Draft for comments









20 years have passed since ‘Manual on the Design and Construction of Well and Pile Foundations” was published in 1985. Since then lots of advances have occurred in well design and construction. These developments have been captured in recent A&C slips and editions of IRS Substructure & Foundation Code, IRC:78, IS:456, and IRS Concrete Bridge Code. Very recently in 2005, Member Engineering has also issued two technical instructions 1 & 2 for design and construction of well foundation. All these developments, including learnings from experiences of renowned ex-civil engineers like Vijay Singh, L. Singh and H.K.L. Sethi have been captured in this draft guideline. We hope to get further suggestions and comments from Zonal Railways for making it better. I congratulate Mr. A.K. Gupta, Director/B&S/CB-II and his team consisting of Mr. P.P. Singh, ADE/CB-II and Mr. Binay Kumar, SE/Design for coming out with this draft.

( Lalloo Singh ) ED/B&S


Sl.No. 1.0 2.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.1 4.2 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 7.0 7.1 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 Description Introduction Comparison with Pile foundation Types of Wells and its Suitability Circular Well Double D Well Double Octagonal well Rectangular Well Twin Circular Well Wells with Multiple Dredge Holes Well Foundations in Existing Important Railway Bridges Ganga Bridge at Mokameh Jogigopha bridge near Jogigopha on River Brahmaputra Design parameters Founding Level of Wells Below HFL Design of Well Steinning Design of Well Curb Material to be used Concrete Under Water Concreting Steel Well Sinking and Sinking Effort Precautions during Well Sinking Well Design and Soil Parameters Preliminary Design Design and Analysis of Well Foundation by Substructures Code Design Settlement of Well Foundation References Appendix-A (ME’s Technical Instruction No.2) Page No. 4 4 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 12 15 16 16 18 20 21 21 24 24 25 25 31 37 38


The guidelines on well foundation for Railway Bridges over Indian Railways
1.0 Introduction: Well foundations had their origin in India and have been used for hundreds of years for providing deep foundations below the spring water level for important buildings and structures. The technique of sinking masonry wells for drinking water is very ancient and even today small drinking water wells are constructed all over the country using the same methods as were prevalent centuries ago. Well foundations were used for the first time for important irrigation structures on the Ganga canal including solani aqueduct at Roorkee (India), which were constructed in the middle of the nineteenth century. With the advent of Railways in India, construction of a large number of bridges across major rivers became necessary and it was recognized very soon that much bigger and deeper well foundations were required for their piers and abutments.

2.0 i)

Comparison with Pile Foundation Well foundations provide a solid and massive foundation for heavy loads as against a cluster of piles which are slender and weak individually and are liable to get damaged when hit by floating trees or boulders rolling on the river bed in case of bridge piers. Wells have a large cross sectional area and the bearing capacity of soil for this area is much greater than that of the same soil at the same depth for bearing piles of small cross-section. Well foundations can be provided upto any depth if only open sinking is involved and upto a depth of 33.5m if pneumatic sinking is required to be done. Pile foundations are generally economical upto a depth of 18m and in some cases for depths upto 27m. Piles can not be driven through soil having boulders. Logs of wood which are very often found buried even at great depths also obstruct a pile. It is possible to sink a well after over coming these obstructions.





Even in case of precast piles. In case of wells raising of the well steining and sinking are done in stages and a decision about the foundation level can be taken as the work progresses piles and the strata conditions become known . The section modulus of individual piles in a cluster is small and cannot carry large horizontal force or vertical loads when the unsupported length is considerable as in case of bridge piers and abutments in scourable riverbeds. Drilled piles and caisson piles also have this advantage over the driven piles. They can resist large horizontal forces and can also take vertical loads even when the unsupported length is large. If the bearing vi) vii) viii) ix) 5 . It can not be said with confidence in the case of bearing piles if they have gone and rested on the strata taken into account while designing them or if they are resting only on an isolated boulder. a decision about the depth has to be taken in advance. The bearing capacity of a pile is generally uncertain. Even when sinking is done by dredging. Wells are hollow at the center and most of the material is at the periphery. It is. This provides a large section modulus with the minimum cross-sectional area. the concrete is subjected to a lot of hammering and damage to it cannot be ruled out. In case of wells sunk by dewatering or pneumatic sinking. it is possible to visually examine the strata through which sinking is done in its natural state and the material on which they are finally founded. the dredged material gives a fairly good idea of the strata through which the well is sunk. where it can not be inspected. therefore. not economical to use well foundations for very small loads and pile foundations are more suitable for them. it is not possible to determine the exact strata through which each individual pile has passed. In case of precast piles. In most cases. Masonry in the steining wells is done under dry conditions and the quality of masonry or concrete is much better than in case of cast in situ piles for which concreting is done below the ground level and in many cases below the water level.v) The size of well foundations cannot be reduced indefinitely as the dredge hole must be enough to enable a grab to work and the steining must have the thickness necessary to provide the required sinking effort.

Simplicity in construction and ease in sinking. The shape is simple and it is easy to sink this type of well also. On the other hand if the strata is too hard. Nine metres is generally considered as the maximum diameter of circular wells. it may become necessary to redesign the foundation and the piles of short length already cast may have to be rejected or additional number of piles may have to be provided in each cluster.2 Double D well This type of well is most common for the piers and abutments of bridges which are too long to be accommodated on circular well. When the piers are very long the size of circular wells becomes unduly large.capacity of the piles at the design depth is found to be less than the calculated value after testing. 3. The well is generally adopted for piers of single track railway bridges and those of bridges on narrow roads. It is also recommended by some engineers that the overall 6 . which makes them costly and disadvantageous hydraulically also as they cause excessive obstruction to the flow of water. The dimensions of the well are so determined that the length and the width of the dredge holes are almost equal. It requires only one dredger for sinking and its weight per sq. 3. The advantages and disadvantages of each type have also been discussed as below: 3. metre of surface is the highest due to which the sinking effort for this well is also high.0 Well Types and Their Suitability The followings are the different types of well in common use in Indian Railways as well as roadways. The distance of the cutting edge from the dredge hole is uniform all over and the chances of tilting are the minimum for this type of well. This does not apply to cast in situ piles. it may not be possible to sink them to the design depth and the piles may have to be cut which is costly and wasteful. Allowing cantilever of one metre on either side the maximum length of the pier resting on this type of well is about 11 metres.1 Circular well This type of well is used most commonly and the main points in its favour are its strength.

