Thepiratebay.

org
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hydraulics

Training Manual 1

BASIC HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC PLUMBING
 
 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Section Page

Subcourse Overview ................................................. i

Administrative Instructions ....................................... iv

Grading and Certification Instructions ............................ iv

Lesson 1: Basic Hydraulics ....................................... 1

Practice Exercise ..................................... 19

Answer Key and Feedback ............................... 22

Lesson 2: Hydraulic Plumbing .................................... 25

Practice Exercise ..................................... 69

Answer Key and Feedback ............................... 71

Appendix A: Proof Testing of Hose Assemblies ...................... 72

Appendix B: Glossary .............................................. 73

Examination ....................................................... 78

Student Inquiry Sheet

















iii AL0907

























THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK























iv AL0907

LESSON 1

BASIC HYDRAULICS

STP TASK: 551-758-1071

OVERVIEW

LESSON DESCRIPTION: In this lesson you will learn the definition of
hydraulics, its basic applications and
characteristics, and the types of hydraulic
fluid used.

LEARNING OBJECTIVE:

ACTION: After this lesson you will demonstrate a knowledge of
the principles of hydraulics, its characteristics and
applications, and the fluids used in the system.

CONDITIONS: You will study the material in this lesson in a
classroom environment or at home.

STANDARD: You will correctly answer all the questions in the
practice exercise before you proceed to the next
lesson.

REFERENCES: The material contained in this lesson was derived from
the following publications, FM 1-509, FM 10-69, and TM
1-1500-204-23 Series


INTRODUCTION

Hydraulics has proven to be the most efficient and economical system
adaptable to aviation. First used by the ancient Greeks as a means
of elevating the stages of their amphitheaters, the principles of
hydraulics were explained scientifically by the seventeenth century
scholars Pascal and Boyle. The laws










1 AL0907

discovered by these two men regarding the effects of pressure and
temperature on fluids and gases in confined areas form the basis of
the principle of mechanical advantage; in other words, the "why and
how" of hydraulics.

This chapter explains to you the basic applications of hydraulics in
Army aviation and the characteristics of these systems. The
explanations include detailed definitions of the terminology peculiar
to hydraulics with which you must be familiar to fully understand
this subject.

In aviation, hydraulics is the use of fluids under pressure to
transmit force developed in one location on an aircraft or other
related equipment to some other point on the same aircraft or
equipment. Hydraulics also includes the principles underlying
hydraulic action and the methods, fluids, and equipment used in
implementing those principles.

HYDRAULIC AND HYDRAULICS

The word "hydraulic" is derived from two Greek words: "hydro" meaning
liquid or water and "aulos" meaning pipe or tubing. "Hydraulic,"
therefore, is an adjective implying that the word it modifies is in
some major way concerned with liquids. Examples can be found in the
everyday usage of "hydraulic" in connection with familiar items such
as automobile jacks and brakes. As a further example, the phrase
"hydraulic freight elevator" refers to an elevator ascending and
descending on a column of liquid instead of using cables and a drum.

On the other hand, the word "hydraulics" is the generic name of a
subject. According to the dictionary "hydraulics" is defined as a
branch of science that deals with practical applications (such as the
transmission of energy or the effects of flow) of a liquid in motion.

USES OF HYDRAULICS ON ARMY AIRCRAFT

On fixed-wing aircraft, hydraulics is used to operate retractable
landing gear and wheel brakes and to control wing flaps and propeller
pitch. In conjunction with gases, hydraulics is used in the
operation of--

• Rotor and wheel brakes.
• Shock struts.
• Shimmy dampers.
• Flight control systems.


2 AL0907

• Loading ramps.
• Folding pylons.
• Winch hoists.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

Hydraulic systems have many desirable features. However, one
disadvantage is the original high cost of the various components.
This is more than offset by the many advantages that make hydraulic
systems the most economical means of power transmission. The
following paragraphs discuss some of the advantages of hydraulic
systems.

Efficiency. Discounting any losses that can occur in its
mechanical linkage, practically all the energy transmitted through a
hydraulic system is received at the output end -- where the work is
performed. The electrical system, its closest competitor, is 15
percent to 30 percent lower in efficiency. The best straight
mechanical systems are generally 30 percent to 70 percent less
efficient than comparable hydraulic systems because of high inertia
factors and frictional losses. Inertia is the resistance to motion,
action, or change.

Dependability. The hydraulic system is consistently reliable.
Unlike the other systems mentioned, it is not subject to changes in
performance or to sudden unexpected failure.

Control Sensitivity. The confined liquid of a hydraulic system
operates like a bar of steel in transmitting force. However, the
moving parts are lightweight and can be almost instantaneously put
into motion or stopped. The valves within the system can start or
stop the flow of pressurized fluids almost instantly and require very
little effort to manipulate. The entire system is very responsive to
operator control.

Flexibility of Installation. Hydraulic lines can be run almost
anywhere. Unlike mechanical systems that must follow straight paths,
the lines of a hydraulic system can be led around obstructions. The
major components of hydraulic systems, with the exception of power-
driven pumps located near the power source, can be installed in a
variety of places. The advantages of this feature are readily
recognized when you study the many locations of hydraulic components
on various types of aircraft.

Low Space Requirements. The functional parts of a hydraulic
system are small in comparison to those of other systems; therefore,
the total space requirement is comparatively low.

3 AL0907
These components can be readily connected by lines of any length or
contour. They can be separated and installed in small, unused, and
out-of-the-way spaces. Large, unoccupied areas for the hydraulic
system are unnecessary; in short, special space requirements are
reduced to a minimum.

Low Weight. The hydraulic system weighs remarkably little in
comparison to the amount of work it does. A mechanical or electrical
system capable of doing the same job weighs considerably more. Since
nonpayload weight is an important factor on aircraft, the hydraulic
system is ideal for aviation use.

Self-Lubricating. The majority of the parts of a hydraulic system
operate in a bath of oil. Thus, hydraulic systems are practically
self-lubricating. The few components that do require periodic
lubrication are the mechanical linkages of the system.

Low Maintenance Requirements. Maintenance records consistently
show that adjustments and emergency repairs to the parts of hydraulic
systems are seldom necessary. The aircraft time-change schedules
specify the replacement of components on the basis of hours flown or
days elapsed and require relatively infrequent change of hydraulic
components.

FORCE

The word "force," used in a mechanical sense, means a push or pull.
Force, because it is a push or pull, tends to cause the object on
which it is exerted to move. In certain instances, when the force
acting on an object is not sufficient to overcome its resistance or
drag, no movement will take place. In such cases force is still
considered to be present.

Direction of Force. Force can be exerted in any direction. It
may act downward: as when gravity acts on a body, pulling it towards
the earth. A force may act across: as when the wind pushes a boat
across the water. A force can be applied upwards: as when an athlete
throws (pushes) a ball into the air. Or a force can act in all
directions at once: as when a firecracker explodes.

Magnitude of Force. The extent (magnitude) of a given force is
expressed by means of a single measurement. In the United States,
the "pound" is the unit of measurement of force. For example, it
took 7.5 million pounds of thrust (force) to lift the Apollo moonship
off its launch pad. Hydraulic force is measured in the amount of
pounds required to displace an object within a specified area such as
in a square inch.

4 AL0907

PRESSURE

The word "pressure," when used in conjunction with mechanical and
hydromechanical systems, has two different uses. One is technical;
the other, nontechnical. These two uses can be easily distinguished
from each other by the presence or absence of a number. In technical
use, a number always accompanies the word "pressure." In
nontechnical use no number is present. These definitions are further
explained in the following paragraphs.

Technical. The number accompanying pressure conveys specific
information about the significant strength of the force being
applied. The strength of this applied force is expressed as a rate
at which the force is distributed over the area on which it is
acting. Thus, pounds per square inch (psi) expresses a rate of
pressure just as miles per hour (mph) does of speed. An example of
this is: "The hydraulic system in UH-1 aircraft functions at 1500
psi."

Nontechnical. The word "pressure," when used in the nontechnical
sense simply indicates that an unspecified amount of force is being
applied to an object. Frequently adjectives such as light, medium,
or heavy are used to remove some of the vagueness concerning the
strength of the applied force.

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

When used in the technical sense, pressure is defined as the amount
of force per unit area. To have universal, consistent, and definite
meaning, standard units of measurement are used to express pressure.
In the United States, the pound is the unit of measurement used for
force, and the square inch is the unit for area. This is comparable
with the unit of measurement used for speed: the mile is the unit of
measurement for distance, and the hour is the measurement for time.

A pressure measurement is always expressed in terms of both units of
measurement just explained: amount of force and unit area. However,
only one of these units, the amount of force, is variable. The
square inch is used only in the singular -- never more or less than
one square inch.

A given pressure measurement can be stated in three different ways
and still mean the same thing. Therefore, 50 psi pressure, 50 pounds
pressure, and 50 psi all have identical meanings.




5 AL0907

Examples of Pressure Measurement. A table with a 10-inch by 10-
inch flat top contains 100 square inches of surface. If a 100-pound
slab of exactly the same dimensions is placed on the table top, one
pound per square inch pressure is exerted over the entire table
surface.

Now, think of the same table (100 square inches) with a 100-pound
block instead of the slab resting on its top. Assume this block has
a face of only 50 square inches contacting the table. Because the
area of contact has been cut in half and the weight of the block
remains the same, the pressure exerted on the table doubles to 2 psi.

As a final example, suppose a long rod weighing 100 pounds with a
face of 1 square inch is balanced upright on the table top. The
pressure now being exerted on the table is increased to 100 psi,
since the entire load is being supported on a single square inch of
the table surface. These examples are illustrated in Figure 1-1.

Force-Area-Pressure Formulas. From the preceding discussion, you
can see that the formula to find the pressure acting on a surface is
"pressure equals force divided by area." If "P" is the symbol for
pressure, "A" the symbol for area, and “F" the symbol for force, the
formula can be expressed as follows:



By transposing the symbols in this formula, two other important
formulas are derived: one for area; one for force. Respectively,
they are--



However, when using any of these formulas, two of the factors must
be known to be able to determine the third unknown factor.












6 AL0907


Figure 1-1. Measuring Pressure.



7 AL0907

The triangle shown in Figure 1-2 is a convenient memory device for
the force-area-pressure formulas. It helps you recall the three
factors involved: F, A, and P. Because the F is above the line in
the triangle, it also reminds you that in both formulas indicating
division, F is always divided by one of the other two factors.


Figure 1-2. Relationship of Force, Area, and Pressure.

TRANSMISSION OF FORCE

Two means of transmitting force are through solids and through
liquids. Since this text is on hydraulics, the emphasis is on
fluids. Force transmission through solids is presented only as a
means of comparison.

Transmission of Force Through Solids. Force applied at one point
on a solid body follows a straight line undiminished to an opposite
point on the body. This is illustrated in Figure 1-3.

Transmission of Force Through Confined Liquids. Applied forces
are transmitted through bodies of confined liquids in the manner
described by Pascal's Law. This law of physics, formulated in the
seventeenth century by the French mathematician Blaise Pascal,
states: pressure applied to any part of a confined liquid is
transmitted without change in intensity to all parts of the liquid.
This means that wherever it is applied on the body of liquid,

pressure
pushes equal force against every square inch of the interior surfaces
of the

8 AL0907

liquid's container. When pressure is applied to a liquid's container
in a downward direction, it will not only act on the bottom surface;
but on the sides and top as well.


Figure 1-3. Transmission of Force Through Solids.

The illustration in Figure 1-4 helps to better understand this
explanation. The piston on the top of the tube is driven downward
with a force of 100 psi. This applied force produces an identical
pressure of 100 psi on every square inch of the interior surface.
Notice the pressure on the interior surface is always applied at
right angles to the walls of the container, regardless of its shape.
From this it can be seen that the forces acting within a body of
confined liquid are explosive in pattern. If all sides are equal in
strength, they will burst simultaneously if sufficient force is
applied.









9 AL0907


Figure 1-4. Transmission of Force Through
Confined Liquids.

CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUIDS

The vast difference in the manner in which force is transmitted
through confined liquids, as compared with solid bodies, is due to
the physical characteristics of fluids -- namely, shape and
compressibility. Liquids have no definite shape; they readily and
instantly conform to the form of the container. Because of this
characteristic the entire body of confined fluid tends to move away
from the point of the initial force in all directions until stopped
by something solid such as the walls of the container. Liquids are
relatively incompressible. That is, they can only be compressed by
approximately 1 percent of their volume. Because liquids lack their
own shape and are incompressible, an applied force transmitted
through a body of liquid confined in a rigid container results in no
more compression than if it were transmitted through solid metal.

10 AL0907

Movement of Fluid Under Pressure. Force applied to a confined
liquid can cause the liquid to move only when that force exceeds any
other force acting on the liquid in an opposing direction. Fluid
flow is always in the direction of the lowest pressure. If the
opposing forces are equal, no movement of fluid takes place.

Fluid under pressure can flow into already filled containers only
if an equal or greater quantity simultaneously flows out of them.
This is an obvious and simple principle, but one that is easily
overlooked.

Effects of Temperature on Liquids. As in metals, temperature
changes produce changes in the size of a body of liquid. With the
exception of water, whenever the temperature of a body of liquid
falls, a decrease (contraction) in size of the body of fluid takes
place. The amount of contraction is slight and takes place in direct
proportion to the change in temperature.

When the temperature rises, the body of liquid expands. This is
referred to as "thermal expansion." The amount of expansion is in
direct proportion to the rise in temperature. Although the rate of
expansion is relatively small, it is important; some provision is
usually necessary in a hydraulic system to accommodate the increase
in size of the body of liquid when a temperature rise occurs.

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

By simple definition, mechanical advantage is equal to the ratio of a
force or resistance overcome by the application of a lesser force or
effort through a simple machine. This represents a method of
multiplying forces. In mechanical advantage, the gain in force is
obtained at the expense of a loss in distance. Discounting
frictional losses, the percentage gain in force equals the percentage
loss in distance. Two familiar applications of the principles of
mechanical advantage are the lever and the hydraulic jack. In the
case of the jack, a force of just a pound or two applied to the jack
handle can raise many hundreds of pounds of load. Note, though, that
each time the handle is moved several inches, the load is raised only
a fraction of an inch.

Application in Hydraulics. The principle used in hydraulics to
develop mechanical advantage is simple. Essentially it is obtained
by fitting two movable surfaces of different sizes to a confining
vessel, such as pistons within cylinders. The vessel is filled with
fluid, and force (input) is applied to



11 AL0907

the smaller surface. This pressure is then transferred, by means of
the fluid, to the larger surface where a proportional force (output)
is produced.

Rate. The rate mechanical advantage is produced by hydraulic
means is in direct proportion to the ratio of the size of the smaller
(input) area to the size of the larger (output) area. Thus, 10
pounds of force applied to one square inch of surface of a confined
liquid produces 100 pounds of force on a movable surface of 10 square
inches. This is illustrated in Figure 1-5. The increase in force is
not free, but is obtained at the expense of distance. In this case,
the tenfold increase in output force is gained at the expense of a
tenfold increase in distance over which the initial force is applied.


Figure 1-5. Hydraulics and Mechanical Advantage.

THE ROLE OF AIR IN HYDRAULICS

Some hydraulic components require air as well as hydraulic oil for
their operation. Other hydraulic components do not, and instead
their performance is seriously impaired if air accidentally leaks
into the system.

Familiarization with the basic principles of pneumatics aids in
understanding the operation of both the hydraulic components
requiring air as well as those that do not. It aids, also, in
understanding how air can upset the normal operation of a hydraulic
system if it is present in the system where it must not be.


12 AL0907

Air. When used in reference to hydraulics, air is understood to
mean atmospheric air. Briefly, air is defined as a complex,
indefinite mixture of many gases. Of the individual gases that make
up atmospheric air, 90 percent or more is oxygen and nitrogen.

Some knowledge of the physical characteristics of air is quite
important to this instruction. Because the physical properties of
all gases, including air, are the same, a study of these properties
is made with reference to gases in general. It is important to
realize, however, though similar in physical characteristics, gases
differ greatly in their individual chemical composition. This
difference makes some gases extremely dangerous when under pressure
or when they come in contact with certain substances.

Air and Nitrogen. Air and pure nitrogen are inert gases and are
safe and suitable for use in hydraulic systems.



Most frequently the air used in hydraulic systems is drawn out of the
atmosphere and forced into the hydraulic system by means of an air
compressor. Pure nitrogen, however, is available only as a
compressed bottle gas.

Application in Hydraulics. The ability of a gas to act in the
manner of a spring is important in hydraulics. This characteristic
is used in some hydraulic systems to enable these systems to absorb,
store, and release fluid energy as required. These abilities within
a system are often provided by means of a single component designed
to produce a springlike action. In most cases, such components use
air, even though a spring might be equally suitable from a
performance standpoint. Air is superior to a spring because of its
low weight and because it is not subject to failure from metal
fatigue as is a spring. The most common use of air in hydraulic
systems is found in accumulators and shock struts.





13 AL0907

Malfunctions Caused by Air. In general, all components and
systems that do not require gases in their operation are to some
extent impaired by the presence of air. Examples are excessive
feedback of loud noises from flight controls during operation, and
the failure of wheel and rotor brakes to hold. These malfunctions
can be readily corrected by "bleeding the system": a controlled way
of allowing the air to escape. The process is explained in detail in
the -20 TMs of the particular aircraft involved.

FLUIDS USED IN HYDRAULICS

Two general types of fluids can be used in the operation and
maintenance of hydraulic systems and equipment: vegetable-base and
mineral-base. Although both types of fluids possess characteristics
suitable for hydraulic use, they are not interchangeable, nor are
they compatible as mixtures. At present, only mineral base fluids
are used for the maintenance and operation of hydraulic systems and
self-contained hydraulic components of Army aircraft. Despite this,
vegetable-base hydraulic fluids cannot be left entirely out of this
discussion.

In the past, some Army aircraft have used vegetable-base fluids for
hydraulic system maintenance and operation. Also, all known brake
systems in automotive vehicles are currently being operated on
vegetable-base fluid. It is quite possible that a supply of this
type of fluid may erroneously fall into the aviation supply system.
Therefore, maintenance personnel must be familiar with both types of
fluids so they can recognize the error and avoid use of the improper
fluid. Moreover, knowledge of the effects of using the improper
fluid and the corrective action to take if this occurs is as
important as knowledge of the system itself.

Rubber parts of hydraulic systems are particularly sensitive to
incorrect fluids. The rubber parts used in systems operating on
vegetable-base fluids are made of natural rubber; those operating on
mineral-base fluids are made of synthetic rubber. Both types of
rubber are seriously damaged by contact with the wrong type of fluid.

Vegetable-Base Hydraulic Fluids. Vegetable-base hydraulic fluids
are composed essentially of castor oil and alcohol. These fluids
have an easily recognized pungent odor, suggestive of their alcohol
content.

There are two types of vegetable-base hydraulic fluids that
aviation personnel can be issued in error; aircraft and automotive
types. Their descriptions follow:


14 AL0907

• The aircraft vegetable-base fluid is colored with a blue dye
for identification and is designated MIL-H-7644.

• The vegetable-base hydraulic fluid currently used for
automotive hydraulic systems is amber in color. The military
designation of this fluid is MIL-F-2111.

Remember: Neither of these fluids are acceptable for use in
aircraft hydraulic systems, and are NOT to be used in hydraulic jacks
or other aircraft ground-handling equipment.

Mineral-Base Hydraulic Fluids. Three categories of mineral base
hydraulic fluids are used in Army aviation today: operational,
preservative, and cleaning.

Operational Fluid. During extreme cold weather the operational
fluid now used in aircraft hydraulic systems and components is MIL-H-
5606. This fluid is colored with a red dye for identification and
has a very distinctive odor. MIL-H-83282 is to be used in components
and systems as prescribed in TB 55-1500-334-25.

Preservative Fluid. Preservative fluid contains a special
corrosion-inhibiting additive. Its primary purpose is to fill
hydraulic components as a protection against corrosion during
shipment or storage. Designated as MIL-H-6083A, preservatite fluid
is very similar to operational fluid in viscosity, odor, and color.
Operational fluid, MIL-H-5606, and preservative fluid, MIL-H-6083A,
are compatible but not interchangeable. Therefore, when preparing to
install components preserved with 6083A, the preservative fluid must
be drained to the drip point before installation, and the components
refilled with operational fluid. The preservative fluid, 6083A, need
not be flushed out with 5606. When using MIL-H-83282, the
preservative must be flushed as prescribed in TB 55-1500-334-25.

