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Behavior, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Mar., 1973), pp. 61-69 Published by: American Sociological Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2136937 . Accessed: 16/01/2011 01:49
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ChildRearing Methods and Children's HealthBehavior*
Lois PRATT Jersey City State College
A developmental pattern childrearing of was foundto be associatedwithbetter healthcare practices children by thana disciplinary pattern childrearing. of The developmental methods included substantial of reasonsand information, use rewards, granting autonomy. and of Based on thesefindings a reviewof previousresearch, higherlevel of healthpracticesof and the children rearedby developmental thanof thoserearedby disciplinary methods interpreted is as an expression thedifferential of effectiveness thesecontrasting of childrearing approaches in developing child'sresources capacities copingand taking the and for care of himself.
THIS paperexamines relationship emphasized the beand growth development, train-
tweenmethods child rearing of used ing for self-reliance, guidancewith and and theirchildren's by parents and personal understanding, conceived thechild's of The child rearing role as flexible, the "traditional" healthcare practices. and apto are methods be examined thetendencyproach that stressedspecificbehavioral and to grant or autonomy to control, ex- conformity obedience thechild, the in and and information was basedon theuse ofdisciplinary tent which to reasons are methsupplied, thetendency reward and to good ods. Sinceno studies or behavior to punish misbehavior. was It werefound investithat on hypothesized children that whoseparents gatedeffects children's health behavior of and responsibility, variouschild rearing encouraged autonomy methods, there firm supplied reasonsand information, re- wereneither theoretical clearemand nor precedents which base thehyon warded to good behavior a greater to extent pirical However, than they punishedmisbehavior findings would pothesis. concerning the of have better health practices thanchildren effects childrearing methods other on whoseparents such as compemade littleattempt de- kindsof childbehavior, to tency,self-reliance, velop informed, independent performance self-control, self-esoutgoing socialbehavior, mental by thechild, and whoemphasized and punish- teem, growth, generally are ment enforce to consistent behavior standards. withthe proposed here. Theseother The first findgroupof methods consis- hypothesis are toward general a tentwitha "developmental" conclusion that approach to ingspoint child rearing that in they focus develop- use of reasons, on of granting autonomy, and ing in the childthe capacities of neededto rewarding good behavior contribute to care for himself. of The second groupare the development children's abilityto labelledhere "disciplinary" methods be- take care of themselves, whilethe discimethods cause they focuson obtaining inhibit development the unquestion- plinary of thesecapacities. ingobedience theparents' to specifications. The paperfirst examines interrelathe The distinction hereis rooted that in made madeby Duvall (1946) between "de- tionships amongthe elements the proof the and velopmental" approach motherhood to that posed "developmental" "disciplinary" childrearing models. the Second, relation* This investigation was supportedby PHS ships of the separatechild rearing variGrantNumberHS 00065 from NationalCen- ables-use of reasons, the reward-punishment, ter for Health ServicesResearch and Developand autonomy-control-to personal health ment. The assistance AgnesMeinhard, of Barbara practices children examined. of are Next, and Rubinstein, JohnDykstra conducting in this an analysis presented indicate relaresearch gratefully is is acknowledged. to the
Journal of Health & Social Behavior 14 (March), 1973
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AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
A childrearing scoredanswercategories. respondent's of tiveimportance thethree by was obtained apindex methods thecombined and influence the scoreon a given of a that assignedarbitrary plying formula three"developmental" "disciplinary" and and categories summed to health practices. weights answer methodson children's to answers the specified of is Finally, there a discussion howthese the respondent's and groupof questions. bear on previous findings empirical Child Rearing Measures. The indepentheoretical how child reports concerning methods-inrearing dentvariable-child children. methods affect rearing and information, cludestheuse of reasons and and use of reward punishment, grantMethod each of whichis repreing of autonomy, obis The study based on information sented morethanone index. by with from detailed interviews a reptained is Use of reasonsand informationrepcross-sectional resentative sampleof fami- resented a health index based education by lieswith children 9 to 13 from aged house- on a question