length of the well should not be more than double the width. 3. 7 . Masonry in steining is also more difficult than in case of double D wells. If the depth of sinking is small say upto 6 or 7 metres. 3. For greater depth of sinking spacing of 2 to 3 meters may be necessary. They. however.3 Double Octagonal Well These type of wells are free from the shortcoming of double D-well. They are. They can be adopted very conveniently where the bridge is designed for open foundations and a change of well foundations becomes necessary during the course of construction on account of adverse conditions such as excessive in flow of water and silt into the excavation. It is necessary to sink these wells simultaneously to ensure that the cutting edges are almost at the same level all the time. the clear space between the two wells may be kept 0. Blind corners are eliminated and bending stresses in the steining are also reduced considerably. Since it is necessary to sink these wells simultaneously it is obligatory to have two sets of equipment for well sinking and in this respect they do not offer any advantage over double D or double octagonal wells.4 Rectangular Well These type of foundations are generally adopted for bridge foundations having shallow depths. The disadvantage of this type of well is that considerable bending moments are caused in the steining due to the difference in the earth pressure from outside and water pressure from inside which result in vertical cracks in the steining particularly in the straight portions where join the partition wall.6 to 1 m to avoid tilting. 3.5 Twin circular well This type of foundation consists of two independent circular wells placed very close to each other with a common well cap. offer greater resistance against sinking on account of the increased surface area. The wells have a tendency to tilt towards each other during the course of sinking on account of the fact that the sand between them becomes loose and does not offer as much resistance against sinking as on the other sides.

0 4. 1 HKL Sethi 1963 8 . 3.6 Wells with Multiple Dredge Holes For piers and abutments of very large sizes. In the United States wells of this type are more common. deep well raft. Each well has 55 square dredge holes of 5. 4. used for the towers of Howrah Bridge. 6 inch x 32 ft. The overall dimension of the largest well are 60.5m x 29. the soil is weak.1 Well Foundations in Existing Important Railway bridges Ganga Bridge at Mokameh Well for the foundation has been fixed to be at 53 ft.2m x 5. The size of these wells is 24. size with semicircular ends. however. advantageous where the length of the pier is considerable and the sizes of the double D or octagonal wells become unduly large to accommodate the pier. The well curbs of the main piers were made of mild steel and are 14 ft 10 inch in height and weight about 125 ton each. They are covered by a 6 ft. wells with multiple dredge holes are used. Wells of this type were. Twin circular wells are advantageous only when the depths of sinking is small and the foundation material is soft rock or kankar or some other soil capable of taking fairly high loads. The well curb were designed in steel instead of reinforced concrete. Design of well caps for the twin circular wells also requires special care. the larger size of double D or double octagonal wells may be required to keep the bearing pressure on the soil within limits.8m x 55m and there are 21 dredge holes in each of them. The possibility of development of cracks in the pier due to relative settlement can not be ruled out inspite of the heavy design of the cap except where the wells are founded on rock or other incompressible soils. If . It has two dredge holes 14 ft.6m and they support the piers of San Francisco okland bridge. Allowance is made for relative settlement of the two wells and this adds to its cost.however. however.2m size. Wells of this type are not common in India. D shaped.

5m thick diaphragms in longitudinal direction. Keeping in view the enormous discharge and the importance of this bridge. which may be experienced around them. Singh 1998 ME’s Technical Note No. Design founding level – RL (-) 36. deeper to counter the extreme scour conditions.The wells were designed in mass concrete with 9 ft.D/40 5. while according to Gales a grip of 65 ft.0m/sec. scour was required. tilt – 1 in 80 Maxm shift .00 x 11. below the HFL. Two wells next to abutments were sunk 10 ft.1 9 .0m at the top: Foundation Design parameters: Design discharge – 90400 cumecs. the intermediate portion being filled up with sand.00m were provided at all locations except abutments and two adjacent piers. Well resting on sand – 100% Well resting on rock – 75% Max. and that in circular wells is 3.75m Buoyancy. This gave a depth of 126 + 65 = 191 ft.5m thick diaphragm 2 3 L. 4. in double D wells is 2. thick steining. Design discharge intensity – 90 cumecs/m max.2 Jogighopa Bridge near Jogighopa on river Brahmaputra2 The conventional double –D shaped wells with outer plan dimensions of 17. was provided. Abutments are supported on 6. Double D wells as well as circular wells were provided with 2. should be provided.5m at base and 3. The wells were provided with cement concrete plugs both at the top and at the bottom.80m with 2. A grip equal to one third of the maxm. velocity of flow – 5. Max.0 Design Parameters3 The thickness of steining. a grip of 65 ft.0m diameter twin circular wells with common well cap.

