not nacessarlly true. Certainly, cale.rpillar Iracks always 'I1md U.p laking second: place on our 'Ml1Jnj ll'l mves:! Iittrelimll 'n them because we don't: know what to do with them. YOu should realise Ihalli1e wlerplllar lraeks ~ pat! 01 tile lank, as I.h~y adapt to the terrain they move ove~, assuming !he 'terrain ccrour 8J1d changing thefr appear" 111m !he passlFlil dil)'S .. A caterpillar track can go from being shinyancJ polished 10 becoming ~usty in just a few deys. Arl

should be laken Inlo g.real consideration when making models. You should define where the tank is to be positioned in MtlW!~ i!Slnl it. A ca!arpiilar tradk only has a compl'ete'iy rusted alfecl "",nen il Is recently produced .Cl.ndl has been stored In momgnJ. IIlhas a re~dish and malll>ppea.rance, like, Ihe !1l.~lway rails when tliey are len unused. Once LMy are placed:

Irld Ilegtn LO mil, the metal on the mHsid'e areas become polished and acquire a darker metal coleur, Tne ,~!erpil~ar Lrac:;ks BtIOjllll1l1 MJOlJf 01 In!! ~rrain, because the dust and dry eMil becomes encrussed On the porosity althe rusted lin!ts. di~liOUIt 10 remDve. The problem is that Iha majority of mOd'Bllers are used to seeing rusty coloured cate.rplllar tracks IlIIlIwhen Ihe~ stan mor.l0irrng and fUrthermore, when observing Ihe phQlos in lrH'lir books, they discover with confUSion Ihal all fn black and w~1le and ills irnpossfbh;' 1'0 distinguish whl3ltoolour they really were. But can be tEisolved by buying a phoh:~lap% 01 modern l<.ln~. because a caterpillar track isessanlially the same as i~ was 60 years tI,go\

to paint caterpillar tracks when they are already stuck on the tank? mud)

III mc51 diflk:wh way 01 painlin.!I tI caterpillar track. Is when FIls already sluc1l.1o wheel1l 01 the lank and we don't have the paif1l ItKlm ooparul!lll': This. is twice as difficult il mud also has 10 be app'lled te Ihe wheels with everything as.Elembled. 1f1 this.

~ hili ~&inllhll basa colour of Ihe model and then paint 1he ca!orpllla~ lracks by freehand with an tho NIlIj:l1'j1 ;r paper mask If necessary te avo~d

rBSl ollhEi lank. The lirsl washes wflllhl3n be

iii dcd~ colour and.lhe wheal tYf'l3S wlll be painted Altar app~l'In!l a gene~1 dusting with pig~ t1Jrpe~!ine, II m1xtunl or dry mud will be care- 1tIIl wlsJdlllace 01 lne caterpntar tracks using

, The eJ:eEiS8 18 II3I1iIQVe'd wilh a small clolh or 1l'EIp81 and onoo dry, tM polished pat! ~s

a dry brush and si:eeJ ClilolJ~ enamel. Wllh Ihe help ~11n.g pBnefl, Ihe Insfde parts 01 the oaterpWar _r"nlilld: jusllhe "arllha:t should have become pel~I eClloo. F~ally. the black; part 01 Ihe whee'l wdh Iho cBlorpmer !~ac'kS are pain.ted with pr~-




should I paint rusted caterpillar fraf,Ks?

'" rosled caterpillar lracks Is appropriate for those lanks thai. have been abandon!!d or Were destroyed alter havin.g been in lie DilUlafleld, so I~e efle&1$ aJB nol appropriate for a tallk ill Uae factory. We commeaes by painting lIlel calerpll11;'l.r Ira.cks in <l 1XII~~I.I~~·lthe O~lX'sJte 10 what we did lor drry mud Cale!rpilrar tracks. Mlerwards, dilfenml dust and e(ilrth COIOUr.:l are applied' hll3i'1 Wll1'llUJrpenline. A dark brown rust colour is u.sed and appl'led by dry·l:lrurshfllg on Iheexternal and Inlernal parts 01 1n1cG, 10 simulate Ihe nu:s!ing o~ the polished metal. Fiimt~ly, small touches elipigmslll· P031 ale appneclwith 8 paintbrush !be I1JSII3(j elfeds en Hill I nilide ·faoe.

