Information System is interaction of Man and Machine. CBIS:CBIS:- Computer based information system categories as. In today world of ever increasing complexities of business organization, in order to service and grow, must have properly planned.

Today information system play three vital role for business organization namely:   

Support the business processes and operation of an organization. Support of decision making by employees and managers of an organization. Support the strategies of an organization for competitive advantage.

MIS Definition: Management information Definition:
system is a system consisting of people, machines, procedures, databases and data models, as its elements.   

The MIS is defined as a system which provides information support for decision making in the organization. The MIS is defined as a computer based information system. The MIS defined as a system based on the database of the organization evolved for the purpose of providing information to the people in the organization.

Decision making concept: Decision making :
has been taken from the word µdecide¶ ,Which is a Latin word meaning to µcutoff¶ or to come to conclusion.    

A decision maker come to conclusion about given situation. A decision represents a course of behavior selected from the number of( more then one) possible alternatives. The decision should not be mistaken here as an end in itself, rather it is regarded as a means for action. Decision are not static and have to responsive to varying situations.

Model of decision making: Decision ± making:
making, in organization, is regard as a rational process. The model comprises of three major phase  Intelligence: Intelligence: In this phase, the decisiondecisionmaker scan the environment and identified the problem or opportunity. A production manager review the daily scrap report to check for problem relating to equality control. Intelligence phase of the decision making process involves: (a) Problem searching (b) Problem formulation

the difference between something that is expected and reality Desired/Expected ±Actual/ Reality=Difference (problem)

Problem searching: Problem is defined as 

We have take the example of the sales manager who has set a sales target of Rs 5 Lakh in one particular month (standard or a model), and he could achieve only Rs 4 Lakh worth of sale for that particular month(Reality). Thus the difference between a standard/ model and reality, i.e. of Rs one Lakh is a problem which worries the manager.

Problem Formulation   

When the problem is defined, there is always a risk of solving the wrong problem. It is very important that the problem is wellwellunderstood and clearly stated. In problem formulation, establishing relations with some problem solved earlier or analogy proves quite useful.


Design Phase: Phase:
The decision-maker identifies alternative courses of decisionaction to solve problem. Developing alternatives is creative activity which can be enhanced by various aids such as brain-storming, checklist, analogies etc. brain- 

Choice phase:
One of the alternatives developed in design phase is selected and is called decision. For example The decision maker in the choice phase may reject all alternative and return to the design phase for developing more alternatives.

Type of decisions: They also affect the design of information system support for decision activities. 

Purpose of decision making: Robert B.
Anthony(1965) has differentiated organizational decision into three category Strategic Planning decisions are those decision in which the decision-maker develops objectives and allocates resources to achieve these objectives. Management control decisions are taken by management control level (middle level) mangers and deal with the use of resources in the organization. Operation control decisions deal with the day to day problem that affect the operation of the organization. For example, production scheduling decision.   

Level of programmability: Simon(1965) on the
basis of the level of the programmability of decision, proposed two types of decision: Programmed and non programmed, also known as structured and unstructured decisions 

Programmed/Structured Decisions Programmed or
structured decisions are those decision, which are well defined and some specified procedure. More modern techniques for making such decision involve operations research (OR), Mathematical analysis etc. 

Non- programmed/ unstructured decisions: decisions
which are not well defined and have no pre-specified procedure or decision rule are known as unstructured or non programmed decisions. Unstructured decisions tend to solved through judgment. Modern approaches to such decisions include special data analysis on computers.

Structure of MIS
Organization and Management Technique of Management Function of Management 1. Behavioral Science Technique 2. Quantitative Technique 3. Decision Technique 4. Experience Rule






Man Power

Resource Flows Money Material

M/c Facilities


Structure of MIS:
Structure of MIS is a difficult concept to understand because there is no standard or universally accepted framework for describing management information system. For example , A car may be perceived in a number of different way; by describe the physical characteristics, i.e. its shapes, colour, seating capacity, door etc. MIS structure be described by following a variety of different approaches: 

Physical components, Information system processing functions, Decision support Levels of management activities Organizational functions

MIS Structure Based on Physical components:
Structure of MIS may be understood by looking at the physical components of the information system in an organization.  Hardware: Hardware refers the physical data Hardware: processing equipment and peripheral devices.  Software: software is broad term given to the Software: instruction or program that direct the operation of the hardware.  Database: the data base consist of all data Database: utilized by application software.  Input and output: various physical input and output: output from the information system, existing in the form like printout, report etc.

