P. 1


|Views: 1,044|Likes:
Published by chamilrohanaaaa

More info:

Published by: chamilrohanaaaa on Jan 19, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less







MARCH 2000
Department of Trade and Industry



dti. 1 Victoria Street. Department of Trade and Industry.Further information on the Cleaner Coal Technology Programme. can be obtained from: Roshan Kamall.kamal@hend.uk/ent/coal .uk Web: www. London SW1H 0ET Tel: +44 (0) 207 215 6261 Fax: +44 (0) 207 215 2674 E-mail: roshan. and copies of publications.gov.dti.gov. Location 1124.

oil and oil-derived fuels. The total market for FGD plant is likely to exceed £1Bn pa over the next decade. fallen significantly over the past 30 years (Figure 2). the most efficient means of controlling BENEFITS OF THE TECHNOLOGY FGD is widely applicable as a means of controlling SO2 emissions from large. They are to be distinguished from the flue gas treatment (FGT) processes used for removing pollutants from waste incinerators. which produces a mixed solid waste. INTRODUCTION Sulphur is one of the most common elements in the earth’s crust.4%) is produced by the UK. Currently. It is therefore produced on a large scale during such industrial processes as the combustion of coal. with further falls in cost predicted for 2000 and beyond. with North America and China being the largest markets. low sulphur motor fuels) will significantly reduce anthropogenic sulphur emissions worldwide and thus help to improve air quality to the benefit of both human health and the environment. The UK’s SO2 emissions have. crude oil and many ores. refineries and metallurgical plant (eg Figure 1). oil refining and the production of metals from their ores. The sulphur in the fuel or ore can in principle be removed before use. The most widely used processes are the limestone gypsum process. together with measures to reduce SO2 emissions from other sources (eg replacement of coal by electricity or gas for domestic heating. global SO2 emissions arising from human activity amount to ~140 million tonnes (Mt) per year. or improve the efficiency of the industrial process so that less fuel is required. The sulphur can also be removed during use. However. It may be possible to switch to a fuel or ore that has a lower sulphur content. Ratcliffe-on-Soar FGD (Courtesy of PowerGen UK plc) SUMMARY Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) technologies are widely used to control the emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphur trioxide (SO3) from large stationary sources such as coal. stationary sources such as power stations. It can be a hazard to human health and damages both the natural and built environments. most use an alkali sorbent to recover the acidic sulphur compounds from the flue gas. in practice. . contributing £320k to total project costs of £1887k. SO2 is one of the principal gaseous pollutants emitted by human activity. the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has supported 8 projects associated with FGD.and oil-fired power stations and refineries. of which ~2Mt (1. Emissions of SO2 can be controlled in several ways. Capital costs of FGD processes have been steadily falling and current costs are in the range US$100-125 kW-1 (£65-80 kW-1). which produces a saleable gypsum by-product. however. it is uneconomic to remove more than a small percentage of the sulphur. DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY SUPPORT Since 1990. however. Current research and development (R&D) needs are to further reduce costs. and occurs widely as an impurity in coal. The widespread adoption of FGD. increase desulphurisation efficiencies and improve the reliability of plant components. and the spray dry process. variants of the limestone process that produce a disposable sludge. A variety of FGD processes are available. in many applications.FLUE GAS DESULPHURISATION (FGD) TECHNOLOGIES Figure 1. many countries now set limits on the amount and concentration of sulphur compounds emitted from the stacks of industrial plant. High levels of SO2 can cause respiratory illness and its presence in the environment causes acid rain that damages both vegetation and buildings. Control and reduction of SO2 emissions has therefore been recognised as important for safeguarding human health and protecting the environment since the mid-19th century.

circulating fluidised bed . the alkali (usually as a solution or.operating costs . The SO2 in the flue gas dissolves in the water to form a dilute solution of acid that then reacts with and is neutralised by the dissolved alkali.sodium bicarbonate injection. and consists of an open spray tower with a rotary regenerative reheater. a slurry) and flue gas are contacted in a spray tower. but these types of design are not often adopted now.SO2 emissions is to remove the SO2 from the flue gases before they are released to the atmosphere. Figure 2. Earlier limestone-based FGD processes produced sulphite sludge or gypsum for dumping. FGD PROCESSES Limestone Gypsum In the limestone gypsum wet scrubbing process. The limestone gypsum plant is located downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or bag filter. depending on the alkali used).sea-water washing . In wet FGD systems. removal efficiency and capital cost. the maturity of the technology. Sodium and ammonium sulphates are very much more soluble. ie the process with the lowest overall through-life cost. the flexibility of the process. eg the absorber type and reheat methods can vary with the supplier and with the client’s requirements. The final product is calcium sulphate dihydrate (gypsum). Economic issues include the capital and operating costs. which is suitable for wallboard manufacture.limestone gypsum . In dry and semi-dry systems. for example. Limestone is an abundant and therefore relatively cheap material and both quicklime and hydrated lime are produced from limestone by heating. Several differing FGD technologies have been developed to this end. Ratcliffe-on-Soar FGD (under construction) (Courtesy of PowerGen UK plc) Selection of FGD Processes There are a wide range of FGD processes on offer. The proportions of sulphite and sulphate are determined by the process conditions. These are: 1970 1980 1985 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Year Large combustion plant Total • Wet Processes: . The design chosen here for illustrative purposes (Figure 4) is one of the most common limestone gypsum (wallboard) plant types.Wellman-Lord. Figure 3. and has evolved over almost 30 years. any revenues or expenses arising from disposal of the by-products and maintenance costs. The alkali used reacts with SO2 in the flue gas to produce a mixture of sulphite and sulphate salts (of calcium. The most commonly used alkaline materials are limestone (calcium carbonate). fly ash removal would be ~99. In semi-dry systems. In either case. is relatively insoluble and readily precipitates out. This is the most common FGD process now being installed worldwide. including consideration of the cost of the plant itself (which may be appreciably more if the plant is to be retrofitted to an existing boiler). Calcium sulphate. all the sulphite is converted to sulphate. However. • Economic issues . either by injecting or spraying the alkali into the gas stream or by passing the flue gas through a bed of alkali. Other alkalis sometimes used include sodium carbonate. in order to remove the SO2 and neutralise it. the SO2 reacts directly with the solid to form the corresponding sulphite and sulphate. the solid alkali ‘sorbent’ is brought into contact with the flue gas. so that most of the fly ash from combustion is removed before the gas reaches the FGD plant. SO2 Emitted (kt) Technical considerations include the degree of desulphurisation that the process can offer. quicklime (calcium oxide. The reaction between the SO2 and the alkali can take place either in bulk solution (‘wet’ FGD processes) or at the wetted surface of the solid alkali (‘dry’ and ‘semi-dry’ FGD processes). a plant would normally be designed to achieve a high-quality gypsum product. the solid has to be quite porous and/or finely divided. water is added to the flue gas to form a liquid film on the particles in which the SO2 dissolves. Some of the major FGD processes are described below. there are many different factors that affect the overall cost. Commercial considerations include the degree of commercial risk. magnesium carbonate and ammonia. in some processes. These include: • Technical considerations. For coal-fired plant. depending on the relative solubility of the different salts present. There are a number of process variants and equipment arrangements which can be adopted. For this to be effective. the flue gas is treated with limestone slurry. sodium. Selection of the most appropriate FGD process for a particular application will normally be made on economic grounds. the costs of the sorbent used.furnace sorbent injection . differing significantly in terms of sorbent used. the amount of space that the FGD plant requires and the technical risks. use the limestone gypsum process. Nowadays. magnesium or ammonium. Ratcliffe (Figure 3) and Drax.spray dry . • Commercial considerations.5%. and remove the SO2 from flue gases by reaction with a suitable alkaline substance.duct spray dry. • Semi-dry Processes: . the number and size of units already in operation (and how they have performed) and suppliers’ guarantees. more commonly. Both of the large UK power plant with FGD. . promoting the reaction with the solid.capital costs. The sulphite and sulphate salts produced precipitate out of solution. • Dry Processes . CaO) and hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide). by-products produced. Trends in UK SO 2 emissions FUNDAMENTALS OF FGD Chemical Principles Almost all commercial FGD processes are based on the fact that SO2 is acidic in nature.ammonia scrubbing .

