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# SUG 596 - FIELD SCHEME II (ENGINEERING SURVEY

)

2010

1.0

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, thanks to Allah for all His Gracious and Kindness in guiding and helping me and my group to finishing this report. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to the SUG596 lecturer, Dr. Rosmadi bin Ghazali for his advice and guidance to us in the preparation finishing our practical work and also give the guide line on how to make and complete this report. Besides that, I would like to thanks to my group, who cooperate in finish up the survey in this practical. Without them, this practical cannot perfectly finish. Furthermore, I would like to thank everyone who has contributed to the completion of this practical. Special thanks to all my friends for their help and support during finish this report.

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2.0

DATE/DAY 20 2010 Saturday NOVEMBER

FIELDWORK DIARY

EVENTS • • • Travel to UiTM Shah Alam to UiTM Pulau Pinang. Arrived at UiTM Pulau Pinang Meeting at television’s room – Dividing group members

21 2010

NOVEMBER

•

Dr Rosmadi Ghazali gave explanation about our task 1, Deformation Survey and recce side location. Our site in UiTM Pulau Pinang around the dining hall in Kristal College.

Sunday •

We did calibration instruments. The result was 0.002

22

NOVEMBER 2010

•

Traversing around the dining hall at Kristal College, UiTM Pulau Pinang.

Monday

23

NOVEMBER 2010

•

Stamp the sticker at the wall of the dining hall. The sticker was used as target point for observation for monitoring.

Tuesday

24

NOVEMBER 2010

• • • •

Reconnaissance site of surveying for Task 2, Road Design. At Taman Tungku, Seberang Jaya. Dr Rosmadi explained our task. Our group had conducted Deformation survey We started at station 8. The angle 0, 90, 180 and 270 were set as RO. The observation was conducted for 4 times reading at 4 target points on the wall of dining hall.

Wednesday

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25

NOVEMBER 2010

•

Continue deformation survey for station 9 and 10.

Thursday 26 Friday NOVEMBER 2010 • Deformation survey was done again by using different RO setting, 105, 110, 115,120.

27

NOVEMBER 2010

•

Traversing at the route survey area at Taman Tunku.

Saturday

28

NOVEMBER 2010

• •

Start route survey. We Conducted sub traverse in the main Traverse. Each group need to conduct the traverse for detailing and calculation of control point.

Sunday

29

NOVEMBER 2010

•

Discussion on route design

Monday

30

NOVEMBER 2010

• •

Designing route Calculate curve

Tuesday

1

DISEMBER 2010

•

Designing route

Wednesday

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2

DISEMBER 2010

•

Our group conducts the setting out to peg the chainage, IP, TS, ST, CS and the relevant points for curve design.

Thursday • • •

We had detected some mistake in calculation and autoCAD design for the curve. We canceled all of the surveying on that day. We decide to recalculate the curve and design the curve by using the new calculation value.

3 Friday

DISEMBER 2010

• •

We conducted the surveying to peg the picket for our road design All praise to ALLAH. We had completed our task 2 today. ALHAMDULILLAH.

4

DISEMBER 2010

•

We completed our Report.

Saturday

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3.1

INTRODUCTION

Two peg test: As in other survey work it is a compulsory to carry out checking towards instrument used in field work. Hence in levelling work it is necessary to carry out the two peg test. The purpose of this checking is to ensure the instrument in good condition. Based on observation made, we will compute the difference reading value and the result should be within 10mm. If the value is more than 10mm redo the observation or hand the instrument to the lab assistance for them to do the physical checking towards the instrument. (s1-s2)-(s3-s4) = ±1mm Differential field test: Purpose of this test is also to determine the condition of the total station. Its applied as the same concept in two peg test procedure. At the end of the test, we will compute the different value between two readings to know the value. The value limitation is in between ± 0.010mm. if the value is more than the limitation then, we should not used the total station or else it will produce an accurate result of field work. 3.2 OBJECTIVES

Two peg test and differential field test: 1. To determine the accuracy of the instrument 2. To know the condition of the instrument 3. To learn how to do the calibration of the instrument

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2010

3.3

INSTRUMENTATION

Total station is the most important instrument in survey works. It is used in traversing and collecting detail survey. We can obtain bearings and distance and almost accurate using this instrument. Most setting out work can be readily and accurately accomplished by the method of coordinates

Prism used as a target to measure distances. Prism is placed on top of the tripod. As the reflector unit where it will give the information about bearing and distance during the observation

Tripod is used to place the total station and prism on top of it. Tripod is placed at back sight and foresight together with the prism. In this surveying work, instead of using prism as target, we used arrow to mark the setting out point.

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Tape will used to measure the distance from one station to another.

Field Book is used for recording observation data during the survey work using permanent black ink. Observation data that must be recorded are bearing, distance, stations, pre-computations, latitude, departure and coordinate of stations. A freehand sketch of the lot surveyed must be included in the field book.

Length of Nail is not less 55mm and centre with lines 8mm. Head of nail must be centre with lines 15mm and have lid centre with lines 46mm with to possess evidence for a drop of station. We used hammer to hit the spikes in marking the stations

Staf is used to give height of the ground. It is used with bubble. When we want to read the height, we must make sure that the staf in a level condition. The accuracy of the staf is 0.001m.

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2010

Automatic Level is used to observe the height of the ground from the staf.

3.4

PROCEDURAL

Two peg test: 1. Measure by tape 25m from point C to point A and B. Choose flat area for this test and observe the staff A and B.

2. After that, the auto level move to point D where is about L/10 meter. L is total length from point A to B. Jot down the Staff A and B reading.

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3. Do comparison between 2 set of readings and the collimating should within 1mm 4. Repeat the observation with another total distance value.

Differential field test: 1. Stand the total station in between 2 prism. 2. Measured both prism and record the distance value

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2010

B C A

2 1

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3. Next, stand prism on point B and move total station to point c 4. Again observe the distance value and record the reading B C 3

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5. Compare both reading to determine the difference value 6. Repeat the observation by using different total distance value.

