504 absolutely essential words

written by : Murray Bromberg, Julius Liebb, and Arthur Traiger gathered by : Hamed Latafat

Lesson One
Abandon: desert; leave without planning to come back; quit; leave behind; reject; renounce; and give up Anecdote: short narrative describing an interesting or amusing incident; tale; narrative; urban myth Bachelor: unmarried man; graduate who holds a bachelor's degree Bear: give birth; something difficult to do or deal with; endure; carry; support; suffer; produce Blade: edge (of a knife); cutting portion of a razor; thin leaf; paddle; bat; racquet; propeller Break in: enter forcibly; interrupt a person while he is speaking; an illegal forced entry in order to steal something Breeding: courtesy; education; upbringing; rearing; cultivation; producing offspring Cloak: loose sleeveless outer garment that fastens at the neck and hangs down the back; mask; disguise; cover Contest: fight for; appeal; challenge; competition Data: information; facts; facts and statistics used for reference or analysis; the quantities Detective: investigative; one who searches for information and evidence relevant to specific occurrences Flirting: coquetry; affectionate and playful conduct meant to arouse sexual interest; brief romance Gallant: brave; showing respect for women; chivalrous; gentlemanly Generous: freely giving more of something than is necessary or expected; giving; unselfish; abundant; plentiful Gesture: express an idea or emotion through bodily movements; motion of to emphasize or help to express a thought Hardship: something that is hard to bear; difficulty; suffering; trouble; severe suffering or privation; misfortune; bad luck Jealous: afraid that the one you love might prefer someone else; wanting what someone else has Keen: sharp; intense; eager; clever; perceptive; astute; strong; enthusiastic; wonderful; amazing Knight: medieval warrior; man who holds an honorary nonhereditary rank; chess piece shaped like a horse's head Muddy: covered in mud; cloudy; hazy; vague; cover in mud; make impure; confuse the issue; make unclear Oath: a promise that something is true; words of a solemn promise; a curse Peg: fasten with clothespin; strengthen with a wedge; reinforce with a spike Puddle: small pool of water or liquid; mud; pool of foul stagnant water; dirty; pollute; roll about in the mud Qualify: become fit; show that you are able; meet the minimum standards; restrict; attribute a quality or characteristic Swore: past of swear; solemnly promise; curse; use obscene language; testify under oath (Law); bind by an oath Tact: ability to say the right thing; diplomacy; ability to skillfully deal with people; sense of what is proper or appropriate Unaccustomed: unfamiliar; not accustomed to; unusual; not used to something Upbringing: rearing of children; the treatment and instruction received from one's parents throughout childhood Vacant: empty; unfilled; unoccupied; not in use; lacking expression; not claimed Widow: woman whose husband has died; take away something valuable

Lesson two
Adventure: escapade; exciting experience; risky undertaking; put oneself at risk; take a risk in the hope of a favorable outcome Blanket: cover; coat; a large piece of woolen material used as a covering for warmth as on a bed Castle: large building typically of the medieval period; chateau; palace; turret; tower Cemetery: place where dead people are buried; a tract of land used for burials Cheat: deceive; swindle; betray; be disloyal; break rules; obtain answers or information in a dishonest way Coffin: a long; narrow box in which a dead body is buried or cremated. Conceal: hide; cover; keep secret Corpse: a dead body; especially of a human Deadened: diminish; alleviate; anesthetize; numb; make less lively; become dead Dismal: dark; gloomy; cheerless; depressing; sad Fled: past and past participle of flee; escape; run away; move swiftly; hurry Frigid: very cold; frozen; sexually unresponsive Grave: place where a person or thing is buried; severe; serious; critical; somber; sober Inhabit: occupy; live in; dwell in; reside in; populate; be present in; be inside of Janitor: custodian; maintenance man; gatekeeper; doorman; warden; cleaner; maintenance man Latitude: angular distance on a meridian north or south of the equator; an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth Legal: of or pertaining to the law; allowed by law; established by law; according to law Longitude: angular distance measured east or west from the prime meridian; an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth Maid: servant; cleaning lady; young girl; unmarried woman; virgin Numb: without the power of feeling; deadened; lacking sensitivity; in shock; senseless Peril: danger; risk; hazard; a situation of serious and immediate danger Recline: lie in a horizontal position; lie back; lie down and rest; stretch out; lean back Revenge: action taken in return for an injury or offense; take vengeance; avenge; retaliate; requite Shack: small crude shelter used as a dwelling; a roughly built hut or cabin; live together without being legally married Shriek: scream; loud shrill cry; screech Sinister: evil; wicked; dishonest; frightening; malicious; threatening; ominous; portending evil; on the left side; Slight: small; light; lacking substance; unimportant; treat with indifference; pay no attention to; disrespect Slum: poor neighborhood; densely populated poverty-stricken area of a city Stuck: past participle of stick; fixed in place; caught; puzzled; jab or poke with a pointed object; fasten; put in a particular place Teller: a person who deals with customers' transactions in a bank; cashier; vote counter Tempt: try to get someone to do something; test; invite; entice; tantalize; seduce Wage: salary; payment; earnings; a fixed regular payment for work typically paid on a daily or weekly basis Wager: bet; gamble the act of gambling; stake on the outcome of an issue Wicked: evil; bad mischievous; vicious; malicious; severe; unjustified; dangerous; unpleasant; vile

Lesson three
Annual: occurring once a year; something that appears Anoint: rub oil on a person's head or feet as part of a religious ceremony; smear with a liquid Appeal: plead; request; petition for a new trial or judgment; earnest or urgent request Barely: hardly; scarcely; by a small margin Blend: mixture; combination; mix together thoroughly Breezes: light wind; quarrel; feud; any undertaking that is easy to do; a gentle wind Contrary: contradictory; opposed; stubborn; obstinate; in opposition; against; counter Costume: clothing; outfit; dress of a distinctive style or period; style of dress; woman's outfit Devise: think out; plan; invent; bequeath property through a will Dined: eat dinner; give a dinner for; have supper; dinner party Dispute: argue; debate; appeal; contest; oppose; fight against; disagreement; argument Essential: necessary; very important; needed; fundamental; impossible to live without Excessive: immoderate; exceeding normal bounds; extreme; more than is necessary Exorbitant: excessive; extreme; disproportionate; expensive; greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation Expensive: costly; high priced; precious Grant: award; gift; present; contribution; donation; agree; donate; agree to give or allow Immoderate: excessive; extreme; exaggerated; not moderate; not within reasonable limits Labor: strenuous physical or mental work;; job or work that must be accomplished; work-force; worker Legislative: having the authority to make or enact laws; having the power to make laws; relating to laws or a legislature Minimum: least possible amount; smallest possible size; lowest degree Persuade: convince; induce; cause to do something through reasoning or argument; win over to do or believe; make willing Precious: expensive; valuable; priceless; beloved; dear; affectedly delicate; overly refined Quarrel: fight; an angry dispute; argue; struggle; squabble; conflict; complain; find fault Retail: pertaining to the sale of goods to final consumers; of the sale of merchandise to end users Roam: travel about aimlessly; wander; drift; rove; move about aimlessly or without any destination Scarce: hard to get; rare; not abundant; in short supply Shade: cast a shadow upon; dim; darken; screen; hide from view; protect from light; cover with a shade change gradually Shortening: add butter or other fat; act of making shorter; act of cutting; abbreviation; solid fat used in baking Slaughter: butcher an animal; murder a person; indiscriminately kill a large number of people or animals; kill (animals) for food Strike: temporary work stoppage; hit; blow; knocking down of all pins at one time (Bowling); failure to hit a ball (Baseball) Talent: natural ability; innate ability or skill; capacity for achievement; talented person Typical: usual; of a kind; characteristic; representative; conforming to the expected; standard; classic Visible: able to be seen; can be clearly seen; in view; observable; obvious; apparent Wholesale: on a large scale; in large quantities; at a wholesale price; less than retail in price

Lesson four
Aggravate: make worse; exacerbate; annoy Beau: a man who is the lover of a girl or young woman; lover; young man courting a woman; suitor Cellar: basement; underground room; wine cellar; a storage space or room below ground level in a house Circulate: go around; go from place to place or person to person; move around; distribute; pass around; hand out Complain: find fault; express displeasure; express dissatisfaction or annoyance Convincing: persuasion; influencing; swaying; cause to believe firmly in the truth of something Country: rural; located away from urban areas; state; region; inhabitants of a particular nation; one's homeland Crab: any of a number of crustaceans having five pairs of walking legs; grouch; bad-tempered person Crumble: fall to pieces; shatter; collapse; break into small crumbs; fall apart Dense: closely packed together; thick; compact; close; stupid; slow Descend: go or come down from a higher place to a lower level; go down; lower oneself morally Eliminate: remove; get rid of; omit; terminate or take out Enormous: extremely large; immense; huge; extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree Extravagant: lacking restraint in spending money or using resources; unrestrained in especially feelings; lavish; costly; excessive Folk: people; people who share a common background or way of life; cultural or ethnic group Fortify: garrison; defend; strengthen; reinforce; enrich; make strong or stronger Gossip: talk about the private affairs of others; spread rumors; light informal conversation for social occasions Hoop: encircle; surround; make a basket; a rigid circular band Humid: moist; damp; marked by a relatively high level of water vapour in the atmosphere Mist: fog; haze; veil of tears; blurry vision; a cloud of tiny water droplets in the atmosphere at or near the earth's surface Perceive: feel; sense; be aware of; distinguish; discern; see; behold; become conscious of Predict: tell beforehand; prophesy; foretell; announce in advance Schemer: planner; deviser; one who plots; a planner who draws up a personal scheme of action Scissors: a cutting tool consisting of two blades which slide against one another and cut material placed between them Sleet: partly frozen rain; mixture of snow and rain; rain containing some ice; or snow melting as it falls Swamp: an area of waterlogged ground; flood; fill or cover with water; inundate; overwhelm Sword: weapon consisting of a long straight or curved blade fixed to a hilt; a cutting or thrusting weapon with a long blade Theory: explanation based on thought observation or reasoning; coherent group of general assumptions; speculation; hypothesis Utilize: make use of; make practical and effective use of; employ Vacate: give up; leave; and leave behind empty Vanish: disappear; disappear suddenly; cease to exist; pass away rapidly Vapor: moisture in the air that can be seen; fog; steam; mist Villain: a very wicked person; a wicked person or a person guilty of a crime Weed: a wild plant growing where it is not wanted and in competition with cultivated plants; tobacco; cigarettes

Lesson five
Altitude: height; distance above sea level Assemble: gather together; bring together; put together; get together; make by putting pieces together Batter: a ballplayer who is batting in baseball; strike; beat; hit repeatedly Beard: the hair growing on the lower part of a man's faces; defy; oppose Bring out: express; present; display; publicize; advertise; make visible; direct attention to Burden: what is carried; a load; weigh down; weight to be borne or conveyed; an onerous or difficult concern Bureau: an administrative unit of government; writing desk; dresser; office Campus: grounds of a collage university or school; a field on which the buildings of a university are situated Career: the particular occupation for which you are trained; profession; the general progression of your working life Casual: without or seeming to be without plan or method; random; accidental; superficial; temporary; informal Debate: a discussion in which reasons for and against something are brought out; argue; discuss; consider Documentary: a film or TV program presenting the facts about a person or event; relating to or derived from documents Dragnet: net which is dragged in fishing or hunting; method by which someone or something is found or caught Droplet: a tiny drop; a very small drop of a liquid Evade: get away from by trickery or cleverness; avoid; run away; avoid or try to avoid fulfilling answering or performing Evaporate: turn into vapor; become vapor; release moisture; disappear; vanish; turn from liquid into vapor Explore: go over carefully; look into closely; examine; travel to unknown regions; investigate; research Funky: fearful; panicky; terrified; cool; fashionable; unconventionally modern and stylish Hand down: passed on as by inheritance; passed on from one person to another; transfer; without effort Innocent: free from evil or guilt; not guilty; free from sin or wrongdoing; simple; naive; unsophisticated; harmless Majority: the larger number; greater part; more than half; the age when a person is legally a full adult Pretending: the act of giving a false appearance; make believe with the intent to deceive; act in a role Probe: search into; examine thoroughly; investigate; a flexible slender surgical instrument used to explore body cavities Reform: make better; improve by removing faults; a change for the better as a result of correcting abuses Riot: a public act of violence by an unruly mob; a violent disturbance of the peace by a crowd Rioter: one who takes part in a riot; troublemaker who participates in a violent disturbance of the peace Rural: in the country; characteristic of a small town; rustic; living in or characteristic of farming or country life Shape up: develop in a positive way; change; be shaped; develop; get organized; behave in a more respectable manner Take on: accept responsibility; occupy; cause to work; deal with; admit into a group or community; accept as a challenge Topic: subject that people think write or talk about; some situation or event that is thought about Tradition: beliefs; opinions; customs handed down from one generation to another; an inherited pattern of thought or action Wand: a baton used by a magician or water diviner; a long thin stick or rod especially one held as a symbol of office Witch: a female sorcerer or magician; an ugly evil-looking old woman Wizard: someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field; one who practices magic or sorcery; genius; magician