5 of IRS Substructure Code (applicable for medium sand) = 1.5. and value of f for different bed material is given in para 4.6. the width of the channel should be measured and checked with the width calculated by the following equation given by the Lacey: L = 4. Extra allowance should however.85√Q 10 . which flow through incoherent alluvium and are free to adjust their width of flow and their depth with equal ease. acquire an elliptical cross section in the straight reaches with the highest flood level as their major axis.1 Founding Level of Wells Below HFL: Rivers with scourable beds increase their cross sections when they are in flood by the rise in the water level and also by scouring their beds thus increasing the depth of flow. The value is generally taken as 1. • Before applying Lacey’s equation for scour depth. be made when the bank or a portion of the river bed are non scourable. a) Under Normal Conditions The depth of well foundations is decided with respect to the maximum scour and stability.00 which is in itself quite conservative. and it should be so selected that it provides necessary stability with respect to overturning and sliding.33 times the deepest scour below HFL. The depth of foundation should not be less than 1. The method of determining foundation depth is explained in following paras: Normal depth of scour (D) below HFL should be maximum of: • Using Lacey’s formula for Design discharge Q (Cumecs) {DL =0.76 √m (m being diameter of bed material in mm over scourable depth).473 (Q/f)1/3} Where f is the silt factor for representative sample of bed material obtained from scour zone. Rivers in regime.

should be for seismic conditions as per provisions of IRS Substructure Code. However. as per provisions of IRS Substructure Code {DL = 1.34 (q2/f)1/3} where q is the discharge intensity in cubic metre per second per meter width and f is the silt factor • When the bridge piers are placed in the flow due to obstructions caused by them. but design parameters like discharge. HFL etc. needs to be checked from observed scour around piers as per hydraulic model study. • Grip length = one third of 2DL. however.6. the scour depth worked out by Lacey’s equation should be ⎛ w increased by multiplying with factor ⎜ ⎜w ⎝ c ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. (b) Under Seismic Conditions Procedure same as above under normal conditions.61 . Alternatively. For design discharge intensity in cumecs due to constriction of waterway on account of pier width. Scour depth reported by model study need not be doubled as in case of calculations done for normal scour. Increase in depth of scour for design of foundation due to local scour around nose of piers = 2DL This. adequacy of grip length should be checked for stability of well pressure including safe bearing capacity of soil with all vertical and horizontal loads as applicable under normal conditions.Where L = Linear watering in metres. Adequacy of grip length under this condition shall be checked with values of loads and 11 . where wc is the constricted water way and w is the Lacey’s regime width. the scour increases around them.6 of IRS Substructure Code. Q = maximum flood discharge in m3/sec. intensity of discharge. The multiplying factor is given in para 4. If actual width is lesser than the width given by Lacey’s equation on account of restraint on the river due to non-scourable banks or if it is proposed to construct a bridge having a lesser water way than that given by Lacey’s equation.

Smaller dimension of well cross section in metre. From the available charts.4N2B + 16 (100 +N2) D Allowable soil pressure in kg/sq. Depth of foundation level below scour level in metre.m SPT value. The For calculating Bending moment both active and passive soil pressures around the well should be considered. Low water level is determined from gauge levels of the river for as large period as possible particularly from consideration of as long working period as possible. LWL adopted should give ideally 150/ 180 days for working. This is done in order to enable inspection of the well cap. d) Check for bearing capacity Most of deep foundations are on sandy beds at foundation level. The reinforcement provided in such cases is very nominal in the form of bond rods and lateral ties. Thus LWL is not necessarily the lowest gauge level.moments for seismic forces as per dynamic analysis carried out by approved methods like one done by IIT/ Kanpur or Roorkee etc. 5. It is customary to place the bottom of the well cap at LWL.12% of 12 . Of course in river like Brahmaputra this is not available where maximum time available is 130/140 days.2 a) Design of Well Steining: Design of Steining: The normal Railway practice is to provide plain cement concrete. Bond reinforcement of about 0. c) Low water level Depth of foundation is always measured below LWL. A factor of safety usually of ‘3’ is taken. allowable bearing capacity can be calculated by q q N B D = = = = = 5. This is also important so that the well cap can be cast without use of coffer dams etc.

m. Z = Sectional modules of well in m3. The above was used in checking stresses in Mokamah bridge over River Ganga. Check against tensile stresses in steining causing cracking should be made using following formula both for seismic and non seismic conditions. Soil Pressure = M P Z A 2q ( B − SinBSin 2 x . Details in Technical Paper No.5 t/m3 P= Total lateral pressure in t/m2. M = Moment in t –m. The sinking effort available may be calculated by simple calculation based on following. q = Density of soil = 1. b) Thickness of Well Steining Thickness of well steining is always designed in consideration of sinking effort required to sink the well without taking recourse to use of kentledge or dewatering. 336 ‘Ganga Bridge at Mokamah’ by Shri H. taking due account of buoyancy .sin B cos 2 x) π F = F = tensile stress in t/m2.L. Sethi. 13 . A = Cross Section area in sq.sectional area and ties of about 0.K.04% of the volume per unit length is found to be adequate and should be adopted. f= Axw ⎧ H1 ( w − δ ) H 2 ( w − δ ) + + X ⎨ P ⎩ H3 w H3 w } Where.

F = Skin friction in t/m2.( Z − 2Cka ) tan 2Φ 3 Where.3 weight of steining per meter length of well (w) x 2 . In limiting conditions. This can be calculated by using following formula: F =1 / 2 ka. Cross sectional area of well steining in (m2) Unit weight of plain concrete in t/m3 Unit weight of water in 1 t/m3 Perimeter of well in (m) Values of H1. Hence f = Axw ⎧ { w − δ ⎨ P ⎩ w H1 H2 H3 } Taking weight of concrete as 2. H3 are as shown in the figure H1 = height of well above water.f= A= w= δ= P= Average sinking effort in t/m2. H2 = height of well below water level and upto bed level H3 = depth of well below bed level. H2 < of H3. 14 .3 t/m3 f = 1. hence H2/ H3 is neglected. H2.3 perimeter (P) 4 w x 7 P This is nearly taken as The skin friction of soil varies at different level and is dependent upon type of soil also. where skin friction applies. H1 = 0.

