Pe0n1e......... 1 Describing Pluces/8ui1dittus.............. 2 0escribing 0biecls 3 [escribing ............... teslivols/[venls/[eremonies 4 lescribing 5 l'|srrulives f;heck $ludy 1................ E 0iscursive [ssnys lsssys u.for Aguinsl ........ rnd Issuys b.0uinion Sugueslinq loPtoblems u.Essuys Solulions 7 lellers u.lellers olfiequesl .......... Eivinu b.lellets lnl0tmoli0n Eiving 0ninion c.lellers un olAdvice i. lellers ............ ii. lellers Suggesli0ns/Recommenduli0ns Mrlting iii.tellers Aulhotilies/tdilot lolhe d.lellers olCompluinl olAnology e.lellers l. Iellers olAnpliculion g.Irunsuclionul I'ellets
fliecfi $ludy ?................

4 18 34 38


54 60 70 70 82 85 B8 g3 g3 05 g7 101 105 107 il1

Be orls n fienorls u.Assessmenl Renoils h.Inlormulive c.Survey fie[orls Benoils d.Proposul
ilheslq *ludy I ................

122 120 128 132
........................ :35

fieporls/fleviews I Arliclesiilews o.Arlicles fieporls b.l'lews c.Beviews


13$ 139 144 150

;54 $ludy 4...................:........:.............i............ t!tes:{ &Exlension Serlion fievision A[oendix' lllotdslPhtoses Iin[ing 158

Dessribittg H IffiilE Peo[le
in each termsof appearand in I Lookat thepeople thephotographs talk about and personality life/lifestyle. ance, appearance? each descibe person's z Appearance Howwouldyou noticeable? are appearance most of Which feafires their etc. looking, suggest? of sitting theirway Wat does is each imagine person like? z Personality Wat doyow as such conceming things each about person do ,ife& Lifestyle: Wat else youimagine etc? daily interests ambitions, Ihobbies, routine, profession,



of: shouldconsist a describing person A composition you is, aboutwho the person where/how givingbriefinformation a) an introduction etc; howyou heardabouthim/her, methim/her, of description suchthingsas physical whichmayinclude b) a main body of and/ordetails the manner/mannerisms personality/behaviour, appearqnce, activities, and etc.) everyday (hobbies, interests, person's and lifestyle, life express is on c) a conclusionin whichyou comment whythe person of interest, etc' the concerning person, yourfeelings/opinion whylhis you mayalsobe askedto explain of composition a person, ln a descriptive a strong etc, personiSsuccessful/admirable/unusual,why he/shemadesuch you' has on you,howhe/she influenced etc' impression the whichsummarises paragraph. shouldstartwitha topicsentence Eachparagraph is on depends the topic itselfand wherethe emphasis of the paragraph Thecontent olaced. taskssuchas othertypesof writing of Descriptions peoplemaybe inctudeiin several etc. reports, assessment letters, narratives,

Paragraph1 who the personisl whenlhowyou firstmetl saw himlher Paragraph2 physicalappearance Paragraph3 pe rso ityIbehaviour (with nal ju stifi onIexam I es) p cati Paragraph4 lifeItifestylebel iefs I Paragrapln 5 explanation1 + justification Paragraph 6 explanation + justification 2

to Poirsts Consider
you should give detailsof the person's To describephysicat appearance, fromthe mostgeneral age,facialfeatures,hair,clothing,etc' moving height/build, rs aspectsto the most specificdetails.*.g. Bill,wfto is fn his*atiy {wenffes, qultefalf dressedrn is end weil-built,with tltick black hair and pier*ing5/ue eyes.rCe usua/fy anOaT-snirt. ;'eans yourdescription with you personality and behaviour, can support To describe s,{frng unso*labf*,usu*ffy *,g. Markis,-afhsr of examples mannerand mannerism: in sifently a cornero#eer#ngotrem nema dbhnc*. habits' life, lifestyleand beliefs,you shouldtalk aboutthe person's To describe etc' opinions, profession, dailyroutine, interests, Jenef in stu**nt anca parf-im* essfslanf * supermar&el e.g. Beingbatha wnivers!$ lras lffflefree tirce fc go ouf rn fh* +ve$lr?gs. the related'to someone for lf the instructions the writingtask askyou to describe person using will i+#c present, ?escri&ea F€isod? fs L}ftusljil e.g. ".,",-you describg lhe sb to sb to lf you areasked describe related the past, who is no longer tenses. Present gerssnyoij ltr€t a.famaus alive,or sb whomyou metsometimeago ... q.#. "sesc,"i5e Past the person'using tenses. you was -rvfto ficta8ycu expecfe#...", willdescribe of efc' vocabulary, srunniagsiender' and a variety linking e.g' , Theuseof descriptive yourwriting moreinteresting' will wordsandstructures make

Final Paragraph com ments ings about lfeel person


Peonle Unil Describins 1
in information and composition fill in themissing thefollowing
then combinations, plan. Look at the highlightedadjective-noun , yool.book and try to rememberas many of theseas possible. a other words can you think of which could be usedto describe s physicalappearance?
'.'.''.;-' ."i. .:'-'.'.,.n,r. -P'.-.

lnfrodaction at Ms met DunnHillcrest {irst
headmistress School, Nursery


- q*'r'"".";'--':*''""-'

well you a Describeperson know
to ago,I wasintroduced years three School Nursery at working Hillcrest I began

&{sin Sody " &P7estanrc

exPression friendlY warm, smart;

* Ferso iprt ns,liW#e&av r , {if t/f.ifesfyfe18e&efs

fo1familylife,sinceshe In in Itl of the children her school. fact,she hasno time day, task administrative every of care various taking to herjob.Besides 6i.ut", herlife
b,alwavs takes time io talk to the teachersand parents.ln addition,she often holds of Jtinss'with the school's.Board Directors,as well as with staffand parents-

as suchaspects couldinclude appearance of A description a person's etc' hair, age,facialfeatures/expression, clothes, height/build, a nan you may describevisual details (e.g. Atall,heavily-built wearing whichdescribe jacket andlorusewordsand phrases ...) blackleather appearance by created the person's {e'g' the generalimpression het look younger than she is, Donna's slender,youthfutbuitd makes while her face, with its brigttt smileand friendly axpression,is very attractive). purposes a police e.g. for someone official Notethaiwhenyou describe repcr!,youemphasisetheperson'sphysicalappearance,givingthe possible' description mostaccurate


eyes sparklingiwatery/Piercing smile riendly sarcastic/condescending/f

kles scarsfireckles/wrin

k at the


photographs, themost iate descriptive
from those ted,and

t!"en writea short
intion of eachperson, in the example. portly/slender/powerful build hair flowing/silver/curlY i nejeatured i tannediclean-shaven/fi face expression ; warm/hostileiarrogant red Igi flabby/bung/withe bicePs

qf p i dim Ies/pm_Plft/Yl$t --


She Maurice black has hair. ic..e. ls {*r wt otFNu€{y t@flbN slso very &t!fietic. He jaw square forehead a strong... soonbecomes linking words(such '|and") as To wordsandstructures. has She whitehairandwrinkle looks years 90 old. in the example. trwin wyae wtw playsbw iretfunl! swrffMslteanc. enjoys going to parfiies and meetingpeople.has dozensof {ilthy cats. He is lriendly and fionest.she alwayshastime for her children..g.Mrf?c sliglttly eccenfitb. hasa darkcom plexion.. tend to. Alffrougftfie f. and gave These himanairof authority.powertd body. etc. etc) e. Contrast so + clause but/yet/However/Nonetheless/Even + thoughiWhile clause Although/(Even) fact + In spite oflDespite -ingforminoun/the that toyal friend. be. of e.He hasa thick He blackmoustache. than Mrs Russell tiny.he'sa verygentleperEon In spfte of &eiingvery busy.as ryelf as thin grey hah. to.g. furthermore. lle isverytall.Satah but she ean sometimes be rather im@ienl{not:W} You may describepersonality and behaviour examples manner with of and mannerisms gestures people (the use. He rs a scruffychild whose clolhes arc tafi and dirly. is rather. you should a widerange linking of this. Ffe v*ery !{e is athletis tall. you negative lf you describe Use: should usemildlanguage. a icate features.He hasthickblac is of hair.Her flat is nextto is mine. for .. no sneffier wftat hls thildren do fie doesn? fose fiis temper.g. (that) Result sfte laokslikeafilm star.People nil1 Describinu l-imkimg WordsarsdStra. of sentences usinga variety thestructures by shom Jointhefollowing in the tableabove.g. or who is very sociable.aeta.wffic$tpt[efffi playm iirn *n excef@ftt are The Masai EastI They tribespeople. as Kevin Boyceplaysbasketballf*rour schoai ienm. build filled The policeman's muscular broa hislarge uniform.butalso. only.Smfalss a successfuibuslnessman.Thismakes lookyounger heis. seemto. 4 {.with lang blonde hair.lhe waytheyspeak/walk. Brian.hec onff35. are They have noble They features. was She famous herdel too. My grandmatherhas deep wrinkles. stardom Grace Kelly reached Hollywood for in the1950s.can sometimes isanexcellentwoker.hutltrethe is a He /ooksas #iaugfrlp's an ald man.IA1/IOUR In descriptions people we can of include a clear descriptionof a person's personality behaviour and witha variety character words.. look graceful. taa.asa huge. makeshim laak like a boxer.gres or a of @ Writing whichcontains series shortsentences the samesimple boring and repetitive.m'ftr'cfi (a) so/such . extremely Notethatpersonality characteristics shouldbe stressed certain in typesof writing. explanation example.It hasonlya fewtouches grey him He hassmooth skin. These wordsshould justifiedin an be e. PERSgNALI'IY A[qDtsEI. for example when you recommend someone a iob. not in addition aswellas/besides. married prince She Thepostman 56. He is tempenmental. ffe #as a bro4ennese. hada high. use avoid with $he rs tai/ and striking. He is greedy and a miser. Sheis so beautifulffftaf) Addition moreover.fn addffion to &eingrverytl'tin.This rnnlns srs him mcellerct nlwer. Timothyis a very talerant father. etc. *{awever. qualities. Shespeaksvery rudely. #e"is mefoniy afiistic. RelativeClauses whoiwhich/whose ls fvly neighbaur.

.. participle: well-intentioned a actress an ill-mannered A result .. exactly he o"1ten Pectple find him ffinsive becattse says Adjectives Gompound are Compoundadjectives formed with: a) presentparticiples:a quick-acting doctor a officer.. so-. . a resultof trying to somet{mes W-l-vt-gs b-eing {-tfigl f{attereveryone.. 7 .. 4 A girlwhohas eYes. a six-foot man tall d) well... strange hadsomany a to people lot he because tends ask inquisitive as [oo. prepared who 2 A speaker has well. . . fact owingto/dueto (+ -ing/noun/the that)...omes asross being . Young politician. Since. . She is open and friendly... . sb strikes that impression '. he because is sohonest.. of resuk hissayingexactlYwhat he thinksis that peopleoften find of him offensive. badly.. is openandfriendly. whathethinlcs. as a result..in theexample. of a result/consequence is popular becauseshe tb open and friendly' is populu due to beingldue to the factthat sfie is open and friendfy' resuftol her beingopenis thatsheis popula.Opinionsand Reactions (that) IthinUfeelietc ls far as l'm concerned To meiTomy mind to It seems me that ln my opinion/view/eyes to adjectivesdescribe 7 Make compound thefollowing: constantlY' who I A baby is crying thoroughly... who 3 Students areorganised curlyhair. .. poorly + Past friend.so she (thaVwhy) is. ' of thefollowing'skeleton' 'rtrhamsometimes insincere (come I I revLktryIflattu I everyone across) lbe I 'Sraham as insincere. she dislikeher because is vain andself-centred. hard-working a b) past participles: stylishly-dressed man..' from sentence each write in Using expressionsbrackets.. trustPaul . hard. temPer' a whohas short 9 A man withoneleg./the the sb find/consider to be .he/ be/ mean things hebonow he / As/ he/ notreturn / (opinion) / be/ dishonest she oftenforget where my Since sister / she put / things... is.. so ... (Effect) Sheis popular. sb I thinkof/see/regard as being. of A/theresult ... 10 A man manners' who gentle 11 A dentist has as peopleicomes across (being)".. . Thereason extremely he because works isverysuccessful places has and in she lived exotic person because has isaninteresting . asa result. in or phrase boldtype... is is reasonshe popula is fhats/re openandfriendly' Look linkingword"becausett. a complete the as sentences. Thereason thetetoresheis popular.. is popular.. lmpressisns.. to seems/appears be . an open-hearted woman..'l ||nil Describins Peonle with tull He has habit speak / mouth / / / (find) I which / be/ disgusting Sarah people be/ immaturesince / / / / giggle whensomeonespeak often / / / her(strike) pay Owing fact lDavid/ never I anyI (impression) thing... brown 5 Aboywhohas old' player 6 A basketball whois42years clothes' in who 7 Anartist isdressedfunny specially who 8 A child-minder hasbeen trained.. ill..'.duet0.. experiences.. I questlons. / be / absent-minded (appear) and Words Structures l-inking ANDEFFECT CAUSE LINKING (Cause) Sheis openandfriendly. widelya a narrow-minded player knownfootball c) cardinalnumbers+ nouns:a threeyear-oldboy. at below I thesentences usethesimple usingthe linking thenrewriteeachof the sentences the tableabove..' this therefore/for reason ... ol sb gives impression being.

. Monica. presentand past participlescan be used to replace clausesas in the followingexamples.--.. Pau! Seen a distance. 'different' desPite who are very two PeoPle Describe similaritY lh"i. moody. Sh. wastiredout. underline and thejusti and fications examples or given. crael. mean. cm she Ske wasso rick that ske could h4 nr-tything wanted.un do it" than "l'm to his habit of refusing he comes acrossur'riun6otn.ffi /u I Paffiiciptes ln formal writing. aPParent who are in the twin brothers' are and Jason Jonathan identical they Physically' areindistinguishable ..tnctlBss ftiendb. obstinate.l:"' '.#. Thefollowing describes brottrers. resembles Newman..uruui . on and on ev€D.urn.dishonest. starins the'l:udl.nt. ske Naving heeilso rkh. which is "n"tg". ramental . though' due to admit he is wrong in any disagreement' .. of this is the An sonwho mightrun-uiu'g" corporation' example society' debating factthat he is alreadftn""pr"riient of the school !'I . out to be not only but also deeply :u'inq. 3 Richardis so rude that he has no friends.. is Louise sopatient she cutoutto that is bea teacher.'. full of confidence..one.. he \ . 10 Use the adjectiveslisted below to completethe following sentence describing characteras in the example: childish. was who dressed entirely red.. .. foa'i in dress and shortblondhairandiinefeatures. She sointelligent she speak is that can sixlanguages.^ i.. couldn't speak. theytend.deceitful. hours Jpend .the sortof perand assertive ambitious is Jason veryoragoin!. il the best"' lt is true that more likely to say .\ same the goes'Theyhave ut tl'resaying theyarelike'two p". Oliver. blu. in entered room. r .climbed down ladder. she cauld btry anything wanted ske -Wken k seen he lrc frorn a distance. resembles he Paul frorn Newman."rutt.il. was who walking crutches. hysterically. his tireless work on behalfof various tnotin by charities.. text twin Read circlethewords it. { of givesthe impression Rr'u l." p:*P"Y:-ldconceited f"opl"t"'ial" ii"J himrather instance. using him evenregard as whilea few people il".h to me he simplyr""..oo girL '"'4..to same however'it to . Maitr is {t {$e_gd!gbaA!@b!twhc'loves meetistg left people gets wellwith Paul. idle. when you ge-t know them' il."f#.tyr".ltt. the 2 Veronica. fuirgso she hrywryhh4 wanh irL. mfu.' . spitefu tempe l.lttno'" of anintrot^1i^t]jl'?1 I Relwitethefollowingsentences participles.e sorick tlat shecanbuyarrything is skewants. immature. or phrases describing personality behaviour. . is much he For ' 'Jff ilffi h d.InilI 0escribing Peonle ffi . who waslaughing miserly. however' On better acquaintance' and enthusiastic n" .insolent.^^l 'j. couldnot who goonwiththejourney. fr!. he sometimes ifu"otn"thand.i..Write eachadjective next to its synonym... i' spenistime-onl'^:*lf .il?. Then choose from the list belowthe adjectivewhich has a meaning almostthe sameas the word you havejust used. fiubbom. A goodexample Roger's of behaviour was the time thathe refused finisha game chess to of because waslosing. different' are t#their persoiarities completely crear soonbecomes .t yearat school l.. Frank is so absent-minded he that his always forgets carkeys. theroom slowly.s_og1gplg . Susan. the Wessed entirely red" in Monicaentered theroom. . -rfoi-*ittud.lary. timid.whowascovered in dust.

evenif she's a different of opinion.. he realises when someone since always is upsetor worriedand offersthem advice practical and help. comf...... whereas...g...-. ANTHONY ]UNE fashionable conservative ... has she money when absolutely to.although however. a he anee mindonce hasreached decision his just oneexample his . taps has quickly.... theother on tn sorrre Anthony luneare verysinilar. and thelist. He e.thenlistento the cassette complete missing in ation... ndrais a rather.. example....He loola at the Jerryblushes floorwhen is talkingto people.. the and Readthe table....... is ink Carol .......o1dwhorefuses man to is r Purvis a rather about something..compare also.ffib people getting and them to raldtends be a(n) " girrwho peaon....... alsenl'mina*ry*M 9r l .-....t'oys €frsily sensitive and Maruner ilflannerisms with omplete eachof the followingsentences setof character wordswhichbestmatchthe manner/mannerisms described.... jumps loudnoises. Roberta herfootif she to wait...#ilxt1nH*i.. ........ Lydia 3 Thereason seems is thatsheoftenlooks away in the middleof a conversation and answer sometimes doesn't whensheis to... .. is . is a who his As wellas biting nails. uol outgoing tolttltol. onlvspends because she and loolsatpeople a steady with gaze... hand. is Kevin... is of wavthat he shouts histeachers at haviour.. " ' antl smug condescendirig' a arrogant' anil generous caring b sensitive. to frombeing . impatient... .. 2 Mostpeople regard as him of ........ jumpsat loud his He nervoas noises.. Kevinbites nails... She's . he He's very.. Gordon shouts people lot.arJ I l . She sighs things if don'thappen not outgoing....... ffiilil.... is She easily... looking herself the at in Sheis always mirror. spoken 4 Phillip me strikes as......onotitg setf-confident..... because is so she for is kingto strangersterriffing Elaine people and often upsets by .. onaccount hissarcastic of voice sneerins tone and expression.. at verynervzus hours her Cathy spends doing make-up... as joysupsetting ......Unil 0escribing 1 Peunle rew15 so sit dayexcept andwatchtelevision. .He also at a clenches fists whenever gets his he angry. they are both fashionable However. timiil. Similarities: while.. 13 Readthe following descriptions and fill in each blankwith a "character" Then rewrite wordfromthelist below.. but. energetic...... en. insincere......... aswell as too. as manydifferent Use linkingtechniques possible. ait*r. each description onesentence in in as the example. their thinks without $ying whatshe suddenly is brother very .Usingtheinformation thetableandthelinkingwords Anthony June.. vain nervous..... persln. thathedoes nothins 1 William comes across ...ort. . flatters She she pretends agree to with them..... snd ways. He Paula people dislikes. tends be to issa considering feelings. hecan or perfectly charming angry miserable.. what or it'sdifficultto believe hesays to trusthim........... as aggressive.. .

t. . say the 15 Read shortextract life person's and of whichaspects the with. withhisJomitg in weekends Hebetieves hordworkondthat thekegto free.Peonle ljnit 0esctibing I ffi T o AND LtFEswLE BELIEF' L'FE.F much [iJe Claire's is prettg On dayto dag. in theweekends a drive thel.15.however. on" oav. lifestyle his to he otthough tries keep ondJriends.tends get joU. fill in themissing the notes.e to she. an to tries keep optimistic She the knowwhat asyounever painter . Andrarlsambitionis to climb Mt Everest athletic. AfuIBITIONS start school ..and up wokes herteenaged up shegets ot seven. . olJ leesthem to in o spends lot oJtimeworking tle gqr.. scientistwho family.. = e.. 1 ui Lot ossheworksuntil latein theevenings' ' beheolthg' to it's Jorh'er . His ond lies success in honesty determlnotlon.:.. Juture hos Steve a verybusg talking ffi Youwill heartwoPeoPle rvriter. 16 hotds.' .. ideaof a gives reader clearer the and aooutlife.ething Jor that She instance. person guess each what a about teach' Now do beliefs theymention? rvritea similarparagraph er or a reporter.lifestyle does. in an importantLondongallery_ her dream is to own un uit guil".lifestyle beliefs a In{ormation whatthe person's alsosuggests is whatthe person and does.natelyshe loves meeting new people.When she is not attendingexhibitionsand gallery op"n_ ings she leads a very diiciplined'h-fe.g'He is an eminent qualifications.. believes whote with ihe Jor Jomitg.nobttt herto JutJit oJherdrecms to approach tiJe. weekdogs """1 thesame f Jrom sons.g.ambitions. shopthe Then schoot.lifestyle beliefs.andoften is character like.thenlistento the cassette Using information. profession.clockin the afternoon.futureprospects.hilarei.'':. six to She to trovel' one .adventuraus and and lifestyles beliefs try to people's of the 14 neaa descriptionsthree and of whichaspects theirlife._ ' t tl" t:: :.first saYthen write a descriptionof Emma'slife and in similarto theone Ex. deals the lifestyle paragraph hobbies. .ciockin'the ing until 4 o.achievements. a job oJ care herJomitg'is in itsefand taktng great onethotshetakes in' Pride FAMILY '. has When'she o part. she Then. her husband and n"o ..interests. Moira's careeras a respected keeps her busy from dawn to dusk. recent rrr( LU himreoson hope n gives \ promotion ntm reqsoltt0 rtuPethathewitp 9tve5 oJ partner theJirm bea senior onedog.etc e. etc. .ornsherlines ottends proJession Ann's qoas workat about o'clock. Shepaintsfrom 6 o.. shestorts housework.ountrg special som. to that information relates you couldinclude of In a description a person suchas details to refer factual You may and theirlife..for . Hul" ambitionis to havea one_woman_sho* ..Geargeisworkinghardbecausehewantstobepromated. .oesto theggmbecouse important extroreheorsots' or AfterthatAin t./ ltJestgl..--.:.so she can combinehei inter_ ests with her career. .beliefs. -orn_ She usuallyspendsthe earlyevenings with . suchas daily routine' or in for is tamous his research genetics' aspects and below. tortu. Annhaso vergunPredictable '{ a have regular she because doesn't . She so pingand on. she whlch reallg den.e'g.Readthe abouta successful and table.. tries olwcgs to arrange Claire enjogs.y "nj !.

me of flowersand bringing of fthdaus with a photograph a bouquet can will helpif he possibly tea !cken soupor Japanese if l'm ill. irritated when I because hatebeingdisturbed and my I'm enjoying own company becauseI neverknow apprehensive how to tellpeoplepolitelyto go away. however.to red. hima valuable make ::re kindness she B = Youwill hearStellatellingher friendabouta person dislikes. mannerisms. h spiteof his strange like him. See how an ordinary beginning can be made more exciting: lnstead of writing: I firstmet mY future wife. You may them.'rall). famous writer.Chris to He problems. enjoyhaving like boringwhenyou havesomeone Life as a neighbour. Wniting teclrniques (useof techniques writing Certain speech or weather direct description. 's. You could write: lwatchedwitha and apprehension mixture irritation of my as the buskerapproached table on the crossword whereI wasdoing lfelt thatbalmyJulyafternoon. etc. people timeto time. introduced me bYmY 3 W h atd o e ssh e sayabouthispersonal'ity a n d / o rb e h a v io u r? boss. suchas his tendency bow 4. listento the tapeand answer the describe person.list and givethe topicof eachparagraph. him whichmakes look Iti-coloured catsuit tops hero.to blueto green the back.but thisis because I as flthoughChriscouldneverbe described ordinary.Unil Describing I PeoRle Then. fen introducing person and Chrisis a truly decent appearance.!wing capes a up andit sticks at at thefront. the I first met MarionBrowne. I could tell that he was truly 'qcentric. !r rrorldwould be a betterplaceif thereweremorepeople remembering always caring. t describing? Whois Stella the 2 Themanwhowasto become greatest influence in my life.He generally this off with oneof his lFea comicbooksuper goingfrom as His mask. wasto be mv futurewife.reference feelingsi moods. hairis ascrazy hisclothes. Lookingat yournotes. is never and of iim |ivingnextdoor. haps the most strikingthing about bodyis His Sris is hisappearance.at a partywhereI hardlyknew anyone. slender in adorned somekind of tight-fitting.*4@@*!^:|@!::@ry:€' I person haveeverknown 3 The oddest JackSimpson. mystery/ language create to dramatic to suspense. and sentences 19 nead the following rewritethem usingwriting tech' niques. tends be aggressive listen everyone's to is ready to makefun of him.HeidiTierney. was i1 . Littledid I know right thenthat thiswoman.pe ratherstrange for himself thefirsttime. then Readthe questions. William to was Morrison.and his combination unpredictability genfriend. "CanI play for something you?" shesaid witha cheekygrin. of which aspects description justifications/examples given. in a caf6 where I was doing my crosswordon awarm in afternoon July.) can be used when people order o make in t describing your descriptionmore vivid and interesting. woman the To my surprise. as you ribe a person regard eccentric hris Martinmovedinto the housenext beforehe ago. and . me andPuther satdownopposite guitardown on the floor. Readthe modelbelow and underlinethe havebeenincluded. keep notes whilelistening. 2 W h a tdo Ste lla andherfriendsayabouth is a p p e a ra n c e ? 4 she does givefor dislikinghim? Whatfworeasons 4@*F. and friendly is genuinely is verypolite.Even to minetwo years the folhimself e round to introduce ing day. Heidi. current'He has electric i?if he's styledit with the aid of a powerful to too.

" and handedme a photograph a bouquet of flowers.. is notas relevant describe pale blue eyes. and I know he'salways when lwas and listen my problems cheerme up.He introduced in hand and gentlykissedit beforemurmuring a deep.. outgoing. my birthday. Youshouldchoose etc. he merely for?" lt's this shrugged said.. in will information youinclude each you the paragraph? Ilowwould adapt your plan to organise paragraph composition? you whom associa I Describeperson a why place explain and witha particular youmake connection. in ."Whatelseareneighbours and and sort of thingthat makeshim sucha valuable unpredic. Under the street lamp there clown-likefiguregesticto appeared be a multi-coloured ulatingwildly and shouting.. Furthermore."l know! Let'sgo to the zoo to like there'snothing a niceelephant makeyoufeelbetter!" as AlthoughChris could neverbe described ordinary. to who someone is unknown thegeneral describe o for may Theinstructions alsoaskyouto explainthe reasons your imetc.g. you Describe people knowwell and two revealtheir difsayhow their hobbies personalities.and the sentence topic justification.I enjoy havinghim as a neighbour. he said. of said "This is for you.. this supports withexamplesand/or I e. this however.although hasa str:ange he on this. description be onlyonepartof the composition. often wore strange." huskyvoice. -< -{ .I soon realised carand was one of the polites! friendliest mostgenuinely way he ing peoplel've evermet . doorbell. He brings me chicken soup and readyto tea Japanese when l'm ill... you Describe someone knewin the pas and say in what waysyou were influenced him/her."you cannot a say instance.rro yearsagowhen I It was lateon a cold January van first laid eyeson ChrisMartin." manwith e. other period history. to feefinga bit low.g. for words and phrases key certain contain "Describe famous person.g. anda wet socket hadbeenstyledwith the aid of an electric with a low bow thentook my himself finger. shouldnot In orderto complete personality. everyaspectof appearance. I peeredout from between the curtains. Themain reason foundhim eccentric thewayhe dfessed. in fact his "normal"appearance."Descrtbe percon he orshe has managedto achieveso much. When I thankedhim. the instructions if public. by -si4#1til6ffi. . I was [ToPicsentenceJ he enormoushab that seemed For instance. to betongto some mPIesIJu stitic ation] [Exa tasl$ composition the 21 Read following Wha the and underline keywbrds.. ."Be carefulwith that box! amp That'sa ten-thousand-pound you'vegot there!" himself followthe When Chriscameroundto introduce to that his curiing day. describe question. Once./V ThIETOPIC INTERPRETING " a Various a or ask tasksin examinatjons youto describe person composition may people."ChrisMartin. tasksoftenaskyou to describea personand explain Composition aboutthem.r -'t PesRle Unil Desuibing 1 used? have 17. Just the other day he with cameroundunexpectedly an entireThaimealbeautifully laid out on a tray. achievements so on. tablefriend.". rangmy of showing the me greeted with a bow when I opened door.afterhearing removal a in front of the vacanthousenextdoor.at your service.but that it was. something task vou sucha composition successfully. e. and who hasdonea great a e." erglainhow to appearance it this In answering question. slenderbody was adornedin a comic book. you 3 Describe person knowwell and a you since has sayhowhe/she changed first met him/her. ferent .+i"1". super hero capeand maskand his rainbowhair lookedas if it catsuit. !.g. the as it is to describe person's "Sheis strong-willed. I was rathertakenaback discover ous guisethe previousnight had not beena trick of the His light. For instance. "Heis atall.. e.alnddedicatedto . well-buift and character. Madam. writing techniques been it in and below comparewiththecomposition exercise Which 20 Read model the nighttr.Curious seewho to my new neighbourwas going to be.somebody's for success.* .You whichsummarises mainideaofeachparagraph." The to o lt is important interpretthe instructionscarefully. instructions whichyou mustnot ignore.Describea pe/son who has influenced you greatly and explain fhe reasons for this paragraph a clear with in shouldstateeachreason a separate influence.. to whicharemostrelevant the particular the aspects deatfor others. that Chris ln the monthsthat followed.g. pressions/reactions. this person fromhistor 2 Describe famous a for Givereasons whomyou admire. your choice.

:.ffiiY-ttj-1T:l'r*u'*r #giri .rL^+ a toread normar inspite thephvsical athome' he is !r^ He so him much that isdetermined h. his lifewith manv condition his a Arthough heleadsfull'social roovercome.il0'nt wonderfur . 0f course ..rre around gives person remarkable I know' him makes themost ret to itspoi'| refuses his . and * Introduction cary .***.. him i cannot with-1lr: prnri"r. ilsic' meetins people' the in Heenioys same interestother genuine or anc hismind personatiry. ripeciat nimseff rurry and to unabreexpress rif. with to {unfair' lives r was occasioriwhen (on m'bmorabre move or vrsits that unable incruding totieinJatre. him.i . fil.out ur*rr.il itin* which patsy. pnyiiiat ?ndsoon .irrrl tfiat barance a show true which the ouprn iri nu . fun-roving.....the . iorrrim ract isa movements'result' spends he Asa is Gary his risure. fril.. often peopletreat with thin. rn iirnu simpry nirrm'ru tothink.n' disabirity.t. 0fe. patience tounderstand from di that sufiers cereorat Gary rirangerv ittakes Yfi.fellau student x Main Body DESCRIBE physical appearance personahry lJlehqriour ests I tnter les LtfI Iffesry I beli{s e EXPLATN/REASON * Conclusion of historical as as are importantI:hose anY rris at yet famousall.urJ o.ul'. € totonttor ffi. g. his oo"1 h:tt*si.. lifehappyandfulfilling' 1 i he difficultieshas of rife.itln toututi* bvstudying r admire main The reason to rri* preventediror qoi^g scrroot.nd pen o. the paragraph.'. in to serf fa*behindhisschoorwork. tomymind ryfrieyelgnts maior isnot most person I admire achievement' The this itself uno utiorr*qt. write a *.ior orany reason TiF arways a manhgu. unJ * rro*ry. .il.afiects asif hewere backward inte*igent qy]: appearance.. together his tj -: x I not E hismuscles' child' a His pers.-rfiyrng day never u iium irw ano and make i J ni.tfi'. work play of "gurut i. ur**..i-j[:J:xil.i.prur. This."T$lfiIH:lTs:*n*:lT:lmlii"H'Ji1ffJf-'[Xt-li'rife' 13 .r cause to run rife his inawheerchair..iu r*i. tact. {or . thencomplete outlineplanon theright..Unil 0esclihing 1 Peonle of the underline topic sentences each 22 Readthe modelbelow. ffi.# r"'.and t: friends' behind However..even friends.' in allowing easity conversation.. savs' instance'beins to from far is ractthat sothat' Gary. Anbther I admire situation' t. he what issaying.iirtf 11tlgii1niilttrt'uno him) the wiirr ano cookins cteanins firehelp o'ne atone. arso a beauti{ut stuoent and the heis notonry nest leiters friends' toiwrite to his typewriter .ro turilrr*p"Go'nr.. Tilg:d. youns .irroughts rnu*rio H.rnrr'oi"nuroui but ias poems * in ourcrass.qd.

seeming without day. would for ananswer youwithinthehour. was a "pull-yourself-togethel"of boss at having youintoheroffice she call was that sensed something wrong.If she she but she listener. missed busandwasnow m the It reiAy for a good scolding. and of officemanagement' that was impression she a sortof superwoman and her in No crisis theofficeevercaught off-guard. andadvice enabled to beassuccessfulI amtoday 14 \ . on hadbeenabsent thesame Miriamwould in thatif everyone theoffice have noticed! noteven to she Althoughshehadnevermarried. andencourage to talk. birdlike that however. givetheparagraph in is line. seemed havea deepunderil was tell and of sfanOing familyrelationships. would all.Miriam themost met' I've person ever admirable thingabout Themoststriking was though. I willalways but with f6n i lostiouch Mirianr who iife. giving her woman.andnearlY anhour the had to I hadfoigotten takeanumbrella. as sound well' was offered alwaYs remem her after retirement. Oo*nwith theflu. laughingiy methatlateness she because had overanhourlateonherfirstmorning had to methatshe been She character. couldalways whenanemployee at sort She not problems home.yetunbendingly was acter calm. in everyone theofficehad nearly when remember oneoccasion on I m smoothly to ffi. on therareoccam had sure make thatshe she a not 6-ny*hen shecould answer question. hersensitivity tMiriam.Peoule 1 Unil lesctibing a Describe personwho has influenced your life and explain whYYou admire him/her.whichwasfypicalof her sympathetic and clarity accura to of the to ceeded explain workings theoffice mewithsuch leftwiththe that questions. person. one of My firstimpression herwas of on verging stiffness. tne feel in mt in 24 Fill in the topicsentences the text out' then opposite. I was naive patience myrather to withsuch ry. thenprolost her way. on influence my life and an to who Director. towards of f On myfirstdaY workatAcrol soaking nervous' I Asurance arrived late' half wet. politeness is All in all. for myadmiration MiriamsteadilY increased.through !-erherasthe"guiding as me help herexample. matHer abilityto dealwith several miracalmost seemed tersat once ulous. light"in myworking thewoman . was have enormgus Managing career. easily-flustered After professional' reminding warmandkind.Whatinformation included have What tenses eachparagraPh? Why? used? been with I Duringtheyears worked her.soon I i-f u*ruous. Miriammanaged keeptheofficerunning used sometimes to joke We in or stressed harassedtheleast. hertruecharlearnt. theadvice Not onlywas a good you . confesse she in wouldnotbetolerated theoffice. appearance theimpression p|She wasa small. others. was then that I met Miriam Bellings.

. hedidnotbeargrudges a troversies. USA. i : . which spent of hislife fighting Hismorefundamental was every belief that independent to decide or her owndestiny. as guistics phitosophy.4a1. man educated multi-talented whichleft his mark and but architecture. wasperceptive sensitive physical He and a memorable and..-4+. outstanding and an neoIndian dialects designed ownhome. thisphilosophy and his and therightto be economically thought which today to of still formed basis American the He by survives. he all person has vidual.wetl. a keen six had newvarieties foodplants. was linguistically life knew languages. on American :] Best known as the author of the Declaration of (whichstated America's reasons for Independence. gefered thisactasiThelastservice canrender country". ThomasJefferson. wasa veryprivate person kepthis he who andoftenhadasmuchasfifty people a learned whoat least He man private to himself. declared "theverythought the against people". linnot onlyon politics on agriculture. during his iI thatheaccomplished I I . it was I . his Despite factthathewas public the figure. -_._ -. of were properly its citizens uneducated. a. fill word. was in political relations although heinvolved many conin personal against opponents. of for people. hefought if and for could function hardly theestablishment f one.well-built presence..\ |Jnil Describing 1 Peonle the words. for wordorder. in staying hishome. of instigated first systematic of American in the study interest developing his Monticello.. manwas for Admirable many of for. for the below correct highlighted and WO G P 25 Reaa model plan. in theparagraph punctuation WIVfor wrong or Descnibe on importqnt penson frrn the post ond explain uhg he/she is of significqnt impor"tonce inG '/"'" who wasUorn@tZ+3 in Virginia. rule)andasthethirdpresto of needing befree British Jefferson a highly was ident of the United States.: . indeed valuable a { Paragraph 5 i i and was esteem affection and whilehislifetime. Jefferson a person he earned who All in all.15 t .Thomas i of all effects on and for our whodeserves respect hisinfluence politicalthought for thelongJasting longandfruitfulcareer.l- r.. : 1 Paragraph is whotheperson able wasanextraordinarily andgiftedmanwho'sinfluence politicsandcultureis still felt to this day.-..Then. WriteS for spelling. wasscandalised proposals r* in and was a that alone treason establish dictatorship the Unitedstates. example 18th of century classical architecture.":-. designing buildings supervising ili their the of and even the and { construction and to He my himself. this most berespected hisbeliefin thefreedom theindito in ways. heldthebelief nocountryi in He that believed theimportance education whole Jefferson 2 Paragraph Paragraph 3 1 t Paragraph 4 3schools alsofounded University Virginia.."*. for grammar. and manwith striking features was and Jefferson a tall.

5*:*+t4$d*{i*6e*€ and maY StreeP be successful 2 Meryl satisJied is she notentirely bui iufrnttO. He' also has a small moustache and a goatee.He is of Atican origin. Mr Webster has been a great asset to our in " company and I have no hesitation recommending him for any related post. all ! the old." to work lucky beable to publicit 2S-year-old saysthe bright. Robbins was last seen in the Ma:rwell Park area and was wearing a girey vest-type T-shirt and black jeans at the time' Robbin's famiIy are appealing for any information on his whereabouts' ! She was a lively child with long. was fromhome.newspaper and extracts declde: is each extract takenfrom. She was so much his daughter and..: . where is. aged thirty-two. painfui memories came € c flooding back. articlesetc. and through #4 Although career-girl a :* F' *S' '*. she she career would to trerselt one tateO But satisfaction' when had have greater do she frer weast<eO what would if she her between glamorous choose to had she and career motherhood acting either!" live "l cannot without iepfieO. He has Proven himself to be a dedicated and highlymotimted member of otu worldorce. I have found him to be honest. reliable and tilstworthy. She had inher* 6 € ited her mother's big blue eyes but g when she smiled. behind hair brown swept Her agent.de*e*<<u*w. are d. and of medium height (5 feet 10). extract b. whoeach style. is extract addressed c. short are use her and ears minimal 0fmake-up about signs she to bepractical that has o{ the c0mbining jointresponsibilitie But trim and work parenthood. fromthe " timeandenergy iob iakes i{ she dedanO feelsthat had otfrer. Jf motherhoo claims Sonya through.*l I 10 . woman d. Always professional in his appearance and approach to hjs responsibitties. goid* en hair and tight cruls. policereports. a. i * I . while her thin lips & gave away the insecurity that I Michael had shown all those years before. I cor:ld see that she -'E € was the image of her father. There F a was such a directress in the way that € € + she looked at you.-. f G r+ e . whothewriterof each to.rI I Peoule l|nil1 Desctibing lettersof recommencan of 26 Descriptions people be foundin stories. During titat time. her figure that professional help clothes ensure and business her shemaintains dynamic appearance. whichextracts writtenin formaVinformal "l To whom it may concern: Paul Webster has been in or:r employment for the last five years. while I played with her.i*@:d*i#. ofher her in sfre that isdoing best either Each 0rasa parent' anactress titt. Readthe following dation. s "d g * { t "€ I i li. "l her very hasn't changed life mllch. 1 I Matthew Robbins was reported missing on the night of SaturdaY 22nd AuEnrst.He has amuscularframe and his black hair is cropped short.