un I make dusty ceterouter

lrooks thal are a m~~1,l re QllrQI) and ru:bbe r

~ genEI~IJ fl!quire lipecial ,edteotio.n aN:i1ough fhey ~o P<lJn1 The metal pant wffl be painled rust

h MIller In mau hlack. A mIxture I'll' brown. colours ID the whOle cal<lfpllJa ~ area and ~l:iled with rurpend!y; r~!!l! !Jl:grnent 'oolour1> ~re s,"plied and the

wllh Ilie ~11!lers or with a. cotton cloth.

5. HoW can I make' moist and mud,dy eetertutter trades? painting the caterpillar I~Gk!; tn :0 IIgl11 brown CQ~OI.H and laler duslil"wJl'h eanh colour pIgments. Of1ce dry aIlO af1,e! II willn while :spinl. a moist 01 fresh muc nnixlu~e is mads wll~ pigments, acrylic res~n. plaste~:md gloss va.misll ~I is -applied Ihe outs!deface of the cale"'j;1l11ar track w4tll an old painlbnJsh and hofl to dry. Afterwards. a ~arge grnlned piece of !<;Irifin.'iIM". rub Iha eutermost part of the metal to ellm~nale 111,8 painl and leave the mela~ colour o~ fhecalerplllar Iraai! ~sBd" NBluially, ofl~Y be done wllh Friu~modell.YlPe metal ca!9f!P11Iar tracks. On the Inside lace, a gr.aphlte rod is passadlOVE!r l11e zone In contlll:i

wheels 10 imitate Ih9 polished me'lal.


The wheels can totally alter OUW model's appearance {in contrast 10 caterpillar tracks on lan1(s, w!1(,m:1 almosl any 50lulkm I:SII less work WGJI). You should pay attention to tl1e environment where our ve~lc!e ijs 10 be ~DCated, try1ng 10 del1ne II' as m~ as ThaI is" a truck. wheel in a desert plain wi!! not hava 1h!! same appearance as tMsame truck in Ihe same desarllOl1e,i:MJ1 read. The dust, mud: and other effects act onlhesee!emenLs in a v-ery special way depeiDdlng on how they arle present ill ttJe Ings and whallhe vehicle is doing at that part[cUtlar moment in lIme. You should observe vehicles in your usual surroIJllijin[)5:111111 Ci;l:W can serve as an e)(ample. but arso Ille diggers and trucks Iha! you can see Jn your SlrS1l1s ffilerl' day, Hel1cu, ~ou Wi I be abII descnbe' Ihe Immense number or ",ariab'les Iha,t ean affect <I wiH~eL

II have feilll necessary io galhe'r togelher live different types- of wheel's, in dtHerenl environments ,andsilw:nlcms lIlal GOYllr lilt our needs, The examp~e5l'1ave been taken (rom the same model of wheel (Sp80ilicaily an ArrnaFioon WMel) lhal 00II1ii 'MlI1 be any plaes in {he: 'NOM. You should! remam'ber Ihat teChniques can be applTad 10 any whOlel on any type 01 vehiole atarlY Ume rt


1. How to ,p,afn t wheels in desert aSl1haJ t zones?

t , The VBhlclel;Jasa colour is painted wah Tamlya paints.

2. nen the lyres are' painted using blaok acryl1c pl,gments.

3. Gul! War Sand is appHed wllh a paintbrush particularly insiSlijng on the lyre.

4. AI1:f!!Wafds, the surface is SOaked w.ltn "Mig Thlnn,," 10 fix Ille pigment moving in a circular motion towards the centre Qr the wheel.

5,. Once dry, the appearance s!'lauld be vary uneven.

6. Now, 1M Iread of lli1e 'lyre i~, treated dry-brushed, uslnga dark gfey Humbrol ,Darn!. 7·8. This is !he rssuHJng' effect

can I paint

In a desert ?

15 ~Wljed 'f4r~ 111:1 nm, USlng pressure

III erlsure I/le'

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