3.5

RESULTS

Two peg test: For 30m S1 S2 S3 S4 1.470m 1.425m 1.390m 1.346m

**(1.470m – 1.425m) – (1.390m -1.346m) = 0.001m For 40m S1 S2 1.454m 1.400m
**

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S3 S4

1.407m 1.355m

(1.131m – 1.130m) – (1.128m -1.129m) = 0.002m For 50m S1 S2 S3 S4 14571m 14550m 1.387m 1.386m

(1.447m – 1.455m) – (1.387m -1.386m) = 0.001m Differential field test:

For 30m AB AC CB 30.000m 16.164m 13.838m

(AB)-((AC)+(CB)) (30.000m)-((16.164)+(13.838)) = 0.002m For 40m AB AC CB 40.000m 19.423m 20.577m

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(AB)-((AC)+(CB)) (40.000m)-((19.423)+(20.577)) = 0.000m For 50m AB AC CB (AB)-((AC)+(CB)) (50.000m)-((24.989)+(25.011)) = 0.000m 50.000m 24.989m 25.011m

3.6

CONCLUSION

Two peg test: Based on our observation it can be shown that our instrument is in a good condition since the difference value between 2 set of reading are in acceptable limit which is 0.001m and 0.002m less than 0.010m. Hence, we will get high accuracy in observation and will produce an accurate work.

Differential field test: Based on the observation the difference value that we got is 0.003 hence the total station we used is in a good condition. So, at the end of our field work can form a result of high accuracy. The different value that we got is o.ooom and 0.001m

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4.1

INTRODUCTION

Deformation survey work is to determine the alteration in the shape or dimensions of an object as a result of the application of stress to it. Deformation is primarily related to the field of applied surveying, and also related to the civil engineering, mechanical engineering, plant construction, soil and rock stability mechanics. Instruments used in deformation monitoring based on application, chosen method and regularity. The concepts are: • • • • • Involved the multi-epoch observation. The network of survey that involved from the control point and target point. The observation by triangulation either 2D or 3D. The adjustment computations and network analyses are required. Involved the determination of the coordinates changing (shift) and comparison with the magnitude of the error of observation (ellipse error). Deformation monitoring can be required for the following applications: • Roads and Tunnels Dams, Bridges and Viaducts Settlement areas, High-rise and historical buildings Foundations and Construction sites Mining

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•

• • •

SUG 596 - FIELD SCHEME II (ENGINEERING SURVEY)

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•

•

Landslide, Volcanoes Slopes and Earthquake area As proactive control of a hazard related to possible change or failure of a structure.

4.2 1. 2.

OBJECTIVES To determine any movements of building structure To expose our group with deformation surveying and give experienced in actual surveying environment and experience the actual work of deformation monitoring survey theoretically and practically.

3. 4. 5. 4.3

To improve the knowledge and skills in setting and operate the instruments, technique of survey, network planning and post processing. To access the student’s ability to design the survey project includes the pre analyses, network design, selection of the target point, post processing etc. To experienced the students with deformation computations using the software especially Star*Net to prepare 3D resection. LOCATIONAL AND DURATION Location: Bangunan Dewan Makan dan Kemudahan Pelajar, Kolej Kristal UiTM

Pulau Pinang

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Duration of survey works: Three (3) Days – – – Reconnaissance Survey 3D Perimeter Survey 3D Building Deformation Survey

The Building

4.4

INSTRUMENTATION • • • • Topcon Total Station GTS-235N with tripod A set of prism with tripod Measuring tape Booking

4.5

PROCEDURAL

4.5.1 Reconnaissance Survey

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•

To determine the suitable place to locate the deformation station and after all, the flat surrounding area of the building is suitable to make the deformation.

• • •

The building has two (2) storeys and the deformation took at every side of the building. Target points have been placed at every side of the building at every floor. Ten (10) groups have been divided and each group has to take three (3) stations and has to monitor four (4) target points.

4.5.2 3D Perimeter Survey • It is a three dimensional perimeter survey because it took control of x, y, z at every station where Height of Instrument, Height of Target, Vertical Angle and Slope Distance is taken in every occupied station • Traverse has been conducted all around the building and the station of the traverse is been setup suitable for make a monitoring of the target points. • Traverse starts from the known GPS station of 2 (X = 7759.794, Y = -4380.741, Z = 2.951) with the back sight is station 1 and the fore sight is the station 3. And it continues until it close back to the line 1-2 • The station 11 is also a known GPS point. And the Linear Misclosure after the C and the M Correction is 1: 47643. (M Correction is referring to the bearing of baseline of GPS2-GPS11)

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4.5.3 3D Building Deformation Survey

•

Same as perimeter survey this time it also took Height of Instrument, Height of Target, Vertical Angle and Slope Distance of the target point (1, 2, 3, 4).

•

On first station observed each observed point on building with different initial bearing (RO) which is 0, 90, 180, and 270 on the both faces (face left and face right).

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Diagram: The location of target points

Diagram: How the monitoring of the target points took place 4.6 DATA PROCESSING AND ADJUSTMENT • Deformation data processing and adjustment is being done using least square adjustment of Star*Net Software.

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• • •

The adjustment firstly done to the whole traverse network based on a fixed coordinate and elevation of GPS point 2 and 11. Then the second adjustment is being done to the each of target points which is observed by every group. All the set of reading of 00°, 90°, 180°, 270° is being input into the Star*Net. Then run the adjustment. If the run is unsuccessful do check the related error.

The adjustment runs successfully

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The result of adjustment is produced and do check either it passed the 5% chi square test or not.

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The adjusted network is plotted

Star*Net also allows to make an export to *.dxf format which later can be edited in AutoCAD.