whether not or concerning and the holdshaving husband residence a in areas in instructed child eight the parent in New living a northern Jersey Inter- of healthcare, including city. teethbrushing views were conducted professionally by of method, properdiet,effects smoking, trained interviewers usinga standardizedappropriate cleanliness standards, exercise, instrument fixed-alternative with questions bowelfunctioning, of sleep,and the effect and Al- reproduction concerning health family behavior. verTherearethree sequence. most all questions asked the respondentsionsofthisindex, basedon children's one were about current in behavior orderto reports, secondon mothers' and reports, a avoidthedistortions in involved retrospec-a third fathers' It on reports. is thechild's tivereports. Randomizing procedures were version thisindexwhich beenused has of used in the selection the childrespon- in tablesto represent concept of "use of the dent within families assure to accurate rep- reasons."Another indexis based on the resentation thetwosexesandthevarious number types health of materieducation of of ages. Separateinterviews were conducted als andtechniques parent this usedwith the with one child, father, themother child. the and verand Thereare mothers' fathers' in 273 families witha childand the sionsof thisindex. and in mother an additional families. 237 The is represented an by Autonomy-control results presented the tablesare based index the in based autonomy general of child's on thechildren's interviews thetotal on theextent which child from to carried out the sample 510 families. of of on a variety activities his own without In thepresent analysis primary emphasis the parents'help or reminder. Included has been placed on the responses the weresuchitems getting of the around town as children because,however lacking ob- byhimself trying things hisown. in on and new jectivity might it is their they be, percep- A second by indexwas constructed incortionsof howtheir parents treat them that porating items care auhealth concerning werethought be mostrelevant the tonomy to to in along withgeneralautonomy children's health behavior, becausethe order havea measure thechild's and overof to children in a better are position thantheir all levelofautonomy. Therearechildren's, parents view the combined to impactof mothers', versionsof both and fathers' the father-mother team. However, the of these of version the The child's indices. on mothers' fathers' and reports howthey overallautonomy indexhas been used to in havealso beenanalyzed represent concept tables. reared child the in this order provide on to three perspectives child An additionalindex was based on rearing. and or whether notthemother fatherexspecithe pected childat age 9 to perform Variables and Measures fiedactivities himself. by is represented by: Reward-punishment is Each of thevariables represented by indexbased on thenumindex (1) A "reward" each one or morecomposite indices; in rewards usedby parents of with berofdifferent was based on a number questions
toothsuch as bathtubs, such vided facilities goodbehavior, to response thechild's and thatare neededif the forhim, brushes, towels doingspecialthings as praising, While the (2) A child is to perform behavior. physicalaffection. and showing families the in among werevariations indexbased on thenumber there "punishment" in facilities provided the of used of forms punishment by quality health of different such misbehaved, as home,it was foundthatalmostno child the when child parents needed for basic and lacked the equipment of withdrawal privileges, confinement, is The routines. possibleexception version health It measures. is thechild's corporal have children where indices inthecase ofnutrition and of the"reward" "punishment" to in thatare presented tables.(3) A "cor- wide discretion eat more poorlybut kitchfamily than to indexbased on theex- seldom eatbetter their punishment poral" mea- ens provide. physical applied parents to tent which when and suressuchas slapping spanking is index laThe misbehaved. final thechild Results and belled"reward-punishment"was confrom Developmental and Disciplinary Child punishments by structed subtracting of to RearingPatterns.The threedimensions the to in rewards order indicate extent and reward, of childrearing-use reasons, or whichthe use of punishment reward significantly of granting autonomy-were child. for predominated a given the although withone another, correlated Health PracticesMeasures. The depenlarge. were correlations not extremely careprachealth dentvariable-children's by tices-is represented eight indices Use of Use of Reasons Reward perof reports their based on children's The criteria Use of reasons sonal healthcare practices. .... .277 of the usedto evaluate quality performance Use of reward .159 .238 Granting autonomy in weredescriptions by reported children concerning The correlationsindicate that parents literature the medical-health practices. who employedone developmental health and beneficial harmful method by were significantly