As a student university. her and clothes as elegant ever. was oncea carefree even She and frivolousperson. his at he worked weekends orderto helppayhis at in waywhilecompleting degree business his in studies.Unil Desuibinq 1 People and topic 2V [teadthe extracts write appropriate sentences them.t wfilry fuim ller. ar 1 What are the key words in the task instructions? Should you describesomeoneyou know personally?Why (not)? Should a1lof your descriptionemphasise negative features? Which features/aspects description of will you include? What reasonscan you think of in answer to the "explain" part? What examples/justification could you include? What would a suitable paragraph plan for this compositiontask be? It's notthathe's ever done anything me to or to anyof ourcolleagues. there's but something aboutthe way he looksat you that you makes feeluneasy. 28 Loot at the following composition task instructions and answerthe questions below.pasf a from ymea wnallfd fo seeagaim. 1 What are the key words in the task instructions? 2 What do the phrases "your past" and "seeagain" suggest? 3 Could you chooseto describesomeone you dislike? Why (not)? Which feaiures/aspects description of will you include? Whatreasons you think of in answer can to the "explain"part? 5 What examples/justification could you include? 7 What would a suitable paragraph plan for this compositiontask be? There nothing cannot is he succeed once in he sets mindto it.. youthful Her face and slim figure remainunchanged. look smaii brown eyes makes distrust you that him you fromthemoment nreet He tends'to him. are as to peopiewho know her weil the change is obvious. ailad expfaira y*at feef f&is way abou.ri. compassionateunderstanding and person. he and has earned admiration allwhoknow the of him. Overthe years positive qualities his have brought success him repeatedly. fi . hisdedication determination but and just have meant after tenyears is nowa that he director.but thereis a rather cagey in his sly.Then write 350 in thecomposition about words. for Where youthink theextracts takenfrom? do are . There benorealbasis mydislike. telling as everyone exactly whattheywantlo hear over-compliand mentary anyone a higher to in position than his. yoem.However. may for butheis a personsimply I cannot trust. isquitegood-lookHe ing. beobsequiousyeil. 29 Choose ONE of the composition tasks above.! #escri$e per$@s..:$. &j #escri6ea Fers@n yau dislike. a. *xg*fedca fd&e amd wkY. but the difficult circumstances herlife have of made a more her serious.fn jijif: #ji: Thisisnotimmediately apparent she as still looksverymuchthe same. started at the bottomof the He out company.:' . and write a complete paragraph plan with notes..

size.g. placeis important you. i["ff. . aboutthe place/building details and specific a main body givingbothgeneral b) a ones.or brochure a usedwhendescribing placefor a tourist are tenses normally Present a usedw hen descri bi ng vi si tto a . flfiS&0.'a&etmakestiso spee.Read tablethenlistento thetape the use Finally. facilities. variety exclusive.g"Visrfors'iect'efep.3 *. details an the warn staneflaarsecha thraugfi mood and atmosphere{e.popular. free-timeactivities building: surroundings.:ri . vocabulary The use of descriptive will techniques makeyourwriting well as narrative as and structures worcis of linking m o re i n te re s ti n g .$ssurihimu ffi ffiffiffiK Fluces/$uildings to about cityhefinallydecides a { ffiSlYouwill heara rnantalkingto a travelagent mentioned. (e. a m a g a z i n e rti c l e .'af.3 general featuresand Particular details (place: surroundings.wasbuilt in etc colour.ry* *i::'-:l{iii*ir f:' !jj.fl. and parlicular buildings. reasonfor choosing the place Paragraphs2 . rs ta n d s e c o n d ondi ti onal(w i l l /w oul d) be usedw henyou gi about etc. a s tte n s e sa re norrnal l y P a can c s pla c e /b u i l d i n F . iflewto !rtadriri this {n. othertypesof writing in may of Descriptions placesibuildings be included several Paragraph 1 nameI Io cationIPoPuIation of the place.5 explanationand p i exam IeIi u stifcation articres' retters magazine and re?_[.?i. a placeor building is normally asflfl. landmarks. materials.: i.gl. .].1 for sights: cosite ! nogotpotoceI tur"u*s I Cothedrot StRotrick's l__] pubs I octivities: free'time tneotres clnemos ! ! cof6sI recommendotion: Rorks I funfoirs I oistros I recomrnended expensive ooring hightg f I I efc. Notethatwhenwe givefactualinformation describe givenusingPresenttenses. tuy ere . efc.t.sffErafed Sxiord"Sfreef then and. to Vou mayalsobe askedto explainwhy a particular depending thetopic.i) whenyou describe to features specific movingfrom the general usually to by referring landscape. distudling tranquilgilgnceJ. {e.places go.g lks opinions/impressions of the f*e cocl dark ffirrlri*rs.Notethatthe number tasks. on varies of length paragraphs and etc.fiit'i i. thetableto talk about citydescribed' Athens tocction: Greece ! ouotinI toinourgn I I I E tretonc scottono reoson visiting: hotidog ousiness]-l l--.) famo*s '{*r."li:T '' l.g. factual informationsuchas age. fe. andtick theinformation the visit. writeaboutits a you describe buildingyou should to things do) ii) when givea detailed of description in surroundings "J. Tfue to touch.1. exquisite. hearing. a towering. its exterior the concerning or yourfeelings opinion in c) a conclusion whichyou express or subject givea recommendation. impression place you shouldgivethe overall (sights see.taste) suggest smell..). youridealcity/house. assessment as such stories.p$ifii$f fhe ib*riAn paninsala with a .with I#metre tallrnarbl* calumns.il_. and interior.l?l l":i.l it!ii*. to rela'ring the senses (sight. to to details etc.:l Final Paragraph comme nts feelings andI I or a recommendation 18 \ t l} . srgthfs.f i'vi*r#c.!i#. may of Descriptions places/buildings include: fer*pie.'ascinafeci ttsei{ #f ffiygtery'} placeor building1*-g' -Tcr:rlsfs i s E a c ha s p e c to f th e d e s c ri p ti o n h oul dbe presented n a separateparagraph with beginning a cleartopicsentence. detailed descilPtion of exteriorlinterio0 Paragraphs4 .g.

the road leadsup talWiAelB . The streets Hong areatrenzy activity deafening The of Kong of and noise. side Chinese little Below bright the garishly neon lights.. silk There also and markets are fish bird alloverthe where city. sil! peninsula south ofChina. will anendless visitors find variety shops restaurants of and competing space Hong you buy for on Kong's manic streels. roads congested vehicles. The city's nighflife. Tourists locals flock theJade and alike to Market. itsshops restaurants. shrines chirping and birds.) Theseverbsare naturally usedwith prepositions and prepositional/adverbiaf phrases (e. sparkling are with from limousines todusty rickwhile shaws.Then. of l|esuibe busy r l[]ge. you searchingtheopportunity whether are for to serenade your | o ve d o n e in a karaokebaroraresimp|ya f t e ra b e e ra n d a b it o f '.sfands at the top of . dancing. heaps gleamof ingsilver can found lish be displayed to brillianily-coloured next squawkingparrots. Meanwhile. of Thesemay explainposition (e. far the cramped centre parks cool city lie with streams. it offers wide to as a choice dishes allsorts eatino of in of establishments. yourbooks try to close and as remember many themaspossible. food. Kong.pluces/Buildinqs Unil 0escribing 2 the Read model below fill in theplanon theright.''.. etc). hidden a on sidestreet. and the in crowded narrow alleyways. . o lntrodactian location. reason n Main Bodl/ o*gf. East meets West. and lookat the adjective-noun highlighted combinations. advertising brand every name con_ ceivable. and In not from chaotic.. can anything here..9... contrast. ) andlor acrion fe.9. a city extreme of places one themost densely is of conwhere trasts. leadsup to winds past . huge the where modern float ships along_ junks.g past the statuetowers abovalgtanglg the at tap of . tranquil mountains a form breathtaking backdrop thetowering to skyscraperssteel concrete of and packed closely around harbour. the latest and technologyequally is as importantancient as customs are..the old house is situated nextto! tSSSItpUndgd . q 1g . population. by theymay aisogivesomesuggestion of movement {e.it. Buddhas dragons ofsmooth stone.sensesthe the of pedestrian are bom_ with barded a bewildering of exotic variety sights smells.9. countless hordes people past of stream onthepavements.. around Built a small inthe east Hong now populated onearth. foi like and caters alltastes.g&l featares o Eart'iwlqr details o tonclusion LocationVerbs and Prepositions Therearea number verbsusedto of descri be the l ocati on and/ or surroundings a place. ranging state-of-the-art technology from computer to hand-madesuits.. with its intricately-carved depicting pieces chinese icons. and green made For Hong is Kong second none.) .

.."""""" t6)""""" "'the right th" Further """""'l] 't'""t' 'u' t'r. 20 \ . It It in was 5 Themonument erected 1919. The cottage.. *'"'#nry-+$a+:&'' r1?''"_.:'.too matn 1) Standing 'F'{'4"' .:'Hi::: "ffin'.wltigfi stands st the top of a cliff.. :l}":lil. with 3 fiU in thegaps words around..main tttu"t.i Tt :...'1"_l I'.... which....'.... The farmhouse It is surroundedbY fields. It the dominates skyline... intothecountryside. valley' thewooded lane 2 Thenarowcountry ..... The aottaEe... 10) : the pavement tn hand sideis a ?14) .theseashore' hiilside 3 Thesteep mountains.. usetimewordssuchas "while": zt€zlkF*g thrcugh fie streefs... fo*ris-ts ar*. base themountain' 5 Theriver.... Ewilt in 1850.. I Thesuburbs .' .ff..lu]'{ii......q:.+4"1i "*'ro'ryt*"ee'leri .. was built in 1850. builtof local It in was 2 Themuseum opened 1939.Pluces/Buildinss 2 Unil 0escribins only Use fromthelistbelow: thewords once. faces ouf fo sea..ir"t f Al r*'--i-ii.... in. CI WalYing ihrough fhe sfreefs........ 1.....fiof the street' the corner i..fwhicil wasl built in 185O rs surrounded bY fields. out...... who a memorial those diedin Wo to WarI..go". on.a*r..*: qa *"::.' 11r u.....' -**. lroma distance... isthelargest in Britain. belowstarti 5 tint< the sentences for with eachsentence the correct in of theword(s) bold. every da of visited thousandspeople by It by is 3 Thetemple surrounded trees.'s/ds..i.n......:"?'il"l"jil1|.ti.. 6 Theplains precariously 7 Thecabin. Erceied by reises anu srnells. OTouristswalk throughthe streets @Noisesand smellsgreetthem... lgP?ife fa#risis :ffalk thraugh the ihe nolsesand smellsgreetthem so-eefs.@ aoises rnd srnelfs greet the {ounsfs andsmell thatthe noises Thismeans arewalkinglInstead..thefootof thehighmountain' 9 A tinyvillage with a suitable of Fill description......"p"nareajust4) the.. nestles isperched curres through.. j.. the coffage fuces o$t io sea.i$i'ri' N ote how the meaningof t he sent enc changes w hen t wo sent ences wit h di fferent subject s ar e joined wit h a participle..standing atthetoq of a cl.T'r::Ji::......a'4. 1 The castle stone. a shop' -l... in each thegaps the 4 Read following verbs' of each the'location' and circle or preposition adverb '': you can seethe varlar rr'6r of the old stone steps' th.}i'ljl*:-.. . It faces out lo sea.'o. at.. clauseis of t enput at t he The parti ci pi al the sentence: of beginning $fanddng af fhe foP of a cliff. direction' in every . 1 Thesmall with ispacked antiques..."''""'i.ui'di .. un. difficutt see to 610 squ 4 Greater Londoncovers city miles.".. stretch is set winds to down in. ' the houses that line the the corner 5) """"' bottom of the steps is Clauses & Participles Relative wit S hortsentences h t he sam esubiec (-ing/-ed) withparticiples maybe joined or relativepronouns(who/whichiwhose The cottage stands at the top of a cliff.""""""The streetdisappears the whole scene' .-.. out. The {armhouse.. fJre farmfiouse is srjrr*d#ded Sy f.thefirstfloorhangs i -: tands g s n that s) :: l:: :i::: Ji.Tili.. l*i. 4 Thehotel the of . sprawl is lomted slopes of thecentre town.'u|t. fuces out fo sea.... mustkeep You or for the samesubject bothclauses. II !: i'SlTiff'1iil:q ^Jr:: ...... Welsh thetowering ...... house.

9.i. pa$sengercrushta the tmin. Then at the look two photographs decide and which phrases eachphrase describes.cars. to smell. " F ol6$af hum of laughter and voices clinkingglasses colourful sails strong odour of fish platesof {ood mouth-watering criesof seagulls warm sun on white buildings splash of breakingwaves saltv water t/ f{ . and description? Why? i ry. similar description photograph of !je.{C$RRICT] tfue behind the sitlkitxg it the bekindtke vn^untsitl.Unil Descri[inu 2 P!oc. wereamazed thelength thequeue.g.a (people. passengers even press your bus.golden sand {wc6c&s.nnunt#in. jostle Crowds shoppers each of as other they squeezhpastdisplays goods. silence The was Punctuqted thb rhythmic by . What tenses usedin each are the senses identifoeachsense. grow the of voices iouder thepeople as haggle prices.ib-. a Approaching the central square/you and could hearthe hum of laughter voices.j}FG B A faint smell of crusned wafted from grass up mecourt thehotsunbeai as down thecrowd on watching meplayers. You may describe details touch andtaste)to suggestmood and atmosphereie. + I n or dert o d e s c ri b e h u ma ns c e n ey o u w i l l needto use a vari ety a of words and phrasesrelatingto crowds (e. for together make to closer busy baskets from hang towards supermarket's tills. busy. i l l r 9 Nowreadthis description photoof graphA andusethenotesabove with of furtherdetails your ownto write a B. describeboth the placeand the activity hearing. restaurant busymarket.humid and fill air. etc). the crowdsurged their feet to with roar..commotion. bustling.dazling colaurs and a deafening babbleaf voir:es. fish. . oF- the Read following underline phrases whichreferto the descriptions. cu$omers ctueueup./W c r ipt ion so f p l a c e so fte n i n c l u d es u b j ectssuch as a popul ar Des EFI of etc. as friendly..sound thetennis and bf ball themuted gasps thespecof tators.g. relating the senses(sight.ata) and activity (e.you should restaurant. then.) . Busy waiters mouth-watering to bustled and fro carrying backa platesof food.heaqr the 3 Shuffling tired theshoppers' arms. 2 Squeezing wayontothepacked theother room you. to hot. 8 Identifu sense(s) the referred in each to of thephrases below. Some mayapply bothphotographs.relaxed atmosphere the tourists enjoyedtheir midday meal. while smells fresh the of vegetables spices the hot.suddenly. Snking c. .9. {GARREC'|I by into we of 1 Stretching thedistance.eslBuildin sentences in theexample. as the 6 Correct following the fil} s!rt) red" the { wntched sun the w'ith {wn0ru6} behind mounttLin. Ifie bazau is a riat af exoticsmells.q A Themarket of buzeswiththesound women's voices. fans. etc). . sunfilled tfuesky with red.. against picturesque on groundof brightsun shining the white bui l di nes. from the alongwith the clinkingof glasses Therewas a outdoor caf6sand restaurants.crowdd. filled tfie sky with tll As t watched sunsinking r:d. 2l . In a description thissort. the over and clang metal 0f rings through bowls boxes and themarket. among screaming theroarof theenormous the squashed I Standing was crowd deafening.

the columnstands the centreof at in TrafalgarSquare the heart of .. million tourists every Year. 200 l.. Situatedin the Black Hills of South Dakota. looking your at the Listenandcomplete notes Column.. as as Writeeach a complete thesentence...Pluces/Buildinqs 2 Unit Desctibins the is below.. re a s o n b u i l t. breeze frame sun/ seti horizon.'.18. the beautiful ... I ciU e.e I dominate I farlress the the top of the hill. i D c o mme n ts fe e l i n g s . the square. (age... a as London in reminderof granderdaYs Britain's nation whenthis once-great the seas ruled The constructionof the monubegan ment on MountRushmore The in in 1927and finished 1941. . overtwo which attracts memorial.. Size: the column stands metreshigh . wordunderlined themainverbof sentences 10 tn theskeleton sentence in theexample. the describe monument. .. at the Nelson's Battleof Trafalgar Surroundings ... notes....and National buildings otherimpressive .... the memorial standsout from the mountainside which rises high above the surroundingfarmland. 11 describing Nelson's ffi You will hear part of a TV documentary below. Then.write description Nelson's of Column about words..{'=.. by four Comments/Feelings o the monurnenttowersabovethe . Reason: commemorate . a d e scri pti onof the surroundi ngarea and faci l i ti es or aboutsi ghts. at streetlevelthe columnis flanked lions .. headsis a Powerful thesemassive reminderof theircountry'shistoric while glories and achievements... factualinformation a Whendescribing monument.and can be clearlyseenfrom a far distance.. e tc ).each standingsixtyfeet high. o n o t i n cl ude nformati on activities.. Factuallnformation r Built: 18.g.. evening I I trees sway gentle 1 Palm / / below' / / 2 Standtop/ cliffs youcan hear wavescrash rocks / / / / houses wood' / designJohn / street be/ row/ terraced 3 Line/ cobbled / bowl.the massive at Standing fortressdominates tity.. commemorates four formerPresidents of the USA and consistsof four heads carvedout of granite... StandtopI hillI ntassh..is siteof a the . 12 as a mo and your notesfrom Ex.you shouldinclude s i z e . 11.. of the sPectacle To Americans.. 13 Usingthe textin Ex. / 4 Surround / all / mountains sidescify/ lookI asif lbein / enormous belo I 2 Lookat the brief description of toPic each Whatis the Paragra in used tl verbs Circlethelocation the and description underline wor imPress phrases usedto express opinion... foreign touristsare struck bY the strange sight of these dignified faces lendinga humanform to the bare mountainscenery. .

Looking and then thequestions.lof*i: ro I was .. the he 6 Howdoes feelabout place? a GF Of.iilT an amuiins I reit structurer it because it.. are attracted theopportunity by to marvel thesolendours of at a 'bygone age..Unil ileseribinu ? FlsseslBllildirtgs place.. description a placeyou visited a letter a description.s surrounoJo l.? fietdsdivided by ancient dry stane walls. w non-emoti onal ay of d F or m als t y le is c h a ra c tq ri s e b y a n i m p e rs o nal passive. wasbuift atopa sfeep.*l. Stomehenge nuge stones anybody. "Tu^. and complex and chattyway of emotional by Informalstyle is characterised a personal. .. Read a talkingabout particular 14 ffi Youwill heartwofriends them. FSMMALAPWtr styledepending of Descriptions placescan be writtenin a formalor informal the to and how the writerwantsto present on whom they are addressed in to of a Forexample.1 . English your and useof colloquial expressing ideas idioms and shortforms. the for cares themodern of world.. listento thecassette answer of then talk at youranswers.. English non-colloquial your ideas. ruins as a reminder theEnglish of CivilWars the was when castle dismantled Parliamentary by forces 1646. use of the frequent expressing only in quotes. (idiomatic expressions)..iny dad's caftage ls awt of this world as it's right En the tap af a hill and looks dawn on gergeous green fields which are split up by old dry stone walls.. .ffi W. about? talking place they are 1 What is Where it? J Howoldis it? 4 Whatis it builtof? are rooms there? f.. racl<yhillsideoverlaokingan idyllic landscapeof ius. visitors in Today. Comparethe examples -The aottage. iformal) .iT r. of a whereas description a placeissued friendof yourswouldbe informal.s is guess they but il{iu:*TnH#n:'.f. by once inhabited a{amaus paet. nrite a description it.. a moment.yT ?l9 either i.fl :i*i ffi $is:fi. (inforrnal) and is extracts a formaldescription whichis 1 5 Whichof thefollowing been takenfrom? extract has Where each Why? an informalone? Corfe Castle The medieval castleof perched ona hill Corfe high is overlooking smallcomthe munity The stand below.AMACTEffigST8#S STYLE NNFSffi$64[..t it fffi'ililil..trpi everywhere. Shortformsare acceptable sentences.. abouttheplace. Howmany .ii 23 .and leave behind....1I:ur admir a bitdisappointed wnenrealised I Stonehengelike looks isn. in the in Authority orderto promote placewouldbe written a by the Tourist formalstyle.

verbs as: from or of a b using variety present pastparticiples such etc tenify.The castle. serene. awe-inspiring. tanquil. imprcss. inspire. quaint. delightful. in and wordfromthose the 16 Choose mostappropriate in sentences.I waslfelta#ounded at how beauttflurl pushingricksfzaws' .. thefollowing deserted.g.g. exquisite. the overlaoking city. strikepeopleas structures ancient The enormous be construct' the\' equipment wouid difficult'to modern even since using (amuseidismaylamaze) 24 \ r_+ . quietatmosphere. disreputahle.s noi. ed crowd tourist reso below. e. majestic.To ny dellgltt.. lived in. dilnpiilated..spellbinding.g. you replace ofthetenwords each Now just used from with its synonym have list. depressing.is at standing thetapof themountain e. they were (3)too small. their winoverand fencessagdowsboarded in ging. as: verbs from or of a b using variety present pastparticiples such efc refresh. picturesque.tit. suitable A Descrintion e ak. to fill in thegaps thefollowing form put it into thecorrect tmt! rclours rtuLcorL. (10)peaceful. bare. theview but 4 Itis being spoiled. fte astonfshingimageol children such expressions as: in of a c using variety nouns surprise delightl letc astonishmefitl ta firyaffiazementl place kept itscharacter.g. filthyand in needof paint.Nowthey are (4) qld-end-!rclen. magnificent. dismay. crowded. enorrnous' astonished.dilapidated. superb massive. B DescriPtion given brackets.shock. itsriotorts t. winThe (8) very big stained-glass cendows with their (9) wonderJul flood the interior turies-old oictures a creating withsoftlightand colour. path. disappoirtt.lfte by: of impressionsa place negative 'S Youcanexpress suchas: variety adiectives of a a using neglected. e. the dlsappoirrting such in of a c using variety nouns expressions as: surpiseetc I ta nrydisappointnentl e.g. are Visitors the cathedral usualto at ly (6) surprised the (7) imprcqgtye of elegance itssizeand proportions. is Florida in winter... alnaze.derelict. s#mulde' avenvhehn.PloceslBuildings Unil 0escribing 2 & Fleac€Eoms InrpressEoras ExpressEraq I by: of positive impressionsa place Youcanexpress such of a a using variety adiectives as: axquisite. otttstanding. inhospitable.behind stretch the canaland ruinedhouses flatfieldswith no treesor grass. the where grew is I up howquickly area to see (shock/excitq/inspire) . 2 Several traditional (horror/delight/depress) find tourists which mountain duringthe trip up the steep are 3 Visitors (puzzle/terriff/offend) it makes worthwhile. 17 Read the brief descriptions underlined eachof the and replace words or phraseswith the most wordfromthelist given. etc squalid. lli| isu thritling (thtilUrekxlrefrwh) in cannot be the visitors. caves thearea Ofmost 1 To the_ (disappoint/delight/impress) unsafe' declared been have as visited. hausing' viewof theunsightly e. barren.Thebuildingwasin a dllapidatedstate. run'down miserable. depress.theonce'tranquilvillagehadtumedintoa rt.The landscaPe whichtheY standis (5) emptyand ugly. eyecatehing.g. abandoneil.te' witlt lrt pluce v'i. . astounded. elaborate. breatttbking. had o. The row of (t) efnPty houses canal alongthe bank of a stagnant When present a (2'tsad Picture. thev into pensions converted quaint have houses been old. bleak. astound.ble u amP d. tranquil imposing. aw+inspiring.Iomydisappointment. asfunish.g. etc superb. overwhelming.

hereonehastheleisure apprecinte to o few visitors fail to hecharmed can by c to sumup o furthermore.congestedstreetsconfr?medmy initial impressionthat it was an unpleasant city. Withoutdoubt.' J.Littlewood is a place (10) with nicepeople and scenery. doubt t . anyone For who wants to escapefrom the pressures modern for a while. is A hugestatueof a lionis the firsf thing one nofrcesuponentering the temole.g. particularly one marvels theincredible at architectureof thePompidou Centre. of I was immediately struckby the staggering numberof hugeskyscrapers. 19 Readthe extractbelowand replace the underlined words and phrases with phrases fromthefollowing list.anyone wouldlikethe natural beautyof the region. and realise thisis a veryspecial that place.isasif they(4)really lt like sharing charming their village outwith siders. (9)Sq. The first thing onenotices about the houseis its overgrown garden. Ihe most noticeableloutstanding featureof the palace its goldendome. When visiting Paris. on sinceit is sucha glamorous city. Concerning Littlewood village itself (t ) wbatyqqnaleeisthe hospitality of (2) thelocals. What strikeslimpresses/delrghts visitorsabout the resortmostis its unique surroundings. help s. Undoubtedly. cannot but one help wonder at e glestheimpression being of c hustle bustle and o combines spiritof a community the witha well-ilesemed for nature respect t paid them compliment the of Describe place the a in "ouiirysiai and explainwhyit is worth visiting. the most impressivething about SanFrancisco the is Golden GateBridge. The reasonlhat the areais so depressing that thereareso many is derelict buildings.Sheltered from the outside world by the hills whichsurround thevillage seems (6) it. 1 8 Rervrite sentences the wordsin boldwithoutchanging the using the meaning. thinglteaturethatwitl disappoint visitor the lack the any is of facilities. Everyone enjoys welthe coming smiles thegenuine and interest thatthevillagers showin anyohe who has (3) bothered visitingtheir small community. noticeable Undoubtedly thingthat will impress mostabout you the Svdnev the is amazing Opera House.Unil Describing 2 PluceslBuildinss UsefulLanguage:Explaininglmpressions Paris makesan immediatelenduringllasting impression allwho visitit. . untouched the technological by age and the (7) noisyhurry of modern towns.it of life iswellwortha visit.(8)Youcanenjoythe lateafternoon sun glistening the river or on shining through autumn the leaves. ffinnlt helpbut ffiflrvel at theincredible one .. whenvisiting Paris. (5)Also. and irnmediate 25 . Whatimpressed most me about entire the building thelavishly-decwas orated reception hall. One cannot help but be impressedlmovedlstruck by the naturalbeauty of the region.- i V/hatstrikes visitors Mykonos to rnostis the perfect combination of glamour tradition.. . One particularly marvelslwondersat the varietyof attractions offered. o takea pafticulnrdelight in o thethingwhichmakes strongest the impression .:. strongest Thefirstthingthatonenotices about cityis thatthere s0many the are we ll-preserved medieval buildings. The thing which makesthe strongestlmost enduringimpression is the hospitality the locals. The filthy.

start like this.s I . cannot s school to go to a tinYone-room rollingcountrys by green..t. rounded of description "thewh 7 Shakespeare's like . damPair as schoolho the entered old one-room and and mildew dust. Jescribing or monument oncesaid. 4 How many PeoPlehave had t in to opportuniry be educated an c Wh schoolhouse? country one-room wh to I wentback visitmyoldschool...building feelings people's . ! directlY o addressing reader the to aboutor reactions the place.Thisaba come had I the been scene place once had doned for twentYchildre lively lessons myself. of myearliest one-room a 22 Write possiblebeginnings thatplace. school and. open." "ThecityI admire in 2 I shivered the chill. . gymna with school a library.inner< 6 You mayhave a labs.yes.I sudde and I how realised luckY hadbeen.it in a forrnalstyle. I believe place on influence thisfeeling.as stcod the for empty yeals. been with are memories associated some schoolhouse. description. was t thiswaspartlydueto the beaury quaintnesstheplace itself.ili#lffievorvine at top Casa visitthe Loma' ti19tt19..Plntes/Euildings 2 Unil 0escilbins 20 rewrite below. of 20 & .tury.." man it.' ptace those for an ideal architecture impressive visiting worth "' oneplaceespecially can visitors enioydining - a yourdescription morevivid. tun go uPtheCNTower' buildol *-nitnit oine thetatlest the the what restaurant of Tower' a 'iln'l *xx#ll.. wl and the aninlluence place itssunou life.As Ernest .l:':t* also able be ofthe viewlYou'll to"u'ilu *nojt *iffionuitriuiltatthe beginning cenit u like tuiry-tufu'iurtfr.i modern is which iust lt's amazing'anultra *ttn" oi"eintivou'rrfindmatches don't Skydome The orconcerts . ingshadhadon mY to who 5 Everyone went theoldone-r v the feeis same my viilage in school the aboutit.Toronto great is Toronto a reallY city! for Places are There so many to dothat things to uou tuuand 'uou'ff have frarOfy timeto rest there' while ' You're that Oni ot thethings will imPress is immediatelY You the lts of ut. a attendedbig. asXiig a rhetorical answer) or suspense anticipation o creating mystery. is now no longerused.tiied oftwhenrains view spectacular of "' a resemblingcastle builtat theturnof the century roof retractable are events heldallyearround city NOTES: impressive .nitrrtutt thebuildings' Paradise' a sightsee/s OJinittfv io.. so indcloses.") movable 21 techniques the and paragraphs identify narrative the Read following one' ' in used each been whichhave the outside olc we said. kn but for years I seem empty it hadbeen voic to hearthe soundof children's the I Pushed do Holdingmy breath."Parisis a Hemingway (e.as I rememb country I th going a there alwayspleasure. one-room dbned I from noise strange coming inside. usinga quotation feast.anditseemeda s h a me t h a t t h e b ig ro o mn o lo n g e rra n g wit h enti endings a composition for children' of thevoices haPPY most. n considered and all the facilities In for essary a goodeducation' tl whatit is I imagine you case.g. nas that stadium " . usingthenotes Then. ing schoolboy creeping a sna to does certainiy notapply m school" a I attended one-t my schooldays.iitlr*prns soorts orsnows! it ffi. Theyall remember tir years th of as there thebest they spent had itself the and lives. including the outside doorof the aba 3 Standing I hear schoolhouse. the Read following ci$ is a trulyimpressive . I cou of It smelt on seestains the wallswherethe ra the through roof. can certaintechniques be usedto make by: or end your description You can start o u s i n g y o u rs e n s e s to d e s cri bethew eather' surroundi ngs' etc o usingdirectsPeecn whichdoesn'tneedan (a question question .

Budapest justa place look display tocelebrateStephen's held St. atop three which settle^d Middle itsconOnO and Ages. witha huge along . But fireworks Day. tookme0na whirlwind ofthe Leo aniving Ferihegy at tour After get The mile from to citysoI could mybearings. on side river.:T:[rt Chain in to the capital. I spent weekend my friend in theHungarian Leo for Day Budapest. lmpossible tomiss lunch a lovely restaurant. Gallery.Hungarian is situated the capital. for Museum theNationat and G. certainly highlight mytrip. on theglorious Danube in western River Before amalgamation the in 1S73.ryf! ryisit any ofrhe 2t . delighted the with Bridge. evening. casfle definitely sti'eets Gothic and architecture. numl and a ber f rscinatjng of Budapest before delicious Hungarian Zoo sampling more some cuisine for museums. the the via museums I couldn't to visit. Airport. paused admire to Euda's cobbled. Describe capital afamous city Budapest. tensinvolves pieces writing? you would find these of etc)? Where style es.i.Buia. itreets ano I introducedLeo's family. and located either oftfre ine Pest.tly+estored Casfle the to Buda and Citidel their on some museums wewent imposing sites. lynguw. situated theeast the to took of thecitycentre usthrough thearea can your ano :l|!:riry:9you find bearinss sei ataste this of Baroque River.ur. you arnvedthe centre unce have in city from nearby Ferihegy take tour Airport. can the fireworks display is taunched thi which from Citadel. afternoon. view sat the hills inthe fantastic of Buda Castle theCitadel.feelI leftBudapest a nails I ofiering performances.lts fascination parilydue is to the Hungarians' resourcefulness. the Gabriel a 1gg-foot_high central once more. column.ft. The day.Unil [escribing 2 PloeeslBuildings plan. Allinall.tyfm onngs long turbulent alive rts and history foithe visiior. is not to at. Budapest ar rime year llygl. however. end I only a time with youcan fine your byhavingdelicious in vivid insight Hungarian day into life: a meal one of the many traditional restaurants. pest.Stephen's celand only to ebrations I was tooglad oblige. sixteen journey theairport Pest. bereached bymeansthe of cheap joined we Buda.llrli* underground the train Szecheny or lT. visited and before hilltop The is meal mother careful. also National Museum That but the Library Castle and too.worth back home enjoyedgpicalHungarian Leo's and a had visiting it houses National as the 1iilry. back Buda I went to at little Inthe where istheMillennium Monument. _. wasanxious meto joinhimfortheSt. nec_ a quality essary ensure survival a citvwhich t0 the of has toberebuilt many had s0 times. was Chain Szecheny Bridge.tutu. Although spent short there. afasci_ a lotof Hungarian andhistory thanks Leo hiscaptivatingHng 100and to and culture plenty theatres conceft of and stories. to the of at ofBaroque architecture.of in. archangel surmounting was of a nap. theCastte lypreparedus. Uothic linethebanks theriver. had chance explore Budapest thoroughly. bf After hadbeen to we houses dominated recenare bythe We went explore city the together. sped through streets stunning architecture Danube We and of fantastic atmosphere. because and dilu of fi this ii a fahrrlnrrc it locationatrip the for into past. s[e washome twoseparate Buda to towns. a round the gffi'filtTEJr^ffi avisit capital you enjoyed Describe toafamous city particularly last with Leo capital. city's past After which wait crossing river.the erwithPest 1873 form modern-day I was is oldest ofthe First part crty. leaders. crty's fascinating ofarchitecturaf variety . 0ecause this it is a fabulous vrur. I spent interesting ofdays Budapest managedsoak in are an and to couple up Inere excellent shopping facilities. entered which officially togeth. a striking colon_ I wasamazed discover thecastle houses only National nade not the displaying ofHungarian unO to that statues king. you and if are Iucky enough be in Budapest St to on Stephen's you witness stunning Day.After short I returned.Whichof the models and 23 Readthe models givethe paragraph narration? two Howdothese models differ(paragraphs. more next I the to After Across river.Budape5t delightfut which is a city embodies centuriestheEastern of Eurooean past. will stunnino the in you find examples a brief totheexcellent visit Museum Fine I went see animals Art. Buda with where watched extravagant we the to Castle Leo.

h o w e v e rth i s d e s c ri p ti onmay be onl y one part of the ta c omp o s i ti o n . something and coffee-shops time tea-rooms. withitsownbrand charm. summarises 24 and topics under' the Read following line the keYwords. wouldliketo visitthe placeagain. Describe youthinkyourtownwill how time. w hy i t i s etc. itsintricate outinmy sight' are slolver. youwander As back likea of the York alsonotable the{actthatit hasmanaged incorporate by to for is you tail narrow streels. cannot to bestruck thequaintness the and offer setting.' then a of a task requires briefdescription the two places. place and Describe visitto a famous a why explain it is sowell-known. isafascinatingthecare which hasbeen Yorkshire nearthe on situated tworivers preserved. particular.Which tenses shouldyou use?What information in will youinclude each ParagraPh? plan. York Onethingthat makes impressive you it particularly found is unique among English towns York with it Moors.g. seem share sense pride thesplendour surrounding oftheir in to a o{ journey intime. "Describe a placeyou haverecenfly visitedand explain why yau wauld Iike to visitthe place again in the tuture'" the you this ln answering question. theauthenticitythemany of for importancenearly has ofhistorical been of is painstakingly residents the restored thepresent and walls. which paid detail anattempt preserve city a to in t0 as to the choice itissuch well-preserved seemedbe best years' thousand Medieval Gothic and two historic buildings. Reme mb e rto s ta rt e a c h p a ra g ra phw i th a topi c sentence w hi ch is whatthe paragraph about. architecture. it wasa history York where attention been such has year Since I while wasin mylast atschool. Surrounded the of through maze busy. close adjective-noun highlighted as as try to remember manY Possible. "Describe two placesyou havebeen to on holiday which were very different from each other. has York to offer. ideal 28 & . first there organised and trip. which for reasons youropinion. many thecity'srichhistory.Pasttensesare required.g. or town city of Describe centre your the season.b u i l d i n g s r m o n u m e n tsA lternati vel y. going to.anawe-inspiring There r life much stained-glass and and for held and Viking Thecombination of ancient modern such fascination a museum Jorvik a includingrailway of mdseums allkinds. places to of are each restaurants. o overa periodof time.C o m p o s i ti o n s k s often ask you to descri bea pl ace. that visit I more the can where Centre. signifia Describe placeof historical why cance. Minster.supporting questions may ask you to compare and contrasttwo different Certain you plac e s . explaining it is important. to relevant the particular e. during Christmas the in Describe restaurant your neigha rechighly you bourhood which would giving why reasons it isworth ommend. Shops offices a iull above and a life Rising these dominating modern intosuch historic houses. important. periods been many each times since. you tasksuccessful l y.Thenunderline the the and below give paragraph the 25 Reaa model Finally lookat the used? Why? have What topicsentences.PhcesiBuildinqs 2 Unil 0esctibinu Interpretingthe topic ta V ar i o u sc o mp o s i ti o n s k s a s k y o u to descri bea pl ace. tenses been your books and then combinations. themwithjustifications. are things 0f themany reminiscenta timewhen pace of o{ the with stoneworkcatered in anatmosphere ior in York mind. you park a Describepopular in thearea SundaY live in as it is on a pleasant morning. shoulddescribe placeusingnarrative why you You shouldalso give reasons style. discovering the Finally.giving in have changed fiftyyears' change why reasons you thinkthese occurred. coul d be askedto .bui l di ngor m on u me n t. willhave a Describe new shop in your town giving youfeelwill besuccessful. f=--::'-'**"'* for and why atown you visited explain relax a while takeinthe Describe 0rcity haYe and atmosphere. visitors learn about individual of meduring first that have back new. the describe waysin whicha placehas changed e. shoul d s I n ord e rto c o mp l e te u c ha c o m p o s i ti on and choosethe aspectswhich are most carefully the interpret instructions question. the and and while range goods services stillmaintaining charm digof ahd ofmedieval Gothic examples are skyline breathtaking twentieth requirements are which century there sever4l stand'nityof a bygone Alltheusual age. Saywhich you liked befter' givfng reasons for your ehoice. halttimbered irregular. are cities was There few place My visit memorable to explore. o t buil d i n g r m o n u m e na n d to e x p l a i nw hy you havechoseni t. oldpart thetown structures been have stone medieval byhigh. lhis composition in wordsand expressions order linking oJ comparison themusingsuitable the to explain reasonwhy you likedone morethanthe other. is was windows.