de-watered and washed for subsequent storage before dispatch from site. The limestone gypsum process will usually offer the lowest through-life cost option for large inland plant with medium. The traditional Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) design is very different from the others. even with fairly high-sulphur fuel. Schematic of a limestone gypsum FGD process v v v v . trace quantities of fly ash are also removed from the flue gas. Lurgi Lentjes Bischoff (LLB). Babcock Borsig. It is also more complex than some other process types. Marsulex. It is not an open spray tower. which contains dissolved solids and very fine suspended particles. Gypsum slurry (contaminated with ~3% limestone) is extracted from the absorber sump. Calcium carbonate from the limestone reacts with the SO2 and oxygen (O2 from air). The warm gas from the reheater enters the absorber and mixes with the process liquor. Despite falling prices. As the slurry falls down the tower it contacts the rising flue gas. The concentrations of these contaminants must be controlled to ensure the gypsum purity is maintained at the required level and high concentrations of chloride do not inhibit the desulphurisation process chemistry. and the gas is further cooled. FGD plant manufacturers generally claim that over 95% of the SO2 can be removed within the absorber. Precipitator Flue By-pass damper ID fan Booster fan Reheater Absorber Hydrocyclones Waste-water treatment Water discharge Sludge .to high-sulphur fuel. Kawasaki and IHI produce this type. In addition to this. taking advantage of sea water’s natural alkalinity in order to neutralise the SO2. Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) and Babcock Hitachi have a very similar design but theirs includes a tray at the bottom of the gas treatment zone. and a plant can be obtained at a competitive price. The purge stream is taken off as the overflow from the hydrocyclone system used for gypsum thickening. neutralised and thus removed from the flue gas. This is a relatively new technology for desulphurisation of power plant flue gases. Most suppliers would now offer 95% removal for use with European coals. centred on the layout of the absorber itself. The system is purged with water to control the concentration of these contaminants. This is because limestone is normally much cheaper than lime. is sent to the waste-water treatment plant. thickened. Most plant have a by-pass duct. directly to the stack. However. although it has been used on small-scale industrial applications for over 30 years. The technology is very well understood and is offered by many contractors. to raise its temperature before being exhausted to the stack. and is then discharged back to the sea. After scrubbing. Limestone/gypsum slurry is pumped from the absorber sump to the spray headers at the top of the scrubber. to produce calcium chloride in solution. which precipitates from solution in the sump. Although a certain amount of liquor oxidation occurs naturally due to excess air in the flue gas. As described above. As already noted. The gas is scrubbed with the recirculating limestone slurry to remove the required amount of SO2. depending mainly on the type of fuel burnt. This becomes particularly important for plant with a high sorbent consumption. the former having the most experience. The process is capable of high sulphurremoval efficiency. and normally the by-product gypsum can be sold rather than incurring a disposal cost. a high load factor and a long residual life. These and impurities in the limestone will accumulate in the process liquor as dissolved metal salts and suspended minerals such as quartz. This provides gas/liquid contact and presents a more even flow profile to the spray headers. but has a layer of packing in order to obtain effective gas/liquid contact. The most common design type today is the single loop open spray tower with the flue gas flowing upward through the scrubber.000MWe for coal-fired plant alone. Sea-water Washing The sea-water washing (SWW) process uses untreated sea water to scrub the flue gas. Recently MHI has adopted a type of open spray tower which it calls the double-contact flow scrubber (DCFS). The minimum gas temperature at the stack is often specified in national emission standards. After leaving the absorber. there are several design variations. the limestone gypsum process should still be regarded as relatively high in capital cost. The total worldwide installed capacity is approximately 149. ultimately to produce gypsum. fitted with a (normally closed) damper. Fresh limestone slurry is pumped into the sump to maintain the required pH. to allow flue gas to be diverted past the FGD plant. Some of the water is evaporated. The limestone gypsum process is the most well-developed and widely adopted FGD process worldwide. Absorber outlet temperatures are typically 50-70ºC. oxidising any remaining bisulphite to sulphate. . ABB and LLB. for many applications it will provide a lower operating cost than other. Flue gas Fly ash Limestone store Limestone mills Slurry tank Air Gypsum Figure 4. the gas is passed through the reheater again. the sump liquor is sparged with air. The purge stream. The treated water is then normally discharged from site. the water used is treated with air to reduce its chemical oxygen demand and its acidity. At many plant. At the top of the absorber. It probably offers a lower commercial risk than any other process. and is the one normally adopted for a large power station. This process also removes almost 100% of any hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the flue gas. but in mainland Europe it is slightly lower. HCl is removed from the flue gas in the scrubber. Here lime is added to raise the pH and precipitate heavy metals from solution. LLB is currently commissioning its first plant. The SO 2 is dissolved in the water. ABB. This would be opened in an emergency or during start-up. crushed limestone is milled on site before being slurried and pumped into the absorber sump. Fresh water is added to the absorber via the de-mister wash. lime-based processes. significantly higher than most other processes except ammonia scrubbing and the regenerative types.Flue gas from the ESP passes through an induced draught (ID) and/or booster fan and enters the gas/gas reheater. Also the flue gas is normally drawn down the tower rather than upward. Here the gas is cooled as heat is extracted. There are only two suppliers. Some recent plant have been designed for up to 98% removal. HCl is also dissolved in the water and neutralised to produce calcium chloride solution. In the UK this is 80ºC. the gas passes through de-misters to remove suspended water droplets.