Cleaning Fluid. TM 55-1500-204-23-2 contains a list of authorized
cleaning agents and details their use in hydraulic systems and
components. Because of constant improvement of cleaning agents,
changes to the basic technical manual are printed and distributed as
necessary. For that reason, always refer to the current technical
manual and its latest changes, for the authorized cleaning agent to
be used on types of hydraulic systems and components.

Table of Fluid Uses. The following table is a brief summary of
the permissible uses of mineral-base hydraulic fluids.




15 AL0907

Table 1-1. Uses of Mineral-Base Hydraulic Fluids.



Corrective Action Following Improper Servicing. If a hydraulic
system or component is erroneously serviced with vegetable-base
fluid, the system must be drained immediately and then flushed with
lacquer thinner: military specification MIL-T-6094A. Following this,
the components of the system must be removed and disassembled to the
extent necessary to remove all seals. The components are washed,
seals are replaced with new ones, and the system is reassembled for
return to operation.

HANDLING OF FLUIDS

Trouble-free operation of hydraulic systems depends largely on the
efforts made to ensure the use of pure hydraulic fluid in a clean
system. Bulk containers of fluids must be carefully opened and
completely closed immediately after dispensing any fluid. After
dispensing, unused fluid remaining in gallon and quart containers
must be disposed of according to TM 10-1101. Dispensing equipment
must be absolutely clean





16 AL0907

during use. Filler plugs and caps and the bosses in which they are
installed must be carefully cleaned before removal and dispensing any
fluid.

Besides taking precautions while dispensing hydraulic fluids, you
must also ensure safe storage of fluids and observation of safety
regulations by the fluid handlers.

Fire Hazards. Hydraulic fluids are quite flammable and must be
kept away from open flames, sparks, and objects heated to high
temperatures. Fluid leaks in aircraft are a definite fire hazard and
must be constantly looked for and promptly corrected. The flash
point for MIL-H-5606 is 275° Fahrenheit. Because MIL-H-83282 has a
flash point of 400° Fahrenheit, it is much safer to use and is
replacing MIL-H-5606. Although the two fluids are compatible, care
must be taken so that a mixture of the two types has a volume of no
more than 3 percent MIL-H-5606. A mixture with a volume of more than
3 percent MIL-H-5606, degrades the flash point of MIL-H-83282.

The regulations for storing hydraulic fluids are the same as those
for other POL products, and their enforcement is equally as
important.

Toxicity. Hydraulic fluids are not violently poisonous but are
toxic to an extent. Unnecessary breathing of the fumes and prolonged
contact of quantities of fluid with bare skin must be avoided.

SUMMARY

Hydraulics is the use of fluid under pressure to transmit force. In
Army aviation, hydraulics is used to operate retractable landing
gear, brakes, flight controls, propeller pitch, and loading ramps.

The characteristics of hydraulic systems are efficiency,
dependability, control sensitivity, flexibility of installation, low
space requirements, light weight, self-lubrication, and low
maintenance requirements.

Hydraulics operates on the principles of force and pressure. The
unit of measurement of force is the pound, and the area of pressure
measurement is the square inch. Thus, force-pressure measurement is
expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). Force is transmitted
through confined liquids without change in intensity to all parts of
the liquid.




17 AL0907

Mechanical advantage is equal to the ratio of a force or resistance
overcome by the application of a lesser force or effort through a
simple machine. Gain in force is obtained at the expense of loss in
distance. The rate at which mechanical advantage is produced by
hydraulic means is in direct proportion to the ratio of the size of
the smaller (input) area to the size of the larger (output) area.

Some hydraulic components, like shock struts and accumulators,
require air with the hydraulic fluid for their operation.
Atmospheric air and pure nitrogen are the only gases authorized for
use in Army aircraft.

Only mineral-base hydraulic fluids are authorized for use in aircraft
hydraulic systems. Operational fluid MIL-H-83282 is replacing MIL-H-
5606; the preservative fluid is MIL-H-6083A.

Care must be taken to ensure no contamination is allowed to enter the
hydraulic system. Hydraulic fluids are quite flammable and must be
handled and stored with the same precautions as other POL products.





























18 AL0907

LESSON 1

PRACTICE EXERCISE

The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in
this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each question.
When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the
answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study
again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved.

1. What is the unit of area for pressure measurement in the United
States?

___ A. Inch-pounds.
___ B. Square inch.
___ C. Foot-pounds.
___ D. Square foot.

2. What happens to a body of liquid when a rise in its temperature
takes place?

___ A. It decreases in size.
___ B. It increases in size.
___ C. It stays the same.
___ D. It builds up static pressure.

3. How much of the energy transmitted through a hydraulic system is
received at the output end?

___ A. 88 percent.
___ B. 99 percent.
___ C. Practically none.
___ D. Practically all.

4. What formula is used to find the amount of pressure exerted?

___ A.
___ B.

___ C.

___ D.





19 AL0907

























THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK























20 AL0907

5. Fluid under pressure always flows in the direction of--

A. Equal pressure.
B. Medium pressure.
C. Highest pressure.
D. Lowest pressure.

6. What gases can be used when servicing a hydraulic system or
related equipment?

A. Oxygen and pure nitrogen.
B. Air and pure nitrogen.
C. Acetylene and pure oxygen.
D. Nitrogen and acetylene.

7. How many general types of hydraulic fluids are there?

A. One.
B. Two.
C. Three.
D. Six.

8. What is the military designation number for preservative fluid?

A. MIL-H-8063A.
B. MIL-H-6380A.
C. MIL-H-6083A.
D. MIL-H-5083A.

9. What technical manual covers the disposal of used fluid left in
gallon or quart containers?

A. TM 10-1001.
B. TM 10-1011.
C. TM 10-1101.
D. TM 10-1110.

10. In what technical manual can you find a list of authorized
cleaning agents and details of their use in hydraulics and
components?

A. TM 10-1101.
B. TM 1-1500-204-23-2.
C. TM 55-1500-334-25.
D. TM 750-125.



21 AL0907

LESSON 1

PRACTICE EXERCISE

ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

Item Correct Answer and Feedback

1. B. Square inch.

In the United States the square inch is the measurement used
when expressing applied force to an area. (Page 5)

2. B. It increases in size.

Temperatures have an effect on liquids. Applied heat causes
liquids to expand slightly, while cold has the opposite
effect. (Page 11)

3. D. Practically all.

A hydraulic system is very efficient. There is virtually no
loss except that which may be in the mechanical linkage.
(Page 3)

4. A.

Pressure exerted can be determined by dividing force by area.
(Page 6)

5. D. Lowest pressure.

Fluid flows toward the area of least resistance. (Page 11)

6. B. Air and pure nitrogen.

Using the wrong combination of gases could cause an
explosion. You should use only air and pure nitrogen. (Page
13)

7. B. Two.

You may use either vegetable-base or mineral-base hydraulic
fluids; however, you must not mix them or switch from one to
the other. (Page 14)


22 AL0907

8. C. MIL-H-6083A.

MIL-H-6083A is a preservative fluid. Care must be taken not
to confuse it with an operational fluid. (Page 15)

9. C. TM 10-1101.

TM 10-1101 tells you how to get rid of unused fluid remaining
in gallon and quart containers. (Page 16)

10. B. TM 1-1500-204-23-2.

If you want to know what cleaning agent to use, check TM 1-
1500-204-23-2. Be sure the technical manual is current with
all changes. (Page 15)

































23 AL0907

























THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK























24 AL0907

LESSON 2

HYDRAULIC PLUMBING

STP TASKS: 551-758-1007, 551-758-1008,
551-758-1012, and 551-758-1071

OVERVIEW


LESSON DESCRIPTION:

In this lesson you will learn the identification, fabrication,
installation, and storage requirements for tubes and hoses. You will
also learn the types of seals and gaskets.

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:

ACTION: After this lesson you will demonstrate a knowledge of
the identification, fabrication, installation and
storage requirements for tubes and hoses, along with
the types of seals and gaskets.

CONDITIONS: You will study the material in this lesson in a
classroom environment or at home.

STANDARD: You will correctly answer all the questions in the
practice exercise before you proceed to the
examination.

REFERENCES: The material contained in this lesson was derived from
the following publications:

AR 310-25 (Dictionary of United States Army Terms).
AR 310-50 (Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity
Codes).
FM 1-563 (Fundamentals of Airframe Maintenance).
FM 1-509 (Fundamentals of Aircraft Pneudraulics).
TM 1-1500-204-23 Series (General Aircraft Maintenance
Manual).








25 AL0907

INTRODUCTION

Aircraft plumbing is that phase of aircraft maintenance dealing with
the metal tubing, flexible hoses, and necessary fittings and seals
providing a pathway for the fluids and gases to move between the
components on aircraft.

Although this text deals mainly with the hydraulic system, the
plumbing principles explained herein apply to the plumbing
requirements for the fuel, ventilation,

pneumatic, and Pitot-static
systems as well. Because of this similarity, the maintenance
personnel responsible for hydraulic plumbing are usually required to
perform the repair and maintenance of all aircraft plumbing systems.

For the mechanic to repair aircraft plumbing, or for the NCO or
maintenance officer to supervise this work effectively, he must be
familiar with the material, equipment, and fabrication techniques
necessary to repair and install these lines.

Part A of this lesson deals with the identification and methods of
fabricating the tubes that connect the components of hydraulic
systems. In Part B, the uses and advantages of hose or flexible
tubing are explained, including the markings, fabrication and
installation methods, and storage requirements of these materials.
Part C describes the different types of seals and gaskets used to
prevent leaks in the interconnecting tubes, hoses, and fittings of
plumbing systems.

VARIETY OF LINES

Throughout this lesson you will see terms such as plumbing lines,
tubing, flexible tubing, and hose used extensively. By definition,
plumbing lines refer to any duct work used to transfer fluids or
gases from one location to another. These lines may fall into one of
two general categories: tubes (rigid lines), and hose (flexible
lines). Many materials are used to fabricate these lines; each one
offers a different advantage. When replacing a damaged or defective
line, make every effort to duplicate the original line as closely as
possible. Under some circumstances, however, field expediency
requires replacement of the damaged line with a similar, but not
identical, line. In choosing what size and type of line to use,
evaluate the following important elements:

• Type of fluid or gas the line is to conduct.
• Pressure it must operate under.
• Temperatures it must operate under.

26 AL0907

• Temperatures it must withstand.
• Vibrations it is subject to.

IDENTIFICATION OF LINES

Except for the inlet and exhaust sections of the engine compartment,
plumbing lines are identified with adhesive bands of different colors
coded to the particular system to which each line belongs. In the
Army, two types of identification code systems are used: the print-
symbolized tape system (the preferred method), and the solid-color
tape system (the alternate method). The preferred system uses tape
bands of two or more colors printed with identifying geometrical
symbols and the name of the system. Examples of these bands are
shown in Figure 2-1. The alternate method uses one, two, or three
bands of 1/2-inch solid-color tape wrapped on the various lines for
identification. The color code used with this system is shown in
Figure 2-2.

In areas near the inlet section of the engine compartment where the
tape might be ingested (sucked in) or near the exhaust section where
high temperatures might burn the tape, suitable paints conforming to
the color codes in Figure 2-2 mark plumbing lines.

Additional white tapes labeled "pressure," "drain," or "return" can
be used next to the color bands of either code system to identify the
lines. These tapes are also printed with arrows indicating the
direction of fluid flow.





















27 AL0907


Figure 2-1. Color-Coded Tape.


28 AL0907


Figure 2-2. Solid-Color Band System.

PART A - TUBING

The procedures, fabrication techniques, and use of proper tools are
as important as the selection of the tubing material in repairing and
replacing damaged plumbing lines. Unless you take extreme care
during all phases of line repair, the finished product is likely to
be as defective as the original. This part discusses--

• Criteria for selecting the proper type of tubing.
• Correct procedure for routing lines and for cutting and bending
tubing.


29 AL0907

• Types of tube fittings.
• Methods of tube flaring and installation.
• Techniques of tube repair if tubes are not extensively damaged.

TUBING

In Army aviation three types of metal tubing are used: aluminum
alloy, stainless steel, and copper. Generally, determine the type of
metal visually. If this is not possible, mark the tubing at three-
foot intervals with the manufacturer's name or trademark, the tubing
material, and its specification number. Tubing that is too small to
be marked in this manner, identify by attaching a tag with this
information to it.

Aluminum. In aircraft plumbing, the most widely used metal tubing
is made of aluminum alloy. This general-purpose tubing has the
advantages of workability, resistance to corrosion, and light weight.
A list of the aluminum tubing authorized for use in Army aircraft is
found in TM 1-1500-204-23-2.

The aluminum tubing generally used in Army aircraft hydraulic
systems operating at pressures of 1,500 psi and below is type 5052,
Military Specification WW-T-700/4. Because of the workability of
this tubing, assemblies can be readily fabricated in the field. For
those hydraulic systems operating at pressures above 1,500 psi,
aluminum alloy tubing types 6061 and 6062, both Military
Specification T-7081, are used. To process this tubing into tubing
assemblies requires special procedures and equipment not generally
available in the field. Therefore, assemblies made from this
aluminum must be obtained through supply channels as factory
prefabricated parts or through depot maintenance shops.

Stainless Steel. Tubing of stainless steel can also be used where
pressures exceed 1,500 psi. Stainless steel must be used for outside
lines, such as brake lines attached to landing gear struts or other
exposed lines that can be damaged by flying objects or ground-
handling mishaps. Stainless steel tubing, like the high-pressure
aluminum alloy tubing, is difficult to form without special tools and
is obtained through supply channels or depot repair facilities.

Copper. Copper tubing is primarily used in high-pressure oxygen
systems. The fittings on copper tubing are soldered on with silver.
Copper tubing used for high-pressure oxygen systems is 3/16-inch
diameter, 0.032-inch wall thickness,



30 AL0907

Federal Specification WW-T-799, Type N. Low-pressure oxygen systems
use a larger diameter aluminum tubing with flared aluminum fittings.
Only in case of an emergency can copper tubing with the same diameter
and wall thickness of the aluminum tubing be used to replace it. It
must then conform to Federal Specification WW-T-799, Type N. Steel
tubing must not be used to replace high-pressure oxygen system copper
tubing because it loses ductility and becomes brittle at low
temperatures.

ROUTING OF LINES

If a damaged line is discovered, the first step for repair is to
determine the cause of the damage. If it was caused by chafing
structural members of the aircraft or poor layout planning, the
condition must be corrected. If the line was defective and the same
layout is acceptable, carefully remove the damaged tube and use it as
a pattern for fabrication of the replacement tube.

Generally, replacement lines follow the path of the original line;
however, when the line must be rerouted use the standards that are
discussed in the paragraphs that follow.

Number of Bends. When fluid flows around a bend, it creates
friction which generates heat and causes an overall loss in system
efficiency. With this in mind, tubing layout must always follow a
path that results in gradual bends. On the other hand, a path with
no bends is likely to result in even more problems. First, to cut a
replacement line to an exact length is virtually impossible. This
can result in a mechanical strain being exerted on the tube when the
attaching nut is drawn up on the fitting. Because the greatest
amount of strain is already concentrated on the flared portion of the
tube as a result of the flaring operation, this additional strain is
likely to weaken the tube beyond tolerances. Second, if the tube has
no bends it cannot flex when subjected to vibrations. This lack of
flexibility promotes fatigue of the tubing metal and makes it more
susceptible to failure. Third, a straight line installation allows
no provision for the normal contraction and expansion of the tubing
caused by temperature change. Examples of correct and incorrect tube
layout are shown in Figure 2-3.









31 AL0907


Figure 2-3. Correct and Incorrect Tube Layout.

Minimum Bend Radius. The metal at the heel of a bend in tubing is
always stretched to some extent. This stretching weakens the tubing
and must be kept within limits. The radius of the sharpest bend
permissible in a given size tubing is designated the "minimum bend
radius." If this limit is exceeded, the metal at the bend is subject
to rupture under operating pressure. Bends of a greater radii than
the minimum allowed are always preferred. The methods of tube
bending and the tools used in bending operations are discussed later
in this section.

The table of minimum bend radii for various types and sizes of
tubing is contained in TM 1-1500-204-23-2. A copy of this table is
shown in Table 2-1 on the following page.








32 AL0907

Table 2-1. Table of Bend Radii.



Supports. Supports are used in tube layout to limit the sideward
movement of the tube due to pressure surges or vibrations. The
maximum distance between supports is determined by the tube material
and its outside diameter (OD). Rules governing the specifications of
these supports are found in Chapter 4 of TM 1-1500-204-23-2.

TEMPLATES

If the damaged tube cannot be used as a pattern for the replacement
line, use wire to make a template. Do this by running a wire between
the fittings where the line must be installed and bending the wire to
conform with the tube layout standards previously described.

TUBING CUTTING

When making replacement tubing from stock material, the stock must be
measured and cut approximately 10 percent longer than the damaged
tube. This ensures sufficient length for forming the flares and for
small deviations in bending the tube to the pattern. Any extra
length must be cut off before forming the last flare.



33 AL0907

There are two accepted methods of tube cutting: one using the
standard tube cutting tool shown in Figure 2-4, the other using a
hacksaw. After completion of the tube cutting in either of these
processes, remove all residue produced. To do this, ream the end of
the tube slightly and flush the entire piece of tubing thoroughly.
These methods are discussed in detail further in this text.


Figure 2-4. Standard Tube-Cutting Tool.

Standard Tube-Cutting Tool. The ideal method of cutting tubing is
with a standard cutting tool. The tube is slipped through the
cutting tool at a right angle, and the cutting wheel is adjusted
against the tube. Take care not to force the wheel against the tube
too tightly, as this forces the tube out-of-round. While the tool is
being rotated, the cutting-wheel feed must be tightened a little with
each turn until the wheel has cut through the tube. The tube cutter
must be rotated in only one direction, with its handle being swung in
the same direction that the opening faces. When properly used, this
tool leaves a smooth end on the tube square with its axis.





34 AL0907

Hacksaw. If a cutting tool is not available, use a fine-tooth
hacksaw, preferably one with 32 teeth per inch. Since it is
difficult to get a good, square, flush cut on the tube with this
method, the tube end must be filed after the cut is made. During
hacksaw cutting and filing, the tube must be clamped in tube blocks
or other suitable holders to prevent scratching or bending and to aid
in producing a 900 cut on the tube end.

METHODS OF TUBE BENDING

Tube bending can be done with any one of a variety of hand or power
bending tools. Regardless of method used, the object is to obtain a
smooth,

even bend without flattening or buckling. Examples of these
results are shown in Figure 2-5.


Figure 2-5. Acceptable and Unacceptable Tube Bends.

Hand Bending Methods. Tubes less than 1/4-inch in diameter can be
bent with hands,

but take care to work the bend gradually. For sizes
larger than 1/4-inch in diameter, use a bending tool; however, this
tool is only effective on thin-walled tubing of soft material. Two
common bending tools are--


35 AL0907

• Bending springs. They are used by matching the inside diameter
(ID) of the spring with the outside diameter (OD) of the tube
to be bent. The tubing is then inserted and centered on the
heel of the bend. The bend must be started larger than desired
and gradually worked down to the correct size. The coiled
spring adds structural strength to the tubing wall during
bending and prevents the tube from crushing or kinking.

• Roller Bending Tool. This tool bends a tube to a desired
radius very efficiently. It consists of a grooved roller with
a degree scale marked on the outside and a slide bar on the
handle to point to the degree mark where the tube is bent. To
use the tool, the straight tubing must be secured in the tool,
and the incidence mark set to indicate zero degree of bend on
the scale. Then, pressure is applied to the slide bar, bending
the tube as shown in Figure 2-6 to the desired degree.

Power Bending Tool. Tube bending machines are generally used in
depot maintenance shops. With such equipment, proper bends can be
made in tubing of large diameters and hard materials. The production
tube bender is an example of this type of machine.