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4.7

DISCUSSIONS AND ANALYSIS

**4.7.1 Analysis of Adjustment Output (Main Traverse)
**

Adjustment Statistical Summary ============================== Iterations Number of Stations Number of Observations Number of Unknowns Number of Redundant Obs Observation Count Sum Squares of StdRes Angles 13 0.068 Distances 12 0.443 Zeniths 12 0.057 Total 37 0.568 = = = = = 2 14 37 33 4

Error Factor 0.220 0.584 0.209 0.377

The Chi-Square Test at 5.00% Level Passed Lower/Upper Bounds (0.348/1.669)

1.

The 3D network consists of 14 stations. And 3 stations are held fixed (Station 2, 1, 11) with known coordinates and elevation using code “!” in the Input Data. So the number of free stations is 11 stations.

2.

So for each of these 11 stations we need to compute the (N, E, Z) components; Number of Unknowns per station is Z) =3 = 33 Unknowns (N, E, Number of Unknowns for 11 stations is 11 x 3

3. 4.

This network is considered “over-determined” because the observations exceed the unknowns. The redundant observation or also known as degree of freedom is defined from: Number of Observations – Number of Unknowns Number of Redundant Observation = 37 – 33 =4

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5.

The network cannot be solved if the redundant observations are less than zero and generally, the more redundant observations the better.

6.

The Sum Squares of “StdRes” means each Standardized Residual which is squared and summed. So the values of below are the function of the number of observations of that data type.

Sum Squares of StdRes 0.068 0.443 0.057 0.568

*

Residual is the difference between the value of the observation in the field, and the value that fits best into final adjusted network.

Angles Distances Zeniths Total

* Standardized Residual is the actual Residual divided by its Standard Error value. Then the value is listing file. 7. The “Total Error Factor” is the square root of the Total Sum of the Squares of the Standardized Residual divided by the Number of Redundant observation. SQRT (∑ (Squares of StdRes) / Number of Redundancies) Sum Squares of the StdRes Number of redundancies = 4 SQRT (0.568 / 4) Total Error Factor 8. = 0.377 = 0.377 = 0.568 listed in the “StdRes” column for every observation in the

These Error Factors should be roughly equal and should be all approximately be within a range of 0.348 to 1.669 depending on the Chi-Square Test 5% Tolerance. Since the Error Factor is 0.377, so it falls within the level passed range. So it passed the Chi – Square test.

9.

The Chi Square test often called the “goodness-of-fit-test”, statistically tests whether the residuals are due to normal random errors.

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4.7.2 Analysis Deformation)

of

Adjustment

Output

(Building

Adjustment Statistical Summary ============================== Iterations = 3 Number of Stations = 18 Number of Observations = 85 Number of Unknowns = 45 Number of Redundant Obs = 40 Observation Count Sum Squares of StdRes Angles 29 138.421 Distances 28 339.075 Zeniths 28 3448.308 Total 85 3925.803 Error Factor 3.185 5.073 16.177 9.907

Warning: The Chi-Square Test at 5.00% Level Exceeded Upper Bound Lower/Upper Bounds (0.782/1.218)

1.

The 3D network consists of 18 stations. And 3 stations are held fixed (Station 2, 1, 11) with known coordinates and elevation using code “!” in the Input Data. So the number of free stations is 15 stations.

2.

So for each of these 15 stations we need to compute the (N, E, Z) components; Number of Unknowns per station is Z) =3 = 45 Unknowns (N, E, Number of Unknowns for 11 stations is 15 x 3

3.

This network is considered “over-determined” because the observations exceed the unknowns.

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4.

The redundant observation or also known as degree of freedom is defined from: Number of Observations – Number of Unknowns Number of Redundant Observation = 85 – 45 = 40

5.

The network cannot be solved if the redundant observations are less than zero and generally, the more redundant observations the better.

6.

The Sum Squares of “StdRes” means each Standardized Residual which is squared and summed. So the values of below are the function of the number of observations of that data type.

Sum Squares of StdRes Angles 138.421 Distances 339.075 Zeniths 3448.308 Total 3925.803

*

Residual is the difference between the value of the observation in the field, and the value that fits best into final adjusted network.

* Standardized Residual is the actual Residual divided by its Standard Error value. Then the value is listing file. 7. The “Total Error Factor” is the square root of the Total Sum of the Squares of the Standardized Residual divided by the Number of Redundant observation. SQRT (∑ (Squares of StdRes) / Number of Redundancies) Sum Squares of the StdRes Number of redundancies = 40 SQRT (3925.803 / 40) Total Error Factor 8. = 9.907 = 9.907 = 3925.803 listed in the “StdRes” column for every observation in the

These Error Factors should be roughly equal and should be all approximately be within a range of (0.782/1.218) depending on the Chi-Square Test 5%

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Tolerance. Since the Error Factor is 9.907, which exceeding the Upper Bound, so it did not pass the Chi – Square tests.

**4.7.3 Analysis of Adjustment Output (Combination of All Groups)
**

Adjustment Statistical Summary ============================== Iterations = 4 Number of Stations = 48 Number of Observations = 415 Number of Unknowns = 135 Number of Redundant Obs = 280 Observation Count Sum Squares of StdRes Angles 139 84234.661 Distances 138 72938.189 Zeniths 138 20848.043 Total 415 178020.894 Error Factor 29.970 27.989 14.964 25.215

Warning: The Chi-Square Test at 5.00% Level Exceeded Upper Bound Lower/Upper Bounds (0.917/1.083)

1.

The 3D network consists of 48 stations. And 3 stations are held fixed (Station 2, 1, 11) with known coordinates and elevation using code “!” in the Input Data. So the number of free stations is 45 stations.

2.

**Each of these 45 stations we need to compute the (N, E, Z) components; Number of Unknowns per station is =3
**

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Number of Unknowns for 11 stations is 45 x 3 E, Z) 3.

= 135 Unknowns (N,

This network is considered “over-determined” because the observations exceed the unknowns.

4.

The redundant observation or also known as degree of freedom is defined from: Number of Observations – Number of Unknowns Number of Redundant Observation = 415 – 135 = 280

5.

The network cannot be solved if the redundant observations are less than zero and generally, the more redundant observations the better.