Lesson six
Accuse: one who has been charged with a crime; one who has been blamed Affair: a vaguely specified concern; a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship; matter; deal, concern Appliance: a device that is very useful for a particular job; tool, gadget; device; apparatus Approach: come near or nearer to in distance, time, or standard; appeal to; turn to Basement: cellar, story of a building which is underground; a room or floor which is partly or entirely below ground level Bracelet: piece of jewelry worn around the wrist; an ornamental band or chain worn on the wrist or arm Brake: devices which allow one to slow or stop a vehicle Chill: coldness due to a cold environment; depress or discourage; cool; cold Client: a person who seeks the advice of a lawyer; customer; buyer Comprehensive: including much; covering completely; including all or everything; having a thorough understanding of a subject Convict: prove someone guilty of a crime; convince someone of error or wrongdoing; prisoner County: a region created by territorial division for the purpose of local government; district, division of land Deceive: make someone believe as true something that is false; mislead; be dishonest with; cheat Defect: fault; that which is wrong; imperfection; deficiency; weakness; limitation Defraud: take money, rights and etc by cheating; cheat; rob; deceive Deprive: take away possessions from someone; keep from having, keeping, or obtaining; prevent from having, deny Detect: find out; discern; discover Dull: boring; not sharp; gloomy; stupid; not intelligent; not shiny; deaden; lacking interest or excitement Employee: a person who works for pay; a worker who is hired to perform a job Expel: force to leave or move out; exile, eject; drive out; banish; remove from a position or office Jail: prison, location where convicted criminals and people awaiting trial are confined Livelihood: the financial means whereby one lives; means of supporting oneself; maintenance; sustenance; occupation Mayor: elected official acting as executive head of a town or city; the head of a city government Neglect: give too little care or attention to; disregard; be negligent; forget to perform (a duty; fail to care for, abandon Pilgrim: Christian who has traveled to a sacred place; one who makes a journey for religious reasons Poll: an inquiry into public opinion conducted by interviewing a random sample of people; get the opinion; receive votes Popular: liked by most people; of the general population; well-liked; admired; approved; accepted; common Praise: an expression of approval and commendation; express admiration; express approval of Sarcasm: witty language used to convey insults or scorn; satire; irony Spine: spinal column of a vertebrate; backbone; a series of vertebrae extending from the skull to the small of the back Steering: act of causing a vehicle to move in a particular direction; the act of guiding or showing the way; drive Superstition: belief that is not based on fact; an irrational belief arising from ignorance or fear Thorough: being all that is needed; comprehensive; complete; finished Undoubtedly: certainly; unquestionably; beyond doubt

Lesson seven
Attic: section of a house below the roof; low wall at the top of a classical building which hides the roof Attorney: a professional person authorized to practice law; a lawyer appointed to act for another in legal matters Capsule: a small case or covering; a small container; pill containing medicine Condemn: express strong disapproval of; declare or judge unfit; denounce; convict, declare guilty Conqueror: someone who is victorious by force of arms; victor, one who defeats Consent: agree; give permission or approval; permission to do something; give an affirmative reply to Constitution: law determining the fundamental political principles of a government; law, rule; set of governing principles Crew: group of people working together on an air or watercraft; team of people working together; social unit Denounce: condemn in public; express strong disapproval; speak out against; censure; accuse Dim: become or make darker; lacking clarity or distinctness; not shining brightly or clearly Due: that which is deserved or owed; payable; right; fitting, suitable; adequate; should arrive at a specific time Entitle: give the right to; give a title to Gang: an association of criminals; band, group of people who associate for social or criminal purposes Gloomy: dark; dim; in low spirits; characterized by hopelessness; sad; depressing; depressing in character or appearance Hall of fame: building which houses plaques and statues honoring famous people Inspection: a formal or official examination; act of looking over carefully and critically; review Lifeguard: expert swimmer employed to watch over other swimmers and rescue anyone in danger of drowning Massive: big and heavy; large and solid; bulky; enormous Molest: interfere with and trouble; disturb; bother, annoy, sexually harass Outfielder: player in the outfield; player in the outermost field (Sports, Baseball) Postpone: put off to a later time; delay; arrange for something to take place at a time later than that first scheduled Preserve: keep from harm or change; keep safe; protect; a domain that seems to be specially reserved for someone Resent: feel injured and angered at something; have a feeling of ill will, be displeased or bitter Scratch: scrape, rub; make a small cut or laceration; score or mark with a sharp or pointed object Stream: a natural body of running water flowing on or under the earth; flow; pour out from; flow freely; blow, wave Torrent: any violent; rushing stream; flood; a heavy rain; a strong and fast-moving stream of water or other liquid Unforeseen: not known beforehand; unexpected; not foreseen; unanticipated, Unique: having no like or equal; being the only one of its kind; singular, matchless, unequaled, rare Violent: acting with or resulting from great force or emotional intensity; using unwarranted injurious force; strong; forceful Wreck: something or someone that has suffered ruin or dilapidation; an accident that destroys a ship at sea; ruin; destroy

Lesson eight
Amateur: a person who does something for pleasure not for money or as a profession; not professional, novice Apparent: obvious; readily perceived or understood; seeming real or true Bulky: large, taking up much space; massive; of large size for its weight; clumsy Clue: something which helps to solve a problem; hint; a fact or piece of evidence used to solve a crime or that serves to reveal Dye: a usually soluble substance for staining or coloring e.g. fabrics or hair; coloring; pigment, tint Elate: put in high spirits, make proud, make happy; fill with high spirits; fill with optimism; beautify Exaggerate: overstate, make something seem greater or more important than it really is; make larger than normal Featured: characterize; depict; describe; having features as specified; given prominence Foreman: a person who exercises control over workers; man who is in charge of a group of people; leader of a jury Get off: come down or off of; stop bothering; go to sleep; have a sexual encounter; escape a punishment Haunted: obsessed or terrified in a strange manner; visited or populated as if by ghosts; a frequently visited place Inference: a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning; act of deriving; drawing of a conclusion Lumberjack: a person who fells trees; logger; one who cuts down and prepares trees for sale Mediocre: neither good nor bad; average; ordinary; of medium quality; regular; low-grade; poor Neat: clean or orderly; in good order; tidy or carefully arranged; not messy Obvious: easily seen or understood; clear to the eye or mind; not to be doubted; plain; clear; unmistakable; apparent; evident Ponderous: heavy; weighty; boring; slow and clumsy because of great weight; dull Prominent: well-known; important; having a quality that thrusts itself into attention; noticeable; famous Put out: move to or place in a particular position; bring into a particular state or condition; annoy; remove; send out Reluctant: unwilling; unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom; hesitant Ridiculous: absurd; completely devoid of wisdom or good sense; broadly or extravagantly humorous Security: freedom from danger, care, or fear; feeling or condition of being safe; safety; protection; defense; guarantee; stock Skim: glance through quickly; noting only the important points; a thin layer of a substance on the surface of a liquid. Squad: small military unit; small group of people trained to work together as a team; a cooperative unit Sublime: wonderful; splendid; inspiring wonder or awe; of such excellence or beauty as to inspire great admiration or awe Survive: live longer than; remain alive after; continue to live; endure or last; continue to live after another has died; outlive; Valid: supported by facts or authority; sound; true; well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force; logical, well-founded Variety: lack of sameness; a number of different things; the quality or state of being different or diverse Violet: purple color; any of numerous low-growing small-flowered violas; of a color midway between red and blue Weird: mysterious, unearthly; strange; odd; queer; supernatural; concerned with fate or destiny

Lesson nine

Banish: expel from a community or group; ban from a place of residence, as for punishment; send away; dismiss Boredom: the feeling of being bored by something tedious; the state of feeling bored Century: period of one hundred years; 100 years Challenge: call to a fight; a demanding or stimulating situation; invite to engage in a contest; test one's ability Conclude: end; finish; decide; deduce; decide by reasoning; reach a conclusion after a discussion or deliberation Decree: an official order that has the force of law; order by law District: region; area; a region marked off for administrative or other purposes Document: something handwritten or printed that gives information or proof of some fact; record in detail; record for evidence Enthusiasm: a feeling of excitement; great interest; intense enjoyment; eagerness Fin: organ attached to various parts of a fish's body for steering; five-dollar bill (Slang) Grand: large; magnificent; splendid; wonderful; chief, main; one thousand dollars (Slang) Ignore: pay no attention; disregard; overlook; refuse to recognize; reject; refuse to acknowledge Lack: be entirely without something; have not enough; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable; be missing Metropolitan: of or pertaining to a capital city, characteristic of a important city; sophisticated; a person who lives in a main city Miniature: represented in a small scale; reduced in size; tiny; of a much smaller size than normal Onlooker: someone who looks on; observer; spectator; one who watches from the side Poke fun: subject to laughter or ridicule; make fun Poodle: an intelligent dog with a heavy curly solid-colored coat that is usually clipped Rage: violent anger; something that arouses intense but brief enthusiasm; anger; passion Resist: act against; strive against; oppose; challenge; withstand; be immune to the effects of; try to prevent by action or argument Sawbuck: a framework for holding wood that is being sawed; ten-dollar bill (Slang) Source: place which something comes or is obtained; origin; starting point; originate from Strive: attempt by employing effort; endeavor; try hard; compete; struggle; resist Sundae: ice cream served with a topping; a dish of ice cream with added ingredients such as fruit, nuts, and syrup Thunderstorm: a storm resulting from strong rising air currents; heavy rain or hail along with thunder and lightning Undeniable: not to be denied; cannot be questioned; indisputable; not possible to deny Vicinity: region near a place; neighborhood; a surrounding or nearby region; proximity; nearby area

Lesson Ten

Admit: declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of; confess to something; allow entrance; accept as valid Attitude: a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways Compete: try hard to get something wanted by others; be a rival; participate in a contest; measure oneself against others Deserted: abandoned; forsaken; left desolate or empty; located in a dismal or remote area Dread: look forward to with fear; fear greatly; causing great fear; fearful expectation or anticipation; be anxious about Excel: do better than; be better than; be talented, do very well; surpass; be exceptionally good at an activity or subject Fair: a traveling show; festival; market; bazaar; exhibition; treating people equally; considerable in size or amount Feminine: of woman or girl; of the female sex; characteristic of a woman; having qualities traditionally associated with women Flexible: easily bent; willing to yield; capable of change; able to change readily to meet new circumstances Former: previous; of the past; prior; earlier; past; ancient; first; having been previously Jockeys: someone employed to ride horses in horse races; a professional rider in horse races Juggling: the act of rearranging things to give a misleading impression; using tricks for a dishonest purpose Masculine: male; of man; manlike; characteristic of men; strong; having appearance traditionally associated with men Menace: threat; danger; bother; something that is a source of danger Modest: marked by simplicity; having a humble opinion of yourself; simple; limited Mount: get up on; climb up; ascend; raise; ride; establish; animal which can be ridden Mountebank: charlatan, impostor; one who pretends to be a doctor giving phony medical advice; a person who deceives others Numerous: amounting to a large indefinite number; very many; consisting of a great number; multiple Pastime: an activity that one does regularly for enjoyment; a hobby; entertainment; amusement Phony: something fake; not authentic Pony: small horse; miniature breed of horse Quack: one who practices medicine without having the proper qualifications; charlatan; sound made by a duck Remedies: a medicine or treatment for a disease or injury; something that corrects something that fixes Reputation: the state of being held in high esteem and honor; the beliefs or opinions that are generally held about someone Rival: competitor; opponent; a person or thing competing with another for superiority or the same objective Squeeze: the act of gripping and pressing firmly; press on, compress; extract by pressure; press firmly Stubborn: persisting in a reactionary stand; difficult to treat or deal with; resistant to change; persistent; hard to control Tendency: leaning; movement in a certain direction; an inclination towards a particular characteristic or type of behavior Underestimate: set too low a value; amount or rate; an estimate that is less than the true or actual value; underrate Victorious: having won a victory; conquering; winning; successful; characterized by or pertaining to victory Watchman: a guard who keeps watch; a man employed to look after an empty building, especially at night Yield: production of a certain amount; end resistance, especially under pressure or force; be flexible under stress