This is calculated below LWL. This has been the practice in Indian Railways for ages and has stood well.Ka Φ C Z r = = = = = Active pressure coefficient Angle of shearing resistance of soil (degrees) Half of unconfined compressive strength.23 to 3. This is not withstanding the fact that reinforcements are provided in the concrete but they are meant for temperature. Thus using the Formula available. and bond. Stiff and soft = Clay Dense sand = = Very soft clay = Dense gravel = 5t/m2. The concrete is generally not richer than M-15 (1:2:4) 5.42 to 6. tree trunk etc. It should be able to stand on a single point in case of a sloping rock/ large boulder. without getting damaged.88 to 19.84 t/m2 4.53 t/m2 1. This is designed from consideration of following: • • • It should be able to cut through hard strata. But empirical values are also safely used with fair degree of confidence.93 t/m2 4.3 Design of Well Curb Most important element of well curb is the cutting edge. sinking effort can be verified from (f = 4/7 W/P). minimum sinking effort required is of the order of 15 .88 to 9. c) Grade of Concrete Concrete steining for the well is traditionally and conventionally treated as MCC/ Plain concrete only and never as RCC. 0.42 t/m2 3. It should be able to withstand additional forces caused by occasional blasting.76 t/m2 For alluvial deposits. Depth of foundation below Scour level (m) Density of soil in t/m3. shrinkage.73 to 2.

Thus. with 215 T of steel in 15 m height of Caisson. Well curb should have an offset (7. design mix concrete as nominal mix concrete. For wells in deeper locations Caissons were fabricated and launched in the river. it is essential that the well is heavy in deep foundation. that is. In Jogigopha bridge.5 metres level from the cutting edge level. may be 1 to 1. island was created upto depth of 5m by driving two rows of 6” sal ballies by 1 ton monkey at 0. Only part of the well curb should be armoured. 6. Double D type is more prone to tilt and shift due to unsymmetrical shape and possible unequal dredging. the following information should be included: a) b) Type of mix. for example.8m c/c upto a depth of 4m below river bed.0 6.2.1 Material to be used: Concrete In specifying a particular grade of concrete. to build a 25m dia islands by filling with sand by crane/ dredger. For a typical circular and Double ‘D’ well for large well foundations. Bamboo mattings were tied with the two rows and the space between them were filled with sand bags. as shown in the sketch. More commonly is to use a design which has proved itself for various important Railway bridges under very difficult conditions. These were of mild steel plate shells with angle struts. Well curb should be placed on a platform/ Island built on river bed. as included in ME’s Technical Instruction No. Grade designation 16 . know design is available as per the enclosed sketch. Cutting edge inner angle was 24o upto 2m height in Jogigopha bridge. Typical sketches of well curbs have been shown in Appendix A.There is no known methodology for the design.5sm in Jogigopha bridge) all around the well steining. This is for the purpose of reducing skin friction during sinking operation by keeping the soil close to the steining in disturbed condition.

c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) Type of cement Maximum nominal size of aggregate. 14. (Clause N0. Maximum temperature of concrete at the time of placing. The protection of the steel in concrete against corrosion depends upon an adequate thickness of good quality of concrete. (Clause No. 4 & 5 of IS-456:2000. Method of placing and Degree of supervision.6 and may need to be smaller. fcr = 0. 5. Minimum cement content (for design mix concrete) Maximum water cement ratio. and fck is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete in N/mm2. Workability Mix proportion (for nominal mix concrete) Exposure conditions – As guided by table No. Cement content not including fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag in excess of 450 kg/m3 should not be used unless special consideration has been given in design to the increased risk of cracking due to drying shrinkage in thin sections as to early thermal cracking and to the increased risk of damage due to alkali silica reactions.1 of IRS CBC) When the designer wishes to have an estimate of the tensile strength from compressive strength.2.7 f ck where. the following expression may be used. The water cement ratio shall not exceed 0. For aggregates of 40 mm 17 .2 of IS-456:2000) Under water concrete should have a very high degree of workability and confirm to IS:9103. The free water cement ratio is an important factor in governing the durability of concrete and should always be the lowest value. fcr is the flexural strength in N/mm2. depending on the grade of concrete or the type of chemical attack.2.

2 & 14. In case of marine or other similar conditions of adverse exposure. equipment. 708.45. For under water concreting the concrete shall be placed gently by tremie boxes under still water condition and the cement contents of mix be increased by 10 percent. the grout mix shall not be laner than 1:2 and it shall be ensured by suitable means.4 of IS-456:2000) When it is necessary to deposit concrete under water. 708.maximum particle size. (Clause No. the cement content shall be at least 350 kg/m3 of concrete.2 IRC 78:2000) The mix used in bottom plug shall have a minimum cement content of 330 kg/m3 and a slump of about 150mm to permit easy flow of concrete through tremie to fill up all cavities.4 IRC 78:2000) If any dewatering is required it shall be carried out after 7 days have elapsed after bottom plugging. 708.1 IRC 78:2000) A 300mm thick plug of M-15 cement concrete shall be provided over the filling.3 IRC 78:2000) The well curb shall invariably be in reinforced concrete of mix not leaner than M- Under water concreting: (Clause N0.1 IRC 78:2000) In case of plain concrete wells. controlling the rate of pumping that the grout fills up all inter stices upto to the top of the plug.2. such as. 14.3. materials and proportions of the mix to be used shall be submitted to and approved by the engineer-in-charge before the work started. (Clause No.8. (Clause No. 18 . concrete is used. e. (Clause No. 708.8.8. (Clause No. Concrete shall be laid in one continuous operation till dredge hole is filled to required height. 6.g.3 IRC 78:2000) In case grouted concrete. 708. 708. the concrete in the steining shall not be less than leaner than M-20 with cement not less than 310 kg/m3 of concrete and the water cement ratio not more than 0. the concrete mix for the steining shall not normally be leaner than M-15. the method. (Clause No.