Personaldentalcare was measured more likely to employ practices. another cleaning aboutteeth questions were one developmental thanthey by weremeasured questions to use a disciplinary Sleephabits form,and vice versa. and regularity quality. aboutsleep! Thus, thereappears to be a degreeof comby Exercisehabitswere measured the patibilityamong the three methods that in and regularity extentof participation were conceptualizedas aspects of a "degames,and exercises. sports, physical approach and among the velopmental" by weremeasured the threemethodsthatwere conceptualizedas habits Cleanliness behavior. aspects of a "disciplinary" and child'sbathing sanitation approach. This by were Nutrition practices measured the lends some supportto the conceptuallogic a during com- of the proposedchildrearing of quality food consumed model. Howagainst ever, the criticalissue of this studyis not intake valuable pleteday,balancing intake. harmful uselessand/or the extent whichparentsin actual practo by tice have a consistentchild rearing apweremeasured practices Elimination in regularity bowelfunctioning. the proach,but rather, extentto whichthe and three aspects of the child rearingmodel, was by Smoking measured frequency smoking. of quantity cigarette chilaffect separatelyand in combination, indexof thechild'soverall dren'shealthpractices. A summary by was constructed healthcare practices Relationships Between Child Rearing health Methods and Children'sHealth Practices. the combining above sevenspecific care indices. whose that It was hypothesized children of parentssupplied reasons and information, that the measures It was intended behavior rewarded reflect health practices children's exto good behavior a greater on somewhat discretionary the tentthantheypunished and misbehavior, thatwas and responsibility pri- encouraged autonomy partof the childand not dependent or pro- would have better health practices than on marily whether nottheparents
JOURNAL OF HEALTH
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children whose parentsmade littleattempt to develop informed, independent performance by the child, and who emphasized punishment enforcebehaviorstandards. to Use of reasons. Based on children'sreports, the data indicate that the greater the use of reasonsby parents,as measured by the extentof healtheducationprovided by the parents, the higher the level of children's total health practices. The specific typesofhealthpractices that werefoundto be significantly relatedto use of reasons were elimination, care of teeth, and cleanliness. Parents' use of reasons was not significantly related to exercise, nutrition, smoking,or sleep habits. Table 1 presentsthe correlation coefficients. When these relationships were checked by utilizing mothers'and fathers'reports, only mothers'reported of use of a variety healtheducationmethodswas foundto be relatedsignificantly positively chiland to dren's health practices.This difference in results fathers for and mothers will be discussed later. Reward and punishment.There was foundto be a consistent positiverelationship betweenparents'use of rewardsand the quality of children'shealth practices. Based on children'sreports, the more rewards for good behavior and the greater of the preponderance rewardsover punishments,the betterthe total healthpractices of children and thebetter healthpractheir tices in almost all specifichealth areas. Notably,the two punishment indices-the number punishment of formsused and the
extentof corporal punishment-werenot significantly related to children's health habits,withthe exceptionof sleep habits, which were significantly better when punishment was low. These data indicate that the positive influenceof rewarding good conductis much more important for children'shealth habits than any negative influence resulting frompunishment. Similar results were obtained when mothers' reportswere used. No significant relationships were found between fathers' reportsof theiruse of reward or punishmentand theirchildren'shealthpractices. Autonomy-control. Regardlessof which of the children's autonomy indices was used, the higher the level of autonomy granted,the better the children'soverall healthpracticesand the bettertheirpractices in all specificareas except nutrition. The findings similarwhen mothers' are reports are used, but the relationships betweenfathers' reports the child's autonof omy were not significantly relatedto children's health practices. Fathers', Mothers', and Children'sReportson Child Rearing.The factthatchildren's and mothers' reportson child rearing methodswere foundto be consistently related to children's health habits, but fathers' reports werenot,maybe accounted for by the difference orientation the in of questionsasked of children, mothers, and fathers.Children reported on the child rearing methods used by their"parents"as a combined team, while the father and mothereach reportedon his or her own