As thepopulation thecitygrew number schools hospitals the of of and being builtincreased. the Language F--tsetur / To show similarity:it looks(verymuch) l i ke/(very si mi l ar to.. new buildings considerably are less omatethantheold anes..:. citycentre the becomes congested.. it .. i t has t he same/similar/ identical it resembles .notonly . e..... but ......ln those . is small crowdof flat and Mario's restaurant popular theoththan ed. even though...Ifte narthern areais morepicfuresguethan the eastem area.. e. to although.yetit is more Asthetrafficin thecityincreases...'..... Both Blackpool Brightonhavea and promenade thesea on front..... . streets as d . in of thenew flat.neither nor ... As thepopulation thecitygrew. Thecoftagewasthe sameas it hadbeenfiftyyears before. in .... ... however...and. :s (refatively/considerably) .Comparedto Paris.g. w hile. they are di fferent as/becau se..sttethe region.(alike) Thenewgovernment buildings very are different fromtheold ones theyare as modern lavish. e..... on t he contrary..t he ....g.....g..g.bot h are ... . opposedto.. ln Some the archaeologicai of sites arefascinating. how ever. warmerit becomes.g.rs oorm you places buildings canuse: Tocompare or . 2g . iier beingrenovoted... casde the b fraw by far tfu nost impreNive #Frefcf.g.Unil [escriIing 2 Pluces/Buildin fWaking parisol. .............j.. .. despite. Themore traffic there ... ...9 (just/nearly) . and (compared to) Thehouse grew in lookedalmost I up thesame all theothers thestreet....Both Niceand Cannesare cosmopolitian resorts......... ... days nnin the were'gust congeste as theyaretoday. (main)difference between and .....g.. i n cont r ast as (with)...... and is ThePollock Centre not is ference) The newschool verymuchlike the is jn Thelayout ouroldtlatwas impracticalco4parison thelpyout (resemof very to and oldone both design size..the pl aces al i ke/si milar.but also.....theydi fferin t hat . To show contrast: is unlike in that... as in (similar) In the winterthe resortis deserted.9 the sameas e.The sfreefs becoming are dirtier and dirtier. nevertheless... whereas the summer is swarming in it withtourists....evenso.. Theshopping got centre Bridge in Street hasn't . more + '@ (much/farlconsiderably) + adjective/adverbthane.:... is.. still. bles) . (Despite) more erswiththelocals...t.... (positive as degree) as e....on the other han d.Hill Manor hy far the rnostefeganf is hotelin theregion... is . .g. # comparative and + comparative + e.The . i t di ffers from .compared ... travel.Romeis much warmerduring summefti me. Themuseums notneariy are . 26 Rewrite following the sentences without changing meaning. Theshopping in Road many has more shops theone centre Harries than in Bridge Street. yet.. . .F (by far) the most + adjective e. though......... but. w hereas... (positive less degree) thane.... (difdential theother industrial............. of so 27 Rewrite each sentence usingtheword in brackets without changing the meaning.g...9 the comparative the + comparalive Thefurthersouthyou ... whereas the museums rather are uninterestins. ffistlewas'renovsted isnow Tae and rnwck rnore impressive than any ather theregion... the .T'hb layout ournew isfar.g. . contrast) (in The Anderson Sports Centre betterequipment the Pollock has than Thetwoareas differ thatoneisresiin Centre....:... i n spi te of...

the andunderline phrases the 28 Read model on from words/phrases thetables p.that the livingconditionsand the generalappearance the area muchmorepleasing greatly. and shop run by a the streethas changedbeyond recognition.lt must be said.and I am sure peoplefelt closer then than they do now.Therewere only a with relatively next door.Town isfull of mod buildings of B as Town is a mLrtttre old andnew buiklings. addition. trast.. iEi"i ioo and we could afford I Nevertheless. plandifferfromtheoneshown p. the peopleare moreand more isolated. sincea senseof or than appearance is and community much more important security againas it usedto be.29 Look at the notesbelow.which there are now shops on makesthe streetseem like one in the town centre.you to livein when were how explaining youfeel young howit lraschanged. Rose Street. 18? on this IIow does paragraph 1 a change andresult b comments/feelings to as of c description street it used be d changeandresult 2 e name street when of and writer livedthere f description street it is now of as whereem A e. but the streetsand public areas are considerably.a busy launderette jolly man calledMr Braithwaite a greengrocer's. and thosecfianges about when my fathergot a I livedon RoseStreetuntil I was eleven.bqtter than they usedto be. ]-4-n What I liked most about Rose Streetbeforethe changeswas spirit'A friendlychat or thatthereseemedto be muchmorecommunity a pieceof advicewas neverfar away. however. maintained Still.howevheartof the community of .I havemixedfeelingsaboutthdsechanges. l3T-l Today. parts of the town. because Nowadays. Not only is the architecture haveimproved to the eye.as I rememberedit.g. llTl to move to a nicer part of town.only to be astounded the way it had changed. lt was also a considerably other littlecrime comparedto otherareas. you used the Describe street. neighbourly trn place.using showing comparisonicon.still felt attachedto my old home until I returnedthere by ten yearslater.Pluces/Buildinss Unil Describinu 2 then.29 with descriptions.a sign that Unlikebefore. I convenience. thereare no childrenplayingin the streets.ilbelievethat ffi RoseStreetwas a betterplaceto liveten yearsago.er.then matchthe paragraphs the paragraph the and compare contrast twotowns. In the crimerateis higherand thatpeopleare morecautious. by Mostof the old buildingshavebeentorn down and replaced newer. a small corner few shops in our street. The sense of belongingand the fact that everyoneknew each other helpedensurethat daily life was relatively peaceful and secure.".would loveto see Rosestreet full o{ modernbuildings plentyof greensPace largePoPulation facilities educational timiteO shoPs wide rangeof manYwealthyPeople ihingsto see and do manY '. was a warm. saferplace to live. the groundfloor of nearlyeveryblock. each one fitted with securitycameras. -1* tiln smallpopulation good educational facilities widerangeof shops a rewwealthy people manythingsto see and do Bunston mjxture oldandnew of buildings plenty green of space 30 \ .Althoughsome of the ageingblocksof flatswere in needof renthey were clearlyin a much betterstateof repairthan those in ovation. more spaciousconstructions. lST-l to appears havegone.

The nearbyhouses. ago G The generalimpression the place is one of neglectand empti_ of ness: glass. wo for wordorder. The miils and warehouses transwill forrnedinto airy open-planapartments and galleries. a result. are to .G for grammar. As theareais boundto attractbusiness and Ailenby'wiil abreto dever-' be oP-q clepner.closeto the canal. while bar and reslaurant ownerswill be encouraged investin the terracedhouses to atong canal.as rnoreand much peopleseemto be showing an interest tnthe ar"casdistinctive architectural industrial and past.and'esrplain wtrytheyare so differenl 1 What are the key words? 2 \A/hich two areasof your town would you chooseto describe? 3 \i/hat eiementswould you inciude in order to show how thesetwo areasdiffer? 4 What words would you use to compare/ contrastthesetwo areas? 5 What would a suitable paragraph plan for this task be? 32 ChooseONE of the composition tasks above.rubbish broken a blownby the wind.Then writethe composition 300to 400 in words. Thestructures mostcatchthe eyearethe big old millsand warethat houses.and lwite a complete paragraphplan with notes.Beingsuch huge.llo : Descnbe area thetown an of you livein which believe you will change the near in future explain whatways in it become difterent a) Describca well-hrown landmarkin your country explain it it and W xamous.theywouldhavedwarfed thehundreds who onceworkedinside.. the 1 What are the key words? 2 Which landmark in your countrv would you chooseto descri6e? 3 What particular featuresof this landmark would you chooseto describe? 4 What reasonscan you think of that make the landmark famous? 5 \4/hat would a suitable paragraph plan for this task be? h) Descrihe areas thetownor firo of cityyoulivein whicharevery different from egrch other. Allenby. quiteforbiding appearance. wlv for wrong or wordthengive theparagraph plan.Most of thestonebuildings haveturnedalmostblackoverthe years.Thistransformation undoubtedly the will draw an up_mar_ ketcrowd.are tinydilapidated terraces.''t-"i E r 4: w -. is locatedto the southof the town centre. however. I ilt ill . littlestraycats. the redevelopment Ailenby of wiil certainry revitarise area tne .. and in somecases. saferand alltogether moreappealing image. i lf theexample London'sriverfront of properties anything go by.Si$. giving thema sombre.ro1 ER .it$iiUS$. ail Recently. These towering shapesare punctuatedregurarly with row uponrow of highwindows.lt usedto be occupiedby thecottonindustry. town councilhas released the plansto cleanup Allenby.Whattenses been have used? Whv? .riimatel!' "no enhance imageof the town as a whole. 3t .ploces/Buildings Unil 0escriIing 2 the 30 Reaa model correct highrighted and the words. the millswerecloseddown manyyears@ but andmostof Allenby has lainderelict sincethen. nowtheyareemptyand not but eventhe old machineryremain. the councirhas also promisedto revamp the canal and lt'c tow-path an attempt herpAilenby in to shedits reputation ior beinga magnetfor dangerous and shady characters. write s for spelling. following successful the development similarareasin cities of suchas Londonand Liverpoor.in contrast.one of the most run-downareasof town. This is especially the case at night when the streetsare unlightedand <leserted. 31 Look at the followingcomposition task instructions and answerthe questions below. the samemoreor less. ln the additionto this.

e/c). available a now at branches Woodchest of A spravol ll shimmeri shuddering mother-of-pe leaves on a 2) sicklylde rest cate gold stem. etc). striped. wooden.big.Youshould (e. c Thrs beaut preceju is %. of Descriptions objects partof letters.9. \: 2 and underlinethe correctword. fas to been appeared have ioned from 3) mudlcl bv Intrigucd its4)obscure o she design.9.g.woollen. small.''* ir ::illr Reosonfor being speciot expensive I giveaccurate information the you concerning size objects should Whenyoudescribe oval.triangular. flickeringfflashstem rose ingflame fromthetall2)darklpale which brooclics.colour (e.red. reads \\y . advertisements.etc) shape (e.It has an 2) numerals face ebonylivory with 3) romanlarahc hand. '\'. etc) Hungarian.taftan. using information. Below th leaves nestles singlello a3) ly. weak. and weight (e. Ieaflets as or can be foundin catalogues.etc) origin pattern and decoration(e.9. silk. this the one not useallof theseadjectives after otherbecause willmakeyourdescription in sentences. hear. information separate You soundunnatural. /argebrownsuitcesettr hard leather wornand scrafcircd. andmaterial(e.i : newco ' lectrOn f room thesolitary at dark across cold the stared b She I) A on candlestick thetable.g. lf is a e.. or articles stories.W.etc).g. tittedherself walked towa and thebench thecandlestick. the Then.D ie ffi escrihing ffiffiffiK 0bcls and to that then below listen thecassette ticktheinformation vou the 1 i#" Read table the describe object. green.1) routtdlcylindrical pear 32 . cangivenecessary ls .I fomitg i. Size Weight Age Shope Pottern Cotour Origin Moteriot Speciotchorocteristics quite smott I nuge I neovg I tote'80's I overoge I usnt I tote8thcenturg I tot" 18th ceniurg I rouno I puinI otue I vlenneze I gtoss I twohondtes I rectongutor squore I I corveo I striped I oqro-gr""n gr""n I I Venetion I porcetoin I venezueton I crgstot I onehondteI smott bosef heirtoo. reports. light. dial anda separate for the4) secondlhour on inscription the backwhich Thereis a small "J. heavy. .Chinese.1921". *.9.G.r-.Where could Read the followingdescriptions havebeentakenfrom? each description watchis madeof l) brasslchrome a The pocket to and is attached a long chaln. \ one Jul of ry Potte .square.-.

in moments wolth more a thousand words. of my desceqdants will one one like that those cherish album's to willbeable recapture too. in and survive each every of of sense therealities me also Leafing this through album gave a strong all in depictedthephotos looked history. childhood to hiseye which stillhas thisday. 33 .and stiff was old The page faded sepia first of I intothe lens. 3 as a model. -. clothes. have about genqualities past of see eration to thenext. in occasions theirlives nessed.Buthaving as things external knew they t}at..while as that much same I amand the were history. Then they.Thenhis2) slenderlskinny strings overthe 3) tautldistrar. than F. slightly butonthewhole wasin gold had lts leaf.. could thatallof the and adds of erations member thefamily. parents' There wedding in stunning a flowing who in histailored andmygrandmother. I of very known some these actually different well. going I gown. thengivetheparagraph the describe familyalbum.. v. wasmygrandfather. bravely hissmart smiling playfultwinkle in the showing youth expression and his followed.i t. long-{orgotten whichareindeed preserved thesepictures.1 to its and album explain importanceyou.1. I opened cover. wasburied an across oldfamily and all years.viil:. found thealbum beautifully it 0n wiping over in on embossed thecover crest had and in bound leather even thefamily it tatty.Write in youressay 300'350 words. decideon Before the paragraph Plan Youwill follow and the tenses Youwill use." -" ".rgftr to dance movedto a different while his left hand creat rhythm theotherendof theinstrument soundwhichfilled the 4) raspylsweet ating a hall.. leather of scent lavender. 4 Usingthe text in Ex. looked suit. I turned pages.. he withaving to felt I the Since discovering albumhave closer myfamily.dug outfrom under theodds it I for there atleastten been ably look. remain fundamentally humans ' i would to think maybe day. at year. to a and had accumulated tookit downstairshave closer that ends was that I witha cloth. toy childhood your descritre favourite somuch. andvehicles The houses people were thatthe to sostrange old{ashioned it was easy assume that and people.. throughout may thesame change. corners become creaked the the good As surprisingly condition. on embarked anattempt anattic having Last pile junk had and proba of under lt album.--.' ". the through genfeeling howone of a I gained real never known othenruise. in to theWar. the value.-. concert entire 3 Readthe modelbelowand underlinethe wordswhichare usedto plan. why andexplain youlikedit you start writing.' E i i#i:t${l.ljnil3 Describins 0biecls wood1) liftedthesmall wooill d Thesoloist it underhis en violin andsettled carefully bowbegan chin. a Describefamily I came clear-out. in and strain I breathedthefaint underthe prints dated the 1900. I which would photographs.sawmygrandfather off the As white wedding infancy Myownfather's uniform. -"-. browsed as expressions theystared woreblank figures my untilI found grandand names faces of through pages unfamiliar the dressed immaculately photos.|:il .

. Arignt reason co/tr. .*€y H*i* Paragraph2 preparations (decorations.thenlistento thecassette tick theinformation the 1 ffi Read following the fromthetabledescribe festival. etc. -i .or as part ol a letter.. event. . the for reason celebrating event.. ." This topic asks for a descriptionof an event in The styleis rather the why you enjoyed event. with reasons form... itself. Actuot dog s seorch Ch'uYon bodg I for T- Feetings notverginteresting ..) sphere.g..1. atmo(costumes.:. Pumpkinsare cased food. of Nome festivot Ch'uYonFestivot I 5th dog of the 5th month t-l in Chineselunor cotendor Fleoson Preporotions BootFestivotI the Drogon 5thdog of the 5th month n sotor in Chinese cotendor the the to protect river [l to remember trogic 1-1 of ond spirits t--r suicide o potiticion ' ' drogons from buitdboots repointboots I I designrouteof boot roce I troinfor boot rocesI into throwricectumptings river I eot ricecokes ! ooot roces I 1. Paragraph 5 the InterPreting toPic task asksfor only the dependson whether composition The numberof paragraphs or its of a description eventsor alsoasksyou to explain significance how important it is.w hengi vi ng Paragraph3 or a peisonalaccountof an eventwhich you witnessed took part in' past tenses description of actual are used and the style may be less formal.H ow ever.p re s e n tte n s e s a reusedandthesty| ei sformal .' wonder and adminfion.) Pointsto Consider place i Whenyou describeannualevents(e.. To makethe description Paragraph4 vocabularycan be usedto set the scene and describethe varietyof descriptive as explanation 1 and ngre spatkled aver tfie wateF the frrewari€ spead tike atmosphere. . .a celebration festivalwhich takes e v e ry y e a r). for the b) a main body in whichyou describe preparations the eventand the event and. comments. on feel i ngs comments the or peopl e' s c ) a c o n c l u s i o ni n w h i c hy o u d e scri be or newspapers travel such piecesof writingcan be found in magazines.."'i.. ' . ?esc ribe a $pical wedding in yaur cou[t$ rhis P i The styl el i s mpersonal ' resent of t o p i c a s k so n l y fo r a d e s c ri p ti o n an event.. Place of event. Paragraph1 set the scene (name. timeldate. Finally.'. i .story' etc.g. .. and a techniques narrative morevividand interesting. final thoughts 34 L ."t1t1. be used. explanation 2 and reason .: -.4Desctihing IJililT leslivulslevenls/cetem0 and table.place and a) an introduction in which you mentionthe name/type. compare the topics below. rehearsals.=. brochures.together narr:ative Pasttensesshouldbe used.g.The passiveis frequentlyused to event and / describe preparations activitieswhich take place. plaeed in windawsand cosf/rnes are designed' etc.usingtheinformation mentioned.activities.:'.l Final ParagraPh feelings. . e..1r. reason(s) for celebrating) 3.] experience on unforgettobte l--l ig3lredlJslfiqHl of: aboutan eventshouldconsist composition A descriptive time/date. informal.r. "Describea wedding you attendedand explain tenses should normally on why lt madean impression you.urtil ffowers and the anlaakerswha erowdd the haftaur gasped in huge.

t"nrui. Halloween.it is treatedlight-heartedly . by the time the last costume was as excitedas the children. pieces writing? of you why?wherecould find such used? been have Describe an annual event that takes place in your country. The custom is for childrento knockon doors in their neighbourhood ruy . the pany was well under way and the house children. Describe an annual event that you attended and exPlain whY You enjoYed it' About four years ago I was invited to a Halloween party at the home of a iriend. had been made. lt is uniquein that its themeis essentially a pleasant However.. might This include unything iro* telling ghost stories dancing. originated lt hundreds years when of aso it was believed on this nightthe soul"k the that of dead came back and walkedamong. whichtakes place yearon every 31stOctober. the day itself.I was amazedat the imagination that the children showed when cutting grotesquefacesout of was so The mood of anticipation the hollowed-outpumpkins.h. to Althoueh par_ tlie tiesarebased a rather on frightening iheme. which served thetradiare with tionalpumpkin pie. what it is like to havefun without feeling Rediscovering My *ui a fantasticexperience. Sweets bought parties organised. costumes. or otienvise the "ghosts witches. rememberedmy Qwn excitementwhen I we were dressingup in scary costumes. thelights then areturned andthechildren partin a iari_ out take etyof activities.. not one. Many peopleenjoyHalloween an excuse as to dressup and havefun.those who takepart.lantern made. I saw it as an opportunityto experience sheerjoy that to comesso naturally children. a is Thisis donebv tak_ ing. pt"yt iri.Helpingwith once t had decided disappeared enabledme to enterinto the party spirthe children's'games the it.A typieal is.. initial hesitation embarrassed to get involved.nJ "Trickor treaf'.holes are cut out of onesidein the shape anevilface. on partygame Halloween played putting for is by apples a barrel water inviting chil_ into of and the drento pick themup with theirteet[. by A certain amountof preparation required is _. When . best part they worked on their masks and costumes' But the of all was makingthe lanterns.nl mainly children.thisparty gaveme so much pleasure 'ulai fixture in-rny diary.and the thrill of : .with me runningaround in a was full of screaming nrasktrying to scarethem. li"i.. it remains popular is eagerly and anticipated every yearby peopleof all ages. tne emphasis of course.but if theyfailto. By six o'ciock. I drove to my friend's house with a huge box of materialswhich I thought might be useful as The childrenwere full of enthusiasm for the preparations. Next. which is then usedto makea pie-. have to be made.g.n u Usuallythe adultsoffer them iomethine. I think everyoneshould have the cltanceto feel Iike a child at leastonce a year. are and are Most rmportanfly.1 l3r8: pumpkin and cuningout rhe inside. shavingfoam' Sincethose days I had nearlyforgotteniiboul'Halloween. bags held open for whatever "Trickor treat!" goodies would be put in when we shouted. Special drinks. I .leslivuls/evenlslceremon 4 unil Describing what tenses plan the and the Read models give paragraph for each.Costumes masks. prizesweri awardedto the children who had made the best includingone where the Gameswere organised. I intensethat..s windows. and typically of ghosts or witches. hivingfJn. the children left in a teeth. an important is even!particularlv in America. Thisis usrrally something harmless asputting sirch shaving foam on the uncooperative neighbour. of and a candle placedinsidethe lantern thai ifre is so Iightglowsthroughtheeyesandmouth.j :1 i lf a party been has arranged.This means ihat their n"ighbouo haveto treatthemto sweets candies. I that now it is a qegbut.r. At one point during the evening. childrenwander aroundthe streetsdressedin their costumes. Today.or ratherin the evening.i. On the afternoonof the party. Another thing that made it a particularlyenjoyableoccasion was that iibrought back memories of my own childhood experiences. going from house to house. of. running aheadof their parentsand doing their bestto scareany unfortunatepassers-by.ttu put y finally noisygroup. and *.are made.O . childrenhad their handstied behindtheir backswhile they only their tried to pick applesout of a barrelof water"using ended. I was reluctantat first but I decidedto go to help out with the arrangements. had been chasedby a stingy : I also rememberedthe time we j neighbourafter sprayinghis windows with. thena practical jokemightbe"plaveo.. 35 .

t lt ilt r r ' .fmtu lt Ltgt. last they during.t'ItUf 'tfttAafticles. carnivalist In myhome dr PeoPle in brated a 1) nicewaY.:.*:'.. are chased through the 4) nice medieval streets bY bulls..-:: leslivols/evenls/cerem0nies 4 Unil Descilbing Whichtenses the topicsand underline keywords. -*. thearnvtng PTpt' e iirstnight' r. overh/venty-tout over .ring solotsts spirits' wenty'fourt"::::]i.[t. luesday held theeve Ash Shrove Thefertivalof . English come know day Easter fast the40-day before to use pancakes upthe make ..n.striking.:|..34toorganiseyour composition? that you wouldlike to attend? country in ls therea festival another to why it Describe explaining it is important you' L J in ceremony yourcountry' a Describe religious as you a Describe celebration attended a child.ii'H:iill pl'o pota. . in thepeople Your are Whattenses used? in paragraphs thepassive. and costumes Pu up in 2) strange floats through nicely decorated bands 4) nicem while streets PlaY 5) and dance sing haP andpeople with a 6) big bonfire' It ali ends feast by lowed anoutdoor with7) I food. .n|. quaint. ' The SanFerminis a(n) held festival 1) niceJulY Navarra. Llcliciotts.lf-TH.d :PJ:..which carnivals by Tuesday holding Shrove . housewives since. .r. the 4 Rewrite following \4/hy? when wednesday. 36 . dress k newlY-weds meal the 4) haPPY accompa in theirguests dancing of a lirge grouP 5) goodmusici by and 6) piaying nicewaltzes jazznru wason thedan everyone Soon 6ers. rou.Mariewas After tl andlooked3) good.."'uti"-Festtva * anticiPation'. 3 Readthe following paragraph? in will you whafinformation youinclude each should use? Ilowwillyouadapttheparagraphplanshownonp. lt .*^****w*7*-*.1T. fierce haLtrtilv.m***"ffi iazz events whendescribing or adjectives adverbs 5 Use of sophisticated belowand morevivid. 1!. tradition the keep same of parts theworld in irold othei wednxday of on is ".L:^h tiftpa everyone's firuApve*ones tpit]:_ blissfut..* and U. they and eggs milkwhich donoteatduring Until.t r t t t lv . iraditionar Ii.trooms which the Parkluz awaited recept wedding MarieandVictor's rest seaside heldat a 1) good was in her2) nicewedd rant. . 19th Lent.about w:j::1T::JitJi'. .r.l.lffuglicelebrated whichpeople carnivals mead.the century.sing. / r .- The.U.. of on Tuesday theeve Ash of the A Wehold festival shrove the to have The begins.''#il... bizurrt: c the town.Readthe shortextracts the makes description fromthelists' in the replace words boldwith words A q t t ir lt r . ..*l.':::'i"t5f. -' t' .[i:"Jffi il .2) well dressed white with 3) bright and scarlet bandanas sashes.ffi .. romant gifted. and ate nat playio games. in Pamplona. pancakes drank alive.J no. 11111' .asPancakeDay traditionally.]".why do youremember thisoneespeciailY? to its and event explain importance of the Describe ceremony a national country. On the first daYYoung in men. gtrgeotrsly. fiffi *'"' iH..*i1i.j ii*yT: f:fl: had tie*e'kend councl oooked iheiocat ltwasatesttv andblues.?ii'ii. radiunt " il ffiffi. -. floor.. t L t r t 'r q t t ri"c r t l l i i t i g ^' .l .

for word words. in alion is now thepenfect After deeds better and 5 What woulda suitable paragraph people helP. for money a new toraise 2 What kind of festival be can Paffiieipatedinthiseventa|sogavemeasenseofpersonalsatisjaction described? human another being's to ttilt inhowever t way. ofthe t0 awareness centre rise the inand launched iround town atthe woks gathered Early success' everyone and a day The it was nuge . --"tn the were preparati0ns day upt0 tn.! . minageO Ne"verbeforelhadrea|isedhowmuchcanbeachievedthroughcooperdlescrt&e f.theroutewasagreed Upcnandofficia|swerechosento|inetheroute. thenwritethe comway' points the passed various along to handedusaswerode position 300'350 in words. G F for grammar.tn. support event.I Unil 0escribing 4 festivtls/events/csretnolli the below correct highlighted Read model and the WriteSfor spelling. a to wishing sponsor and huge ofpeople event. Streets. This 4 What reasons can you think of in care' of'rlredical in help so I a nurse that can those nedd tobecome answerto the "explain" part? Give T h e e v e n tw i ||b e re me mb e re d a ndtalkedabout{ or a|ongtim et0cOme. route questions Everyone below.:ll . W0r0S than are health. save helped.J. waving banners balloons.amnow life. for punctuation ??Wfor or wrong word. startingpointoutsidetheTownHal|. of round applause' given were allahuge and tofinish.Ahugehot-airba||oonWaslauncheo andithoveredovermecrowdsandcycliststhroughouttheevent.lglancedr oundtofindmyselfsur the through cycling and of and with iiuilded cyclists bikes allshapes sizes. j.print.Meetingswerehe|dtoplanthedayitse|f. examples justificationfor each or his receivetl operstokes william that to wewere delightedlisten young all reason.1 '. need when planfor thiscomposition *"'-*#'t taskbe? 37 . notonly as?d erpd#fffds popeafarus. weeks. senseofcommunityspirrt.Sponsorformswere.nttthosewhichparticipatedintheWitherington s p o n s o r e d bi ke ri d e w e re |e ftw i th afeelingthata|mostanythingcanbekey wordsin the task 1 What are the event another planning effort now community and weare through achieved instructions? library. edanddistributedtoparticipantssotheycou|dcollectnamesandaddreses was campaign advertising them.. .. WO order. forhaving 3 Whattenses required? are Why? -moving studying I my actually experience effected {uture.Moments b e f o r e t h e s t a rti n g p i sto l w a s{i re d . of tenses been have What used? S excellent Describean eventYouhave attendedand exPlainwhY it was important to You.:. and ilags.' i j'=E .What is the topic of eachparagraph? the Underline topicsentence each paragraph. task instructions were and answerthe refreshments Thankfully. 7 Look at the followingcomposition lined cheering the Growds my had to l bare|y time notice tiredness.esavafy**t a{ferrded a $raye our strengthened our to managedachieve aimbutalso We ation. a||.leading thespecial various beenmade.

w ho the p l ot. reading. creates a) an introductionwhichsetsthe scene(place. ilQ.b ulive ljffiill}|utt s and the whichshow beginning 1 Lookat thetwophotographs and below.theconsequencesofwhat etc. tramp. Iookedaround. in lt style. well as the list of words is whatthestorY about. you mustfirstthinkof a suitable you startwriting.description objecti.:=gi.cashmere grab. guess as endof a story._.*lg iF:::. Thiswill makeyourwritingmore speechind a varietyof adiectives. eventsin the order present them.He entered theroom. i w ri ti n g te c h n i q u e s n c l u d eth e use of vi vi d descri pti onof peopl e.. of to especially set the sceneat the beginning the story. after..9. the 2 @ Read questions retellthestory' at Finally.:ij+r. as: before. etc. i**i:.. oftenincludes thoughts..Ihe Pastcontinuous tenses.and mayoescribepeople'sfee|ings/reactions. and involved' of description tne peopte/places c )a c o n c | u s i o n w h i c h c o m p |etesthestory.). while. the reader's to and/orbeginsdramatically capture givesvivid the b) a main bJdy whichdevelops seriesof eventsclearly. moonlit chill!. gunrd. ifre shouldconsistoi: A good narrative etc)' time.and . .explainthe consequences) 3B \ . Shehad eet oat in the morning. 2'3'4 ParagraPhs devetop the story (d esc be incide ntsIeading ri up to the main eventand the event itselfin detait ribe peoPleIPlaceI desc otionsIacti onsIetc) em . a vividdescriptive etc reactions. answer 1 2 3 4 Whois thestoryabout? is Where John? like? Whatis theweather Whattimeof yearis it? 5 6 7 8 to Whathappens him? Miriam feel? IIow does Miriam do? Whatdoes she Howdoes find John? ffi*^tivepresentsaconnectedseriesofeVentS.9. as the describing action it wouldbe seenthrough maincharacter(s). and thenlistento the cassette below.. ragged frown hostel. wind was howling.. coot.jil!. later. finally. etc. the mood/atmosphere. maybe written the firstperson in Vourown experience.looking youranswers' them.Forexample.eitherimaginaryorbasedon //f / r o . use of direct a suggesting certain of ieelingsand actions. etc.organisingfund'raisingevents.. Inwyer. clothes. i ncl udi ng s h o u l dd e c i d eo n a d e ta i l e d you will the will characters be. adverbs. PastPerfectis usedto describean event before the main event(s)(e.in the end. etc. wantto continue to mood/atmosphere makethe reader an interesting attention.g. of the and person(he/she. shehu.. you mirstUSe time wordssuch therefore of The sequence eventsis important. I describefeelingsreactions. Before howthe storyw i l l begi n. then. security ffie growwonied'.and therefore is oftenusedto setthe scene(e.homeless. counse[lor. it/we)or third theireyes. use a vari etyof past s a N a rra ti v e s re n o rma l l y e t i n the past. interesting. *e*.). haPPened.ie ParagraPh1 set the scene (whoI whatI whenIwhere) Pointsto Consider thenyou storyoutline.poticechi$reward.. in the beginning.and how the storywillend' pl aces.).i Final ParagraPh end the storY (completethe Plot.character(s). during.full of hape' but now shefeft. until.etc).PastSimpleis usedfor the mainevents(e.perhapsi nanunexpectedw ay. wherethe storywill happen..

. hear. Vividdescription important is when beginning stories.the housewas deathlysilent. Somebodyhad certainlybroken in .g. describing you of mannerisms. lnside. saf she down shakily and buried her face in her hands. scarcelybreathing.I turned quickly towardsmy open bedroomdoor. He rolledhimselfslowly. 1 writer returns.t I i: ii' 4 goes upstairs. i.*&F"' The Visitor A cold feeling of shock gripped me as I stared at the splintered.9.and my heartbeatslowed as my initiai shocksubsided. use of directspeechand a of the varietyof adjectives. only to be confronted the strangest by sight:an'eldeily man lying uncomfortably face-downon the floor.sofi sand = peacefulscenel.there was nothing missing.appearance. only coming from somethingrather bigger. havingbeenforcedviolentlyapart.etcif presentat you werephysically thescene? Howmightthestorycontinue? 3g .t know if you would let me havethem. i{H I When andwhere thestoryset? Flis F a 4 Look thephotograph therightwhich at on shows scene the introducing a story. in #.description strongemotions. his plump. When people/actions. "l used to live in this housean-dt put a boi down here with my savingsand some papersto keep them safe.looking embarrassed. desertedand unl revealing changed. puzzled. What elsecould I do?" List theevents referred in each to paragraph. B Underline thewords/phrases in paragraph each which describe or suggest emofions the listed below 1 shock/fear 2 fearlapprehension 3 relief 4 uncedainty/surprise 5 surprise/anger 6 embarrassment {tt ? { zl ' ? { -i ::.I heaveda sigh of reliefat finding my preciouscollectionof crystal untouched.shatteredwood of my frgnl door.+u. "Stunned.I tiptoed down the hall. and I felt my pulsequickenas t noticedthat the door wai aiar. may use vividdescription emotions.weather. They stared blankly back at me. Therehe was with his right arm thrust down into a gap betweenthe boards."Butwhen I movedout I forgot. andhowdotheyfeel? Whatwouldyousee.-! Unil }{nffstiyes 5 the and the 3 Read storybelow complete tasks theboxon theright.. Suddenor exciting action."= shock. twisted out of shape.'' brushedthick He dustand cobwebsoff his shirt and sighed. describe To the setting. period). lapping waves. As far as I could see.then cautiously climbed the I As stairs.hearsnoise sees strangerin bedroom c ..elc historical .people:name. A dr am at ic beg i n n i n g to a n a rra ti v e e l p sto capturethe reader.you may use detailsinvolving senses to suggesta particular the atmosphere (e. dangerous a situation. etc. :: .s h attention and makesthemwantto continue reading.which had been pulledbackto revealthe floorboards underneath.or so it seemed.but why? At the far end of the passageway hesitatbd. may include of and descriptions of: . to suggesta particular etc mood (e. Whatis theweather like? t Who are the peopleinvolved. of the character(s) etc involved. The lockhung. nothing. feelings. I Setthescene g The beginning a narrative of storyshouldusually givethe reader clear a picture whatis happening. flushedcheekpressed the against carpet.Therewere no burglarsstill inside.and I didn.and answer questions the abouthowyou imagine story the mightbegin. You may create atmosphere mysteryand/orsuspenseby describing an of a strange character.a lighq hurried. adverbsand verbs may all be used to make the beginning moredramatic.griefl.into sittingposition a and ruffledhis thinninghair. "Whaton earth are you doing?"I demanded.scrabbling the soundlike one that mice might make.setting:place. pushedit lightlywith my fingertipsand it swungopen with the I groan..door broken z . rt'#-1er9"''v_&s . "l'rn sorry'i he mumbled. I neared top/ therewas a noise.time (timeof day/year. h.. peering slightest into the rooms on either side.

stopped. .: given. Then. usingdirectspeech the a. and the words/phrases youhave on read. breating or or to e. lisHe when tened.closed myself strong a eyes for a momentand askedmysef "Why thishave happen me?" to to did _ :. usingthe senses etc. "ls Then at and anxious further?" helookedGideon Michael's Michael sighed. people'sreactions c.itmuch and "l'm she'll gently.Steve peering of froze. a as out figure stepped forward bar hisway:a to thinfigure a longcoat. I poured I my coffee.4 again. the and earth dry The of thevillage." to Thesunlight hiseyes he reache hurt as the end of the tunnel. Then answer es. a o o o o €t o ljgffids-drl#d-+'flffi Brightly-coloured swamamongthe fish reache coral. good endingwill shouldmakeyour reader feel makeyourreader satisfied." € faces added and a ? . atthe shape a thinfigure in in a longeoat. askinga rhetorical the directlY f. describing b. in laughing softly.. to b. lying a hospitalb lwas When downat me. Place. usingdirectspeech "io tfiri eventsdeveloobd-in question the c. 40 .4to see below the 5 Read paragraph all to Underline references thesensthestoryis asyouhadpredicted. and in dustbin clattered thealleyoutside. from Apart the of the track burned soles hisfeei of ofthe men breathing three there absolute was and call occasionalof a bird thestrained T African landscape. than After day. referring feelings moods or people.3e I F e € € e o e 6 € a.-$ A good beginning as important a good ending.=iFi$e#fffi . based what questions fromEx. all I reall but saying remember oneof thedoctors was "You're lucky bealive. -- in lawoke. breathed sighof relieJ and a there was no soundof footsteps behin him. clock doesn't andyourace of the putting on house a panic. theflash crac at room concrete filled of a gunshot thebare Tom crouched staring dense undergrowth sweat cu$ on cheek fties buzzing motionless humiditY heart Pounding hotding breath rustle of branches when you days Have ever oneofthose had youralarrn goes When everything wrong? out ring. referring {eelings moods question e. . to morning quickly scorching asthesun turned heat The ofthe cool relentlessly. smell parched and scrub thedoctois o heat thestony his through thinshoes. describing weather. such tenible I washappier a As the of everto reach safety my home. -* i.A good beginning as is A wantto go on withyourstory. € Youcan end yourstoryby: * You can start your story bY: a. dim thefigure turned sharply. then say which techniqu havebeenusedin eachparagraph. doctor the turned to 6 of by 0ppressedthemonotonythebanen silence. addressing reader i o{ can or Notethatmorethanonetechnique be usedin the beginning ending a srory._ --.. in desperately yourjacket.9 { 5 S S I B e' + g .. Mclintock Doctor took down to began beat rose higher and € offhiscardigan heand twocompanions totrudge theslope up continued towards his while q filled nostrils. creating mystery suspense d.o e I o I e I s o @o o I t o a o o o t. I 6 iS 5 S -3 €9 e {t { e A € 6 O4tOA O aO OeA O€ a CO 7 Match fhe following beginningsal endings. askinga rhetorical mainbody or mystery suspense d.'- . standing theshadows. catastrophes I endured .Unil llunulives 5 in the whether about photograph Ex. hecrept of thetunnel. lightglintin of off the barrel a gun' Steven'launch and as himself thefigure. hurtling toward me.r . sure beallright.then belowusingthe words/phrases the 6 Describe photograph for a story. I with medical staffpeering and feltexhausted relieved.3 . to findthatthecarwon' only Let are startandthebusdrivers on strike? inconve meassure thatsuchminor vou pale beside iences intoinsignificance the yesterday.*'! "Don't movel" a voice hissed. the setting scene writea paragraph . gazed happiness won I me worldaround der at the undenrater my caught eye movement Then sudden a shap sleek io and I turned seea huge. the describing emotions.and ribbonsof seaweed of on to upward the sunlight the surface and wiih thesea. stories sr f*r ?**hm8qe*es heglnretfl?gendFng .