Information system processing functions:
Information system structure can also be understood in term of its processing functions. The main processing functions of information system are described below: 

To Process Transactions: Information systems process Transactions:
transaction may be defined as an activity taking place in an organization. 

To Maintain Master files: Information systems create and
maintain master files in the organisation. A master file stores the historical data about the organizational. 

To Produce Reports: Reports are significant products of an
information system. Many reports are produces on a regular basis, which are called scheduled reports. reports on a 

To Process Interactive Support Applications

Decision Support: Decision vary with respect to the
structure that can be provided for making them. A highly structured decision can be pre-planned. A structured predecision, because of its well defined nature can be said to be programmable. 

Level of management activities The structure of an activities:
information system can be categorized in terms of level of the management activities. strategic planning deals with long-range considerations. The decisions include the choice of business directions, market strategy, product etc. Management control level includes acquisition and organization of resource, structuring of work and training of personnel. Operational control is related to short-term decision for current operations. Pricing, ,inventory level etc.   

Organizational functions: The structure of 

management information system can also be described in Activities terms of the organizational functions.
Organizational functions production

personnel MIS etc.

Strategic planning

Management control

Operational control Transaction processing

Information: Definition
The word µinformation¶ is used commonly in in our day to day working. ´Information is necessary and vital input in any decisiondecision- making process in an organization´. Information in its unprocessed form is called data, which generated as a by product of transaction taking place in the organization.




TYPE OF INFORMATION: information could
be classified on the basis of the purpose for which it is utilized, into main three categories Strategic information: This relates to long-term planning
policies of the organization as a whole. For example: information pertaining to new technologies, new products etc.  

Tactical Information: Information in this category is used in
short-term planning and of use at management control level. For example, for sale analyses and forecasts, production resource requirements, annual financial statement etc. 

Operational Information: Operational information applies to
short periods which may vary from an hour to a few days. For Examples of operational information may include current stockin-hand, work in progress level, outstanding order from customers etc.

Information presentation:
Presentation of the information is an art. The data may be collected in the best possible manner and processed and processed analytically, brining lot of value in the information. Key of the Focus of Example summarization information
Management position Management functions Levels in the organization selective on condition Responsibility General Manage, Divisional head Marketing, Materials Production top, Middle Operations. Only those products where sale is below the budget.

Performance, Goals, Targets Relevance to the level Exceptions

Methods to Avoid Misuse of Information
Delay Delivery of information


Sales report to the sales representative Sales information to operations management, sales versus target for the middle management. The price. the cost of information, design information

A Possibility of immediate action or decision is reduced. Provide only that Change in the format information which may be needed, and content of the hence the misuse is report. averted. Filtering of the information of confidential and sensitive nature The Misuse of information for achieving the undesirable goals

Information Quality:
Quality of information refers to its fitness for use, or its reliability. Some of the attribute of information, which influence the quality of information are discussed as follows 

Timeliness: Timeliness mean that information must reach the
recipients within the prescribed timeframe. Timely information does not mean in time information only rather it means timely as well as up-to-date information. up-to- 

Accuracy: Accuracy is another key-attribute of management keyinformation. Accuracy means more than just one plus one equal two. MIS supplies accurate information, the confidence of the managers will be strengthened and as a result, system implementation will be success. 

Completeness: Completeness The information which is provided to a
manager must be complete and should meet all his needs. Incomplete information may result in wrong decision and thus may prove costly to the organization.

Decision Support systems These system are help where
the decision maker calls for complex manipulation of these data and use of several method to reach an acceptable solution using different analysis approach. These system have become necessary for today¶s manager because of following reasons: 

Fast computation: a decision maker can maker can perform
large number of computation very quickly.

Enhanced productivity: support systems can enhance the productivity:
productivity of support staff and also enable the group members to discuss the problems among themselves at a distance. 

Data Transmission: Some time the data, which may be
stored different locations, may be required to be transmitted quickly from distant location. 

Better Decisions: Computer support systems can help a
decisiondecision-maker in arriving at a better decision.

Attribute of decision support system 

Flexibility: Flexibility: The system are flexible so that any semisemistructured or unstructured decision making situation can be tackled with ease and speed.