the top section of the tremie shall be a hopper large enough to hold one entire batch of the mix or the entire contents the transporting bucket. Preferably. Unless the lower end of the pipe is equipped with an approved automatic check valve. so that when the concrete is forced down from the hopper to the pipe. flanged steel pipe of adequate strength for the job should be used. the top surface shall be kept as nearly level as possible and the formation of seams avoided.Concrete cast under water should not fall freely through the water. The concrete emerging from the pipe pushes the material that has already been placed to the side and upwards and thus does not come into direct contact with water. At all times after the placing of concrete 19 . thus establishing a continuous stream of concrete. A separate lifting device shall be provided for each tremie pipe with its hopper at the upper end. Concrete shall be deposited continuously until it is brought to the required height. The tremie pipe shall be not less than 200mm in diameter and shall be large enough to allow a free flow of concrete and strong enough to withstand the external pressure of the water in which it is suspended. if any. the upper end of the pipe shall be plugged with a wedding of the gunny sacking or other approved material before delivering the concrete to the tremie pipe through the hopper. even if a partial vacuum develops inside the pipe. It will be necessary to raise slowly the tremie in order to cause a uniform flow of the concrete but the tremie shall not be emptied so that water enters the pipe. The method to be used for depositing concrete under water shall be one of the followingi) Tremie. It will force the plug (and along with it any water in the pipe) down the pipe and out of the bottom end.The concrete is placed through vertical pipes the lower end of which is always inserted sufficiently deep into the concrete which has been placed previously but has not set. When concrete is to be deposited under water by means of tremie. Otherwise it may be leached and become segregated. While depositing.

The bottom doors shall open freely downward and outward when tripped.2 percent (for either mild steel as deformed bars) of the actual gross section area of the steining. The bucket shall be filled completely and lowered slowly to avoid backwash. 708. 6. the amount of vertical reinforcement provided in the steining shall not be less than 0. and thus avoid the formation of laitance layers. However. (Clause No. a minimum of 0. it will be replugged at the top end.5 IRC 78:2000) In case where the well steining is designed as a reinforced concrete element. vertical reinforcements (whether mild steel or deformed bars) in the steining shall not be less than 0. ii) Direct placement with pumps – As in the case of tremie method. on the inner face. This shall be equally distributed on both faces of steining.3 Steel: (Clause No. as at the beginning. The vertical reinforcements shall be tied up with hoop steel not less than 0. 708.3. This will cause to the concrete to build up from below instead of flowing out over the surface.06 percent of gross 20 . If the change in the tremie is lost while depositing.is started and until all the concrete is placed.04 percent of the volume per unit length of the steining.4 IRC 78:2000) For plain concrete wells. the tremie shall be raised above the concrete surface and unless sealed by a check valve. before refilling for depositing concrete.12 per cent of gross sectional area of the actual thickness provided. iii) Drop bottom bucket – The top of the bucket shall be covered with a canvas flap.3. it shall be considered as a column section subjected to combined axial load and bending. the vertical end piece of the pipe line is always inserted sufficiently deep into the previously cast concrete and should not move to the side during pumping. shall be withdrawn slowly until well above the concrete. the lower end of the teremie pipe shall be below the top surface of the plastic concrete. The bottom door shall not be opened until the bucket rest on the surface upon which the concrete is to be deposited and when discharged.

(Clause No. 21 .7. 708. The steel shall be suitably arranged to prevent spreading and splitting of the curb during sinking and in service.6. (Clause No.1 Well Sinking and Sinking Effort Precautions During Well Sinking The following precautions must be taken during sinking of the wells. The transverse reinforcement in the steining shall be provided in accordance with the provisions for a column but in no case shall be less than 0.4 IRC 78:2000) In case blasting is anticipated.7. the inner faces of the well curb shall be protected with steel plates of thickness not less than 10mm upto the top of well curb.04% of the volume per unit length of the steining. i) When the wells to be sunk close to each other and the distances between them is not greater than the diameter of the wells. 708.0 7.e.1 IRC 78:2000) The mild steel cutting edge shall be strong enough and not less than 40 kg/m to facilitate sinking of the well through the types of strata expected to be encountered without suffering any damage. For sinking through rock cutting edge should be suitably designed.3 IRC 78:2000) The well curb shall invariably be in R. The purpose of this is to disturb the least possible area of the soil in the vicinity of well at one time. (Clause No. 708.area steel shall be provided. It is also advisable to sink the alternate wells in a row in preference to sinking them one after the other. Similarly when two parallel rows of wells have to be sunk with centers of each at about 1m apart one row should be sunk before the other or they can be started on different ends or from the center towards two ends. one sunk ½ the dia in advance of the other as the wells tend to draw towards each other in case they are sunk simultaneously. they should be sunk alternately i. of mix not leaner than M-25 with minimum reinforcement of 72 kg/m3 excluding bond rods. It shall be properly anchored to the well curb. 7.C.

A temporary drain should be made to take away this water. To prevent this timber pieces may be introduced in between the steining of the two wells. which tends to lean away from the bank. vii) Generally in case of abutment wells. iii) The sinking of number of wells commenced in one season should be such that they can be sunk to atleast 66% of their depth before the seasonal flood. it should be dumped at the time of dredging as far away from the well as possible and then it should be kept being removed simultaneously.g. These wells may. v) During sinking. dumb bell shaped wells. therefore get considerably titled. This causes appreciable difference of pressure on the sides of the well which tends to lean towards the side where material has not been dumped. The water running out of the excavated material should not be allowed to flow close to the well steining. Firstly. vi) In sinking a pair of wells through sandy strata there is a tendency for the two wells to draw closely to each other. it is worth while to spend a little more money in digging 22 . The well curb is usually cast by digging up a pit slightly bigger than the dimensions of the well. This results in surcharge on one side of the well. In such cases. Sand drilling etc. Wells not reaching this stage before rains should be brought to the notice of the engineers in charge for his advise about protective measures to be taken e. provision of temporary cap. the excavation in both the dredge holes should be carried out simultaneously and equally to facilitate even sinking. there is high bank on one side of the well.ii) In sinking of wells joined together. for example. iv) All precautions should be taken against possible damage to the foundations of structures in the vicinity of the wells prior to commencement of dredging of the material from inside of the well. It is therefore to be ensured that the dredged material is never allowed to accumulate near the well . there is tendency to dump all the dredged material close to the well and only on one side.

