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Name: - Raju Maharjan Tech Id: - 00917131 EE 341

Minnesota State University, Mankato Electrical Engineering

and represent fiber group velocity dispersion (GVD) GVD slope. and nonlinearity. can be written as A(z. z) e^i ct] Ã ( .(1) Where operator L is equal to Where L and N are the linear and nonlinear operators respectively.t) . E (t. A (z. denoted by Equation 2 and equation 3 respectively. 3. respectively.1 is derived using an electrical engineering notation for complex envelop and Fourier transform. attenuation. t) is the complex envelope of slowly time-varying optical pulse. Theory:The Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). Note that D denotes dispersion operator. where is physical time and vg is the group velocity. z) is the normalized scalar electrical field with a unit of . (2).t)/ t = (L+N(A(z. Parameters 2. which governs the propagation of optical pulses through a single mode optical fiber and use matlab to learn how to find the solution in the frequency domain and how to make use of the Fourier transform to solve the equation and represent in time domain solution. E (t.t)))A(z. Where in Eq. Please note that z is propagation distance and t = ± z/vg is the retarded time. which governs the propagation of optical pulses through a single mode optical fiber [1-2]. z) = (2) (3) . Eq. z) =Re [A (t.Objective:The objective of this project is to study the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE).

^2/T0). t=[-16:Ts:16-Ts]. zt) (4) Where H( )=exp((. w=2*pi*f. respectively. alpha=0. p) P=fftshift(fft(p)). zf) =H ( ) A ( . f=[-N/2*Fs:Fs:N/2*Fs-Fs]. first we integrate the linear part of NLSE or use Fourier transform in frequency domain which results in equation (4). basically.zt) are the Fourier transforms of the fiber¶s input and output. b2=0. Hence.^2-i/6* 3*w. T0=2.Answer to the theory question:Let¶s consider the linear effect only. %%% single pulse Ts=0. N=length(t). figure(1). in the absence of nonlinearity.005. plot(t. Matlab code:clear all. And then does inverse Fourier transform to get t-domain.zf)=)and A( . Then we got simple form of equation in multiplication form. .e. i. plot(abs(P)) Fs=1/32. We can do either convert this to t-domain and do convolution or just multiply in frequency domain. p=exp(-t. integration of equation (1) in the frequency domain yields equation (4) A ( ./2-i/2* 2*w. figure(2). A( .001.25..^3)*t) and is fiber¶s frequency response. close all.

H=exp((-alpha/2-i/2*b2*w. pulse_train_tx_temp=conv(pulse_train.^2-i/6*b3*w. plot(tt. figure(3). N=length(tt).*H.005. legend('transmitted pulse'.003. ppTrain=ifft(fftshift(PPTrain)). legend('transmitted pulse'. 'r-').^3)*100). plot(tt. tt=[0:Ts:T-Ts]. hold on. pp. 'received pulse') %%% a pulse train: 1101 followed by 4 padded zeros: 11010000 Tb=8. w=2*pi*f. PPTrain=PTrain. plot(t. hold on. PP=P. N_samples). f=[-N/2*Fs:Fs:N/2*Fs-Fs]. plot(tt.^2-i/6*b3*w. pulse_train=zeros(1. N_samples_perbit=Tb/Ts. alpha=0. figure(4). 'r-'). p). H=exp((-alpha/2-i/2*b2*w.b3=0. N_bits=8. N_samples=T/Ts.*H. legend('transmitted pulse'. b2=0. hold on.001. plot(abs(PTrain)) Fs=1/32. ppTrain. 'r-'). pulse_train(1:N_samples_perbit:end)=[1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0]. 'received pulse') figure(4). pulse_train_tx) PTrain=fftshift(fft(pulse_train_tx)). PPTrain. b3=0. 'received pulse') . figure(1). pulse_train_tx=pulse_train_tx_temp(1:N_samples).003. T=N_bits*Tb. figure(3). pp=ifft(fftshift(PP)).^3)*1000).

Graphs for the first part of matlab code:- Figure2: .FFt (single pulse) Figure4:-the final graph for the original code provided .single pulse Figure3: .

Figure5:-When alpha is increased Figure6:-When beta 2 is increased Figure7:-When beta 3 is increased .

graph of pulse train Figure9:.Graphs of Second part with added code: Figure8: .graph of pulse train 30 transmitted puls e received pulse 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Figure: in time domain Figure: in frequency domain Figure10:-the final graph for the pulse train code .

Figure11:-When alpha is increased Figure12:-when beta 2 is increased Figure13:-When beta 3 is increased .

Then to get the solution in time domain. Then we perform Fourier transform to get frequency domain as above and then we repeated the same steps that we used as above code.^3)*1000) in which we choose the value for alpha. p) code on the first part of the Matlab code. we just used inverse Fourier transform Matlab code i. After configuring and running the code:1. as shown in figure. 3. The Fourier transform of this single pulse is found using P= fftshift (fft (p)) code where p is the p is in t domain and P is frequency domain. 5.e. Then by the reading the first part we could know that in the second part. pp=ifft (fftshift (PP)). We also learn that the Gaussian pulse was used because the optical sources have a distribution of power with wavelength that is approximately Gaussian distribution in form. Now. The single pulse p=exp (-t. beta3. 2. ^2/T0) is used with sampling period of T= 0. . 4. Then plotted the graph of figure 1 as transmitted pulse and this figure as received pulse together on same graph. we are doing same process as above except we are using a pulse train: 1101 followed by 4 padded zeros: 11010000 using Tb=8s of time domain function. beta2.25s in the time domain and plotted using plot (t. Then this frequency domain pulse is sampled by using sampling frequency =1/32 and where = 2 f and then we find the solution in frequency domain by multiplying Fourier transform of single pulse and H (w) =exp ((-alpha/2-i/2*b2*w.^2-i/6*b3*w.Results and discussions:Before simulating code:- 1. after configuring and running the code we learned to know that the single pulse we used were the Gaussian pulse is used.

3. . Hence. repeaters are necessary for long-distances fiber optic systems when the signals be very weak. Gaussian pulse has taken as an input signal and studies all effects that change its shape due to attenuation. Figures (4)-(7). we learned that in this simulation. from this matlab project. using matlab. The results indicate that these effects increase with increasing the distance through the fiber optic length. from the graphs. In the first example the output taken at a certain distance. Then we also learn that do the shape of the Fourier transform Gaussian pulse is same as t-domain but there bandwidth is different. while in the second example the output is taken at a farther distance. dispersion. and nonlinear through the fiber optic length by numerical simulations. the dispersion and the nonlinearly effects increase when the distance of communication through the fiber optics is increase. Hence. so it is necessary to use filters after the amplification of the signal. and figures (10)-(13) illustrate the effects of attenuation. The single pulse and pulse train was used as inputs. we also learn that we need some kind of amplifiers must be used as repeaters for compensating the attenuation affects and again the amplifiers add noise. 4. The filter removes the effects of the noise. we learn how simulation is presented on a Single mode optical fiber link system.Figure: single pulse Figure: FFt of single pulse Figure: Gaussian pulse. Therefore. 2. Conclusion:In this way. to learn how we use the Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform to get the output pulse as we needed and also we studied the effects of attenuation. 5. and nonlinearity of the fiber for the two examples. It is clear from the comparison between the results of the examples that the attenuation. dispersion. dispersion and nonlinearly.

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