Simple Models: The only change is that a different
set of information is sought for the use of different models. 

Database: The decision support system needs
database. The system calls for several inputs from database for decision making.

Characteristics and capability of DSS:
Given below are the major DSS characteristics and capabilities:   



DSS provide support for decision-maker mainly in semidecisionsemiunstructured and unstructured situation by brining together human judgment comprised information. Support is provided for various managerial levels, ranging from top executives to line managers. Support is provide to individual as well as to groups. DSS provide support to several interdependent or sequential decision. DSS support all phase of the decision-making process. decisionDSS support a variety of decision-making processes and styles. decisionDSS are flexible and so user can add, delete or rearrange basic element. The decision-maker has complete control over all steps of the decisiondecisiondecision-making in solving a problem.

The Ideal Characteristic and Capabilities of DSS
1 14 Integration Web Connection Semi-structured programs Managers at Different Levels Group and Individuals 13 Data Access Interdependent or Sequential decision DSS Support Intelligence Design 5 2




Modeling and Analysis Ease of construction by End Uses Humans Control the Machine Effectiveness not Efficiency



Support Variety of 6 Decision styles and processes Interactive Ease of Use 8 Adaptability and Flexibility 7


Type of decision support system

Input Source System
(a) (b)

Hardware User
PC Servers and Clients Clerk, Assistants Operations Managers

Database Conventional

Query System

2. Data Analysis

Database and Other files

Package of Mainframe or server system Analysis programmes. Transaction Processing System Mainframe,Mi ni,Super Mini, Mainframe, sever. Mainframe ,Mini

3.Informatio nAnalysis

Processed Data Files.

Middle Level Manager Middle and Top Management Middle and Top Management

4.Accounting Transactions Master Files 5.Model Based External Data Control

Business Model

Executive support system
Executive support system (ESS) is an extension of the management information system, which is a special kind of DSS and provides critical information from various inter and intra-sources in easy to use display. intraESS is a comprehensive information system which includes various type of decisiondecisionsupport system, but it is more specific and personspersons-oriented.

Business Expert systems:
Business expert system, which are based on artificial intelligence (AI), are advanced information system. Artificial intelligence may be referred to as the capability that makes commputers display intelligent, human like behavior. For example problem solving are such acts of intelligence. A business expert system (BES) is knowledgeknowledge-based information system that uses its knowledge about a specific, complex application area to act as an expert. The main advantage of using expert system  

The knowledge/capabilities of many expert can be used to build a single expert system. DecisionDecision-making in critical times can be more reliable Multiple hypotheses can be considered simultaneously

The main component of an expert system
Knowledge base  Inference engine  User inference Knowledge base contains the facts about the specific expert area. Inference engine contains the logic of reaching an inference from the stored data. Expert system may be developed by suiting either programming language such as c &c++ by using expert system packages. 

Main components of expert system

Rules, Facts


Knowledge Base

Inference Engine

User Interface

Knowledge Management Systems
Knowledge management system are information systems that are knowledge based and, thus, support the creation, organization and dissemination of business knowledge to managers. For example Intranet access to the best practices and solution various business problems. They are developed to provided quick feedback to knowledge workers, encourage behavior change by employees and improve business performance

Top Management

Decision Supporting System Management information System

Middle Management First Line Management Clerical Person


Transaction Processing System

Office automation system

OAS: OAS:-Relates to Clerical Persons, Max work is done in
this system.
TPS:- Knows as first Line Management.  MIS:- Middle Management  DSS:- Top Management An Information System can be Simply Defined as the Interaction of Man and Machine Under Man s Control Which Gather data and Information to its user. To accomplish this data must be evaluated analyzed and processed to produce meaningful and useful information on which management can take correct decision for future growth of the organization. Information system plays very important role in modern economy. There information use the opportunity and Problem well advance on process data and facts are simple data but not the information. An information system is the basic for interaction between the user and analyst also. It provides introduction instruction and feed back also. It also determined the nature of relationship among decision makers. Infect it may be viewed as a decision centre for the management at different labels from the basic information system now a day it may defined as set of device ,procedures and operating system around which the meaningful information may be created. S.A. developed several different type of information system to meet a variety of business needs. These information system are called C.B.I.S (Computer based information system) 

CBIS may consist the following DSS, MIS,TPS,OAS Information systems hierarchy of CBIS as follows

CBIS in an organization context 

Planning controlling / Decision making

Decision making


DATA Sales Receipts bills etc





Clerical Task

OAS: OAS:-OAS is most rapidity expanding CBIS.
They are being used in most of the organization with expectation that the will increased the efficiency and productivity of office workers. OAS consist of installation of word processing system to facilitate the typing work, storing, editing and printing of text materials . OAS may also consist the e-mail services that is to communication in eelectronic mode in the single way. OAS is a multifunction computer based system that allows office activities to be perform in electronic mode.