.... child........ FastTenses TimeWords and PASTHABITSare not described using PastContinuous.until when..seldomlrarely.... when writtenasa full narrative.g....that is..f:lis rescues rnand canal.. instantly flames curtains.. and does nof containtoo many eventsfor you to writeabout fully in 350 words. (af TimeWords/Phrases: fhesametimelas. wouldneed very advanced specialised or vocabulary? 3 Whichwouldneed specialised knowledge a particular of subject? 4 Whichcontains manyevents rvriteaboutfully in 350words? too to J Whichstory outline. I began peelpotatoes carefully . a younspartisan goesbehind enemy linesto blow"uo kev a .... pulingWorldWaril...When (etcitoldlsongftnes. Instead...r'dt/.while I PAST PERFECT usedto talkabout action is an which happened before past another action.. f) .....and theoil wasgetting of clouds I hadfinished.. ... of e.. r.bythe.Unil t{orrulives 5 Beforeyou startwriting.bttshes a system passing infor_ for this marronto Allied Headquarterq with the cooperation a beautiful of woman*ho is later captured.happened an exact e.getaccess enemy to information... does nof needspecialised knowledge and/or vocabulary which is too advancedlor you..{onli) when 9 Read following the shorttextandfill in thegaps using words/phrases from the list below.". whentherewasa knockan thedoar. to" with adverb frequency... h.... would I w.. at homealone..nat untit .g... 8) .. y". thenidentiff the tense of each verbin boldtypeandexplain whythis tense been has used.you mustthink of a basicstory outline for a story whichis both: i) appropriate to the title/instructions the task. A.... while. with my dolls. lift thered.wasgoing at thesame on timeasanother action .myfather often to wouldalways mesfor'esfo get meto fall asleep. Theboy andis nowlearnrng swim..never 3 PAST CONTINUOUS is used talkabout action thepast to an in which: . anexplosion loses memory and his forr.. to risingfromthepan. to lurvivel U .. bothappropriate manageablc? is and :ydi:gdry are/and went nowhere.. a pan so. you'took . and for ii) manageable. 6) therewasa hugepile.g../ was watchingTVwhilehe wastryingta phone... Forthree'days vou One ii ... and night.Trying smoke were pan..... after...... the exam passed.. Dndge.. Anex-polterai them.meanwhile.... Whenyou wereat university you had an tmportant exam.usually....before. be left playing One 3) ... by sometimes........ e.Two boys playing a are by thedrowning boy....... hadwatched for my I mothermakingchips4) of and 5) .. I questions the Answer following the about three suggested outlines story ontheright.. ii..meanwhile wken . in rneenemy's supply butheis iniurbO line.hot I spilttheoil.therefore. use Past "used or "would"..r ro. B .used telll lwasa child. andhuge fire setting leaptupward....as I a 2) ..... tell Adverbsof Frequency:always.. He esra.my friendskadakead{left. divei .becswse "Ect" is not really "hernic' the Whichstoryoutline...firne no sooner .' ' TimeWords/Phrases: affier...wasinterrupted another action by at time ...trequentlytoften -sornefimesl accasianally........6i. ' /ffi l/' M..I decided cooka proper to meal my"children".. I was day.. anappropriate Simple. ..... thetime.RythetimeI aniveri. to thekitchen t I ! I T T I 4l . .before . and C ... Whichbasicstoryoutlineis nol appropriate the title/instructions to given? Whynot? Lg.once ... Hesucceedsdisruptins .as soonas . I hadput to oil on the gasring to heatup... Writea story with the title 'A HeroicActr.. at 3 o'clackyesterday.. Heimpersonatesenemy an office. 7) hotterandhotter..u_ eralmonths.

the list in orderin whichyou think theyhappened. try moresophisticated vocabulary {e.g.'wenf) e.Not only (. Descriptive vocabulary 1t ffi You will heara woman tellingher friend aboutthe.g.timeshe nearlydrowned.(instead \valked". by when ot e. variety verbsfe.well.Jackstrode up to me andthrust out hishand. to use uninteresting.9. Number following of events the chrono. adverbs frequency timewords/phrases. ilot only wasI exhausted."Oh.IUotbefore * Ontywhen= "notuntillbefore".. andstormedoutof theroom. of "Surpris Write a story that fugtnp:"Shetook th pieceof paper out of her pocket an reached the phone.(instead of "said".soI / realisesomething / / i / strangehappen thatnight / / It I beI notuntil I heI tell/ Linda hisname she recognise / / / / Eric. Ending: Suddenly lights the wentonand chorus happy voices yelled.bufa/so) = =' Seldom ofuno naner I Ratety 4not .No tongery llowlrere Itlot ofie& l\lof always.lVo Never sooner. hgd_t_sat I Lights be/ rarely/ on/ in / museummidnight.g.g.bad. listento the logical th'en your answers.' Beginning: saton thecrowded trai Joe rehearsing speech last his one time.g. o Avoid using simplistic adjectives or (e."pd) of 42 . etc) yourcomposition which make will more exciting read. ertravagant. whisper." for Ending: looked She around luxurio the room smiled thethought allhe and at that dreams come had true.Jamie had neverimagined he wouldlind himsetf such situation. of and especially o Some are followed inversion theyareusedatthe beginning a sentence. 'skeleton' fromeach tenses. 1 0 'Look at the following sentences usingthe appropriate and. ryritea complete sentence skeleton in theexample.Unil llurrolives 5 lnversion words. Write a story that ends:"At lasthe wa free.9. that in followed inversion negative meaning: are in by a Thewords/phrases (beforelagain). lururious./who/ use be/ schoolfriend / / hers Rollercoaster sooner start move I know/I make terrible mistake / i no I I / byI agreegeton I / wide open when / get/ hom I but Cathy's door/ notonly/ stand front she e. as Thenrewrite with each sentence beginning theword(s) boldtype. Hat'/lyeveranywherg alnnst I novvherc' I * Not untll. a/soextrcmely but when/if" followed inversion that and are o * Notice "Notuntil/before" "Only by ln thesecondpafiof thesentence. the rose Nosoaner in the rose down rnyseat than curtain andthepby began. mutterinstead of "say) willmake yourstory morelively.IVosoon€rhad/ sfeppedunderthe shower thanthedoorbell nng. to A of murmur. e.* IVotuntll it grewdarkdid theystopsoarchngfor fhemissrng dog" ! beounloh uuml looo I I deddedfor Instswim ool f r2 Look at the taskinstructions belo together thebeginning/endin with o a storyon each topic. I I nosouner sitdown my seat curtqin I playbegin rise I I I t M n0 slonert!r! down myseat in than curtain andtheplaybEan. i / lock/ be/ also broken / We / seldom use/ enjoy visit/ my grandparents i / / whenI / be / child because I they be/ often/ strict/ us I Writea storyentitted "lhe Birthd Party". threatening.nice.anddecide onr plot suitable for each story. retellthe storyin your cassette check ownwords.g.good. and Finally.etc) adverbs yourcompositio asthese make will sound lnstead.g. Onlylt = "not unless" e.don'tbather!"he growled. that in a NeverhadJarnie imagined he wouldfind himself sucha situation.. e. in e. hungry.

to Thenlist wordsand phrases which describe these vividly. and whichof the three words in bracketsbest matches youcansee what in or imagine about each? (btazing/warmiduil) fl -".^^ r qr |ilqu @ sun (freezing/hot/salty) (gentle/stiff/violent) (cracked/hotisoft) wet street(gteam/steam/gtitter)I tights clouds (heavy/dark/fluffy) (briuiant/btinding/dim)fumes (clouditrail/puff) I . We barely moved under the warm sun/ until a stiff breeze began to whistle through the rigging. 14 Lootrat the wordsbelow dealing sensory with details of sightand touch.. and cassette check @ breeze (howl/whlgt!€t/roar)[ seagulls (twitter/chirp/cry) (clap/flap/rip) [ ! ttrunder (rumbleicrash/bang) salls I I I waves rain (hammer/splash/smash) [ tyres (splash/dripitrickle) wood [ siren (squeal/shout/hiss) (creak/snap/crack) (screechiwail/whisile) 1 5 Look at the description belowof Photograph then.. 13-14. listento the youranswers.t l-l tigtrtning(sparkiftash/bang) f_l h.Which photograph eachrelated is to. wordis to. and try to imagine scene if youwere the as physically present.ooro I I I waves f. and the mood/atmosphere whichthescene suggests you.write a description the of scene about in 50-75 words. engines (moan/throb/growl) [ 1 6 Look at the photograph below. lookat the then list \{hich photograph youthink each do following of words. A1 yournotes using from Exs. Makenotes the of various sensory you details cansee or imagine.while seagulls cried overhead. ! ts' .. Finally.l (sparkting/sharpidamp)j L + ^. The sparkling waves splashedagainst the creakingwood of our yacht. try to imagine and whatyou 13 ffi Lookat thetwophotographs physically present each ifyouwere woaldhear at scene.silhouettedagainstthe fluffy clouds. related and whichof the threeverbsin brackets describes most you the accurately sound wouldexpect hear? to Finally.flinging saltysprayover the deck.filling the flapping sails and sending us surging forward.Unil l{urrutives 5 below. write a similar description Photograph of B.r"r.

Pee strid step. surptised.lit up.6 admireil." ued and leaves of colours thefallen at looked thebeautiful Edith of thiswasthechance herdreams' that instinctively realised 18 Reaathe modelagain. you'd perfect theiob. told she herself about nothing computers.1 linguing. Looking she her the of . ntmours' Para. fromthefollowing words swirled streamed. tossed stared. had and bought small other to hehaddecided make hecontina "My and of south France. EqgJ: {e.radiant. an aflurry. in ruins. of to each nod.sh e w a sh a p p ya ttheideaofr fr akinganewstar tihthe' later st6tFe p a rto fh e rl i fe . 4we've taken byanother said someone hystericompany. Para.whilethe smell bonfires of memories :::: back theairbrought nostalgic in staying ago half herchildhood a century the she the however. Her voices a lotof and of by she where wasgreeted thenoise angry office.a n d abigsm ilewasseen0nher { ace' Sheknew v' gNze Psrr her change lifeforever' o{ theevents thatdaywould -*." and morning. who secretary knew hire would anelderly Noone "cheer Edith up. her wasnotgood. asked activity.rustled. autumn briskly to as walked tingle cheeks pleasantlyshe Edith's made ofthe the branches through bare shone Pale work." over been . wtth thewords:'nShe whichends Writea stary her would change &e lorcu. signal.2 evaporated.5 grinning. had heart she re{used Edith's fired ca[y. identiff the main events in emotions each ParagraPh. fallen trees o{ { her a noiseround feet. they've everyone!" She afraid.it'snot end theworld!" he about heard thetakeover. Para. slumpeil. insPect. warmly lifting herhead. Blake.. plad. tnarafii . explained. her interrupted thoughts: voice Then familiar suddenly a Mr up. thewind crisp It wasa clear. ftesh. simply afewpersonal even off didn't take her she out blindly oftheoffice' walked and she before turned from desk sions her and on Edith her making waytothepark.g. wander truilge. glance. had she bitterly. stumblcil. of After years loyal on moving theriver. squint. and she of office believe stories thetakeover. to triith walks wort she. thrilled autumn. what wrong' innocently was she quick Puzled.* sf'roff. evenbof the day Iife for ever.. sunlight and moved made leaves and the lining road. now feltlostand go. GESTURES -rootgsE€ . what could orwhere should very she no had idea possestook but coat..and to sank. ashehad As happily. wife I need housekeeper. moment reached went contentment away.and identi a whichtechniques heginning sta4 for first paragrap in used the been have ne Iphrasu Thenunderli thetimewonls an Finally. uprnar Para.*-6+. haPPY) verb 1 9 Put the followingdescriptive and into the correctcategories.glimpse. satdeiectedly a bench slowly service. peer. thirty at looked theducks put and life been aside.I |lnil llorrlives 5 with suitable in the and below replace words boldtype 17 neadthestory list. soon smiling in hotel the a plans. frenzied.-i. Para. wailcd stunned. saw boss. Para. the wordsasYoucanthin addas many category. she do.s&unter.3 gathereil.4 ilffing." "and for be nicely.*.

'! Unil ilorrutives 5 B Nowdo thesame with thefollowing words categories. sclwl.il.. " " was 7) her... hrppy... Cregory already 8) . jump. scratchine the back hishead drumming tinof and tlis gen 0nthetable.plunge. spot ghnce cyeep. for MOJ-E....... untl t:tut. and bellow.see) Cregory headingfor some trees' 3) Come) out.asCregory shethoughtshe still might makeit by her. angU. soft... impatient.ttcn.. noisy)at the trespassers. of a playing Same hide-and-seek' rearsbefore....snatch. (furious.. grin... (see) he she Suddenly.cheek).... the Reaching tin that (smile) triumphantly' 9) . .. roar.. nudging eachother and pointingat the danling piles of toys. (come) out from the Across lawnshehad2) """""" a behind hedge..imaginative) around her roomto make sure was it tidy..Alex stared blankly at thecomputer screen.. was but (run)herhardest. realised had 6) """"""""""" (walk) towards straight . : ' '\':'!ttrrt tltc u.."Can't sit still?... casually ...':D S':ohstrode6_@Eto window.=':. (heavy. strfule . unexpectedl. embrace. ...cd. . glare. I The old manleant and gazed (sad.. content) herparas entswandered .. (abrupt.h" had raced acrossthe open grass'quickly to Cregory seewhathe was (look) towards +) . thenhesighed deeply andreluctantly reached thephone...iilffi. shout..makingher attemptto run for base". e.... grimace..dart many and of reminded herself Cregory/ was Stella suddenly she Crouching. clutch........Slimpse . making changes any necessary. angry) towards house the where and he hiswifehadliveduntilherdeath. rt.. (slow. Finalry. (look)at him angrily' of breath. pain. sneer... circletheadvertrs and then andadjectives in each used sentence.. .rilel 45 j t) . her hiding place 11 n-rad .... casual. 2 Eleanormuttered (peace. sprint.. dash.glare gnn ....intltnrt li. ..aggrz.' teacher you the shouted anarily (shl. grasp.ifent.s. 22 fitl in thegapsin thefollowing sentences choosing mostsuitable by the word from thosegivenin brackets andputtingit into thecoruect form. mumble... complicate) stares of theonlookers.....iJe. off my "Get land I'11set dogs you!" belor the on he lowed . unblinking eyes.asin theexample...:. .. 10) and 21 Read following the descriptions underline descriptive and the words or phrases describing manner mannerisms.. say and whatemotions and/or personality characteristics suggestedeach are in description..liLlly. (intpntittrt.. embarrassed the by (concern...For a littlewhile..calm. seize. sprint..pause ... a 2 His brows knitted. 3 The injured cyclist hobbled away . 4 The landowner shook his fist (violent. mufter.... description each in simplified form.. slither... 1 p: 3 The childrenstopped abruptlyand gazed the shopwindow at with wide.g. tiptoe 1 Daphne sprawled the sofa... rwsh cfeep whisqer yell "e tdkD' i l 20 complete following the excerpt replacing verbs brackets by fhe in with words fromthelist below. ads herhip-sJistening@entDher cocked on head to on. quick. o. proud).. smirk.She 5) bush]then dashedon again...cheerful) the as childrenfidgered resttessty (rygkqq abrupt.. groan. short'out over'Shestopped kickedit he rnarked base..write.noisilv on leafing through glossy the pages her of magazine she chewed as gum and slurped softdrink. the thenstood with legsapartandher :.. crush. (stop)brieflyto rest besidea doing.

ioro.andran outside witho I was destroyed. able. Then... delighted. "I'm 7) veryafraid. opposite. at the round WarMuseum.. picked herteddy She but 6) saidto it..' ..nelancholy.. There a 1) big crash thunder was Jess a flashof lightning. rainswept. regret. terrified..tiny." ' sadness grief relieved confusion . annoyed. fuious... pleasant. awful.rrrtlappallexcite) I foundit hardto .s il. had whathehadsuffered been (ap ologli oysy I mpsthy ) a of A. without struck.. ely ertremely. . 24 by the sentences choosing most of in Fill in thegaps each thefollowing and given brackets puttingit into the in wordfrom those appropriate form.. I m WhenJ 8) nicethings. alarm.. correct that me I at exciting fint. contentffieilt .terri peered...... suddeniy disaster when near cottage thesea.. apset stirring.. (dnv oint puuleIdisaPP ) astate I 40 . tarating." abilityto inflict painandsuffering mankind.....0) d to it 9) nicely.infuriating. {rtghteneil. had years'work been backward glance.9) say the "You! Get out of herethisinstantl" St thatfive and the damage firehadcaused realised howmuch whenI saw was10) afraid. waiting..asin theexamPle.bliss. miserglnd. stranger came and8) thr a in 7) (delightsurPrisre et eI gr ) I a healychairacross room." try to thinkof the wokethe nextmorning sunwasshin good going bea 1. exhiecstatic...::.. The was iob ... addasmany then youknowthevarious formsof each Makesurethat egory. panic. screaming." ... verb..irritating.. hutwhen realised it offered no. word(noun...5 Unil t{urrolives into the correctcateemotions 23 put the followingwordsdescribing catas words youcanthink of to each gories.ioy aPPrehensive i :.whisper ragtng.... was mutte burst. Steve 1) looking theclock sat somethinghimsel to after performance. enthusiasm. was2) veryftig ened shesatin her3) littlebedliste as was which 5) happe to the4) badstorm bearz up outside. warning.brightly. etc). satisfaction.temper. amused...t. : wordsin t the 25 Replace numbered with those followingparagraphs thelists given. cheerful. patience. fault nobody's buthisown. anxious... I beccLme ffornnelillusiotlthrill) dts!.. come would theband that hoping he up. hurled.fiiture.felt 1 AfterI hadwalked . calm..marched. walland2) saying the and Weallclapped cheered 3) was absolutely angryat beingk on back stage. adjective. Suddenly stood 4) wal (thrillIimp atiencIenthusiasm e ) up towards window 5) looked z the and little in holiday a-. glning. lov huge..... depressing. tenibly...... the 4 We werespending summer i downthe 6) wetstreet.ilastgLgd- I ... .. puuled. mournful. at on B. dread.

yelled stammered. in theexample.Mikecouldn't belleve eues:Somebodu his wos walki.'he the Leaned oit and beLLowed. jumped of theplane gqsaidtheskydiving instructor firststudent the out gq theinstructor to thenext said student line in i cantdo it theterrified novice im scared said lookif youdontjumpnowyou'llnever allowed try again instrucbe to the tor saidoverthenoise theaeroplane of butbutthestudent i have wifeandtrvochildren a said just come its not dan&erous geta holdof yourself remember on and what youve learned . teaseil. are exclaimed.no atonq the stieet with Rei.ving window open. as 28 Look at the cartoon and strip below write a brief descriptive paragraph about each picture. laughed. the nervous lookedout the planedool andsawthe green student fields below i[ doit hesaidwithdetermination jumped and cjk theparachute gently properly hefloated and towards ground opened the i betyouwereterrified he down saidhiswifewhen touched nohesaidi cant waitto doit again 41 .sdool Throi. addthemissing punctuation. in theexample. verbs and Thewords whichareunderlined in DirectSpeech. wailed. as e.Brian stM withWs ur liry. "Thct's mg dog! What are gou doingwith him?" 27 Replace word"said"in thefollowing passage more the with descriptive reporting from thelist below. shouted. Mike.g. snapped. tappttrg lit fM hrpfrently a l(rft nd dgliry lP Staring out oJ thewindow.1 Unil t{urrulives 5 drawings below showing actions mannerisms and 26 toot<at thecartoon of andwritea description each one.

h...tell thestorybrieflyiI your ownwordswithoutusingflash backnarration.. swarthymanin a *ood"n-tubtewith il.. in taskstellyouto beginyourstorywitha given writing a somenarrative has important event that clearly another suggests often which sentence narration...Then numberthe events saYwhic order and chronological nar flashback part of the storyuses ration. seemed.I'veriever the country helda longconversation' rang'andthe..." *i . T I 3 Paragraph room."" n T Angusis toldthatheisfree. telephone (put)the phonedown and muttered' he Finally (13)...e dto' room' (lead) to a small him and his seized arms (7)""""""""""""" policemen on a telephone ir.ilil-" the room. i{rJ^fr '" nngut in broken what he realised when to turnecl dismay h" someone . Angus (commit)' he (6)"""""' r""*i"g *n" crlt""m"y thought ili. ..'l ......r..i....... in front of his hotet'Then'suddenly' out -(t^k"l exoticholidayas he stefrped of a taxi had twist' Threepolicemen nightmarish (4) "'-tevents ^ uihit in a language couldn'tunderhe g"".unable believe awaydownthe trudging policeman (heal rhemetaldoor ."""':"'..sti l | shakenbytheterri fyi ngexperi ouei' He knew hb would feel angry ence but immenselytnankful that iiwas he hopedthat """'..5 Unil llottuliles FlashbackNarration of sequence followthe chronological does not always sequence Narrative You may chooseto begin with a particular(usuallydramatic) events... rushed waving him Afterbundling intoa battered hiswrists..but later at the way he (14) """"""""""' flyinghome' He (be)on an aeroplane' UV1h" fime he (15) ...:'. ctamping before stand a station'Nobodycouldspeak word of pi'.. gazing....'..""'-"1' """":" to Angus the door and th"n showed . throughthe barsof the tiny window of the cell wasflungopen'Two burly sky evening grow d"tk...l the in his cell' Anguswatched Now.and then use flashback narration describethe eventsup to this with the restof the story.t man "' '.2) in beenherebefore my life!" today..unabieffiAlffi belowir the 30 Complete list of events in theyappear tht theorderin which iI story. suchcases in taken already then the and the 29 Read storybelow underline timewordsiphrases.|.officer the At that moment...ewords: &appenedJl what traad "FIe sat down..ir.... into U....sridiculousl..niu.th.:"'...n"y'i'ia 1". put tenses... I Paragraph station E eogrt sitsin a cellin a police 2 Paragraph l arrest n Threepolicemen him. he (3)"""""""" """"" (sit)' bed the Lfu"L* covering crude on which to tourist lookingforward' an Angushad beena carefree A few hoursearlier.-.-...?J ..'. at relief but English...iu'*uia finding him was Theofficer accusing of a robbery """""""' A"Vl' theman(10). to event..... into in theverbs brackets thecorrect (1) Angus """':""""""' whathadhappened' to He satdown.. beforecontinuing point(usually PastPerfect)..iny[oots entered neat officer' a The attention' man'obviously senior $L.. youmusluseflashback place.. and the other policemen uniformana ...Finally.. (2).'.(be treated). A tall."4 t"1he folice into (5)""":"':"". (s) . "Mistake sorry"' "."""'t'...i n to th e w a rm n ightai r.' t leave' '' he was free to that explained Writea storybeginningwith ttl. in no .f*g tlt"t andthe brick wall of the narrowcell' he corridor and.'-:""""" (be pushed) a cell and it Enslish. longer the mood{or a holiday' n 6 Paragraph to @ He decides fly homeimmediate 4$ . (11) which .... Angus' io (9).Butthat. is taken a small T I n 4 Paragraph the Angus denies accusation' 5 Paragraph I A ngus s te p p e d o u t..i the bare of aware the stale'soursmellof the rough i.(1.Angusspluttered.l thtouiing up.--..".

:. paragraph a startingpointfor flashback narration.: i::-1:a. lightwasfading anda blanket mistwasstartjackeg forcedto wait wherehe was.-t . as and a select different MGDEE.c. LGI he doctors for with at of decided keepPeter the hospital the nightin case complications hisleg. for theyascended mountain. okay". weakfrom hisordeal..The sounds for workers footsteps the crackle static the walkie-talkies the rescue and werecrunching of on that only carried talkto each whether was place afternightfall gradually to Themountainside aneerie to and Michael started wonder other. tell thestoryagainin yourownwords." Explainthe reasonfor your either approach? 'she walked plot a choice. aboutto change. was ..nly sor'ryi'saidMichaeltohisfriendlaterinthewarmsafetyofthehospitalrlom. ! . Eventually.iii:.i little restaurant..:.r ffi rc Iansweredthe D ".=:. Peter fu and a thick blanket mist was starting form.On clambering as lEflrnat was when disaster airandthe networkof tiny pathswas mostlyobscured from down. A the onto and lllil Reter Mikeclimbed a rockto admire terandinhaled the far rificviewof the valley belowthem.|Jnil l'lonulives 5 would 31 Wtrictrof these"beginning"sentences E Asshe.l'll be right back.whenthetwo boyshadsetout on theirwalkup thecool. Michael disheartened scared his friend'ssafety. E downon the mountainside the from lAll. pine-scented pleased where theylivedthatSunday near village the mountain steep MODES. Peter foundhimselfin a helicopter andMichael climbed had onto a rockto lcll rhree hourslater.!::t I -1i. was he beneath to worse.To makematters worse.:'1. it as lookedtotallydifferentfrom the air and the networkof tiny paths mostly was obscured fromviewby thethickcovering of pine trees. of to lal I Butthendisaster and rescue fromtherock footslipped hetumbled E#91€* ::.:' have to go back and continuethe searchfor and Michael's treneath Anxiously pulled hisjacket him.ri!1 .Peter. rescue workers." . Unable move. mountainside thevillage near wheretheylived.and inhaled cool. .To make matters bentat a painful angle him. in downat hisfriendandpatted shoulder silently.wrapped Michael's of the fast in ingto form.tnua allbeen and into a t.-the realise mylite how :tr!:1.i. on "Look.l sfaried crying.tui*DEE $GTFS s gVseven in andgathered mountain rescue teamof fifteen o'clockthat eveningthey had left the helicopter the village a E4 men.it. Nearthe top.' they wouldeverfind Peter all.. theybothvowednever go walking the mountains to 4$ .. at a "We'vegot him. felt increasingly He helpless.which requireflashback theaourtroom the if a coincidence a wonderinghe haddone weremet .he croaked.Peter hadtumbledawkwardly the ground.i-a ." Michael heard voicecomeoveroneof the walkie-talkies.': narrafion. "Hecouldn't ofsuch at would suit narration. did I ' ...and which could use the right thing"' chronological million to utte' r"vII Lv one. :::rt:it-.r reter:miledpainfully. . reassuring began and hesaid.. pilot announced they would whileMichael that the had begun longtrek downthe mountainthe have go backandcontinue search Peter foot. 3:ll." Everything been draped aroundPeter's it shoulders.: l :" " 't' ' ".We'retakinghim down. he off friend.' . the mountain from the lookedtotallydifferent had struck."ldidn'trealiseitwouldtakesolong N't.i in workersin the helicopter Michael stared horror ttEfu* to agreed they would that awkvrardlytheground. in the and order. the . W SrOO.Before to iooked again.the lightwas fadingfast lPfing' clambered struck.:. to for on sideto fetchhelp.Whichmodel below number paragraphs chronological uses flashback narration.. tenibte . ' tooking story. felt increasingthe with threemountain far ly helpless. his as.. .'-r Eventually pilotandthethreemountain his the down gg.his leg to viewby the thick coveringof pine trees. "l'm just gladto be here. had totallydifferent Sunday mornthat lell ing.::'." still "lt's zl Michael leaving.. hoping hisvoicesounded that to pine-scented thelongtrek backdownthe mountainside fetchhelp. foot." ..uichaellooked windowof the helicopter. ^-.*'.to witholdfriends. angle was at leg ashisfriend's which bent a painful '-i. Slowly the felt and the scouring numerous paths Peter. 32 Reaathe models included? are events Whattense beenused these has for andin whichparagraph(s) the flashback events? Finally. telephone. alive. thensuggest suitable for each. roMarl a pleasant meal . misunderstanding../oon:O^::':u hetp' C "fnechances h.Michael along He admire viewof the valley belowthem. to with their decision climb the air.

ffaio t back watking to thegrocer'st<6pt AsI was l"l-?T9d twice thesame befo place.'. was us. guess wnatnappeneo! never So theqroceries.same twice less to you would beprepared experience men' two with masked face door. masked jumping a beige into their grabbed bagandleft thebuilding. I io-.andyou'll Mumb empty' is his and shopping finds wallet almost to you know he feels howsomeone when is about payforhisgrocery apooreXcuSe|headedforthebank. weiehuddled and out to themendecided carry theirthreat startshooting' their calmbut I suppose wereremarkably The cashiers Theybusily themfor sucha situation' had training prepared had of theirtills into a bagtherobbers the emptie-d ionients to I keptexpecting hearthe to over oushecl thecounter them. op:T9 th* d. the opening grocer's I came to face 50 . was experienceotmylife1non!vafewminutes.t.t and together go andg feelings! pullyourself yourfunny "Don't stupid. be t rppen. *iL t*6 armed . whathad happ of to enough givethe policemy account mY thenwentto collect shoPPing' *#Fr'ffi#{F "This hissing: isa robbery!" votce a that lt was uneasy. wellas the different beginusedin eachof the have Whichtechniques been ningsand endings. bi.91 Slowlv.-a I'd afternoon. t.g i.but r tJJ riysert.o.w I justknewI shouldn. letaway Minutes the theycouldcatch criminals. youand tda.thepolice car. I hadnochoice in thing the. then I heard sharp lfelt the AsI entered grocer's strangely ." lthought in 'Ligntning strikes never r4gke{men.iru. two suddenly men when in patiently thequeue waiting I was the through front rushed over masks theirheads. onlyanunbearable raiders the had as as Almost suddenly they entered. takecoherent of After a while..'*u.notpreparedata||forwhat|wasabouttoexperiencethere.-i"ir." )t.when | but an than hour?wasn't.-time? that feeling something all Ieeling mornrng." I did.don. wasstilla bit shaken.o.or. the Who and beginnings endings? narrates story? mon some to as and of village Lishwood I hadgcneto thebank usual withdraw in afternoon thesleepy l. black pulling 'Ooor guns and shouting waving in theair' "Thisis a ind began and men' of themasked "Doaswesay no robbery. ail where theothercustomers to me helped rlown theground in to daring breathe case even harclly together..l minutesbefore' oj tfiihting yv|l1. to hurried rescue butthere as of wailing sirens thepolice silence. u normitFriday the mostfrighten I io knowthatl'd be enduring How so frommy account rhatI couldpayfor *y gro.. iook off in theircarsto seeif while otherstried to calmus down enoughso that they c statements. hada strange havegoneoutthatFriday . us herded intoa corrobber bank wiil one gethurt!"Theother on us nerof thi roomandordered to lie face-down thefloor' My wholebodylroze in fear' Someone i wasterrified.il. tr.the feelings shockand fear beganto from but I hadrecovered theo I side.ljnil5 }{unnlives as the 33 ReaA mainbodyof thestorybelow. officers Several arrived' later.iry shopping.

His brother had promised ro meet him..*:.-.Unil l{urrutives 5 and 34 Reaathe modelbelow correctthe highiighted words. Now. VVhat sort of narrative (e. for punctuation WW spelling. he did not know what to think. .p. etd doesthe title suggest you? to r lVhat techniqueswould you use to begin and end your story? r Is it necessary you to write this comfor positionusing flashba&narration? \{hy/ lVhy not? . They soundedsuch excitedthat he was coming back."pvr G was s k fi Ash off the train. and rvrite a complete planwith notes. r What sort of narrativestory (e. he this wasnot the way he had imaginedhis return. said to himself.. a) o Writea story that hegins ends or wiilr thewords:4t had all brena case mistaken of identi$. humandrama.Matt felt ierriblyalone. to Walking up the drive. Once the lights of his villagecameinto view. sinceit was no telephone."At least somethingshaven'tchanged. humsn drama. He had been nervousabout his familie'sreactionto his homecoming. .He tapedon the fast i'Mattl" glass and his brother*oke . Write S for grammar. ! 7. The one thereand. mystery. that Matt had found embarrassing." : 1 35 Lootr at the followingcomposition task instructions and answer the questions below. . I . ' . He wandered whether would he be able to readjust ro life in a small community after yearson board a ship and his experience so many foreign cultures. It was two in the morning and.: i ' ' '._a*"r. with a sigh of relief.g. he decided.r3-:*<-. Cold. "r-.-*"-€a%' 51 .Read storyagainandput theevents chronologthe in ical ordeqthenretellthestorywithoutflashback narration. Can you suggesta possibleplot using this sentence begin your story? to b) Write a stary enffied .asleep on the sofa. rr:. he looked up and down the platform. What Limeworcls/phrases would you use to link the events? r Can you suggesta possibleplot? 36 ChooseONE of the composition tasks above. After walkingonly for ten minutes.o . -"_"''j-'-'-. i. Ten yearspreviously he ?ras home to go at seabecausethere were little jobs in the left villagewhich he grew up. adaenture. Suggest a title suitable for thestory. After being so long ar sea.But. Somebody will pick him up. and his pace quickenedas he approached rhe Family home. Doesthe topic require specialised knowledge and/or vocabulary you may not have? .The Incked Dooril. standingin the desertedplatform.one of his bagscaughton a stoneand tore open. he setoffdown the narrow countrylane.t..*-. {1 *----'. he wasnoticing the flickeringlight of a television a downstairs in window.ffiP:ryssf#r:Ee?.-. Matt Blackwasa merchanlseaman.spillingthe contents over the muddy road. Would you use flashback narration? Why/Why not? .: . he' shqutedexcited.he had madeenoughmoneyto return backand setup a smallbusiness.His mother had evencried.g.his mood lifted slightly.this of was where he wanted to be.. ' i .:.'1.he decided to walk the five miles ro the village.. buc one telephonecall had been enough to put his mind at rest. l '. but was nowhere to be seen. for WO G F or for wrong word. Thenwritethecomposition 300to 400 in words. i! il$[]"t'"$$l 8=. dazed and cbnfus'ed. So. mystery. ' t . dragginghis rwo hugebagsbehind him..tired and now bad-tempered. . for wordorder. Stood there checking his watch and anxiouslypeering into a darkness beyondthe station.'!srjj-*:vfr1lry''5::r::i+l€eqqrc*e?q.Through the open curtains he couldseehis brother. I fell asleep! How did you ger here?" ''N{att thoughr back to when rhe two of rhem leaveJ thbre as s tecnagers and. he thought. etc) does the iitle suggest you? to . adaenture. f. . saton a rock for a while. begunto feela little he worried."Oh no. ashe stoodlisteningto the sound of the train rattling offinto the distance.

giveexamples. realised lifewould again.giveexamples.thinkof thepossible "The entitled )pportunity"' story a C Write short to I Is it necessary decideon a plot beforewriting yourstory? J. give Wouldyou usenarrative examples. you plan 4 Whatparagraph would follow? be Wouldyourcomposition writtenin a formalor Why? informalstyle? you would use? techniques Whatdescriptive ata and the E Describe activities atmosphere celebration country. you the a yousuggestplot?Howwould present Can cluonologically? events 'Afier with beginning thewords: story F Write short a be never her she the reading tetter.ffi@Mffi and destination holiday a A Describe well-known for account itsPoPularitYis 1 Whatkindof compositionthis? Whatarethekeywords? plan 3 Whichparagraph wouldyoufollow? WhY? you would use? 4 Whichtenses need the does composition to bewritten style J What 'in? Why? your you Howcould begin/end composition? 7 If techniques? so.'4 I Whatarethekeywords? : ) What information wouldyou givewhendescnbing therestaurant? J . your 0fthe give impressions atmosphere. Would not? Why/IVhy nanation? youuse flashback wouldyou givein orderto set 3 Whichinformation thescene? you to would use setthescene? tenses 4 What wouldyouuseto beginandend 3 Whichtechniques yourstory? Giveexamples. foritscontinuing is Whatkindof compositionthis? Whatarethekeywords? you would use? Why? tenses Which in Wouldyoureferto thesenses orderto describe If theplace? so. and . festival your in or is I Whatkindof compositionthis? Whatarethekeywords? be 3 Wouldyourcomposition writtenin a formalor Why? style? informal you Why? would use? 4 Whattenses techWould you usenarrativeand/ordescriptive If niques? so. ser3 vice food. wish could is I Whatkindof compositionthis? ) Whatarethekeywords? yoir plan paragraph would follow? 3 Which WhY? wouldyouuse? 4 Whichtenses wouldyouinclude? of Whichaspects description foryourchoice? reasons tojustifi the 6 Is it necessary and reasons justif them. plan Whichparagraph wouldyoufollow? 7 you person the whom a prominent from past B Describe your choice." thesame to starting write you on Whatshould decide before yourstory? not? WhyAilhy narration? 2 Wouldyouuseflashback your throughout story? wouldyouuse 3 Whichtenses yourstory? youuse end to could 4 Which technique(s) wouldyou includein order to J Whichtechniques yourstory moreinteresting? make nanation? flashback a Canyousuggestplotusing and in country account market your a Describetypical success. If so. you yourdescription intermore Howwould make estins? 1 and in yourcountry a D Describevisitto a restaurant 7 decor. giving for reasons you meet.

. is 1 Whatkindof composition this?Whatarethekey words? WhY? you would use? 2 Whattenses could '3. Whatshouldyou starting write on decide before yourstory? can the to sentence begin story..can What nanation? you suggest plot with flashback a you would use? tenses possession explain and your N Describe mostprized it whyyouvalue somuch.T i your to would technique(s) youuse begin story? 3 Which your wouldyouusethroughout story? 4 Whattenses account could which you would present reasons What justification' Provide succes? for themarket's say visityou been an H Describeeducational have onand thisexperience' from you learned you what think have words? 1 WhatarethekeY visit"? t What as be could described "aneducational If so.can nanation? you suggest plot without flashback a youuse? would Whattenses to If youusethe givensentence endthe story. to needed achieve the and define qualities 1 Whatarethekeywords? j you WhY? would use? Whattenses wouldyouinclude? of 3 Whataspects description who be 4 Mustthedescription of someone is a)alive. WhY? wouldYouuse? 4 Whichtenses wouldyou of 3 What aspects description Giveexamples. plan Whichparagraph wouldyoufollow? person and with your meeting afamous i Describe first you him in explain whatways found or herto bedifyourexPectations. Whatarethekeywords? can 3 Whatinventions Youtalk about? of yourdescription theinvenshould 4 Howdetailed tionbe? Why? mention? of aspectsdescriptionwouldyou 5 What you plan paragraph would follow? 6 Which "Howcould I with a K Write storyending thewords: ' wondered."' he been have so wrong?" not? Why/IVhy nanation? you flashback 1 Would use to you would give setthescene? 2 Whatinformation 5 wouldyou includein order to Which techniques yourstorymoreinteresting? make plot? a Canyousuggestsuitable you as whom regard successful a L Describeperson success. b)wellknown? wouldyoumention? Whatqualities plan 6 Whichparagraph wouldyoufollow? 'He with orending thewords: beginning M Write story a on hnd breath knocked thedoor." took deep a not? Why/IVhy narration? 1 Wouldyouuseflashback to . Whattypeof possession youdescribe? 4 What informationwould you give in order to this describe possession? plan paragraph wouldyoufollow? 5 What . from ferent words? 1 WhatarethekeY ) Whattenses WhY? wouldYouuse? contrast? wouldyouuseto express words 3 Which wouldyoumention? of 4 Whataspects description of composition a person? J Is this a puredescriptive not? Why/IVhy plan Whichparagraph wouldyoufollow? invention twentieth-century an J Describe important people's iives' changed has how explain it and is I Whatkind of composition this? . give 3 Wouldyou usenarrativetechniques? examples. If youusethegiven nanation? yousuggest plotwithoutflashback a to If youusethe givensentence endthestory.

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discussing whether on 1 ffi You will hear four people a radio programme questions, listen thecassette then to progress good us.Lookat thefollowing is for the andanswer questions. to possible solutions a problem? discusses A Whichspeaker on gives personal opinion thesubject? a B Whichspeaker aspgElq various discusses C Whichspeaker (e.g. social, ofthe subject? etc) economic,



l_l Speaker2 fl Speaker3

discussing presents balanced argu-ment a Whichspeaker Speaker4 progress? l__l as points favourof progress wellasagainst in

issue, a essayis a piece of formalwritingwhich discusses particular A discursive or situation problem. essays. Thereare threemaintypesof discursive points in i For and against essays presentboth sides of an issue,discussing and topic as well as those against,or the advantages favour of a pafticular of disadvantages a particularquestion.Each point should be supportedby ' justifications, The writer'sown opinion should be and/or reasons. examples, presented only in the finalparagraph. personal opinion concerning topic,clearthe the ii Opinionessayspresent writer's The opposingviewpoint ly statedand supportedby reasonsandlorexamples. paragraph in beforethe closingone, and reasonshouldbe included a separate viewpoint. writer's The that withan argument showsit is an unconvincing together and in in opinionshouldbe included the introduction, summarised/restatedthe conclusion. associated iii Essayssuggestingsolutionsto problems,in whichthe problem(s) and are solutions putforare issueor situation analysed possible with a particular The ward, togetherwith any expectedresults/consequences. writer'sopinion in or directly indirectly, the introduction and/orconclusion. may be mentioned, essayshouldconsistof: A good discursive statethe topicto be discussed; a) an introductoryparagraphin whichyou clearly b) a main body, in which points are clearlystated in separateparagraphs and , exemplified justified; or and the c) a closing paragraphsummarising main pointsof the essay,in which you your opinion, state/restate and/orgive a balanced consideration the topic. of

Pointsto consider
paragraph. well-developed Present paragraph eachpointin a separate A contains a cleartopic sentence,whichsummarises contents the paragraph, well as the of as a clearjustification,explanation example supportof the pointpresented. in or Well-knownquotations(e.9.As writer Somerset Maughamonce said, "lt is bad enough to know the past; it would be intolerable to know the future."), rhetorical questions (e.g.lf peopletoday are not concemed enoughabout tomoffow,will the future stillbe there for man?)or thought-provoking statements(e.9. Thefact is that one's future is what one makes it. Thereis no such thing as chance.) are useful moreinteresting. devices makeyour composition to you makea listof the points you willpresent. Beforeyou beginwriting, shouldalways Do not use informal style (e.9. contractedforms,colloqilial language,efc) or very strong languagefe.g. I know,I am sure...) paragraph, to linkingwords/phrases showthe linksbetween Use appropriate as withinparagraphs. well as to linksentences (

topic setltence

Meny people, lioweuer, prefer livinE n ,'lalsbecause tl'lstt rBol



Vlith increasrng cr;n:e , aies.
nl 'a'l l p a ra af,atd rn live'n a


hcuse,as they fee! mare vulnerable ;o aurglars and orheruininals. Therefore, they prefer the .,i feerinq securiA Ihepra:itm:hai ity ai neighbouringflets ofiers them.


Essuys Unil [iscursive 0
of essays' plansbelow the threetypes discursive for Lookat the essay plan howeach and the thensaywhatfeatures planshavein common differsfromtheothers.

1 Paragraph stating statetopic (WlIhSuI youropinion)

1 Paragraph statethetopicand your opinion

1 Paragraph statethe oroblem and its cause(s)/effect(s)

$e$s ffim8s
Paragraphs2 - 3 argumentsfor & justifications, examplesor reasons Paragraphs4 - 5 argumentsagainst& justifications, examplesor

ffi$gn $B$s
Paragraphs2 - 4 viewpoints& reasons/ examples Paragraph 5 opposingviewpointand reason/example

#sln ilods
Paragraphs 2 - 5 & suggestions results


Final Paragraph balancedconsideration or opinion

Final Paragraph your summarise/restate opinion

Final Paragraph your opinion summarise

each topicasts for a and topics below, saywhether Lookat theessay or suggesting an "for and against"essay, opinionessay an essay a and choose of thetopics make list of two Then, solutions problems. to topic. on each in thepointsyouwouldinclude an essay as Do respect humans." you "Animals with be should treated thesame agree thisview? with

are "Fearandignorance therootcausthis hatred." Discuss stateesof racial solutions mentandoffersome'possible prejudice. problem racial to the of "Themotion is picture industry threatculture and tradieningto destroy tion."Do youagree? is "Too muchmoney spenton sPort when it could be usedto help the poor." What are your viewson this issue? and 10 What are the advantages disaduse vantages our ever-increasingof of technology? computer

Discuss. be "Thegeneration isonewhich cannot bridged." gap dosuch sewice? things military as wouldlead to betterinternational "One language worldwide spoken relations." Discuss. pr'oblems, mor'al both and of poses Genetic engineering a number wonyirig practical. could to andsuggestwhat bedone problems some Discuss of these overcome them. lives without theirprivate private, "Celebrities to be should allowed keep iheinvasion themedia." Discuss. of

should 3 Do youbelieve equality women that also means women for that


[ssnys Unil Discutsive 0
style Formal
you This style. means should use: in essays written formal are Discursive constructions voice, impersonal / passive beliefthat.'J (e.g.tt is arguedthat...; lt is a common abstract (verbs, adjectives, nouns, etc) vocabulary of { arange advanced issue ...) the (e.g.heateddebate concerning controvetsial (e.9.u rthe rnore,however, nonetheles,$J f h / formalIinking words/p rases dependent clauses, etc of witha variety links, sentences / complex military that seNice, (e.9.Attttough is widelyaccepted compulsory it manpower, beneficial is an which provides armywithabundant closeranalysr.s military af ta a oounty'sabiti$to defenditself, weapanry whichplays a fhaf suggesfs tt ,s advanced efficiency role crucial in...) y' inversion, in especially conditionals fhts ...) ...;IVeverhas beenmoreobvious (e.g.Were true.wewould this not Youshould use: whenthesearepartol a quoiation fm, it's)except X shortforms{e.9. phrasal idioms verbs, expressions, X colloquial fe.g./otsof, putup with,be averthemaonabout...) is vocabulary Experfs simplistic Seytheythinkthis bad....) fe.g. (e.g. thinkso.They wrong.) ae Manypeopte a series shortsentences of for except variety soJ and,bttt, linking words t( simple {e.9.