Lesson Eleven

Absurd: plainly not true or sensible; foolish; unreasonable; nonsensical; silly; inconsistent with reason or logic or common sense Binocular: an optical instrument designed for simultaneous use by both eyes; adapted for or using both eyes; two-eyed Conflict: direct opposition; disagreement; fight; a serious disagreement or argument Deaf: unable to hear; unwilling to hear, heedless; unwilling to listen or respond to Decade: ten years; group of ten; a period of ten years Evidence: that which makes clear the truth or falsehood of something; proof; your basis for belief or disbelief Fiction: that which is imagined or made up; imaginative narrative which has no basis in fact; act of creating with the imagination Flabby: lacking firmness or stiffness; weak; limp; soft; not tightly controlled and therefore ineffective Frequent: happening often; occurring repeatedly; regular; common; usual; coming at short intervals or habitually Granting: fulfilling (of a request or desire); bestowing; give; agree to give or allow (something requested) to Harsh: unpleasantly rough or jarring to the senses; cruel or severe; rough; extremely unkind Hesitate: fail to act quickly; be undecided; be uncertain; pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness Juror: a member of a jury; someone who serves (or waits to be called to serve) on a jury Knot: a fastening made by looping a piece of string, rope, etc. on itself and tightening it; tie; a small group of people Mediation: intervene in a dispute to bring about an agreement; act of bringing peace between two nations who are at dispute Merely: only; just; simply; purely; and nothing more Minority: smaller number or part; less than half; part of a population differing in some characteristic (race, sex, etc.) Mitten: hand covering for use in cold weather with one section for the fingers and one section for the thumb Occasion: particular event, or the time at which it takes place; opportunity; occurrence; event; incident Proverb: a short pithy saying in general use, stating a general truth or piece of advice; saying Recent: done, made, or occuring not long ago; having happened or been done lately; belonging to a period of time not long ago Rough: having an uneven or irregular surface; not smooth or level; severe; raw; crude; unclear; not gentle Scuba diving: the sport or pastime of swimming underwater using a scuba Shoreline: the line along which a large body of water meets the land; a boundary line between land and water Shrub: a woody plant which is smaller than a tree and has several main stems arising at or near the ground; bush Slope: side of a hill, incline; a surface of which one end or side is at a higher level than another Solitary: alone; single; only; done without the company of others; lonely; secluded or isolated Swap: exchange one thing for another; make an exchange or trade; an equal exchange Vision: act or power of seeing with the eye; imagination; the ability to think about or plan the future with imagination or wisdom

Lesson twelve
 
Abolish: formally put an end to (a practice or institution); cancel; revoke Adequate: as much as is needed; fully sufficient; enough; suitable; satisfactory or acceptable Aerial: living in the air; far above the ground; airy; a structure that transmits or receives radio or television signals Aqueous: of or relating to water; watery; resembling or containing water Audible: able to be heard; heard or perceptible by the ear Blaze: a very large or fiercely burning fire; a very bright light or display of colour; ignite; shine Comet: a relatively small extraterrestrial body consisting of a frozen mass that travels around the sun in a highly elliptical orbit Death penalty: punishment of death for a criminal offense; the action or fact of dying or being killed Decrease: make or become smaller or fewer in size, amount, intensity, or degree; reduce; lessen; decline Drill: tool or machine with a rotating or reciprocating cutting tip, used for boring holes; practice; train Flood: an overflow of a large amount of water over dry land; great stream of water; overflow Frank: free in expressing one’s real thoughts, opinions, or feelings; not hiding what is in one’s mind; candid and honest Halo: a circle of light round the sun or moon caused by refraction through ice crystals in the atmosphere Igneous: formed by great heat (Geology); fiery; of or pertaining to fire Ignite: set on fire; start to burn; catch fire or cause to catch fire; cause to start burning Luminous: emitting light; glowing; bright; understandable; bright or shining, especially in the dark Medieval: of or pertaining to the Middle Ages; like the Middle Ages Meteors: a small body of matter from outer space that becomes incandescent as a result of friction with the earth's atmosphere Pollute: make dirty; contaminate (water, the air, etc.) with harmful or poisonous substances; make impure; ruin Population: people of a city or country; total number of people living in an area; all the inhabitants of a particular place Prohibit: forbid by law or authority; command against; outlaw; prevent Reveal: make known; show; exhibit; display; expose; make public; cause or allow to be seen Boy Scout: member of the Boy Scouts (boys' club that stresses outdoor life and service to others); momma's boy; male child Sergeant: noncommissioned military officer ranked above a airman first class; a police officer ranking below an inspector Sought: past and past participle of seek; go in search of; search for; request; attempt to find Treasurer: one in charge of the funds of an organization, one in charge of a treasury; financial officer; money handler Urban: of or having to do with cities or towns; pertaining to or characteristic of a city; living in a city Urgent: demanding immediate action or attention; important; pressing; immediate Whisper: speak very softly using one's breath rather than one's throat; speaking softly without vibration of the vocal cords Wound: an injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other impact; injure; offend

Lesson thirteen

Affair: amour; matter; deal; concern; a matter that is a particular person's concern or responsibility Burst: break or cause to break suddenly and violently apart; smash into pieces; the act of exploding or bursting something Came in handy: be useful; serve a purpose; turn out to be useful Commence: begin; start; take the first step or steps in carrying out an action Counselor: person trained to give guidance on personal, social, or psychological problems; supervisor Craft: an activity involving skill in making things by hand; a boat or ship Editor: person who prepares a publication; one who revises and corrects a manuscript and helps to improve it Exhausted: tired; drained of energy; weak; tire out completely Famine: starvation; great shortage; extreme scarcity of food Fellow: having membership in, belonging to (a group, academic organization, etc.); guy; man or boy; friend Girl scout: member of an organization for girls aimed at developing citizenship; a girl belonging to the Scout Association Gleam: a flash or beam of light; sparkle; shine brightly, especially with reflected light; be expressed by a person's eyes Hazy: misty; smoky; unclear; vague; filled or abounding with fog or mist; unclear Hollow: empty; having nothing inside; worthless; having a hole or empty space inside Identify: recognize as being or show to be a certain person or thing; prove to be the same; relate; establish the identity of Journalist: one who writes for, edits, managees, or produces a newspaper or magazine; someone who keeps a diary or journal Lunge: sudden forward movement of the body; move forward abruptly Migrate: move from one place to another; resettle seasonally; immigrate; move to a new area in order to find work Observant: quick to notice; watchful; paying attention; watching; noticing; paying close attention especially to details Persist: continue firmly; refuse to stop or be changed; insist; stand firm; persevere; continue to exist Revive: bring back or come back to life or counciousness; renew; restore; reactivate, put into action again Rumor: unverified information spread by gossip; a currently circulating story or report of unverified or doubtful truth Sailing: act of traveling on a sailboat; act of operating and navigating a sailboat; act of cruising Spoil: diminish or destroy the value or quality of; become unfit for eating; harm the character of a child by being too indulgent Utensil: tool or container, especially for household use; implement; instrument; tool; device Vessel: a ship; a hollow container; tube containing body fluid; boat; container Yawn: involuntarily open the mouth wide and inhale due to drowsiness or fatigue; be wide open

Lesson fourteen

Bewildered: confused completely; puzzled; cause to be confused emotionally Bitter: having a sharp, pungent taste or smell; not sweet; causing pain or unhappiness Brawl: a noisy quarrel or fight; a noisy fight in a crowd Brutal: coarse and savage; like a brute; cruel; causing suffering and pain; savagely violent Coarse: crude; rough; impolite; (of a person's features) not elegantly formed or proportioned Cruel: heartless, unkind; disregarding or taking pleasure in the pain or suffering of others Duplicate: an exact copy; make an exact copy of; repeat exactly; a copy that corresponds to an original exactly Junior: for or denoting young or younger people; low or lower in rank or status; new arrival; one recently admitted Opponent: a person who is on the other side of the fight; game, or discussion; person fighting, struggling, or speaking against Oval: elliptical shape; having a rounded and slightly elongated outline; egg-shaped Pit bull: a dog of any of several breeds that was developed and trained for fighting and is noted for strength and stamina Rival: person who wants and tries to get the same thing as another; one who tries to equal or do better than another Roller derby: used for an entertainment involving a contest between two roller-skating teams on an oval track Savage: barbaric; uncivilized; wild; untamed; cruel; brutal; very angry; violent, and uncontrolled Skinny: unattractively thin; slim; thin So called: inaccurately or questionably designated as such; who is called; known as; doubtful or suspect Tempered: having a particular state of mind; moderate; soften; toughen; a tendency to become angry easily Thrust: push with force; drive by applying pressure; push suddenly or violently in the specified direction Turf: ground-level layer of matted soil and plant roots; area; territory (Slang); area of influence or expertise (Slang) Underdog: person having the worst of any struggle; one who is expected to lose; loser Unruly: hard to rule or control; lawless; ungovernable; unmanageable; disorderly and disruptive Vicious: evil; wicked; savage; cruel or violent; faulty in character Violent: acting or done with strong, rough force; brutal; strong; forceful; raging; very intense or powerful Waterfront: area by the shore; part of a city near the shore; a part of a town or city alongside a body of water Whirling: turning or swinging round and round; spinning; move or cause to move rapidly round and round

Lesson fifteen

Alter: make different; change; vary; modify; change in character, appearance, or composition Bartender: bar attendant; waiter; a person serving drinks at a bar; an employee who mixes and serves alcoholic drinks at a bar Carve: cut into or shape (a hard material) in order to produce an object or design Casual: happening by chance; not planned or expected; not calling attention to itself; random; temporary; accidental Comic strip: series of cartoons, animated story which appears in sequels (in a newspaper) Dig up: discover; reveal; disclose; find by digging in the ground; found Ecologist: expert on ecology; expert on the study of the environment and its inhabitants; the branch of biology Expand: increase in size; enlarge; swell; spread out; broaden; make or become larger or more extensive Fortunate: having good luck; lucky; successful; having unexpected good fortune Hollow: having a hole or empty space inside; worthless; meaningless; without real value Innovative: fresh; clever; having new ideas; being or producing something like nothing done or experienced or created before Inquiry: exploration; questioning; investigation; a search for knowledge; a systematic investigation of a matter of public interest Invade: enter for conquest or plunder; occupy; penetrate Loyalty: faithfulness; trustworthiness; showing firm and constant support or allegiance to a person or institution Mature: ripe; fully grown or developed; adult; completely planned; based on careful consideration Pioneer: one who goes first or prepares a way for others; guide; an innovator or developer of new ideas or techniques Pledge: promise; vow; swear; hock; mortgage; solemnly undertake to do or give something; aoth Pursue: follow; proceed along; continue; carry on; persist in; work at; follow in order to catch or attack Revise: change; alter; bring up to date; make changes in order to improve something; edit, correct; produce an updated version Ripe: mature; fully developed or grown; ready for use; ready for action; prepared for a particular experience; appropriate Sacred: worthy of respect; holy; pertaining to religion; concerned with religion or religious purposes Salute: raise the right hand to the right side of the forehead (as a sign of respect); show respect to; express praise; honor Senior: older; having a higher rank; elderly; aged; pertaining to students in their final year at a school or university Swell: expand; inflate; rise up; become or make greater in intensity, amount, or volume; become larger or rounder in size Torn down: past part of tear down; destroy; to cause to decompose or disintegrate; destruct Unanimous: in complete agreement; in complete accord; in one mind