6.

The Sum Squares of “StdRes” means each Standardized Residual which is squared and summed. So the values of below are the function of the number of observations of that data type.

Observation Sum Squares of StdRes Angles 84234.661 Distances 72938.189 Zeniths 20848.043 Total 178020.894

*

Residual is the difference between the value of the observation in the field, and the value that fits best into final adjusted network.

* Standardized Residual is the actual Residual divided by its Standard Error value. Then the value is listing file. 7. The “Total Error Factor” is the square root of the Total Sum of the Squares of the Standardized Residual divided by the Number of Redundant observation. SQRT (∑ (Squares of StdRes) / Number of Redundancies) Sum Squares of the StdRes = 178020.894 Number of redundancies = 280 SQRT (178020.894 / 280) = 25.215

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listed in the “StdRes” column for every observation in the

SUG 596 - FIELD SCHEME II (ENGINEERING SURVEY)

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Total Error Factor 1.

= 25.215

These Error Factors should be roughly equal and should be all approximately be within a range of (0.917/1.083) depending on the Chi-Square Test 5% Tolerance. Since the Error Factor is 25.215, which exceeding the Upper Bound, so it did not pass the Chi – Square tests.

4.8

CONCLUSION

Deformation monitoring is one of survey work which the purpose is to determine the condition of a building structure or dam or tunnel and etc whether there is any movement occur since the structure is build. The detection of the movement is based on the bearing reading taken on each point on the building on the different time. As a result, if t here is any movement occurred then, the bearing reading observed archived will de differ from time to time and the interval time depends on the expected movement. If not, the bearing reading will be the same. Control point is a must as a reference of the structure position. Movement can occurred due to any movement in the earth, quality of composition of the structure, natural sources and etc. Hence, if we managed to detect any movement occurred we can take any precaution to prevent any negative things happen. Any deformation survey must pay particular attention to errors in the survey so that gross or systematic errors do not contaminate the detection of movements and produce false results. Graphical representations of deformation analyses are often shown as ellipses with vectors of movement. 3D and multi-epoch

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representations area are possible with CAD system. As the building newly build, hence there are no movement occur towards the building. In order to form a 3D visualization of the building, we need to combine each of group results where each group observed on different point around the building. We also need to observed z value in order to get the 3D design of building. As a result when we combined all of each group result we managed to form it in 3D monitoring form. Where each point on their own position shown the shape of the building.

4.9 BY:

INDIVIDUAL COMMENTS NUR SHAFINAZ BT HASSAN BASERI (2008401502) Based on our work, what do i understand is that deformation monitoring is

about movement detection on any construction structure such as building, bridge and etc. There most important thing in this work is control point and bearing reading. Control point used as reference of the true position of any structure mean while the bearing reading is used as detection of mark point on the building from time to time. In full fill our task, we were asking to form a product in 3D. Hence the reading of height and slope distance is needed. The true position of control point can be obtains from GPS system. For true position of mark point on the building can be archived trough transfer method. To determine and confirmation of our work

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product at the end of work, each group will combine the result and it will form the dimension of the building in 3D form. Most important thing in this work is in determination of control point. In setting up the control point must undergo the traversing. The datum used can be either assume datum or used the real value. Here, in our task we use from GPS value. Plus, we also undergo least square equation towards our result in order remove all the error in our reading. Once the error had been eliminated then it will produce an accurate result. We used star net software to process all the data were we need to key in all the data capture in notepad format first.

BY:

FAUZIAH BT ABDUL MALEK (2008401502) Deformation survey is very precise surveys performed to detect and measure

movements of a variety of physical objects or land parcels. Deformation surveys can detect relative or absolute movements for monitoring. The procedures of deformation survey job are not as difficult and complicated as the other types of survey. If only change in shape, then a minimal constraint or free network solution can be used to avoid any influence from external constraints. If a block shift or rotate, then connection must be made to survey stations which are sited in stable areas to provide the required absolute datum. Survey for deformation is generally repeated at certain time intervals that depend on the expected movement or settlement of the structure.

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Our task is to detect any relative of absolute movement for the retaining wall. We must compare our result from other group that have been used the same control point by comparing the coordinates for all point at the wall of the building but the wall of building that has been choose by our group was not same as all the other groups. So, we cannot compare the coordinates of point at the wall with the other groups. To find the coordinates at the retaining wall, it is possible to calculate manually because it take a lots of calculation and quite difficult to solve it. So we have used StarNet programming to find the coordinates points of the retaining wall. By using the programmed, we could know all the coordinates and also be able to know the standard deviation and residual for the retaining wall. While monitoring the building, the slope distance must be read for design three dimensional building. Before the measurements be made, we must make sure that the sticker that used as a observed point on the building can reflect the signal from the theodelite for slope distance measurement. This is because we found that some of the sticker cannot reflect the signal from the theodelite. Furthermore, the signal from theodelite also cannot be reflected if the station is far from the building. Because of that, we decide to choose the station nearest to the building as long as it can measure the slope distance.

BY:

MOHD RIZALMAN BIN RASIDIN (2009201944) For this deformation survey we were received the task to do the deformation

to monitoring the movement for the Student Facilities building of in UiTM Penang. This movement can be detected by comparing the deformation result with history, to get the best value for error by using statistical calculation from redundant observation. For the first day, we done reconnaissance at the building for target identification and decide where the control point should be established. The control point should be safe from disturbance so the observation does not contain too much error. Moreover, the control point should not be established too close from the