B EXCERPT abou nowadays Peoplearguea lot whetheror not worksof art from one I countryshouldbe sold to another. be. don'tthinktheyshould lf theyare of in thenthe people thecountry origin to loseout on the chance seestufftha to reallybelongs them.Thisjust isn' lt's too, right. a problem, whenyousee place. mean I works artinthewrong of look boringthe friezes the Parthenon way they show them in the Britis Museum. That'sjust not wherethey But belong. if you couldseethemon the Parthenon, they'dlookgreat...

and Beginning ending essays discursive
you shouidstate In ihe first paragraph, and you ihe :ooic ancioryouropinion, may ' rc;ude one or m or e of t he icilo".'r.E iechniques. Mar.e ' e' ere nce t o an unusual or 5*f.{.^,c dea sceneisituation e.g. /rnagn'iemillionsof peoplecoming ,tr,e f,an sciocl or wok everyday rc st'mffgd awaJllarfourhours. A,ocress -eacerdirectly :e agr Yan.rry ihtukfb b an exaggentian. a:'g cr a;{ a *eioncal ouestion. e.gt"nave ,rnc'stg yfrndercd what the ffi{.do te iike without cars? '{€)|16 S := -: n :- a : uot at ion or t hought -*\r[.{, -L: :t=g{nent_

of and find examples eachof the features 4 Read the following excerpts the table above. of formal and informal stvlelisted in

A EXCERPT controversy A matter considerable of works present theissue whether is of at of in of art shouldremain theircountry origin,or ratherthe ownersof such to to be works should allowed sellthem the abroad,thus depriving collectors population a vitalpartof its of country's culturalheritage.Stiong arguments existin supportof both sidesof this that it is worth which implies debate, both pointsof view before examining reaching conclusions. any it suchsalesbe permitted, is Should of of thatthe country originwouldlosepieces artwhichrightfully argued worksof art whichwere In created. addition, wheretheywere belong setting, as partof a partlcular or in structo created be viewed a certain impactwhen removed from this ture,lose a greatdeal of theirartistic qontext. statue Aphrodite a clear of is casern Venusde Milo,an ancient of example the Hellenistic sculptural point:this conspicuous traditior.. island Melos 1820. of in ls in carved 150BC andfoundon theAegean than a room at the Louvre nothingmore inspiring now decorating ... in Museum Paris

e.;" "-s s, : cn ;s an invention that :E -'nfis.r6tri i€ enterbinedin ywr :D iar'3 r ycur iome.'
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David Frost

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'il .no the . whether human one and practice a moot is actual remains a in any circumstances the rightto kill another question.'aou."One machine part of the "'- lackson) riitar"".. much-debated ." . as suffering a result cities. only Perls said' t... -It is the familiar that usually eludes us ln is what *^'. whichtechnique been say used each.Unil Discursive $ Essuys has in Then. "itiis everyone's the to responsibility protect environment'" "Astechnology Discuss the reduldant.re or p rob Iem.z' lHolbrook thework " No machine ii' "r .::::fi. .. the to lose tinlt tJ tome "We to have "t' the behind to of Allin all. condone since cnme' the L.. iJ''ntdren solutio_n you. " (Eldridge Cleaver) cando C." are humans becoming advances. il..to. and beginnings endings.. thissupilosed that to practice? of There plenty evidence suggest workis judged theirgender not by their and by ersarestillbeing with.o*." tast'" see What qualifications.f.it:]ll capable place. a solution developing it istoo late."11"j ln countries..fifirf:1.tp'. killing criminals of the to weuseto refer capital the But themfor theircrimes. those that I Onthewhole.fu murder' ultimate that a womanhasthe rightto agree mostpeople While a and operator a manto become heavy-machine as work a being open-mindedness putinto is midwife. return ulations? . of a destroying number large virtually mustbefoundbefore and countries. tooth a tooth" thebiblical a punishment.re either part of are. po*tnu'iliuirfrt*trt |nq9 o{childsince is tabour manual asl..' ffigjlt it. countri-es^Should rn dtutfoping especialty areslight.ibt as Amencan minds.." are "Toomuchemphasis placed educational on is your views? ) "Teenagers animportant DiScuss. we support.o'. "Education is what survives when what has been learnt is forgotten.t :a 1. whether in orderto punish by is by suggested the phrase rellected the neatbalance has point. thisis a situation c Whichquotation below.m. to td contribution malte society. 5 Matchthefollowing l. particularly in cities. . "A mothernever longer A. problem iuggest the to bedone remedy situation. whichtypeof essay does each topicrequire? reafises B. :.. phrase is lor "Aneyeforan eye..ir. Skinner) life' E.ibl pr. .ishment personally existence continued ltofrtugt' :.it is easv understandl!:i11:::: number rna ." have I 5 piscuss.i..Js.believe tinancial given pionremt' touro growth of urban of thishappentng 'orut'iileit chances however''ihe Sadly."ri""tYmen-' an extaordi' i:" workof *' ."tY man"'(Elbert Hubbard) D.*# nii.j. spneoi'tni{' act itselfis simplv .#F#{dnlFj:'ffi* neighbourin house a clean Youmaylivein a comfortable not You hoodwithalltheamenities. and whatmight 4 "People Do for comfort granted." (B-F.'rgt*lg:f f# to ruralareastn t tn anYworknot should be an issue ol To sumup. to needs bedealt which and skills.Jti hard own wt'itn il our aie The obstacte! moseF'S'?*i:tonce care. gender i:.o:tl'*'i. subjects and 6 Lookat the quotations theessay and of to wouldtremostrelevant each the topics." youagree? today takematerial i . wouldprobably be so has been whereurbangrowth luckyin one of the cities is Thisproblem out to allowed get completely of control.

th-e illustrated j *ittri ot tife Oeaifr. bills indeed to pay inability heating can the place ] inaoequate.t$l"': proper : survival. buy But nice live life luxury. -. ttre got make most it and of if you're happy.. is clearly This and put emphasismoral issues on society more and kept due ofdeaths tohypother. of is whetherwhich undoubtedly debatable itis tives.iitu th. yourself. instead' too personal opinions strongly X express (e'g' tt seemsto me that"') use milderexpresslons are politicians "'1 'g' I use over-generalisation(e Nl to reference theirsource withoutaccurate blindlyto statistibs X reter t..tihe they in past. As is than gieater importance money health. argue. In recent years hasgreafly life improved slgnd3rd oftiving higher atipeopre is ano ]!e can afford buy to things couldn. statistics thatdifferent show people can unhappy.there's question boyfriend the ofyour orgirlfriend. (e.id inmoitpeople'i However. . .t Also. thepoint view theindividual.tt* themost is Even in importance.g. people bejust be Rich can as unnappy poor as people.o. diswould in the thing life.) that have (e.highly buy'" cannot that is irealth "a blessing money said. Furthermore.. Whenwritinga discursive SMe' p' 56) style(seeFormal / useformal.t it if rich..g. "MoneYis not the mo$f imPortant thing in life. word-for-word "' As wnsronChurchillsaid" ) d. cases state i ffi . .:t'4iM&r*b<J proved ..Aih part but has they Money.Y?. members respected highly ii.urce 1e'g' o not: Youshould p' Sty/e. Firstlfi.money great while lastsl is it But youcan'tbeat having good a time.*i"T .1:::' 0i the although are who rank as nutritiolt to ofthe people deprived meansobtain "Y. think mattersihey. unless are a person's is unbearable notworm life and livingWhen father seriously in my was ill hospital. wi'ich I ntppinttt.whichstudfi) in was (e'g-Rome notbuilt a day') X useclich6s (e'g' "') personal examples lnrnyschoal I use and A good model and the 7 Read twomodels givereas'nswhymodel is B is bad.g "Uwet&*showed "'' .'Discsss.and then to of we learrit that l thepeople love more we are important than m0nev. (seeFormal x useshortforms. there those would money i:'l^1". whydosome So people always that say money everything? is I knowthey're wrong think to tfratfVfoney can't happiness. / wrrtewell-developed gounties'education"') / . that isn.s good it. Then.informal/colloquial detxtpeoplewho "') I use very emotionallanguage(e'g' labS*taly (e'g' I know"' ). however. Despite fact money pay the peopleingfrom heafth money that argued having enables with. is noguarantee longer care be'st forexample.u .impersonal of the introduce subject eachparagraph ro / usetopic sentences givingreasons/examples paragraphs.*-*'**. As j oolicie! the affect whole which I'tfe' c a s e s .s" g"n"r"lisations (e'g'!n mostdevetoped efc) and linkingwords/phrases secondlly' / usu iequencing(e'g. some can for the that problems.truly I believe life that today better is and many things peopte make hap[y.*!. i suruivarare l: srur. a feeling rich being powerful. does necessarilyto happiness' extremely tfris not population.ln addition..inproportion majority the services. health lzaak who tothose aresufferconsolation is money of little 0f be people considert0greate!::q{i:iT::whatis more. once outwith really guyOut I went a rich wedidn't onand finished niir..sA. is for ranoe isusually : status' o{financial independent and tq:':y soclely Western westem ts. i . tosocial i iccoroing ! qvvvr v" rY EO if0 1 .smiaeach discussed which something isoften i El *onruiscertainry in factors life people that ofthe claim one hand.e*d{"1ek*:#. then by consultedworld are i nr* tVcoons often lnsome lead rich. medical businessmen. harmonious to livein if thiswere be would a more world fact bythe that.re I don. Tobeginwith. if an individual ' money outweighs who make easily leaders.luluulll but'rrd wdv trrot'vvrrrruutboriohtwhole. remember nothing I clearly how else matteredany us. m'nev. a become agree. being 0ntheother many of the goes without subiect money by a ffttOlv day i *otfO.afthough. if So you've money.d impbrtaht other than considerations.'fnis get I witn snows money everyfring. Wafton and as such j ii.Eryerts to / makereferences otnersources to being or in paraphrase' careful either usequotations. 56) etc language. wealthy over to eiertlntuence others.. io Oegin rtisoften life' ofa this available.*''.atthough it woutd nicet Oe Wnaii more importantwhether seeeyeto is you eye. happine that agree personal would people most and ofsociety. people healthy.Issuys |Jnil 0iscutsive EssaYs TiPsfor Disaursive Useful you should: essay.:yY. busi. etc) '-' -- . enjoy FI 5l groups' low-income among occur winter intoday. t h e c o n t ra ry is t ru e a n d v a s t w e a l t h b r i n g factor most as be I *ontvcan seen thesingle impoftant indaily cannot Genuine and of problems tnsecurities' happiness be vital morley of of from ieconotv. and So.a consequence. take it's to a of Why thebuswhen can a taxnRnO you take wfry notsend children thebest your to schooli andpayfor thebest doctors? There's no doubt about it. vastmajority most aie insome where benefits thesingle important animportant t0 play perhap #.

. as viewpoints decideon ideas/ it helpsyou examine topicfromvarious a and pointsto includein your essay... standpoint... 9 From a politichlpoint of view. Read pointsbelow. as tingunborn babies. canbeargued themoney it that would better be spent on alleviating problems developing the of countries...d Opponents argue space that technology of limitedusetb society is andthattheresearch beused could profitably try to solve more to some themorepressing of problems which face. With regard ..... we Froma(n). thereis usually that Remember for eachviewpoint argument. From a ... allowing cigarettes be to advertised extremely is damaging...popular sports create for a largenumber people addition of in to generating income thestate. Thinkof the opposing an opposing arguments whenplanning youressay... looking the and at the discussion clock identi$ the aspect each viewpoint relates to.. As far as . allowing children school at to express themselves freelywould more help them to develop their creative talents. in repay humanity many times over.. since cigarette smoking causes cancer andheartproblems........ 5$ ....... as a resultof the pressures modern of life.... will helpyou thinkof ideaswhen planning to clockis a useful"brainstorming" Referring the discussion technique. sociologists thatcolonies space many argue in would create moresocial problems theywouldsolve. thereare those argue thepotential otherplanets for coloniwho that that hold sation couldprove bethesalvation thehuman to of race.. .. future. However..space exploration enables superto their oowers demonstrate levelof technical advancement. use of computers the gives students chance increase a to their knowledge develop and theirresearch skills.. to matters.'.. to Regarding socialimplications space the of exploration.. discovery resources outerspace The of in could of great be benefit ourplanet. Personal Historical Economic Political Educational Social of viewpoints thecorresponding with Matcheach thefollowing opposingargument. is concerned... space exploration been has responsible for rapiddevelopmentsmaterials processes in and whichhave also been benefit people earth.......some politicalanalysts claimthat the Space Race led to unnecessary has competition between nations a and consequent failureto cooperate collaQorate_internationpl and on issues.. Froma scientific standpoint... investment timeandmoney the of in space exploration could.. presented Keepin mindthat a topic may not relate all the aspects to in clock..... anxiety attempted and suicide..Unil Discursive $ [$srys Psychological TheDiscussion Clock a Whenconsidering topicyou may referto the discussion clock..it maybe argued the indithat vidualfaces problems depressuch as sion. well as affec. the discussion you havethoughtof....... of to on Fromaneconomic standpoint.... than On the otherhand.which your essay...... for As for the aspect...... viewjobs point.. Nevertheiess...........

9.". reasons and/or Final Paragraph if arguments. You should presentboth sides in a fair way by disand in equaldetail' cussingthem objectively A good essayof this type shouldconsistof: a1-anintroOuctoryparagraph in which you clearlystatethe topic to be discussed' givingYouroPinion. your opinion) ln opinion words (l think.etc. you arewriting composition discoueryof our &wn is a quotationyou may include is. s si de shoul dbe presentedn side the lo paragraphs & 5. A '.'. exanple. ofgenetic and talk on theadvantages disadvantages of.}. etc. ln addition. you feelthat eitherthe for or against theseare "balanced" Note:Although i thi i s s tro n g e ra n d s h o u l dbe supported.I believe.Issuys l m." i Paragraphs2 & 3 for arguments & justifiand/or cations..rtallY Moreover. An the *tker han{ Fi. Oneinajar advantage A furtheradvantnge In *dditinn.many peaplefeelreadingis a rela<ing warthwrhile a Do not use informalstyle (e. 4 balancedconsideration/ your opiniondirectlyor indirectly 00 . thusleading reader yourconclusion..the topic withottt giving erationof the topic. For moreinteresting. af.. and in of or reasonsare presented separate examples state topic (summarY c )a c l o s i n g p a ra g ra p h i n w h i chyoustateyouropi ni onorgi veaba| ancedconsi d. "Educatlan a progressfrre (t{illDurcnt) ignorance. reasons Paragraphs4 & 5 against& arguments justification.efc) can only be used in the Note: whereyou giveyour opinionon the topic' closingparagraph Pointsto conside a you startwritingyour essayyou shouldmakea list of the pointsfor and Before agalnst. shortforms.9.essay education.I therelere non-emotional to quotations relevant the topic you arewritingaboutwill makeyour O Well-known on if an. without justifications' ParagraPh1 b) a main OoAyin which the pointsfor and againstalong with your paragraphs. and e-g. nry opinion.calloquiallangoage.ffi Youwill hearpart of a TV discussion to then genetic engineering.).Jlseemsthat. Nowreadthe theoryand the plan belowand listento the cassette give as below wellasyournotes a one'minute and usingthelinkingwords phrases engineering. . activity.forand against"essayis a {ormalpiece of writingin which a topic is considered from opposilg points of view.g'I knaw.etc"Jor strong your opinionin a your opinion(e.otrndAguinsl today? Whatachievements In engineering? whatfieldsis it used Whatis genetic engineering? in made genetic been doyouknowof that have 2 Lookat programme aboutgenetics. whichsummarises topic of the shouldstartwith a topic sentence I Eachparagraph the paragraPh. way {e.Express to language express feel. examples.examPles. listen thecassette ofandagainst in thepoints favour mention' andtick thepointswhichthespeakers FOR AfiATNST I humans n to wrong alter 6 morally world rich poor I 7 OiviOing into and characteristicsn ol 8 loss national consequences 9 unpredictable a too 10 creating large PoPulation sex 1 choosing ofourchildren for job ideal 2 creating PeoPle anY tr diseases 3 curing food 4 providing {oreveryone created of 5 newspecies Plants I T T T n again'Then.

For some comedians makeuse of offensive language and taboo subjects theirperformances.:1 4 i .. thisreason. without censorship the public would constantly be subjected to material the that majority would flnd offensive. point that opponents ofcensorship out when isabused it bygovernments. . it canbe concluded a that certain degree censorship of is always necessaty. what aspects the of Clock(page dothepoints 59) included 'Discussion relate to? * tilrdudtonSummary the topic of . which the repressive regimes tryto putconstraintsthemedia. effects becatastrophic. supporters with maintaining it is vitalinorder protect that to society. is claimed. instance. individuals' and riqhts ontheother. Incontrast. of violencefouf or hnguage. rWrh&My - is "Censorshipnecessarymodern in society. denying on thus citizens theright information to thefactthatgovernto owing ments believe lead toseek it may them greater freedom. governmenta duty impose For the has to certain restrictions mass onthe media censoring and by films texts which contain explicit scenes sex.. whilst opponents thatit is anunjustifiable claim restrictionpublic of access to information.:- €! ||nil lorond tssnys 6o Aguinst fhe Read model below writedorvn topicof each and the paragraph theoutin line plan on the righl underlinethe linking words. example. order control flowof and In to the information reaches public. The Oe$t course action of would t0 attempt achieve be to a balance between requirements country the oi the ai.Thus.# . the could consequenfly. Discuss.d public theone the on hand. and to therefore.& able make to informed choices about they what watch. Firstly. of cenin Critics sorship people willwatch lisargue theonly that who or tento suchmaterial adults have are who made cona scious decisiondoso. secondly. governments to have power restrict have the to access information to concerning such thearmed areas as forces particular or aspects foreign " &daEm of policy. countries secrets must safeguarded all have which be forreasons of national security. censorship becomes instrument to misinform an used society maintain power. by All things considered. unjust to it it is to censor rnaterial thissince is notforced like it upon people maysubsequently who beoffended it.anenemy For if country to acquire were such highly sensitive information. read listen andshould. often it is argued censorship that is necessary to prevent the broadcast publicationobscene and of material isconsidered which offensive orharmful public to morals. people Many feelthat. Furthermore. permitted be to make theirown decisions. it is generallythat felt mature are adults * :: . censorship issue is an which generates deal heated frequenfly a great of debate.

. the sentence the reduces someproducts that recycling It is widelymaintained we amountof damage do to the environment.......... Environmentalists cen in ningtheuseof cars the citY of ke ....!! that nuc It is widely shouldbe bannedwor weapons wide to eliminatethe threat war. people ...... others 4 of the withoutchanging meaning the Complete followingsentences before..... extremely somelmany/ (+ing/noun)/support viewthat ..... advocate Most people can women the somepeoplestill oppose viewthat mothers be career too.... (major) disadvantage/drawback additional A One/Another/ further/An of disadvantage /drawback ... negative Another for To introducepointslarguments or against: in point/argument favourof .. argued/maintained/ It is widely generally felt/believed/held 5 fiU in the gapsusing words fra the table..'. supPort Many people is levels litof Criticsoftenarguethat the useof computers reducing eracy....... on surrounding pointout that .../ against. A further common 02 ..... the aOvocate people/experts/ most scientists/sceptics/ critics v rrs y u ' r 'vt ....of us One major publictransport that it cangetvt is duringbusyperiods' crowded bz .. To list advantages: (major) of advantage .... that the wealthiercountriesof t world shouldsupportthe lessdev opedcountries........' One (veryconvincing) that . FinallY Thirdly... seriousfirst The main/greatest/most of asPect ....... feel Some is effects testing that it haslong-lasting nuclear against Oneargument areas.. of the opinion of advantage ownin A ........../ lt couldbe argued A further claimed/suggested often that..... is ....[ssoys Auuinst 6o Unil lotund Llsefu!expressionsand linking words/phrases To list points: with' To Firstof all. Sceptics for held that harsherpunishments criminalswould It is generally in resultin a decrease the crimeratq. the people Some support .' negative Another bills veterinary can ing petsis that expensive.... The main/greatestfiirst To list disadvantages: of "... Secondly.. nuclear that that/convinced ...... begin/start Firstly... . is .. of commoncriticism .....In the firstplace.. mobilephoneis that onecancon from almostanYwhere.... additional further/An One/Another/A of advantage '.

it cannot denied ... apartfrom.. despite/in spiteof (the factthat). People oftensuspicious alterare of native methods rely which sometimes "trial anderror"technique.....also. while. O To make contrastingpoints: however.furthermore. slump to A in theeconomy resulted theclosure manysmallbusiness.... 3 Conventional doctors haverecognisable and respected qualifications. nonetheless. even though... on a 5 Alternativetreatments few cause or no side-effects..not only . in fact.. even oppose viewpoint this (strongly) disagree . has in of (even though) 3 Computers time-saving are devices.. 4 Manypeoplefeel that the testingof productson animals cruel. the that While is trueto saythat.... but also/as well. are in (despite) 5 Voting gives a voice thedecisions thegovernment.. so. though. of Conventional medicines treatthe underlying cause of a disorder. 03 .Some can for essentials not so easilyavailable the countryas in the city.. . 'a .. 2 Effortshavebeenmadeto reducediscriminatiolbetween rnenand women.argue/believe/claim .. 2 Alternativemedicinemakesuse of naturalproductsrather than drugs. 6 Jointhe sentences usingthewords/phrases in brackets. to 4 People trustconventional treatments because aretested they scientifically. only) 2 Manypeople nowadays decide opentheirownbusiness. claim/feel/believe argument this is incorrecVmisguided although. not to mention(thefact)that.regardless the factthat of Opponents . still.. besides. Theycando things whichpeople couldhardlydo before. Then.. to mentionthat) of (not to 7 Complete following the sentences.. it While/Although.....what is more. join the sentences using words/phrasesfrom the table..Thereis another sideto the issue/question/argument of ... Conventional treatments widely are available everyone. nonetheless. whereas. of that Thefactthat. yet. teachchildren sense can They a of (not responsibility.....both ..Tt Usefulexpressions linkingwords/phrases and O To add more points to the same topic: in addition(to this).contradicts belief/idea .. moreover.. others/ but. whilst..and. treatConventional ments cause can severe side-effects. is while 8 Read the items below and say whetherthe second sentence presentsan additionalor contrasting point. manypeople nevertheless..(apartfrom) 4 Living in the countryside be beneficial your health. gives you in of It you a feeling belonging a largercommunity... . I Regardless the fact that countrylife canbe muchhealthier of than cirylife.. Alternativemedicines not tested are on animals.{ In'spite making of some attempts endwa?s to worldwidei . I Alternative medicines treat the symptoms a disease. be that. Y. replace phrases bold then the in with othersimilarones. given 1 Pets proveto be goodcompanions.as well as.

dueto.. To emphasisea Point: to needless say. emmple fact.. the fact that there is very a has I The government launched cam in paign to promotenew businesses peopl to Theyhope draw ruralareas. general. inalienable basic. when busesand trains are late during rush hour periods... since thus. all theirbeliefs and.... a way/sense.. on factthat).....in practice. such as.because. obviously... is 5 Manypeople becausepassivesmoking can be health. for for example.by and large' as a (general) in mostcases To make partially correct statements: this in to to a certainextent/degree.... of the benefitsof countrylife is 4 A typical.'.:" them any:ffi "... that. is thereis some truth in (this).. is obvious.generally..thefact that. is partof modern morea and of because advertising the mas media.up to a Point a To explain/clarify Point: that means in otherwords.but they true is the .. consequently' result/consequence. urban fiom thelarge away 2 Televisionis a highly entertainin It medium.. clearly..in ailditionto.... g More and more womenare goingback to work after the birth of they haveto find sometheir children and duringthe day. course. due to (the of. if for this reason. this indeeil..this/which and Language Use{ul linkingwords/Phrases To expresscause:owingto. the whole. Using public transportcan be a nuisance. effectstourism hason a country. to harmful one's extremely 64 . manycliseases. centres... Some 9 fin in the gaps morethanonce.ili::'ffi "fl longer...opposite sometimes since problemswhen theybreakdown' often cause 3 . result the effect/ To expressintention:to... so that......in some extent. visit therefore... like.11'1iT.. boolscontaini to beallowed publish andideas..indeed of naturally... To expressrealitY: ln fact. so.. means.. especially.....shows/illustrates . especially..it is a fact that.in particular.in general.wereto happen'...... the words/phrasfrom usingwords/phrases thelist.: people longernowadays..wouldbe . so as to' in of orderto...withthe intention (+ -ing) using 10 Join the sentences the linking in words thelist below. that 4ore effort should agree mostpeople I is of be madewherethe recycling materials concerned.. . is difficult to find a suitablealternative' . little pollution from traffic.onthegrounds of intention with therefore. one to look after the children ... partlytrue (but)... 1 . by the fact that"' illustrated/shown This is (clearly) typical exampleof (this)"' One/Aclear/striking/ that Thefactthat .. in effect To make generalstatements: on in rule. up to a point. the fact (of the matter)is... meanthat cureshavebeenfound for in Advances medicalscience live . as a To express effect therefore. ...do more and is 4 Consumerism becoming This societies.lssnys Agoinsl $o Unil fotund and lJsefulexpresCIions linking words/phrases To introduceexamPles: particularly. that. . some extent/degree.... This to object smoking.... account on the grounds as...to a limited cases. educational is of 3 Freedom expressiononeof man' shoul People rights. 2 Most people believethat computersalwaysmake life easier. instance. r..giventhat.that is to say.....:. actually... it obviously. can alsobe an excelle tool.il not wantto:il'..p#. escanbeused in to needless suy.

Allthingsconsidered. (firmly) | believe that . that it wouldseemthat... to of In the lighto{ this evidence. To conclude... In conclusion. (that) Forthe above-mentioned reasons.. end by expressit can ing an opinion. from 12 Reaa conclusions the below and say whether expressbalanced they a consideration. that I am convinced . capital is or and should abandoned be entirely. therefore into I concludefeeUbelieve . To sum up. l ro reqotnol ' -l argumenrs i . equally important qualities.. Takingeverything into account/consideration. it should beforgotten thereare not that other. the bestcourseof actionwouldbe to .am convinced all thegovernments theworld I that of should embark immediately a joint policyof totaldisarmament. On balance. seem that...then they will havethe best possible startin life. it that I n. c onc lus ion . in punishment not ethical humane. Allthingsconsidered. youare or that either favour or against topic. obvious the conclusion be drawnis that. seems a sense ha..... to that | (do not) agreethat/with .. taking full responsibility one's for own actions centralto leadingan is honest life.l Attin att.. On balance.Unil For Agsinst 0u und [sssys Usetulexpressions linkingwords/phrases and expressing Conclusion balanced considerations/opinion indirectly In conclusion. from r Alternatively... Whiie thereare otherimportant qualities. ThewayI seeit.. not fi5 LS . is clearthat in the iightof the manymiscarriag'es'of it jus{ice the past. A llin all. Lastly. be that it seems/appears . is my opinionthat school it uniforms an unfortuare nate necessity therefore and should be abolished. regardless raceor creed.. it it may be concludedisaid . that I am inclined believe . i potnts I ] . it can/must said/claimed .s responsibility a role to playin a youngperson's de'lelopment. the writer's opinion or directlyiindirectly.e v ro e n r I Gonclusion expressing opinion directly In conclusion... ashonesty human such and integrity. i I l c l e a r/a p p a re n tl | .... Finally/Lastly... 11 Replace phrases boldwith othersimilarones. 2 For the above-mentioned reasons.I firmly believethat if peopleare taughta keen sense of responsibility towards themselves and others. ]evi dence I pt"in/oovious fromthe laDove.. achieving balance a between wouldbe .. for they are betterequipped learn about to life... maybeconcluded freedom speech a basic it that of is rightof every individual.. | (firmly) believe/feel/think . therefore...believe corporal punishment I that should not bereintroduced our schools it is a cruelmethod disciplinine into as of students. is by no means most it the useful. in of the using expressions thetable..in whichcase you state.. dation personal for it that of 4 On balance. that thereis no/little doubtthar . Nevertheiess. is clear/obviousletc . 3 To sunr it would up.once young people irnow how to take responsibility their actions. directly indirectly. whenplaced alongside other qualities.. highly-developed of sense a provides idealfounthe responsibility development. Takingeverything account.. Allthingsconsidered. . of To conclude. although must said it be thata sense responsibilityoneof of is the mostimportant qualities which can be instilledin youngpeople. I To conclude. it is clear/obvious .. To conclude.. All in all. lit ir -r os um up. To sum up. that NOTE: r A "forandagainst" essay endin can a balanced consideration which in you restate that thereare pointsfor and against topicusing the appropriateexpressions thetable.. it is my belief/opinion that.. on To conclude. the in 1 I All thingsconsidered. therefore. although mustbe saidthat. Takingeverything into account/consideration.. it is likely/unlikely/possibleiforeseeable that.i to Thereis no absolute answer the ouestion . it is trueto say that ..

.r \."Advertisingfoundin societies . onp. for wealth a country. can't sell Tunstall says. numberof jobs created prothesegoodshelps and marketing servicing ducing. that neithercrime nor the stresscaused by overworkcan benefitsociety. The fact that people are preparedto work long hours. advertisements cause with what they already people to be dissatisfied have.Discuss viewthut sdvertising c\nsurnefism. we needto be careful we do not the materialistic of drawbacki a greedy. it is true to say that advertising that far and society outweigh advantages. 'o l . is Advertising an effective it anyproduct.ffi-. however.{d a {1. r . in used each Finally."Advertising As disagree.:. especiallyamong the lesswell-off. cy.although both it promoted advertising.do you not agreethat the does provide some benefits. advertising peopleto placetoo much importanceon and causes materialgoods.i . radioor hoardings the side of the road." the the whichhavepassed pointof satisfying basicanimal is said.it must be said that. To sum up.is beneficialto through and societY. 56hasbeen in similar meaning' with ones in or phrases themainbody fr ItrKffi$-&". and make them want more. us brainwashes and manypeoplearguethat its effectiveness way of sellingnew products. theseevents is consumerism In of funding.shows that advertising peopleto go to great lengthsto keep the same standard of livingas thosethey see aroundthem. Jeremy {if'ers. otherwords.advertisements products theydo not to consumers purchase or the of a simply means informing public doesit encourage advertising need? really the in You mayJeel this is an intrusion your dailylife.and resent medium. Marion greedand breeds fosters needs. and persuasive is Advertising a powerful to everybrings industry creative whichthishighly enjoythevariety however. advertising perforhuge numberof sportingeventsand artistic Without not whichwouldotherwise be held. Being exposed which one cannotafford againand againto products Furtherpioduces frustrationand dissatisfaction. the consumer can On the other hand. It is a fact.help governments pay taxes and such as education health services for essential for the care. than competiiion? rather losesightof whatis mostimportant a spiritof co-operation withoutit we jealousy in and inequality society. to to wealth encouraging by that advertisirig exists generate I In conclusion.ls at Whetherit is on W." promotes excessive the of and which thetechniques and readthebeginnings endings say Then words the replace boldtype one. believe Jr Harper As on us while dissatisfaction distracting fromfocusing morevitalthings.\f .- Agninst 0u Unil lotond Essnys below the topic: on essay the 13 Read mainbodyof the for andagainst . on day life." the canonlyhetpto sella product people One of the main argumentsfor advertisingis Thatis to say. of sourceof revenue wouldlosea valuable advertisements? without 'c lt people spendunnecessarily. position to afford the more.{!* {* However.Moreover. not all parents are in a and want goods which their childrensee advertised of inadequaThis often leadsto feelings to possess. the to reduce unemployment economy. spending. whichis also problem. for a greatadvantage a country's raisesmoneyfor a What is more. createsmaterialism ln addition to this. mances their who advertise from companies sponsorship due woulddisappear to lack products.t. that it generates to paidon goodssold.b-ffio* havebecomea part of our lives. into unnecessary wantto buy. whileadvertising create wouldour livesbe like What whichis usedfpr the benefit the majority. Others. may To conclude.fl 1 u !.or eventurnto crimein order to gain persuades the goods on offer. pressure youro spendmoney. though.

|x'l*ll#:*r..''ivin 'li....:. " ......mav said bv nattons' between understanding a to able establishgreater isthat' matter *:" t :f1'.X ":l:Ti:::^'llJt-'.:Ti... ferior' a conseq'itntt' theimmigrants h.Agoinsl Unil lornnd [ssuys 0u with the correand below matcheach the 14 Read four topicsentences summarise adequately topicsentence each paragraph.1.*:i:tYJ-.. be t5 are Whichof thefollowing arguments in favourand whichare arguments against the topic "School PlnYsa roln morefunportafi thanthefarnily in shupingone'spersonalig..iil. tr*"'^" '"ir'i "tt'" tnm. b Ontheother of country birth. have most children hand.J.. for examples/justification Suggest Finally.1uch.. they child the Whatis more. may country be to people move a foreign a Furthermore.. in presented one's problems c one argument favour staying one's in of in native country thatthe is problems adapting a new of rifecannot of to way always overcome.i'i mp's r":iil#fiili*tklffl**"*l **:n. to drenfirst childrenusuallyspend Furthermore. JT'?....Liiffiffi*"t'fi ouu i T..g'3i*'"i' andeven "different" oYt of .'ff i rni: i il-tl.litHil.....i.ut. .{rom to "pt' PaY' I rigttr equal -.fit oi eact climates totttt extreme "l 2 .. Jl3Jf. average spends a as asmany eighthours dayin school.. ....t' in Discuss.ru.lnJ 'uti'* tt otpii"i"g ' wavs. before of fiveyears theirlivesat home go even to school.t'.. One ooint in favourof the role of chilis schoois thatit is atschoolwhere learn socialise.i|^.. much theschool is and to devoted competition Prepathat ration for examinations thereis developlittle timeieft for personality ment.a be that living fgreisn it tl Finaliy. c:ll:1'-ltoln u" r1..i't' react u'^u-1:it'y :""" " " " " " " " " " ' : " " " " " ' ' :" :-" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " ' 1 " " " " " " " " " " political war' i For exampie.'. un some otner are t'n force there t::":^:: 'i"''...il''1"ffi xxTr'ffi g .as:y:tlffi.-r*pr.write the each argument.# I ) -1:':tinn "tno thehost::11t""tt of the As . Does sponding and introduction cona what it theargument presents? would suitable be clusion for this essaY? ilLiving a fareign coalntry caft$otbe beffer thanliving in your own. to an finddiificult adjust take lnuit i ri." Discass...ii.t." . On theother with relationship theirparents a closer teachers.'#:? '''": [1i..."3t 61 .i orthe changes'.rc.'d in ptoblems' i*..fJiill. ""-u1.. 350 in about words. who unfairly' andtreated with regarded suspicion of a to can abroad beaway escapevariety living hand. composition day of so Moreover..3 ... withtheir than of in argument support An additional exposed people are is school thatyoung of to a widevariety subjects.

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paragraphplan you may use when writingfor and o Thereis an alternative this planyou presentboth an argumentin Whenfollowing againstessays. in favourand the opposingviewpoint the same paragraph' for the ln such essays arguments and againstmustbe equalin number. F or t hein tro d u c ti o n a n d c o n c | u s i o n y oushoul dusethetechni ques on suggested P.56.

1 Paragraph of Statetopic (summary toPic youroPinion) stating withqut
Paragraph2 first argumentfor & against Paragraph3* for second argument & against

15 'Greaterfeedom doesnof necessanlT Discuss. lead to gireaferftqppiness." whichargu' Readthe modeland saY in mentshavebeenPresented each toPic sentences Do paragraph. the of the summarise content each clearly all Finally,underline the paragraph? linking words and usefulexpressions themwith ones phrases replace and or similarin meaning.

Final Paragraph your consideration/ give balanced opinion expresseddirectly/indirectly * Youmay includemore paragraphs in if You wish to include the main bodY more points

world ; inthe exampre' western their how to choose to rive rives'.For riberty ln greater' addition has that t" fotow neuer'oeen hand' mav t it istrue peopre noyi1-" ", wnici a1g i ; it "rg *n"t on theother tive., oi*n.r" to 'r.tty,the l atreast, choice ""rJir'lo;ffi; awider '"r,gi"" Asan . from time r"isure i" d;;;;"iov '""g;""f";""t1;l'g1l*ities' toomuch life' r,"u"'rno,J forgrantl1ll"i;ct i totni.,peopre ."n'i.uJp"JpLtot"r..tni'igs gto*ingbored their i freedom qti"xty in that has'resutJd peopte 'with i beargued thisincieased of ,.,!* nl"d! avairaote hap short-term i *:Y-t'i: it' rr'"v rind *,e''g-r"llli"hoice of ,orn#ini-;;;; acquireo i exampre this, inly distractions' ior i tnemiooxing fresrr send "r conr"iu;;it, ;. *:r:T;" trurti"t]i*soon uno 1 possessionr. entertainmeni,-nuti";;;; g";d; in I piness material ";0 *91 otht.1T,."fu't'uno and that,pupils teachers iSeconoly,socialandmora|attitudeshavebecomelessrigid.Thishasal|owedforagreatervarietyoflifestylesan j ovthefact 1o'11i'""' rni, is ilustro]tJJ in i freedom nu*"n;"Liion" it Thus' oetinqu:Ty il juvenite ,,""0*0, uswe' asttrerise andtheo"*vln "ou."iionit ut'v facitnatpeople i do*n inthetraditioi;i",n,rv danger#;;;;'oiir'" "" -::":, m# anomore i-s-?T::'ins rhat be i rnuy said society past' leadto the doesnot necessarily freedom rilo"o tn* theywerein r thatgreater

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each in and of arguments match argument favour using { 7 Reaa following fhe argument with against. animalsfor entertainment the corresponding plan you 68, which arguments following paragraph onpage say the Then, paragraph. writea clear Finally, topicsentence include each in for would paragraph. each for for Arguments usinganimals entertainment. helpto increase numbers endanthe of and can I Zoos beeducational also programmes. brebding gered through controlled species programmes, advertisements films are and 2 Animalsusedin television largeaudiences. veryappealing attract and and 3 Circusanimalsare loved,well-treated only performfor short periods. havea very shortworkinglife and are well-treated 4 Racinganimals . throughout. for against using animals entertainment. Arguments acts of unnatural for thepleasure thepubare to a Animdls forced perform lrc. in so b Keeping animais cages the publiccanseethemis unnecessary produced todaytake awaythe needfor such because documentaries olaces. is to effects, there noneed useliveaniand c Withnewtechnology special instead. models beused can mals realistic as placed gruelling schedules are.often and training in d Racing animals have unnecessary danger. earlyretirement 18 .ffi First,think of asmanypointsfor andagainst as possible. in and Thenlistento the cassette fill in thegaps theboxes the as Finally, below. Wereyour arguments same thoseyou heard? plan ifyou were writeanessay to writetheparagraph youwoulduse 0n thetopic: "Discuss the advantages and disa{ranfages of early retirement."
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19 Readthe following composition topic questions andanswer the below.

countriesencourage "Shautrd tourism?o Discuss.
o What arethe twosides thequestion? of r Which of the followingarguments are for andwhichagainst? 1 The desire to attracttouriststo a governcertain areaoftenencourages ments improve to localfacilities. 2 Over-development leads to ugly, crowdedtourist spots and environmentaldamage. 3 Theimpact tourism of maydestroy the localway life. of 4 Manypeopleclaimthattourism an is imoortant source income. of so 5 A country's economy maybecome dependent tourism on that it is weakened. 6 Tourism allowspeopleto experience othercultures.

io a a

opportunity to ................. more time free ..............