Lesson sixteen

Aboveboard: exposed; obvious; fair; just; without concealment or deception; honest Accurate: exactly right as the result of care or pains; precise; correct in all details; capable of reaching the intended target Capacity: amount of room or space inside; largest amount that can be a container; volume which can be contained or received Cautious: very careful; never taking chances; wary; careful to avoid potential problems or dangers Confidence man: a confidence trickster; a swindler who exploits the confidence of his victim; defrauder Confident: firmly believing; certain; sure; persuaded of Die: stop living; fail utterly or come to an end; small cubes with 1 to 6 spots on the faces; a device used for shaping metal Doubt: not believe; not be sure of; feel uncertain about; lack of certainty; the state of being unsure of something Eardrum: the membrane of the middle ear, which vibrates in response to sound waves Grateful: feeling or showing gratitude; thankful; appreciative; expressing thanks; affording comfort or pleasure Jar: a wide-mouthed cylindrical container made of glass or pottery; a cylindrical vessel with a wide mouth and without handles Marvelous: wonderful; splendid; excellent; astonishing; causing great wonder; extraordinary; extremely good or pleasing Microscope: instrument with a lens for making objects larger so that one can see things more clearly Mischief:source of evil or misfortune; harm; damage; trouble maker (usually a child); vexation; annoyance Penetrate: get into or through; pass into; enter; pierce; understand; comprehend; understand or gain insight into Pierce: go into; go through;prick, stab; penetrate; make a hole; force or cut a way through Pound: punch; strike; hit; beat; shatter; smash; shake heavily; unit of weight equal to 16 ounces (equal to 454 grams) Retina: light-sensitive layer at the back of the eyeball which receives images and transmits them to the brain as nerve impulses Scar: mark left on the skin after a wound or burn has healed Slender: long and thin; limited; slight; slim; gracefully thin; barely sufficient Surpass: be greater than; do better than; excel; go beyond; transcend; exceed Toothpick: small pointed piece of wood for cleaning between the teeth Vast: very great; enormous; huge; large; of very great extent or quantity; immense Vex: anger; puzzle; confuse and concern; make annoyed or worried; disturb the peace of mind of Wilderness: wastelands; forest; desert; range; back country; uninhabited region; garden for wild growth

Lesson seventeen
Addict: one who cannot break away from habit or practice; cause to become dependent on Appeal: attraction; interest; to urge; request; petition for a new trial or judgement; earnest or urgent request Avoid: keep away or refrain from; keep out of the way of; evade; escape; prevent; keep from happening; nullify Aware: knowing; realizing; attentive; conscious of; having knowledge or perception of a situation or fact Barrel: a cylindrical container bulging out in the middle, traditionally made of wooden staves enclosed by metal hoopsdrum Buddy: a close friend; pal; guy; fellow (Slang) Carpenter: woodworker, one who makes things out of wood; a person who makes wooden objects and structures Convenience: serviceableness; comfort; something useful; freedom from effort or difficulty; a public toilet Deduce: arrive at (a fact or a conclusion) by reasoning; infer; draw conclusions; trace the course or derivation of Greedy: gluttonous; insatiable; selfish; avaricious; grasping; covetous; immoderately desirous of acquiring e.g. wealth Hardy: strong; brave; bold; robust; able to survive or endure unfavorable conditions Harsh: rough to the touch, taste, eye or ear; sharp; coarse; unpleasantly rough or jarring to the senses; cruel or severe Keg: a small barrel, especially one of less than 10 gallons; unit of weight which equals 100 pounds (45 kg) Miserable: unhappy; dejected; wretchedly unhappy or uncomfortable; pitiably small or inadequate Misfortune: bad luck; tragedy; hardship; disaster; adversity Molasses: thick, dark brown juice obtained from raw sugar during the refining process; golden syrup Neatly: in good order; tidy or carefully arranged; done with or demonstrating skill or efficiency; cleanly Nourish: make or keep alive and well, with food; feed; develop an attitude; keep a feeling or belief in one's mind for a long time Opt: optional; choose or favor; select; prefer; make a choice Quantity: amount; extent; measure; degree; size; the property of something that is measurable; a certain amount or number Swiftly: quickly; speedily; immediately; hastily; expeditiously; promptly; moving or capable of moving at high speed Urge: encourage or entreat earnestly to do something; a strong desire or impulse; strong instinctual desire Wary: on one’s guard against danger or trickery; cautious; suspicious; cautious about possible dangers or problems Wretched: sorry; poor; pitiable; miserable; in a very unhappy or unfortunate state; used to express anger or annoyance

Lesson eighteen

Ballet: style of dance performed by a group of dancers; a theatrical representation of a story performed to music by dancers Brilliant: (of light or colour) very bright or vivid; outstanding; splendid; shining; clever; very intelligent; marvellous Budget: estimate of the amount of money that can be spent; financial plan; an estimate of income and expenditure Complimentary: expressing praise or admiration; given or supplied free of charge; costing nothing Economical: not wasting money or time; giving good value or return in relation to the resources or money expended Essay: a piece of writing on a particular subject; an attempt or effort; endeavor; composition; article Fame: the state of being famous; favorable public reputation Foam: produce or form a light frothy mass of bubbles; a lightweight form of rubber or plastic made by solidifying foam Glance: to look at quickly; a quick look; shine; gleam; take a brief or hurried look; bounce off; strike at an angle Horrid: terrible; frightful; causing horror; horrible; repulsive; dreadful; awful; very unpleasant; rough Ingenious: having great mental ability; clever, original, and inventive; produced in an imaginative or original manner Leap: jump or spring a long way; move quickly and suddenly; (of a price or figure) increase dramatically; jump Lubricate: make (machinary) smooth and easy to work by putting on oil, grease, or a similar substance; cause to be slippery Manipulate: handle or treat skillfully; handle or operate with the hands; ; act of adapting or changing to suit one's purpose Nimble: active and sure footed; quick and light in movement or action; light and quick; sharp, keen Pat: touch quickly and gently with the flat of the hand; tap; slap gently; male first name (short form of Patrick) Pedant: a person who is excessively concerned with minor detail or with displaying technical knowledge Pedestrian: person who goes on foot; walker; a person walking rather than travelling in a vehicle; traveler; dull; uninspired Puppet: a movable model of a person or animal, typically moved either by strings or by a hand inside it, used to entertain Rave: talk wildly or incoherently; speak or write about someone or something with great enthusiasm or admiration Reckless: careless; heedless; wild; without thought or care for the consequences of an action Referee: an official who watches a game or match closely to ensure that the rules are adhered to; critic Relieve: alleviate or remove(pain, distress, or difficulty); cause (someone) to stop feeling distressed or anxious; release; ease Struck: past and past participle of strike; hit; attack; injure by biting; produce a spark; make; deliver a blow to Sum: a particular amount of money; amount that is determined by adding two or more numbers; entire quantity; summary Sure footed: unlikely to stumble or slip; confident and competent Tragedy: a very sad or terrible happening; a sad play; disaster; an event causing great suffering

Lesson nineteen

Abacus: a frame with rows of wires or grooves along which beads are slid, used for calculating Absorb: take in or suck up(liquids); interest greatly; use up (time or resources) Abundant: more than enough; very plentiful; present in large quantities Appropriate: fit; setapart for some special use; take without permission; suitable; proper Ban: prohibit; forbid; make a blockade; exclusion from a particular channel for a certain length of time (Internet) Calculate: find out by adding, subtracting, multiplying, or deviding; figure; estimate; compute; determine mathematically Concrete: a building material made from a mixture of gravel, sand, cement, and water, forming a stone-like mass Deem: consider in a specified way; suppose; believe; estimate; keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view Estimate: form a judgment or opinion about; guess; an approximate calculation or judgement; have an opinion Harvest: gathering in of grain or other food crops; amount of crops gathered in a season; outcome; product; reaping Indeed: surely; in fact; truthfully; actually; really?, truly? (used to express surprise, irony, disbelief, etc) Inquiry: another term for enquiry; exploration; questioning; investigation; inquest Lawn: stretch of grass-covered land (usually around a house or estate); a field of cultivated and mowed grass Lobster: a large marine crustacean with a cylindrical body, stalked eyes, and has large pincers on the front pair of legs Morsel: a small bite; mouthful; tiny amount; slice; a small amount or piece Panic: unreasoning fear; fear spreading through a group of people so that they lose control of themselves Pebble: a small stone made smooth and round by the action of water or sand Pesticide: a substance for destroying insects or other pests of plants or animals; a chemical used to kill pests Plentiful: existing in or yielding great quantities; abundant; full; rich; numerous Quota: share of a total due from or to a particular state, district or person; restricted amount; maximum quantity; upper limit Resort: a place frequented for holidays or leisure activities; utilize a source of help Sincerely: sincerely yours (used at the end of a letter); honestly; genuinely; earnestly; faithfully Sponge: a piece of a soft, light absorbent substance usually made of synthetic material, used for washing, as padding, etc Strict: demanding that rules concerning behaviour are obeyed; severe; harsh; exact; absolute; complete Threat: sign or cause of possible evil or harm; expression of intent to damage or injure; something that is a source of danger Uneasy: restless; disturbed; anxious; uncomfortable; not feeling at ease; lacking a sense of security

Lesson twenty
 
Ambuscade: ambush; attack unexpectedly; surprise attack Ambush: a trap in which soldiers or other enemies hide to make a surprise attack; attack from a concealed position Barn: a large farm building used for storage; farm building used to house animals or store hay and grain Bison: a humpbacked shaggy-haired wild ox; American buffalo Captive: prisoner; a person who has been taken prisoner or confined; person held against his will Crafty: skillful in deceiving others; sly; tricky; relating to the making of objects by hand Defiant: openly resisting; challenging; bold disobedience; opposing Delicate: fragile; easily broken; sensitive; requiring sensitive or careful handling Devour: eat hungrily or quickly; absorb completely; take in greedily; prey upon, tear to pieces; read quickly and eagerly Emerge: come out; come up; come into view; be revealed; move out of something and become visible; apear Evasive: tending to avoid commitment or self-revelation; avoiding; tending to shirk Fragile: easily broken, destroyed or damaged; delicate; not strong or sturdy; weak Genuine: truly what it is said to be; authentic; original; real; true; natural; honest; sincere; not fake or counterfeit Jagged: with sharp points sticking out; unevenly cut or torn; with rough, sharp points protruding Lamb: a young sheep; meat of lamb; innocent person; person who is easily fooled; one of the names for Jesus Christ Lebanese: a native or inhabitant of Lebanon; of or pertaining to Lebanon; of Lebanese origin Linger: stay on; go slowly as if unwilling to leave; stay longer than usual; be slow in dying; be slow or reluctant to leave Odor: a distinctive smell; a lingering quality or impression; that which is perceived by the nose; smell Perish: be destroyed; die; expire; die, especially in a violent or sudden way Prosper: be successful; have good fortune; flourish; thrive; grow stronger; gain in wealth Ranch: a large farm, especially in the western US and Canada, where cattle or other animals are bred Shrew: small mouselike mammal with a long snout; rebellious woman; nagging woman Shrewd: having or showing sharp powers of judgement; clever; sharp; crafty; intelligent Sly: crafty; cunning; stealthy; marked by skill in deception; having a cunning and deceitful nature Stick out: be outstanding; excel; hold a position; be extremely noticeable Stroke: an act of hitting; beat; method of swimming (i.e. backstroke, etc.); light touch Sturdy: strongly and solidly built or made; robust; hardy; firm Terrier: a small dog used for turning out foxes and other animals from their earths; a tenacious or eager person Torn: past participle of tear; pull or rip apart or to pieces; droplet of fluid from the eye; rip; rend; spree Uneven: not level or smooth; not regular, consistent, or equal; rough; unequal; unbalanced; odd (Mathematics); unfair Vigor: active strength or force; physical strength and good health; ability to survive (as of plants and animals); energy Vulgar: characteristic of or belonging to ordinary people; lacking sophistication or good taste Wither: (of a plant) become dry and shrivelled; become shrunken or wrinkled from age or disease

Lesson twenty one

Abbreviation: act of shortening by removing or omitting a part; shorten (a word, phrase, or text) Anticipate: look toward to; expect; predict; be aware of and prepare for; act in advance of Aviation: science of flying aircraft; the aggregation of a country's military aircraft Baffle: be too hard to understand or solve; bewilder; confuse; frustrate; puzzle Collide: come together with force; crash; bang into each other; meet head on; come into conflict or opposition Confirm: prove to be true or correct; make certain; approve; verify; make more firm Detour: a roundabout way; go by an indirect way; bypass Dilemma: situation requiring a choice between two evils; difficult situation; difficult decision Fond of: having an affection or liking for; partial to; attached to; keen on Gore: wound by piercing with a sharp or penetrating object; blood that has been shed, especially as a result of violence Home plate: (Baseball) base made up of a white rubber slab where the batter stands Horn: hard bony growth projecting from the head of certain animals; device used to sound a warning Inn: a pub, traditionally an establishment also providing food and lodging; motel; hostel Merit: goodness; worth; value; be worthy of, be eligible for; deserve; excellence; any admirable quality or attribute Multitude: a large number of people or things; many; large quantity; the mass of ordinary people; crowd perplex: cause (someone) to feel baffled; confuse; complicate Plea: request, appeal; that which is asked of another; a request made in an urgent and emotional manner Promote: further the progress of; raise to a higher position or rank; boost provision: the action of providing or supplying; supplies of food, drink, or equipment, especially for a journey Relieve: make less; make easier; reduce the pain of; replace; release; free; liberate Roundabout: indirect; circuitous; indirect road or method; detour; rotary Sauce: a liquid or semi-liquid substance served with food to add moistness and flavour; season Superintendent: a person who supervises or is in charge of an organization, department, etc; supervisor; overseer Toil: work extremely hard or incessantly; hard physical work; labor; exhausting effort Transmit: send over; pass on; pass along; let through; transfer from a source to a destination; broadcast Verify: prove to be true; confirm; make sure or demonstrate that something is true, accurate, or justified Weary: tired; tiresome; exhausting; become bored; fatigued