A complete record of sinking operations including tilt and shifts.e.8 metres clear distance round the well and by not permitting steeper than 1:1 slopes for the walls of the pit. the river stream flow along one edge to the coffer dam made for the sinking of the well. This tendency should be prevented by supporting the well at two or three places on its steining high the ground.the original pit of sufficiently larger sizes leaving about 6. viii) Sometimes. the dredged material is disposed off on that side where derrick etc. done during sinking shall be maintained. the edge close to the bank. A well should also be secured against such possibility where the soil is fluid or semi fluid in nature. A tilt of 1 in ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 Manual on the design and construction well and pile foundation-1985 Cl. Generally. 15 23 . blasting etc. b) Sinking of wells: The wells as far as possible be sunk true and vertical. c) Tilt and Shifts4: As far as possible well shall be sunk without any tilt and shift. Sinking should not be started till the steining has been cured far at least 48 hours. No. ix) The sinking operations should be carried on with great caution whenever cutting edge approaches the junction of different types of strata. are situated i. in case of well situated in the river bed. Arrangements have therefore to be made for dumping the dredged material on the river current side. This causes adverse effect and the well tends to tilt towards the side on which the river current is flowing. kentledge. dewatering. To control this boting chart should be consulted regularly. x) When the well curb approaches a hard strata which dips at a considerable angle the well may have a tendency to lean when being sunk.

the minimum spacing between them should not be less than 1m. • • • iii) It should accommodate the base of the sub-structure and not cause under obstruction to the flow of water. The overall size should be sufficient to transmit the loads to the soils and It should allow for the permissible tilt and shift of the well. 24 . When a group or groups of wells are sunk. should be examined individually. The steining thickness should be sufficient to transmit the load and also provide necessary weight for sinking and adequate strength against forces acting on the steining both during sinking and services.1 a) Well Design and Soil Parameters Preliminary Design Shape and size of the well i) ii) • • The outer sides of the wells should be preferably be vertical.0 8. b) Forces Acting on the Well The following forces which act on the well should be first calculated: i) Dead load of the bridge. change in span etc. such as boulders or far leveling the rock layer for square seating of wells. If greater tilts and shifts occur their effects on bearing pressure on soil steining stress. In special cases small offset may be allowed. d) Sinking of well by resorting to blasting – Blasting may be employed with prior approval of competent authority to help sinking of well for breaking obstacles.100 and shift of D/40 subject to a minimum of 150mm shall be taken into account in the design of well foundation (D is the width or diameter of well). blasting may be resorted to only when other methods are found ineffective. 8. The horizontal cross section should satisfy the following requirements: The dredge holes should be large enough to permit dredging.

1 Self weight of the wells Live load Longitudinal forces Temperature forces Water forces Wind load Seismic force Buoyancy effect Earth pressure Skin friction Design and Analysis Of Well Foundation By Sub-Structures Code: Design The design of well foundations shall be carried out for either of the following two situations: i) Wells surrounded by non-cohesive soils. 25 . a) Wells resting on non-cohesive soils For wells resting on non-cohesive soils like sand and surrounded by the same soil below a maximum scour level.2. non–cohesive soil or rock. but to determine the actual factor of safety against failure.ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) 8. the design of foundations shall be checked by both Elastic Theory and Ultimate Soil Resistance Methods as given below which are based on IRC:45-1972 ‘Recommendations for Estimating the Resistance of Soil below the maximum scour level in the design of Well Foundation of Bridges. Cohesive soil. below maximum scour level and resting on non-cohesive soils.2 8. the ultimate soil resistance is computed. ii) Wells surrounded by cohesive soils or mixed strata below maximum scour level and resting on any strata viz.’ Elastic Theory Method gives the soil pressure at the side and the base under design load.

total applied external moment about the base of well. Where. 26 . H and M under combination of normal loads without wind and seismic loads assuming the minimum grip length below maximum scour level. W = total downward load acting at the base of well. i) Elastic Theory Step 1: Determine the values of W. The resistance of soil surrounding the well foundation shall be checked : i) for calculation of base pressures by the elastic theory with the use of subgrade moduli . H M = = external horizontal force acting on the well at scour level.The provisions given below shall not apply if the depth of embedment is less than 0. including those due to tilts and shifts. Iv = moment of inertia of the projected area in elevation of the soil mass LD 3 offering resistance = 12 where.G. including the self weight of well. and ii) by computing the ultimate soil resistance with appropriate factor of safety.5 times the width of foundation in the direction of lateral forces. Step 2 : Compute IB and IV and I Where. I = IB + mIv (1+2µ’ α) IB = moment of inertia of base about the axis normal to direction of horizontal forces passing through its C.

µ’ = Coefficient of friction between sides and the soil = tan δ.D Step 3 : Ensure the following : H> M (1+ µ µ’) . where δ is the angle of wall friction between well and soil. Step 4 : Check the elastic state 27 . It shall be taken as tan φ φ = angle of internal friction of soil. a suitable shape factor shall be based on experimental results : D = depth of well below scour level m= KH / K : Ratio of horizontal to vertical coefficient of subgrade reaction at base. the shape factor shall be unity & where the forces are inclined to the principal axis.9. Note: The value of shape factor for circular wells shall be taken as 0. In the absence of values for KH and K determined by field tests m shall generally be assumed as unity.µ W r and H < M/r (1. For square or rectangular wells where the resultant horizontal force acts parallel to a principal axis.µ µ’) + µ W where. r = (D/2) (I / m Iv ) µ = coefficient of friction between the base and the soil.L = projected width of the soil mass offering resistance multiplied by appropriate value of shape factor. π . α = B for rectangular well 2D = diameter for circular well.