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building. The shape of control point should be in good triangle. It means the inner angle is between 60 degree and 120 degree. Before we done the traversing, the datum for network control was taken from GPS observation on station 11 and 2. After done traversing around the building, we get the linear misclose of 1:9000 using bowditch method. But there are some different when the misclose is calculate using starnet software which applying Least Square Adjustment (LSA). The linear misclose when using starnet software is 1:400 000. This situation happen when starnet use LSA to calculate error for each station from redundant observation. Meanwhile the bowditch method generally distributed error equally for each station. For the observation, we have observed 4 points from 3 control points which are. We also determined the Z value for each station using GPS observation to get reduce level for each control station. The purpose of the leveling survey is to design 3-dimension deformation in StarNet. It needs the Z value to design the 3-D dimension. For my comment, the location of target should be well spread around of the building and not focus at one certain part only. Moreover, the target point should be at stable place and should have clear line of sight. In my opinion, the observation should avoid during afternoon because during afternoon, the refraction and sun heat make the observation contain error. Moreover, the targets become blurry when afternoon. In addition, the instrument should be done calibration first before it use for observation. To obtain good observation, the control point should have good geometry. By using StarNet software its can detect all of error in observation, this software is good to make the analysis for the surveying work. From this software we can define how well the field work, because its use more statistical calculation for analysis. I suggest, all of student for survey studies need more knowledge about StarNet software and must be expert to handle StarNet software. Because it’s good for analysis survey data and define error. BY: MOHD ZULKARNAIN BIN ZAINAL ABIDIN (208411092) Deformation task required us to conduct the deformation survey at the Student’s facilities building, nearby the crystal college, UiTM Penang. We are given 2 days to finish the task. The works involved in this survey work are reconnaissance, traversing, GPS coordinate conversion and transferring, deformation and processing the collection of data. The processing of data is used using StarNet software.

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Before starting a job, reconnaissance of the area is very important, to investigate and to get familiar with the area. Reconnaissance are needed to properly planed the works involve to ensure smooth flow and to avoid any obstacle during the field work. Deformation work mainly focused on detecting or to identify any movement or deformation of a certain manmade structure, which in this case is a building. The work given requires observation of the target points mounted on the sides of the building, and should be done in time frame to monitor the movement of the building. However, as we only has a few days to complete the job, the job was conducted only for learning process of the procedure, methods and the main objectives is to understand the whole process of conducting the job. The control points located on the building are pre determined, as a group required observing minimum 4 target points on the building, from 3 ground control points. As the work requires us to observe the same points on the building, the target points located on the building must be visible from all the ground control points. The best locations for the ground control points are identified and the processes of observing the building are then started, starting from the traversing work. The 1st task is to establish the ground control points. This is obtained by traversing around the student facilities building. Then the coordinate of the control points or stations are determined by transferring the coordinate from the GPS observation made from 2 stations, located on the traverse network itself. The GPS observation also gives the corrected bearing for the traverse, as the rotations of the traverse are done. The data processing of the traverse are made in StarNet, using 3D parameter, to obtain the least square correction for the traverse. As the job require all 10 groups to be located on the same building with minimum 3 stations per group, the distances between the stations are quite small, thus affecting the accuracy of the traverse work.

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Then the deformation work was carried out, by observing 4 sets of different starting bearing for all 3 points on the building. During the deformation survey process, we were required to obtained the slope distance from the ground control points to the building CP. The method used was by using reflective stickers on the building, to rebounce back the wave signal send from the Total Station. There were issues of reflective capability of the sticker, but the problem is then solved by selecting the right material. Finally, I would to conclude that the work done was very successful, although there were some problems arise at the site, such as the problem with the sticker wave rebounces capability. Other than that, the process of data processing using the StarNet software were very time consuming, as we are not so familiar with using the software.

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BY:

MUHAMMAD KHAIRI BIN IDRUS (2008401526) I would like to say thank you to Allah s.w.t for giving His opportunity for

completing this deformation project. Also thanks to my lecturer, Dr Rosmadi Bin Ghazali, and all my friends for the guidance and cooperation. The objective of this practical is to train students how to detect the movement object from observation with total station. As we have learnt, deformation surveys are very presice survey in engineering works. It is performed to detect and measure movements of a variety of physical objects or land parcels. In this project, we are needed to monitor and detect any movement at Student’s facilities building, nearby the crystal college, UiTM Penang . Firstly, we done reconnaissance at the building and we decide where the control point should be established. The control point should be in suitable location. The control point should not be established too close from the building because the shape of control point should be in good triangle. The datum for network control was taken from GPS observation on station 11 and 2 and we make the traverse around the building that we want monitoring. After that, we have observed 4 target points from 3 control points which are. Then, we also determined the Z value for each station using GPS observation to get reduce level for each control station. It is to design 3-dimension deformation in StarNet. It needs the Z value to design the 3-D dimension. The error also came from the observation by the different obsever, the different observer will gain the different observation value. The instrument for the observation also brings important result, smaller error will comes out with the accurate value for these accurately survey. If we can see the zenith error from the result of the analysis above, the value was too high and absolutely not in the acceptance range of the chi square. My comment it was we used the standard

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leveling, in my opinion we should come out with the precise leveling to get more accurately result .The points on the wall also play an important result for this accuracy survey. The unclear and invisibility crosshair of centering on the points will produce an error during the observation.

BY:

SITI NAIMAH BT NGISAH@NORMAN (2009687856)

Assalamualaikum. All praise to be ALLAH. Thanks to Dr Rosmadi Bin Ghazali for his guidance in this fieldwork. Deformation surveys are very precise survey performed to detect and measure movement of a variety of physical objects or land parcels. Beside that deformation surveys can detect relative or absolute movements for monitoring of pump base or pipe connections, storage tanks, retaining walls, slope areas or general ground subsidence but in this practical we just to monitoring the retaining walls. The procedures of deformation survey job are not as difficult and complicated as the other types of survey. In this practical task we are needed to monitor and detect any movement of the building of dining hall at Kolej Kristal, UiTM Pulau Pinang. There are 3 control points on the ground at station 8, 9, 10 and 4 observe points. At the first day, we had done reconnaissance of the area to identify the suitable location for control points. There are 10 groups those co-operated to conduct traverse around the building of dining hall. The traverse used to determine the coordinate of ground control. The 3 control points were used in the monitoring. The next day, we conduct the monitoring from the control point station to observe the 4 target points on the wall of building of dining hall. We spend two day to complete this job. During do the practical, i noticed that weather condition also affect our sight viewing to target that give the refraction because the hot weather. Rain also delayed our fieldwork. Human error exists in our data reading because difference observers have difference parallax. The observation also difficult to done because the sticker at the wall unable to reflect. However, after the little adjustment that had been done to the sticker, the observation able to read by using total station finally.