Alternate Methods. Tubing that has a 1/2-inch or large OD is
difficult to bend with hand tools. For this type tubing, power tools
must be used whenever possible, since they have an internal support
to prevent flattening and wrinkling. However, when power tools are
not available, a filler method using sand, shot, or fusible alloy can
be used. The steps involved are quite similar regardless of the
filler material used. Because the process using the fusible alloy is
the most complex, and the most accurate, it is presented in detail in
the following paragraphs.

Fusible alloy is a metal alloy with a melting point of
approximately 160°F. The material must be melted under hot water at
or near the boiling point to ensure that the molten metal flows
freely. NEVER APPLY A FLAME TO THE TUBING OR TO THE FUSIBLE ALLOY.
EXCESS HEAT DESTROYS THE STRENGTH OF HEAT-TREATED TUBING AND THE
MELTING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FUSIBLE ALLOY. Boiling water will not
melt fusible alloy after the flame has been applied. Furthermore, if
the tubing is held over a direct flame to remove the alloy, particles
of this metal can stick to the inside of the tube and cause
corrosion.





36 AL0907


Figure 2-6. Roller Bending Tool.


37 AL0907

The six steps taken in the fusible alloy process are as follows:

• Coat the inner surface of the tube to be bent with a light
engine oil, specifications MIL-L-6082A.

• Close one end of the tube.

• Place fusible alloy in a clean steel ladle and submerge both
tube and ladle in a hot water tank. The fusible alloy stays in
the ladle, not combining with the hot water.

• When the alloy has melted, pour it into the tube to be bent,
keeping both the tube and ladle under water. As it fills the
tube, the alloy displaces the water from the tube. After the
tube is full of alloy, remove it from the water and quench it
in cold water or air cool until the alloy is completely
solidified.

• The tube is now solid and can be bent with any suitable bending
tool. As this alloy bends readily when cold but breaks when
warm or under suddenly applied loads, care must be taken that
the alloy in the tube is bent slowly.

• When the bending is completed submerge the tube in hot water
and allow the alloy to run out of the tube into the ladle or
other suitable container. All of the alloy must be removed
from the bent tubing, as the alloy will cause corrosion. Also,
any alloy left in the tube will obstruct the tube and alter the
flow characteristics of the fluid.

TUBE CONNECTIONS

Three basic types of connections are used with aircraft tubing. The
two most common, the military standard (MS) flareless connection and
the flared connection, are depicted in Figure 2-7. The third, less
frequently used is the beaded connection.

NOTE: Army-Navy standards (AN) designated for
government standards were changed over to
military standard (MS) designations.







38 AL0907


Figure 2-7. Flareless and Flared Fittings.

The MS Flareless Connection. This connection is being used
extensively on newer model aircraft. This fitting is designated
primarily for high-pressure gas or liquid systems and for service
where it is subjected to severe vibrations or fluctuating pressures.
This connection retains a seal under these conditions better than any
of the other types. The MS flareless connection consists of a
connector, sleeve, and nut, as shown in Figure 2-8. The tail on the
sleeve dampens out tube vibrations, preventing fatigue and breakage,
while the spring washer action of the sleeve prevents the nut from
loosening, keeping a better seal.



39 AL0907


Figure 2-8. Flareless Fitting.

The Flared Connection. This connection withstands high pressure
and is used extensively in hydraulic systems. The component pieces
necessary to form a flared connection are a nut, sleeve, and properly
formed (flared) tube end. These pieces are assembled with the nut
screwed on a threaded fitting. These nuts and sleeves are available
in both steel and aluminum alloy; the use varies with the material of
the tube. Two types of flares can be made on tubing:

40 AL0907

• The single flare. Single flares are used for all sizes of
stainless steel tubing, for 6061 aluminum alloy tubing, and for
5052 aluminum alloy tubing larger than 1/2-inch OD.

• The double flare. Double flares are specified for 5052 tubing
1/2-inch OD and smaller.

The Beaded Connection. This connection is used only to tubing or
to fittings. This type of connection is not capable of withstanding
high pressures and is used only in low-pressure systems. No picture
of beading is included here, but Figure 2-12, which illustrates a
low-pressure tube splice, shows an example of a beaded connection.

PREPARING TUBING FOR FLARING

Two steps are used to prepare tubing for flaring: reaming and
cleaning. They must be followed carefully so the tube is not damaged
or weakened, and to prevent foreign object damage when the tube is
installed.

Reaming. After a square cut has been made bylations, marks,
seams, and excessive graphite. Check the fittings for mutilations to
the threaded areas, nicks,

Cleaning. Three prescribed methods of cleaning tubing are given
in TM 1-1500-204-23 series manuals. Refer to the TM for materials
and how they are to be used because cleaning chemicals are constantly
improved. These improvements are incorporated in the TM through
printed changes. An example is the use of solvent PS-661 which has
been changed to the use of naptha TT-N-95. The list can go on and
on. Therefore, when using a cleaning agent on or in hydraulic
system, always refer to the latest applicable publications for the
correct material and usage. The tube must be free of all dirt and
grease before clamping it in the flaring tool. The flaring tool die
block must be properly cleaned to prevent slips and deformation of
the tubing.

FLARING TOOLS

Two basic types of hand flaring tools provide a single flare: the
screw and the combination. These tools are described in the
following paragraphs.






41 AL0907

The Screw Flaring Tool. There are two kinds of screw flaring
tools: one threaded and the other with a plain die. The stem of the
plunger on the screw flaring tool is threaded so that its pointed end
is forced into the tube by turning instead of by tapping with a
hammer. The screw flaring tool also has the advantage of the tube
being visible, so it is easy to determine when the flare is
completed.



The Combination Flaring Tool. The combination flaring tool is
designed to single-flare all grades of aircraft tubing including
stainless steel. This tool can also form double-lap flare in
aluminum and copper tubing. The component parts of the combination
flaring tool are: clamp blocks, a rotor that incorporates a punch for
forming double-lap flares, and a cone-shaped punch for forming single
flares. With each tool, there are two sets of die blocks; each set
has four accurately machined grooves to accommodate four different
sizes of tubing. The two sets of die blocks make it possible to
flare eight different sizes of tubing. A clamp screw is used to hold
the tube between the die blocks, and a compression screw is located
in front of the dial containing the flaring punches. A slide stop is
used for setting the tube for the proper depth of flare.

DOUBLE FLARES

Double flaring is required on all 5052 aluminum alloy tubing with
less than 1/2-inch OD. The double flare provides a double thickness
of metal at the flare itself. This double thickness reduces the
danger of cutting the flare by overtorquing during assembly and also
minimizes the danger of flare failure. Examples of correct and
incorrect double flares are shown in Figure 2-9.


Figure 2-9. Correct and Incorrect Double Flares.


42 AL0907

Double flares can be formed by double-lap flaring tools of the shock
or rotary type or by the combination flaring tool previously
described.

The steps in the formation of a double-lap flare are described in the
following paragraphs and illustrated in Figure 2-10.


Figure 2-10. Double Flaring.


43 AL0907

First Step. The tube is gripped between the halves of the die
block with the end of the tube projecting slightly above the bevel of
the die block hole. Then, the first-step die plunger is placed
against the tube with the end of the tubing resting in the plunger
recess. The plunger is then forced toward the die block, causing a
bead-like swelling at the end of the tubing. The first-step plunger
is then removed, leaving the tube in the die block.

Second Step. The cone is placed at the beaded end of the tubing.
This plunger is then forced against the bead, causing the metal at
the upper half of the bead to fold into the lower half. This forms a
flare with a double thickness of metal at the lip.

FAULTY FLARES

Lack of care and attention to detail in forming flares is likely to
result in producing a faulty flare. If the tubing is not cut
squarely, a lopsided flare results. A faulty flare is also produced
if the tube is not inserted far enough into the die block resulting
in an underflared condition. An underflared tube has a small
gripping area and will pull apart under pressure. If the tube is
inserted until it protrudes too far past the edge of the die block,
an overflared condition results. This can cause the flare to crack
or break. Use of the stop will prevent this type of overflare. Too
much force used on the forming tool when making a flare results in a
cracked or flushed flare.

CLEANING TUBING

After the tubing has been formed and flared, all oil, grease, and
other foreign material must be removed before installation. Removal
of every trace of oil and grease from oxygen tubing is a matter of
critical importance because contact between bottled oxygen (used for
breathing) and oil or grease results in spontaneous combustion and
explosion.

PLUMBING FITTINGS

Fittings are used to assemble and interconnect tubes and hoses to
plumbing components and for connecting lines through bulkheads.
Examples of these fittings are shown in Figure 2-11.

Prior to installation, all fittings must be carefully examined to
ensure that their surfaces are smooth. Smoothness consists of
freedom from burrs, nicks, scratches, and tool marks.



44 AL0907

Following inspection of the fittings, a thin coat of antiseize
compound, Federal Specification TT-A-580, must be applied to the
threads of the fittings, except for hydraulic and oxygen fittings.
Hydraulic fluid must be used to lubricate fittings of hydraulic
plumbing lines. Antiseize compound MIL-T-5542 is used to lubricate
the fittings of oxygen systems.

FITTING NUTS

Aircraft plain checknuts are used to secure the tubing and fitting
assembly together and to connect the entire tube assembly to
components of the plumbing system. Only special-fitting nut wrenches
of the torque-indicating type should be used for installing tube
assemblies. If not available, open-end wrenches can be used.

Tightening the fitting nuts to the proper torque during installation
is very important. Overtorquing these nuts can severely damage the
tube flare, the sleeve, and the nut. Undertorquing is equally
serious; it can allow the line to blow out of the fitting or to leak
under pressure. When fittings are properly torqued, a tube assembly
can be removed and installed many times before reflareing becomes
necessary.

When installing a fitting, through a bulkhead. Take care to ensure
that the nuts are tight enough to prevent any movement between the
bulkhead and the fitting. If any movement takes place, vibrations
can cause the fittings to enlarge the hole through the bulkhead
beyond tolerance and damage the fitting.

CAUTION: A FITTING NUT MUST NEVER BE TIGHTENED WHEN
THERE IS PRESSURE IN THE SYSTEM, AS THIS
RESULTS IN AN UNDERTORQUES CONDITION AND
TENDS TO CUT THE FLARE.

INSTALLATION OF TUBING ASSEMBLIES

Before the tubing assembly is installed in the aircraft, it must be
carefully inspected, and all dents and nicks must be removed.
Sleeves must be snug-fitting with 1/16 to 1/8 inch of the tube
protruding above the top sleeve. The line assembly must be clean and
free from all foreign matter as described in an earlier paragraph.
During installation, the fitting nuts must be screwed down by hand
until they are seated and then properly torqued. The tubing
assemblies must not have to be pulled into place with the nut, but
must be aligned before tightening.



45 AL0907


Figure 2-11 Typical Fittings.

46 AL0907

If the tubing is to be run through a bulkhead, instead of being
connected through the bulkhead by a fitting, take extra care so that
the tubing is not scratched. For added protection in this operation,
the edges of the cutout must be taped before the line is installed.

TUBE REPAIR

A large percent of minor damage to aircraft plumbing is a result of
careless maintenance practices. A misplaced foot or tool can
scratch, nick, or dent the tubing beyond tolerances. Therefore,
caution on the part of maintenance personnel can prevent a great deal
of work.

When a damaged tube is discovered, the ideal solution is to replace
the complete section of tubing. In some instances, however, this may
not be possible. In these cases minor damages can usually be
repaired, providing the damages are within specified limits. Minor
repair techniques are described in the paragraphs that follow.

Dents. Any dent less than 20 percent of tubing diameter is not
objectionable unless it is on the heel of a short bend radius in
which case the tubing is discarded. Dents exceeding 20 percent of
tube diameter must be replaced. Burnishing is not allowed in the
heel of bends where material has already been stretched thin during
forming.

Nicks. A nick in a piece of tubing subjects the tubing to failure
because of stress concentration caused by vibrations at the point of
the nick. Nicks weaken tubing against internal pressure, and such
nicks must be burnished out to reduce a notch effect. A nick no
deeper than 15 percent of wall thickness of aluminum, aluminum alloy,
copper, or steel tubing may be reworked by burnishing with hand
tools. Any aluminum alloy, copper, or steel tubing with nicks in
excess of 15 percent of its wall thickness should be rejected.
Tubing which is nicked in a bend should be replaced if it is carrying
over 100 psi pressure. For tubing carrying pressure of 100 psi or
less, a nick no deeper than 20 percent of wall thickness of aluminum,
aluminum alloy, copper, or steel may be reworked by burnishing with
hand tools.

Splicing. When tube damages exceed the tolerances for repair
described in the preceding paragraphs and when it is not possible to
replace the entire section of tubing, a splice can be installed.
There are two different methods of splicing damaged tubing: one for
repairing low-pressure tubing, the other for repairing high-pressure
tubing. The steps involved in


47 AL0907

each of these methods are shown along with graphic illustrations of
the process in Figure 2-12 for low-pressure tubing, and in Figure
2-13 for high-pressure tubing. Whenever this type of tube repair is
used, particular attention must be paid to ensure compliance with
tube tolerances and torque limitations of the clamp connections.


Figure 2-12. Low-Pressure Tube Splice.












48 AL0907


Figure 2-13. High-Pressure Tube Splice.

SUMMARY

Three types of metal tubing are used in aircraft plumbing systems:
aluminum alloy, stainless steel, and copper. Aluminum alloy tubing
is the most widely used because of its workability, resistance to
corrosion, and light weight. Stainless steel tubing is used in high-
pressure systems and in places where the tubing is exposed to
possible flying-object damage or ground-handling mishaps. Copper
tubing is normally used only in high-pressure oxygen systems.

In routing replacement lines, the path of the original line is
usually followed. However, when a different route must be used, care
must be taken in planning the layout to ensure the bends in the
tubing do not exceed the minimum bend radius specified for the
particular type of tubing. Care must also be taken not to route the
tubing without bends as this allows for no flexibility in response to
vibrations or pressure fluctuations.


49 AL0907

The Army has two acceptable methods of tube cutting. The most
accurate and commonly used method is with the standard tube cutting
tool. When properly used, this tool leaves a smooth end on the tube
square with its axis. The second method of tube cutting is by using
a fine tooth hacksaw. This method does not provide the square cut
produced with the standard cutting tool and necessitates filing the
tube end after cutting a square off the ends.

A variety of tools and methods are available for tube bending, each
having capabilities and advantages applicable to a particular type or
size of tubing. Regardless of the method used, the object is to
obtain a smooth, even bend without flattening or buckling.

The two most common types of connection used with aircraft tubing are
the MS flareless and the flared connection. The MS flareless
connection has distinct advantages over the flared connection: it is
easier to construct, has three load points to prevent leaks (as
opposed to one for flared connections), and can be used many times
without danger of cracking. Flared connections are formed by means
of a flaring tool. When properly formed, they are capable of
withstanding high pressures and are used extensively in hydraulic
systems. One of two kinds of flares can be used depending on the
type of tubing being used. Single flares are used for all sizes of
5052 aluminum alloy tubing with outside diameters greater than 1/2
inch. Double flares are used on all sizes of tubing with an outside
diameter of 1/2 inch or less. The third type of connection used in
aircraft plumbing systems is the beaded connection. This type of
connection is not capable of withstanding high pressures and is used
only in low-pressure systems.

Fittings are used in aircraft plumbing systems to connect the various
lines with each other and with the components they operate. Prior to
installation all fittings must be inspected to ensure their surfaces
are smooth and then coated with the appropriate lubricant.

Fitting nuts must always be tightened with torque-indicating wrenches
to ensure the proper seal. Overtorquing of these nuts can severely
damage the tubing assembly. Likewise, under-torquing can allow the
line to blow out of the fitting or to leak under pressure.

When a damaged tube is discovered, the ideal solution is to replace
the complete section of tubing. When this is not possible, minor
dents, nicks, and scratches can usually be





50 AL0907

repaired, providing the damages are within specified limits. If tube
damages are extensive or exceed repair limitations, a tube splice can
be installed as a temporary repair measure.

PART B - HOSE

Hose, flexible line, is used in aircraft plumbing whenever the
connected components must be free to move, or wherever extreme
vibrations are a problem. This part deals with the different types
of hose used on Army aircraft, the materials from which they are
manufactured, and the methods of fabricating hose assemblies. Also
explained are the proper methods of hose installation and the
requirements for storing the different types of hose. Hose
assemblies are used to conduct air, fuel, engine oil, hydraulic
fluid, water, and antifreeze. Hose pressure capabilities range from
vacuums found in some instrument lines to several thousand psi found
in some hydraulic systems. Hose assemblies, however, are never used
in aircraft oxygen systems.

TYPES OF HOSE

Aircraft hose is composed of two or more layers of differing
materials. The inner layer, or liner, is a leak-tight nonmetallic
tube made from either synthetic rubber or teflon. The liner is
reinforced against swelling or bursting by one or more outer layers
of braid that encircle it. The kind and number of layers of braid
depend on the intended operating pressure range of the hose assembly.
The two materials used as inner liner for flexible hoses are
synthetic rubber and teflon. The two materials and their uses are
discussed in the paragraphs that follow.

Rubber Hose. The inner liner of rubber hose used in aircraft
plumbing systems is made of synthetic rubber. Various compounds of
rubber are used for these inner liners. Each compound provides the
hose with some special capability, such as usability with certain
fluids or operability within certain ranges of temperature. The
outer covering of rubber hose is made of either fabric or rubber.

Rubber hose is used in aircraft plumbing systems only in the form
of assemblies. An assembly is formed by attaching metal end
connections to each end of a section of bulk hose.

Teflon Hose. Teflon is the registered name for
tetrafluoroethylene, which is a synthetic resin. Teflon hose has a
flexible leak-proof inner tube, reinforced on the outside with one or
more layers of stainless steel braid. The teflon


51 AL0907

linear is chemical inert to all fuel, oil, alcohol, water, acid, and
gas. The linear can withstand fluid temperatures ranging from -100 F
to + 500 F (-73 C to +260 C). Like rubber hose, teflon hose is used
in aircraft plumbing systems only as assemblies.

PRESSURE CAPABILITIES

The type of material and the number of layers used as reinforcement
braid determine the pressure range of the hose. The two pressure-
range classifications of aircraft hose are medium pressure and high
pressure.

Medium Pressure. The medium-pressure range includes operating
pressures of 1,500 psi and below.

High Pressure. High-pressure hose is designated for operating
pressure systems up to but not exceeding 3,000 psi.

HOSE MARKINGS

Aircraft hose and hose assemblies can be readily identified by
markings found either stenciled along the length of the hose or
imprinted on an affixed metal band. These markings include the date
of manufacture or fabrication, size, military specification number,
and date of pressure test, as illustrated in Figure 2-14.


Figure 2-14. Hose Markings.

Marking on Rubber Hose. Bulk rubber hose has ink or paint
markings on its outer cover for identification. The information
provided by these markings include the identity of the manufacturer,
date made, size, and military specification number. The military
specification (MS) number provides additional information when
referenced with a specification table in chapter 7 of TM 1-1500-204-
23-2. This information includes the hose-pressure capability,
temperature limitations,

52 AL0907

and the fluids that can be used. On some hose, a lay strip provides
an easy method to determine if an installed hose is twisted.

To identify field-fabricated rubber hose assemblies, a metal band is
placed around the hose to identify the federal or national stock
number of the assembly and to give the operating pressure and
pressure test date.

Marking on Teflon Hose. Bulk teflon hose is identified by brass
bands spaced at 3-foot intervals marked with the specification number
and manufacturers code number.

Factory-fabricated teflon hose assemblies are identified by
permanently attached metal bands marked with the military
specification, operating pressure in PSI, assembly part number, date
of proof test, and the hose manufacturers code number.

Locally manufactured teflon hose assemblies are identified by an
aluminum band. The markings on the band can be impression-stamped,
etched, or engraved to include the federal or national stock number
of the hose assembly, part number, manufacturers part number or depot
code, operating pressure, and date of pressure test.

HOSE SIZE

The size of a hose is expressed as a dash number. This refers to the
inside diameter (ID) of the hose and is expressed in sixteenths of an
inch; for example, -2 is 2/16, -3 is 3/16, -4 is 4/16.