Lesson twenty two

Abound: be plentiful, be abundant; be filled with; overflow with; exist in large numbers or amounts Acknowledge: admit to be true; recognize; confirm receipt of or gratitude for; confess Beneficiary: person who recieves benefit; a person who gains benefit from something, especially a trust or will Benevolent: well meaning and kindly; generous; serving a charitable rather than a profit-making purpose Benign: genial and kindly; favourable; not harmful; gentle; pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence Declare: make a statement; make clearly known; reveal one's intentions or identity Delinquent: an offender; criminal; behind time; (typically of young people) tending to commit crime Deprive: take away from by force; deny; prevent (a person or place) from having or using something hiker: one who makes a long journey by foot; a long walk or walking tour; a sharp increase, especially in price Homicide: a killing of one human being by another; murder; putting to death Inmate : one who is imprisoned in a jail; prisoner; one who is confined to a hospital; resident; inhabitant Justice: just conduct; fair dealing; equality; just behaviour or treatment; a judge or magistrate Log: a part of the trunk or a large branch of a tree that has fallen or been cut off; cut down a tree;write in a log Mosquito: any of numerous small winged insects whose females suck the blood of animals and humans Nota bene: (N. B.); take notice; mark well (Latin); observe carefully; take special note Occupation: profession; vocation; employment; business; work; a way of spending time Penalize: declare punishable by law or rule; set a penalty for; subject to a penalty or punishment pine: an evergreen coniferous tree having clusters of long needle-shaped leaves, grown for its soft wood; crave; desire Prefix: a letter attached at the beginning of a word to adjust or qualify its meaning; a word or letter placed before another Reject: refuse to take, use, believe, consider, grant, etc; decline; deny; refuse to accept or acknowledge Spouse: husband or wife; mate; a person's partner in marriage Trend : tendency; course; bearing; fashion; mode; a general direction in which something is developing or changing Trout: an edible fish of the salmon family, chiefly inhabiting fresh water Unstable: not firmly fixed; easily moved or overthrown; unsteady; insecure; likely to collapse or change; unpredictable Vocation: occupation; business; profession; trade; career; a strong feeling of suitability for a particular career or occupation Warden: keeper; guard ; person in charge of a prison; jailer; protector; the head of certain schools or other institutions Yell : shout; scream; cry; shriek; shout in a loud or piercing way

Lesson twenty three

Audacious: bold; fearless; Resolute; recklessly daring; lacking respect; impudent Bride: woman on her wedding day; newly married woman; a woman on her wedding day or just before and after the event Cave: natural underground tunnel; hollow opening in the ground Chivalrous: (of a man) courteous and gallant, especially towards women; gentlemanly; loyal; courageous Creep: crawl; climb; sneak; move along quietly and slowly; very slow, steady movement or progress Dauntless: fearless and determined; bold; daring; impossible to frighten Dweller: resident; inhabitant; live in or at a place Embrace: hold closely in one's arms, especially as a sign of affection; hug, hold tight, wrap one's arms around; accept Exhibit: display; show; demonstrate; present; publicly display (an item) in an art gallery or museum; manifest Extract: pull out or draw out, usually with some effort; obtain (a substance) from something by a special method Fang: a large sharp tooth, especially a canine tooth of a dog or wolf; tooth of a venomous snake Forbid: order someone not to do something; make a rule against; ban; prohibit; deny; prevent; refuse to allow Groom: tend carefully; make clean and tidy; man who is about to be married; a person employed to take care of horses Hug: embrace (someone) tightly; wrap the arms tightly around (a person or thing); keep close to Indomitable: impossible to subdue or defeat; unconquerable Intrepid: fearless or adventurous; brave; courageous Invasion: an instance of invading a country or region; any entry into an area not previously occupied Led: past and past participle of lead; conduct; escort; drive; guide; direct; take; bring; influence; cause; be in first place Lizard: a reptile that typically has a long body and tail, four legs, movable eyelids, and a rough, scaly, or spiny skin Logical: reasonable; reasonably expected; of or according to the rules of logic Paratroopers: soldier who is a member of a paratroop; member of an infantry unit that is trained to parachute from planes Partial: not complete; not total; fractional; fragmentary; existing only in part Precaution: measures taken beforehand; foresight; a measure taken in advance to prevent something undesirable happening; Prior: coming before; earlier; preceding; former; existing or coming before in time, order, or importance Proceed: go on after having stopped; move forward; continue; carry on; advance; begin a course of action Rarely: seldom; not often; infrequently; occasionally Reptile: a cold blooded animal that creeps or crawls; snakes, lizards, turtles, alligators, and crocodiles Spit: saliva; eject saliva forcibly from one's mouth Splinter: a small, thin, sharp piece of wood, glass, etc. broken off from a larger piece; separate into factions Valiant: brave; courageous; daring; fearless

Lesson twenty four

Abuse: use to bad effect or for a bad purpose; treat with cruelty or violence; misuse; injure; mistreat; insult Afford: have sufficient money, time, or means for; be able to do without difficulty; be able to pay for; supply; provide Authority: the right to command obedience; power delegated to another; an author that appealed to in support of an action Bargain: an agreement between two or more people as to what each will do for the other; negotiate; arrive at an agreement Claw: a curved, pointed horny nail on each digit of the foot in birds, lizards, and some mammals; talon Consider: think about in order to decide; believe; regard; take into account Contempt: the feeling that someone or something is worthless or beneath consideration; scorn, disdain; disrespect (Law) Cuddle: hold close in one's arms as a way of showing love or affection; hug closely Dean: the head of the chapter of a cathedral or collegiate church; the head of a university faculty or department Detest: dislike very much; hate; dislike intensely Dime: coin worth ten cents (used in the USA and Canada); very common and of little value Drab: drearily dull; cheerless; dismal; lacking brightness or color Encourage: give courage; increase the confidence of; give support, confidence, or hope to; inspire; give hope Fierce: savage; wild; cruel; powerful; extremely bad; violent or aggressive; very severe (Slang) Flea: a small wingless jumping insect which feeds on the blood of mammals and birds; small bloodsucking insect Frown: furrow one's brows in an expression indicating disapproval, displeasure, or concentration; scowl Grief: sadness; deep sorrow; intense sorrow, especially caused by someone's death Impartial: treating all rivals or disputants equally; unbiased; objective; unprejudiced; fair Lice: small flightless parasitic insect which lives on the bodies of humans and other mammals Milder: not severe, harsh, or serious; gentle and not easily provoked; moderate Mock: tease scornfully; ridicule; not authentic or real; imitation; false; fake; scorn Muddle: bring into a disordered or confusing state; mess up; disturb; cause disorder; struggle through, push on Neutral: no neither side of a quarrel or war; of no particular kind or character; without intense coloration Scorn: contempt or disdain expressed openly; ridicule; mock; reject with contempt; treat with derision, treat with contempt Scowl: look angry by loewring the eyebrows; frown; an angry, gloomy, or bad-tempered expression Sneer: show scorn or contempt by looks or words; a scornful look or remark; a contemptuous or mocking smile or tone Statue: three-dimensional work of art that has been created from any of a variety of materials Stiff: not easily bent; not relaxed or friendly; constrained; severe or strong; (Slang) corpse; regular person; drunk Symbol: something that stands for or represents something else; printed or written character used to designate something Trifle: a small amount; little bit; something of little value; a thing of little value or importance Vermin: small animals that are troublesome or destructive; fleas, bedbugs, lice, rats, and mice are vermin Wail: cry loud and long because of grief or pain

Lesson twenty five
 
Abroad: outside one’s country; going around; far and wide; in different directions; out of doors Acquaintance: familiarity; knowledge; awareness; person one knows slightly Architect: a person who makes plans for buildings and other structures; a maker; a creator; designer Baggage: the trunks and suitcases a person takes when he or she travels; an army’s equipment; cargo; parcels; naughty girl Bigamy: having two wives or two husbands at the same time; marriage to two or more spouses at one time Bloodhound: dog with an acute sense of smell (used for tracking and hunting) Calamity: a great misfortune; serious trouble; an event causing great and often sudden damage or distress; disaster Collapse: a breakdown; to fall in; break down; fail suddenly; fold together; suddenly lose consciousness Compartment: a separate section of a structure or container; enclosed area (cell, cabin, etc.); division; section Envy: jealousy; the object of jealousy; to feel jealous; desire for something which belongs to another Firm: strong; solid; stable; hard; fixed; determined; company; commercial business; corporation Fugitive: a runaway; a person who has escaped from captivity or is in hiding; escaped Glazier: a person whose trade is fitting glass into windows and doors; someone who cuts flat glass to size Heel: the back part of the foot below the ankle; part of a sock or stocking which covers the heel Infant: a very young child or baby; minor; beginner; a person who has not attained legal majority Inheritance: estate, property left by deceased person to heirs; attributes or genetic qualities passed from parents to offspring Lather: a frothy white mass of bubbles produced by soap when mixed with water; foam formed by excessive sweating Mason: one who builds with stone; brick-layer; member of the Freemasons (international, brotherly secret society) Matrimony: married life; ceremony of marriage; state of being married Pauper: a very poor person; beggar; impoverished person Plaster: a soft mixture of sand or cement and water for spreading on walls and ceilings to form a smooth surface when dried Plumber: a person who fits and repairs the pipes and fittings of water supply Prom: formal dance celebrating the end of high school (in the USA) Prosecute: bring before a court; follow up; carry on; put on trial; file a legal action; conduct a prosecution in a court of law Quintuplet: group of five items; one of five children born from one pregnancy; one item from a group of five Relief: :the alleviation or removal of pain, anxiety, or distress; liberation; release; support provided to the needy Sour: having an acid taste like lemon or vinegar; one of the four primary tastes; showing resentment or anger Squander: spend foolishly; waste; misuse Strain: force (a part of one's body or oneself) to make an unusually great effort; pull or push forcibly at something Tray: a flat, shallow container with a raised rim, used for carrying or holding things; platter Weld: join together (metal parts) by heating the surfaces to the point of melting and pressing or hammering them together

Lesson twenty six

Awesome: causing or showing gret fear, wonder, or respect; inspiring awe; impressive; frightening; terrific (Slang) Awkward: clumsy; not well suited to use; not easily managed; embarrassing; inconvenient; hard to do or deal with Beckon: signal by a motion of the hand or head; attract; make a gesture to encourage or instruct someone to follow Befall: happen as if by fate; occur Begone: get out!; go away!; go away at once! Betray: give away to the enemy; be unfaithful; mislead; show; act treacherously towards one's country by aiding the enemy Blink: shut and open the eyes quickly; wink; flicker; react with surprise or disapproval Bunt: (of a batter) gently tap (a pitched ball) without swinging; push; ram (with the head or horns); hit softly (Baseball) Clumsy: awkward in movement or performance; lacking tact or social skills; not graceful; poorly made Compel: force; get by force; powerfully evoking attention or admiration; influence Dare: have the courage to do something; defy or challenge (someone) to do something; take the risk of; venture Embarrassing : cause to feel awkward, self-conscious, or ashamed; cause unease, anxiety, shame, or confuse Fate: development of events outside a person's control, regarded as predetermined by a supernatural power; destiny; fortune Fellow man: kindred human being; another person; fellow member of the human beings Fort: a fortified building or strategic position; fortified place; army base Fur: the short, fine, soft hair of certain animals; the dressed hairy coat of a mammal Goddess: female god; extremely beautiful woman (Slang) Graceful: elegant and beautiful (movement, manner, speech, etc.); characterized by beauty of style, form etc.; not awkward Guide: a person who shows the way; to direct; to manage; instruct; lead Hissing: make a sharp sibilant sound as of the letter s, often as a sign of disapproval or derision Jaywalking: act of crossing the street against a traffic light or in an area where there is no crosswalk Mob: a disorderly or violent crowd; common people Pacify: make calm; quiet down; bring peace to; quell the anger or agitation of Pitcher: the player who pitches the ball; jug; jar; one who throws the ball to the batter (Baseball) Plead: make an emotional appeal; present and argue for (a position), especially in court or in another public context; appeal Possible: able to be, be done, or happen; able to be true; capable of existing, happening, or being achieved; could be Quench: put an end to; drown or put out; satisfy (thirst) by drinking; satisfy (a desire); cool by immersing in a cold liquid Respond: answer; react; reply; say or do something in reply or as a reaction Serpent: a large snake; a dragon or other mythical snake-like reptile; evil person; Satan; the Devil (Biblical) Tyranny: cruel and oppressive government or rule; unchecked use of power and authority Undertaking: a formal pledge or promise; a task that is taken on; commit oneself to and begin; mission Unfaithful: not faithful; disloyal; dishonest; inaccurate; not true to duty or obligation or promises Utter: speak; make known; express; complete; total; absolute; say; pronounce; make (a sound) or say (something) Venture: a daring undertaking; an attempt to make money by taking business risks; to dare; to expose to risk