TPS: TPS:- It refers to the traditional application of computer like
invoicing , billing, order, entry, inventory etc. A transaction is suppose to be completed if all the relative data bases , that are effected by this transaction are updated and all the updation are completed.

MIS:MIS:-MIS may be describe as an information in the form of
standard reports and displays to managers. MIS is a broad class of information system that are designed to provide information system that are design to provide- information needed for provideeffective design making by managers, so the term MIS may be used in many organization as the title of their computer services. MIS is design to provide accurate timely and relevant information needed for effecting design making by managers. In other words MIS is a general purpose integrated system that monitor and control the internal operation of an organization. MIS provides vital information to middle managers to take the tactical design for the daily operations as well as for the long rang goal of the company. The input to the MIS comes from TPS and may come from the other source also( different changes in environment).

The out of MIS is in two forms
1. summary reports 2. Special reports. A summary report accumulates data from several transaction and presents the result in compact form. For Ex. A bank manger may get a summary report listing the total money deposited and withdraw made on the previous day. A special report is a report that outline any deviator from expected results. The primary purpose of these special report is to draw the attention to any significance difference between actual performance ad expect performance.
Summery report

Transaction Data


MIS Special report

There are three major difference between TPS and MIS.

1. The primary goal of T.P.S is to record and process transaction that takes, that takes place in the company while the primary goal of MIS is to produce summary and special report used in tactical design making.

2. Output of TPS becomes the input to the MIS although TPS is not only the one source for the MIS.

3. The TPS helps managers day to day operation, while the MIS help managers to make tactical design over a large period of time such as year or six month

DSS (Decision Supporting system):system):DSS are interactive computer based information system that use designing modules and specialized data bases to assist the designing making process of managerial ad users.

A DSS provides analytics modeling data retrieval and information presentation capabilities that allow managers to generate the information that they need to take decisions.








Data and information

Formatting summarizing displaying

Document Graphics multimedia

Clerical workers

Fax, multimedia, video conferencing


Transaction related data

Procedures and rules

Summary of transaction

Low level Managers

Monthly reports, monthly billing


Output from TPS and external

Measures and monitors For operations performance

Summary reports special reports

Middle Managers

Planning reports for month , Year


Internal ad External data and models Knowledge of experience

Interaction with Reporting


Top Managers

Investment Plant Experience

MIS and Decision Making:Making:
Despite the fact that decision making can be treated as a central aspect of managing, the literature and teaching surrounding decision making have generally focused on the movement of decision rather than on the whole lengthy complex processes of defining and exploring the many alternative in a decision that precedes the final act of deciding. The system analyst ad for the Managers who participate in an utilize the M.I.S to assist in the decision making process, the step problem solving and system design are extremely important. The ultimate purpose of the MIS is to make decision at all level based upon the information flow. The decision making through MIS improves the ability of managers. The decision are of two types 1. Program decision 2. Non program decision

Program decision:decision:Program decision are if they are repeated and routine, o add-hoc. Decisions are addtreated I new situation at every time it arises. The Ex of program decision are available in almost I all organization. The most familiars are the pay accordance with the union agreement, company policy regulation, pricing orders etc.

Non programs:programs:

Decision which are non program are unstructured may be new, may be complex or may be involve major commitments. the Ex of o program decision are advertisement budgets, new product decision ,bound member selection etc.

General business planning:- The Ist step to MIS planning is planning:
related to general business planning no. MIS department can be decide that what they should do or how they should do without the ground work provided by the objectives and plan of the company.

M.I.S objectives are derived from the company¶s objectives. Each company objectives should be reflected In MIS objectives. The MIS objective calla for a supporting contribution to need the company goal. Let us take a Example, Suppose a company wants to increase its market share I market segment from 10 to 14 percent in the ext year. In this example a great deal of information will l be required. 1. How the market currently allocated. 2. What product did offer to get and hold its share of the market 3. What type of customers does each of these product appeal.