The process has the advantage that there is no waste-water discharge. Ammonia Scrubbing The ammonia/ammonium sulphate or ammonium scrubbing process works in a similar way to the limestone gypsum process except that aqueous ammonia is used as the scrubbing agent. particularly those burning high-sulphur fuels. At certain sites. which is a relatively high-value product that can be used in fertilisers.5-3. all the condenser outlet water is used in the FGD plant. The gas is scrubbed with the (alkaline) sea water to remove the SO2. or with the potential to do so. This dries as well as warms the treated gas. This has been designed for 93% SO2 removal. With high-sulphur fuels. particularly in tropical countries. and require a large ‘footprint’ similar to a limestone gypsum plant.The ABB design is shown schematically in Figure 5. The flue gas is cooled and saturated with water vapour. As the water falls down the tower. and there are unlikely to be problems of scaling and blockage. The aqueous solution leaving the absorber is processed to produce ammonium sulphate. the gas is passed through the reheater again. However. and is not recycled as in other wet scrubbing processes. either in anhydrous form. Flue gas from the ESP and ID fan passes through a booster fan before entering the gas/gas reheater. SWW FGD is a rapidly expanding technology. above that used by the power plant for cooling. so as to utilise all the available alkali from this source. The manufacturers claim that up to 99% of the SO2 can be removed within the absorber. The gas then enters a prescrubber where it comes into contact with a recirculating ammonium sulphate slurry. The ammonia scrubbing process v v v v v v Air . where it is scrubbed with subsaturated ammonium sulphate solution. raw sea water is obtained from the steam turbine condenser outlet. and helps prevent reheater fouling and corrosion. or as a concentrated aqueous solution. it passes through the packing and comes into close contact with the rising flue gas and dissolves the SO2 and any HCl. It is not recirculated back to the top of the tower. At the top of the absorber. and air is blown through to reduce the chemical oxygen demand. The gas from the reheater enters the absorber and mixes with the relatively cold sea water. and the final product is ammonium sulphate. The only plant currently operational is installed on a 350MWe oil-fired boiler system at Dakota Gas Company’s Great Plains plant. but flows into the external mixing basin and aeration lagoon. This might cause serious difficulties in the planning stage. SO2 is removed from the flue gas by reaction with ammonia. because the price of ammonium sulphate and ammonia are both very volatile. there could be commercial risks associated with this. This process also removes almost 100% of any HCl in the flue gas. an additional form of reheat is sometimes required. Precipitator Flue ID fan By-pass Flue gas By-pass damper Flue Damper Inlet damper Booster fan Outlet damper Reheater Absorber v v v v Packing Sea water from condenser Booster fan Fly ash Purge Reheater Absorber Water Ammonia storage tank Pre-scrubber v v v Hydrocyclone Centrifuge Bleed Compactor Bleed Oxidation air Return v v v v v v to sea Dryer Figure 5. at certain sites. In all applications of the SWW process on power plant. and raise its pH by driving off carbon dioxide (CO2). However. The plant is operating successfully. ABB has built 21 plant with a total installed capacity equivalent to 2470MWe. These plant are expensive to build. but only if the fuel sulphur content is below 2. One option is to force a small percentage of hot untreated flue gas into the cold treated gas stream. FGD plant manufacturers indicate that SO2-removal efficiencies in the region of 98-99% can be achieved within the absorber systems. perhaps 15-40ºC depending upon the local sea water temperature. which removes the required amount of SO2 from the flue gas. In most plant. The process is capable of very high SO2 removal (up to ~97-98%). The treated liquor is then discharged to the sea.0 wt%. The gas is cooled and becomes saturated with water vapour. LLB and Marsulex. Here it is combined with the remainder of the sea water from the condenser outlet. and would significantly increase capital and operating costs. the receipts from the sale of the sulphate can exceed the costs of operating the FGD plant. to raise its temperature before being exhausted to the stack. this process could be a very attractive one. The high value of this by-product is the principal advantage of this process. High SO2-removal efficiencies at higher SO2 loadings would require additional sea water. LLB is currently commissioning two 610MWe plant in Indonesia. The acidified liquor is collected in the absorber sump. unlike nearly all other FGD processes. treating gas from high-sulphur oil. There are two known suppliers with successful commercial experience. it is unlikely to achieve very widespread use because very few plant are needed to satisfy the market for ammonium sulphate fertiliser in a particular country or region. After leaving the absorber. The SWW process Figure 6. This low temperature arises because the sea water passes directly through the scrubber. Ammonia scrubbing has been used intermittently since the 1950s. The plant design is relatively simple. but before it reaches the gas/gas reheater. and then enters the absorber. Part of this water is pumped into the top of the absorber tower. The saturated gas leaves the pre-scrubber through a mist eliminator. the gas passes through a de-mister to remove suspended water droplets. Flue gas from the ESP and ID fan is passed through a booster fan before entering the gas/gas reheater (Figure 6). Because the flue gas leaves the absorber at a low temperature. The most obvious disadvantage is that it is limited to use at coastal sites. although commercial plant have been designed for 91-93% removal. SWW’s main advantage is that it requires no solid sorbent as a reagent. the gas passes through two stages of de-misters to remove suspended water droplets. A potential risk arises from the need to store ammonia on site. At the top of the absorber. after it has left the absorber.