Whenever hose is used in conjunction with tubing, both the hose and
the tube must be equal in size. For example, if the tube size is 1/4
inch OD, a -4 (4/16) hose must be used with it.

CAUSES FOR HOSE REPLACEMENT

Replacement of rubber hose assemblies must be accomplished at
inspection intervals prescribed in the applicable aircraft
maintenance manual. Teflon hose does not deteriorate as a result of
age; therefore, periodic replacement is not required. However, both
rubber and teflon hose assemblies are subject to damage during
operation that can be cause for replacement of the line.

In any case, the replacement of the hose assembly must duplicate the
original hose in length, OD, ID, and contour, unless the line must be
rerouted for reasons specified in the paragraph which discusses
routing of lines near the beginning of this lessons.


53 AL0907

Rubber Hose. Evidence of deterioration of rubber hose assemblies
is urgent cause for hose replacement. Examples of such deterioration
are separation of rubber covers or braid from the liner, cracks,
hardening, and lack of flexibility.

Other types of damage that are cause for replacement of rubber
hose are--

• Cold flow -- a deep permanent impression or crack produced by
pressure of the hose clamp.
• Weather check -- weather damage that is deep or wide enough to
expose the fabric.
• Broken wires -- two or more broken wires per plait, six or more
broken wires per linear foot, or any broken wire in a position
where kinking is suspected. (For pressures of 500 psi and
over)

Teflon Hose. Installed teflon hose assemblies must be inspected
for evidence of deterioration due to wire fatigue or chafing at the
periods prescribed in the applicable aircraft inspection or
maintenance manuals. Replacement of these lines must be made when
any of the following conditions are found:

• Leaking -- static leaks exceeding one drop per hour.
• Excessive wire damage -- two or more broken wires in a single
plait, more than six wires pre linear foot, or any broken wire
in a position where kinking is suspected.
• Distortion -- any evidence of abrasion, kinking, bulging, or
sharp bending.

FABRICATION OF HOSE ASSEMBLIES

Hose assemblies, for the most part, are available through supply
channels as factory prefabricated parts. For field expediency or
when the required assemblies are not available they can be field
fabricated in accordance with the following specifications and
procedures.

Fabricating Medium-Pressure Rubber Hose Assemblies. Medium-
pressure rubber hose assemblies are fabricated from bulk hose
conforming to military specification MIL-H-8794 and fittings
conforming to military standard MS 28740. Prior to the assembly
process and before cutting, visually check the bulk hose for any
mutilations, marks, seams, and excessive graphite. Check the
fittings for mutilations to the threaded areas, nicks,


54 AL0907

distortions, scratches, or any other damage to the cone seat sealing
surface, or to the finish that can affect the corrosion resistance of
the fitting.



After the hose and fittings have been inspected, determine the
correct length of hose required as shown in Figure 2-15. Cut the
hose squarely, using a fine tooth hacksaw; then, using compressed
air, clean the hose to remove all cutting residue.


Figure 2-15. Determination of Correct Hose Length.

Assembly of the hose and fittings is illustrated in Figure 2-16,
and outlined in the following steps:

• Place the socket in a vise and screw the hose into the socket
counterclockwise until it bottoms out; then back off the hose
1/4 of a turn. CAUTION: DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN THE VISE ON THIN-
WALLED SOCKETS OF LIGHTWEIGHT FITTINGS.

• Tighten the nipple and the nut on the appropriate assembly tool
from Aeroquip Kit, Part No. S-1051.

• Lubricate the nipple threads and the inside of the hose
liberally, using a lightweight motor oil or hydraulic fluid,
MIL-H-5605 or MIL-H-83282.

55 AL0907

• Screw the nipple into the socket and hose using a wrench on the
nipple hex nut. The nut must swivel freely when the assembly
tool is removed.

After the fabrication process is completed, inspect the hose
assembly externally for cuts or bulges of the inner liner. The final
step of any hose fabrication process is to proof-test the hose
assembly to insure its pressure capabilities. This step is discussed
in the paragraph on testing hose assemblies.

Fabricating High-Pressure Rubber Hose Assemblies. High-pressure
rubber hose assemblies MS 28759 an MS 28762, are fabricated from
high-pressure bulk hose conforming to military specifications MIL-H-
8788 or MIL-H-8790, and fittings conforming to military standard MS
28760 or MS 28761.

The fabrication techniques and tools for assembling high-pressure
hose are the same as those outlined for medium-pressure hose
fabrication.

CAUTION: DO NOT REUSE HIGH-PRESSURE HOSE OR HIGH-
PRESSURE HOSE FITTINGS. ALSO, NEVER
REINSTALL A FITTING ON THE SAME AREA OF HOSE
WHERE IT WAS FIRST INSTALLED. IF AN ERROR
IS MADE DURING ASSEMBLY, CUT AWAY THE OLD
AREA OR USE A NEW LENGTH OF HOSE AND
REINSTALL THE FITTING.

Fabricating Medium-Pressure Teflon Hose Assemblies. Medium-
pressure teflon hose assemblies are manufactured to the requirements
of military specification MIL-H-25579 from bulk hose conforming to
military specification MIL-H-27267 and end-fittings conforming to
military specification MIL-F-27272.

All field-fabricated teflon hose assemblies must be identified by
aluminum-alloy tags, NSN 9535-00-232-7600.

The composition and dimensions of these tags are found on chapter
4 of TM 1-1520-204-23-2. The tags are marked to show the federal or
national stock number or part number, depot or unit code, operating
pressure, and date of pressure test.

The steps to be followed when fabricating these hose assemblies
are described in TM 1-1500-204-23-2.

Fabricating High-Pressure Teflon Hose Assemblies. High-pressure
teflon hose assemblies are manufactured from bulk hose conforming to
MIL-H-83298 and end fittings conforming to MIL-H-83296.

56 AL0907

Figure 2-16. Assembly of Hose and End Fitting.

57 AL0907

TESTING HOSE ASSEMBLIES

Prior to installation, all field fabricated hose assemblies must be
pressure-tested. This applies regardless of whether they were just
fabricated or were previously fabricated, tested, and placed in
storage. All factory or depot fabricated assemblies must be
pressure-tested prior to installation.

Hose assemblies to be used in hydraulic, pneumatic, fuel, oil, or
coolant systems are tested on a hydrostatic test unit filled with
hydraulic fluid conforming to military specification MIL-H-5606, MIL-
H-83282, or MIL-H-6083; lubricating oil conforming to military
specification MIL-H-6082; or water. Hose assemblies to be used in
instrument systems are tested using dry, oil-free air, or nitrogen,
federal specification 1313-N-411, grade A, type 1.

The steps involved in the testing process are explained in detail in
TM 1-1500-204-23-2.

INSTALLING HOSE ASSEMBLIES

During operation, the hose assemblies changes in length from +2
percent to -4 percent because of pressurization. To compensate for
this, slack equal to at least five percent of the hose length must be
allowed for expansion and shrinkage. The five percent allowance must
be provided during cutting and fabricating. In addition to hose
length, care must be taken not to twist the hose or to exceed the
allowed bend radius. Supports and grommets must be used, fittings
lubricated, and protection against temperature provided. Each of
these is discussed in the paragraphs that follow and illustrated in
Figure 2-17.

Twisting. Most hose is marked with a lengthwise solid line (lay
strip) for ease in detecting any twists of the line during
installation. A twisted hose tends to untwist when pressurized
causing the end fitting to become loosened or sheared. To avoid
twisting hose assemblies when connecting the second end, use two
wrenches: one to hold the stationary fitting and one to turn the
swivel nut.

Bend Radius. Hose, like rigid tubing, has a limit to its bend
allowance. Bends exceeding the permissible limit lead to early
failure of the hose assembly. The radius of the sharpest bend
permissible for a hose is referred to as the minimum bend radius for
that hose. This bend radius is measured in the same manner as the
minimum bend radius of rigid tubing as described in the paragraph of
this lesson entitled "routing of lines".

58 AL0907

Supports and Grommets. Teflon hose requires a different kind of
support than that used for rubber hose. However, the following
principles in using supports apply to both rubber and teflon hose.
Hose must be supported along its length at intervals of 24 inches or
less, depending on the size of the hose. These supports, shown in
Figure 2-18, must be installed in such a manner that they do not
cause deflection of any rigid lines where they are connected.

When a hose is connected to an engine by a hose clamp, a support
must be placed approximately three inches from the connection, and at
least 1-1/2 inches of hose slack provided between the connection and
the engine, to keep vibration and torsion from damaging the
connections.

When a hose passes through a bulkhead, a grommet must be installed
in the bulkhead hole to provide support for the hose and to prevent
it from chafing. As an alternative, a cushioned clamp can be used at
the hole if the hole is large enough to provide adequate clearance
around the hose.

A hose assembly connecting two rigidly mounted fittings must be
supported firmly but not rigidly.

Lubrication. The swiveling parts and mating surfaces-of hose
assemblies must be lubricated before installation. This ensures
effective seating and tightening of the component parts. Oil or
water can be used on all, types of fuel, oil, and coolant hose when
installation is made except for self-sealing hose which must never be
lubricated during installation. However, only oil or the operational
fluid of the system must be used on hydraulic and pneumatic hose.


















59 AL0907


Figure 2-17. Connecting Hose Assemblies.

60 AL0907


Figure 2-18. Hose Support.

Temperature Protection. Hose must be protected from high
temperatures such as exhaust blast and hot engine parts. In these
areas the hose must either be shielded or relocated. A shield for
temperature protection is shown in Figure 2-19.



61 AL0907


Figure 2-19. Temperature Protection.

STORAGE

Proper storage and handling of aircraft hose and hose assemblies are
the responsibility of all activities engaged in aircraft maintenance.
Aircraft hose and associated rubber components must be stored in a
dark, cool, dry place protected from exposure to strong air currents
and dirt. Stored rubber hose and seals must also be protected from
electric motors or other equipment emitting heat or ozone. Hose and
hose components must be stored in the original packing and issued so
that the oldest items are issued first.

Neither teflon nor rubber hose has limited shelf life. However,
prior to installation all hose assemblies must be inspected to ensure
serviceability and tested according to the procedures listed in the
paragraph on testing hose assemblies.

Bulk Hose. Prior to being placed in storage, the ends of the hose
must be capped to prevent flareout and dirt contamination. Storage
in a straight position is the preferred manner; however, if coiling
is necessary, large loose coils must be made.




62 AL0907

Hose Assemblies. The ends of all hose assemblies must be capped
during storage with polyethylene protective plugs conforming to
National Aerospace Standard (NAS) 815 or equivalent to prevent
contamination.

SUMMARY

Hose is used in aircraft plumbing whenever the connected components
must be free to move or whenever extreme vibrations are a problem.
Aircraft hose is composed of two or more layers of differing
materials. The inner layer, or liner, is a leak-tight nonmetallic
tube made from either synthetic rubber or teflon. The liner is
reinforced against swelling or bursting by one or more outer layers
of braid. The kind and number of braid layers depend on the intended
operating pressure range of the hose assembly.

The pressure capabilities of hose assemblies are divided into two
general categories: medium pressure and high pressure. The medium-
pressure range includes operating pressures of 1,500 psi and below.
High-pressure hose is designated for operating pressure systems up to
but not exceeding 3,000 psi.

Aircraft hose and hose assemblies can be readily identified by
markings found either stenciled along the length of the hose or
imprinted on an affixed, metal band. These markings include the date
of manufacture or fabrication, size, military specification number,
and date of pressure test.

Hose size is expressed in sixteenths of an inch by a dash number
referring to the inside diameter (ID) of the hose.

Replacement of rubber hose assemblies must be accomplished at
inspection intervals prescribed in the applicable aircraft
maintenance manual. Teflon hose does not deteriorate as a result of
age; therefore, periodic replacement is not required. Both rubber
and teflon hose assemblies are subject to damage during operation
that can be cause for replacement. Examples of these damages are:
cold flow, weather checking, leaks, or broken wires exceeding
limitations.

For the most part, hose assemblies are available through supply
channels as factory prefabricated parts. For expediency, however,
they can be field fabricated in accordance with the outlined
specifications. High-pressure teflon hose is available in
prefabricated assemblies only. Field fabrication is not authorized.



63 AL0907

Prior to installation, all field-fabricated hose assemblies must be
pressure tested; factory or depot lubricated assemblies must be
pressure tested regardless of whether they were tested at the time of
manufacture.

During installation, care must be taken to ensure the line is not
twisted or bent to exceed limitations. Hose must be supported along
its length at intervals of 24 inches or less, depending on the size
of the hose.

The swiveling parts and mating surfaces of hose assemblies must be
lubricated before installation to ensure effective seating of the
component parts. Self-sealing hose must never be lubricated.

Aircraft hose and rubber components must be stored in a dark, cool,
dry place protected from exposure to strong air currents and dirt.
Neither Teflon nor rubber hose is limited in its shelf life; however,
prior to installation all hose assemblies and seals must be inspected
to ensure serviceability.

PART C - SEALS AND GASKETS

Seals and gaskets are used throughout aircraft plumbing systems to
prevent leaks when two components are joined together. The material
from which the seals are manufactured varies depending upon the fluid
or gas being conducted and the operating pressure range of the
system. Using the proper type of seal and exercising care during
installation are two of the most important phases of plumbing
maintenance. Lack of care during this phase of maintenance is one of
the most frequent causes of system failure or leaks. In this part,
the types of seals and gaskets used in aircraft plumbing systems are
discussed; and their capabilities, advantages, limitations, and
installation procedures are presented.



SEALS

The seals or packings used in hydraulic systems are manufactured from
rubber, leather, teflon, metal, or a combination of any of these.
Two types of rubber, natural and synthetic, are used for making
hydraulic seals; however, only synthetic rubber seals can


64 AL0907

be used with mineral-base hydraulic fluid. Examples of some of the
different kinds of seals used in plumbing systems are shown in Figure
2-20 and discussed in the following paragraphs.


Figure 2-20. Seals Used in Plumbing Systems.

O-Rings. In Army aircraft, the O-ring is the most commonly used
type of hydraulic seal. It is designed to control leaks against
pressures coming from any direction and can be used where there is
either rotative- or linear-relative movement between parts. An O-
ring can also be used between nonmoving parts to eliminate leaks such
as in the joint between two parts of a housing. When used in this
manner the O-ring is called an O-ring gasket.

Backup Rings. When the pressure to be retained by an O-ring
exceeds 1,500 psi, a backup ring is used in the groove along with the
O-ring. Backup rings prevent O-ring material from extruding into the
clearance gap between the sealed surfaces.


65 AL0907

Extrusions tend to cause the moving parts to bind, the O-ring seal to
fail, and particles of the O-ring seal to contaminate the fluid.
Backup rings can also be used with lower pressure systems to extend
O-ring life.

When installed, a backup ring is placed on the side of the O-ring
not subjected to pressure. In cases where the O-ring is subject to
pressure from both sides, two backup rings are used, one on each side
of the O-ring.

V-Rings. The use of V-rings is rather limited in hydraulic
systems; however, they are used in some shock struts. A V-ring can
seal in only one direction and can be used to seal surfaces
regardless of whether there is movement between the parts.

U-Rings. Similar to V-rings in design and function, U-rings are
used to seal pistons and shafts on some master brake cylinders.

Cup Seals. Another type of seal used frequently on master brake
cylinders is cup seals. They are effective in controlling leaks in
only one direction, and when installed the lip of the cup must be
facing the fluid to be contained.

Oil Seals. Composite seals made from both rubber and metal are
called oil seals, and they are used to seal hydraulic pump and motor
drive shafts. Their outer body, or case, is made from pressed steel
and is force-fitted into the component housing. Inside the metal
case is a lipped rubber seal and a spring. The rubber seal is
securely anchored against movement to the metal case, and the spring
encircles the lip, holding it firmly to the surface it seals and is
commonly referred to as a Garloc Seal. During installation, the
housing must be free from foreign matter or burrs, and the seals must
be seated squarely with proper special tools.

Wiper Seals. Scrapers or wiper seals are made of metal, leather,
or felt and used to clean and lubricate the exposed portion of piston
shafts. When installed and operating properly, wiper seals prevent
dirt from entering the system and aid in preventing piston shafts
from binding.

INSTALLING SEALS

Prior to use, all seals must be examined to ensure they are made from
the correct material, in the proper shape and size, and free from
nicks, cracks, rough spots, or other defects. Immediately prior to
assembly, clean and lubricate the seals and contact surfaces with the
operational fluid of the system.

66 AL0907

When installing seals, care must be taken so they are not stretched
or distorted. Any twists or strains to the seal can lead to its
early failure and must be prevented by gently working the seal into
place.

GASKETS

A gasket is a piece of material placed between two parts where there
is no movement. The gasket is used as a filler to compensate for
irregularities on the surfaces of the two mating parts permitting
possible leaks. Many different materials are used for making
gaskets. For use in hydraulic systems the gaskets may be made from
treated paper, synthetic rubber, copper, or aluminum.

O-Ring Gaskets. The most common type of gasket used in aircraft
hydraulic systems is the O-ring. When used as a gasket the O-ring
has the same advantage as when used as a seal, as explained in a
previous paragraph.

Crush Washers. The second most commonly used gasket is the crush
washer, used in hydraulic systems and made from aluminum or copper.
Fittings using these washers have concentric grooves and ridges that
bear against or crush the washer. These grooves and ridges seal the
washer and fitting as the connecting parts are tightened together.

FABRICATING GASKETS

Some types of gaskets can be field-fabricated as long as the bulk
material conforms to the required military specifications. When you
cut replacement gaskets from bulk material, the most important
consideration is the exact duplication of the thickness of the
original gasket.

INSTALLING GASKETS

Like seals, gaskets must be examined before installation to ensure
their serviceability. The component surfaces to be connected must be
thoroughly cleaned. During assembly, care must be taken not to crimp
or twist the gaskets. When tightening the components, the gaskets
must not be compressed into the threads where they can be cut,
damaged, or block mating surfaces from being flush.

STORING SEALS AND GASKETS

Seals and gaskets must be stored in accordance with the same
specifications outlined for hose and hose assemblies in a previous
paragraph. By way of review, those specifications

67 AL0907

require that seals and gaskets be stored in a cool, dark, dry place;
they must be protected from dirt, heat, strong air currents,
dampness, petroleum products, and electric motors or equipment giving
off ozone.

SUMMARY

Seals and gaskets are used in aircraft plumbing systems to prevent
leaks when two components are joined together. The fluid being
conducted and the operating pressure of the system determine the type
of seal or gasket to be used and the material to be used in its
manufacture. Once a seal or gasket has been removed from service it
must never be reused, even if removal was only incidental to the
disassembly of a component.

In hydraulic systems, seals manufactured from rubber, leather, felt,
cork, paper, teflon, or metal are used. The O-ring is the most
widely used type of hydraulic seal. It is effective in controlling
pressures coming from any direction or for use where there is either
linear or rotative motion. Backup rings are used with O-rings as a
means of preventing O-ring extrusions, prolonging O-ring life, or
when system pressure exceeds 1,500 psi. Other types of seals used in
hydraulic systems are: V-rings, U-rings, cup seals, oil seals, and
wiper seals. These are special seals, used to contain fluid or
prevent leaks in the various components of the aircraft plumbing
systems.

All seals must be inspected for serviceability prior to installation,
and care must be taken not to damage them during assembly.

A seal placed between two components where there is no relative
movement is termed a gasket. Its function is to compensate for any
irregularities on the surfaces of two mating parts and thus to
prevent leaks.

Crush washers and O-ring gaskets are the most common types of gaskets
used in aircraft hydraulic systems. If a gasket is to be field
fabricated, ensure that the exact thickness of the original gasket is
duplicated.

Gaskets, like seals, must be examined prior to installation to ensure
their serviceability. During assembly, do not exceed the recommended
torque value of the components. Overtightening is likely to crimp
the gasket or compress it into the threads of the component, and
hence, break the seal.

When stored, seals and gaskets must be protected from excessive heat,
dampness, air currents, dirt, petroleum products, and equipment
emitting ozone.

68 AL0907

LESSON 2

PRACTICE EXERCISE

The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in
this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When
you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer
key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again
that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved.