TABLE 1. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CHILD REARING METHODS AND CHILDREN'S HEALTH PRACTICES BASED ON CHILDREN'S REPORTS * Child RearingMethods Health Use of Use of Use of Granting of practices Reasons Reward Punishment Autonomy Total health practices .212 .240 .004 .337 Sleep .032 .003 .197 .191 Exercise .039 .109 -.198 .153 Elimination .182 .090 .051 .151 Dental care .144 .190 -.033 .281 Cleanliness .207 .125 .134 .162 Nutrition .000 .102 .017 .071 Smoking .059 .101 .058 .136 * A positive correlation indicates thathighuse of reasons,reward, and autonomy, and low use of is punishment associated withgood health practices.Correlation coefficients .104 are significant of at the.05 leveland coefficients .147 at the.01 level. of
individualpractices.By acceptingat face value the finding that fathersare simply less influential thanmothers, can interone pretthatchildren's reports thetotalchild of rearing experience coincide closely with mothers' reportsbecause mothers perform most of the child rearing activity, while children'sexperience of child rearing is considerablydifferent from their fathers' reportsbecause fathersperformso little childrearing activity. Reasons, Reward,and Autonomy. Since substantial use of reasons,high use of rewards,and granting considerableautonof omy to the child were each found to be associatedwithbetter childhealthpractices thanlittleuse of reasons,reward,and autonomy, it was essential to determine whethereach of the methods was independently relatedto children's healthpractices or whether influence each was of the diminished eliminated or undercontrolfor the othertwo. Partial correlations showed of that the relationship each of the three child rearingmethods to children'stotal healthpractices persisted undercontrolfor the othertwo, although relationship of the use of reasons was somewhatdiminished undercontrol. On the basis of these findings would it be expectedthata combination thethree of childrearing methods intothedevelopmental and disciplinary styles of parenthood would discriminate more efficiently than any of the methodsconsidered This singly. did proveto be thecase. A stepwise regression analysis showed that autonomywas of the mostinfluential the threechild rearingvariables,(as indicated thestandardby in ized regression coefficients Table 2). In addition,each of the other two methods
did contribute additionalsignificant an increment the variance explainedin chilto dren's overall health practices.As shown accounted by the R2 in Table 2, autonomy for 11 per cent of the total variance in children's health practices; reward accounted for an additional4 per cent beyond thataccountedforby autonomy; use of reasons added 1 per cent beyond the other two child rearing methods. Combined, autonomy, use of reasons, and reward accounted for about 16 per cent of the total variance in children'shealth practices. Thus, when parentspracticedthe three developmental methods in combination, theirchildren'shealth behavior was substantially better thanthatof children whose parentsemployeda thoroughly disciplinary styleof parenthood. Separate stepwiseregression analysesof each of the specificaspects of health care revealed that child rearingmethods had greater influence children's on care of their teeth, cleanliness, sleep, and elimination habits than on other health habits. Therewerealso foundto be some differwas ences in whichaspect of child rearing for most influential various health practices. Autonomywas the most important variablewithrespectto denchild rearing tal, sleep, exercise,and smokingbehavior, suggesting that self-management abilityis in especiallyimportant these fourareas of health care. Use of reasons had the most influenceon cleanliness and elimination practices. Influenceof Parents' Health Practices. Because of the positive relationshipbetween parents'health habits and those of theirchildren,it was necessaryto deter-
TABLE 2. STEPWISE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHILD REARING METHODS TO CHILDREN'S HEALTH PRACTICES Variable entered: Autonomy Reward Use of reasons Sociostatus
Multiple R .3373 .3865 .3973 .3992
R2 .1138 .1494 .1578 .1594
Standardized Regression Coefficients .2831 .1683 .0939 -.0398
Increases in 12 .1138 .0356 .0084 .0016
F= ratio 34.794 11.307 2.691 0.4947
P .001 .001 .05 ns
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is of report a part, or mine whether not parents'healthhabits study, whichthepresent orfor the relationships proposesthatvarious aspects of family mightbe responsible found betweenchild rearingmethodsand ganization are related to personal health healthhabits.This did not prove practices of members. Promisingdimenchildren's thatare under organization per- sions of family to be the case for the relationships includethe extentof commusisted under controlfor level of mothers' investigation nicationand supportamong familymemhealth practices. health bers and the extentof linkagebetweenthe betweenmothers' The interaction systems. variablessheds familyand other community habitsand thechildrearing of additionallighton the effect child rearing practices, however. When mothers' Discussion health habits