Lesson twenty seven
 
Bout: a short period of intense activity; a wrestling or boxing match; session Cease: stop; halt; come or bring to an end; break Clown: a comic entertainer, especially one in a circus; a playful, amusing person; a foolish or incompetent person Contamination: make (something) impure by exposure to or addition of a poisonous or polluting substance; infection Curtain: a piece of material suspended at the top to form a screen, typically movable sideways; screen Descendant: a person, animal, etc. that is descended from a particular ancestor; offspring (child, grandchild, etc.) Despite: in spite of; without being affected by Disrupt: upset; cause to break down; disturb; interrupt; divide; seriously alter or destroy the structure of Exhaust: empty completely; use up; tire out; expel (gas or steam) from an engine or other machine Fan: device that produces currents of air; follower; admirer; supporter; spread out Feeble: weak; lacking physical strength; lacking intensity; failing to convince or impress Fought: past and past participle of fight; take part in a violent struggle involving physical force or weapons Frugal: sparing or economical as regards money or food; economical; thrifty; stingy Ivy: a woody evergreen climbing plant, typically with shiny five-pointed leaves Miser: a person who hoards wealth and spends very little; penny pincher; one who is stingy with money and is miserable Miserly: stingy; like a miser; cheap Monarch: king or queen; ruler; a sovereign head of state; orange and black migratory butterfly (Zoology) Plague: a contagious bacterial disease characterized by fever and delirium, typically with infection of the lungs Possess: have (something) belonging to one; have as an ability, quality, or characteristic; control; own; have as property Rapid: very quick; swift; happening in a short time or at great speed; a part of a river where the current is very fast Rash: a breaking out with many red spots on the skin; outbreak of many instances within a short time; too hasty or careless Severity: strictness; harshness; plainness; violence; seriousness; difficulty; very great Shipwreck: destroy or sink a ship; be sunk; ruin; the destruction of a ship at sea by sinking or breaking up Spilt: past and past participle of spill; (with reference to liquid) flow or cause to flow over the edge of its container Stake: risk; gamble; finance; a long vertical rod used in basket-making Stingy: miserly, ungenerous; selfishly unwilling to share with others Thrifty: saving; careful in spending; thriving; economizing; prospering; of livestock or plants) strong and healthy Thriving: succeeding; prospering Trait: distinguishing quality or characteristic; feature of your personal nature Unite: join together; become one; combine; integrate

Lesson twenty eight

Bait: food used to attract fish or other animals so that they may be caught; put bait on a hook or in a trap; seduction; tempt Censor: person who tells others how they ought to behave; one who change books to make them acceptable to government Cereal: a grain used for food, for example wheat, maize, or rye; grain; food made from this grain Culprit: offender; person guilty of a fault or crime; a person who is responsible for a crime or other misdeed Decay: rot or cause to rot through the action of bacteria and fungi; deteriorate; waste away Deposit: a sum of money placed in a bank or other account; store or entrust with someone for safe keeping Disaster: an event that causes much suffering or loss; a great misfortune; an event or fact leading to ruin or failure; calamity Disclose: uncover; make known; reveal; expose to view; make (secret or new information) known Ethnic: relating to a group of people having a common national or cultural tradition; of different racial and social groups Excessive: too much; too great; extreme; more than is necessary, normal, or desirable; immoderate Exile: the state of being barred from one's native country; be banished; expel; banish Hook: curved piece of metal or by which things are hung; a bent piece of metal, typically baited for catching fish;fishhook Horoscope: a forecast of a person's future based on the relative positions of the stars and planets at the time of their birth Hurricane: a storm with a violent wind, in particular a tropical cyclone in the Caribbean; strong tropical storm Illustrate: make clear or explain by stories, examples, comparisons, or other means; serve as an example Insist: keep firmly to some demand, statement, or position; persist; persevere; firmly emphasize; firmly request Juvenile: young; youthful; of or for boys and girls; a young person; childish; immature Lodge: live; reside; rent a room to; contain;become stuck in; make or become firmly fixed in a place Merger: an act of merging two things, especially companies, into one; integration; fusion Offender: transgressor; one who breaks the law; one who insults; a person who transgresses moral or civil law Outcast: a person rejected by their society or social group; rejected or cast out; homeless Outlaw: an exile; an outcast; a criminal; to declare unlawful; a fugitive from the law; deprive of protection of the law Pastry: a dough of flour, fat, and water, used as a base and covering in baked dishes such as pies; cake; sweet baked goods Promote: raise in rank or importance; help to grow and develop; help to organize; further the progress of; advance Snack: a small quantity of food or a light meal, eaten between meals or in place of a meal; food suitable for light eating Tacos: a Mexican dish consisting of a folded tortilla filled with spicy meat or beans Torment: severe physical or mental suffering; torture; pain; annoy or tease unkindly Undernourished: not sufficiently fed; getting less than the required food needed for health and growth Volley: concurrent burst or discharge of words or ammunition from opposite sides; firing of numerous missiles at once Zodiac: a belt of the heavens including all apparent positions of the sun and planets and divided into 12 equal divisions

Lesson twenty nine

Bagel: a dense, ring-shaped bread roll; (Yiddish) glazed yeast-raised doughnut-shaped roll with hard crust Belt: a strip of leather or other material worn round the waist to support or hold in clothes or to carry weapons Bill: charge; bank note; promissory note; proposed law; a draft of a proposed law presented to parliament for discussion Blunder: stupid mistake; to make a stupid mistake; stumble; say clumsily; move blindly Bobcat: a small North American lynx with a barred and spotted coat and a short tail; wildcat with a brown coat Canoe: a narrow keelless boat with pointed ends, propelled with a paddle; light narrow boat Commend: praise; hand over for safekeeping; present as suitable or good; recommend Comprehend: understand; grasp mentally; get the meaning of something Conscience: a person's moral sense of right and wrong; a feeling of shame when you do something immoral Coyote: a wolf-like wild dog native to North America Cripple: a person who is unable to move properly through disability or injury; cause severe damage to; maim Curry: dish of meat, vegetables, etc., cooked in an Indian-style sauce of strong spices Daze: confuse; bewilder; shock; make unable to think or react properly Drown: die or kill through submersion in water; submerge or flood (an area); sink Exempt: make free from; freed from; released from an obligation Final: coming last; deciding; at the end; ultimate; allowing no further doubt or dispute Grieve: cause sorrow; mourn; cause great distress to; break the heart of Luxury: the state of great comfort and extravagant living; an inessential but desirable item; a pleasure obtained only rarely Maim: cripple; disable; cause to lose an arm, leg, or other part of the body; damage; harm; make useless Mourn: grieve; feel or show sorrow for; feel deep sorrow for the death of; feel regret about the loss of (something). Mugger: a person who attacks and robs another in a public place; robber; attacker; freshwater crocodile of southern Asia Mutilate: injure or damage severely, typically so as to disfigure; cause a deformity; destroy Pond: a fairly small body of still water; small lake; pool Razor: an instrument with a sharp blade, used to shave unwanted hair from the face or body Repetition: act of doing or saying again; reiteration; the act or an instance of repeating or being repeated Stumble: trip or momentarily lose one's balance; walk unsteadily; make a mistake or repeated mistakes in speaking; blunder Subside: sink to a lower level; grow less; descend; settle to the bottom; become less intense, violent, or severe Survey: look carefully and thoroughly at; examine and record the area or land so as to construct a map, plan, or description Toil: hard work; to work hard; move with difficulty; exhausting effort; labor Vain: having too much pride in one’s ability, looks, etc.; of no use; worthless; without meaning or significance

Lesson thirty
 
Acre: a unit of land area equal to 4,840 square yards (0.405 hectare) Amidst: in the middle of; surrounded by; literary variant of amid Appoint: decide on; set a time or place; choose for a position; equip or furnish; nominate; designate; assign a job or role to Ark: cabinet in a synagogue where the scrolls of the Torah are kept; ship built by Noah to withstand the Flood (Biblical) Attract: draw to oneself; win the attention and liking of; draw or bring in by offering something of interest or advantage Bug: a harmful microorganism; any small insect; conceal a miniature microphone in; annoy; bother; irritate Cram: force too many (people or things) into a room or container; compress; study intensively just before an examination Cub: the young of a fox, bear, lion, or other carnivorous mammal; inexperienced person Depict: represent by drawing or painting; describe; portray; characterize; draw Monument: a statue, building, or other structure erected to commemorate a notable person or event; memorial; tombstone Morality: the right or wrong of an action; virtue; a set of rules or principles of conduct; integrity; ethics Mortal: sure to die sometime; pertaining to man; deadly; pertaining to or causing death; fatal; great (Slang) Mortgage: a conditional conveyance of property as security for the repayment of a loan Mortify: cause to feel very embarrassed or ashamed; subdue (physical urges) by self-denial or discipline; shame Mortuary: a room or building in which dead bodies are kept until burial or cremation; relating to burial or tombs Novel: new; strange; a long story with characters and plot; interestingly unusual; a fictitious prose narrative of book length Occupant: person in possession of a hause, office, or position; settler; resident Peacock: a male peafowl having very long tail feathers with eye-like markings that can be erected and fanned out in display Pertain: (pertain to) be appropriate, related, or applicable to; be connected to; relate; refer Quarter: region; section; (quarters) a place to live; to provide a place to live; divide into 4 equal parts; one fourth; stay Quote: repeat exactly the words of another or a passage from a book; give the price of; a quotation; citation Rigor mortis: stiffening of the joints and muscles a few hours after death, lasting from one to four days Roam: wander; go about with no special plan or aim; an aimless walk Site: position or place (of anything); an area of ground on which something is located; area; Web site Stockbroker: a broker who buys and sells securities on a stock exchange on behalf of clients Tale: a fictitious or true story, especially one that is imaginatively recounted; story; rumor; lie; falsehood Thrill: a sudden feeling of excitement and pleasure; an experience that produces such a feeling; excite, stimulate, electrify Verse: a short division of a chapter in the bible; a single line or a group of lines of poetry; rhyme Waddle: walk with short steps and a clumsy swaying motion; walk in a duck-like manner Wander: walk or move in a leisurely or aimless way; move slowly away from a fixed point or place; lose one's way