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For the processing data, Starnet software was used. The observation data is entering to calculate standard error, error factor, error propagation and residual. Starnet give a plot and listing the coordinate at 4 targets and our observation data is acceptable. At the end I hope this practical helpful to me as a guideline in the real job. I conclude that this task enable to identify the changing in construction monument. I hope our lecturer satisfy with this practical. InsyaALLAH.

BY: i.

MUHAMMAD RUZAINI BIN MOHAMMAD FADZIL (2009837016) Alhamdulilah, for the completion of the task. Deformation Surveying is about a precise surveying conducted to detect and monitor the movement of the physical structure in the engineering field.

ii. In this task we have been assigned to monitor the structural of a three-storey building which taking consider of observing four target points. Two target points were placed at the first floor and the other two at the second floor. iii. At the first thing, a three dimensional traverse control has been done around the building purposely for setting up stations for deformation. And the traverse has been controlled with two known (x, y, z) GPS points. iv. We have to observe the height of instrument, height of target point, slope distance between the instrument to target point instead the horizontal angles and the vertical angles. v. for the observation of the target points, we have observed with three different horizontal angles (0°, 90°, 180°) for the both face of left and right. vi. Once the observation finished, based on the yet two known GPS control, it would be input into the Star*Net Least Square Adjustment software, to make an adjustment for the traverse station and also the four target points. vii. The traverse control network has passed the 5% Chi Square Test but unfortunately the target points (1071, 1072, 1073, and 1074) were not. viii.As a result of the adjustment, all the target points would be produced with the coordinate of X and Y plus the elevation. This is what it called three dimensional monitoring.

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ix. Many thankful for Assoc. Prof Dr. Rosmadi for helping in advance and also the fellow group members for a good teamwork.

5.1

INTRODUCTION

Route surveying is comprised of all survey operations required for design and construction of engineering works such as highways, pipelines, canals, or railroads. A route surveying system usually contains four separate but interrelated processes: • • • • Reconnaissance and planning Works design Right of way acquisition Construction of works

Major Components of Route Surveying Systems • • • • • • 5.2 Stationing Offset distance Profile grades (slope percentage) Curves (Horizontal and Vertical) Cross sections Slope staking OBJECTIVES

The objective mainly is to give the student an exposure to conduct an actual route survey on the given site. Secondly is to give the student an opportunity to practice and apply their knowledge and theoretical wise on handling the whole process of route surveying job. Thirdly to give the student an experience of using survey

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processing software and CAD packages for the survey data processing and preparation of plan.

5.3

LOCATIONAL AND DURATION Location : Taman Tunku Seberang Jaya, Pulau Pinang adjacent to Masjid

Seberang Jaya

Satellite image of the site area

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Location of the site

OUR SURVEY AREA

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The survey area has been proportioned into ten areas according to the ten groups of survey. The Duration of the survey works: Four (4) Days • • • reconnaisance survey perimeter survey details and topographical survey setting-out survey of the proposed road INSTRUMENTATION • • • • Topcon Total Station GTS-235N with tripod A set of prism with tripod Mini prism and prism with pole Measuring tape

•

5.2

5.2 5.5.1

PROCEDURAL Reconnaisance Survey • • • It has been done on the first day of survey to determine the condition and of the area and the details to be covered. Generally this area is a public area and better known for a recreational park. The terrain of the ground is flat and undulating and the details comprised with natural features such as waterways and river and some structural permanent feature such as bridge, pondok, bench and etc. • This reconnaissance also including the planning of the perimeter survey to be conduct upon the area.

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5.5.2 Perimeter Survey • • • A traverse for the whole area has been done to establish the control of x, y and z for the area. However the control x, y, z of the area is only based on assumed value at the Station 1 (x = 1000, y = 1000, z = 3.850). After the area of the area has been acquired, it later has been proportioned into ten (10) portions for the ten (10) survey groups.

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The black line is the main traverse for the whole area

STATION 1: N1000 E1000 Z = 3.850

The red line is our sub traverse upon the proportioned area 5.5.3 Details Survey • • The details survey has to be conducted upon an area of 10,000 meter square with a coverage for the both side is 20 meter each. And generally the details covered in our proportioned area are a portion of river and waterway, slope cutting and permanent features like pondok, drainage, concrete wall and benchs.

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• •

The details taken are stored in the total station internal memory To start the details survey basically we make a sub traverse starting from the known point Station 3 (916.833, 998.729, 3.862) with the reference to the station 2 and make foresight to station 100, 101, 17, 103 and close back at the line of station 2 and 3. And the linear misclosure after the C correction is 1 : 17251.

•

Instead the station for traversing, the same station also used to pickup details. And the method used is Radiation Method

5.5.4 Road Setting out • After the details of the area has been covered and processed, then we can determine which area suitable for designing a road.

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•

Since the bottom side of the area is mostly a waterway and river so it is better to design a road at the above side area which flat and undulating area.

•

Two curves have been designed with different specifications. And each curve is to be set out by five (5) groups. And we are assigned to design the curve no. 2.

Curve no.2

•

The Specifications:

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1. The Design Speed 2. Lateral Acceleration 3. Radius 4. Deflection Angle 5. Chainage Interval

= 80 km/h = 1.2 m/s3 = 200 meters = 15° 14’ 16” = 5 meters = 173° 23’ 50”

6. Incoming Tangent Bearing

The proposed curve design • The calculations of the coordinate of the chainage of the curve is at Appendices 6.11

5.5

DATA PROCESSING AND PREPARATION OF PLAN

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5.5.1 Data Transfer • Data is being transferred from the total station to computer using the manufacturer software. So in this survey since we use Topcon Total Station the suitable software is T-COM. • • • The parameter for the transfer is like in the Diagram 1 Once after transfer finished it would appear like in the Diagram 2 Then set the file name with the extension “*.gt6”

Diagram 1: T-Com data transfer parameter 5.5.2 Data Processing • •

Diagram 2: After the data transfer has been finished

The software used for processing survey data is Civil Design and Survey (CDS). Then import the *.gt6 file into the CDS and make it a stadia before it can be stored in the data base. Then export to a *.dxf or *.dwg format.