MIS objectives:-

MIS Planning:-The following will be key step in the MIS Planning. Planning:
1. The problem statement:- The problem statement must be made clear to statement: those who will design and implement the MIS. The problem statement will first determine the user need I specific terms. The statement of the problem may be give to a computer specialist, specialist for analysis (Expert Analysis) etc.

2.Input: 2.Input:- From where the input will come and how human and machine will interacts.

3. How:- How means what process to be used. How:

4.Output: 4.Output:- The result from the system but they should be detailed.

5.Budget:- Financial assistance required by MIS planner. 5.Budget:

6.schedule:- A time table for performing these tasks. 6.schedule:

MIS Planning Cycle:- M.I.S is a cycle Cycle:process the cycle is as follows

General needs + Objectives

Specific needs +Objectives

High level Planning

Low level Planning

Very Refine Plan

We will develop a MIS according to very refined plan. MIS Planning is iterative process. The MIS plan will be cycle considering general needs ad objectives then high level plan as well as the project will a head lower level plan and finding a very refined plan will be available. So this activity is cyclic.

What Item to be kept I Planning of the MIS:The following item to be kept in planning of the MIS  




A summary statement of the problem being solved by project is required. The break down of structure (work) to be done. A list of dependent outside group, with target dates (External Factors). The list of outside groups that depend on this project. The skill needed to complete this project. The resources needed to complete this project must be identified . A Budget which must be the part of plan. A Statement of reporting and tracing system. A Schedule of activities A Backup Plan may be the part of a plan.

WBS (Work Break Down Structure)
The following Work Down Structure System to Sub-System SubSubSub-System to task Task to sub-task subsubsub-task to work package WBS is the structure which consists of project management to work which starts with a total and result desired

MPS(Master Plan Schedule/Master Programe Schedule)
This is a time table for each activity. It may be consist of time for the work package The master plan schedule provides the calendar dates for each major tasks as well as minor tasks, for a small MIS Project this may be a very small chart, consist of date and allotted time. If a big MIS Project is there that may be a network structure.

Budgeting Budgeting is the most important for any project development, the two things must be made clear about the budgeting the project (1) Resources:- From where the budget will be available Resources:(2) Cost of Individual item:- (A) Reporting and Controlling:- The item:Controlling:basic for reporting and controlling must be on the basic P\C\T P\ (Performance, Cost, and Time). These all three elements must reported in such way that they provides the information together, which makes reporting useful.

MIS Development

Management Needs +Objectives

System Requirement and Objectives


Conceptual design

Development Schedule

Development Cost



Detailed Design

If we securitizes this picture conceptual Design is the centre point in the MIS development. Once the conceptual design has been made, The answer of question that how successful The MIS project will be can be answered. The most important aspect is that what are the key task performed in the conceptual design. 1. Define the problem in more detail. 2. Refining the management objectives to set system objectives 3.Estabilishing system constraints. 4. Determining information needs and sources. 5. Document the system conceptual design.

Establishing system constraints
Constraints provides the designer to stipulate the condition under which objectives may be obtained and to consider the limitations that restrict the design. Although constraints may be viewed as a negative limitation on system design but there is a positive benefit as well as but It is more useful. Constraints may be classified either internal or external.

External Constraints Customer Customer Government

Constraints on system Design

Top Management Support Internal Constraints

Objectives and Policy

Man Power

Top Cost and Management Resources Support

Top Management Support

Internal constraints
Internal constraints are those constraint which are in the origination. The following are the internal constraints.

1.Top Management Support 1.Top
A good environment for information system must be setup and there is a one essential things is the approval and support of the top management. These constraints definitely influences the kind of the system which will be used by the managers.

2. objective and policy The organizational and policy The
organizational and policy considuration frequently set limit on the objectives and modify the aapproach to design a system. The structure of the organization and managers occupying the various positions influences the information flow and the use of system output. The organization polices frequently define and limits the approach to system design. The policy may be about the service, R & D( Research and Development) marketing, finance, personal etc.

The personal needs and the personal and personal availability is a major limiting factor in both the design and utilization of the information system. Computer and system skill is most critical. The automation , the computer system and system design after change the people, responsibilities and their facilities, organization changes etc.