.... friends and

Whatasoects thediscussion do of clock these arguments with? deal arguCanyou thinkof anyadditional ments? Whichparagraph wouldyou folplan lowto writethisessay? Which arguments wouldyou include andin what order? Whichtechniques wouldyou useto begin endyouressay? and and linking Which useful phrases you words could use?



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from Your Now,usingthe information rvrite questions, to answers the above 350 in theessay about words.


[ssnys h" 0pinion
convicted minor of "Shouldpeople 1 Wtratare your viewson the question, ratherthangoto prison?" service do crimes community 2 :iffi Read viewpoints reasons in then mentioned thetablebelow, lisand the with and ten to the cassette matcheachof the viewpoints the appropriate clock on p. 59 the of Then,identiffwhichaspects the Discussion reasgn. give talk the using notes, a one'minute onthesubject, points relate Finally, to. list. fromthefollowing words using I firmly believe reason this The for In addition ForexamplelinstanceFinally Furthermore Because

saves service tuPaYus' ui iiuni;ty
mDney of the other Benefifs membets dtedlY communitY into offenders turns Prison minor criminals hardened doing offenders communitY Minor societY of ,.rui.. r"utrinPart normal

care incfudes Punishrnent providing etc Parks' aged,maintaining forthe with at theit keep iobs,livehome Ihey etc families, fheir while to run' are c Prisons exPensive service liftle communitY costs
d Io surviYe life, Prison theY

Paragraph1 statethe topic and Your opinionclearly . 2 Paragraph 1 viewpoint & reason/ exampre

like Prisoners becorne other

youropinion a topic,which lt on pieceof writing. requires is essay a formal An opinion on viewpoints the topicsuppofted reasons by givingvarious clearly, mustbe stated paraviewpoint another the in. also include opposing You and/orexamples. should gr a p h . shouldhave: opinion essay A successful the in paragraph whichyou state topicand youropinion. a) an introductory each presenting separate a b) a main body which consistsof severalparagraphs, presenting You also includea paragraph the by reasons. viewpointsupported whyyouthinkit is an unconvincing viewpoint; and and viewpoint reason opposing youropinion usingdifferent words. in c) a conclusion whichyou restate

Paragraph 3 viewpoint2 & reason/ exampre 4 Paragraph viewpoint3 & reason/ example" 5 Paragraph & viewpoint opposing
r ar c nn/ov l mn l A *

Points aonsider to
withthe subject the topic,thenmakea list of you agreeor disagree whether Decide and of yourviewPoints reasons' j, w li {t W ri tew e l l -d e v e l o p ep a ra g ra p h soi ni ngthe sentences i th appropri ate nki ng d w . a n d p h ra s e sD o n o t fo rg e tt o starteach paragraph i tha topi csentence wo rd s l is what whichsummarises the paragraph about' alsobe usedto joinone paragraph the other. with should and phrases words '@ Linking on p. 56 to beginand endyouressay. presented s Applytechniques

Final Paragraph oPinion summarise/restate * Youmayinclude moreviewpoints. thus more and Para' graphsin themainbodY.


replace linkthe ingwords phrases boldtype or in with othersynonymous ones.after have rights all. the the of within has and majority people that change forthebetter. are people claim the there some who that problem ofsexual discrimination exists. legal intended toprotect from them discrimination. and the plan 3 Read model identiffing topicof each paragraph. attitudes sexual discrimination . Nonelheless.opinion isstill great ofsexual inmy there a deal discrimination against women society. if so.in whichparagraph? been and Then. To begin with. be position infact. cases. traditionai oltheposition the views is still a great deal of sexual discrimination."' -Do you agree? of womenwithinsociety so are deeply ingrained theyhave that notreally changed. theresult women theburdens with that carry of equality get but none the of benefits.there Secondly. I t t I tl . good standard living. it could said one and at So.until longer to evolve. this on since istraditionally ofas"awoman's job". main The reason this that for is there rarely provisions for are any made inthe childcare workplace inthese and. * lntrodudrwt summaryof the topic clear statement opinion of "frMnMyThroughout this century. point that nolonger They out women do.. examples notthenorm and these are discrimination very is still much us. Incontrast. woman of a findsherself doing two jobs: athome one theoffice. thedeep-rooted it is rules laws and within society which taking opinions people of are a Needless say. through images 0ntelevision programmesadvertisements. it is accepted and inWestern that culture many women have now careers. women In socrprocess. while are Obviously. deteriorated than rather I t t : improved. willremain problem a which all need we to face fight and against. time t0 these havechanged. thebelief sexual within and that equality been has achieved is not altogether accurate. seen and Anexample of thisisthat men ever doing few are seen houseworktelevision. role women society changed. thatthe has only of ' 'While have changed. women now In afew are beginning toppositoreach judges. {ons as business and leaders politicians. the opposing the Has vieupoint included. Taking I would these inlo say position women improved slightly. it must done mothers yet expensive be if ety today has are beable resume careers. Nonetheless.I Unil 0pinion 6b fssuys the below complete paragraph on theright. positiono{ thiscanprove be a time-consuming to * Cotdtwwtand . to to their improved.many women it verydifficult return workafter find to to having children. witfr points consideration. instance. women forced {ind are to someonelook to after "Althoughthe thechildren they at work. since families need incomes order enjoy often two in to a . only theview women For not is that should at stay home look their and after family widely butit is reinforced still held. a number while previously professions ofother fteir all-male are opening ranks t0 women. thought Thirdly. that woman's a has. addition. women than of feel this is More work ever before.

Do youagree. thesocietv and we livein today would function better iitraditional values were retained." old ! { thal' believe whl '' O.. I I I T I I I m T] m m [tr m t2 nl M I] T] 1 expensiveto keep up with changing fashions 2 not accepted by friendslpeers unless fashionable 3 certain fashionsdon't suitcertain peopte 4 good ctothesthrown away when fashionchanges 5 fashion hetpspeopte decidehow to dress 6 tashionable ctothesletc often impractical 7 dressingfashionabtyrncreases self_confidence 8 unfairta peoptewho can't rhora'htest fashion' 9 everyone looksthe same.. Hasmodern society changed much so that the values the pastno longer of nave place? myview.:...t show one. againsteachargument whichyou feel is convincing.'' "''--.scharacter are values. feelthat societv who today would benefit theapplication from of some those of values.. My opinion that. ' traditional a) To conclude. iatgically thepastandtalkabout '$ the to "Good daYs.... give on using expressions theabove from tabre expanding sentences. that lam inclined believe to that | (do not) agreethat/with ..--. anyfurther add argurnl"nts or yourown.il people l . suggest and a justification exampre. / be/ managed if properly. thrs lookbacknos 'i no would longer .. Dayawagreel Lookat thefollowing beginnings and endings the essay. to It strikesme that ....a Identify whether arguments the risted berow in favourof (F) or are against thestatement theessay above. our must fight to maintain traditional Paul As and o{ sense right wrong' Pope enthusr' "Wemustseeto it that Vl said: doesnotgiveriseto asmfor thefuture for contempt thepast'" --'.. suitable or Finaily.... tYlo proper . . . that I am (not)convinced . Then.you wouldprobablv be struckby the difference valuei in between then and now. '{ pernaps wereto happen' lf times... my .I strongly i we.. It seems/appears me ."u -r4Et#ffi 1-4!4J# t t t t t I C -..atict 1r. lmagine weregiven chance you the to stepbackin time. I I I I I I 4 Lookat thefoilowing skereton sentences decide and whethery'u agree or disagree each with statement.cannoi of tioning society.-' 5 t t . As far as I am concerned.. On the one handit couldbe saidthatthose values belongto a bygoneage. youropinion each... in society' may changes occur ever . the valuesshouldalso changewith. (A) in tiile rnen put ...tike flock of sieep 10 createsimage that doesn. whatways theydiffer? In do UsefulExpresslonsfor Givirag Opinions: O To my mind/To way of thinking. It is my (firm)betief/opinion/view/conviction .. help protectioncertain / can / r endangered species 4 rcalproblem ber lack/ pubric I awareness rnot/ rack recycling r and / facilities 5 more responsibility lhave less I one freedom / enjoy / one 6 onlyalternative poorpeoplebe/ steal / some / 5 'lt is important to follow fashion.. (that) In my opinion/view . ano ' deniedthat societyis evolvtng.a" i ||nil 0pinion 6[ lssuys 6 "fraditional yaluesare irre/eyanffo modernsocie$. saywhich for and have been taken fromanopinion essay and whichfrom a for and against essay.however. any In society will atways need values.. is | (firmly) believe .. | (definitety) feet/think .. and the 1 televisionhave negative I I effect society I 2 carry experiments out / animals I morallywrong lbe 3 wiidlife parks. to sumup. clearly for necessary the l: be it However.. Thereare those.

lt appears that these peopleare suffering the simple reasonthat the state'doesnot for care enough to make informationfreely available to thosewho are clearly in need of financial help. of and of is The is the disabled theelderly and should treated criminals thestate be like by rather begiven tretp services rightfully than ttre and they deserve. t t t t I I I I I . on the other hand.0. those all whoaretrulyin need should receive financial fromthestate. wth proper controls. situation uncommon This isnot although. To sumup. I believe allpeople need that in should given andsupport thestate. I Then. lt is often the case that medical benefitsare denied simply becausea person is not visiblyor dramatically ill. thatclear and information should made be available allwhomaybe in need help." r ."i"id .j if:l:* .liis mv betief that it is the responsibility the stateto imposetighter of controlsso that only those who are truly in need of-benefits receivethem. wakes and 1 A man up sees well-shod rushing within feet by inches his of face.I t While cannot denied state it be that benefits sometimes are wasted those on whodo notdeserve them.or claimto havedependents who do not evenexist.nH\'dg3-g-i{gg j = Allinall.tr j. Although all disabledpeopleare entifledto statebenefits. unfortunate should beeligible financial inmy such people all for aio. what up knowing youwillhave spend daywanthat to the dering fromplace place. lt is true that there is such a p-roblem. is myfirmbelief it thar. thesodden bag and cardboard which box shelters isabout collapse.": teringfor benefitsin morethan one country. .it would that seem benefits should available allwhodeserve be to them. whereas in fact this person is in need of additional benefits in order to maintain a reasonable level of health. that many people receivestate aid althoughtheydo not deserve it.Next. the homeless person is being punishedfor being homeless." question whythehomeless. yousuddenly lf yourself ofwork homeless.y .many are unawareof the range and variety of benefits they could be receiving in order to improvethe quality of their lives. I think it is wrong to deny state benefits anyperson in need. the elderly are anothersector of soci_ ety who sufferboth from lack of informationand lack of concern.. it is not only the homelesswho suffer from lack of state aid but the handicapped are also neglected. theviewpoints Iist presented thejustifications examples for each.although myopinion. Furthermore.sftd}ff$davarda/:de D* yauagree &e kt a!1. replace boldfype the words phrases other or with synonymous ones. filthy His sleeping isdamp.gfafe on hcltefr{s . doesnothave bethatwayif thestate in it to administers benefits properly fairly. hungry? thousands people theweitern to and For of in world is an everyday this .whereas state benefits would allowthat personto find and maintain home.I I I I I Unil 0b the 7 Read mainbodyof theessay below thetopic:u.that have chance lead they the productive healthy to and lives.. t 73 . Certainpeople take advantageof the system. Shaw once wrote. found out and wouldn't expect state help getback your again? you the you to on feet I . and given or Finally. In effect. lt seems to me totally to unfairthat a homelesspersonshould be denied state benefits simply because he or she has no fixed address.This is a result of the complexity the itate systemand the lack of clearinforof mationabout benefits.6. and "The George Bernard greatest evils theworst crimes poverty. be help by In the first place. j. read thebeginnings endings say and and which thetechniques p. opinion. believe thehomeless. 56hasbeen of on used each in one.I believe alldeserving people that should receive benefits state so. afford real a home state and benefits notavailable are to him. help I that the disabled theelderly and should be given chance leadproductive healthy all the to and lives.n. you Have ever wondered it mustbe liketo wake on a coldpavement. istheresponsibility state giveall itscitizens chance lead to of lt of the to productive the to andhealthy lives. a In addition.. Such people obviousty deserve to receiveallthe benefitsthey are entifledto There are those who argue.*poi. hecannot him to Yet. penniless.

little-brotherwatching My was a honor one film evening. should not artistic of degree a certain beallowed principles altogeher? we sight before lose olour where I formalstyle DO'S topicclearly states introduction cleartopicsentences paragraPhs well-developed words& phrases linking generalisation quotation t t exampres T I T t style informal expressions a) colloquial forms b) short fails introduction to statetopicclearly topic unclear/irrelevant sentences vocabulary emolive over-generalisation blinduseof statistics personal examples expressions useof clich6d T t t t I definitely with statement. language. The stanbyall which material isunacceptable moral to continueproduce media ity. would and behaviour events to immuneshocking becoming bY. Jics.fact The that of the pages daily occupying front of scenes death horrific displays newspapers generally manage tosell are images intended and these today' society within exists which for thecraving sensationalism in way have media a lottooffer the that be it Incontrist. onty available uKsince and While entertaining.lssoYs Unil 0oi'nisn 0b and extracts thetableof "Do's"and"Don'ts". least oftheyoung A lotofstars problems Repofters photographers them have too. should stopped." Do you agree? their {orcenturies.and with explicit the felt by lt death. Butthen. cansee bloody scenes people with screaming crying. have upset offended been or on to have the especially tabloids. itsstandards. E . everything lifehasitsprice. bombard viewer programmes are which and films "informs"using devus the Similarly. such jumping buildings. publications. with introduced theintention were in and TV newspapers have. blood of course allreal.."' evasions appeals moral ofimproper and seem broadcasters to astoday's istelevision. o{course bad moral in is for This standards because shouldn't about people's we private I think know these lives. this should kept be under control. is interesting programmes. maintained largely to seems have radio decline resultingserious in ina position ofpower.rThemass media havean ac/yerse effect on moral standards. or Inmyopinion. been existence n on services. that so makes popular. are there numerous examples. single onthenews. like sometimes. 1922 1932 inthe nave been nano. abused brightness. being and respectively.think istenible. of an example each . there many agree this are and reasons The why. come depend newspapers. there trying And have cases children to d0things superheroes been of their do.of course role they us and and everybodyinterested is in them. responsible in is aslong and mative educational asthematerialhandleda igesponsibilof media's victims the people willing problem because are isthat. them you perhaps Every horrible.news sex violence. as off According to sta1sproblems. magzines. and TV 0f course. to in and articles pictures order guarantee lt is commonplace overly-explicit moments or most photographs ofcelebrities' private to See. have in inone or Newspapers. and hound everywherethey and never a moments' have peace. astating producers contributed to our have television graphic public such depictions. manner. cansee injured We and the and it's I this appalling disgusting. form another. Furthermore. is pretty at halt children had have such wfrich : shocking. and there's a bomb been people. to in we which.must admitted themass inforcanbevery and news documentaries The and of information entertainment.theother lll purpose to spread Public and radio television news.Allof these animportant in society play because give information entertainment. sales. day however. and radio television. and especially documentariesother real-life I also comedies cartoons. thepast. Hoggart "They fullofa conupt AsRichard standards. nobodv beinq and but likes shocked honified. are said. when went bed had and he to he terrible nightmares. on to I this and be T T I I t I t . writethis in thetable. offender serious thi Perhaod mo'si inthe than This of theissue ethics. is more apparent abandoned completely have the asthey to intendedentertain. But worst the thing when show pnvate is a they tragedy TVforeveryonewatch.Find the 8 Read following and pointin theextracts. clearthattre haveriglrtto and producers he some we draw line but licence. their totally myopinion.find extremely 0r0ther disaster. the dards. media include newspapers. should know that public a rtis Toconclude. nowadays {0rinstance. morai .. and educating ofinforming. is often that exposing and desperation of images grief.

r' you Cars enable to go to places and do things that you couldn't otherwise. useful expressions and linking words or phrases.. in about 350 words. Is the style in which the arguments are expressedappropriateiy formal? Why (not)? What useful expressionscoulci you use? jams Forexample.or any other place.as: Ji**rale #s. cantakeofffor you the coast. I . 9 and above. 75 . to To be exact.you have workmore to hoursif you wantto havea car and stillbe ableto livea decent life. Can you think of any aclditional argumel ti sfor and/or ag ainstt lr e topic in Exercise9? What paragraph plan would you follow to write this essay? Which arguments would you include and in what order? What techniques could you use to begin and end this essay? Suggest a suitable introduction and conclusion. you mustworl< much harder orderto in afford a car people ownl. Thenreadwhatthesefwo people andmatch viewpoints express theirreasons. matters worse." #* y*a"ragreeg Giveyour opinionwith reasons.l AIso. using the notes and answers to the questions in Ex.' 10 Now. t\ or l'm also the opinion of that the quality life of in our cities made is worse because cars. write a composition on the topic "{ars snsiav?-us rctk€r thiszziibe:at* " ids. ln order copewiththisworry to they have!o install expensive alarm systems to make and.too. thepollution worse gets and every day.at a moment notice s and if thereis no public transport a place doesn't to it malIer. aretraffic there allthetimewhich cause lotof incona venience.So.l'-i.Unil 0pinion 0b [ssuys iJs 9 ''ilars erssiasn* rafg?erf*. car-owners to avoid have areas the of city wherecars get brokenrntoor stoten. who cars'ar alw s worried\ e ay abouttheir carsbeing j stolen damaged.so the city is becoming a worse worse and olace live. believe the they with tn the first place. of lj. Thatis to say carsare not only expensive buy but cost a lot to to run. using appropriately formal style.

c......$ !t$$ .. things helpthemto see problens.. your you in c) a conctusion which summarise opinion' Paragraph 1 statethe problemand its cause(s)/consequence(s) ': :. suggestbnwould to '. LlsefulLanguage to fact oflowing to/due (the in viewof/because since/because.lt lt can/could/may/might is possible/probable/ possibility/probability: To express to/possiblei (un)likely to/certain to/bound that. A wsefut for * differently. you Asa result. thus/therefore/so/consequently. cause: To express that The '.....is (un)likely/foreseeable/certain is of ('ing/noun).usethe linking and then listento the cassette check and listedbelowto explaineachsuggestion its resultin your own expressions words.'...Essuys Solulions and of the discussing problem stress whatcanbe ffi Youwill heartwopeople with the and it.+ i #5 i be . thusmore paragraphsin the main body..... Another bY be could solved ".withthepurpose of/intento purpose: that... 1 2 3 4 ...... 56to begin endyouressay' Usethetechniques 2 Paragraph 1 suggestion & result 3 Paragraph 2 suggestion & result 4 Paragraph 3 suggestion & result 5 Paragraph 4 suggestion & result* . help would youto . hen present and the state problem its causes Youshould have' these or results consequences might andtheexpected of: consist of essay thistypeshould successful A whathas statethe problem.. orobable Thelikelihood/possibility/probability Final Paragraph your oPinion summarise * You may include more and suggestrbns.lfor isthat... To expresseffect: result . woald Tftis their abeut friends piece writing. would. relaxed feelmore to talk friends b clear mind Your exercise more take ditferentlY things c see lor a lindanhour daY Yourself individuallY with d deal Problems worries a make listofYour . reason .g... Finally. about Lookat thetablebelow match suggestions theresults... so as/in so To express tionof (+ ing) . of is solutions a formal problems suggesting and discussing An essay yoursuggestions clearly. done your answers.. A usefut is solution to .. caused andtheconsequences.i l .would qrder(not) ..'. in be .. each solutions' in a separate suggested several you b) a mainbodyin which present and with paragraph together itsconsequences/results. woald to talkto be suffering stress swggestian anyone from e./ Suggesling l0Ptoblems n..' This be Theffict of thiswould .. is be to the should used show connection andphrases words linking Appropriate within paragraph' a paragraphs wellasto linksentences as between and on shown p....1.....' tha0. Pointsto consider what which summarises the witha topicsentence start paragraph should Each paragraph about. i :.would of result ..d 63' F:.1..t. ... to be Youwould able . tCI .. paragraph whichyou clearly in a) an introductory it./why '. .. problem The to If youwere ..: ' ! . the as a result/consequence..

trips elderly community to centres. govemment individuals were help.reasons and consequences oWifum$ ww*rue$d fuw dwsue dw. to. final One suggestion. medication ofcharge allpeople free to over cefiain Asa result. care which necessitate forresidential where elderly have paying may homes the can roundthe-clock nursing. rather difficult but a period. atthevery or. is for Furthermore. are toooften asa burden sociwho all seen on etyand dismissedhaving to dowifi modem weneed betaught an as litfle life. such accommodation and heating. elderly As the make up an ever-increasrng percentage of society. would of lf the and it alike to make retirement oldage time look and a to fonivard rather dread. underline linkingwords/phrases replace the and withsynonymous them ones. effect the would to alleviate problemloneliness be the of which marks lives somany people alone far their the of old living and from families. Thiswould society a whole. Finally.Unil Essoys 0c Suggesfing toproblems Solutions 12 Read model the below complete paragraph on theright. old would enjoy only not better heafth. can play Tosuniup. Clock 59)have been mentioned. makesmore which it important * Cotduson than fora real to bemade ever effort in improvinglives senior the of citizens. theresponheafth-care Again. on to 0bviously. failing and As lifeexpectancy increases. One to deal thesituation way with would to ensure theelderly be that have enough money which live. sibility should tothegovemment fall to provide access thebest to heafth available. a pers0n working. $um4pwo*w ffie$$wew s$T$tfu@ " people latter Formany elderly the part their isnot time relax 0f life a to and enjoy retirement. providing least. inadequate health to and provisions. people a age. would enormously. * ltilrdadin state problem. could rying as steps should betaken overcome also problems elderly asaresult detet0 the face of riorating due oldage. average the person wellbeyond ageof lives the retirement. change attitude the which help isto the of community towards older its members. for The ofoldpeople also improved lives could be if attempts made address were to the problem social of isolation somany them lf weorganised forthe which of face. to from early to respect views oldpeople.clear A solutiontheproblemfor to is thegovemment sure thestate tomake that pensionadequatefieseneeds.aresult. from visits social workersfree passesallow or bus pento greater sioners mobility. free financial should made advice be available people the t0retired sothat stress worof about money bereduced faraspossible. stillrequiresource income cover when stops they a of to fteir basic needs asfood. also but peace mind theknowledge they not falling and of from that need fear ill being unable to pay treatment. health loneliness. and the plan Thenidentiffwhich aspects theDiscussion of (p.there several are measures could taken improve which be the to lives oldpeople. to financial and unhappy owing wonies. encourage help as and appreciation role old ofthe that people still today. than tWh BoO- n . appreciate broader age the of and their of experience life.

from doctors developed such illnesses as Onewayto prevent reg' you diseaseto ensure take is heart diet' and ularexercise followa healthy if rain 4 It coutd theworld's forests help paPer. on society We the effect/result/ weretakento . recycled weused more . to ment increase will of The problem overpopulation next over not probably besolved the that) (rather unlikely fewdecades..in theexample. in theexamPle.I deal Measures ..our. certainly reactnegThe publicwill probably by to atively anydecisions thegovern(bound to) taxes..g. (+nounli n g would I ) I a 9 ou tcomq/resurt | 1.. withieradicate to I in or.Yasp*trt... {hw wry to de*l witk po{lttticn ciSM publit ttr.. 5 sen' Look at eachof the following andsaY identi$theProblem tences. w oul dbe. tfuc a! is {npra*rwte uso SOLUTION Ther€salt of tttis wottldbe {ewer tfue carspollutinE otnosPilere.. of the focustheir/l to solve/overcome problem ../lt The .. Then..Solulions $uggestinq l0ploblelns 0e Unil [ssuys & Freblerms $sf. result with its corresponrling (a-d). wouldbe a good ideaif "' if couldbe improved . using expressions possible explaining write sentences as results. should People of ' the Governments our attention I to improve situation the on wavs J to reduce impactof . EBOB-LEM in e... wouldbe famine Onewayto combat with countries to provideaffected aid. lf steps/measures consequence to lf .. from the chart. each match as of thesentences. happened/were haPPen.. what solutionis suggested.. StePs I must betaken I soasto J solve/overcome/combat . by caused damage Theenvironmental more become factories probably will are measures not exte nsive adequate ii to) (quite Iikely imposed. the problem were madeto address lf attempts c a n ensure that /prevent B y ( + ing) .* lo " (1'4) and solutions thenreadthe suggested 3 Lookat thetopicbelow.tttlores UsefulFxpress[oms: I should .. 1 ll I coulo to attempts halt/prevent/solve mustbe made' Serious 4 using sentences Rewrite following the withoutchangthewordsin brackets ingthemeaning. of in burglaries the areawill almost probable) (highly increase. is If the number patrols reduced... financial the of method combating An effective in of spread disease poverty-stricken of areas theworldmightbe to send countries. a One(possible) | lsolveiovercomethisproblem Another the lwaYto lcombatldealwith problem(o0 Analternative I leradicate o would be/ :^ t1. each complete Finally.. .. w e /g o v e rn m e n ts /e tc . situation The I effect/consequenceo.

US the adults' latest Surgeonamong is Whilesmoking on thedecline l. 'flreems thatthe problem simply worse' get will lik6ly I of attitudes thosewho havethe power not .1:.. ti"J"ttt what happen that smokingprolll!:Lt:* ai[ments andteach them about the *ide variety of duces.at t"po#indicates increasinS fact the atarming isl. . on thusmaking themeven moreexpensive thanthev alreadv are. people takeup or maintain' to voung ' to at were tf nieasuies taken school (4)""""" t: tl".. .^. il. would be for the government one Firstly... but A.il1t".iii... . . ?.iiui"t'"'' ng u matu sop cateo rr{'amo llo nI ?::qqlTll?t^1..T will could .'i i5J'i"n# il...*rr. " C...tir''"Jfr.. ..""r Jiio.advertising "by campargn/ image"^r..: forthis ""lr"f't main l....rt6*r"1".place banonthesale ctgarettes a of to under-eighteens.#.'."i.lrt for the lackadaisilal it however' I 7$ I . impose heavier taxes cigarettes.lioung to do ffiI#:il""r4 for to b"'itpotsible them smoke' .. way to combatthis problem g 6ir.*i il.tri. habitfor most .'.banall cigarette advertisingorder in to reverse disturbing this trend..h.expose truth... to ouefto*ethis problem " " " 'i " """" Topic Phrases . ' i ' ' i g "' .and to seductive would no iongJ' be constantlyexposed .''..^ .X1""..#n.*ot inf *ould. i "" w h i ch w o u l d h e l p . introducing "negative - in films' As a result' could alsoprohibitrtoklng on television. every .t rindthemotivationact' ffiil'. o'll'jT:l:' "tri. younglloPlt ir*it ing.t Solulions Suguesling loPtoblems $c Unit lssoys topic with the appropriate and essay fill the gaps B n ua the following on phrases theright. dansers .r. fhe Ylung people'-Discuss ring is on theincreaseamong abaut it' t pfrW"* and suggeswhat*lgnt be done nym!.art.yqu lackof lawareness f :T^:":"1t:: on the include factors Othercontrinl'ti'ig rmpanies. Teachers telltf'"i..l ant to be.*apslrre reasinnFp:"ql" gn med adverti seductive singcampais ai at. to fromwanting start deter *""f4 sucha campaign.w o uldbeto( 5) of thenumber easy it r'.*i" cigarettes.. sir of the uation might improve. -_^_^. .1i1"f::q:::1: th.1y.&ioi themsetves " images of .9'"f^"1. thev 5if histi what into i-Tf:.?the A:Ilt:^fl animage retains smokins :"tl:. were altogethpr' smoking to that pebple smoklor even eliminate :. warn childrenmore effictively aboutthedangers smoking.lnthisway.that the smokingis a dangerous whichkillsthousands habit ofpeople year. (3) wouldbe to .ni"['trt"i *outobequite to reduce \'..il.. .. i i .childrenwillneverwanttostartsmoking'thanksto bo91:t'.b"torn" far too costlya .*#. to ..il... ensure and that thisbanissfictlyenforced.nii*t.it [""*i"Oge oi *nat it could do to their ..+icinorem a ir se?ondly. others "riy also might b" tnt?Yf19:9.-..f.b.:P::1.

th o"'no u' t :il1il. . to irom enough deter witfrtumes vehictes industry' the water.T. would {ewer the cars'in all ecosystemsover would pollution of different industrial oestruciion combat nt'utui' il is thesystematic possible with polluted poi.. up.t 1 :i : t . sentence.r . uir'uturiu. beeffective' iint' should heavy be polluted 'ontaminattO and becoming To are be destruction obvious' simply ani-nanituaf pollution 'n' aret00 small' problems of it polluters.:ould they * !.t'd *tme a healthier. friendly onty *'*tfi * Ouy environmentally possible.jintffj:*i. ieO seas pesilcides the air be imposition world ofstrimiineswicked' the and by air 0r land' becomtng which rivers bustnesses coniaminate sons. i::- ! ! t : T . to oevetop sources all the governments^to.'1 t i ! I i . t 1 * *t ' .dtidal from counmes their to nonnto qnwillthefartnnesaved further rln lift ano less wouldn't afinger help care tscouldn't in' place new discover safer tolive or. filiil... rr. into .T:H.:ll::.provide . better: air The accloenls' nornlt tactoiies' direct road be to there state accommodate tO circulation.. turn..u.! I I pu0using bV the help can protect this.Another and becoming corporations greedy t''as to in on which. siraps the Oo*utti"tooO should ai Nonetheless.c-s packaging *uti"[tg* io recycle Citizens sotutions.Solulions Suggesting loPtoblems 6c l|nil [ssutts Read the of are there a number mistakes' below 7 In theessay of examples thefollowing: and model underline linkingwords' misused 1 Three 2 An over. the the of result this burn.trarch not thj: shoulO ffict y::: People eners}/' to ways produce lf however' l:"lt:Tl.to such ir". the have {unds Only responsibly' il ments governmen' act should more many and isthat actions The quencestheir of power' problem and destructi0n g#liffir u.'tt'tottoutt' by regardedindustnes"tf'' cost doing immediately' be must made outi*tion of ecosystems be rutn"' might tgnoreo' an "Natureonly immense ts Ailgovernresponstble' once be Claudel said: should {armore AsPaul o{ theconse.fronted yetanother trafiic neing to reduce without days these lifts cities sharing is recommtnO'J o{many societies Asthepopulation our The petrol the item on news about environment' emissionsiheroads less vehicle from conveded itsnaturaland ii there {ewer and will more tot' f'nO being qualiiy be lnaddition'^rf were increases.ut thus inthe {armland luture' as iouldbeused *t'itf. ignorant the While unfutfing. fo sum theearttr can r11!s 'beturned melon and timecreane potato ooni think we vou it's forexample.ilv*liilt i amount non-biodegralanle of left not in are glasJ plastic and tnrt ensuring *utrtilr.t'.ir. . up '111 do orpick a newspaper Despite individuals Wrrere facilities notexist' televisions such turn scarcely 0nour pottinf'' Wecan whenever lic depressing transport noise with congestion' co.tney to attempts haltthe potential serious and business" oi -thel.ilii. is'sufteiing a result-oi destruction products.i i . ano ugo. peetings the reduce this' Bydoing wecan tne enricfr soil' tnat substances I rubbish being wasie dUnrped'at tips' H. 3 An irrelevant language' over'emotional containing 4 A sentence language' colloquial writtenin veryinformal. l#$emB fug $ms$Hffi$trd $y$flfr{TBffiggmm$1V sl^s$3!" ii:*ffi$al$ffi$ h*flstu ffifn ffiffiil$Y${ffi{fi$ Vurimnls $ess$hmr msmvmffifr dn ?hlrtk h* fimkmffi Yuu shmt's&d Eu $mstrqsm{effid}T ...1 80 *r . 5 Twosentences topic 6 Twoirrelevant/unclear sentences' Nowrewritethetopicsentencessothateachisclearandrelevant andreplacethewords/phrasesyOuhaveunderlinedwithcorrect alternatives.ff#.generalisation.lt iltrnments aware wind' more solar' to provide need inoiuiOuals to become unO-tttf'tnofoqy Crrairy. whenever berecycled.:r:ff .tflffiTJ...

.o ..o overcome gulfbetween for usinglive animals scientific against for the iscuss arguments and imentatton' on identity account theircultural of losing are \lany countries in danger to be could done avoid b[ffi. ': '!)l i .niqo. 1. r. from Exercise write the comPost350 tionin about words' 81 . Which techniquescould you use to and end Your essaY? you .r...Stlulions Suggeslinq loPtoblems fic Unil Essnts listedbelow' of for each thetopics ior*... il. purograPh would follow? Plan in inclutle youressay? hat pointscanyouthink of to wouldyouinclude? clock of \\hich aspects thediscussion paragraph to write the introductory lt. What usefui expressions could include? wouldtheexpecied ir"t i.nnare unaware difficun":.d to hetP PeoPle theirtimeconstructivelY' problemscona Reducecrime/social withidleness/boreoom' nected limit number Createmore positions.*PioY."" and what problem sav this Do youfeelthat but 'You canchoose lriends not yourrelatives'" your thanfamily? are iends moreimportant Whatisyouropinion? justified'" "Capital is punishment never are whilepeopie exploration on space is i''Toomuchmoney beingspent on starving Earth'"Discuss' result of eachbe? .n.::1ry11-:::::":Ti1?: what parentschilthem' courd and .. What paragraph plan would you follow to write this essaY? begin . Can vou suggestany other solutions f'eighteen.ur"rriz"whut answers 10 UsingYournotesand the 9.. . redundant' made of workers qualifications will Peoole haveproper of for tyPes iobsavailable' to . J topicand then 9 Look at the following below' the answer questions of ffae Discuss problcms aryqrfiof' solufions' *--t *A oiferPossible a o a in youressay? would wortls/phrases youinclude hich useful and what cangovernments indi lives. centrestor 3 Free sports/recreational sPeno .' woultlyouuse and the conclusion? '---' :':: '1 't' i . thefollowingquestions is essay this? at kind of a discursive You ihu. Do to houses'" youagree? 'ln today's cities are iarge ilats preferable Discuss' obsolete'" books render will lcompoters soon ofthe often irr..:H?:ffi ffi.n Oo.to n'tp them? the ..:. . claim accidents far toomany this do uals to reduce Problem? pastthe age of livingat home and lriscuss advantages disadvantages the the Whathascaused Problem? Whataretheconsequences? (1-3) below of Matcheach thesuggestions (a-c)' result with thecorresponding incentives/ to 1 Governments create industries' subsidise so education/training w?rK:r: 2 Better sophlstlcateo computers' canoperate etc' machinery.

didn'tapplyfortheiobasthat company nowin deep is financial ' I I developments.Lookat thedifferentlayouts. used aI iTXS. (expressing opinion g) lettersof application. . paragraph states for whichclearly b) an introductory and the c) a main body in whichyou develop subject.formalor (Hope seeyousoon!).lHy. to Thestyleof the letter you a style. vr r \l r tJ ." -' style. know are on but not inrimat I termswith? b) a relative?c) t attorour "rilif.3'f". Istitt reguests havenot been satisfied.3!. Forinstance.miil::. namevouknoddon t d) the authorities? should not i D.wite T:.J*H.ot Mr Ford.g. letter someone a a letter someone do notknowrequires formal to to you knowbutare not intimate requires semi-formal with a whilea letter to .Deo.r.iJ#1#.i.ffi''1.!ones. f) makingsuggestions/recommendations.:. e.'". ''il.Li:'{. lettersof apology. r arespectful tone. frequent ol the passive 6use I 1lt would you use to write a I week. 'J:. Dear ffs Cnwley.i::::::. endingsMshes/yours ('esf + futt name).b) lettersgiving information.nf::.NoT:P@Eng|ishandomissionofpronounsformal. m rformalletter? Which one r abbreviated forms. solutions/suggestions). a Company manager WhOSe -_ @ rd :t ': 82r :. --' requires informal an style. lettersof advice."._ are to.dependingonthe be omitted and'ldioms should carefully be used.J:1tr .:.| *r:..lt- FIellers ut{flT Thereare various typesof letters. . Mm _--.i'i11" wui. Ietters the editor/authorities h) to an i) transactional letters. i trienO lnformal letters contain: Formaf letters contain: o formal greetings endings. ?Hy.).fJt:fi" " = in feelmy managet person. and o informal greetings endings. etc.i$H.semi..::.L:3"IZf. dealwith T : :i :f:ilH:..l:::l H.:)'..throughout i:!1lliliT?.::fi::itrfl.il1"?iTl'3i'+tutrname. l#l?...:.w.packageholiday to the Semi-formal contain: letters picturesque o formal is villageof StMartin's greetings MrandMrs (Dear letter tO a) someoneyou feelit is appropriate exptain you to to someof the practiceswhichare no abbreviated forms.il:ii*ifil.d) letters e) letlersof complaint.r yourreason writing.::"'i$:.a * '*ffl f d: k' 're tr-€l on' *"'I l ':"#. suchas: c) a) letters of request.'.Bestff' + Wishes first name ''*' 9r!ruE !n Lttrurs Style lH Letters on varies depending who it is addressed ... DearMr and Mrs.ff. and . and/or providing o{: letter shouldconsist A successful greeting: a) an appropriate SirlMadam.X"". to ffi._ t i I \ I t . DearTony. .