could be elemental sulphur. In the main absorber. in Japan. Here the gas is cooled as heat is extracted.Precipitator ID fan By-pass Flue Condenser Damper Fly ash Sodium carbonate/ hydroxide Blowdown EDTA Sodium carbonate or hydroxide make-up Water Sulphate solids Booster fan Reheater v v v v v v Absorber Tank Regenerated Liquor Figure 7. in relation to other processes. high-sulphur fuel. The CFB process v v v Tank absorber. Consequently. as such. This includes over 3000MWe of electric utility boilers. New FF or ESP ID fan Disposal silo Hydrator Dry product for disposal . sulphuric acid or elemental sulphur would depend on the local commercial environment. Whether this is concentrated SO2 liquid. The process involves the wet scrubbing of SO2 from the flue gas with aqueous sodium sulphite solution. The Wellman-Lord process The Wellman-Lord Process The Wellman-Lord Process is regenerative. After leaving the CFB reactor From boiler air heater Recycle Water Lime storage silo Lime feed bin Lime reception system V Blower Blower Blower Figure 8. is best suited to high SO2removal requirements. In the pre-scrubbing stage. The sodium sulphite is returned to the flue gas absorber tower circuit for re-use. to remove the required amount of SO2. there appears to have been no new plant built in recent years. fly ash and HCl are removed. However. At the top of the absorber. It is expensive to install but relatively cheap to operate and. and returned to the first stage (absorber tower) for re-use. the process does not involve the large-scale consumption of lime or limestone. the gas is passed through the reheater again. forming sodium bisulphite. Typically 95-98% of the SO2 can be removed within the absorber. sulphuric acid or liquid SO2. unlike other processes described here. The degree of desulphurisation attained would hence progressively fall off. In the main absorber. to raise its temperature before being exhausted to the stack. the flue gas is scrubbed with aqueous sodium sulphite solution. The process also has the advantages that it does not require the consumption of large quantities of sorbent and does not produce large quantities of solid waste. The Wellman-Lord process has been installed on nearly 40 plant. A pre-scrubber is usually fitted upstream of the absorber. ie the active reagent used for removal of SO2 from the flue gas is regenerated in a second process stage. Comparative studies have suggested that the operating cost is very similar to that of the limestone gypsum process. Flue gas from the ESP and ID fan is passed through a booster fan before entering the gas/gas reheater (Figure 7). the gas passes through de-misters to remove suspended water droplets. The sodium bisulphite is decomposed by steam heating in an evaporative crystalliser to produce sodium sulphite and SO2. It produces a saleable by-product that. while the concentrated SO2 gas stream can then be treated as appropriate to produce a by-product suitable for export. depending on the plant’s design. and plant with a long residual life. An equilibrium temperature is established. the gas is scrubbed with the process liquor. when the flue gas becomes saturated with water vapour. the concentration of sodium chloride in the liquor would progressively increase to levels where it would interfere with the chemistry governing the removal of SO2. The warm gas from the reheater enters the pre-scrubber/absorber and mixes with the process liquor. If HCl were to dissolve in the main absorber liquor. This process can achieve a SO2-removal efficiency of well over 95% on high-sulphur fuels. the USA and Germany. and many industrial plant. primarily to remove any HCl present in the flue gas.

For example. like the CFB it can be relatively expensive to operate. SO3 and HCl. The process and variants on it are now supplied by several vendors.Circulating Fluidised Bed (CFB) In the CFB process. which removes the SO2. Major suppliers of the technology are LLB (Germany). whose designs vary significantly. lime and limestone. Most of the solids collected in the pre-collector and ESP are returned to the reactor. This is a well-established FGD process with rapidly growing experience. to produce a calcium hydroxide slurry (slaked lime). However. Also. The normal sorbent fed to this process is quicklime.although the process chemistries are the same. The spray-dry FGD process The Duct Spray-dry Process This process is essentially the same as conventional spray-drying. but has not yet reached full-scale continuous commercial operation. compared with the CFB. When firing bituminous coal. the humidified gas temperature would be ~70ºC. The technology is well understood. at least as high SO2-removal efficiency. most being in Poland. even with very high inlet SO2 concentrations. lower spatial requirement. As with other semi-dry systems producing a throw-away by-product. The spray-dry process is cheaper to install than a limestone gypsum plant. The total installed capacity is in excess of 15. The process is very similar in many respects to the CFB process and the two are in competition.000mg Nm-3. Spent sorbent is extracted with the fly ash. The spray-dry process is one of the most well-developed and widely used worldwide. It is cheaper to install than a limestone gypsum plant and costs about the same as a spray-dry plant. and the lime slurry is sprayed directly into the duct. and offered by a number of contractors. due to both the high lime usage and the costs of by-product disposal. so as to achieve a high dust loading within the fluidised bed. in common with all other semi-dry processes. From here the gas is carried through the dust arrestor and the ID fan before discharge through the stack. The normal sorbent is quicklime. means that additional costs are incurred twice: extra lime has to be bought and then a portion of this is dumped at a cost.000MWe. Because of its simplicity. is transported from the bottom of the ESP to a silo. one German plant achieved 97% SO2 removal with an inlet SO2 concentration of 13. to react with and remove acidic compounds such as SO2. Wulff (Germany). concentrated lime (calcium hydroxide) slurry is injected into the flue gas. higher performance. there are very few plant now in commercial operation. This process was first investigated in the 1950s and a second phase has been under way since the 1970s. Flue gas from the airheater (Figure 8) is carried through the inlet venturi throat of the CFB reactor and passes upwards through a fluidised bed of lime. at sizes of up to 300MWe. SO3 and HCl. although the process chemistries are the same. Dry hydrated lime is . This is mixed with recycled by-product before being pumped to the rotary Fur nace Sorbent Injection This is another process developed for moderate degrees of desulphurisation with low capital costs. Several CFB/GSA plant have achieved >99% SO2 removal. atomiser. and sometimes lower cost. Spray-dry Process In the spray-dry process. It has a much lower space requirement than a limestone gypsum plant. Water is also added to humidify the flue gas and so improve SO2 and particulate removal. This is slaked on site. is transported from the bottom of the ESP to a silo. including fly ash. The originator and most experienced vendor is LLB. in an ESP or FF. particularly for retrofitting to small. The process has been commercially available for over 10 years. This is injected into the base of the reactor. the flue gas is passed through a dense mixture of lime (calcium hydroxide). The process can achieve 85-90% SO2 removal with moderately high-sulphur fuels. It has almost unlimited turndown capability and accommodates very rapid changes in inlet SO2 concentration. The solid by-product from the process. The water flow rate is controlled so as to achieve a temperature approximately 20ºC above the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. From here the gas is carried through the dust arrestor and the ID fan to the stack. it does not normally suffer from serious scaling. plugging or corrosion problems. power. Spray-dryer From boiler air heater ESP or FF Flue ID fan Disposal silo Blower Lime storage silo Water Lime reception system V Blower Blower Lime feed bin Slaker Lime slurry feed tank Figure 9. The lower sorbent utilisation of the spray-dry process. it can be relatively expensive to operate and. A large quantity of the particulate matter in the CFB reactor is carried with the flue gas into the ESP or fabric filter (FF) located downstream. The water in the slurry will humidify the flue gas and so improve both SO2 and particulate removal. The CFB process is capable of very high SO2-removal efficiency.to mediumsized power plant. whose designs vary significantly . prior to dispatch from site. The final product is a dry powdered mixture of calcium compounds. The final product is a mixture of ash and calcium compounds. The process can also achieve complete removal of SO3. The flue gas from the air heater is carried into the spray-dryer vessel. The lime reacts with and removes the acid gases. The solid by-product from the process. the variable operating costs are among the highest of the major FGD processes. reaction products and sometimes fly ash. This removes up to ~95% of the SO2 and most if not all of the SO3 and HCl from the flue gas. with excess water. as well as units fitted to a variety of industrial processes (such as hydrogen fluoride removal). including fly ash. typically being ~70% of the cost of the equivalent limestone gypsum system. which is hydrated on site to make calcium hydroxide powder (hydrated lime). FLS Miljø of Denmark (gas suspension absorber (GSA) process) and ABB (new integrated desulphurisation (NID) technology). reaction products and fly ash particles contained within the vertical reactor tower. and is capable of complete removal of SO3. and similar to or slightly more expensive than a CFB-type plant. It is one of a number of FGD processes developed or being developed primarily for those instances in which a moderate degree of desulphurisation (50-75%) is required on plant with limited operating hours and remaining lifetimes. The final product is a dry powdered mixture of calcium compounds. it is nowadays being chosen instead of the more widely established spray dry process in certain applications. it generates a waste product that normally has to be disposed of. The process involves the injection of hydrated lime into the furnace cavity of the boiler to absorb SO2. The disposal cost of the residues produced also adds to the overall operating cost. The final product is a dry powdered mixture of calcium compounds. The process has been developed by two suppliers. This removes up to 99% of the SO2 and all of the SO3 and HCl from the flue gas. the spray-dry process is relatively cheap to install. except that in this case the spray-dryer vessel is omitted. and is an expanding technology. CFB FGD plant have been fitted to a total of over 3000MWe of power plant. depending on the relative costs of labour. The water flow is controlled to achieve a temperature ~20ºC above the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. The spray-dry process is supplied by several vendors. where it comes into contact with a finely atomised spray of lime and by-product slurry. However. delivered from a single high-speed rotary atomiser (Figure 9). prior to dispatch from site. However. However.