1. How many types of identification code systems are used to
identify tube assemblies?

___ A. One.
___ B. Two.
___ C. Three.
___ D. Four.

2. What pressure application is the beaded connection used for?

___ A. Low pressure.
___ B. Medium pressure.
___ C. High pressure.
___ D. Extreme high pressure.

3. How many prescribed methods of cleaning tubing are there?

___ A. One.
___ B. Two.
___ C. Three.
___ D. Four.

4. Compared to the diameter of a tube, which of the following
percentages represents unacceptable dent depth?

___ A. 5.
___ B. 10.
___ C. 15.
___ D. 25.

5. Which is an unacceptable percentage of depth for a nick on a
tube assembly carrying less than 100 psi?

___ A. 5.
___ B. 10.
___ C. 15.
___ D. 25.

69 AL0907

6. What type of material is used in high pressure oxygen systems?

A. Aluminum tubing.
B. Copper tubing.
C. Stainless steel tubing.
D. High-pressure teflon hose.

7. When installing a tube assembly on an aircraft, you should
tighten the fitting nut when the system is at--

A. 0 psi.
B. 500 psi.
C. 750 psi.
D. 1,000 psi

8. How many types of seals or packing are used in hydraulic
systems?

A. Two.
B. Three.
C. Four.
D. Seven

9. When can seals be reused after they have been removed from
service?

A. After inspection when no defects are found.
B. When you are told to by higher authority.
C. In emergencies.
D. Never.

10. When cutting gaskets from bulk material, how much leeway are you
allowed to use between the thickness of the bulk material and
the original gasket?

A. None.
B. ±2 percent.
C. ±3 percent.
D. ±5 percent.









70 AL0907

LESSON 2
PRACTICE EXERCISE
ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

Item Correct Answer and Feedback

1. B. Two. The two types of identification code systems are
the solid color band system and the tape system. (Page 27)
2. A. Low pressure. The beaded connection is not
constructed to be reliable in high-pressure systems. It
should be used only in a system that is designated low
pressure. (Page 41)
3. C. Three. There are three methods of cleaning tubing
according to TM 1-1500-204-23-Series: vapor degreasing
method, naptha method, and hot inhibited alkaline cleaner
method. Always check the technical manual for proper usage.
(Page 41)
4. D. 25. Any dent that exceeds 20 percent of the tube
diameter will cause a construction in the tube resulting in a
reduction in the fluid traveling through the line. (Page 47)
5. D. 25. The criteria for tubing carrying less than 100
psi is not as critical. These tubes are usually only return
or drain lines. (Page 25)
6. B. Copper tubing. Copper tubing is used in oxygen
systems because it is a nonferrous metal and will not cause
any sparks when a wrench is applied to any fittings. (Page
30)
7. A. 0 psi. You should never tighten a fitting under
pressure because the pressure causes resistance which results
in an undertorqued condition. (pg 45)
8. D. Seven. The types of seals or packing are o-rings,
backup rings, V-rings, U-rings, cup seals, oil seals, and
wiper seals. Each serves a special purpose. (pg 65-66)
9. D. Never. Seals or gaskets must never be reused after
being removed due to the possibility of their being damaged
during removal. Once damaged, they cannot serve the original
purpose. (pg 64)
10. A. None. When you cut replacement gaskets from bulk
material, the most important consideration is the exact
duplication of the thickness of the original gasket due to
the close-tolerance machining of the parts. (pg 67)


71 AL0907

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Training Solutions
 
 
 
 
 
 
Training Solutions
 
Hydraulics

Training Manual 2

HYDRAULICS
 
 
 


FM 5-499

FM 5-499
Manual Headquarters
No. 5-499


Hydraulics
Table of Contents

Page
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES . . . . . .vii
Figures . . . . . .vii
Tables . . . . . xiii
PREFACE . . . . . xiv
CHAPTER 1. Hydraulic Basics . . . . . 1-1
1-1. Pressure and Force. . . . . 1-1
Pressure . . . . . 1-1
Force . . . . . 1-3
1-2. Pascal’s Law . . . . . 1-4
1-3. Flow . . . . . 1-6
Velocity . . . . . 1-6
Flow Rate . . . . . 1-6
1-4. Energy, Work, and Power . . . . . 1-6
Potential Energy . . . . . 1-6
Kinetic Energy . . . . . 1-6
Heat Energy and Friction . . . . . 1-6
Relationship Between Velocity and Pressure . . . 1-7
Work . . . . . 1-8
Power . . . . . 1-8
CHAPTER 2. Hydraulic Systems. . . . . 2-1
2-1. Basic Systems . . . . . 2-1
Hydraulic Jack . . . . . 2-1
Motor-Reversing System . . . . 2-1
Open-Center System . . . . . 2-2
Closed-Center System . . . . . 2-5


© OS-Software



i

FM 5-499
ii
Page
2-2. Color Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2-3. Reser voir s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Const r uct ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Locat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Vent ilat ion and Pr essur izat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Line Connect ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Maint enance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
2-4. St r ainer s and Filt er s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
St r ainer s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Filt er s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
2-5. Filt er ing Mat er ial and Element s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
2-6. Accumulat or s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Spr ing-Loaded Accumulat or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Bag-Type Accumulat or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Pist on-Type Accumulat or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Maint enance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
2-7. Pr essur e Gauges and Volume Met er s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Pr essur e Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Met er s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
2-8. Por t able Hydr aulic-Cir cuit Test er s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Test er s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Impr oper Oper at ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
2-9. Cir culat or y Syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Flexible Hosing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Inst allat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
2-10. Fit t ings and Connect or s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Thr eaded Connect or s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Flar ed Connect or s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Flexible-Hose Couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Reusable Fit t ings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
2-11. Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Int er nal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Ext er nal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Pr event ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
2-12. Seals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
St at ic Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Dynamic Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Packing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Seal Mat er ials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
FM 5-499
iii
Page
CHAPTER 3. Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3-1. Pump Classificat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Nonposit ive-Displacement Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Posit ive-Displacement Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Char act er ist ics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3-2. Per for mance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3-3. Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Fixed-Displacement Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Var iable-Displacement Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3-4. Slippage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3-5. Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Cent r ifugal Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Rot ar y Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Recipr ocat ing Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3-6. Gear Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Ext er nal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Int er nal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Lobe Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3-7. Vane Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Char act er ist ics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Unbalanced Vane Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Balanced Vane Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Double Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Two-St age Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3-8. Pist on Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Radial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Axial Pist on Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
3-9. Pump Oper at ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Over loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Excess Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Cavit at ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Oper at ing Pr oblems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
CHAPTER 4. Hydrauli c Ac tuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4-1. Cylinder s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Single-Act ing Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Double-Act ing Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Differ ent ial Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Nondiffer ent ial Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Ram-Type Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Pist on-Type Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Cushioned Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Lockout Cylinder s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2 Const r uct ion and Applicat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
FM 5-499
iv
Page
4-3. Maint enance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Ext er nal Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Int er nal Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Cr eeping Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Sluggish Oper at ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Loose Mount ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Misalignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Lack of Lubr icat ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Abr asives on a Pist on Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Bur r s on a Pist on Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Air Vent s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
4-4. Hydr aulic Mot or s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Gear -Type Mot or s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Vane-Type Mot or s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Pist on-Type Mot or s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
CHAPTER 5. Valve s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5-1. Pr essur e-Cont r ol Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Pr essur e-Reducing Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Sequence Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Count er balance Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Pr essur e Swit ches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5-2. Dir ect ional-Cont r ol Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Poppet Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Sliding-Spool Valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Two-Way Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Four -Way Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
5-3. Flow-Cont r ol Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Gat e Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Globe Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Needle Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Rest r ict or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Or ifice Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Flow Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
5-4. Valve Inst allat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Met er -In Cir cuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Met er -Out Cir cuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Bleed-Off Cir cuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Compensat ed Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
5-5. Valve Failur es and Remedies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Ser vicing Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-27
Disassembling Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-27
Repair ing Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28
FM 5-499
v
Page
5-6. Valve Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
5-7. Tr oubleshoot ing Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Pr essur e-Cont r ol Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Dir ect ional-Cont r ol Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-32
Volume-Cont r ol Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33
CHAPTER 6. Ci rcui t Di agrams and Troubleshooti ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6-1. Hydr aulic-Cir cuit Diagr ams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6-2. Unit ed St at es of Amer ican St andar ds Inst it ut e (USASI) Gr aphical . . . . . . . 6-1
Symbols
Reser voir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Mot or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Pr essur e-Cont r ol Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Flow-Cont r ol Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Dir ect ional-Cont r ol Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Accessor ies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
6-3. Typical Mobile Cir cuit s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Hydr aulic-Lift Cir cuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Power -St eer ing Cir cuit s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Road-Pat r ol-Tr uck Cir cuit s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
6-4. Tr oubleshoot ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Causes of Impr oper Oper at ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Test ing a Hydr aulic Cir cuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Compar ing Test Result s wit h Specificat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Slippage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Flow and Pr essur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Ot her Condit ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Specific Tr oubles, Causes, and Solut ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
CHAPTER 7. El ect ri c al De vi c es: Troubleshoot i ng and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7-1. Hydr aulics and Elect r icit y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7-2. Tr oubleshoot ing Elect r ical Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Pr ocedur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Test ing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
7-3. Gr ound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Ear t h Gr ound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Chassis or Common Gr ound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Zer o Refer ence Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Isolat ion Bet ween Ear t h and Chassis Gr ound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
7-4. Safet y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Infor mat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Pr act ices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
FM 5-499
vi
Page
APPENDIX A. Metri c Conversi on Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix-1
GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossar y-1
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refer ences-1
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index-1
FM 5-499
vii
Li st of Fi gures and Tables
Figures
Page
Fi gure 1-1. Basic hydraulic device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Fi gure 1-2. Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Fi gure 1-3. Water column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Fi gure 1-4. Pump pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Fi gure 1-5. Interaction of hydraulic and atmospheric pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Fi gure 1-6. Force, pressure, and area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Fi gure 1-7. Pascal’s Law apparatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Fi gure 1-8. Laminar and turbulent flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Fi gure 1-9. Effect of friction on pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Fi gure 1-10. Bernouilli’s Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Fi gure 1-11. Combined effects of friction and velocity changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Fi gure 2-1. Hydraulic jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Fi gure 2-2. Motor-reversing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Fi gure 2-3. Open-center system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Fi gure 2-4. Open-center system wit h a series connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Fi gure 2-5. Open-center system wit h a series/ parallel connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Fi gure 2-6. Open-center system wit h a flow divider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Fi gure 2-7. Closed-center system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Fi gure 2-8. Fixed-displacement pump and accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Fi gure 2-9. Variable-displacement pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Fi gure 2-10. Closed-center system with charging pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Fi gure 2-11. Design feat ures of a reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Fi gure 2-12. Hydraulic-system stainers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Fi gure 2-13. Full-flow hydraulic filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
FM 5-499
viii
Page
Fi gure 2-14. Proportional-flow filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Fi gure 2-15. S pring-loaded accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Fi gure 2-16. Bag-type accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Fi gure 2-17. Piston-type accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Fi gure 2-18. Pressure gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Fi gure 2-19. Nut at ing-piston-disc flowmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Fi gure 2-20. Portable hydraulic-circuit tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Fi gure 2-21. Method of installing tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Fi gure 2-22. Flexible rubber hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
Fi gure 2-23. Installing flexible hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
Fi gure 2-24. Threaded-pipe connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Fi gure 2-25. Flared-t ube connector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Fi gure 2-26. Flared-t ube fit tings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Fi gure 2-27. Field-at t achable couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Fi gure 2-28. Hose-length measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Fi gure 2-29. Hose cut t ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Fi gure 2-30. Permanently attached couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Fi gure 2-31. S kived fit t ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Fi gure 2-32. Trimming a hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Fi gure 2-33. Female portion of a fit ting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Fi gure 2-34. Male and female portions of a fitt ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Fi gure 2-35. Tightening a fit ting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Fi gure 2-36. Nonskived fitt ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Fi gure 2-37. Fitt ings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Fi gure 2-38. Assembly of clamp-type coupling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Fi gure 2-39. S tatic seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Fi gure 2-40. O-ring placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Fi gure 2-41. O-ring removal tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
Fi gure 2-42. Backup ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32
Fi gure 2-43. T-ring seal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Fi gure 2-44. Lip seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
FM 5-499
ix
Page
Fi gure 2-45. Cup seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Fi gure 2-46. Piston ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
Fi gure 2-47. Face seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
Fi gure 2-48. Compression packing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
Fi gure 3-1. Nonpositive-displacement pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Fi gure 3-2. Reciprocat ing-type, positive-displacement pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Fi gure 3-3. Positive-displacement pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Fi gure 3-4. Volute pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Fi gure 3-5. Diffuser pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Fi gure 3-6. External gear pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Fi gure 3-7. Internal gear pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Fi gure 3-8. Lobe pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Fi gure 3-9. Unbalanced vane pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Fi gure 3-10. Balanced vane pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Fi gure 3-11. Vane-type double pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Fi gure 3-12. Fluid flow from vane-type double pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Fi gure 3-13. Vane-type, two-stage pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Fi gure 3-14. S implified radial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Fi gure 3-15. Nine-piston radial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Fi gure 3-16. Pint le for a radial piston pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Fi gure 3-17. Cylinder block for a radial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Fi gure 3-18. Pistons for a radial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Fi gure 3-19. In-line piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Fi gure 3-20. Bent-axial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Fi gure 4-1. S ingle-acting cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Fi gure 4-2. Double-acting cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Fi gure 4-3. Nondifferent ial cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Fi gure 4-4. Telescoping, ram-type, actuating cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Fi gure 4-5. S ingle-acting, spring-loaded, piston-type cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
FM 5-499
x
Page
Fi gure 4-6. Double-acting, piston-type cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Fi gure 4-7. Cushioned, actuat ing cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Fi gure 4-8. Applications of cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Fi gure 4-9. Basic operat ions of a hydraulic motor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Fi gure 4-10. Gear-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Fi gure 4-11. Vane-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Fi gure 4-12. Pressure different ial on a vane-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Fi gure 4-13. Flow condition in a vane-type pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Fi gure 4-14. Rocker arms pushing vanes in a pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Fi gure 4-15. In-line-axis, piston-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Fi gure 4-16. S wash plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Fi gure 4-17. Bent-axis, piston-type motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Fi gure 5-1. Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Fi gure 5-2. S imple relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Fi gure 5-3. Compound relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Fi gure 5-4. Pressure-reducing valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Fi gure 5-5. X-series, pressure-reducing valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Fi gure 5-6. Internal construction of an XC-series valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Fi gure 5-7. S equence valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Fi gure 5-8. Application of sequence valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Fi gure 5-9. Counterbalance valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Fi gure 5-10. Pressure switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Fi gure 5-11. S pool valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Fi gure 5-12. Operation of a simple poppet valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Fi gure 5-13. Operation of sliding-spool, directional-control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Fi gure 5-14. S wing-type check valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Fi gure 5-15. Vertical check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Fi gure 5-16. S pring-loaded check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Fi gure 5-17. S tandard check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Fi gure 5-18. Restriction check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
FM 5-499
xi
Page
Fi gure 5-19. Pilot-operated check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Fi gure 5-20. Pilot-operated check valve, second type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Fi gure 5-21. Two-way valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Fi gure 5-22. Flow condit ions in a circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
Fi gure 5-23. Working view of poppet-type, four-way valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Fi gure 5-24. S chematic of a four-way, directional-control, sliding-spool valve. . . 5-17
Fi gure 5-25. Closed-center spool valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Fi gure 5-26. Open-center spool valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Fi gure 5-27. S hifting spool by hand lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
Fi gure 5-28. S pool shifted by pilot pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Fi gure 5-29. S olenoid-operated, sliding-spool, directional-control valve. . . . . . . . 5-21
Fi gure 5-30. Cross section of a gate valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Fi gure 5-31. Operation of a globe valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Fi gure 5-32. S ectional view of a needle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
Fi gure 5-33. Fixed restrictor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Fi gure 5-34. Variable restrictor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Fi gure 5-35. Orifice check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Fi gure 5-36. Flow equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Fi gure 5-37. Typical meter-in circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
Fi gure 5-38. Typical meter-out circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Fi gure 5-39. S pring tester. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28
Fi gure 5-40. Valve inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Fi gure 5-41. Volume-control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Fi gure 5-42. Pressure-control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Fi gure 5-43. Cartridge-type relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Fi gure 5-44. Readings on a cartridge-type relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
Fi gure 6-1. Graphical-circuit diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Fi gure 6-2. US AS I graphical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Fi gure 6-3. Reservoir symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Fi gure 6-4. Hydraulic line symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
FM 5-499
xii
Page
Fi gure 6-5. Crossing lines A and B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Fi gure 6-6. Pump symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Fi gure 6-7. Motor symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Fi gure 6-8. Cylinder symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Fi gure 6-9. Pressure-control-valve symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Fi gure 6-10. Relief-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Fi gure 6-11. S equence-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Fi gure 6-12. Check-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Fi gure 6-13. Counterbalance-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Fi gure 6-14. Pressure-reducing-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Fi gure 6-15. Flow-control-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Fi gure 6-16. Unloading-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Fi gure 6-17. Four-way, directional-control-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Fi gure 6-18. Mobile directional-control-valve symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Fi gure 6-19. Fluid-condit ioner symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Fi gure 6-20. Accumulator symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Fi gure 6-21. Hydraulic-lift circuit in neutral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Fi gure 6-22. Manual-steering-gear layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Fi gure 6-23. Power-steering layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Fi gure 6-24. S emi-integral power-steering system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Fi gure 6-25. Hydraulic circuit diagram for a road-patrol truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Fi gure 6-26. Hydraulic tester connected to a pump’s output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Fi gure 7-1. Common electrical schematic symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Fi gure 7-2. Comparison of electrical and hydraulic components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Fi gure 7-3. Comparison of electrical and hydraulic circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Fi gure 7-4. S chematic diagrams illustrating zero reference point . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Fi gure 7-5. Battery installed between earth ground and chassis ground . . . . . . . 7-11
FM 5-499
xiii
Table s
Page
Table 2-1. Figure colors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Table 5-1. Classificat ions of directional-control valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Table 6-1. Problems and solutions with pump operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Table 6-2. Problems and solutions with actuat ing mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Table 6-3. Problems and solutions with heating oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20
Table 6-4. Problems and solutions with fluid motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Table 6-5. Problems and solutions with accumulator operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Table A-1. Metric conversion chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix-1
FM 5-499
xiv
Preface
This field manual (FM) ser ves as a guide for per sonnel who oper at e and maint ain milit ar y
equipment using hydr aulic-power ed cont r ol syst ems. It includes gener al infor mat ion cover -
ing basic hydr aulics and descr ibes t he pr oper t ies and char act er ist ics of fluids and sever al
t ypes of pumps, mot or s, valves, and cont r ols. This manual also deals wit h piping, t ubing,
and hoses used t o convey fluid under pr essur e. It descr ibes t he funct ions and t ypes of r eser -
voir s, st r ainer s, filt er s, and accumulat or s. It discusses t he pur poses and t ypes of seals and
packings used in fluid power syst ems.
The cont ent s of t his manual ar e applicable t o bot h nuclear and nonnuclear war far e.
The Appendix cont ains an English t o met r ic measur ement conver sion char t .
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Acknowledgment is gr at efully made t o t he or ganizat ions list ed below for per mit t ing t he use
of copyr ight ed mat er ial in pr epar ing t his manual.
Deer e & Company
Moline, Illinois
Hydraulics. "Repr oduced by per mission of Deer e & Company. c 1997. Deer e & Company. All
r ight s r eser ved."
Vicker s, Inc.
Rochest er Hills, Michigan
Industrial Hydraulics Manual, Thir d Edit ion 1993.
The pr oponent for t his publicat ion is Headquar t er s (HQ), Unit ed St at es Ar my Tr aining and
Doct r ine Command (TRADOC). Submit changes for impr oving t his publicat ion on Depar t -
ment of t he Ar my (DA) For m 2028 (Recommended Changes t o Publicat ions and Blank
For ms) and for war d it t o Commandant , USAES, ATTN: ATSE-TD-D-P, For t Leonar d Wood,
MO 65473-6650.
Unless ot her wise st at ed, masculine nouns and pr onouns do not r efer exclusively t o men.
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-1
CHAPTER 1
Hydrauli c Basi cs
Hydraulics is the science of transmitting force and/ or motion through t he medium of a
confined liquid. In a hydraulic device, power is transmitted by pushing on a confined liquid.
Figure 1-1 shows a simple hydraulic device. The transfer of energy tak es place because a
quantit y of liquid is subject to pressure. To operate liquid-powered systems, the operator
should have a knowledge of the basic nat ure of liquids. This chapter covers the properties of
liquids and how they act under different conditions.
1-1. Pre s s ure and Force . Pr essur e is for ce exer t ed against a specific a r ea (for ce per unit
ar ea ) expr essed in pounds per squa r e inch (psi). Pr essur e can ca use an expansion, or r esis-
t a nce t o compr ession, of a fluid t hat is being squeezed. A fluid is any liquid or gas (va por ).
For ce is anyt hing t hat t ends t o pr oduce or modify (push or pull) mot ion a nd is expr essed in
pounds.
a. Pressure. An exa mple of pr essur e is t he air (gas) t ha t fills an aut omobile t ir e. As a
t ir e is inflat ed, mor e a ir is squeezed int o it t han it ca n hold. The air inside a t ir e r esist s t he
squeezing by pushing out wa r d on t he casing of t he t ir e. The out wa r d push of t he air is pr es-
sur e. Equa l pr essur e t hr oughout a confined a r ea is a char a ct er ist ic of any pr essur ized fluid.
For example, in an infla t ed t ir e, t he out war d push of t he air is unifor m t hr oughout . If it
wer e not , a t ir e would be pushed int o odd shapes beca use of it s elast icit y.
Ther e is a
ma jor differ ence
bet ween a ga s and a
liquid. Liquids ar e
slight ly compr ess-
ible (Figur e 1-2,
page 1-2). When a
confined liquid is
pushed on, pr essur e
builds up. The
pr essur e is st ill
t r ansmit t ed
equally t hr oughout
t he cont ainer . The
fluid's behavior
ma kes it possible t o
t r ansmit a push
t hr ough pipes,
ar ound cor ner s, and
up and down. A
hydr aulic syst em
uses a liquid
Confined liquid is
subject to pressure
Weight
Fi gure 1-1. Basi c hydrauli c devi c e
FM 5-499
1-2 Hydraulic Basics
beca use it s near incompr essibilit y ma kes t he a ct ion inst a nt a neous a s long a s t he syst em is
full of liquid.
Pr essur e ca n be cr eat ed by squeezing or pushing on a confined fluid only if t her e is a
r esist ance t o flow. The t wo ways t o push on a fluid ar e by t he a ct ion of a mechanica l pump
or by t he weight of t he fluid. An example of pr essur e due t o a fluid's weight would be in a n
ocean's dept hs. The wat er 's weight cr ea t es t he pr essur e, which incr ea ses or decr ea ses,
depending on t he dept h.
By knowing t he weight of a cubic foot of wa t er , you can ca lculat e t he pr essur e at any
dept h. Figur e 1-3 shows a column of wa t er 1 foot squar e a nd 10 feet high, which equa t es t o
10 cubic feet . (One cubic foot of wa t er weighs 52.4 pounds.) The t ot al weight of wa t er in t his
column is 624 pounds. The weight a t t he bot t om cover s 1,445 squar e inches (1 squa r e foot ).
Each squa r e inch of t he bot t om is subject t o 1/144 of t he t ot al weight , or 4.33 pounds. Thus,
t he pr essur e at t his dept h is 4.33 psi. You ca n also cr eat e an equa l pr essur e of 4.33 psi in a
liquid using t he pump and figur es shown in Figur e 1-4, pa ge 1-4.
Befor e pr essur e, hea d wa s t he only wa y t o expr ess pr essur e measur ement . It was
expr essed as feet of wa t er . Today, hea d is st ill t he ver t ical dist ance bet ween t wo levels in a
fluid. In Figur e 1-3, t he head bet ween t he t op and bot t om of t he wa t er is 10 feet , which is
equiva lent t o 4.33 psi. Ther efor e, each foot of wa t er is equa l t o 0.433 psi.
The eart h has an at mosphere of air ext ending 50 miles up, and t his air has weight . This air
cr eat es a head of pr essur e t hat is called at mospheric pr essur e. A column of air 1 square inch in
cr oss sect ion a nd t he height of t he a t mospher e would weigh 14.7 pounds at sea level. Thus,
t he ear t h's at mospher ic pr essur e is 14.7 psi a t sea level. The r ole of a t mospher ic pr essur e in
A gas is compressible
A liquid resists compression
Fi gure 1-2. Compre s s ibi li t y
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-3
most hydr a ulic syst ems is significant . Fig-
ur e 1-5, pa ge 1-4, shows t he int er a ct ion of
hydr aulic a nd at mospher ic pr essur es under
t he t hr ee set s of condit ions list ed below:
(1) Dia gr am A. In t he diagr am, t he t ube
is open at bot h ends. When it is placed in a
liquid, t he liquid will r ise, inside and out -
side, in pr opor t ion t o t he amount of liquid
displa ced by t he submer ged t ube wall.
(2) Dia gr a m B. In t he diagr a m, ends of
t he t ube a r e closed. When pla ced in a liquid,
t he liquid level in t he t ube is for ced down
beca use t he air in t he t ube must occupy a
spa ce. Ther efor e, t he liquid is displa ced.
The liquid level out side t he t ube r ises in pr o-
por t ion t o t he volume of t he cylinder wall
and t he volume of t he t r apped air below t he
or igina l liquid level. The at mospher ic pr es-
sur e (14.7 psi) on t he liquid out side t he t ube
is not hea vy enough t o for ce t he liquid inside
t he t ube upwar d against t he pr essur e of t he
t r apped air , which is mor e t han 14.7 psi.
(3) Dia gr a m C. In t he diagr a m, t he
upper end of t he t ube is closed, but some of
t he air has been r emoved fr om t his t ube so
t ha t t he pr essur e wit hin t he t ube is less t han
14.7 psi (a par t ial vacuum). A per fect vac-
uum would exist if all pr essur e wit hin t he
t ube could be eliminat ed, a condit ion t hat
never happens. Beca use t he liquid out side
t he t ube is subject t o full a t mospher ic pr es-
sur e, t he liquid is for ced up int o t he t ube t o
sat isfy t he vacuum. How fa r t he liquid r ises
depends on t he differ ence in a ir pr essur e
bet ween t he t r apped air and t he at mospher e.
b. Force. The r elat ionship of for ce, pr es-
sur e, a nd ar ea is a s follows:
F = PA
wher e—
F = force, in pounds
P = pressure, in psi
A = area, in square inches
Fi gure 1-3. Wat er c olumn
1 cu ft
weighs
62.4 lb
Total
weight
624 lb
10 ft
4.33 psi
2.165 psi
0.433 psi
1 ft
1 ft
1 ft
144 sq in
FM 5-499
1-4 Hydraulic Basics
Example :
Figur e 1-6 shows a pr essur e of 50 psi being
applied t o an a r ea of 100 squar e inches. The
t ot a l for ce on t he a r ea is—
F = PA
F = 50 x 100 = 5,000 pounds
1-2. Pasc al's Law. Blaise Pascal for mula t ed
t he basic la w of hydr aulics in t he mid 17t h cen-
t ur y. He discover ed t hat pr essur e exer t ed on a
fluid act s equally in a ll dir ect ions. His law
st at es t hat pr essur e in a confined fluid is t r ans-
mit t ed undiminished in ever y dir ect ion and act s
wit h equal for ce on equal a r eas a nd at r ight
angles t o a cont ainer 's walls.
Figur e 1-7 shows t he a ppa r at us t hat Pa sca l
used t o develop his law. It consist ed of t wo con-
nect ed cylinder s of differ ent dia met er s wit h a
liquid t r a pped bet ween t hem. Pa sca l found t ha t
t he weight of a sma ll pist on will ba la nce t he
weight of a la r ger pist on as long as t he pist on’s
ar ea s ar e in pr opor t ion t o t he weight s. In t he
small cylinder , a for ce of 100 pounds on a 1-squar e-
inch pist on cr eat es a pr essur e of 100 psi. Accor d-
ing t o Pa sca l's Law, t his pr essur e is t r a nsmit t ed
undiminished in ever y dir ect ion. In t he lar ger
A B C
Atmospheric
pressure
Atmospheric
pressure
Fi gure 1-5. Inte rac ti on of hydrauli c and at mosphe ri c pre ss ure s
Fi gure 1-4. Pump pre s s ure
Weight
Pump
Area = 10 sq in
Area = 10 sq in
Force = 43.3 lb
Pressure = 4.33 psi
Pressure = 4.33 psi
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-5
cylinder , t he 100 psi of pr essur e fr om t he
small cylinder is t r a nsmit t ed t o an a r ea of 5
squar e inches, which r esult s in a for ce of 500
pounds on t he second pist on. The for ce has
been mult iplied 5 t imes—a mecha nica l adva n-
t age of 5 t o 1. Using t he same fact or s, you ca n
det er mine t he dist ance t he pist ons move. For
exa mple, if t he sma ll pist on moves down 10
inches, t he lar ger pist on will move up 2
inches. Use t he following t o det er mine t he
dist ance:
wher e—
F
1
= force of the small piston, in pounds
D
1
= distance the small piston moves, in
inches
D
2
= distance the larger piston moves, in
inches
F
2
= force of the larger pist on, in pounds
Example : Det er mine D
2