I believe younow of your responsibility.tino.Unil lellers 7 b) these extracts saywhichis a) informal.un tino. notapply a room a univeisiiy-hall as to why for in of. #srqgsep$ l+€Eess Plen ier SsEEy*dee€Eas Paragraph1 reason(s) writing for I I A Regardingfuture inyour of I the opportunities field work. are There some well-run useful operern technology you find toyour tocally.leffillyour time.'t :: ::" ' :.Then. Write a letterto the localauthorities your stating views these points.IJ.il!il'.{. on Youwantto open small a but business do not havesufficient finances... Whatis thepurpose writingthese Whoare to? thelettersaddressed .ways amends.Write a letterto theWongfamilyto welfor the same comethemto your home. stuff find other h .lrontem' il...where will belocated it explain whyyou think it will be successful. because live a toiof otrer you witn and students.. outlining most about your visit and inviting to him/her visityouat yourownhouse in thenearfuture.l-'l.*-ion. some c 0f course. You areabout visityour to of home townaspartof a tour. work goes.higher butiamcertain rnroy cnittenge..irursert tbIiut' onwith a betrer buitding tife lract< and Hnove here goforit! 'Jil?i.a.t'*'i'[{'o'''r5! . youwillenjoy opportunitystudy subject deptti..t. is The localauthorities invited pubhave the lic to give their views on the a) location. You should include details thetypeof business of and it will be.Includeinformation aboutthe houseand and a neighbourhood theymightfinduseful make fewsuggestions which thatmightmake theirstay morepleasant interesting.. and to make on pop You area member a famous group. residence? Everything is provided. Write to the New Communitv Entemrise Programme givingreasons why you think they shouldprovideyou with financial assistance. at You recentlyspentthe weekend youremployer's Writea letter cottage.Hn. r. a letter theeditor Write sive towards of to expnessyour 1qg opinion thesubject.]*y"'E.u iptuce . value c) to the community d) facilities and and services that shouldbe provided. You ommend youconsider to finda position greater proved yourself bea highly to competent effective and member already have possess sufficient and and that skills company..o. : i ::... t tl : 3 and whattypeof letter Read following the writingtaskinstructions say youwouldbeexpected writein each case. bea big itwill going in change tolive a different ofthe part away your from family ailyour friends. at since iI rT 83 ..::. tever.Tfi'. semi-formal and and 2 Read whichindicate style underline characteristics the the c) formal. it is to new Asfarasthecourse I amsure willmanage well. ft.:. easy make friends.ilh intl l. yor'lt the iniuii..::. you very The isata.i. difficult youseem think.. I t I t A newcommunity centre disabled for people to bebuiltin yourtown. you what enjoyed to him/her.:.would recof that trying seniority. suggestlng.'[ii trl u'n.t.l fl. and you Youhave which believe inaccurate offenis and readamagazine article people yourprofession.ia'ffi ffi...'.. it need oeii and old but not 99gntrv.:. letters? of in each extract.: t. I I much' Ty d9y:::that I'd B tfyou hate in really living winkleborough bTf^lult^^toon' you lf eiilrei' come nttiittg inout and a sel{ favour leave' airo know can vou vou stav il'"rj-itrit'ititl. to arranged anagency Youaremoving China a yearandhave to for with to familywhoaremoving yourcountry to exchange houses a Chinese with periodof time. t reatty the your to in so inint you give should it atry. least ofwhich should appropriate needs. opening b) hours.l. ating at one HsErE $edg Paragraphs 2-3-4* developmentof the subject **ss3egs*sm Final Paragraph closingremarks (Full)name * Theexact number and division paraof graphs will depend on the specific instructions eachletter-writinq for task.Writea letterto anoidschoolfriend informing him/her the event describing ways which the yourlife has and in of changed youwere school. try 0n thematter further of you your advantage fullranEe modofthe to of upgrade lTskills enable totake very and courses available.rinr. ofadditional totackle challenge experience the I would suggest youmight to that training.::1.

will I trustthat thissituation be rectifurther delay. It is withdeep helpto you..lXf 04 .. 18 I amwriting ..6n^a *rn'tl!i?':TJ. it.iT"ilT#**"ffi ri"i*"#:' to '.Jo"' in uno for... .i".ou.iiistillbe Deableto attend' aorcru your thatyouwillstill !.'"0 tn' at an) truth vt y'l we streceiving fiTHffil.'n""#"i:"nli ^qi:j!!..ung.1^oni..complaint) to? belong each sentence does you so t0 It wouldbelovely see agai4. it won'thappen changes LZ I wouldlike to informyouaboutthe proposed months. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 in for you Thank verymuch yourcooperation thismatter' aftersolong! youagain to It'll begreat see your and My husband I request presence.. . I'vebeen to my 13 Sorry haven't I ears work..'.i. mation requested.g.Unil tellets 7 Give 4 put an F for formalandan I for informallanguage. we the about sewice received I amwritingto complain youbothon Safurday. .' := ....ot. youtoc " '. that regret I mustinformyou.I"]l willfind thatvou confident wefeel tiilffiil'rff .::Ir T T .. .ext'1T:'J. the to 16 I lookforward receiving information .'*.. and whichare endings? What kind of letter (e... are that 15 It appears our records out of dateso it would the forward inforyoucould be therefore mosthelpfulif requested overleaf.. thenidentify purpose and 5 Matchthebeginnings endings is pairofparagraphs taken' each ofwritingtheletterfromwhich 6 and sentences say the Read following areinfor' and are which formal which are mal.. to ['m justwriting let youknowhow to sorryI am about yourgradumissing ation ceremonv... to forward seeing I'm looking for like I would to apologise "' of Onbehalf ourcompany. " p'. can no unfortunately furtheraction . : .J''"" ' . to please yourbest make do if to do Please not hesitate telephone problems.'"ivour wourd E we durationot lfll.Whichsentences beginnings of a letter. the and below.. place thecoming over due take to up but writtenfor ages. will Hopethisadvice beof some sometime over to Wouldit bepossible gettogether lunch soon? but with your predicament completely I sympathise at betaken thistime.. " .1 to r ward or kind be.ii"'*""ns vou personon*:t-tl:. .wittnot cause I hopethatthesechanges qtrv"-' '#iil. I assure thatwewill givethismatyou ter serious consideration would and like to thankyoufor bringing sitthe uation ourattention.:..'. of our ."tion look problem' o allowus to usethe facilities for the cooPeration' . in in a we'dhave get-togetherthenearfuture L4 We thought if andwondered you'dliketo come.' advice offersome grateful youcould if 19 I would most be to 20 I'll bemorethanhappy putyouup for a fewdays... . voul ihat'meets . . . fiedwithout I amwriting express dissatisfact0 my tionwiththemeal hadatyourrestauI rantlast week. . . be thereshould any{urther a hear you most concerne$to that I was with $$tisfied one arenot completely products."l#. reasons.. I am writing with reference the to vacancy youraccounts in department. rhatmeets i ^. concerning to in l7 I amwriting response theadvertisement of as in mycapacify chairman .. . and misunderstanding I'm sure the sorryabout I'm really again..t#:l1J il'".

. to is of letter request written askfor permission. l . arguments a explain situation. askif youwould so kind/generousto .l li I .equest .I I I I I I Lellers m. I hopethatyou willforgtve for I takingup yourvaluable me Faragraph 1 for statereason(s) writing .aqr. lt etc.. I I your I lookforward hearing fromyou/receiving replyas soonas possible. below. will you thismatteq for . gratefulyoucould.. for me) your(kind) . askif/whethermight(perhaps) permittediallowed I amwntlng I to permission . as requested thetopicinstructions... 'r . . of a) Whatis themainpurpose theletter? wantto exhibit? b) Whatdothev off'er? do c) Whatexplanation they benefits? d) What arethe expected I T l1 I I i they to the does mansuggest use endtheletter? remark closing e) Which help. ': : : l : . your oniconcerning advice I wonder I might youforlrequest valuable if ask o To end letters: yo'u I hopethatmy request not inconvenience too inuch.rt for possibly/lf it would possible youto helpme .. me if/whether couldpossibly I amwriting ask/enquire to to .. paragraph contai ni ng cl eartopi c a i E ac hpoints ho u l db e p re s e n te dn a s e p a ra te justification.. advice... be I .. planto send theirlocalcommunify to they and thenlistento thecassette fill in theanswers.information. A formal present in make suggestions. to I amwntlng the of yourassistance concerning matter .. and/or by supported examples sentence : l : : l''. if I would most be you tell/inform . be I wonder youcould if it I would(greatly) appreciate if you could. you of 85 t .. ... ofBeuuesl discussingletterwhich a society of ffi Youwill heartwomembers a pottery Lookat thequestions centre.. information. of support an opinion./(for to . r. ' for UsefulLanguaEe Lettersof Request To beginlbtters: as be .....l mustapologise I troubling with time. . Paragraphs2-3' for explainreasons makingthe request 4-5* Paragraphs state expectedresults/ consequences Final ParagraPh closingremarks Full name * Theexactnumber and division of ParagraPhswill ic depend an the sPecif for instructions each letterwritingtask.. to Thank(ing) in anticipationyour/in for advance yourkindcooperation. mayalsoprovide in etc.

*t : iii'fiu' ::. usingappropriate reasons writingthemand for suggest request. for bank manager home from a college You wantinformation a coune about particular or university you in. the paragraphplan on the a b c d os I would like to oJfer certainsuggestions to how such a vislt woutd be oJ benefitto gour compong..ioi to visit gour rn oJ . crassLowsJord ecotlTtis . rep" ..lJee[that gour compong as an opportunitg Jor iitervLewingthe students. to lt woutd likewisebe vatuabteif we could tour the premises get oJ an overatlimpression the productionsgstem. k..... theletter..."^aZ. .^a . premtses. .."ct wouldsove gou studies' whenlnJg to^pLttetheir emplogment in foi vocancies the future' visitouttined fhe "^!"..i9.. to goube 3 below For eachoneof the situations andending beginning writea suitable Then expressions.....outa be invited might be ii*' tJitt the initial'vlsit' [t pubticit!' veru positlve bestof these ProJite' in the chosen .oJ and w ..... rtq'ie't'thoi Buslness our ttuds purposes' closs compo#... n.tl .fflf ..:n:iit.. oJ Jor i'i terms ptanning utotion --.n..t-t. hcsan exceltent t"*pini'ii{.1t' $JJ recomTl !:{:Tt il: !J :......n''l oJ.. ' 1) """"""" " " " " '-.^Yi: i1.r*" rr' .. u{ti -*1ich.. devetopnr-ent technotogg has been learning"BJri to vlsit gour the chonce ond woutdgtt"itu tpp reciote industrg.. taught hos been put into proctlcein a reat-tiJe might wlsh to usethe visit ln addition. the to cover vlstt'\ or. " . identifyingthe topic ofeachparagraph.. htrodudtott reason writing for lrkit W - you to has class Your economics atschool/college chosen to write a local premises..... of howtheresults yourstudy suggesting " Mwin to Co[[ege.1tl'liiffii "tL?Y LUyi...o^.84//4'd Miss E. ..: about to Like qskquestions :.to.... Baltard . *rr.i n .complete in topiesentences the appropriate right. You wanta travel you agency send to brochures concerning package holthe idays offerfor large they groups.Then..*'t{-coisider gouJo'.. ... i4 analgsis goy..ol Unil lellersBequesl lu 2 Read the instructions and the model below and insert the following in spaces the letter...t :i:*:#*l' "".. withr. of an You wantthe towncouncilto place special in yourareato encourage bins recycling........n Yourssincere[9.......t:l#ti't.it.#.::'..l bothJinanciitU'ona .ayertisino we wourdo" oet'[li'"['1. €."^.....mY so kindasatpermitus i:fl T?ff1"1'.... F .iJ'ofso policg'os wetl as and gour ::?l:lit invotveJ the processes structures' Lnd stalJing on inJormction mcnagement 3 ) . explainwrite their permissionvisit to asking company premises. onc successJut theJ"l"::. and your classwouldlike to visitthe company's ing. of study areinterested the of Youwant director anartgaltery the to lookat yourworkandconsider possibility holding exhibition. lt woutd be most usefu[ to see how the theorg we have been situatlon..ii nights"t'k'l':*' goungq":Plt.."""' ' W.why to be might of benefit them.tike 'j motter in *'r :. to useonyoJthe .3ur time ond to thank i in this letterand l'. results each of theexpected a You wantto request loanfromYour improvements.

begin endtheletter.givethetopicof each and protection society which organis of Youarea member anenvironmental to of weekend. and rvrite a complete graphplanwith notes. P. 300 Yours JoithJultg.Finally. Q there are voriousactivities plonnedJor the weekend.*:. a) Voucoach atnateur an foothall team. 21stJune.The questions task.poss theobove information f to gourstudents.'t8:. the "*s4t . Jram Earth request Q) I am writingon behalJ Green to yourstudents. entirecommunitg tlv wiil beneJtt sincethe town will attractmorevlsitors. will on Lt bishcanbe co\lected duringthe morning. Applicants asked submitdrowingsor pointingsl on are to on environmentcl theme. Thonk in advance gour gou cooperatlon.ag. h) You work for a children's home which neds valunteersto help at wekends. Midgel. on votunteers meet thebeach 9 amsothot rubL) Then. Write a letter to a local sclzoolrequesting permissionto use their facilities and uplaining Mty your team cannat frnd facilities elsewhere. Thenwritethe letterin about words. on help .Unil lellersfieuuesl 7o ol and and the 4 Readthe instructions the modelletterbelow re-arrange alternative waysto paragraphs the correctorder.8 iilll[ llil:'f'i.urjFl 5 t ootr at the followingwriting task instructions answer questions and the apply to both below. when prizes be owarded. which wilt toke place 22nd and23rd June.Then. Jor (Jl-urthermore.Explain asking students' school as it andhowuseful willbeforthecommuniU a whole. Write to the lacal ne*vsthat they pwblicise Faper the vacancies. wiII on Q I woutdbe most grateful goucoutd.Thewinners be ann6unced bg will st noonon Sundag. town and beachhave become unsightlgond that thereare huge beneJLts be to galnedJrom o project. wil[ and Jor W9iget surethat gou witl agree thot. on volunteers requested meetat 11 am are to on soturdag the shopping ot centre l"larket on street.1ty '! 87 . Green Earth 10. There wiltotsobeo.Hilts.s be colLected the meeting w-LLL pointat 4 pm. art competition which will be opento gounqpeop[e between eight and eighteen. . addition. Suggesfhaw this may be arrangedeo that your team'straining will nat interfere with the school'sadivities.Hamilton House Hestington London 13th)ctober. Yau shauld include details of what is required of the applieanb and wplain the waysin which hoth valunteersand children might benefrt" e Whatgreeting wouldyouuse? o What is the mainpurpose writing for theletter? o Whatis the additional purpose? o Whatparagraph wouldyouuse? plan o WhaLusefulexpressions could you useasopening closing and remarks? o Howwouldyou signthe letter? 6 Choose ONE of the writing task paraabove.D. thus increosing business tourism.in recent our Q Ueors. a letter theheadmasteryourlocal Write a ising "clean-up" will whatactivities be involved for help...oJ r speciol "cLeen-yp" weekend whichwe are organi{inq.eaner sofer our children. . ?/Ad4e/s)'f' P. cLeaner in the the JeeL the oreowi[[ stagaJter initiol eJJorts. sundog. ond ln the town andbeoch be much cl.:3.cLean-ul. collecand wilt The Jo tion oJrubbish materiols recgcling ond wilftoke piace withinthe innerJor citgareoand theb.Btack bin-liners wi[ bedistributed volunteers besplitinto groups r sofetg. D. such Notionol surveus haveshownthaithe more goung peopl'e invoLved protecting environment.suggest in paragraph.1997 TheHeodmaster St Pault Secondorg School Hestington London DeorMr.

| To end letters: .. cost(perperson): I . to' I lookforward yourqueries. etc' help.:o' ::'":r:':. confirmbooking/detqitsno toter thon: l__] 4th Novemb"t l__..'. like/feel delighted/would I regret/am about ' information requesting letter to I in response I Your . all that I hope/trust I havebeenableto answer of yourquestions ..""H':#ffi..lt mayalsoprovide paragraph contai ni ng cl eartopi c a i O E ac hpoints h o u l db e p re s e n te dn a s e p a rate justification.givean opinion. | 88 I I I il .. request suggestions. pteasenot me toconracishoutd .. you you to I am writing inform that/advise of/let you to obliged inform .'r :: ' UsefulLanguage To beginletters: you knowthat. will I hopethatthisiniormation be of someassistance . contoct : bu I phone n fox (etter lts to situation. entertoinment: o venue: l_-l t45 I I bond hott n Dl n hotet n T I comeduoct gorden lst .":. tupe of meo[ [ buffet f10 I L] formot n f20 fomits . information you to I wouldbe pleasedihappy provide withanyadditional inthefuture' ableto helpyouagain .i: I instructionsfor each letter.JIHTS1:"r: do hesitate r. .... on behalf . about enquiry to I in rePlv I Your I am wntlng . ans*"ering Paragraphs2-3* required give information Paragraphs4-5* providefurtherexPlanations/suggestions/oPinion as stated in the task instructions .r 'I Givlng [ellets inlotmulion received theyhave the discussing information ffi Youwill heartwopeople thenlistento the party. else. and cassette.. tick thecorrect in included theletteraboutthis dinnerparty. an concerning annualdinner is say Usingthenotes. and/or by supported examples sentence Paragraph 1 state reason(s)for writing ..Lookat thetablebelow.+... whatinformation boxes. .. (to I amwriting you) as in my capacity .^^ +^^1."... is A lettergivinginformation a formalpieceof writingrelated a particular by whenthis has beenrequested someone usually mainpurposeis to giveinformation.1 November . concerning conversation to I withregard I ourtelephone with in connection I I of . I neing -. Final ParagraPh closingremarks Full name * The exact number and divi- I I I 'J::"..

."f.totiu. rentcosts. the provided.. and ffiffiffi Mr Dear Houston. "^a AsweltashaltsoJresid'ence. transportation. and iuiie with ek Jororoom an"en barhroom Jutt t. runJrequenttg oJ Most theoccommodotion oreos in situated residentiol ondc ore The cheap...tr. to sogouareurged submit is PriVctei. rooms cteaned weeklg are boards atso . bgthedomestic Fwragryla 3: I tr ustth isin JormationwittbeoJsomeo s s is t o n c e a n d |lo o k J o rwa rd t o cpplicotionJorms enctosed I starts. protect tiei is resiricted.including details theavailable of housing facilities..tg * Parcgr@& to Access these lawns. do not inJormation' ' gng"Jurther i yours sinceretg.J twice are The proviaed.i.'.. to boardandlodgings those ofut^ngJutl ianging Jj Jromthose t'.."ptiting two showers (11 machines haveo loundrgroomwith washing Att the hattsof residence ironing and Fawgryh f: reasons writing f or Faragrqh h il.i. with 5: can whic'h beshared other priroi.have term gou meeting inseptemt.m pe *'.o..i*rr.Jive units. unlverregor.on. Jocili7: oJ number themnou.atis reridence. facilities.t describing .ii'.howtver.nnir lourtsondiroquet surJaces' ptaging to though. comptete. the individuot u.dtng to Jor"inJormation I om writingin response yourrequest in generdetaitioJour accommodotion I haveinituded occommodotion.co^''iodotion with setJ-catering ot o dou.g luttergis nof providedondbothroomJocttsharinq kitchen'crockergand -ir:Jt a and o both percorridor' . t40 to t90 perweeK' varies occommodation Jrom lrons drgers for ro inlltes'drying)' 60p onJt'l...ir. amenities Iocation..+ !.o*^odotionlimited also avoilable.Unil lellers Infomntion Ib $iving 2 Read instructions themodel the and letterbelow andgivethetopicof each paragraph.' f-cote rs Unive itg ccco . ring se t30 r r np mmodotio rices ange o.lr Private board...J . Famgrryft 6: and buses [s neorthecompus...on'[inen distributed rilll. Faragrryla a*: two ever1 weeks' oftce is .nor. Writea letterin reply. ffiffi (Acco n d mniodotioOlJice 8g .t..t g. Fwagw& students.served settimesin the to c-on *rof plouiaed expect havethrei meols people based..i.. os as gour appticationsoon possible' . you havereceived letter a requesting information." has the universitg o ll^Ptt oJstudent As gou con see Jromthe booktet.andhousei.. As the University Accommodation Ofiicer. who prelerto have their ontg' Students a.''are The hottdining_room.occommodationisalsoavailobteintheJormoJ ore Bedsits . hotls mostlg or.'i. sftU hottsoJresrdence.^ qou me to hesitate contaet should rgquire Pleose l..ltoi. i.

J. durlngthe lnternotionol conferenci in advance.rr.t.riqri pr:.i..ilxt. to have offer and The Moonshine i.Hi: li.: o hb i:l#f. whichwasmadeJomous wittqt:lt:*d with bg 4 .l*..ly*J j:''*:.....:ltnou. acinJeience oJ As deLegote.:ffl.. I i ".ockerton Canot..lill. TheMoonRestaurani to Jind has o superb view overthe town oJ Wickbg ond haso reputotion one thebesteoting as oJ i establishmentsthe area. gou l. [n 1 DeorSir/Madam' we alsorecommend f timepermits.: ln adyance gourarrival..r 0iving lb Unil tellets Inlotmuli0n a) thequestions: and and the 3 Read instructions thetwomodels answer whichonesuccessfullycoverstherequirementsofthetopic?b)which DearSir/Modom.^it!?":':"Ttiltotl*i'# sureI iril"'iu'.. or qurde o a that ioknow a p"'d':-":.. . bathroom.T:il:VJ'Ti.so gouwill undoubtedlg an area relaxin..l oJ wouldtiketo : .. theMoonshine we At Hote| also havea Jirst-ctoss restouront. ggm ond sguash courts.. brasserie.I om writing wtth regard gourstay to with us Aninternationa|conferenceistobehe|datthehote|whereyouworK. Weotsohopethot gouwittJindtimedurtng gourweekend hereto tokeadvontaae our of widerange guestJocthties.il. i. Wickbg conalsotakea ln gou : there'tl o *. or in .6 sou :H::ffflli"'.ll^i.1fl.- t d'r'strict'.i....yi"l'f. I j il il il I I I .#. or duringthe conJerence itself.lt::+ff :#i*%.y:l::::.l"il r'#f *iit on the exptore oreo 9u-::. tetevl { i1 slonsenes. write a letterof welcome be sentto the delegates be them.Lut hoteti publlc houses.. equLpped with o swimmingpool.The in [oca[ t*"tirJri df-mi u"'potj_11. coJJee shopandbar.::. wishyou a happg stoghere. compLetetg oJ chorge Jree during gourstag. snacks drinks uourroom. would 1 gouo<plore picturesque the medteva[ oJ town 1 t Wickbg it boasts os theJoscinoting oJan ruins z ancient castte wellossome shops as cnd t Jine i be chompaei?"fi#.::.l'o T I ue etoa r ur te thT":ffi l.iirg the.t-he I ItuLtv' 'l + like to give Uousomeln.m . tour mop...xJ[xff ll{:{i writins itrjihii{. that gouwill not hesitate contoct Der_ to me 1 ion't at a drink our 1 sonollg should you haveong enquiries I prior I to..$** #. to weekend whichweshatt hostino.*il i"n 9: Iqmfu"#Jf.om t ploce' sure first the recentlg-s creened " LostLockerton'. and Room service is avaltobLe twentg-Jour hours dogshould o you require meals.Jil. Ret ?ooi Rex Truth (General Manoger) i I il I $0 I i I t . ond hope ri .*hat thehotet thedistrict HotelpridesitsetJ its on luxurlous occommodotlon highLg-troined and staJJWe are certaingou wi[[ be delighted wlth your accommodatlon eochoJ our cs rooms vergspaclous its ownen suite ls with jocuzzi sauna.! internotionorconJerencel. iHJ?f'J".verg to hesitate *t orh':. witl be entitledto use our gou newtg-opened Olgmpic Leisure Centre.p. styleand tone?and c) howis eachpara' oneusesan inappropriate model? in graphintroduced thegood As GenerolManogeroJ the Moonshine Hotel..ac Yours JaithJultg' Rer 1'ua6 Truth Rex \ Plonogert (Generol Yours foithfullu.no to see the tJgou siqhts dectdelo orr'^l?9.or stroll along the beautifulbonks of the : ouroqcofL.

-:. w31. tr.4.1997 no rec1_ ctingfoclLtties Tipton itsef.ed organise ro o scneme --19-r:13:nts votunteers collect woste wnerebu witl ang paper and glass to lor detwerg dtocal c.ot_ ..) and words phrases thelinesin whichthese in a to has or School college decided organise service yourarea aYour to Writea letter your wastepaperand glassfor recycling. be repeated .*. .:.r'm sureyou'rlogreethat oJ this service will be oJ Lnterest mang peopLe o. wog. whichhavebeen activities andsocial planned the course and confirmfor you have ing the arrangements transport madefor him concerning andaccommodation. fipton 11th Mag. during the-d.Tipton Coftege have decid. St Michael's Wolk. Yn! outte-rrns tocotnews. on oJ ona. givingdetails the training of Jones.r.. you large international a are organising two-daytraining course for senior statf.. Art waste paperandgrass these to points. the answer questions You are the trainingdirectorfor a and company. Yours JaithJullg. a invitedProfessor relations. Tipton Tipton CoLIege.e service. I amwrltLngto gou. I om sure gou know :S rn that tlvre ore currentLg Dear StrlYadam. there wilt be cot_ leTlons recronpomtsat vorlous locations aroundthe town.nt it couLd. in side the town centre which provld.y resideirts therorn baiis. "lt"rqi:r". grass Ari products rrrouri-a" 'beJorehand. (Thenumbers circles nextto informalfor a letterof occur. .o hesl. o Whatgreeting you would use? r Whatis themainpurpose writingthe of letter? o Whatinformation as couldyouinclude referred to? the'details' o Whatadditional do objectives the task instructions mention? r In whichparagraph(s) wouldyou deal withthis? could expressions you use Whatuseful remarks? asopening closing and you the Howwould sign letter? The Manager.il.". q.lforoughlg tikeit f the aboveinJormation couldbe inciuded uour in .tate contact not to meiJgouwantto knowangthing else..whichwi[ be cLearLg markedfor easg identlfication. industrial leading on expert to take partin the courseas a guest Writea letter to Professor lecturer. Star RadioStation. Crescent Rood.affirfi* .ag.0iving Unil lellets Inlomulion lb and letterbelow find thetopicsenand 4 Read instructions themodel the of What are the fiio purposes writing the tenceof eachparagraph. of for tnemto passon this information the benefit localresidents.il. scheme. There area numbe.elr rem"oved tids . 6 Readthe following below. would be greaiqf ihe announ.ngf and haveth.4/dat& eriarta AlisonBrown $1 -. collect and asking service givingdetails the planned of Focal radiostation. youi ou" to'aoiri"t.onu"nLent mang resldents.^!!: will take ptace evergMondagthereafter. the maximum This n1lb. .r. youfeelare too which any letter?Thenunderline wordsand phrases are in this kind.eLt."iff stopdiscardLng reusabte trrcLr rubbishand.on behaLJ the students oJ ot Tipton CoLLege o/."".".more of . i belowand saY 5 Look at the phrases the which couldbe usedto rePlace in Ex.vir" witlbegin thefrst Mond. recgcieit instead. in. 2.f of peopLe be mai""a*arei1 tn. Furthermore.ag iextmonth.. irtting to *io to helpin environ_ mentalmatters cannot'do but soJor prarftcaLreasons.werhink rhar if we do this on a regutar --po.You have WilliamJones.. d As youaredoubtless e Residents onlytaketheir need you f should require furtherinforany mation g I wouldliketo express thanks my h Thiswouldensure that i it would greatly appreciated be j Thisservice undoubtedly will and instructions.i this but this i. witl 'Thapks lot in anticipofion gour g oJ ptease assiitance in'tAr matter. several times. Jor r:t1_gour tisteners o recgcLLng we ore oJ project stariing i:flrnrs area.. expressions informal grateful a Wewould extremelY be b in thehopethatyoucouldinform O this c It is hoped by doing that aware.

da sf r l^+^l nUlYl l4 ot RecePtron Wed 18/06'-. t^^dc 9l0oom Fri 2CllC)6' n'oup ^ ' orro .r faos.Je raromey a wortlnw{zi cacJse. Thenwrite the letter in about300words.fueir vfsit enjoyahle arud fnou&d.ri.Vrffe ieffer fo a fo*'i# gsvtl?gdefas{sof ffre per'e'nagazine. S.J}e evpiarmrmginow tke rsa$r?ey wsed. gq #B. 91.listento thecassette fill in thegaps helow.e f.6.Pm om Leciure bY Thur19/06' 12130 Luncn Pm rv pm Visitto foctorY Pm v rb rr ' .rse wkile yaw andyour {arni{ya.r Giving Unil lellers Inlormslion lb 7 talking her to of director a company . for a .##6qgriir# r o n nannlC ai ]rp*sr ds'aff&ra c.-.i Vseir flr'iemdslaaveaccepted an dffivcfadie*a fs tame and sfay ilr yoa.sfree. r Whatgreeting wouldyouuse? r What is the main purpose writing for the letter? r Whatis the additionalpurpose? o Whatparagraph wouldyouuse? pian o What usefulexpressions couldyou use asopening closing and remarks? o How wouldyousignthe letter? 10 Choose ONE of the writing tasks above..hOtet .UU ^ t' Ptrr d'UU 6 ' writing task Look at the following instructions and then answerthe apply questions The below. 12:30 Pm Lunch Monoger bY pm Address porty Hotel Lounge) Bl30pm Cocktoit om 10100 Sol 211c)6.. notes retary's thenotes.A^ Din n e f OT e s" " p d.fass fs pfanrafng lilc a sfage a pJay. ilfaaf forsmarace aeld neqe.Flight + ' Llrrvv' COf .--_. graphplanwith notes.in about I I I .e a away. to all three R estouront (w i th ^ rof'Jones) P -.6 on p.*r giving defadds af tke evemf and cryfF{ . tr E I I g2 to from the notesabove write the letter 8 Nowuse the information 300words' to referred in Ex.and write a completepara.^n ^mr r tr leoves li'uU ut nirnnrt e1/06 . questions tasks.+ #6. Cor to BOC$NGLJPN_F]BMED? I /l l !/ I E E 2:00Pml t18/06 fiight orrives .lesdfrag f&ey fee/p f'o per&fi'cise eves?f.oirport* hotel Cor (18/06 21/06) OoksHotel RoYol for foctorYvisit 2 minibuses ) ' Restouronr IJU 1-rvv1'''-' . ?Vru'fe iefder giving thern aIl ry ffie imformaafdofl necessa {a rnais. {fne S.. d sf{ :i"l l l: : i .: Youwill hearthetraining to referred in Ex.a.{effer {o yaur locaf mewspap.Lookat thesec' course the secretary about training and in then.+ . evenf fforafse c) yoff are orgamisingaEa {e Aryri.n .

."""' of theletter? b) Whatis themainpurpose in is advice given theletter? c) Whatgeneral make? tloes suggestion theletter d) Whatspecitic .lojll::]:.'yll'. concerning I would to offer or twosuggestions like one + -ing/(tha! .ffi Youwill heartwopeople a have discussingletterwhichthey just received thetown Lookat thequestions from council. in to or whereas A formalletter adviceis usually of a and on situation. and thenlistento thecassette fill in theanswers. I p I t I I I l I I I I r hope rhese that sussesti. supported examples and/or sentence by Paragraph1 for statereason(s) writi ngiexpress nderu standingof problem Usefulil-amguage To beginletters. I hopeitrust youwillaccept/follow advice this that asststance i instructions for each letterwriting task.. andend? the a) Howtloes letterbegin n Vawrs P€fdf '.. I navebeenuseruyoT ... (that) of I feel/believe the/your bestcourse action Paragraphs2-3* offeradviceisuggestions . will I hopethefollowing advice/suggestions be of (some) AdvicelSuggestions: (if youradvantage youwere) ... i would pleased/happy to offer additional any be questions/queries/ you haveanyfudher Please not hesitate contact should me do to proDtems..... to It might/would usefulito be wouldbe .:.Givinu lG. I g3 i you advice mayrequire. Thank foryourletter requesting advice about helpto you .lelletsidYice l1 I .. I I L I .. to / To end letters: 1 j.. (strongly) I would suggest/recommend Youshould ought ". Final Paragraph closingremarks Full name * The exact numberand division of paragraphs will ri cncnd nn thc sneci f ic I i . I amwriting reply/responseyourletter in to you .lellers 0n0pinion I of i.o^l::'e I use. t t -t{ f7 ..../ ' written response a request enquiry.... requesting advice about. letter makingsuggestions offers opinion suggestions a particular an p i contai ni ng cl eartopi c a 3 Ea chpoints houldbe p re s e n te dn a s e p a ra te a ra g ra ph justification.... below.

'::ff". them and advice reassuring that i ! '.. I week and takes care of her t'wo two uru r lr lELv v v r J ' ! v e. .. l . j i . HHffi ffi.5J'"lib. centre.i:[ti:f#:i* ffiffi.. witl be more "rrt.notJ*L .+.r - sothot can corejuttg Uou careiuL[g Uou timetoble orqonir. but doesnot know how to go aboutit. i I r u r i l s i l r .. .1 students Jettow ona situation tioi gour the scme i"-*on.:n ffi fJT 'j"j?' ..l 1*I .l jm.no.. .'.":."'. to contoct rgJurtherquestions..orn. odiust :. Hit[ Jessico _*_ Jg ) PtL u I r ..*.-::'-'^iiililjiT. .i.inrerests uours.r-irs i ^ 3 Read the followingsituations i I g I ror one a adviceeach using "ffer nriateexpressions. sour eou i "k."_. meleu))ur"'"Letme Let reossure.i'y.ld*x1*TJrn*xruiil.fiil.".._.ii to I theg *ith p'opt' organisation to the worklood. rimetoble .reotise evergone gou iou When fee[[one[9. sfl g Il a s u a r sr ] i sinc-erelg.l.I giving 0ninion Unil lellets nn 7c .. #?.1*lu:::.il:Tl.*: t e* E t r:". -"l.^^inn rhp rener' """r'J ln gour 9uu piece do_eoch gou .."ri"^*. i.1^a this . assignedthotgou immediotetg ofwork "Jt.rr"iuri t"r.'[jl!1.*fi#. ..' the and below identify topicof and the 2 Read instructions themodel in all paragraph.111.".?. .Tt""fl tris..!:. ' mother.'.::'eties *"' 'neiitstJew " olsorecommenojoining .i^i suggest ._*iih ^r^.il to that gou-n.r ! . r s r w u r K ..l. eood havecn9 quE)rrv'LJ' ' wish to sou t:fgou Jurrncl ogcinshoutd me hrritot. ffiilffi .illii'*:tTil'd "fi"l'..1 i X"'..lli.nishioslareos wos :t 'i c oscwog ome't"l-' some s tt"lt j. f.gour U""r I ! *lln.u:::y:iff:::i::i:1T?Jfi.rol' ut'tttvuvs-o::::"i'::'. I il i i& . . . 1 John smith hasbeenworkingfor rn retter.. to lems related studying theydo not needto worry. Thenreplace phrases boldwith othersimilar each to in Whichphrases theletterareused givereassurance? ones.i1. ttg *.*r. ih....-a.t#gry*#*+*4'iii5 fffi f# uncbre. ' "1 .::rt*. crthoush Jindit easgI l.'-*:: il:H..ou lasi ten He .r'"t formed.osJjt'ininsnnn.'.:. havereceived of As iems.*=.'.^.!. }. veaii finds h':*l :he andy"uii wants to usel:l ihe now ""-!i1' Uoring centre.' t .f I'i13* lly'::::Yj'il?i [n yo.ilTTff|.:?:ryi:1. ir 4A t' ! iiii EJ J..t#gry*#*+*4'i dfif..noi.**g-". nutersupply nutersupply . would behind' donotJo[[ so. Yours r i.:doys..*.. a member theadvisory probvarious about is concerned who student froma foreign letter Writea reply.[swnenmqnv*i..:'"#"..iffi"i'.. i ..o ond rL suoqest [nqr guu Lry y.t.....fr'1ffi:' advise I work.::i .i.:*:':: you mog restossurec 40-hour lffiJ: She works ia ff:.e44ie *i0l 3 Sarah Jones is a student whc is about to graduate from univer- for a job. or which body representative at the university college Thestudent with helpstudents theirprobto service youattend an offers advisory you a committee.il. i **--'."T.q.h"j olwogs got make-sur.. energy or patience to "rrough help her children with theit homework.p[ *rrr.L[.l :" :l I:. .. rD c Jluuvrrl vY rrv re .rcffi beinsronere oJ "1[T l1lnfi'fr:fi.is that witt. would ffiJff l1^:::'eties T1 as p.r il'**=."' fuffii...1^ffi":fffi. $4 .offeringpractical abroad.JI*''T:. ..'j. Jriends.

I would Ltke congratulote on the verg high stcn-. the whichlJeelwoutdJurther improve standard woutdbe usejutJor c.theq showedthemsetves I questions requests or which oroseduringmy visit. suggestions You can introduce linking to words Finally. apprecLabout their subknowLedgeahle atedthe Joctthat the guideswereverV ject. Additionotlg. Firstly. You would attracta greaternumber of youngerpeople and make more of a profit. Another suggestionwould be to install computers.sier dsobtedpeople. gou Onceogoin. the where staff went Yourecently to a museum giving youroverall opinion the of curator. as a result. 7'//o'ntono Mrs P.I recentLg entitled"The gour exhibition the museum r the Jirsttime and vLewed Jo interesting and whlch was. and ossuregou that I shatlbe a regularvisltor i Jrqmrtow on. Moreover. I would venture to suggesthiring a bouncer. Additionally. access thus eo. therwiter'sopinion positive a or and made their expected justifr this.e/' otrere. however. Results Less time would be wasted on writing down personal information. Jor the Finattg. ?. exhibitionwos bothJosciln mg opinion. to dardoJ gour museum. extremeLg AgeoJ Dinosaurs" inJormative. result: thus. $*meEass€eEa Final Paragraph closingremarks Full name Dear SLrlYadam. service Museum the I am writing to commend Uouon the exceptional visited of Natural Historgoffersthe communltgoJKempton.servlceoJJerLng guLded tours inJoreignLanguoges rampswouldmoke instotling touristsvisitingthe museum.a$ a r*uft.I wos exhibis ondJoundyour latectosequottg impressed the permanent with suchos ing time verg considerate ond convenient working peopLe Jor mgsef. You would succeed retaininga in higher standardof clientele. Secondly. b May I suggestthat you renovate the premises. to mg mind. Paragraph 1 state reason(s)for writing $€eEcB Emdy Paragraphs 2-3 give opinion Paragraphs4-5 make suggestions and comment on the expectedresults and 4 Readthe instructions the modelletter and list the suggestions a Is results. to Write letter themuseum's a improve stanthe done further to what be and museum suggesting might the dardof whatit hasto offer public. YoursJoithJut[9. Morrison U tr Match the followingsuggestions to the expected resultsand link them with appropriate linkingwords.the subjectof gour Jeature and researched its coreJuLlg lt ncting and entightening. youwoud fuact moreilertion to yournal mlge af srrr.g. fore. 'l ond hetpJut the sed wos particulartgimpres bg how opprocchable willing to help with ong museumstaJf were.mangmorepeople mgsefwho ore As exiiinterested naturalhistorgwould be madeawareoJ the reguLar in bitions goupresent.consequently. thot gou publicise museum's mog I suggest Jorthcoming like exhibitsmorewideLg? o resuit. quences. in negative Find expressions theletterwhich one? wereparticularly helpful. one or two suggestions woutd [ike to submit Flrsttg. oJthemuseum. Suggestrons a I would suggest hiring more staff. as a consequence lwoukl alsowgge"rf per. mokingtheirvisit moreenjogoble. ther+ in order introduce expected to the adveilising te local newsp in e. 05 . Work could be delegated and done more efficiently. lt isadvisable usethefollowing etc. wcs obviousLg oJ to excettent presentotion made it interesting peopLe atl oges.giving0pinion Unil lellers un lc lhltinu il letlus Suggeslions/tecommendolions l*EssdBia9Ees! your on you requested express opinion a certain to In thistypeoI letter areusually results/conse supported expected by matterand also to providesuggestions with: To begin/startwith. I Thereere.

r iookforwardto hearing from you soon.l. a) As a sociaI war\<er.it' Dear Mr Potts. t nop"-tll! youwill appreciate needforthese the changes would and .. whY and exPlaining be improved are changes necessary.eivcd.rll'lik.*. and write a complete para'- the write il1l:l'l':ilTii'. rne members of the comitteeenjoyedit enormousry.nun.Douslas "..'. although. .# :.'th" large amount of people involved makei it impractical to hold group rehearsals. a letter frsm a {oreiEn {arniFYwi rnoved to your counby f&ree morauils aga and are havingdifficut$ aayusfxi"rg surroundings..-i..:li:il: l:ff suggestions? of for making r Whatparagraph wouldyouuse? plan o What useful expressions .givinu0Rinion Unit lellets un 7c and the 6 Read instructions thefol' lowing modelletter and correct the mistakeswhich have been highlighted. fhe sifacadonYou skould of{er certain practical selgges{ionsand reassc. I would Iike to thank you for your generosityin offer_ ing to appear in the concert. peryour of expressing opinion their how suggesting it mighi formance. *" *":" very impressive with your performance the audition at and . To begin with. Write a leffer to tke manag expressing your opinion af t!:e ways and suggesffeag esfabdfst?menf wteich it aauld be imqroved. I am writing on beharfof the 'FeathertonFriends' with regardto your recent audition about our fund-raising concert. suggest you omit the rastchorusfrom your performance that in o.oncert. t g6 T t .+or. a) Yau recerztly *zisifed a rlew slnqe{$ti.1d11cinS Ders showed veryprofessional a approach. *" *. in r What greeting wOuld vott rtse? fo* sroup. wereof a great srandard and e what is themain . thankingthem for taking Part. of Youareon thecommittee a local whichrecently organisation charity fundfor heldauditions its annual You have varietyconcert.. these i . r Yoursfaithfully. and actions are serected the basisof o"ing r"uoiio?'i"ron iormance. J..'e and suggestrimg he done.ng .i Tl.. We would like to suggest one or two minor alterations.uur" yo* iit was quite long and. We fert that the ket or fast {ood restawrantwfuich opened in your neiglabowrkoe.i" committee believes that it wourdhavebeenbetterif the dancers'*er. Write to their ne*yr/ thern leowtu deatweth. that makeit shorterwe feerthat this is necessary n". 7 Paragraph2 expressthanks Paragraph3 give opinronof act Paragraph4 suggestchangesand give reasons Final Paragraph closingremarks Full name Look at the followingwriting the and instructions answer questions to aPPIY al below. three yaw inaverer.onr"ou*itu the spacebehindthe stageis limited. oe gratefur you cancontactme to arran'ge ir rehearsar tiries.d.r*'e tkern tkattiaeyneednotwarrY" arepdans fo tear down an si' h) T&sere im cfsrearaa ffae town wkere yocl {dva ?Vrf{e a fed"fer fo f&e ff'cr{i wky s{aflfuag you ttsink tkis sltocsfd alternati't.rrif'.itingf theletter? :#il: :#lJ:. We realisethat a great deal of time and effort were necessaryto prepare your act.':j':fl::..ll'. already positioned the stage the curtaingoesup... Unfortrlnatery.Secondly. ways in wtEichtke bwilding nzigflzt cised. which we feel would improve the overallp".in orderto havea wide variety of actsin itr" .p.The questions tasks. The on as reason of this is that the venuefor the ioncertis verysriail and. Daqrtz4 /. .it is necessary rimiteachperformance a to to maximum fifteen of minutes.a". raising to a to been asked write lettor oneof who thegroups/peoPle auditioned.". feffer aefinisi. could you and remarks? writeasopening closing r Howwouldyousigntheletter? T I Chuose ONE of the writing taskrl above..] r1l ']'-i *-r ' - Paragraph 1 state reason(s)for writing t .