The flue gas is then further heated and a second catalytic reactor oxidises SO2 to SO3.blown pneumatically into the furnace. The SNOX process has been developed by the Danish company Haldor Topsøe. It is well suited to a situation where only a low SO2-removal efficiency is required. coal-fired boilers of 80-575MWe in the USA. in principle. to react with and remove acidic compounds such as SO2. Several combined SOx/NOx-removal systems have. be highly desirable to remove both using the same process. Italy and Denmark. The process is located downstream of the particulate control device. despite the fact that both are acidic (and therefore amenable to reaction with a range of alkaline substances). One of the most advanced of these is the SNOX process (Figure 11). Boiler ESP Flue ID fan Blower Disposal silo Air compressor Water for humidification Water Lime reception system Dry product for disposal V Blower Blower Lime feed bin Hydrator Figure 10. The SNOX process for the combined removal of NO x and SO x (From the USDOE Website) . From the boiler. From here the gas is carried through the dust arrestor and the ID fan before discharge through the stack. typically above the burners (Figure 10). Italy and the USA. it would.5%) the heat released is sufficient to offset the auxiliary power consumption. been developed to the point where they are suitable for deployment on utilityscale boilers. This removes up to ~70% of the SO2 from the flue gas. The final product is a dry powdered mixture of sodium compounds and fly ash. The fly ash can not be collected separately from the spent sorbent. SO3 and HCl. since both the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 and the reaction of water vapour with SO3 to form sulphuric acid are exothermic. The process has been demonstrated on four full-scale. is relatively expensive. One reason for this is that any combined SOx/NOx-removal system would have to be sufficiently effective at removing both species that no further system was required. Consequently all the furnace ash as well as the solid by-product mixture must be dumped. The process uses no reagents other than ammonia and produces sulphuric acid of saleable quality. It is one of the cheapest FGD processes to install but can be expensive to operate because it is inefficient in its use of sorbent. the gas is carried through the air heater. the Czech Republic. SO3 and HCl are removed to some extent. Sodium bicarbonate is pneumatically injected into the flue gas stream as a dry fine powder. and where there is little space available in the unit plant area. The gas is then cooled to condense out the SO3 as sulphuric acid. The flue gas is reheated and then undergoes SCR. for high-sulphur coals (ie >~2. however. although it should be noted that the reagent itself. Combined SO x /NO x Removal Systems Both SO2 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are present in flue gases. Since emissions of both are regulated. FGD using furnace sorbent injection Electrostatic precipitator Stack Boiler Flue gas Air preheater Air Flue gas Flue gas heater Coal Baghouse Condenser (WSA Tower) Sulphuric acid Acid collector Cooling air To disposal Clean flue gas Hot air discharge Support burner Ash Support burner Ash to disposal Ammonia Catalytic NOx reactor Hot air Natural gas Support burner Catalytic SO2 reactor Acid storage tank Figure 11. Large SNOX units have been built on plant in Denmark. Because of this. sodium bicarbonate. It is suitable primarily for those applications where a moderate degree of desulphurisation is required at low capital cost. However. The condenser uses glass tubes to prevent excessive acid corrosion. with smaller units in Japan. A SNOX unit has been operational on Unit 2 (305MWe) of Elsam’s Nordjyllansværket The Sodium Bicarbonate Injection Process This process involves the direct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate into the flue gas duct downstream of the airheater. It has also been demonstrated on a 120MWe boiler in the UK by PowerGen. dust arrestor and ID fan before discharge through the stack. in practice. furnace sorbent injection is most suitable for retrofit situations. separate methods are normally used for the control of each: conventional FGD processes are used to restrict SO2 emissions and NOx are limited either by combustion measures or selective catalytic reduction (SCR). A further point about the process is that. This removes up to ~70% of the SO2 from the flue gas. All of the particulate matter from the process and the fly ash are carried with the flue gas into the dust arrestor – an ESP or FF.