Lesson thirty one
 
Bungee-jumping: the sport of leaping from a high place, secured by a bungee around the ankles Commuter: one who travels regularly, especially over a considerable distance, between home and work; passenger Confine: keep in; hold on; keep or restrict someone or something within certain limits of (space, scope, or time) Dispute: disagree; oppose; try to win; a debate or disagreement; question the truth or validity of (a statement); appeal Fertile: bearing seeds or fruit; producing much of anything; fruitful; abundant, plentiful Flame: a hot glowing body of ignited gas that is generated by something on fire; tongue of fire; blaze; passion; lover Frontier: a border separating two countries; the extreme limit of understanding or achievement in a particular area Hatch: emerge from an egg; shading consisting of multiple crossing lines Idle rumors: statements that have no foundation in fact Idle: not doing anything; not busy;lazy; without any good reason or cause; to waste (time); having no purpose or basis Idol: a thing, usually an image that is worshiped; a person or thing that is loved very much; fallacy Jest: joke; fun; mockery; thing to be laughed at; to joke; poke fun; something said or done for amusement Luna: (Roman mythology) the goddess of the moon; moon (in Latin) Lunatic: crazy person; insane; extremely foolish; a person who is mentally ill; reckless Parachute: skydive; jump from an airplane with a parachute; cloth dome-shaped device used for descent from airplanes Patriotic: loving one's country; showing love and loyal support for one’s country; nationalistic Polio: poliomyelitis; serious infectious disease affecting the central nervous system makes people unable to use their legs Seam: a line where the edges of two pieces of wood or other material touch each other; thin layer of rock or mineral Stock: a supply of goods or materials available for sale or use; share; farm animals; tree trunk, main stem of a plant Striking: noticeable; dramatically good-looking or beautiful; act of hitting; refusal to work as a form of protest Uneventful: without important or striking happenings; not marked by interesting or exciting events Valor: bravery; courage; US spelling of valour; courage in the face of danger, especially in battle Vein: mood; a blood vessel that carries blood to the heart; a crack or seam in a rock filled with a different minerals Veteran: soldier who has been serving in the armed forces for a long time and has much experience Wrist: the joint connecting the hand with the forearm

Lesson thirty two
 
Alibi: a claim or piece of evidence that one was elsewhere when an alleged act took place; excuse; defense Apollo: sun god and patron of music and poetry (Classical Mythology); US space crafts designed to land on the moon Bunk: a narrow shelf-like bed; nonsense (Slang); any thought that has little or no worth Ceres: goddess of agriculture (Roman mythology); first asteroid discovered (the largest and one of the brightest) Colleague: associate; fellow worker; a person with whom one works in a profession or business Curriculum: the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college Diminish: make or become smaller in size, amount or importance; reduce Dip: immerse in a liquid; decrease; lower; put or let something down quickly or briefly in or into (liquid) Distress: great pain or sorrow; misfortune; dangerous or difficult situation; to cause pain or make unhappy; hardship Flee: run away; go quickly; escape; move swiftly; hurry Loyalty: faithfulness to a person, government, idea, custom, or the like; trustworthiness; a strong feeling of support Maximum: greatest amount; greatest possible;, most; highest; greatest in amount, extent, or intensity Mighty: very powerful or strong; having or showing great strength or force or intensity; very large Mythology: legends or stories that usually attempt to explain something in nature; study of myths and legends Norse: an ancient or medieval form of Norwegian or a related Scandinavian language Pitch: relative highness or lowness of a sound; toss; throw; (baseball) the throwing of a baseball by a pitcher to a batter Proserpina: (Roman Mythology) goddess of the Earth; goddess of the underworld Provide: to supply; to state as a condition; to prepare for or against some situation; make arrangements Refer: hand over; send, direct or turn for information, help or action; assign to or think of as caused by; relate to Signify: mean; be a sign of; make known by signs, words, or actions; have importance; represent; indicate Sought: past and past participle of seek; search for and find someone or something Styx: (Greek mythology) a river in Hades across which Charon carried dead souls Torment: cause very great pain to; worry or annoy very much; cause of very great pain; very great pain; torture Trojan: a native or inhabitant of ancient Troy in Asia Minor; relating to Troy; courageous person; (Slang) condom Vulnerable: capable of being injured; open to attack, sensitive to criticism, influences, etc.; unprotected exposed Warrior: (especially in former times) a brave or experienced soldier or fighter; fighter; soldier Welfare: the health, happiness, and fortunes of a person or group; prosperity; support; financial assistance for the needy Wrap: cover or enclose in paper or soft material; pack; bind; cover; arrange or fold as a cover or protection

Lesson thirty three
 
Abuse: make bad use of; use wrongly; treat badly; scold very severely; bad or wrong use; bad treatment Chimney: a vertical pipe which conducts smoke and gases up from a fire or furnace Chuckle: laugh quietly; giggle; a soft partly suppressed laugh Cricket: leaping insect which is related to the grasshopper; outdoor sport played with ball and bat (popular in England) Draft: a preliminary version of a piece of writing; US compulsory recruitment for military service; make an outline Fury: extreme anger; extreme strength or violence in an action or a natural phenomenon; wildness; madness; violence Hinder: hold back; make hard to do; make it difficult for (someone) to do something or for (something) to happen Indistinctly: not clear or sharply defined; unclearly; indistinguishably Jolly: merry; full of fun; happy and cheerful; raise someone's spirits; joke; jest; encourage in a friendly way Kibitzer: one who gives unasked for advice; look on and offer unwelcome advice, especially at a card game; one who chats Lecture: speech or planned talk; a scolding; to scold; an educational talk to an audience, especially in a university Merry: happy; glad; joyful; cheerful and lively; slightly drunk Mumble: speak indistinctly; speak in a low voice; bite or chew with toothless gums Mute: silent; unable to speak; (of a person) refraining from speech or temporarily speechless; noiseless Orphanage: a residential institution for the care of orphans; the condition of being a child without living parents Pirate: a person who attacks and robs ships at sea; steal copyrighted or patented materials; illegally use computer software Prejudice: an opinion formed without taking time and care to judge fairly; to harm or injure Privilege: a special right, advantage, or immunity for a particular person; benefits given only to people of a particular group Resign: voluntarily leave a job or position of office; give up; accept as inevitable Retain: keep; remember; employ by peyment of a fee; continue to have; keep possession of; hold fixed Scold: one who frequently reprimands others with abusive language; a woman who nags or grumbles constantly Shrill: having a high pitch; high and sharp in sound; piercing; shriek; scream Twinkle: (of a star or light) shine with a gleam that changes constantly from bright to faint; sparkle; flicker Volunteer: person who enters any service of his or her own free will; to offer one’s services Wad: small, soft mass; to roll or crush into a small mass; (Slang) large amount (as of money, friends, etc.) Witty: cleverly amusing; showing or characterized by quick and inventive humour; funny; clever; sharp Yiddish: a language used by Jews in central and eastern Europe with words from Hebrew and several modern languages

Lesson thirty four
 
Adolescent: growing up to manhood or womanhood; youthful; a person from about 13 to 22 years of age Candidate: person who is proposed for some office or honor; person who applies for a job or is nominated for election Coeducational: having to do with educating both sexes in the same school; attended by members of both sexes Decline: become smaller, fewer, or less; decrease; diminish in strength or quality; go down; sinking Glide: move with a smooth, quiet continuous motion; fly without power or in a glider; pass without attracting attention Inoculate: introduce a virus or microorganism into a person or animal to create immunity to a disease; immunize; vaccinate Precede: go before; come before; be higher in rank or importance; be ahead of Radical: going to the root; fundamental; extreme; person with extreme opinion; person with extreme political views Rag: a piece of old cloth, especially one torn from a larger piece; old cloth; tease; mock; poke fun at Rehearsal: a trial performance of a play or other work for later public performance; (psychology) a form of practice Sensitive: receiving impressionsreadily; easily affected or influenced; easily hurt or offended Skim: remove from the top; move lightly (over); glide along; read hastily or carelessly; remove from the surface of a liquid Smallpox: contagious disease characterized by skin eruptions which often leave permanent scars Spontaneous: of one’s own free will; natural; on the spur of the moment; without rehearsal; instinctive Spur: sharp device attached to a boot for goading a horse on; stimulate; ride quickly Surrender: stop resisting an opponent and submit to their authority; give up a person, right, or possession; submit; capitulate Temprate: not very hot and not very cold; moderate; relating to a region or climate characterized by mild temperatures Toss: throw lightly or casually; throw (a coin) into the air so as to make a choice; throw; pitch; roll Undergone: experience or be subjected to; endure; experience; go through; suffer Untidy: not neat; not in order; make a mess; make dirty; disarrange Utensil: tool or container used for practical purposes; implement; instrument; tool;device Vaccinate: inoculate with vaccine as a protection against smallpox and other diseases

Lesson thirty five
 
Applause: approval expressed by clapping; cheering; praise Aspire: direct one's hopes or ambitions towards achieving something; rise high; seek to attain a goal; yearn; dream Avail: use or take advantage of; profit; help Boast: talk with excessive pride and self-satisfaction about oneself; exaggerate about oneself Charter: document granting certain rights and privileges; contract; hire Cinema: moving picture; a theatre where films are shown; movie theater (especially British) Discard: throw aside; get rid of (something) as no longer useful or desirable Discount: a deduction from the usual cost of something; price reduction; disregard; ignore Elevate: raise; lift up; move up to a higher position; raise to a more important or impressive level or status Erosion: gradual destruction and removal of rock or soil in a particular area by rivers, the sea, or weather; disintegration Event: happening; important happening; result of outcome; one item in a program of sport; a thing that takes place Finance: money matters; to provide money for; science of money management; provide funding for Lottery: a scheme for distributing prizes by lot or chance; something whose success is governed by chance Obtain: get; be in use; acquire or secure; earn; achieve; come into possession of; receive a specified treatment (abstract) Relate: tell; give an account of; connect in thought or meaning; narrate; have a good relationship with Soar: fly upward or at great hight; aspire; glide high in the air; increase rapidly above the usual level; ascend Stationary: having a fixed station or place; standing still; not moving; not changing in size, number or activity Subsequent: later; following; coming after; succeeding; ; happening after; following in time or order Thou: archaic or dialect form of you, as the singular subject of a verb Thy: (also thine before a vowel); archaic or dialect form of your Vague: not definite; not clear; not distinct; of uncertain or indefinite character or meaning; hazy

Lesson thirty six
 
Blot: a dark mark or stain, especially one made by ink; stain; absorb with blotter paper Breakup: the termination of a relationship; collapse; decomposition; coming apart Brew: make (beer) by soaking, boiling, and fermentation; make (tea or coffee) by mixing it with hot water; prepare Harmony: situation of getting on well together or going well together; sweet or musical sound; agreement or concord Hasty: reckless; quick; hurried; not well thought out; swift; done or acting with haste; reckless; rash House-hunt: seek a house to buy or rent Humming: make a low, steady continuous sound like that of a bee; sing with closed lips; buzzing Illegal: not lawful; against the law; contrary to or forbidden by law Incident: an event or occurrence; an instance of something happening; a single distinct event Intermission: a pause or break; an interval between parts of a play or film; temporary pause in an action Measles: an infectious viral disease causing fever and a red rash, typically occurring in childhood Narcotic: drug that produces drowsiness, sleep, dullness, or an insensible condition, and lessens pain by dulling the nerves Opium: an addictive drug prepared from the juice of a poppy; something inducing a false sense of contentment Prompt: quick; on time; done at once; to cause someone to do something; remind someone of the words or actions needed Redeem: buy back; pay off; carry out; set free; make up for; regain through payment; convert an item into its cash value Refrain: hold back; stop oneself from doing something Resume: begin again; go on; take again; continue after a pause or interruption; summary; abstract; CV Scorch: burn slightly; dry up; criticize sharply; travel at excessive speed (Slang) Soothe: quiet; calm; comfort; gently calm (a person or their feelings); reduce pain or discomfort in; relieve (pain); pacify Sprinkler: device that sprays water; mechanical device that attaches to a garden hose for watering lawn or garden Sympathetic: showing kind feelings toward others; approving; enjoying the same things and getting along well together Tablecloth: a cloth spread over a table, especially during meals Tempest: violent storm with much wind; a violent disturbance Wheat: cereal widely grown in temperate countries, the grain of which is ground to make flour for bread, pasta, etc