. thisreason / / so / as / / for i Tb end letters: I lookfonryard hearing to fromyou... overwhelmrng to 4) life become """""""""'.. lt seems methat. Paragraphs2-3* describe problem(s) the and consequences Paragraphs 4-5* suggest solutions/ measures be taken to FinalParagraph closing remarks Full name * The exactnumber ancldivislon of paragraphs will depend on the specif ic instructions each letterfor writingtask..I protest To stateyour opinion: In my opinion/view... Using talk the and by contaminated being waters Problem: ""' problems by damaged chemicals been have 2) have people developed. to are of Theyexpress person's a concern aboutandviews a certain on matter usually and contain suggestions nowto on tackle problem. therefore..as a consequence. / consequently.. one Lookat thetable below."" . about lfor ./ bring to yourattention / youon behalf .. thenotes.. I feel/believe/think. a You the of and and E ac hpoints hou l db e p re s e n te d a s e p a ra te a ragraph p in contai ni ng cl eartopi c a justification. ...... sentence supporled examples by and/or ParaEraph1 statereason(s) writing for and opinion [.. ffi? $g ..giving0ninion Unil Iellers ."""""" due the evervdaY has Letters the authorities/editor formal pieces writing..lellerslhe :*ffi Youwill heartwopeople discussing a letterwhich of themhasreceived. needto state nature the problem itscauses effects... tendto think to I that. that. I' I am writing I Vouin my capacity . thus.. annual3) farmers.. am I totally opposed to/infavour lt is my firmbelief/opinion/conviction I am conof...9sefull N-anguage l-ettersts t!'ae for Aegthorfit$es/EdEton To beginletters: to . vinced that To express cause: because/owing thefactthatidue thefactthation grounds to to the that/since/as/ view ln of/Because ofiOwing ForthisreasonlSeeing to/ that To expresseffect: t 1. about problem its consequences.... you I hope(that) willgivethismatter careful/further consideratron... listento thecassette fill in themissing then and information....un 7r l0 Aulhorilies/tdilor iii.. I hopeyouwillgivethismatter yoururgent consideration/attention. of I drawyourattention . a result./ express approvaUdisapproval to as my of / support ....

.: [ il..1?ilIi. rn:' k: *l#i siensEttis E"r#riff"^':*tRoad f#*#*ul.ffi#ff:r.j..r.t'T^tiil' warking'" dren "^il'"m **i*Nlqor.t#ltiJ.lll"n:*T:"ffiilT drivers i"n'l"^"'n ll J""*:.. write a haveoccurred. couldbe avoided' accidents how lemandsuggesting further lmMuaon reason or writing €: brief f of description situotion " Mah Eady DearSir/Modam.J.'^'lioi[ warnins "l to to writinebrine uolf.thlre ff*. il"ill: drwersto ff i*::l*lixTilJ4lltli Jorcing peopre' werenot dlstractea [.]|.: .:i... in stated a topicsentence? clearly them. fi*t.0ninion Giving |Jnil lellers un 7c plan the and the 2 Read instructions theletterandcomplete paragraph paragraph. thinkof similarones accidents whereseveral roadjunction You live neara dangerous the describing probto letter the authorities.':l.: thot ond suitobtl ts occur. ttsT:^:".':':1jt::. "i!:il."Jl:lTi^#:f m"l"'J'ri1 *'.? J.'"']'iii tocat the o"l"::. J ifi:il: r* :txl.: I.p'opn'cr*li.l"ikljr I*.o on .'.tti[" t*l Yours JaithJutfg' K.ll swr hove fUil'. *oining.54T'.ili.ine i . eachtopic Is on the right.ffil#til? .:ff:l. identifiing the topic of each and lookat thewords phrases Then. 4 q l| tio* down even'tI u'g"nt considerotion qive this matter gou' accidenI hoPegou wtr ailo'"more .a.ni '1ilt'n i.. r'^*o"rd:'. ?'lh"46r Wright K.J .."lllj #i4*i'fl I'.fi ':1"1?[.till: "'J|ilt". /..i'3" is ..-'-:.: ^ .* lnfn'l [i:..r"."' . I am :r :"1 ..l. j:fi'.. to be could used replace which and in bold...ff.'[?1t.''nl. l.:.-j i :.^.' lnaddition " Jtoshins the i..op .1..h.. T I I g8 t .'# o ilyi. to danqer rocor flffi."."... i:ffi::* ..l"ii!f ]l'.l'ffi iil [:h#*ru*'. *ru.li"...

-tT.^ spend ii somemoneg on F:11"t the Lmproving 6 7 8 9 10 Yours JaithJut[9.hasty. wirl risk our hves we driv.. rhen-surelg l. io*rt. which In ing viewpoint? DearSir. on re [oco[hospitarhas stated time ana time again that os theg . to themin yourletters. worthy. o.r. tt is unbelievable that the townt being sacriJicedfor aJew hours of rubbingrf. nt it rl^. Iong.oJJLciaIs. last. As our childrenJace acordwinterwithoutprope. include to constructive..1:^l". . l.Iimited step.these qrtqlts restdents should be overLooked. they were arranging " dignitariesto uirii ou.wh[[e our schloI and.ir: vrrs.Lois.1k1.road.s to needs. *itf.i:n"g feelthegare llghtinga losingbattle. for Jo. language thereaders.s lol.relgn our expense. o littleconstructive criticism oficials took the hastg decisionto spendoutrogeous omounts oJ organisinga two-hour event.Mr -peterStevens. the rocarcouncir At meetingr-. our we maythinkof thesubiect areexpressing views Sodl lluin Paragraphs2-3* give arguments supportyour to what can be done opinioniSuggest Paragraphs4 of Whatis the purpose the letter?Find 3 Readthe modelletterbelow.1.fight.r.""fj.ll.i=H#ffiS-:r+=L€. writing with regard to the upcoming receptionwhich . a result. ts to be held on 2nd Juneto welcome JoreignVlps. 3i:1t.e bodlg in needof repatr.the do not hovethe medLcoLequipment tend to to patien"ts prop"rtJ.€E=*E--i= the followingwords and 4 Coilocate TrY then explaintheir meaning. empty. a losingbattle 1 ) 3 4 5 standardsoJ services within our communie _ 6r do we not qualiJgas a worthq cause? While I understondtheiignrficance oJ provldLng an appropriote ofJlc. thing.consider I this eventan extravagant waste of moneg. is This phrasal verbsand rhetorical suchas idioms.Whot bhtter *og ti'gr""i ' u."^m stated tliat the locol sov_ .. I beLieve that a compromisecouLd.ing roadswhich requi resurJocing. ernmentdid not havetheJundsto repair theseJaciiiti.rheatingin their classrooms.ral"rt our honourabLe judge.As o tax_pager. oJ. time. : := '. and ai motorists.and would ifl . f tne councilcan spend thousands oJ pounds welcomingo and Present opposingviewpoint contradictit 0onilusion Final Paragraph closingremarks Full name x Theexact of number division paraand graphs will depend on the sqecific :1 ' for instructions each letter-writingtask.. on effect to donein order havea morepersuasive qD whenwriting letter the editor is necessary refer whatotherpeople to to it to a on.g. givethe topicof each and of examples formaland informallanguage the the paragraph does writer contradict opposparagraph. ".^uPlexpensive quwn tnrs recepflon partg and spending some oJ the rnoneu meet our communitg.Eivinu0ninion Unil lellers un 7e o whena) we are and of to Letters the editors magazines newspapers written whichis of interest of or our approval disapproval something wishto express or pub l i co r b ) w h e nw e w i s hto re p l yto l etters arti cl es to t he gener al vlews. needs I dt oJour rown l:1. madebg scaling be . /4b4ne A4iare AlisonBrown gg J.tn:rr than by proudtg showirigoJJoir town aad its citiz"ens?. iot believlihot tn.i-oi1".g o. published on whichwe havestrong previously and Paragraph1 state reason(s)and give oPinion o of a Letters thistypetendto contain combination formaland informal of questions..

?rlry'd0a7"*. any underline words/ cento have authorities decided openan adulteducation Yourlocal and courses people from18to 30 canfollow tre in yourareawhere to the them.esenfa&?e yocarfsc# re.:il are .d expiar'm r*s-sfes..not witl studentsbenefit. orderfor peopte be obLe usethe centreeJJectrvetg.Lr:g hours woutd be JromS.re sq{rfiesoramcfor $if<*sI recewed a sssi6pp#'er &ae"e tu) Hme. *uff.*s aryru'fe leffer *o SfEe d your utl'ews" Hoci s#$l.. Mondagto Fridag. '.ourr"s and activities as possible..rmage 6e racis .1fd up a dag-care "rned.re .Iooking JLnanc. vera convenlentos it is crose to the bus and' trati'rtottonr. to to t thlnt ttrat . yoiar n*ear fs f@ a) "{ rmo{. All in ot[. Alternotivelg. ' *' : :1 . Thenwritethelefter in about words.*aesf$asrfffes sftosrfd ]e cerrasaredoergesf&rgssrfiaf done." centre onlg Uut wl.?&e ffiralfs r*vered ava"f& Ttaepubirctdryfione'saltml's&rtrft.i" Yours sincereIq.if a6"# f&ff# famnse. ' : i:) l l:if l'' i 6 Look at the followingwriting task instructionsand then answerthe apply The questions below. Martha Flowers r Whatgreeting wouldyouuse? r What is the mainpurpose writing for theletter? r Whatis theadditional purpose? I Whatparagraph wouldyouuse? plan e What usefulexpressions couldyou remarlis? aird useasopening closing e Howwouldyousigntheletter? ONE of the writing tasks 7 Choose paragraph and above..fgsi sfueeru dirf and fud{ef fsff*vt graffi..rarg. Flrstlg. .rsflfy DearMr Connetlg. *f *os'resrlefi$s &ef*esa are rqr$aiafp prrurded s*npe md "-l$ *f S&*reg*r. l think that on odutt educotion centre wiLIheLp enhonce to our communitgboth curturaltgand am.to g.d ex"mressispg uvifi aahir da. I belleve that the centre shourd haveas rony'.Tt i i 0Pinion Giving lc Unil Iellers un How manyof the and 5 Readthe instructions the modelletter below. questions to bothtasks.thepeople whowouldusethecentre .lwo_urd suggest that the centre buirt orong be the riverside.thoseoJus who cannotottend For d. overlooking sunset ear.on n' perhapsthe centre lar co.30 am to 1.r eere.. What is the topic of eachparagraph? pointsare covered? suggested her to the phrases writeruses express opinion..as wett.itsvalue thecommuniiY to . computer and arts centres. writea complete planwith notes.fmimgpeopde's *r. a*adsergesf af#'emla*isae #mrff r'cca/ r*sfder*.00 O.let me state thai I wos deiighted. .arlg. It is not oJtenthat one has the chance go ^ori to bockto schoordue ro responsibllities such as work and chLLd_rearno. whent heard.30 pm.:if*r *a'ri*e Fef€er iie a dersfulc*sarslaiff*e.r to Jorwird. A1 os people with chitdre oi.'r! " . provldinq For bg suchcs a science Jocirities taboratorg. Regarding location. docafassff?ordtr.$forungftooligans race rosnd . taktng advantageoJ the wondert'utopportuniig thot ardiinrrra. our rn mg view. the centre couldopenon SoturdagsJrom g.it wilt provide vaLuable services normottq avaLtabteio not p"roprr.uringthe week.SO a. ti.location to in Usesome or all of thesepoints a letter the localauthorities proposal..tr*emqgers fris$?tur?edj a.Theyhaveinvited public write whichinterest activities on: giving views their . r{n pe*l fg?fe?k desfroy er'*as of mafccraf Seaer:'v. ..the centrecouLdbe buitt in the parkbeside Museum the oJ FineArts. their about out setting yourviews i. I am writtngin response the decision open to to an adutt education centrein our areo. exompLe.ln the most sultable opeft. 300 100 . s3t unit so that goungsterscouLd iooked after be JLsl white their parentsattendclasses.facilities .ore*ray Se &rufff . a ggmnosrumand a JutLg_equlpped Ltb.opening hours have should whichthebuilding . newsthot the such a centrewas to be estabtished'in community.tt is a most rnspiring p[ace and.?hey t&rsw &ofdesfmfonry garu:-rt and feanr*p nrypfanfuf amdI gef reanr imgarags .

as ] be dealtwith/resolved soonas possible. lellersCompluinl discussingletterwhichoneof themis going a to '#+rlYouwill heartwopeople below.g. lightly.. lfeelthatyoushould. abusive but mustneverbe used../lam entitled compens4tionia refund/a to Strongcomplaint you (that)idemand | (must) . my disappointment/dissatisfaction "rpress Strongcomplaint with I am writingto expressmy annoyanceiextreme dissatisfaction /angerat /protest about you how appalled/shocked .Mild Complaint: ! arnwriilng ta carnplainabout afactual enor in yesterday'sr?alt/spaper.-:!:_^ I complain I ^* wntlng. sfafdinaccagrafe rude informatian.of #.. written apalogyor I will be rbrced fo tuke legal actian. I denand a full. Listen thecassette answer questions to and the a) \Yhatis themainpurpose theletter? of in b) Whatcomplaints Cathy does make herletter? c) Whatdoes Cathy wantthemanufacturer to do? going doif d) Whatis Cathy to herletteris ignored? A formalletter complaint written complain is to abouta problem of whichhasarisen [e. . I regret I was tofeel I mustinform .. send.. am . of e. efc).' I not be treated replacement.lwarn that. Mild complaint of to about/drawyourattention (theproblem ).. usually and includes suggestion/request/ a demandconcerning what shouldbe done {ag.E faulg merchandrbe. I hope thatyou will give this mafteryourprampt afrention. refund. Eachaspect paragraph in of the topic shouldbe presented a separate containing cleartopic a sentence.. StrongComplaint: I am writingfo expressrny stang disapproval eoncerningfhe offensrye beheyro{"/r$f an employee atyaur company'$ffinchesferrqaad branch./Unless this is satis{actory compensation offered I will haveno choicebuttoil willbe forcedto takefurther/legal action.. 101 .... ll shouldexplainthe reasons for the complaint.. yourimmediate I hope/trust matter I receive this will attention.. To end iletters: Mild complaint Paragraphs 2-3* statecomplaint(s) with justification Paragraphs 4-5* suggest whatshouldbe done Fi nal P aragraph closing remarks Fullname * The exact number and divislon of paragraphs will depend on the specific instructions for each letterwriting task. by Paragraph1 statereason(s) writing for l.cl Lamguage 3 T0 begin l€lters...compensafis4efc) M ildor s t r ongla n g 0 a g e a n b e u s e dd e p e n d i ng the w ri ter' s c on feel i ngs and the language seriousness the complaint..^ to] with .iinsist on is Unless matter resolved . insist .. Eachcomplaint shouldbe supported clearjustification. Thenature the complaint of shouldbe clearly statedin thefirstparagraph.lsefr...

..' I rboutthe servicereceived . LinkingWords Complaints and iustifications can be linkedtogetheras follows: only a month the I ourchased camcorder ago but the rew i nd button does not functionproperly.11. theirshine..d) I insist you.-"' -'i*iUl i ri"a speciliZo[g toosmqitfor oport 1ro* being and 3 Match the complaints justifica' join them using tions below.' lI..f l@:?.'H:'. lJeet..e)Despite dissatisfaction my express extreme that lequest you.fi". Having otheralternative....]i"^ *r..i.fl continue usine ms iournes ond yet. i :l:"''sn.( it a qiven smoller obout but t"'ntiY:-tt#t I moaned *o' and (2)mu needs.l[f :. me t' (oissured thot #fi.. were hireda carfor a partof yourholiday. a the I ourchased camcorder monthago. N everthel ess.""'l:lfl ['fi:'#:ffi[:i^**f*i::lf :iliiil: i i wipers ondtht windscreen utto^i'int"ti*gt9 pt"Litnt tt.xTr"JJJ.underline phrases of tence eachparagraph.?:..:ffi acted ltilil:t.issuing gou::y. a died Thebatteries after The hotelwasan hour'sdrivefrom the beach. 1l{alt'zt* Mr 5. the Although/ Eventhough I purchased only a monthago.ifi'ffdfi::il#?.the rewind camcorder properly' buttondoesnot function t- DearSir/Madot . appropriate Complaints havenot been we The goods ordered J."rneu illil'."i^'v3't*'riig-::::1 .Tti#:!!'. t he r ewind properly. water.fi .ft=- of ld Unil lellets Coruloinl and lettertrelow find thetopicsenand the 2 Read instructions themodel whichyoufeel any Then. jt::: LH: .. it e Themanufacturer said f Thetrailer it would keep ontheedge me of myseat.f.t$""-.'r.tlrfil :. received dull.*. engine . .T!ii:: ffi #l r"* l:rnrutt1'iiHf:i:* i:n t"tii:.fact...ntitr.h^iffll'"[f 8 i "'fi I t x lili1#i:ffiq?Ti*ili***:*i*.'.:ffi or etse 'You'd give better thismotter"goiiiutgtnt'attention' 1'ttott' I fn octton' to tokelegot i @ witthove Yours i t foithJuttg.. there f 3 4 5 6 n i.liii!ft wrs::::?Ti::..1.. buttondoesnotfunction The rew i nd button does not f unct ion properlyin spite of / despitethe fact thal only a month the I ourchased camcorder ago.::'fi"fiJ3.. [ive 102 . Matlison a . a ccrwhich pubtic irresponsi!f. I therefore told hadbeen to h) Contrary whatI there However. told would lose not b Wewere they a ago. g) no t) objections.:"|. g The package labelstates that it is water' proof..then linkingwords/phrases.'*'i'r !ii'i'*x*? 1@flT. c Theywereshipped month distance' withinwalking Weweretoldit was d claims ishypoallergentc.-..'' @-AXl"Jfl '.accepted vehtcte'o the were..uouremplogees i"1t?'nlJ-*t ittot it ** erse' I l. bluntafteronlya month's Theknifebecame use. a letter with several comrequesting and the explaining problems themanager/manageress pensation.b) otherwisewill beforced c) I amwritingto my that with.l.'g' ..*:m. 1 S. ttto'r!"rl nttJof ii'" onlgcarcvoilabte .ruLti. (The aretooinformalfor a letterof this kind.'q:. Justification ti. become floorshave Ourwooden fewhours.i'*i'.u ln.asin theexample. num' the the intlicate lineswhichcontain informalphrases') bersin circles fromthelist below' with thephrases these Replace to./ H ow ever . Yourecently to complaint of Write problems the arrangements.a compensotion Jor to ilil. too Thefilm was longandveryboring. i f:lf.-tdn't doonethins so requested'o Jour. fot h You saidit wasguaranteed stay sharp to years..l'.tt]^-- ' ' claims arelongthey on a Thelabel thepacket lasting.-'..{.i... mY made eYes Themascara after swam stopped she watch My daughter's withit on.serle-ri:11*nt there weren't..that emptogees i oil .tnt. I me a) compensate for.

Jil.... lu).and complete paragraph paragraph. 1 'tore commen ]' t mY t 1 ii 11- sincerelY' tt. dinne.||nil lellers Comnloint 7d ol the and 4 Readthe instructions modelletter..r'i of my previous )". therefore.:..i[*#..$. ":::.fill in below.. thewords beused can Some of while. lasttimeyouate of Youarea regular you had however.::1t.4. i.il#i.:'ffir.o.rHi:il ...iffi.W l. a resuk.il: ..i": tr.."ft fr...*i.. .1.:f\ffil ':f fi i'*l#'..W i '-iiri{l# ffiil-:i'i:. *h I-1?:: .ff.y?ilr#i?.?. planon theright..: ..1. not akhough.*'Jilff . there.. standards..if * i'l. inr'frffi . ll Ir r estaur J :h ffiffiT:L#..n"iiiiiEiq :.l^"li:.m: i ruffi d r#[li i ''i]... in themeantime.0'fi :l.!q.'e .i'*ili io entertair on n ri-ipio" Ir.. . nevertheless.N Hogan (10) bk. ln* I ' iYi."'i'nop" you .i'.ry#I:. $ilrdadtm reason writing for tud1 " tu{ak * {ew&estw li it:.in6o.. since thus.r' exp"ril!!'l'"?'' ou.iud :::: be advis' y':":? priu"aentirely it osrhe manager.. only..'il ..r'ilii .-ff i^!:i^"nT:... "ogan P.##irr#". "J.Y. . example....i ' k["'. .J"...:f..o"i. ffi 4s "-*'* iiY:'5ru1i..ts"in.u'.l5li'i.:....sJ foward vvu frovrr b hearing will . -...:il'ffi :'fl i.A cr.. .. order but slso ir. the .identifying topicof each the Then.i"... t. .l"itiiJiii. Write a and what why letter explaining youweredisappointed suggesting could to the bedone imorove situation.-'!. os The customer a localrestaurant.f itj.T'...^.[ x.'l:...''.i no.l':. in the the blanlisin the letterwith the wordsand phrases as morethanonce..z:nd[ dishes..r.:#?rtriil'.'. P...'# 8. bwtalso.|: :'lt* jf::' .. inottentive rather the bosis )i'' I anr.i2".ncest customers dinq other desar thesewice' ^.would '"#.furthermore..s*sllidir]].TY... fl'J.'.:3'f....' Yours 103 . that vouspeak r--. feltthatthestandards dropped slightly.'JJ.i{i*rhl ':: "':::. .-' '#l:' a: m f#'' l.4. ffi. t n be y..

B Organiseyour pitifulcompany efficientlyand stop cheating the public by charging outrageous pricesfor fifth-rate service. fools' l:.youoverforgot 2 thehotelreceptionist to place ticket your misseA flightind hadto payfor another siepi. . Then graph letterin about words.ol 7d Unil lellets Complninl from and belowanclthe beginnings endings 5 Readthe instmctions and and the Thenmatch beginnings endings say of letters complaint.. 1jr .your on was there nolifeguard dutyat thepublic drowned almost child I 104 ..i l: ':' 7 Look at the following writing task instructions and then answer the apply The questions below. :. questions to both tasks.1.t.\r { _ Ji:ii{ f.and must warn you that unless this matter is resolved once I will not hesat itateto take legalaction. Writ e a |e t t e r compensation' and to to thecompany complain to demand F . say the Read following eachone'Then' for wouldbe moreappropriate a letterconcerning for and beginning ending a and tuo choose situations write a suitable each' about letterof comPlaint aty**r studenfs b) Youhaveno#ced#laf le# uraf{eed' ar* scgscol sfren sctr!'s ed. 6 language mild or strong and whether situations.=e headrnaster thesituafiondoesirof coniinue that would use? o Whatgreeting You for purpose writing o Whatis the main theletter? purPose? o Whatistheadditional o WhatparagraPh would use? You Plan couid o What usefulexpressions -you remarks'/ and useasopening closing o Howwouldyousigntheletter? ONE of the writing tasls 8 Choose and write a comPlete above. 9ill'iiea letter of complaintto n. food.1 .*ouldbemostappropriateforthesituationdescribed? with disappointed theservery and by iravelled coach were Yourecently v i ce p r o vid e d bythestaff.. and that the service offered by your companywill improve.e and ask lzirn ta et?s{d'." - 1 I am writingto expressmYtotal with the aPPatdissatisfaction ling service I exPeriencedon one of Your coaches from on to Cardiff Coventry 24th MaY' 2 I am writingto comPlainabout of the poor qualitY the serviceI on one of Your experienced coaches from Cardiff to on CoventrY 24th MaY' 3 tam writingto draw Yourattention (if You have anY. 4) '* i * ." '.uni besure on wasn't delivered time. 300 sleep at dog yourneighbour's barks night.younearly of in of a youfound piece glass a packet frozen it swallowed dates concerning andtimeshas always inaccuracies theTV guide wiif programmes beshown what you.tt s.r.thechildren you cake ordered thebilthday disaPPointed extremelY were pool swimming . Which or pair is mild' strong abusive' in the whether language each leveloflanguug. C I insistthat my wife and I receive a full refundof the orice of our tickets.andthede|ay s V o u e n c o u n t e re d .rrJirldr+--3i \ 1 ' "Ei ''*r'i:' . r i.:li. Para' the write planwithnotes.. which I doubt) to the fact that the staff who 'served'us on YourCardiff -to-CoventrY coach on 24tn idle MaYareincomPetent.. @:] 4gl s .youcan't cail yourwake-up . af You ate the manager a supermarket is iosi'ng cnsfoneers&ecaffse wkich employeesof tleecompany nert da-'>r naulkiheir cars in fhe superrnar*:":f 'narking area' Wrife a ierter of co'-' 'ptaint"to the ctrnpany and suggesf 'wkat should be done.f A I hope that you wilt look into this situation as a matter of some urgency.

. is politeto replyto it. FirstlyiFirst all/SecondlyiFinally..: !ri Paragraph1 for statereason(s) writing I tt ii.. (single occurrence is which you I assure thatthisis a(n) again) unlikely happen to .. tn fact/As matter factiActually/lndeed.. 4 It is . thatdurptices rise 5 to aredelighted enclose {e (free) byway compensation. The purposefor a for the statedin the ilti./offer apologies to i... oversight complimentary... this enor.. voucher......r ... for apologies the inconvenience sincere(st) my/our Onceagain.... .l. suitable was Thissituation due.. held responsible any as caused a inconvenience .. r: -^. no (something we have control which over) concert.'..#ii:li.. a - i @ To express reality: . : r^+^-^^ . letterof complaint mayalsooffersomeformof compensation..rtcompensation (for. weather.isiare .. to include letters... disposal. compliments.. . analternative for the venue onourpart.lirBnu.?......... according compensation of theterms thecontract.HilTJTJffJff:]dab'ede'av'e'lc) closingremarks o new points: To introduce .. ....:...... my {or I amwriting apologise .. r iJ:-ffJ. gifi isolated inevitable.i:JIi: si.l:""" Paragraphs2-3 give explanations tl f.... ^ # lt | | M openins remarks: il'anguage {Jseft'1tr Paragraph4 suggestcompensation ffi. of but be refund cannot given a(n) A complete (token) has enclosed. for theamount been Fill in the gaps with a preposition...ffi o I //' I Tt I I I it tt vou havereceived lettero{ complaint. was to the Failure repair equipment due a(n) to (faiiure notice something) to (certarn) will periodically... whichresulted an oversight.. my will my I hopethatyou willaccept apologies/that apologies be accepted.. |I for..... clientis anY to ..ts [ r of Apolostr E €. on @ Closing remarks: caused.. beyond circumstances our control.. tetterot apologyis to explain reason(s) the problems will You and to ensurethatthe situation be resolved/improved. munication yourlosing contract.. toiAsregards Withregard .i:ilt Final Paragraph Full name tT L-jI E I I I ff:ff::iilfifH./rrsg. I hopethatyou can{orgive/overlook regrettable accept enclosed the 7 Please . (regards) withour expe8 In lightofyourprevious rience. willnotbeable offer we to due Unfortunately to . rl I -! i ..... etc.... in . f insist (+ ing)to makeup for yourloss/inconvenience.... breakdown coma and led ....n::lr*::. of a I l I ! i ? H:l:titr]Tto on.... would to assure I like youthatallcomputers be will .. Clearly/Obviouslyil)leedless . obligationoffer no . concerned As faras ..:..... the The company cannotbe .x'. tellers /rg .. of whatyou say: To emphasise to say..: = : ! : - ! I I 105 T I .g ..... your at incident.":Tl[.. result bad our Unfortunateiy.as ).i$..TlTi:#$:]ii:'iffiltHin:::J:l51#j...(available you for use whenever like) : rl ! 2 Try themin your from I nn in thecorrect words/phrases thelist below..

tfte stafe of ti:+ changing roomsr the-bad conditian of iqulpment and overcrowded classes.our newest model. @ ot regordsthe problemsencountered with the engineond the windscreenwipers. 300 106 . :i :t :l c) As a sales represenfative'af a large manufac'turing comqan1 You fiave received several lef0ers from a customet complaining abaut a lotzg delay in the deliverY af goods an order. give the topic of each paragraph.*. I would like ro begin by giving my sincereopologiesfo'the inconvenience you thot experienced.*$* . Meonwhile. reasons and giving details 'o'*rrr. i Yorrs sincerely.our records show thot this porticulorcor hod ^ stoge successfuily which reodsmyserfond tne @ possedeoch inspection mechonics concernedto believe thot the problemsoccrrred ofter the cor hod been rented to you.tif1 fie sf& uatian.I loor _ forword to heoringfrom you to orronge g sui_tqble dote for . o luxuriousfour.'-.door Rover for o six_doy rentol period ot o time most convenient for you.Then. lhese were unfortunote mishopsthot could not hove ^ @been foreseen before rentol Eoch time o cor is returnedto us.renting our courtesy cor. R6ir.''-'_*"t.{ you intend to do to rer. ond rother thon noi providing you with ony cor ot oll.All of our @four door models were ot thot time renred out. pleose oilow me to offer you 1100 by woy of compensotion ond to contributeiowords tne cost of your rroin ticket. Firstly.*. we were forced to provide o smollertwo-door model insteod. @ Deor mr Mollison. needless soy q to ' smoller one. questions questions tasks. Thenwritethe 'I e ! | lefterin about words.You hawe recentlv received a numher of conn' olaints' concetning.*. to all three .As ftrre owner of a gYm.to Mr J. Unfortunotely. Moy I opologise ogoin for this inconvenience. graphplanwithnotes. ^ Qp resfore your confidence in our compony os o customer-friendry orgonisotion. person who hod rented the cor prior io you.In odditionto this I would olso like to offer @lou . exalaining of what and sivins.the problem of being given the wrong cor. This is truly o regrettobleoccurrence. on is 3 ttris letterof apologr a replyto theletterof complaint page errorsin the sen' punctuation Readthe modelletter and correctthe bY indicated a tences number. /. We were io contoct him ond therefore hod to provide you with onother vehicle. occurred becouse the originol cor thot hod been @o booked for your hod not been returned by the time you orrived. Write a letter of aplagy to tiae customer erylaining whY the goods have not fun delivered and giving information concerning dates arad rneirnsof shipmentaf a new delivery' ird o What greeting wouldYouuse? o What is the mainpurpose writing for theletter? purpose? o Whatis theadditional o Whatparagraph wouldYouuse? plan o What useful expressions would yor remarks? and asoPening closing use o How wouldyousignthe letter? il sr -+ t t ONE of the writing tasla 5 Choose para' and write a complete above. hod the not odhered to ihe renlol period originolly ogreed qnd os o result -unoble @wos two doy's lote in returningit. Robins (Monoger) _ ' 4 $'n *tiS{***Egi lf"\ iil -''. 1$3. ln responseto your leiter regordingthe unsotisfoctory servicethot you received when renting o cor on the 2oth July. I hope this offer will moke up for the distressing ond will iourney you encountered. a) t I rl ril It b) Write a letter of aPalogltin reP$ tu the lefter of comPlainton P.ol 7e Unil lellets AuologY 102.FinallY' underlineall exam' ples of useful lan' guage aPologising for and replace them with similarones. writing task Look at the following instructions and answer the apply The below. it outomoticolly undergoes rigorousinspection o before being given on inspection poss sheet.Write a letter apologising{nr Lte rt"aco nrrrhlprnsexPlaining t&e flrese prohlems.

.. listento thecassette tick the Look and say the appropriate boxes. previous experience.. qualifications. find I wouldappreciate replyat yourearliest convenience/as as possible. references f for i A f or m allet t ero f a p p l i c a ti o ns w ri tte nw h e na ppl yi ng a j ob or a pl aceon an u i educati onal /professi onal educ at ionalou rs e A j o b a p p l i c a ti o n s u a l l yncl udes c .c Final Paragraph closing remarks Full name * The exact number and division of paragraphs and the order of presenting infor' mation will depend on the specific instructions for riti each Ietter-w ng task... I am dueto takemyfinalexaminationsJune.advertised yesterday's for of . 'lwould be available an interview anytime/0ntil endof iJuneietc. Please questions/queries. as:cunently. awarded degree/diploma/certificate a I hav€successfully/recently completed coursein (subject) (place).... :FeEr*d:e*Ei*sE Paragraph 1 state reason(s)for writing Applyingfor Jobs UsefulLanguage: To begin letters: in I amwriting apply the post/position . as by During time.. personal qualities. whatdetails person applyrng the for job included theletterof application./was responsible ...beforethis. wordssuch prior to this./my for this I the of duties included .. at thetablebelow. * partners discussingjob application m Youwill heartwobusiness a whichthey then havejust received. subsequently. I havereceived training .. .. qualities as details previous experience wellas the applicant's of and in Previous experience shouldbe presented a clearorderusinglinking skills.. you haveanyfurther contact should me ffi*3m #*6a Paragraphs 2-3-4-5* education& qualifications...--t I../completed apprenticeship. suitability #*n:siq:s*i*..... soon a . Usingthenotes. in an etc Myqualifications studying/attending include am presently ../l a course .tollowing. in as advertised inTheTimes on/of14thOctober. Experience/Qualifications: present am employed/working. the for at I wouldbe pleasedihappysupply withanyfurther you information/details to . 107 . I am currently/At I as (date)to (date) I wasemployed (position) (company)Irom . cor sotesmon cor mechonic corpetfitter f I fcegree Ilueves Iouevets unemptoged + + Jobopptiedfor Quotificotions Cunentposition I Experience'1 Experience'2 Quotities Enctosures permonent I tempororU f repoirs I I tetepnone I cor mointenonce f I retiobte I tetepnone sotes ccr sotes I cheerfut photo moture f. a at To end letters: I enclose/Please enclosed CV/references my from'.'..etc.... in f... held position .cv f. in I have/hold/obtained/was in .. 1 ulion lellersApR of lic '. to I amwriting connection with/with regard thevacancy yourSales to in Department.whereupon..

Melton Enterprises. History.Finally. also the within sales of aswellastheallocation budget noted and business.. effectively. Cloucester CCSEs: Maths.Tokyo Other Information: r Basic Japanese r Full. yen The Company. I vitae. Tokyo in Manageryour of for to writing appty theposition Marketing I am on9th newspaper October. have numbervery business of I also a which language is necessary ofthe understanding Japanese well a basic as and to Finally.'':tins ?il. to endings thisletter.5.oor.andidate Address:21..ut.]'sggllili f ilfixl:l.t. ' . BLD Oxford Iune' 1987 A ug 1989 TraineeMarket Researcher.. present at Director Melton Managing as employed Assistant I amcurrently of staff the include organisation andstock.Say beginnings and alternative suggest ed in the letter. karate Referees: (President) Carl Spencer BLD Services 2.:^t applicant one acVano language' . I amwilling able reloto is if one to beable work ofthe to be whichunderstand a requirement position. includ' in information theCVhasnotbeen which CVontheright. (B). Rapidry sho 1{l:'Ju. Computing.. Political Science.li photograpl'lt^{l tlt-t1l.S c n B usi ness tudi es i S University Wales of Work Experience: A pri l1993... CunntcutuuWrer Name: Steven Bradley Date of Birth: 6 December1964 exn3nli1o companv'::f'Ti*tllil?l'i. Ceneral Studies (B) Business Studies 1983-1987 B . practices.ro.sincerely.15ffi1'. for Company for researchertheYen ' when lobtained my until researcher 1993 as working a market continued position.ol |Jnil lellets Annlisulion 7l then below. Services. to I moved Tokyo After to 0n twoyears.Economics. London S ept1989. myduties where Enterprises. amgenerally for the foroverseeingwhole responsible skills. Asian Japanese. jogging. I am department. lookat the and instructions model the Read advertisement. Level and'A' Studies Marketing. Yours Steueo &u1/24 Bradley Steven 108 . at cate sholt I and asrequested. managerial and organisational mygood you outfor candidatetheposition have be i delieve I would anideal that Japanese training a marketing with well-known had lined.E co nom ics . Guardian inlast as office. to behappy supply with aninterview at to and you considering application amwilling attend my for any time.5:. St Catherines St. for to decided apply thejobadvertised Youhave for youaresuitable thejob' why clearly youthink stating cation. Oxford Susan Marcus(Managing Director) Melton Enterprises 42. myreturn England. I notice.':il. in with BSc Business and a as I where trained a market graduation. DowningSt. advertised week's I attended enclosed.1987.Tiffen Avenue.il. would vitae photograph my I enclose cuniculum and I thank you further they details should berequired. i..tr . English. Mrs Dear Lloyd. .S eot1997 Assistant Managing Director. cooking... Cloucester TT The inTokyo' tu-t::.iJfl. in Asoutlinedmycuniculum whichhave my where School Secondary in Gloucester I completedGCSE Riverside graduated theUniversity of'Wales from I In studies.cleandrivinglicence o Interests: sailing.A pri l1993 Market Researcher.incruding All notlce' rr Managerl short (Personnel atverY Ottrn'qT^l-tJd to' t't tntntiotti ft'f" bemarked CFFMarketing"o''ot"tptonRo's'ttty'Tel':8219434 Educatio n/Qualif ications: 1976-1983 Riverside Secondary School. London writeyour appliabove. office seas Japanese iinsio 'l. relations Mytimespent and marketing public culture working insight Japanese and avaluable into that ensured I obtained good in as contactsTokyo. Studies ' A ' Level s: ( B) Maths(B ).andwhy.?'. I have extensive as in living Tokyo also firm.

...When I first becamea .......... I was given an award for couragein 1992 in recognition my dedication duty.. needs thedisabied..... the of I amcuffently employed a chef as and excel catering large ........... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 to .. works Having worked a foreign as I minister..... experience to ..... gain operate....... for 4 5 6 1 While working as a(n) . on I used to be nervousbefore an operation but eventuallyI learnedto cope with the stress that came with being responsiblefor people's lives... shifts Io....... I havebeena teacher the past for years amvery fifteen and familiar . with financialcrisessince I have worked a financial as advisor twenfor tyyears..... 3 When I worked as a(n) .... whatqualities each requires.... thenewteaching approach. I havea degree MiddieEastern .. Although it was difficultto be ' objective.. havea wideknowledg........I had to get hours... say 4 Fill in thecorrect preposition. I .. I am veryexperienced dealing .....As I was in control of a large accustomed working unsociable to aircraft carrying up to 300 passengers. one'shorizons to . to Try include them yourletters.I had to drive carefullyso that deliverieswere ... 5 As a(n) invslved being brave as I had to take risks.. have..... inquiring mind an to .... I had to be alert. 7 8 5 Collocate following the wordsand then explaintheir meaning. As an auctioneer. my saving people'sliveswas definitelyworth the sacrifice....... broaden...... of to 6 While working as a(n) ............I had to find ways to deal with stress.I realisedover the yearsthat in those who were best at the job were level-headed and able to remain ca lm dur inga c r i s i s .."l Unil IellersApplicotion 7l ol profession shown 3 flt in thegapin each extract with thecorrect as in profession thepictures. work...... iniriative to ...... I looked forward to the chlllenges I faced in proving my clients' innocence... ..... I managed to be ready even at a minute's notice when a story broke out......-. Although I worked long hours and neglected family sometimes... Then. amanexpert. graduate...... 109 .......... university from to ... a wordprocessor to. ......... of 2 There was alwayscomplete silencein the operatingroom as I had to concentrate everymove I made............. My job also entailedhavinggood communication skillsand being innovative and persistent....... It was extremely rewarding to win a case and to know that I had savedan innocentclient from prison. show..... and Arabic. As a consultant the Special for Olympics Committee.... 4 When I made my living as a(n) ... clienrs .....I alwaysmanagednot to allow rny. My boss must have believedI was reliableand trustworthyto give me a positionin which I handledgoodsworth thousands pounds...........personal feelingsto inter' ... I feel that I have experience assessing of art.. one'spotential to .........especially emergencysituations. in attend... a course to....... theChinese language... wellversed I am ... loved the challengeof being the first one to report a I new and exciting story. fu\fi\. Having livedin HongKongfor twelve years. fere..transportedsafely and on time. foreign affairs.hanille... groups.. politics amfluent. for a major airline.

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