Diagram 3: Stadia

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Diagram 4: Details is been stored in the database 5.5.3 • • • Plan Preparation The software used for data editing and coding joining for a plan preparation is AutoCAD 2007. User have to open the saved *.dxf or *.dwg file into the AutoCAD. And later the details are being joined appropriately according its coding. It is important the person who produces the plan get an impression of the site before joining the coding. And it also better for the surveyor to assist with providing a brief diagram of the site and further explanation. • It also better for the draftman to put a diagram of certain features in the plan such as a diagram of concrete drain with the diameter.

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The detail and topographical plan is prepared. • And the detail and topographical plan we prepared are in the scale of 1 : 500 in the A3 sized.

5.6

CONCLUSION It can be said that route survey is a work that consist of several important

procedure to make sure it will form a high accuracy result in the end of the work. It accomplishes the need of engineering field work according to the need of customer. In other word, routes survey is defined as being the required service and product that adequately locates the planned path of a linear project or right of way which crosses a prescribed area of real estate, extending from at least one known point and turning or terminating at another known point. Adequate location shall mean

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substantial compliance with the conditions and tolerances expressed in this standard. Based on our field work, now we able to visualise how the real world is for route survey work, especially the condition of the ground, complication of detailing, appearance of station invisibility, any natural problem and etc. In producing high accuracy of work product depends on how close we carry out the traverse. In our task, in order to check our work is correct or not, at the end of the work we must compare our product with the others group which each of group must get an equal and parallel distance between the curve designs. However the main problem is that each group us a different datum. Hence the possibility in getting error is high. As a result, in order to checking each of group work the combination of the circular curve are parallel to each other. Even though each group use the different datum supposed to be that the circular to be parallel since it use the value from big traverse as a reference to their small traverse.

5.7 BY:

INDIVIDUAL COMMENTS NUR SHAFINAZ BT HASSAN BASERI (2008401504) Based on our field work, i found that in finishing the route survey work,

planning is the major factor to complete and produce a good quality work. Without planning wisely we might not produce a good work. The planning work must be

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based on the details, area parameter, ground level and all off sets on the area work. In this work also involve the use of CDS software which is use as processing data and AutoCAD which is use to design. If error occurred in bearing determination and design calculation, later it will effect during setting out process. Plus, during traverse work also is important where it act as a horizontal control. If there is error in control, hence during setting out will produce an absolute high error result. We used GPS in order to get coordinate value. During setting out procedure, must be based on a right bearing and distance compute from the planning drawing that had been made. After open the bearing based on calculation made, then the pegging must be done wisely and accurately. The checking step based on the coordinate reading where the same point must the same coordinate value. At the end of our work, now I realise and able to visualize on how the real world is in full fill the route survey work. All the possibility that I might face during route survey and how to solve also I have learn. Including all the possibility of the condition of the ground, complication of detailing, appearance of station invisibility, any natural problem and etc

BY:

MUHAMMAD KHAIRI BIN IDRUS (2008401526) I would like to say thank you to Allah s.w.t for giving His opportunity for

completing this task. Also thanks to my lecturer, Dr Rosmadi Bin Ghazali and all my friends for the guidance and cooperation.

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The objective of this practical is to train surveying students how to plan and reconnaissance for route surveying, how to establish control points on ground, how to conduct route alignment and how to conduct a cross section and longitudinal surveys. details on the site were observed to identify the topography and layout of the site. Besides, the observe details on the area are made to carry out detail survey for the purpose of designing and planning for the road design and to produce a detail drawing of the site. Firstly, we make traverse. It is required to established the control network frame on the site, and to obtained a roughly estimation of the site area. Then, we get the coordinate of the station on the traverse by GPS observation on two stations located on the traverse network.The traverse made by ourselves in this practical and we just to peg chainages above traverse line. Then, we transfer the coordinates by calculation. When the field work were completed, we used CDS and AutoCAD to process all data that taken, and produce cross section and detail plan. It was a good experience for me to learn and practice this software and doing this practical so I think this practical have gave me clearly overview of route surveying work.

BY:

MOHD ZULKARNAIN BIN ZAINAL ABIDIN (2008411092)

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I wish to thank Dr Rosmadi bin Ghazali for providing me with the opportunity to work alongside him, for all his patience and guidance in the way of conducting the field work. The field work for road design survey was conducted at the Taman Tunku, Seberang Jaya, Penang. The objective for this practical are to establish control points (horizontal and vertical) around or in the area and chainages (CH) using pegs. Moreover, the details on the site were observed to identify the topography and layout of the site. Besides, the observe details on the area are made to carry out detail survey for the purpose of designing and planning for the road design and to produce a detail drawing of the site. All measurements in this practical are based on a network of horizontal and vertical control points. These networks are used on site in the preparation of maps and plans. Firstly, traversing is required to established the control network frame on the site, and to obtained a roughly estimation of the site area. The coordinate of the station on the traverse are obtained from GPS observation on two stations located on the traverse network itself. Then, the coordinate are transferred to the chainage using calculated value from the road design curve. After all the detail survey and traversing work are done, all data we downloaded from the total station using the T-Com software. Data processing are done by using the CDS software, all data downloaded in CDS software where graphic image from observation can be produced and editing by file checking on screen. This software can produced data or information from measured points of station. Each of those points has their level and coordinates. All complete data then exported to AutoCAD R14 software in DWG format and graphic editing will be plotted to the final plan. Then, the curve or the road design took place. The design was made based on the details drawing that were made earlier. From the design, the calculation for the curve was made to obtain every chainage, IP, TS and ST coordinate. The final coordinate are used to obtained the bearing and distance by calculating the differences in coordinate from the traverse stations. Lastly, the chainage are pegs according to the calculated values. Finally, I would like to conclude that the survey and design work that has been carried out was a success, with minimum obstacle, as the planning work was conducted accordingly.