D
2
F
1
D
1
×
F
2
------------------- =
D
2
F
1
D
1
×
F
2
------------------- = D
2
100 10 ×
500
--------------------- = D
2
2 in =
5
,
0
0
0

p
o
u
n
d
s
f
o
r
c
e
10”
10”
5
0

p
s
i
100 sq in
100psi
500 lb
100 lb
P
10”
1 sq in
5 sq in
W
2”
Fi gure 1-7. Pascal ’s Law apparat us
Fi gure 1-6. Forc e, pressure, and area
FM 5-499
1-6 Hydraulic Basics
1-3. Fl ow. Flow is t he movement of a hydr aulic fluid caused by a differ ence in t he pr essur e
at t wo point s. In a hydr a ulic syst em, flow is usually pr oduced by t he a ct ion of a hydr a ulic
pump—a device used t o cont inuously push on a hydr aulic fluid. The t wo wa ys of measur ing
flow ar e velocit y and flow r a t e.
a. Velocit y. Velocit y is t he aver age speed at which a fluid's par t icles move pa st a given
point , mea sur ed in feet per second (fps). Velocit y is an impor t ant consider at ion in sizing t he
hydr aulic lines t ha t car r y a fluid bet ween t he component s.
b. Flow Rate. Flow r at e is t he mea sur e of how much volume of a liquid passes a point in
a given t ime, measur ed in ga llons per minut e (GPM). Flow r at e det er mines t he speed a t
which a load moves and, t her efor e, is impor t ant when consider ing power .
1-4. Energy, Work, and Powe r. Ener gy is t he a bilit y t o do wor k and is expr essed in foot -
pound (ft lb). The t hr ee for ms of ener gy ar e pot ent ia l, kinet ic, and hea t . Wor k mea sur es
accomplishment s; it r equir es mot ion t o ma ke a for ce do wor k. Power is t he r a t e of doing
wor k or t he r at e of ener gy t r ansfer .
a. Pot ential Energy. Pot ent ia l ener gy is ener gy due t o posit ion. An object has pot ent ial
ener gy in pr opor t ion t o it s ver t ica l dist ance a bove t he ea r t h's sur face. For example, wat er
held ba ck by a da m r epr esent s pot ent ial ener gy because unt il it is r elea sed, t he wat er does
not wor k. In hydr aulics, pot ent ial ener gy is a st at ic fact or . When for ce is a pplied t o a con-
fined liquid, as shown in Figur e 1-4 (pa ge 1-4), pot ent ial ener gy is pr esent beca use of t he
st at ic pr essur e of t he liquid. Pot ent ial ener gy of a moving liquid can be r educed by t he heat
ener gy r eleased. Pot ent ia l ener gy ca n a lso be r educed in a moving liquid when it t r a nsfor ms
int o kinet ic ener gy. A moving liquid ca n, t her efor e, per for m wor k as a r esult of it s st at ic
pr essur e a nd it s moment um.
b. Kinetic Energy. Kinet ic ener gy is t he ener gy a body possesses because of it s mot ion.
The gr eat er t he speed, t he gr eat er t he kinet ic ener gy. When wa t er is r eleased fr om a da m, it
r ushes out a t a high velocit y jet , r epr esent ing ener gy of mot ion—kinet ic ener gy. The
amount of kinet ic ener gy in a moving liquid is dir ect ly pr opor t iona l t o t he squa r e of it s veloc-
it y. Pr essur e caused by kinet ic ener gy may be called velocit y pr essur e.
c. Heat Energy and Friction. Hea t ener gy is t he ener gy a body possesses beca use of it s
hea t . Kinet ic ener gy a nd hea t ener gy a r e dynamic fa ct or s. Pa sca l's Law dealt wit h st at ic
pr essur e a nd did not include t he fr ict ion fa ct or . Fr ict ion is t he r esist a nce t o r elat ive mot ion
bet ween t wo bodies. When liquid flows in a hydr aulic cir cuit , fr ict ion pr oduces hea t . This
causes some of t he kinet ic ener gy t o be lost in t he for m of hea t ener gy.
Alt hough fr ict ion ca nnot be elimina t ed ent ir ely, it can be cont r olled t o some ext ent . The
t hr ee main causes of excessive fr ict ion in hydr a ulic syst ems ar e—
• Ext r emely long lines.
• Numer ous bends and fit t ings or impr oper bends.
• Excessive velocit y fr om using under sized lines.
In a liquid flowing t hr ough st r a ight piping at a low speed, t he pa r t icles of t he liquid
move in st r a ight lines par allel t o t he flow dir ect ion. Hea t loss fr om fr ict ion is minima l. This
kind of flow is ca lled lamina r flow. Figur e 1-8, dia gr am A, shows laminar flow. If t he speed
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-7
incr eases beyond a given
point , t ur bulent flow devel-
ops. Figur e 1-8, dia gr am B,
shows t ur bulent flow.
Figur e 1-9 shows t he
differ ence in hea d beca use
of pr essur e dr op due t o fr ic-
t ion. Point B shows no flow
r esist ance (fr ee-flow condi-
t ion); t he pr essur e at point
B is zer o. The pr essur e a t
point C is a t it s maximum
because of t he head a t
point A. As t he liquid flows
fr om point C t o point B,
fr ict ion ca uses a pr essur e
dr op fr om maximum pr es-
sur e t o zer o pr essur e. This
is r eflect ed in a succeed-
ingly decr eased head at
point s D, E, and F.
d. Relationship
Between Velocit y and Pres-
sure. Figur e 1-10, pa ge 1-8,
expla ins Ber nouilli's Pr in-
ciple, which st at es t hat t he
Laminar flow
Turbulent flow
A
B
Fi gure 1-8. Lami nar and t urbule nt flow
A
B
C
D E F
Fi gure 1-9. Effe c t of fri ct i on on pre ssure
FM 5-499
1-8 Hydraulic Basics
st a t ic pr essur e of a moving liquid va r ies inver sely wit h it s velocit y; t hat is, a s velocit y
incr ea ses, st at ic pr essur e decr eases. In t he figur e, t he for ce on pist on X is sufficient t o cr eat e
a pr essur e of 100 psi on chamber A. As pist on X moves down, t he liquid t ha t is for ced out of
chamber A must pass t hr ough passage C t o r each chamber B. The velocit y incr eases a s it
passes t hr ough C because t he sa me quant it y of liquid must pa ss t hr ough a na r r ower ar ea in
t he same t ime. Some of t he 100 psi st at ic pr essur e in chamber A is conver t ed int o velocit y
ener gy in passage C so t hat a pr essur e ga uge at t his point r egist er s 90 psi. As t he liquid
passes t hr ough C a nd r ea ches chamber B, velocit y decr ea ses t o it s for mer r at e, a s indica t ed
by t he st at ic pr essur e r ea ding of 100 psi, a nd some of t he kinet ic ener gy is conver t ed t o
pot ent ial ener gy.
Figur e 1-11 shows t he combined effect s of frict ion and velocit y changes. As in Figur e 1-9,
page 1-7, pr essur e dr ops fr om ma ximum at C t o zer o a t B. At D, velocit y is incr eased, so t he
pr essur e hea d decr ea ses. At E, t he head incr eases a s most of t he kinet ic ener gy is given up
t o pr essur e ener gy because velocit y is decr eased. At F, t he hea d dr ops as velocit y incr eases.
e. Work . To do wor k in a hydr aulic syst em, flow must be pr esent . Wor k, t her efor e,
exer t s a for ce over a definit e dist a nce. It is a mea sur e of for ce mult iplied by dist a nce.
f. Power. The st anda r d unit of power is hor sepower (hp). One hp is equal t o 550 ft lb of
wor k ever y second. Use t he following equat ion t o find power :
P = f x d/ t
wher e—
P = power, in hp
f = force, in GPM
d = distance, in psi
t = time (1,714)
100 psi
100 psi
90 psi
Chamber A
100 psi
Passage C
Chamber B
X
Fi gure 1-10. Be rnoui lli ’s Pri nc i ple
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Basics 1-9
F E D
C
B
A
Fi gure 1-11. Combi ne d e ffe c ts of fri ct ion and veloc i ty c hange s
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-1
CHAPTER 2
Hydrauli c Systems
A hydraulic system contains and confines a liquid in such a way that it uses the laws
governing liquids t o transmit power and do work. This chapter describes some basic systems
and discusses components of a hydraulic system that store and condit ion the fluid. The oil
reservoir (sump or tank) usually serves as a storehouse and a fluid conditioner. Filters,
strainers, and magnetic plugs condition the fluid by removing harmful impurities that could
clog passages and damage parts. Heat exchanges or coolers often are used t o keep the oil tem-
perature wit hin safe limits and prevent deterioration of the oil. Accumulators, though techni-
cally sources of stored energy, act as fluid st orehouses.
2-1. Basi c Syste ms . The adva nt a ges of hydr a ulic syst ems over ot her met hods of power
t r ansmission ar e—
• Simpler design. In most cases, a few pr e-engineer ed component s will r epla ce compli-
cat ed mechanica l linkages.
• Flexibilit y. Hydr aulic component s ca n be locat ed wit h consider able flexibilit y. Pipes
and hoses in place of mechanical element s vir t ua lly eliminat e loca t ion pr oblems.
• Smoot hness. Hydr aulic syst ems a r e smoot h a nd quiet in oper a t ion. Vibr at ion is kept
t o a minimum.
• Cont r ol. Cont r ol of a wide r ange of speed a nd for ces is easily possible.
• Cost . High efficiency wit h minimum fr ict ion loss keeps t he cost of a power t r ansmis-
sion at a minimum.
• Over loa d pr ot ect ion. Aut omat ic va lves gua r d t he syst em a ga inst a br eakdown fr om
over loading.
The ma in disadva nt a ge of a hydr a ulic syst em is maint a ining t he pr ecision pa r t s when
t hey ar e exposed t o bad climat es and dir t y at mospher es. Pr ot ect ion against r ust , cor r osion,
dir t , oil det er ior a t ion, a nd ot her a dver se envir onment is ver y impor t ant . The following
par agr aphs discuss sever al basic hydr a ulic syst ems.
a. Hydraulic J ack. In t his syst em (Figur e 2-1, page 2-2), a r eser voir and a syst em of
va lves ha s been added t o Pascal's hydr aulic lever t o st r oke a sma ll cylinder or pump cont in-
uously a nd r a ise a la r ge pist on or an act ua t or a not ch wit h each st r oke. Diagr a m A shows
an int ake st r oke. An out let check valve closes by pr essur e under a load, and a n inlet check
va lve opens so t hat liquid fr om t he r eser voir fills t he pumping cha mber . Dia gr am B shows
t he pump st r oking downwa r d. An inlet check valve closes by pr essur e and a n out let valve
opens. Mor e liquid is pumped under a la r ge pist on t o r a ise it . To lower a load, a t hir d va lve
(needle valve) opens, which opens a n ar ea under a la r ge pist on t o t he r eser voir . The load
t hen pushes t he pist on down a nd for ces t he liquid int o t he r eser voir .
b. Motor-Reversing S ystem. Figur e 2-2, pa ge 2-3, shows a power -dr iven pump oper a t ing
a r ever sible r ot ar y mot or . A r ever sing valve dir ect s fluid t o eit her side of t he mot or a nd back
FM 5-499
2-2 Hydraulic Systems
t o t he r eser voir . A r elief valve pr ot ect s t he syst em against excess pr essur e and can bypa ss
pump out put t o t he r eser voir , if pr essur e r ises t oo high.
c. Open-Center S ystem. In t his syst em, a cont r ol-va lve spool must be open in t he cent er
t o a llow pump flow t o pa ss t hr ough t he va lve and r et ur n t o t he r eser voir . Figur e 2-3, pa ge
2-4, shows t his syst em in t he neut r al posit ion. To oper at e sever a l funct ions simult aneously,
an open-cent er syst em must have t he cor r ect connect ions, which a r e discussed below. An
open-cent er syst em is efficient on single funct ions but is limit ed wit h mult iple funct ions.
(1) Ser ies Connect ion. Figur e 2-4, page 2-4, shows an open-cent er syst em wit h a ser ies
connect ion. Oil fr om a pump is r out ed t o t he t hr ee cont r ol valves in ser ies. The r et ur n fr om
t he fir st va lve is r out ed t o t he inlet of t he second, a nd so on. In neut r al, t he oil pa sses
t hr ough t he valves in ser ies and r et ur ns t o t he r eser voir , as t he ar r ows indica t e. When a
cont r ol valve is oper at ed, t he incoming oil is diver t ed t o t he cylinder t ha t t he va lve ser ves.
Ret ur n liquid fr om t he cylinder is dir ect ed t hr ough t he r et ur n line and on t o t he next va lve.
This syst em is sa t isfa ct or y as long a s only one va lve is oper a t ing a t a t ime. When t his
happens, t he full out put of t he pump a t full syst em pr essur e is a va ila ble t o t hat funct ion.
However , if mor e t ha n one va lve is oper a t ing, t he t ot al of t he pr essur es r equir ed for each
funct ion ca nnot exceed t he syst em’s r elief set t ing.
Fi gure 2-1. Hydrauli c jac k
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-3
Fi gure 2-2. Mot or-reversi ng syste m
FM 5-499
2-4 Hydraulic Systems
Fi gure 2-3. Ope n-ce nte r syst em
Fi gure 2-4. Ope n-c ent er system wi t h a s e ri e s connect i on
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-5
(2) Ser ies/Par a llel Connect ion. Figur e 2-5 shows a var iat ion on t he ser ies-connect ed
t ype. Oil fr om t he pump is r out ed t hr ough t he cont r ol valves in ser ies, as well a s in pa r a llel.
The va lves a r e somet imes st a cked t o a llow for ext r a pa ssa ges. In neut r al, a liquid pa sses
t hr ough t he valves in ser ies, a s t he a r r ows indica t e. However , when a ny valve is oper at ing,
t he r et ur n is closed and t he oil is available t o a ll t he va lves t hr ough t he pa r a llel connect ion.
When t wo or mor e valves ar e oper at ed at once, t he cylinder t ha t needs t he least pr essur e
will oper a t e fir st , t hen t he cylinder wit h t he next least , and so on. This a bilit y t o oper a t e t wo
or mor e valves simult a neously is an adva nt a ge over t he ser ies connect ion.
(3) Flow Divider . Figur e 2-6, page 2-6, shows an open-cent er syst em wit h a flow divider .
A flow divider t akes t he volume of oil fr om a pump and divides it bet ween t wo funct ions. For
example, a flow divider might be designed t o open t he left side fir st in case bot h cont r ol
valves wer e act ua t ed simult aneously. Or , it might divide t he oil t o bot h sides, equally or by
per cent age. Wit h t his syst em, a pump must be lar ge enough t o oper at e all t he funct ions
simult aneously. It must a lso supply a ll t he liquid a t t he ma ximum pr essur e of t he highest
funct ion, mea ning lar ge amount s of HP ar e wast ed when oper a t ing only one cont r ol va lve.
d. Closed-Center S ystem. In t his syst em, a pump can r est when t he oil is not r equir ed t o
oper at e a funct ion. This means t hat a cont r ol valve is closed in t he cent er , st opping t he flow
of t he oil fr om t he pump. Figur e 2-7, page 2-6, shows a closed-cent er syst em. To oper at e sev-
er al funct ions simult a neously, a closed-cent er syst em have t he following connect ions:
(1) Fixed-Displacement Pump and Accumulat or . Figur e 2-8, page 2-7, shows a closed-
cent er syst em. In t his syst em, a pump of sma ll but const a nt volume cha r ges a n a ccumulat or .
Fi gure 2-5. Ope n-c ent er system wi t h a s e ri e s/paral lel c onne ct ion
FM 5-499
2-6 Hydraulic Systems
Fi gure 2-6. Ope n-c ent er sys te m wit h a fl ow di vi de r
Fi gure 2-7. Close d-ce nte r syst em
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-7
When a n a ccumula t or is cha r ged t o full pr essur e, a n unloading valve diver t s t he pump flow
ba ck t o a r eser voir . A check va lve t r a ps t he pr essur ed oil in t he cir cuit .
When a cont r ol va lve is oper at ed, an accumula t or dischar ges it s oil a nd act ua t es a cylin-
der . As pr essur e begins t o dr op, a n unloa ding va lve dir ect s t he pump flow t o a n accumulat or
t o r echar ge t he flow. This syst em, using a small ca pacit y pump, is effect ive when oper at ing
oil is needed only for a shor t t ime. However , when t he funct ions need a lot of oil for longer
per iods, a n accumulat or syst em ca nnot ha ndle it unless t he accumulat or is ver y lar ge.
(2) Va r ia ble-Displacement Pump. Figur e 2-9, pa ge 2-8, shows a closed-cent er syst em
wit h a var ia ble-displa cement pump in t he neut r a l mode. When in neut r a l, oil is pumped
unt il t he pr essur e r ises t o a pr edet er mined level. A pr essur e-r egulat ing va lve a llows t he
pump t o shut off by it self a nd ma int ain t his pr essur e t o t he valve. When t he cont r ol valve is
oper at ing, oil is diver t ed fr om t he pump t o t he bot t om of a cylinder . The dr op in pr essur e
caused by connect ing t he pump’s pr essur e line t o t he bot t om of t he cylinder causes t he pump
t o go back t o wor k, pumping oil t o t he bot t om of t he pist on a nd r aising t he loa d.