3. Man Power

4. Cost and resources

cost a major resource limitation. The cost to achieve the objectives should be compared with the benefits to be desired. The computer capacity and other facilities relating to operation of data processing should be utilized in an optimum way.

5. Acceptance

acceptance is a limitation to the designer itself. He\She He\ always be aware about the success of the new system. So it is easily accepted.

6. Self Imposed

The self imposed restrictions are those which are placed on the design by designer itself. These limitation may also be imposed by the manager to get the objectives.

External Constraints
External constraints are those constraints which are outside of the organization. There are three possibilities from where the external constraints may apply on the designer during the designing of the information system. (1) customer The most important external constraints is the customer. The interface of the customer to system must be in the mind of the designer. It¶s demand, It¶s acceptance to the output must be considered. (2) Govt. and legal A variety of limitation and constraints are always imposed by the government. They must be consider always. (3) Other The other may consist of social environment constraint. They may be considered also. (4) Determined information needs A clear statement of information need is fundamental and necessary for a good system design. There are several companies which spend a lot of money on H/W and S/W for the existing system and makes a big databank without knowing the real information need of management.

Project management of detailed system design or Project Management of M.I.S
Once the project manager and the project personal have been designated the two important aspect of project management comes ie project planning and project control. The amount of efforts in each step will depend on the MIS project.

Project Planning
The following step will be the part of project planning. 1. Established the project objectives. 2. Define the project task. 3. Plan the logical development of sequential and concurrent task activities. 4.Schedule the work as required by the management 5. Estimate labor, equipment devices and other cost of the project. 6. Established a budget for the project by allocating funds to each task. 7. Planned the staffing of the project organization over its life.

Project control
The following step may be considered for project control. 1. Determined whether project objectives are being meet as the project progresses. 2. Maintain a control over the schedule. So required task may be completed within the allocated time. 3.Evaluate expenditure of fund in terms of work progress. 5. Evaluate cost, time and work performance as whole.

Define the subsystem
The process is started by defining the subsystem with two principal block of information. 1. the conceptual design. 2. The dominant and trade of criteria. Although the conceptual design requires some assumptions concerning the subsystem. It is necessary new to review these subsystem and redefine them. Based upon the conceptual design investigation of detailed activity of each major of activity must be undertaken. The subsystem may consist simply of the activities corresponding to a major activity. The activities may be transferred from one group to another to make the network of the subsystem.

Information for Defining the subsystem
The objective of the design is to find a set of sub system that satisfies the performance requirement specified by conceptual design. The such information consist of 1. Dominant and tradeoff criteria for the operation of MIS as a whole system. 2.Available resources. 3. Required activates. 4.Necesary controlled position in the system 5.Management decision points. 6. specific output required by system.

Obtaining information
The designer utilizes four major source for the design of MIS. 1. Task Force Meeting 2. Personal Interview. 3. Observation of operation and communication. 4. There may be another source in term of external and internal documents.

1.Task 1.Task Force Meeting
For the design of large system, The task meeting are very important. The task force for the major activities should consist of the managers and designers as well as specialist in term of area. The designer should chair the task of once meeting. The designer function is to draw idea and information from their decisions. The task force meeting bring out the groups information, The operation need etc. After several meeting the design of the subsystem may be created.

2.Personal 2.Personal Interview
Beside the task force meeting the designer should conduct interviews the designer should conduct interview with key manager of top level and a simple operating peoples. In the interview with managers the designer should seek information about the objective of the organization, major policies, category of information, speed getting the information, style of decision, degree of managers, involved in the decision etc.

3. Internal and External documents

These may be several internal document by which the information can obtain and depending upon these information is available. The internal document may be organization policy guides, processor manuals, account structure, marketing, purchasing employees etc.

Search the detailed of operational subsystem and information flow
The development in the detailed design first carry out for the subsystem. In MIS design the scratches are flow chart. Generally there are three type of flow chart. 1. Task oriented chart These are block diagram showing the relationship among the various task or activities. 2. Form oriented chart These are prepared by people who give instruction to the computer. These show logical sequence of the program. 3. Program flow Chart These are prepared by people who give instruction to the computer. These show logical sequence of the program.

Input output Form
Each subsystem has requirement for information count and produce outgoing information to be used another subsystem by end user.