Reductions in the cost of retrofit FGD units in the USA (After Broward & Brinkmann) Figure 14. Similarly. eg the limestone/gypsum FGD plant at Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station benefits from having a major user of gypsum located nearby. Total plant cost Limestone Gypsum in Denmark since 1991. water etc). the cost of the FGD plant obviously depends on technical factors. Actual variable operating costs can depend critically on the actual market conditions for sorbents. 1992) Operating Costs Installed cost ($ kW-1) 500 400 300 200 100 0 Limestone Lime Gypsum spray-dry CFB Ammonia Wellmanscrubbing Lord Variable costs 1970 1980 1990 Year 1997 2000 Reagents Utilities By-products Figure 12. power. although they will also be influenced by the chemical stoichiometry. Indicative relative costs of FGD processes (After EPRI. Such costs are seldom disclosed. Indicative relative variable operating costs (After EPRI. Variable costs cover such aspects of operation as reagents. and so the proximity (or otherwise) of a suitable limestone mine. byproducts. 1992) Differences in the capital costs of different FGD processes are determined by the degree of complexity of the process. by-product disposal costs will be proportional to the amount of by-product produced (and will be negative if the by-product can be sold). Figure 13. eg: • volume of flue gas to be treated Operating Costs can be split into variable and fixed costs. can be an important consideration. many early FGD units had multiple and/or spare absorber towers – this is now seldom the case. This is partly due to improvements in design and also partly due to less redundancy as suppliers become more knowledgeable about the abilities of the technology. disposal costs etc. The total cost of a reagent to the plant will include a transport cost. Reagent and by-product costs can be considerably influenced by the location of the plant. all of which are influenced by local conditions. which may vary as the degree of desulphurisation changes. water etc will be determined both by the amount of flue gas processed and by the throughput of reagents and by-products. Indicative relative variable running costs for several FGD processes are shown in Figure 14. have lower nett operating costs than those processes that produce a nonsaleable by-product that incurs disposal costs. with further falls in cost anticipated in 2000 and beyond. by-product disposal and utilities (steam. those processes that produce a saleable by-product. As a general guide. The downward trend in FGD costs is shown schematically in Figure 12. power. Running costs depend on the costs of sorbents. the economics of an FGD process benefit from the proximity of a convenient disposal point for the by-products. the amount of engineering required and other factors. for example. In general.FGD COSTS Costs of FGD plant are very site-specific. Lime spray-dry CFB Ammonia scrubbing SO2 removal WellmanLord Reagent handling Flue gas handling General & additional equipment By-product handling Engineering & contingency Capital Costs Bid costs of FGD plant depend on market conditions and other commercial factors. Reagent costs will be approximately proportional to the amount of SO2 removed. For example. Costs of steam. such as gypsum (limestone gypsum) or ammonium sulphate (ammonia scrubbing). the costs associated with disposal of the by-products and power costs. ammonia scrubbing) or in which the sorbent is regenerable (eg Wellman-Lord) have higher capital costs than other processes (see Figure 13). Current costs of FGD plant are roughly in the range $100-125 kW-1 (£65-80 kW-1). The capital costs of FGD plant are difficult to accurately assess as they are considerably influenced by market conditions and other factors. eg geographical location and the amount of preparatory site work required. eg permitted waste water discharges • the need or otherwise for flue gas reheat • the degree of reliability and redundancy required • design life. variable operating costs can be in the order of £2 per MWh. A small unit was installed on a slip-stream (35MWe equivalent) of Unit 2 at Ohio Edison’s Niles station in Ohio. • concentration of SO2 in the flue gas • degree of desulphurisation required • quality of the by-products produced • other environmental constraints. In addition. . Similarly. FGD processes in which the sorbent is processed to give a saleable by-product (eg limestone gypsum. Capital costs of FGD plant have been falling in real terms over many years. and these can be very location-specific. SNOX has also been installed in the USA under the United States Department of Energy’s (USDOE’s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program.

Recent units commissioned in Pakistan have been based on fluidised bed boilers. As yet. In reality both these affect maintenance costs. The number of start-ups. or those involving high temperatures or pressures. FGD has been introduced into parts of Eastern Europe. and (ii) the switch to gas as the preferred fuel for power generation limits the amount of new coal-fired capacity that will be built. Maintenance costs are usually correlated or estimated as a percentage of the total plant cost. with unit operations such as solids handling. Comparative fixed operating and maintenance costs for FGD processes Fixed costs cover such aspects as operating labour. Under Communist regimes. Maintenance costs are usually taken to be independent of plant operating hours or operating regime. is still a relatively poorly understood area. The most important market for FGD in Eastern Europe at the moment is probably Poland. thus reducing the market for further retrofits. FUTURE MARKETS FOR FGD The future market for FGD plant will be mostly. there will be some new build of coal-fired units. requiring more maintenance than a process that involves liquids and gases at ambient conditions (see Figure 15). India has a large number of coal-fired units burning indigenous coals. published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 1996. The latter will be more important for parts of the world such as India and China. North America will continue to be one of the major markets for FGD plant worldwide. cement kilns. The actual percentage of plant cost depends on the type of unit operation. only a very small proportion of its coal-fired plant has been fitted with FGD. Bulgaria. can be made for the next decade. the market for FGD in Western Europe is in its mature phase. for use with coal-fired power stations. can have a very significant effect on the rate of degradation of plant components. This market can be divided into two classes: retrofits to existing units and FGD equipment for new units. Limestone Gypsum Lime Spray-dry CFB Ammonia scrubbing WellmanLord North America A considerable fraction of the coal-fired capacity in Canada and the USA has FGD (retro)fitted. making Bulgarian power stations highly polluting. environmental protection was sacrificed to economic development and there was no desulphurisation. Bulgaria is another country with significant coal-burning capacity. for coal-fired plant. this has been constrained by cost. Although a substantial proportion of this build will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or fluidised bed combustion (FBC) that do not require FGD. Australia and New Zealand North America Western Europe South Asia East Asia China Africa Retrofits New Units Total South Asia Both Pakistan and India rely heavily on thermal power plant for power supply. however. there will be some new pf-fired units that will certainly require FGD. However.Fixed cost A survey of potential markets for clean coal technologies. however. Nearly all of the coal-fired power stations in the Czech Republic have now been retrofitted with FGD. Parts of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are very dependent on coal. since some or many of these new units will be fitted with FGD as a matter of course. Europe The two factors limiting the future market for FGD plant in Western Europe are (i) a large proportion of coal-fired plant are already fitted with FGD. sulphuric acid plant. In the last 10 years. with the majority of units having already been (retro)fitted with FGD. in particular. of this. 1996-2010 (After IEA) . maintenance (both materials and labour) and administration. Poland has ~28GWe of coal-fired plant. not only for power generation but also for industrial and domestic use. Other potential markets for FGD include: oil-fired boilers. Overall. 10GWe has been or is currently being retrofitted with FGD. Operations Maintenance Admin & support Figure 15. 50 45 40 35 Capacity in GWe 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Central & Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union Central & South America Japan. although not exclusively. which uses SWW – Figure 17) and very few if any of the new coal-fired plant have provision for FGD. therefore. Specific examples include the effects of thermal cycling on the linings used in FGD absorbers and the additional rotational loads on motors and pumps as they are accelerated to operating speed. where there is unlikely to be any significant new build of coal-fired power stations in the next 10 years. The same applies to both the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Figure 16. its indigenous lignite is very high in both sulphur and ash. and the emphasis on environmental control so far has been mostly on fitting or retrofitting ESPs to control particulate emissions. therefore. Poland. It also estimated the market for new pulverised fuel (pf)-fired units. The total market for FGD plant is likely to exceed £1Bn per year over the next 10 years. Russia and Ukraine. These coals are generally high in ash but low in sulphur. Estimated total market for FGD for coal-fired power plant. both of which have very significant coal-fired generating capacity and coal-fired industrial boilers. The former will be more important for parts of the world such as Western Europe. other industrial boilers and oil refinery fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCUs). due to the mechanical and thermal stresses that the start-up procedure imposes on the plant. identified opportunities for FGD retrofits to existing coal-fired units. The major factor limiting the uptake of FGD is the cost. In addition. There will be some market for retrofit FGD and a larger market for FGD for new plant. as legislation governing air quality is being progressively tightened. there is significant scope for further FGD retrofits. Overall. Plans exist to retrofit most of the main coal-fired power stations there. an overall estimate of the market for FGD plant. Very few Indian power plant have FGD (one exception is the Tata-owned plant at Trombay near Mumbai. The countries in this region most dependent on coal are the Czech Republic. This.