γ = density of the soil (submerged density to be taken when under water or below water table) Kp & KA = passive and active pressure coefficients to be calculated using Coulomb’s theory. base pressure respectively. assuming ‘δ’ the angle of wall friction between well and soil equal to 2/3 φ but limited to a value of 22-1/20. Step 5 : Calculate σ1 W − μ ' P MB }= ± A 2I σ2 where. find out the grip required by putting the limiting value mM/ I = γ (Kp – KA) Where. = M/r = horizontal soil reaction. no tension Step 6 : Check σ2 not smaller than σ1 not greater than allowable bearing capacity of soil.mM/I not greater than γ (Kp – KA) If mM/ I is > γ (Kp – KA).e. = width of the base of well in the direction of forces and moments. A B P P = area of the base of well. 0 i. Step 8 : Repeat the same steps for combination with wind and with seismic case separately. 4 and 6 or all do not satisfy. and min. 28 . redesign the well accordingly. Step 7 : If any of the conditions in Steps 3. σ1 & σ2 = max.

6 is to be multiplied for wells with circular base.41 1. Ms = 0. φ = angle of internal fricture of soil. including the self weight of well.0 0.5 0.0 0.56 2. A = area of the base of well σu = ultimate bearing capacity of the soil below the base of well.5 0. Step 2 : Calculate the base resisting moment Mb at the plane of rotation and side resisting moment Ms by the following formulae : Mb = QWB tan φ B = width in case of square and rectangular wells parallel to direction of forces and diameter for circular wells.10 γ D3 ( KP – KA) L Where. enhanced by a suitable load factor given vide Step 5.5 0. A shape factor of 0.5 2.45 1.ii) Ultimate resistance method Step 1: Check that W/A not greater than σu/2 W = total downward load acting at the base of well. Ms = Side resisting moment 29 .64 NOTE: The values of Q for intermediate D/B values in the above range may be linearly interpolated. TABLE -1 D/B Q 0. Q = a constant as given in Table 1 below for square or rectangular base.

1. Step 3 : Calculate the resisting moment due to friction at front and back faces (Mf) about the plane of rotation by following formulae : (i) For rectangular well Mf = 0..9 diameter to account for the shape.B. . KP .11γ ( KP – KA) B2. located at 0. .D2 Sin δ (ii) for circular well Mf = 0. taking appropriate load factors as per combinations given below : 1..1 D +1.2D above the base. scour level. . (1) (2) (3) (4) 1..7 (Mb + Ms + Mf) Step 5 : Check Mt not less than M Where.1 D – B + 1.. viz.1 D – B +1. KA = passive and active pressure coefficient to be calculated using coulomb’s Theory assuming “δ” angle of wall friction between well and soil equal to 2/3 φ but limited to a value of 22-1/2°...6 L 1. In case of circular wells.4 (L + Wc +EP ) . D = depths of grip below max..1 D .γ = density of soil (submerged density to be taken for soils under water or below water table) L = projected width of the soil mass offering resistance. 30 . . M = Total applied external moment about the plane of rotation.18 γ ( KP – KA) L.4 (Wc +EP + W of S) ..D2 Sin δ Step 4: The total resistance moment Mt about the plane of rotation shall be Mt = 0. It shall be 0.

b) Wells resting on cohesive soils For wells founded in clayey strata and surrounded by clay below max. In wells through clayey strata. Revised in 1985 are not applicable for the above Appendix-V.2 Settlement of Well Foundation: i) The settlement of well foundation may be the result of one or more of the following cases: • • Static loading. if any. D = Dead load. L = Live load including tractive/braking etc. Where. Deterioration of the foundation structure.. Note : Notation. the passive earth pressure shall be worked out by C & φ parameters of the soil as obtained from UU (unconsolidated undrained) test and for stability against overturning. redesign the well. shall also be considered about the plane of rotation. the skin friction will not be available during the whole life of the structure.3).9. only 50% of the passive earth pressure will be assumed to be Mobilized (Refer para 6.25 (L + Wc +EP + W or S) ….1 D – B + 1. 31 .2. symbols given in the clause 3. Step 6 : If the conditions in steps 1 and 5 are not satisfied.1. scour level. B = Buoyancy Wc = Water current force Ep = Earth pressure W = Wind force S = Seismic force (5) Note : Moment due to shift and tilt of wells and piers and direct loads. 8.0 of Bridge Substructure & Foundation Code. hence support from skin friction should not be relied upon.

Elastic deformation or immediate settlement of the surrounding soil and soil below the foundation structure .• • ii) Mining subsidence. When the static load is not excessive. Primary consolidation settlement of the surrounding soil. if the estimated settlements exceed the allowable limits. induce secondary stresses in the structure. Induced stresses on soil layers due to imposed loads can be estimated. the resulting settlement may be due to the following : • • • • • • • iii) Elastic compression of the foundation structure. irrespective of the amount of settlement. and Vibration subsidence due to underground erosion and other causes. Such non-uniform settlements Depending upon the permissible extent of these secondary stresses. settlement is generally non-uniform. it will not theoretically suffer damage. iv) • • • The following assumptions are made in settlement analysis : The total stresses induced in the soil by the construction of the structure are not changed by the settlement. Slip of the foundation structure relative to the soil. Catastrophic settlement may occur if the static load is excessive. and The load transmitted by the structure to the foundation is static and vertical. 32 . the foundation dimensions or the design shall be suitably modified. Alternatively. If a structure settles uniformly. and Secondary compression of the surrounding soil and soil below the foundation structure. the settlements have to be limited. In practice. Creep of the foundation structure under the constant axial load. Primary consolidation settlement of the soil below the foundation structure.