Lesson thirty seven
 
Abide: accept and follow out; remain faithful to; dwell; endure; stay; accept or act in accordance with (a rule or decision) Arsonist: the criminal act of deliberately setting fire to property; one who intentionally lights fires Courteous: polite, respectful, and considerate; civil; gentlemanly; characterized by courtesy and gracious good manners Deliberate: consider carefully; intended; done on purpose; slow and careful, as though allowing time to decide what to do Demonstrate: clearly show the existence or truth of; exhibit, present; display emotion Drought: long period of dry weather; lack of rain; lack of water; dryness Dwindle: become smaller and smaller; shrink; diminish gradually; fade Grumble: complain in a bad-tempered way; rumble; a complaint uttered in a low and indistinct tone Heed: give careful attention to; take notice of; careful attention; consideration; thought Heir: person who has a right to someone’s property after that one dies; person who inherits anything; successor; beneficiary Howl: cry out (in pain, anger, protest, etc.); a long doleful cry uttered by an animal such as a dog; yowl Majestic: grand; noble; dignified; kingly; having or showing impressive beauty, scale, or dignity; royal March: trek; journey; walk in coordinated steps like soldiers; the third month of the year Noble: belonging by rank, title, or birth to the aristocracy; having fine personal qualities or high moral principles Raft: a floating mass of fallen trees; primitive boat made from buoyant material fastened together to make a platform Ranger: a keeper of a park, forest, or area of countryside; a member of a body of armed men; scout Recruit: enlist (someone) in the armed forces; new member of a group Regiment: a permanent unit of an army, typically divided into several smaller units and often into two battalions Rip: tear or pull forcibly away from something or someone; move forcefully and rapidly Stump: the part of a tree trunk left projecting from the ground after the rest has fallen; (Slang) short fat person Summit: highest point; top; the highest attainable level of achievement; peak; greatest success Summon: authoritatively call on (someone) to be present, especially to appear in a law court Surplus: amount over and above what is needed; excess; extra Throne: a ceremonial chair for a sovereign, bishop, or similar figure; chair of God; chair of a king or queen; toilet (Slang) Thump: hit heavily, especially with the fist or a blunt implement; put down forcefully, noisily, or decisively Traitor: person who betrays his or her country, a friend, duty, etc.; betrayer; a person who says one thing and does another Unify: unite; make or form into one; make or become united or uniform; join Vandal: person who willfully or ignorantly destroys or damages beautiful things Wear on: progress; continue; bother; annoy; tire out Zounds: damn!; to heck with it!; expressing surprise or indignation

Lesson thirty eight
 
Bail: free a person from jail by pledging a sum of money; empty out water; rescue from distress; depart (Slang); Biography: the written story of a person’s life; the part of literature that consists of biographies Cast: throw forcefully in a specified direction; throw so as to spread over an area; choose actors (for a play, movie, etc.) Charity: generous giving to the poor; institutions for helping the poor or the helpless; kindness in judging people’s faults Chin: part of the face located in the center below the mouth; be encouraged Dejected: in low spirits; sad; depress; discourage Downpour: a heavy fall of rain; cloudburst Drench: wet thoroghly; soak; force to drink Fleet: a group of ships sailing together or under the same ownership; a number of vehicles or aircraft operating together Fraternity: a group of people sharing a common profession or interests; friendship and mutual support within a group Handful: a quantity that fills the hand; a small number or amount; as much as the hand can hold Kneel: go down on one’s knees; remain on the knees; rest on the knee or knees Lenient: merciful or tolerant; mild or soothing; not strict Obedient: doing what one is told; willing to obey; compliance with an order or law or submission to another's authority Parasol: a light umbrella used to give shade from the sun Rebel: a person who takes part in an armed rebellion against the constituted authority; one who resists authority Recede: go back; move back; slope backward; withdraw; gradually diminish; retreat; draw back Roar: a full, deep, prolonged sound as made by a lion, natural force, or engine; loud burst of sound Soak: make or become thoroughly wet by immersion in liquid; make extremely wet; act of saturating with water Swarm: group of insects flying or moving about together; crowd or great number; to fly or move about in great numbers Tide: the alternate rising and falling of the sea due to the attraction of the moon and sun; ebb and flow; current Tumult: noise; uproar; violent disturbance or disorder; a loud, confused noise, as caused by a large mass of people Tyrant: cruel or unjust ruler; cruel master; absolute ruler; a person exercising power or control in a cruel and arbitrary way Verdict: decision of a jury; judgment; a decision on an issue of fact in a civil or criminal case or an inquest Wade: walk through a liquid or viscous substance; cross with difficulty; walk in water Wobble: move unsteadily from side to side

Lesson thirty nine
 
Assassinate: murder (a political or religious leader); intentionally murder someone Blindfold: a piece of cloth tied around a person's head to cover the eyes; with the eyes covered Cancel: cross out; mark so that it cannot be used; wipe out; call off; decide that (a planned event) will not take place Clergy: persons prepared for religious work; clergymen as a group; churchmen Coincide: occupy the same place in space; occupy the same time; correspond exactly; agree Contagious: spreading by contact; easily spreading from one to another; infectious; communicable; transmissible; catching Cross out: remove from a list; erase; delete; cancel Customary: usual; in accordance with custom; conventional; habitual Debtor: person who owes something to another; company that owes money; borrower Depart: go away (from);change; die; go in a different direction; die leave, especially in order to start a journey Figurative: departing from a literal use of words; metaphorical; symbolically Lava: hot molten or semi-fluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure, or solid rock resulting from cooling of this Legible: able to be read; easy to read; plain and clear; recognizable Literally: word for word; in a literal manner; accurately; actually; virtually Mutton: meat taken from full-grown sheep Placard: a notice to be posted in a public place; poster; banner Rhyme: correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words, especially when used in poetry Roast: (with reference to food, especially meat) cook or be cooked by prolonged exposure to heat in an oven or over a fire Rye: wheat-like cereal plant which tolerates poor soils and low temperatures; the seed of the cereal grass Scald: pour boiling liquid over; burn with hot liquid or steam; heat almost to the boiling point; subject to harsh criticism Shipment: the action of shipping goods; the act of sending off something; goods carried by a large vehicle Swelter: be uncomfortably hot; suffer from intense heat Testify: give evidence as a witness in a law court; serve as evidence or proof of something; declare under oath Transparent: easily seen through; clear; allowing light to pass through so that objects behind can be distinctly seen Tribe: a social division in a traditional society consisting of linked families with a common culture and dialect Unearth: dig up; discover; find out; discover by investigation or searching; bring to light Vase: decorative container without handles typically made of glass or china and used for displaying cut flowers Wipe out: destroy; void; (Slang) kill; eliminate completely and without a trace; got rid of; fall over or off a vehicle

Lesson fourty

Ailment: a minor illness; an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a cause for complaining; sickness; pain; suffering Barbed: sharp projection near the end of something which is angled away from main point so as to make extraction difficult Chiropractor: a person who treats ailments by massage and manipulation of the vertebrae and other forms of therapy Chubby: overweight; plump; fat; overweight Convention: a way in which something is usually done; conference; treaty; agreement; routine; custom Convey: transport or carry to a place; communicate (an idea, impression, or feeling); transfer the title to (property) Corpulent: (of a person) fat; fleshy; obese; excessively fat Daze: make unable to think or react properly; in a condition of being mentally numb Ditch: a narrow channel dug to hold or carry water; dig a canal; get rid of Epidemic: an outbreak of a disease that spreads rapidly so that many people have it at the same time; widespread Hath: archaic form of the verb to have (third person singular) Impediment: a hindrance or obstruction; physical defect which causes speech problems Jeopardize: risk; endanger; imperil; compromise the safety or security of; compromise the success of (also jeopardise) Magnify: cause to look larger than it really is; make too much of; go beyond the truth in telling; exaggerate Municipal: of a city or state; having something to do in the affairs of a city or town; urban Negative: saying no; minus; showing the lights and shadows reversed; deny; veto; negate; reject; undesirable or unwelcome Obesity: extreme fatness; state of being excessively overweight; more than average fatness Obstacle: anything that gets in the way or hinders; impediment; obstruction; hindrance Obstruction: be in the way of; block; prevent or hinder; interfere Oral: spoken; using speech; of the mouth; verbal Pension: regular payment that is not wages; financial benefit paid after a person has stopped working Proportion: a part, share, or number considered in relation to a whole; the ratio of one thing to another; portion Stoutness: rather fat or heavily built; fatness; sturdiness; firmness; the property of being strong and resolute Swindle: use deception to deprive of money or possessions; obtain fraudulently; cheat; deceive Turnout: the number of people taking part in an event; a part of a road that has been widened to allow cars to pass or park Ventilate: change the air in; purify by fresh air; discuss openly; supply the blood with oxygen Vertebrae: each of the series of small bones forming the backbone; segments of bone which form the spinal column Vital: having to do with life; necessary to life;causing death, failure or ruin; lively; absolutely necessary; essential

Lesson fourty one
 
Acronym: a word formed from the initial letters of other words Annihilation: destroy utterly; destruction; ruin; extinction Assertive: having or showing a confident and forceful personality; confidently aggressive Beset: trouble or harass persistently; surround or attack from all sides; besiege; annoy continually or chronically Brainchild: an idea or invention considered to be the creation of a particular person; a product of your creative thinking Complacent: pleased with oneself; self-satisfied; content; smug Concentration: the action or power of concentrating; a close gathering of people or things; careful attention Cushion: a bag of cloth stuffed with a mass of soft material, used as a comfortable support for sitting or leaning on Devote: give time or resources to (a person or activity); dedicate; set aside or apart for a specific purpose or use Henchmen: a faithful follower or political supporter, especially one prepared to engage in crime or dishonest practices Indifference: lack of interest, care, or attention; having no particular interest or sympathy; unconcerned; apathy Morgue: place where bodies of unknown persons found dead are kept; the reference library of a newspaper office; mortuary Multitude: a great number; crowd; a large number of people or things; large quantity; mass Nominate: name as a condidate for office; appoint to an office; put forward Parole: word of honor; conditional freedom; to free (a prisoner) under certain conditions; a promise Porch: a covered shelter projecting in front of the entrance of a building; balcony Potential: possibility as opposed to actuality; capability of coming into being or action; possible energy (Electricity) Preoccupied: took up all the attention; busy; engaged; lost in thought; previously occupied; deeply absorbed in thought Rehabilitate: restore to good condition; make over in a new form; restore to former standing, rank, reputation, etc. Sofa: a long upholstered seat with a back and arms, for two or more people; couch Stain: mark or discolour with something that is not easily removed; damage (someone's or something's reputation) Sting: a small sharp-pointed organ of an insect, plant, etc. capable of inflicting a painful wound by injecting poison Tremble: shake involuntarily, typically as a result of anxiety, excitement, or frailty Undertaker: a person whose business is preparing dead bodies for burial and making arrangements for funerals. Upholstery: covering and cushions of furniture; soft covering on chairs and seats that makes them more comfortable to sit Velvet: a closely woven fabric of silk, cotton, or nylon with a thick short pile on one side; fur-like layer on deer antlers Vertical: streight up and down with reference to the horizon, for example, a vertical line; having a multi-level structure Wasp: an insect with a slender body and powerful sting;

Lesson forty two

Afresh: in a new or different way; all over again; from the beginning; anew Allies: nation-members of NATO; countries that fought the Axis forces during World War II Amend: change for the better; alter; improve oneself; make minor improvements to (a document, proposal, etc.) Ballot: piece of paper used in voting; the whole number of votes cast; the method of secret voting; right to vote Cattle: large ruminant animals with horns and cloven hoofs, chiefly domesticated for meat or milk or as beasts of burden Concentration camp: a camp for detaining political prisoners or persecuted minorities, especially in Nazi Germany. Deed: a conscious or intentional action; act; doing; document; certificate; a notable achievement Desperate: feeling, showing, or involving despair; hopeless; a person who is frightened and in need of help Drastic: acting with force or violence; having a strong or far-reaching effect; radical and extreme; intense; severe Endure: last; keep on; undergo; bear; stand; remain in existence; continue on in spite of difficulty Expose: lay open; uncover; leave unprotected; show openly; make (something) visible by uncovering it; abondon; reveal Forgery: a copy that is represented as the original; criminal falsification by altering an instrument with intent to defraud Heave: lift or haul (a heavy thing) with great effort; rhythmically rise and fall; sigh heavily Kinsmen: relative, family relation (especially a male); one who is of the same race or nationality Legend: story coming from the past, which many people have believed; what is written on a coin or below a picture; myth Maintain: keep; keep up; carry on; uphold; support; declare to be true; cause or enable a condition or situation to continue Mound: a raised mass of earth or other compacted material, especially one created for defence or burial Notorious: famous for some bad quality or deed; infamous, known for disgrace; having an exceedingly bad reputation Ponder: consider carefully; reflect deeply on a subject; think; meditate Resign: give up; yield; submit; voluntarily leave a job or position of office; quietly accept Roundup: the activity of gathering livestock together so that they can be counted or branded or sold Scornfully: with ridicule; mockingly; contemptuously; with disdain; without respect Sigh: a long, deep, audible exhalation expressing sadness, tiredness, relief, etc; sound of rushing air Slayer: one who slays; killer; murderer; someone who causes the death of a person or animal Snub: treat coldly, scornfully, or with contempt; cold treatment; short and upturned (of a nose); offense Submit: accept or yield to a superior force or stronger person; yield; present; propose; suggest; offer Wharf: platform built on the shore or out from the shore beside which ships can load or unload Wrath: very great anger; rage; fury

December 08, 2008 Contact Me: latafat@gmail.com

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