were poor, a high level of to The discussionwill attempt relatethe autonomy and health training had a of the effects concerning health presentfindings on positiveeffect children's stronger health healthpractices child rearingmethodson children's habitsthan whenmothers' is weregood. This interpretationsuggested: behavior to previous empiricaland theoservesas a poor example retical work concerningeffectsof child whenthe mother for healthbehaviorit is essentialthat the rearingmethodson otheraspects of chilincludof dren's behavior and development, child be emancipatedfromthe confines self-reliance, self-control, of Both granting auton- ing competency, familyinfluence. outgoingsocial behavior,and health education mate- self-esteem, omy and bringing rials into the home serveto extendthe re- mentalgrowth. Use of Reasons. Evidencefromprevious sourcesavailable to the childin developing studies suggests that providing relevant his own healthbehaviorpatterns. and reasons to childrenconInfluenceof Socioeconomic Status. Al- information of though socioeconomic status had to be tributesto the development theirreato variable soningcapacityand theirability behave as a possibleextraneous suspected Baumrind(1967) foundthat to because of its relationship various as- competently. chilpects of child rearingand to healthprac- the parentsof a group of competent self-controlled, explorastatuswas not respon- dren (self-reliant, tices,socioeconomic between tive, and content) were more likely than reported sible fortherelationships to health the parentsof otherchildren use reason childrearing methodsand children's between ratherthan power to gain complianceand practices.The partialcorrelations each of the child rearing variables and to encourage verbal give and take. In a Baumrindand Black (1967: for healthcare practicesundercontrol SES relatedstudy, to indicate that the relationshipsare fully 324) found that: "Parents' willingness offer justification directives to listen for and sustained. A stepwiseregression analysisindicates to the childwere associatedwithcompetent variables behavioron the part of the child." Becker further all threechildrearing that took precedenceover SES in extentof in- (1964) concluded fromhis review of rethe fluenceon healthpractices.In fact,Table searchthatproviding childwithreasons helps him to understand 2 showsthatnothing was gainedby adding and information vari- what is expectedof him and what are the SES to the "package" of independent ables beyondwhat could be accountedfor consequences of his behavior. A study (Smith, 1970) of the sources of parents' by child rearingmethodsalone. Variance.The developmen- influenceon adolescents found that the Unexplained child rearing model ac- parents' resources as knowledgeablepertal-disciplinary variable. for about 16 percentof the vari- sons was the most significant counts withthoseof the These findings, together healthpractices, leaving ance in children's the remainder unexplained. What other presentstudy,pointtowarda generalconAs has been clusionthatuse of reasonsand information factorsmay be important? helps to developthechild'scogindicatedabove, socioeconomic statushas by parents nitive capacities so that he can behave been ruledout. This interpretation furwas The conceptualizationof the overall competently.
on at effects children different ages, ther supportedby a test made with the ential have found thatpunishstudies studydata. Using as a crude mea- and other present in sure of thechild'sconfidence his general ment is associatedwith less aggression inconsisthanmore.This apparent competency, a question which asked rather of inmaybe theresult thefactthat muchany- tency or whether not "I can do pretty of degrees punishment parents by thingI set my mind to do," this measure creasing in up aggressive both result building increasingly was ofcompetency relatedsignificantly in but to parentaluse of reasonsand to children's responses children, thattheexpresis sion of aggression inhibited very by healthpractices. (Sears, et al., 1953). Reward and Punishment. Previous severepunishment that Our present finding use of rewards formulastudieshave led to the following in behavior soundhealth with the process by which punishment is associated tion of from supports theme the emerging children: children to and rewardare thought affect fosters studies-that ofreward use Punishmentis less likely than positive previous of methodsto develop the child's inner re- the development the child'sresources data the However, present his and capacities. sources for evaluatingand correcting to thatlevelof is own conduct.Punishment likelyto gen- yieldno evidence indicate on has thatare re- punishment an effect the developand erateresentment resistance of capabilities. is onlywhen the fear of authority ment children's strained Autonomy-Control. number studies A of maintained.Reward, on the other hand, evidence thatis consistent that enjoyment becomesassociated have produced provides study findings. Granting with the behavior itself,thus reinforcing withthe present