When t he va lve moves, t he t op of t he pist on connect s t o a r et ur n line, which a llows t he
r et ur n oil t hat wa s for ced fr om t he pist on t o r et ur n t o t he r eser voir or pump. When t he va lve
r et ur ns t o neut r al, oil is t r a pped on bot h sides of t he cylinder , a nd t he pr essur e pa ssa ge fr om
t he pump is dead-ended. Aft er t his sequence, t he pump r est s. Moving t he spool in t he down-
wa r d posit ion dir ect s oil t o t he t op of t he pist on, moving t he loa d downwa r d. The oil fr om t he
bot t om of t he pist on is sent int o t he r et ur n line.
Figur e 2-10, pa ge 2-8, shows t his closed-cent er syst em wit h a char ging pump, which
pumps oil fr om t he r eser voir t o t he va r iable-displacement pump. The char ging pump supplies
Fi gure 2-8. Fi xe d-di s placeme nt pump and ac cumulat or
FM 5-499
2-8 Hydraulic Systems
Fi gure 2-9. Vari able-di splac eme nt pump
Fi gure 2-10. Clos e d-c ent er system wi t h c hargi ng pump
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-9
only t he makeup oil requir ed in a syst em and pr ovides some inlet pr essur e to make a variable-
displa cement pump mor e efficient . The r et ur n oil fr om a syst em's funct ions is sent dir ect ly
t o t he inlet of a va r iable-displacement pump.
Because t oda y’s ma chines need mor e hydr a ulic power , a closed-cent er syst em is mor e
advant a geous. For exa mple, on a t r a ct or , oil may be r equir ed for power st eer ing, power
br a kes, r emot e cylinder s, t hr ee-point hit ches, loa der s, and ot her mount ed equipment . In
most ca ses, ea ch funct ion r equir es a differ ent quant it y of oil. Wit h a closed-cent er syst em,
t he qua nt it y of oil t o each funct ion ca n be cont r olled by line or va lve size or by or ificing wit h
less heat build up when compar ed t o t he flow dividers necessary in a comparable open-center
syst em. Ot her advant a ges of a closed-cent er syst em a r e as follows:
• It does not r equir e r elief valves because t he pump simply shut s off by it self when
st andby pr essur e is r ea ched. The pr event s hea t buildup in syst ems wher e r elief
pr essur e is fr equent ly r ea ched.
• The size of t he lines, valves, a nd cylinder s ca n be t ailor ed t o t he flow r equir ement s
of ea ch funct ion.
• Reser ve flow is a va ila ble, by using a la r ger pump, t o ensur e full hydr aulic speed a t
low engine r evolut ions per minut e (r pm). Mor e funct ions ca n be ser ved.
• It is mor e efficient on funct ions such as br a kes, which r equir e for ce but ver y lit t le
pist on movement . By holding t he va lve open, st andby pr essur e is const a nt ly
applied t o t he br ake pist on wit h no efficiency loss because t he pump ha s r et ur ned
t o st a ndby.
2-2. Color Codi ng. In t his manua l, t he figur es t hat show oil-flow condit ions or pa t hs a r e
pr epa r ed wit h indust r ial st anda r dized color codes. Table 2-1 list s t he color s for t he hydr au-
lic lines a nd passages t ha t a r e in many of t he figur es:
2-3. Re se rvoi rs . A r eser voir st or es a liquid t hat is not being used in a hydr aulic syst em. It
also a llows gases t o expel a nd for eign ma t t er t o set t le out fr om a liquid.
a. Const ruction. A pr oper ly const r uct ed r eser voir should be a ble t o dissipa t e heat fr om
t he oil, separ a t e air fr om t he oil, and set t le out cont a minat es t hat a r e in it . Reser voir s r ange
in const r uct ion fr om small st eel st a mpings t o lar ge ca st or fabr icat ed unit s. The lar ge t anks
should be sandblast ed aft er all t he welding is complet ed and t hen flushed and st eam cleaned.
Doing so r emoves welding sca le and scale left fr om hot -r olling t he st eel. The inner sur face
t hen should be sealed wit h a paint compat ible wit h t he hydr aulic fluid. Nonbleeding r ed
engine enamel is suit able for pet r oleum oil a nd seals in any r esidual dir t not r emoved by
flushing and st eam-clea ning.
Table 2-1: Figure colors
Line/Passage Color
Operating pressure Red
Exhaust Blue
Intake or drain Green
Metered flow Yellow
FM 5-499
2-10 Hydraulic Systems
b. S hape. Figur e 2-11 shows some of t he design feat ur es of a r eser voir . It should be
high a nd nar r ow r a t her t ha n shallow a nd br oa d. The oil level should be a s high a s possible
above t he opening t o a pump's suct ion line. This pr event s t he va cuum at t he line opening
fr om causing a vor t ex or whir lpool effect , which would mea n t ha t a syst em is pr obably t a k-
ing in air . Aer at ed oil will not pr oper ly t r ansmit power because air is compr essible. Aer at ed
oil ha s a t endency t o br ea k down and lose it s lubr icat ing abilit y.
c. S ize. Reser voir sizes will va r y. However , a r eser voir must be la r ge enough so t hat it
has a r eser ve of oil wit h all t he cylinder s in a syst em fully ext ended. An oil r eser ve must be
high enough t o pr event a vor t ex a t t he suct ion line's opening. A r eser voir must have suffi-
cient spa ce t o hold a ll t he oil when t he cylinder s ar e r et r act ed, as well a s allow space for
expa nsion when t he oil is hot .
A common-size r eser voir on a mobile machine is a 20- or 30-ga llon t ank used wit h a 100-
GPM syst em. Ma ny 10-GPM syst ems oper at e wit h 2- or 3-gallon t a nks because t hese mobile
syst ems oper at e int er mit t ent ly, not const ant ly. For st at iona r y machiner y, a r ule of t humb is
t ha t a r eser voir ’s size should be t wo t o t hr ee t imes a pump’s out put per minut e.
A lar ge size t ank is highly desir a ble for cooling. The lar ge sur fa ce ar ea s exposed t o t he
out side air t r ansfer heat fr om t he oil. Also, a la r ge t a nk helps set t le out t he cont a minat es
and sepa r a t es t he air by r educing r ecir culat ion.
d. Location. Mos t mobile equipment r eser voir s a r e loca t ed a bove t h e pumps. This
cr ea t es a flooded-pump-inlet condit ion. This con dit ion r educes t he possibilit y of pump
Fi gure 2-11. De si gn features of a reservoi r
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-11
cavit a t ion—a condit ion wher e all t he a va ilable space is not filled and oft en met al par t s will
er ode. Flooding t he inlet also r educes t he vor t ex t endency at a suct ion pipe's opening.
The loca t ion of a r eser voir a ffect s heat dissipat ion. Idea lly, all t a nk wa lls should be
exposed t o t he out side a ir . Heat moves fr om a hot subst ance t o a cold subst ance; hea t t r a ns-
fer is gr ea t est when t her e is a la r ge t emper a t ur e differ ence. Reser voir s t hat ar e built int o
fr ont -end loa der ar ms a r e ver y effect ive in t r a nsfer r ing hea t .
e. Ventilation and Pressurization. Most r eser voir s ar e vent ed t o t he a t mospher e. A
vent opening a llows air t o lea ve or ent er t he space a bove t he oil as t he level of t he oil goes up
or down. This maint ains a const ant at mospher ic pr essur e above t he oil. A r eser voir filt er
cap, wit h a filt er element , is oft en used as a vent .
Some r eser voir s a r e pr essur ized, using a simple pr essur e-cont r ol valve r a t her t ha n a
vent ed one. A pr essur e-cont r ol va lve a ut omat ically let s filt er ed air int o a t ank but pr event s
air r elease unless t he pr essur e r eaches a pr eset level. A pr essur ized r eser voir t akes place
when t he oil and a ir in a t a nk expa nd fr om hea t .
f. Line Connect ions. A pump suct ion a nd a t ank's r et ur n lines should be at t ached by
fla nges or by welded heavy-dut y couplings. St andar d couplings usua lly ar e not suit a ble
beca use t hey spr ea d when welded. If a suct ion line is connect ed a t t he bot t om, a coupling
should ext end well a bove t he bot t om, inside t he t ank; r esidual dir t will not get in a suct ion
line when a t a nk or st r a iner is cleaned. A r et ur n line should dischar ge near a t ank's bot t om
alwa ys below t he oil level. A pipe is usua lly cut at a 45-degr ee a ngle and t he flow a imed
away fr om a suct ion line t o impr ove cir cula t ion and cooling.
A baffle plat e is used t o separ a t e a suct ion line fr om a r et ur n line. This ca uses t he
r et ur n oil t o cir cula t e a r ound an out er wa ll for cooling befor e it get s t o t he pump again. A
ba ffle plat e should be a bout t wo-t hir ds t he height of a t a nk. The lower cor ner s ar e cut diag-
ona lly t o allow cir culat ion. They must be la r ger in ar ea t ha n a suct ion line's cr oss sect ion.
Ot her wise t he oil level bet ween a r et ur n a nd a suct ion side might be uneven. Ba ffling also
pr event s oil fr om sloshing ar ound when a machine is moving. Ma ny la r ge r eser voir s a r e
cr oss-ba ffled t o pr ovide cooling and pr event sloshing.
g. Maintenance. Ma int enance pr ocedur es include dr a ining and clea ning a r eser voir . A
t ank should have a dished bot t om t hat is fit t ed wit h a dr ain plug at it s lowest point ; a plug
fit t ing should be flushed wit h t he inside of a t ank t o a llow for full dr ainage. On lar ge t anks,
access pla t es ma y be bolt ed on t he ends for easy r emoval and ser vicing. A r eser voir should
have a sight gauge or dipst ick for checking t he oil level t o pr event da mage fr om lubr icat ion
loss.
The st r a iner s on a pump's suct ion line may not r equir e a s much ma int enance. However ,
an element in a filt er in a r et ur n line will r equir e r egular changing. Ther efor e, t hat filt er
should not be inside a r eser voir . When a r eser voir is pr essur ized by compr essed a ir , mois-
t ur e can become a maint ena nce pr oblem. A t a nk should have a wa t er t r ap for moist ur e
r emoval; it should be placed wher e it can be inspect ed da ily.
2-4. Strai ne rs and Fi lters . To keep hydr a ulic component s per for ming cor r ect ly, t he
hydr aulic liquid must be kept a s clea n a s possible. For eign mat t er and t iny met al par t icles
fr om nor ma l wea r of va lves, pumps, a nd ot her component s ar e going t o ent er a syst em.
St r ainer s, filt er s, a nd ma gnet ic plugs ar e used t o r emove for eign par t icles fr om a hydr aulic
FM 5-499
2-12 Hydraulic Systems
liquid a nd ar e effect ive a s safeguar ds against cont amina t ion. Ma gnet ic plugs, locat ed in a
r eser voir , a r e used t o r emove t he ir on or st eel par t icles fr om a liquid.
a. S trainers. A st r a iner is t he pr ima r y filt er ing syst em t ha t r emoves lar ge par t icles of
for eign mat t er fr om a hydr aulic liquid. Even t hough it s scr eening act ion is not a s good as a
filt er 's, a st r a iner offer less r esist ance t o flow. A st r ainer usually consist s of a met al fr ame
wr apped wit h a fine-mesh wir e scr een or a scr eening element made up of var ying t hickness
of specially pr ocessed wir e. St r ainer s ar e used t o pump inlet lines (Figur e 2-11, page 2-10)
wher e pr essur e dr op must be kept t o a minimum.
Figur e 2-12 shows a st r ainer in t hr ee possible ar r angement s for use in a pump inlet
line. If one st r a iner ca uses excessive flow fr ict ion t o a pump, t wo or mor e ca n be used in par -
allel. St r ainer s and pipe fit t ings must a lways be below t he liquid level in t he t ank.
b. Filt ers. A filt er r emoves sma ll for eign par t icles fr om a hydr aulic fluid and is most
effect ive as a safeguar d a gainst cont a minat es. Filt er s a r e loca t ed in a r eser voir , a pr essur e
line, a r et ur n line, or in a ny ot her loca t ion wher e necessa r y. They ar e classified as full flow
or pr opor t ional flow.
(1) Full-Flow Filt er (Figur e 2-13). In a full-flow filt er , a ll t he fluid ent er ing a unit
pa sses t hr ough a filt er ing element . Alt hough a full-flow t ype pr ovides a mor e posit ive filt er -
ing a ct ion, it offer s gr eat er r esist ance t o flow, par t icular ly when it becomes dir t y. A hydr a u-
lic liquid ent er s a full-flow filt er t hr ough an inlet por t in t he body a nd flows ar ound an
Oil level
Pump intake
connection
Oil level
Pipe joints submerged
Disconnect union to remove
strainers for cleaning
Access opening should be provided so strainers may be
removed for cleaning without draining tank
Fi gure 2-12. Hydrauli c -system strai ners
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-13
element inside a bowl. Filt er ing
occur s a s a liquid passes t hr ough
t he element and int o a hollow cor e,
leaving t he dir t and impur it ies on
t he out side of t he element . A fil-
t er ed liquid t hen flows fr om a hol-
low cor e t o an out let por t and int o
t he syst em.
A bypass r elief valve in a body
allows a liquid t o bypass t he ele-
ment and pa ss dir ect ly t hr ough an
out let por t when t he element
becomes clogged. Filt er s t hat do
not have a bypass r elief valve ha ve
a cont amina t ion indicat or . This
indicat or wor ks on t he pr inciple of
t he differ ence in pr essur e of a fluid
as it ent er s a filt er and a ft er it
leaves an element . When cont a mi-
nat ing par t icles collect on t he ele-
ment , t he differ ent ia l pr essur e
acr oss it incr eases. When a pr es-
sur e incr ease r ea ches a specific
va lue, a n indicat or pops out , signi-
fying t hat t he element must be
clea ned or r epla ced.
(2) Pr opor t iona l-Flow Filt er s
(Figur e 2-14). This filt er oper a t es
on t he vent ur i pr inciple in which a
t ube ha s a nar r owing t hr oa t (ven-
t ur i) t o incr ea se t he velocit y of
fluid flowing t hr ough it . Flow
t hr ough a vent ur i t hr oat ca uses a
pr essur e dr op at t he na r r owest
point . This pr essur e decr ease
causes a sucking a ct ion t ha t dr aws
a por t ion of a liquid down ar ound a
car t r idge t hr ough a filt er element
and up int o a vent ur i t hr oat . Fil-
t er ing occur s for eit her flow dir ec-
t ion. Alt hough only a por t ion of a
liquid is filt er ed dur ing each cycle,
const ant r ecir culat ion t hr ough a
syst em event ually causes a ll of a
liquid t o pa ss t hr ough t he element .
Repla ce t he element a ccor ding t o
applicable r egulat ions a nd by
doing t he following:
Fi gure 2-13. Full-flow hydrauli c fi lt er
Fi gure 2-14. Proporti onal-flow fil ter
FM 5-499
2-14 Hydraulic Systems
• Relieve t he pr essur e.
• Remove t he bowl fr om t he filt er ’s body.
• Remove t he filt er element fr om t he body, using a slight r ocking mot ion.
• Clea n or r epla ce t he element , depending on it s t ype.
• Repla ce all old O-r ing pa ckings a nd backup washer s.
• Reinst a ll t he bowl on t he body assembly. Do not t ight en t he bowl excessively;
check t he appr opr iat e r egula t ions for specifica t ions, a s some filt er element s r equir e
a specific t or que.
• Pr essur ize t he syst em and check t he filt er assembly for leaks.
2-5. Fi lteri ng Materi al and Eleme nt s. The gener al classes of filt er mat er ials are mechani-
cal, absor bent inact ive, and absor bent act ive.
• Mecha nica l filt er s cont ain closely woven met a l scr eens or discs. They gener a lly
r emove only fair ly coar se par t icles.
• Absor bent inact ive filt er s, such a s cot t on, wood pulp, yar n, clot h, or r esin, r emove
much sma ller par t icles; some r emove wa t er a nd wa t er -soluble cont a minant s. The
element s oft en ar e t r ea t ed t o ma ke t hem st icky t o a t t r act t he cont amina nt sfound
in hydr a ulic oil.
• Absor bent act ive ma t er ia ls, such a s char coal a nd Fuller 's Ear t h (a cla ylike ma t e-
r ial of ver y fine pa r t icles used in t he pur ificat ion of miner a l or veget a ble-ba se oils),
ar e not r ecommended for hydr aulic syst ems.
The t hr ee basic t ypes of filt er element s ar e sur face, edge, and dept h.
• A sur fa ce-t ype element is made of closely woven fa br ic or t r ea t ed pa per . Oil flows
t hr ough t he por es of t he filt er mat er ial, and t he cont aminant s ar e st opped.
• An edge-t ype filt er is made up of paper or met al discs; oil flows t hr ough t he spaces