The widespread use of coal on a significant scale with very few environmental controls has resulted in China having significant pollution problems. Coal plays a very minor role in the generation of power in New Zealand. The absolute amount of power generated from coal is set to rise as older oil-fired units are replaced. Japan. LLB SWW plant at Paiton. FGD plant was introduced into China in the early 1990s (Figure 18). Figure 19. particularly the eastern part. stalled. it should be noted that most current coal-fired independent power projects (IPPs) in China lack FGD. depends heavily on coal for power generation. Australia. East Asia Many of the countries in this region have recently undergone (South Korea) or are currently undergoing (eg Malaysia. China’s ninth Five Year Plan (1996-2000) is the first to address environmental protection. SWW FGD plant at Tata Electric’s Trombay plant. Many of the plant so far built have been supported by the World Bank. thus sulphur emissions have not hitherto been a major issue and none of the major coal-burning stations is fitted with FGD. and these new coalfired units will require FGD. India (Courtesy of ABB Alstom Power) China Coal is China’s primary indigenous fuel source and is in widespread use for power generation and for industrial and domestic purposes. However. very few plant have been built. So far. and the emphasis has been on trying one of each type in an attempt to determine which are the most suitable technologies for China. albeit temporarily. and includes provision to reduce emissions from the coal and oil industries. Indonesia) rapid economic expansion with a consequent increase in power demand. Its coal-fired units are all equipped with FGD. economic growth in many of these countries has recently.The massive increase in electrical generating capacity required to keep pace with increasing power demand means that the emphasis for FGD will be on new units rather than retrofits. Australia and New Zealand These three developed countries of the Pacific Rim vary in terms of electricity generation. Luohuang FGD plant under construction in China (Courtesy MHI) . although a significant proportion of new coalfired units in Japan may well employ pressurised fluidised bed combustion (PFBC). Australian coal is relatively low in sulphur. Japan generates power mostly from gas. oil and nuclear. Indonesia (Courtesy of LLB) Figure 18. Figure 17. Environmental problems resulting from the use of coal have already been significant in some areas and some of the countries in this region have already installed FGD. It is anticipated that much of the new generating capacity will be coalfired. However.

Many of the leading suppliers have been involved in this already. a further 4GWe of FGD could be required for new units. At one time. which will withstand slightly higher flue gas temperatures. This aids the development of better nozzle and contacter designs and mist eliminators. . There will be a steady demand for this type of improvement of older plant in the future. Research on electron beam processes was started in Japan in 1970. to provide co-current scrubbing. This gives better mass transfer and also reduces running costs. Rubber internals can suffer damage through contact with solids. Flue gas from the ESPs is cooled and enters the process vessel in which ammonia is added and the gas irradiated with electrons. Scaling-up plant size in this way considerably reduces the overall capital costs. eg fitting trays or improved spray header arrangements. and confidence in the high reliability of FGD plant. lower capital and operating costs and better reliability. with better corrosion and weather resistance and easier maintenance than for metal absorbers. to install one FGD unit serving two large (~400MWe) boilers. and the salts are recovered and sold as fertiliser. however. The IEA forecasts that there could be 4GWe of FGD retrofitted to existing plant. as the processes in the scrubber and sump are better understood and this allows scrubbers to be designed with shorter gas and particle residence times. This results in a smaller (and thus cheaper) absorber for the same gas flow. with the use of liquid-coupled heaters (or other low-leakage exchangers) reducing the amount of gas leakage between the clean and raw gas sides of the flue gas path. up to ~80MWe equivalent or larger in size. in parallel with the process developments. These include larger booster fans and a move towards axial rather than centrifugal designs. but they are only now reaching the point of commercial-scale demonstration. partly for redundancy reasons. The process has recently been tested at the 90MW e scale on the Chengdu Power Station belonging to the Sichuan Electric Power Company. Some slightly improved or lower cost alloys have come onto the market. Figure 20. As FGD plant designs have improved and environmental standards have become more onerous. and thus flowrate. One of the most noticeable developments is in the scale-up in absorber size. MHI and Hokkaido Electric have been jointly developing the LILAC (lively intensified lime ash compound) process. and a vinyl ester resin with mica rather than glass flakes has been developed. GSA absorber (Courtesy of FLS Miljø) New Processes Processes are under development in which the flue gas is irradiated with electron beams in order to convert the SOx (and NOx) into more reactive species that can be removed from the flue gas more easily. The development of larger and more efficient fans will be advantageous to the development and acceptance of very large absorbers.5m s-1 is considered possible. Gas/gas exchangers are another area of work. Further development of corrosion-resistant materials continues. in addition. finer grinds and/or organic additives. Experience with larger FGD units. and metal casings and impellers can suffer corrosion and cracking. There have been important developments in the major plant components throughout the last 30 years.Central and South America Coal plays only a very minor role in power generation in Central and South America. Until recently. velocities of ~4m s-1 are now being adopted and 4. there has been a need to upgrade the performance of older and less well-designed plant. Ammonium sulphate and nitrate are formed and are carried in the gas as an aerosol. as the amount of liquid or slurry to be pumped is reduced. One of the most advanced of the processes under development is that of the EBARA Corporation (Figure 21). through the absorber. NEW DEVELOPMENTS Improvements to Existing Processes Work is ongoing in a number of fields to improve currently-existing FGD processes. including such recent innovations as double open-ended hollow cone nozzles. These require far less power at reduced boiler loads. as well as increased limestone loading. Considerable research effort has been expended on the development of dry sorbent-based FGD systems that are also capable of removing NOx. 80% SOx and 20% NOx reductions were achieved. The ammonium salts are removed downstream of the reaction vessel using a further ESP. Glass reinforced fibre (GRP) pipe sizes have increased to the point where they are now used for the manufacture of small absorbers. Under certain operating conditions these can have a relatively short life. One area where there is a need for improved materials is in FGD recycle pumps. Reductions in tower height are also being investigated. it was not uncommon to have multiple scrubbers for one boiler. improved nozzles. since one absorber is usually cheaper than two of half the throughput: the amount of steel etc used is much less and fabrication procedures are also reduced. Much of the work is focused on limestone/gypsum and other wet scrubbing processes. in many cases offering lower costs. The reagent is a mixture of lime. recently. particularly in high-chloride environments. or better packing. Specific areas of improvement include higher desulphurisation efficiencies. Costs have also been reduced by increases in the gas velocity. Further use of (larger) GRP scrubbers can be expected. Most variants of this process combine the process with the injection of ammonia for NOx control. Africa Coal is the predominant source of power in South Africa and in some neighbouring states. has given suppliers the confidence to move firstly to single absorbers for even the largest units (up to 1000MWe) and. A further improvement to the limestone gypsum process is the use of higher-concentration limestone slurries. Up to 90% NOx reduction has been achieved in some pilot-scale reactors. High-energy electrons react with molecules in the flue gas to produce radicals that then react with the SOx and NOx in the flue gas to produce sulphuric and nitric acids that in turn react with ammonia or some other alkali. Aerodynamic modelling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the gas and liquid flows in absorbers are proving invaluable in ensuring better gas/liquid contact and increased rates of mass transfer. The market for FGD for new and retrofit units is unlikely to exceed 1GWe in the next 10 years. since these represent the most common type worldwide. a design velocity of ~3m s-1 was usual.