has to are findings con- of autonomy been found be assothebehavior.The present self-control, selfabout use ciatedwithcompetency, sistentwith the interpretations outgoing socialbehavior, intellecbut ofrewards notaboutuse ofpunishment. reliance, and differentiated cognitive Parents who used rewards were found tual growth, of on more likelyto reportthattheirpro- functioning-types effects the child to be to ability take care of himthan parents who thatindicate cedures were effective there a stream reis of used punishment (Coopersmith, 1967). self.In addition, thathas found control be assoto Aronfreed(1968) reportedthat givingof search inhibition, obedispecific rewards for initiativehas been ciatedwithdependency, to to found consistently be associated with ence, and conformity adultstandards, and and motivation per- as wellas hostility aggression. achievement children's If health habits viewed ability are as to formance. stream the former Aronfreed(1961) also foundthat chil- take care of oneself, wouldlead one to expect that punishedtend to of research dren who are frequently wouldbe sustained. on If, react to theirown misbehaviorwith fear thehypothesis habits hand,one viewedhealth punished the other while infrequently of authority, to conformityadultstandards childrenare more likelyto develop inter- as thechild's one might entertain posthe such as guilt.Thus, while of conduct, nalizedresponses thatthe hypothesis shouldbe resocial con- sibility parentsmay obtain superficial wouldbe associated theymay not versed-thatcontrol by formity usingpunishment, better health habits. Sincethehypothsocializationobjec- with achieve theirlongterm there support the is for fail to develop their esiswas sustained, tivesbecause children producescompetent own internalcapacities for self-correctionidea that autonomy performance thatthe conformity and and (Clausen, 1968). produced control actually by are of obedience the effects to Other attempts clarify for of behaviorhave in- dysfunctional development good on punishment children's behavior children. documenin The of of volvedexplorations theeffects punish- health of follows. Many studies tation thisinterpretation aggression. menton children's Baumrind (1967) found theparents that (Becker, 1964; Eron et al., 1963) have children were more likely associatedwith of competent found positively punishment children acbehavior. However, Sears thanthoseof less competent aggressive to their children indepenfor had differ- tively train (1961) foundthatpunishment
JOURNAL OF HEALTH
AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
techniques that to information ad- concluded powerasserting dence by exchanging with nonand are more likelyto correlate vance the child'sskillsor decisions, and behaviors and a direc- cooperative aggressive by to grant autonomy withdrawing to reactions transby tive in response an objection the also withexternalized to and (fearofpunishment projected the child to make gression child or by allowing by power par- hostility). choices. The use ofcoercive bewithmaladaptive entswas associated paby Whatare themechanisms which stereo- rentalcontrol presumed affect with havior bothboysand girls, in the to is and child's behavior boys, in typed dependent and and development histendency moral behavior girls. toward in regressive fearful and behavior? and hostility aggressive withrestrictive (1967:54) proand Saltzstein Children parentswere Hoffman encounter (Radke, posed: "First,any disciplinary foundto be sociallywithdrawn in of amount anger the to a 1946). Straus (1964:323) attempted generates certain most is assertion probably to child.... Power for accountforthe tendency children in anger thechild to parents likely arouseintense be more"extroverted" their when not are not power-assertive: . . the greater becauseit frustrates onlythe act but ". The during socializa- also the child'sneed forautonomy." enjoyment interaction of parwithauthoritarian in tionexperienced theequal powersitua- factthatchildren and of have feelings discontent to tionwillbe generalized all socialinter- entsoften this. (Elder, 1961) supports in action,resulting a so-calledextrovertunhappiness and of type individual." dependency, The factthataggression, to have all been found be outrestric- obedience children highly with In addition, sugbehavior parental of tive parents have been foundto receive comes controlling parof for (Bald- geststhatchildren power-assertive growth little stimulation mental balancebean (1969) reported entsmaymaintain uneasy winet al., 1945). Witkin with tween conformity defiance. and interacted thatboys whosemothers of appropriate Based on the review theseprevious them waysthatencouraged in and and from the studies theeffects autonomy condifferentiation separation of of withthose whose trol,on the findings the present mother, contrasted as in study mothers was kept themclose and dependent,indicating autonomy significantly that health tendedto have an articulated cognitive and positively related children's to a an body concept, de- practices, in