Early system Testing
As soon as the designed the detailed structure of the proposed MIS on the basis conceptual design, prior to implementation. It is advisable that early system testing should be conducted. During the design effort the system have qualified and quantified as much as possible. Now attempt should be made determined quantitative range for input and outputs, the functions time for operation in the system decision for operation in the system decision models which may be developed either in the form of mathematical equations or in the form of decision table. The purpose of modeling at this state is to define the system more precisely and to improve it. Logical tables may be developed for decision models, such decision tables may include both quantitative and qualitative basis for decision making. For every small system the best may be conversion into online operation. In very large system simulation may be too complex and costly. Simulation has advantage in permitting evaluation of the system against the criteria of the conceptual design performance specifications.

Hardware and Software and Tools
The software design should be done in proper attention and it should be done prior the implementation phase and when the actual implementation take place. The software are ready. There are some step which are necessary for s / w development and they are 1. Develop standard procedures for programming. 2. Develop the data processing logic and also make the flow chart. 3.Study the conceptual design specification and work on that. Similarly the system designer should be consider idly H/ W configuration. The following item should be guide the designer in their hardware selections. 1. Buy enough computing power to do the whole job. 2. Buy enough external storage to hold the required database and backup. 3. Buy some other peripheral device according to need. 4.Buy computer stationary as needed. 5. Buy the best documentation. 6. Buy sufficient maintain support software.

MIS Implementation
There are four basic method for implementing the MIS. 1. Install a system in a new organization just being formed. 2. Cut of the old system and install the new one This produces a time gap during which no system is in operation. This practical only for small system, where installation required one two way. 3. Cut Over by segments This method is prepared for big one also small system are substituted by old one. 4. Operate In parallel and cut over The new system is installed and operate it in parallel with the current system until it has been checked out then the current system is cut over. This method is expensive.

Plan the implementation
There are three main phase in implementation that takes place in series and they are 1. Initial Installation 2. Test a system as a whole. 3. Maintains and control of a system.

Control and Maintain of the system
Control and Maintain of the system are the responsibility of the line managers. Control of the system means ,We control the system and makes the system operational. Some people make the unauthorized change to improve the system i.e. the change that are not approved or documented. It is the duty of the management at reach level in the organization to provide spot checks of system for control purposes. The maintains is closely related to control. In other words maintain of MIS is directed towards reducing errors due to design reducing error environment and improving the system scope and services. These activities are classified in four categories. 1.Emergency maintains. 2. Route maintains 3.Request for special maintains. 4.System improvements. Maintenance may be applied to the following activities. 1. Change in policy statements 2. Change in reports. 3. Change in forms. 4. Change in operating system. 5.system control and security needs.

Internal Problems related to MIS Maintains
Several problem may arise in the area of maintain also. They may be summarized as follows. 1. No plan for maintains. 2. No resources allocation for maintains. 3. Lack of management understanding interest and commitment. 4.Lack of qualified persons.

Responsibility for Maintains
The specific responsibility for the maintains of the system should be sign to a supervisors and a team of MIS Analyst, Programmers and for specialist. The fragmentation of responsibility for the MIS Maintains should be given individually for their related areas. After certain period time by a combined meeting, they can evaluated as whole they system maintains.

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning): Planning): ³The business information systems that integrate
various functions of business are called Enterprise Resource Planning´. ERP systems originally evolved from manufacturing resource Planning (MRP) system. ERP systems integrate many common applications into one system. ERP system is an information system that supports several areas of business by common applications into one system. For Example: The finance department might want to cut Example: down the advertising budget, whereas the marketing department might want more money for advertising.

DEFINITION OF ERP: ERP system are computer based
system designed to process an organization transaction and facilitate integrated and real-time planning, production and realcustomer response.

Characteristics of ERP:
(a) ERP system integrate the various processes in the organization. (b) ERP system support multiple currencies and languages. (c) ERP system have the ability to customize without programming. (d) ERP system have support for specific industries. (e) ERP system is flexible to accommodate the changing needs of an enterprise. (f) ERP has many features like security, authorization, referencing, responsibility and the implementation business of business rule.

Benefits of ERP :
(a) ERP systems employ best practice business processes. (b) ERP enables organizational standardization across different location. (c) ERP eliminates information asymmetries because all the information is put into the same underlying database. (d) ERP systems reduce the delivery cycle, customer satisfaction increases. They also to maintain closer contact with customers. (e) ERP system make the business operation transparent between business partners

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