the total settlement will be computed as per the provisions of clause 6. procedures provided in IS:8009 Part I and Part II –“Code of Practice for Calculation of Settlement of Foundations”.2.4.3. Such methods are not also available for computation of settlement due to the slip of foundation structure with reference to the surrounding soils and. Wells Founded In Cohesive Soil : When wells are founded in cohesive soil. 33 . catastrophic settlements are not expected. therefore. the settlement computations at best estimate the most probable magnitude of settlement. in the present state of knowledge. Wells Founded In Cohesionless Soil : For wells constructed in cohesionless soils. therefore. In such cases. be estimated. The settlements in clay occur over a long period and time rate of settlement will be computed as per the provisions of clause 6. the settlement due to dead load of sub-structure will take place by the time the construction is completed and the necessary adjustment in the final level can be made before erection of the girder. shall be followed. not covered. mining and other causes cannot. Settlement due to deterioration of foundations.4. v) It is presumed that the load on the foundation will be limited to a safe bearing capacity and. • Estimation Of Immediate And Primary Consolidation Settlements For computation of immediate settlement and primary consolidation settlement.1). settlement shall be evaluated only for the dead load of the super-structure. • Determination of bearing capacity Bearing capacity for foundations in cohesive strata will be determined in the similar manner as determined in case of foundations in non-cohesive soils (para 6.3 of Substructure Code.In the present state of knowledge.

p > (pc-po)].e.I) based on Terzaghi's One Dimensional Consolidation Theory. In practice.Log10 o Ps = po 1 + e0 Where. then Ps = (b) Cc p E log 10 c 1 + e0 po If the load increment is smaller than pc-po [ i. p < (pc-po)]. the corresponding equation will be : ( p + Δp ) Cc E. Ps = Secondary settlement cc = Compression index eo = Initial void ratio Pc= Pre-consolidation pressure Po = Initial effective pressure E = Thickness of clay layer p = Pressure increment • Time Rate of Settlement The Time Rate of Settlement will be computed in accordance with the provisions of IS:8009 (Pt.• Estimation of secondary consolidation settlement may be computed as under: The Secondary consolidation settlement may be computed as under: (a) If the load increment is more than (pc-po) [i.e. Following reasons partly explain the faster rates : 34 . the consolidation settlements take place much faster than those predicted from Terzaghi’s Consolidation Theory.

Settlement will be computed for the probable/actual sequence of loading and correction for construction period will be allowed as per the provisions of IS:8009 (Pt.e.2. Appendix D. Appendix B). Therefore. the earth pressure may be calculated using Bell’s equation obtained from Mohr’s failure stress circle. Pa = r z ka – 2 c√k where Z = 2c τ ka 35 . Calculation of lateral earth pressure for soils with cohesion It is seen that in many case of back fill of soil having c and Φ. clause 8. and Horizontal permeabilities are usually much higher than the vertical. the rate of settlement should be corrected by factor of three to five times faster. This is totally incorrect. lateral release of excess pore pressure. Note: 1.3. Actual rates of settlements in the area for similar cases will be of great value for the accuracy of prediction for rate of settlement. In such cases. only Φ is considered and active earth pressure coefficient for Rankine’s formula is calculated accordingly.I).i) ii) iii) Three dimensional consolidation i. due care will be taken to include the pressure increment due to earth fill behind abutment also with the help of appropriate monograms (IS:8009-Pt. clause 10. Principal shear stresses σ 1 and σ 2 will be: σ 1 = σ 2 tan 2 (45 + Φ/2) + 2c tan (45 + Φ/2) σ 3 = σ 1 tan 2 (45 + Φ/2) + 2c tan (45 + Φ/2) Using Coulumb’s and Rankine’s k factors to calculate Earth pressures at depth Z. Release of hydrostatic pressure outside the footing area. While computing pressure increment below abutments. 2.I.

Resultant R and its location y can be calculated by either neglecting tension zone or altering pressure diagram for overall depth of soil. 1 . 36 . Density of soil Cohesion of soil generally obtained from unconfined comprehensive test. the lateral pressure obtained is generally higher and is considered more conservative. By neglecting tension crack (Z). (i) R = Pa(H-Z)/2 at y = (H-Z)/3 above base Or (ii) R = PaH/2 at y = H/3 above base.sin φ 1 + sinφ Where ka = coefficient of active earth pressure for Rankine = Φ R C = = = Angle of shearing resistance in degrees.

India Railway – Wells and Caissons. M. Allahabad.IRS Code of Practice Plain. 4.K. Lucknow226 011. 1 & 2 on Key Design Parameters for Rail Bridges dated 06. 335. Member Engineering. Guwahati. Lucknow. Technical paper No. RDSO. 1998. Vijay Singh. Chief Engineer. 6. Singh.L. Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete for General Bridge Construction.. 29th. National Seminar on Bridge Engineering in North East. Nem Chand & Bros. Maligaon. Concrete Bridge Code. Roorkee (U. Manual on the design and construction of well and pile foundation (1985). IRC:78-2000. Ganga Bridge at Mokameh. Standard specifications and Code of practice for road bridges. 3. 5. Lucknow. Foundation and Substructure (Second Revision). Shahjahan Road. Research Designs and Standards Organisation. River training and control for bridges.. Section-VII. Jaruhar.). North Central Railway. L.References: 1.110 002.2005. RDSO.226011. IRS Code of Practice for the design of Sub-structures and Foundations of Bridges. BE (Civil). Chief Engineer.Technical Instruction No. RDSO. 7.110 011.Salient Design feature of Jogighopa Bridge. Ministry of Railway. 8. Sethi.R. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. IRSE (Retd. R. IRSE. H. 1981.06. 9. 2.E. CE.). 10.P. New Delhi. New Delhi. ------- 37 .I. Jamnagar House. IS-456:2000.Plain and Reinforces Concrete Code of Practice (Fourth Revision) Bureau of Indian Standards. The India Road Congress. Manak Bhawan.31st Oct. Lucknow.

Appendix-A 38 .

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