style, articulated and on finding the present and samplethatchildren's veloped sense of separateidentity, of self-rating comdefenses. specialized structural relatedboth to petencywas positively the from autonomy to health practices, foland Bronfenbrenner (1970) concluded of Granting is conclusion proposed: his studies childrearing the Soviet lowing in of and competency active fosters of autonomy Union that theirconstricting pattern of in behavior children whichone "maximizes dependencycoping parental behavior andproduces childwhois readily a is social- important expression soundhealthbeized to adultstandards" (1970:81). Pa- havior.Control, the otherhand, inon of the was rentalrestrictiveness foundto have hibits development thesecapacities and on effects children (Kagan and producesinsteada superficial inhibiting lasting that to and Moss, 1962), and to make children rigidconformity adult standards or on and moreconforming dependent adults failsto obtaincommitment even suffito cientpersistency enable the child to 1964). (Becker, rousuccessfully elementary the and In addition dependency obedi- perform to for of has ence,aggression been foundto result tines caring hisownbody. methods. Developmental.and DisciplinaryMethchild authoritarian rearing from as research well between ods. Reviewof previous were correlations found Significant in of the and the mother's powerassertiveness the as theresults testing hypotheses this toward general study point the and power assertiveness present child's hostility child that and to toward children, hisresistance chil- conclusion: developmental rearmore are attempts ingmethods significantly effective dren's and teachers'influence in methods developing 1960). Becker (1964) also than disciplinary (Hoffman,
so thechild's capacities resources that Elder,G. H. and and 1961 FamilyStructure the Transmission he is able to cope effectively takecare and of Values and Normsin the Processof ofhimself. higher The levelofhealth pracChild Rearing.Unpublished Ph.D. disticesof children rearedby developmental of sertation. University NorthCarolina. meth- Eron, L. D., L. 0. Walder,R. Toigo and M. thanof thosereared disciplinary by Lefkowitz. odsis viewed an expression thedifferas of for child 1963 "Social class, parentalpunishment ential effectiveness ofthese contrasting aggression, childaggression." and Child rearing approaches developing in children's Development (December):849-867. 34 competency coping and behavior. Hoffman, L. M.
1960 "Power assertion the parentand its by impact on the child." Child Development31 (March):129-143. Hoffman, L., and H. D. Saltzstein. M. Aronfreed, J. 1967 "Parentdiscipline and the child'smoral 1961 "The nature, variety and social patterndevelopment." Journal of Personality ing of moral responsesto transgresand Social Psychology5 (January): sion." Journal Abnormaland Social of 45-57. Psychology (September) 63 :223-241. Kagan, J., and H. A. Moss. J. Aronfreed, 1962 Birthto Maturity: Studyin PsychoA 1968 Conduct and Conscience.New York: New York: John logical Development. Academic Press. Wiley. Baldwin,A. L., J. Kalhornand F. Breese. 1945 "Patterns parentbehavior."Psycho- Radke, M. of 1946 "Relation of parental authorityto logical Monographs58:1-75. Baumrind, D. children's behavior and attitudes." Monograph22. Minneapolis: Univer1967 "Child care practicesanteceding three sity of Minnesota Instituteof Child patternsof preschool behavior." Genetic Psychology Monographs 75 Welfare. Sears,R. R. :43-88. (February) 1961 "Relation of early socializationexpeBaumrind, and A. E. Black. D., riencesto aggression middle childin 1967 "Socializationpracticesassociatedwith hood." Journal Abnormal of and Social of dimensions competence preschool in Psychology (November) 63 :466-492. boys and girls." Child Development Sears, R., J. Whiting, Nowlis and P. Sears. V. 38 (June):291-327. 1953 "Some child rearing antecedentsof Becker, C. W. aggressionand dependencyin young of 1964 "Consequences different kindsof pachildren."Genetic PsychologyMonorental discipline."Pp. 169-208 in M. graphs47(May):135-236. and L. Hoffman Hoffman (eds.), ReT. view of Child DevelopmentResearch Smith, E. 1970 "Foundations parental of influence upon Volume T. New York: Russell Sage adolescents: an applicationof social Foundation. power theory."AmericanSociological Bronfenbrenner, U. Review 35 (October):860-873. 1970 Two Worldsof Childhood.New York: M. Straus, A. Russell Sage Foundation. 1964 "Power and supportstructure the of Clausen, J. A. 1968 Socialization Society. and Boston:Little family in relation to socialization." Journalof Marriage and the Family Brown. S. Coopersmith, (August):318-326. H. 1967 The Antecedents Self-Esteem. of San Witkin, A. 1969 "Social influences thedevelopment of Francisco: W. H. Freeman. in Duvall, E. M. cognitive style."Pp. 687-706 in D. A. 1946 "Conceptions parenthood." of American Goslin (ed.), Handbook of SocializaJournalof Sociology52 (November): tion Theory and Research. Chicago: 193-203. Rand-McNally.
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