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BY:

MOHD RIZALMAN BIN RASIDIN (2009201944) AlhamdulillaH, a grateful thanks I wish to our Creator as He is the only who

can give us ideas and zest especially to complete this route surveying practical. First of all, I would like to wish a big thankful to our lecturer Dr Rosmadi bin Ghazali as his pleasant teaching in this subject and definitely we had completely finished this practical route surveying and not forgotten to our group members in finishing this practical work. We have done the procedure work accordly. Starting with reconnaissance on the first week, we identify the area before observations started. Every group is assigned to a different area at Taman Tunku, Seberang Jaya, Penang. After that, we carried out traversing works for establishing control points. The absolute values of the corrected horizontal and vertical value were obtained using GPS observation. These steps are very important for every surveying observation. The second process of the practical works required for detailed survey at the given area. The detail survey works were conducted by making observation from stations on the traverse network frames, to the features on the site. The pickup features on the site, are trees, drainage, river, building and others permanent features and the ground level heighting. After all the field work done, we downloaded and processed all the data in total station to T-COM software. All the raw data were then imported to CDS software and then transferred to Auto CAD. In Auto CAD, detail plan are made, by based on the points extracted from the CDS software. The details survey plans that were drawn are used to obtained the topographic features on the site and then are used to design the curve. The curve design were created using autocad based on the spec given. Then, then curve are

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calculated to obtained the final coordinate of every chainage and other required features of the curve. Finally, the curve is pegs on site, based on the coordinate calculated. The differences of coordinate were transferred from the observed station to the chainage.

BY:

FAUZIAH BT ABDUL MALEK (2008401502) Route survey includes the application of detailed survey, setting out and

circular curves. Details on the site were observed to identify the topography and layout of the site. The observed details on the area are made to carry out detail survey for the purpose of designing and planning for the road design and to produce a detail drawing of the site. Setting out is the establishment of the marks and lines to define the position and level of the elements for the construction work so that works may proceed with reference to them. Setting out begins with the plan and ends with the various elements of a particular engineering project correctly positioned in the area. Mistakes in setting out can cause abortive work and delays which leave personnel, machinery and plant idle, resulting in additional costs. In this practical, we make traverse which required to established the control network frame on the site and to obtained a roughly estimation of the site area. After that, we use GPS observation on two stations on the traverse network to get the coordinate of the station. Then, we peg chainages above traverse line and transfer the coordinates by calculation. This operation should incorporate a checking procedure. Work is not complete until it has been checked. We did the coordinate checking between calculation and GPS observation and the checking proved that our coordinate that we calculated are nearly accurate. The set back bearing at back stations and open a long chord bearing with it distance for pegging to make a spiral and circular curves. The circular that we peg should be align and intersect with the other groups. We have checked the accuracy of IP point of our group and others which are parallel with our circular, and the results is around 0.1 to 0.3.

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Finally after the field work were completed, we used CDS and AutoCAD to process all data that taken, and produce cross section and detail plan.

BY:

SITI NAIMAH BT NGISAH@NORMAN (2009687856 )

All praise to be ALLAH. Thanks to Dr Rosmadi Bin Ghazali for his guidance in this fieldwork. In this practical the main objective is to design a road based on horizontal and vertical control point around the site area. Our site area is at Taman Tunku, Seberang Jaya, Pulau Pinang. At the first, traversing is done at the site area to get the horizontal control (x, y) along route. The coordinate of the control point on the traverse are obtained from GPS. Then, the detail at the site area are observed and recorded for the purpose of designing the route and detail drawing. Besides that we are recorded all important details think such as drain, tree, retaining wall, Culvert, Pipe line Ground Level. Along traverse we are marked chainage every 5 meter intervals. The coordinate of chainage (CH) can be obtained from the curve calculation. Then, we used CDS software to process the data and plotting the plan using AutoCAD. Besides, using CDS is easier to joint all details compared to AutoCAD because we just need to key-in all the data and then process but in AutoCAD we have to key-in the data one by one and joint the details which is much more complicated. After all measurement, calculation and plotting are completed; we marked the chainage(CH), TS,ST and IP according to calculated values.

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Finally, this task is very challenging but we all co-operated to complete it. I conclude that this task had been conducted successfully and all group members gave the good commitment. I hope our lecturer satisfy with our job. Thank you.

BY: i.

MUHAMMAD RUZAINI BIN MOHAMMAD FADZIL (2009837016) Alhamdulillah for the completion of the job. Route surveying is about a survey which conducted to design and setting out a road alignment and some would take consider curves.

ii. And this route surveying is mainly comprised of details survey and alignment survey, which the later details plan produced, would give an idea which terrain is suitable to design a road. iii. Basically the site is mainly a flat and undulating area although some part of it is waterway, river and permanent features. iv. The control for the survey job is based on an assumed value of x, y and assumed reduced level of z. v. The details are observed using a radiation method using total station and later would be processed and generated using CDS software. And the final output is a detail and topographical plan which was edited using AutoCAD 2007. vi. The area covered is about 10000 meter square with an offset for the both side 20 meters.

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vii. Once finished the part of detailing and the proposed location for the road is determined, we are required to design a road which concerned about a spiral and circular curves. viii.A calculation has been made according to the given specification and once the coordinate of chainage is computed, the setting out for the chainage is started. ix. The setting out is being carried out from the nearby traverse station and as a result is pegging mark on the ground according to the computed coordinate. x. Lastly many thankful for Assoc. Prof Dr. Rosmadi Ghazali for supervising and fellow group members for the helping hands to finish this task.

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