Materials development is required to underpin the work on component improvement outlined above. FGD technology is rapidly being deployed in parts of Eastern Europe. • At the same time. Process improvement entails such R&D aspects as better understanding of the flow regimes in absorbers and the nature of the mass transfer phenomena in both wet and semi-dry processes. The further development of steam-heated vacuum belt filters capable of high levels of de-watering would also be advantageous. but they can be susceptible to corrosion and inevitably there is a degree of gas leakage. there is ~275GWe of FGD plant currently installed worldwide. In addition. named COBRA (copper oxide bed regenerable application). In addition. M and Soud. reducing the SOx removal of the overall process. Published by Combustion Engineering Inc. ABB Windsor Connecticut. This process is still at the development/demonstration stage. Edited by J G Singer. further improvements are being made to absorber design and to plant components such as heaters and fans. The reagent can be sprayed into the flue gas as a slurry or as a dry powder. dozen or more centrifuges. Large FGD plant typically require a BIBLIOGRAPHY • Boward. centrifuges work on a cyclic basis. and can be used with a spray drier. organic linings and GRP for FGD absorbers. the more onerous operating regimes that FGD plant are now operating under mean that work needs to be undertaken to understand the long-term effects of plant cycling and of repeated start-ups and shut-downs. • Several new processes are under development. Flue gas from ESPs CONCLUSIONS • A wide variety of FGD technologies are available. fans. Tests on the 1MWth scale have shown desulphurisation of >98%. EPRI GS-7192. • Most FGD plant currently operational are in North America. • At the same time. . • Overall. Water Spray cooler Ammonia . Furthermore. Gypsum slurry and recycle pumps are widely used in FGD plant but can suffer from corrosion (if not rubber-lined) or erosion (if rubber-lined). costs have fallen steadily and are now equivalent to $100-125 kW-1 (~£65-80 kW-1). ISBN 0-9605974-0-9 • Takeshita. but newer technologies such as CFB and SWW are rapidly gaining acceptance. It is claimed that this is made highly reactive towards SO2 and NOx through curing with hot water. The sorbent is regenerated using methane and the SO2 liberated is processed to give elemental sulphur or sulphuric acid. which can represent a considerable expense. IEACR/58. It has recently been retrofitted to the Huangdao Power Station in China. London. The UK has a particular strength in the supply of components for FGD plant. IEA Coal Research. pumps and gypsum de-watering equipment. has so far found only very limited application on FGD plant but development work to improve its de-watering efficiency could reduce both capital and maintenance costs. particularly gas/gas reheaters. component and materials development. The most widely used processes are the limestone/gypsum (and its variations) and the spray dry process. and the optimum condition in which to leave FGD plant standing idle. W L and Brinkmann.fly ash and spent sorbent (or gypsum). E-beam system ESP Clean flue gas to stack Process vessel Ammonium sulphate/nitrate fertiliser to agglomerator • A steady improvement in process design over the years means that modern designs can achieve 95%+ sulphur removal. scale-up of the technology could reduce costs. Most gas/gas reheaters currently installed on FGD plant are of the rotary regenerative type. There is thus a need for the development of improved designs with greater corrosion resistance and better sealing. and there could be major market opportunities in China and India. M S (1998) ‘Retrofit FGD System Price Trends and Influence Factors’. Figure 21. Increased corrosion/erosion resistance will reduce FGD plant downtime and maintenance costs. with untreated sour gas crossing over to the clean gas side. and improve operational flexibility and reliability. A combined SOx/NOx system using regenerable copper oxide adsorbent is under development in the USA. R&D work required to support these requirements can be split into process. The copper oxide is converted to copper sulphate and also acts as a catalyst for the reduction of NOx to nitrogen using ammonia. could reduce costs. Fourth Edition. vols 1 and 2 • IEA/OECD (1996) ‘Clean Coal Technology: Markets and Opportunities to 2010’ • Singer. July 1993. Western Europe and Japan. East Asia and South East Asia. the application of metals. Work is also required on the utilisation of semi-dry process by-products. An alternative. 14–16 April 1998. These generally perform well. Proceedings of the 60th American Power Conference. In the process a copper oxide sorbent is used to remove SO2 in a moving-bed adsorber. J G (1991) ‘Combustion Fossil Power – A Reference Book on Fuel Burning and Steam Generation’. the decanter centrifuge. with rapid acceleration and deceleration that puts high stresses on the equipment. Gypsum de-watering is undertaken using basket centrifuges or vacuum belt filters. Chicago • EPRI (1992) ‘Economic Evaluation of Flue Gas Desulfurisation (FGD) Systems’. many of which are designed to remove both SOx and NOx. The EBARA process R&D Needs Key requirements for FGD systems and plant are: • high SO2 removal • high reliability • low auxiliary power consumption • use of a single absorber (where applicable) • saleable or usable by-product. H (1993) ‘FGD Performance and Experience on Coal Fired Plants’. or injected directly into the flue gas duct.

Department of Trade and Industry DTI/Pub URN 00/652 .

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->