bet ween t he discs. The fineness of t he filt r at ion is det er mined by t he closeness of
t he discs.
• A dept h-t ype element is made up of t hick layer s of cot t on, felt , or ot her fiber s.
2-6. Ac cumulat ors . Like a n elect r ical st or age bat t er y, a hydr a ulic accumulat or st or es
pot ent ial power , in t his ca se liquid under pr essur e for fut ur e conver sion int o useful wor k.
This wor k can include oper a t ing cylinder s a nd fluid mot or s, maint a ining t he r equir ed sys-
t em pr essur e in ca se of pump or power fa ilur e, a nd compensat ing for pr essur e loss due t o
lea kage. Accumulat or s ca n be employed a s fluid dispenser s and fluid bar r ier s and ca n pr o-
vide a shock-absor bing (cushioning) act ion.
On milit ar y equipment , accumulat or s a r e used ma inly on t he lift equipment t o pr ovide
posit ive cla mping act ion on t he hea vy loa ds when a pump’s flow is diver t ed t o lift ing or ot her
oper a t ions. An accumulat or a ct s as a sa fet y device t o pr event a load fr om being dr opped in
ca se of a n engine or pump failur e or fluid lea k. On lift s a nd ot her equipment , a ccumula t or s
absor b shock, which r esult s fr om a loa d st ar t ing, st opping, or r ever sal.
a. S pring-Loaded Accumulator. This accumulat or is used in some engineer equipment
hydr aulic syst ems. It uses t he energy st or ed in springs t o creat e a const ant force on t he liquid
cont ained in an adjacent r am assembly. Figure 2-15 shows t wo spring-loaded accumulator s.
The loa d char act er ist ics of a spr ing a r e such t hat t he ener gy st or a ge depends on t he
for ce r equir ed t o compr ess s spr ing. The fr ee (uncompr essed) lengt h of a spr ing r epr esent s
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-15
zer o ener gy st or age. As a spr ing is compr essed t o t he maximum inst alled lengt h, a mini-
mum pr essur e value of t he liquid in a r am a ssembly is est ablished. As liquid under pr essur e
ent er s t he r a m cylinder , causing a spr ing t o compr ess, t he pr essur e on t he liquid will r ise
beca use of t he incr eased loading r equir ed t o compr ess t he spr ing.
b. Bag-Type Accumulator. This a ccumulat or (Figur e 2-16, page 2-16) consist s of a
seamless high-pr essur e shell, cylindr ical in shape, wit h domed ends and a synt het ic r ubber
ba g t ha t sepa r a t es t he liquid a nd gas (usua lly nit r ogen) wit hin t he accumulat or . The ba g is
fully enclosed in t he upper end of a shell. The ga s syst em cont ains a high-pr essur e ga s
va lve. The bot t om end of t he shell is sea led wit h a special plug assembly cont aining a liquid
por t a nd a sa fet y fea t ur e t ha t ma kes it impossible t o disassemble t he a ccumula t or wit h
pr essur e in t he syst em. The bag is la r ger a t t he t op a nd t aper s t o a smaller diamet er a t t he
bot t om. As t he pump for ces liquid int o t he accumulat or shell, t he liquid pr esses against t he
ba g, r educes it s volume, a nd incr eases t he pr essur e, which is t hen available t o do wor k.
c. Piston-Type Accumulat or. This a ccumula t or consist s of a cylinder assembly, a pist on
assembly, a nd t wo end-cap assemblies. The cylinder assembly houses a pist on a ssembly and
incor por a t es pr ovisions for secur ing t he end-cap a ssemblies. An accumula t or cont a ins a
fr ee-float ing pist on wit h liquid on one side of t he pist on a nd pr echar ged air or nit r ogen on
t he ot her side (Figur e 2-17, page 2-16). An incr ease of liquid volume decreases t he gas volume
and incr eases gas pr essur e, which pr ovides a wor k pot ent ial when t he liquid is allowed t o dis-
charge.
d. Maintenance. Befor e r emoving a n accumulat or for r epair s, r elieve t he int er na l pr es-
sur e: in a spr ing-loaded t ype, r elieve t he spr ing t ension; in a pist on or bag t ype, r elieve t he
ga s or liquid pr essur e.
MULTIPLE SPRINGS SINGLE SPRING
Spring
Spring
Piston
Packing Ram
assembly
Ram
Cylinder
To hydraulic
system
To hydraulic
system
Fi gure 2-15. Spri ng-loaded accumulat or
FM 5-499
2-16 Hydraulic Systems
Gas valve
Gas bag
Shell
Plug
assembly
Liquid inlet
Gas charging inlet
Compressed
gas
Liquid
Spring-loaded
check valve
(normally open)
PRECHARGED
POSITION
FULLY CHARGED
POSITION
STATIC
POSITION
Fi gure 2-16. Bag-type ac cumulator
Hydraulic liquid port Hydraulic liquid port
Barrell assembly
End cap
assembly
Packing and
backup ring
Lubrication passage
Piston assembly
Gas port
Fi gure 2-17. Pis t on-t ype acc umulator
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-17
2-7. Pressure Gauges and Volume
Me te rs. Pr essur e ga uges a r e used in
liquid-power ed syst ems t o measur e
pr essur e t o ma int ain efficient and sa fe
oper at ing levels. Pr essur e is mea-
sur ed in psi. Flow measur ement may
be expr essed in unit s of r a t e of flow—
GPM or cubic feet per second (cfs). It
ma y also be expr essed in t er ms of t ot al
qua nt it y—ga llons or cubic feet .
a. Pressure Gauges. Figur e 2-18
shows a simple pr essur e gauge. Gauge
r eadings indicat e t he fluid pr essur e set
up by a n opposit ion of for ces wit hin a
syst em. At mospher ic pr essur e is neg-
ligible beca use it s act ion at one place is
ba lanced by it s equal act ion at a not her
pla ce in a syst em.
b. Meters. Measur ing flow
depends on t he quant it ies, flow r a t es, and t ypes of liquid involved. All liquid met er s (flow-
met er s) a r e ma de t o measur e specific liquids a nd must be used only for t he pur pose for
which t hey wer e made. Each met er is t est ed a nd ca libr a t ed.
In a nut at ing-pis-
t on-disc flowmet er , liq-
uid pa sses t hr ough a
fixed volume measur -
ing chamber , which is
divided int o upper and
lower compar t ment s
by a pist on disc (Figur e
2-19). Dur ing oper a-
t ion, one compar t ment
is cont inua lly being
filled while t he ot her is
being empt ied. As a
liquid passes t hr ough
t hese compa r t ment s,
it s pr essur e causes a
pist on disc t o r oll
ar ound in t he cha mber .
The disc's movement s
oper at e a dial (or
count er ) t hr ough gea r -
ing element s t o indi-
cat e t hat a column of
fluid t ha t ha s pa ssed
t hr ough t he met er .
Pointer
Red hand
Fi gure 2-18. Pre s s ure gauge
Fi gure 2-19. Nut at i ng-pi ston-di sc flowmete r
FM 5-499
2-18 Hydraulic Systems
2-8. Port able Hydrauli c -Circ ui t Te ste rs. Hydr aulic power is a n efficient met hod of
deliver ing HP by pumping a fluid t hr ough a closed syst em. If t he amount of flow or t he pr es-
sur e unknowingly decr eases, t he a mount of HP deliver ed t o a wor king unit will be r educed,
and a syst em will not per for m as it should.
a. Test ers. Por t able h ydr a ulic-cir cuit t est er s (Figur e 2-20) ar e light weight unit s you
ca n use t o check or t r oubleshoot a hydr a ulic-power ed syst em on t he job or in a ma int ena nce
shop. Con nect a t est er int o a syst em's cir cuit t o det er mine it s efficiency. Cur r ent ly, sev-
er al hydr aulic-cir cuit t est er s ar e on t he mar ket . Oper at ing pr ocedur es ma y var y on differ -
ent t est er s. Ther efor e, you must follow t he oper a t ing dir ect ions fur nished wit h a t est er t o
check or t r oubleshoot a cir cuit accur a t ely.
b. Improper Operation. When a hydr aulic syst em does not oper at e pr oper ly, t he t r ouble
could be one of t he following:
• The pump t hat pr opels t he fluid may be slipping because of a wor n or a n impr op-
er ly set spr ing in t he r elief valve.
• The fluid may be leaking a r ound t he cont r ol va lves or past t he cylinder pa cking.
Since hydr aulic syst ems a r e confined, it is difficult t o ident ify which component in a sys-
t em is not wor king pr oper ly. Measur e t he flow, pr essur e, and t emper at ur e of a liquid at
given point s in a syst em t o isolat e t he malfunct ioning unit . If t his does not wor k, t ake t he
syst em apar t a nd check ea ch unit for wor n pa r t s or ba d pa cking. This t ype of inspect ion can
be cost ly fr om t he st a ndpoint of ma int enance t ime and downt ime of t he power syst em.
2-9. Ci rculat ory Syst ems . Pipes a nd fit t ings, wit h t heir necessa r y sea ls, make up a cir cu-
la t or y syst em of liquid-power ed equipment . Pr oper ly select ing and inst alling t hese compo-
nent s ar e ver y impor t ant . If impr oper ly
select ed or inst a lled, t he r esult would be
ser ious power loss or ha r mful liquid con-
t a minat ion. The following is a list of some
of t he ba sic r equir ement s of a cir culat or y
syst em:
• Lines must be st r ong enough t o con-
t a in s liquid a t s desir ed wor king
pr essur e a nd t he sur ges in pr essur e
t ha t may develop in s syst em.
• Lines must be st r ong enough t o sup-
por t t he component s t ha t a r e
mount ed on t hem.
• Ter mina l fit t ings must be a t a ll junc-
t ions wher e pa r t s must be r emoved
for r epa ir or r eplacement .
• Line suppor t s must be ca pa ble of
damping t he shock caused by pr es-
sur e sur ges.
• Lines should have smoot h int er ior s
t o r educe t ur bulent flow.
• Lines must have t he cor r ect size for
t he r equir ed liquid flow.
Portable tester
series
Fi gure 2-20. Portable hydrauli c -ci rc ui t
test er
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-19
• Lines must be kept clea n by r egula r flushing or pur ging.
• Sour ces of cont amina nt s must be eliminat ed.
The t hr ee common t ypes of lines in liquid-power ed syst ems ar e pipes, t ubing, and flexi-
ble hose, which ar e also r efer r ed t o as r igid, semir igid, a nd flexible line.
a. Tubing. The t wo t ypes of t ubing used
for hydr aulic lines ar e sea mless and elect r ic
welded. Bot h ar e suit a ble for hydr aulic sys-
t ems. Sea mless t ubing is made in lar ger sizes
t han t ubing t hat is elect r ic welded. Seamless
t ubing is flar ed a nd fit t ed wit h t hr ea ded com-
pr ession fit t ings. Tubing bends ea sily, so
fewer pieces and fit t ings a r e r equir ed. Unlike
pipe, t ubing can be cut a nd flar ed and fit t ed in
t he field. Gener a lly, t ubing ma kes a neat er ,
less cost ly, lower -maint ena nce syst em wit h
fewer flow r est r ict ions and less chances of
leakage. Figur e 2-21 shows t he pr oper
met hod of inst a lling t ubing.
Knowing t he flow, t ype of fluid, fluid
velocit y, and syst em pr essur e will help det er -
mine t he t ype of t ubing t o use. (Nominal
dimensions of t ubing a r e given as fr act ions in
inches or a s dash numbers. A dash number
r epr esent s a t ube’s out side diamet er [OD] in
sixt eent hs of an inch.) A syst em’s pr essur e
det er mines t he t hickness of t he var ious t ubing wa lls. Tubing a bove 1/2 inch OD usua lly is
inst alled wit h eit her fla nge fit t ings wit h met a l or pr essur e seals or wit h welded joint s. If
joint s a r e welded, t hey should be st r ess-r elieved.
b. Piping. You can use piping t ha t is t hr ea ded wit h scr ewed fit t ings wit h dia met er s up
t o 1 1/4 inches a nd pr essur es of up t o 1,000 psi. Wher e pr essur es will exceed 1,000 psi and
r equir ed diamet er s ar e over 1 1/4 inches, piping wit h welded, flanged connect ions a nd
socket -welded size a r e specified by nomina l inside dia met er (ID) dimensions. The t hr ead
r emains t he same for any given pipe size r ega r dless of wa ll t hickness. Piping is used eco-
nomically in la r ger -sized hydr aulic syst ems wher e lar ge flow is car r ied. It is pa r t icular ly
suit ed for long, per manent st r aight lines. Piping is t aper -t hr eaded on it s OD int o a t a pped
hole or fit t ing. However , it cannot be bent . Inst ead, fit t ings ar e used wher ever a joint is
r equir ed. This r esult s in addit iona l cost s a nd an incr eased cha nce of leakage.
c. Flexible Hosing. When flexibilit y is necessa r y in liquid-power ed syst ems, use hose.
Exa mples would be connect ions t o unit s t hat move while in oper at ion t o unit s t ha t a r e
at t ached t o a hinged por t ion of t he equipment or a r e in locat ions t hat ar e subject ed t o sever e
vibr a t ion. Flexible hose is usually used t o connect a pump t o a syst em. The vibr at ion t ha t is
set up by an oper at ing pump would ult imat ely cause r igid t ubing t o fa il.
(1) Rubber Hose. Rubber hose is a flexible hose t hat consist s of a seamless, synt het ic
r ubber t ube cover ed wit h la yer s of cot t on br aid and wir e br aid. Figur e 2-22, page 2-20,
shows cut -away views of t ypical rubber hose. An inner t ube is designed t o wit hst and mat er ial
Right Wrong
Figure 2-21. Method of installing tubing
FM 5-499
2-20 Hydraulic Systems
passing t hr ough it . A br a id, which may con-
sist of sever a l la yer s, is t he det er mining fa ct or
in t he st r engt h of a hose. A cover is designed
t o wit hst and ext er nal a buse.
When inst a lling flexible hose, do not t wist
it . Doing so r educes it s lift a nd ma y ca use it s
fit t ings t o loosen. An ident ifica t ion st r ipe t ha t
r uns along t he hose lengt h should not spir a l,
which would indicat e t wist ing (Figur e 2-23).
Pr ot ect flexible hose fr om chafing by wr apping
it light ly wit h t ape, when necessa r y.
The minimum bend r adius for flexible
hose var ies accor ding t o it s size and const r uc-
t ion a nd t he pr essur e under which a syst em
will oper a t e. Consult t he a pplica ble publica -
t ions t hat cont ain t he t a bles a nd gr aphs which show t he minimum bend r a dii for t he differ -
ent t ypes of inst alla t ions. Bends t hat ar e t oo shar p will r educe t he bur st ing pr essur e of
flexible hose consider ably below it s r at ed value.
Do not inst all flexible hose so t hat it will be subject ed t o a minimum of flexing dur ing
oper at ion. Never st r et ch hose t ight ly bet ween t wo fit t ings. When under pr essur e, flexible
hose cont r act s in lengt h and expands in dia met er .
(2) Teflon™-Type Hose. This is a flexible hose t ha t is designed t o meet t he r equir e-
ment s of higher oper a t ing pr essur es a nd t emper a t ur es in t oday's fluid-power ed syst ems.
The hose consist s of a chemical r esin t hat is pr ocessed a nd pulled int o a desir ed-size t ube
Fi gure 2-22. Flexi ble rubber hos e
RIGHT
WRONG
Fi gure 2-23. Inst alli ng flexi ble hos e
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-21
shape. It is cover ed wit h st a inless-st eel wir e t hat is br aided over t he t ube for st r engt h a nd
pr ot ect ion. Teflon-t ype hose will not a bsor b moist ur e and is unaffect ed by a ll fluids used in
t oda y’s fluid-power ed syst ems. It is nonflammable; however , use an asbest os fir e sleeve
wher e t he possibilit y of an open flame exist s.
Car efully ha ndle a ll Teflon-t ype hose dur ing r emova l or inst a llat ion. Sha r p or excessive
bending will kink or dama ge t he hose. Also, t he flexible-t ype hose t ends t o for m it self t o t he
inst alled posit ion in a cir culat or y syst em.
d. Installation. Fla r ing and br azing a r e t he most common met hods of connect ing t ub-
ing. Pr epar ing a t ube for inst allat ion usua lly involves cut t ing, flar ing, and bending. Aft er
cut t ing a t ube t o t he cor r ect lengt h, cut it squar ely a nd ca r efully r emove a ny int er na l or
ext er nal bur r s.
If you use flar e-t ype fit t ings, you must flar e t he t ube. A flar e angle should ext end 37
degr ees on ea ch side of t he cent er line. The ar ea’s out er edge should ext end beyond t he ma x-
imum sleeve's ID but not it s OD. Flar es t ha t a r e t oo shor t ar e likely t o be squeezed t hin,
which could r esult in leaks or br eaks. Flar es t ha t a r e t oo long will st ick or ja m dur ing
a ssembly.
Keep t he lines as shor t a nd fr ee of bends as possible. However , bends ar e pr efer r ed t o
elbows or shar p t ur ns. Tr y not t o assemble t he t ubing in a st r aight line because a bend
t ends t o eliminat e st r ain by a bsor bing vibr a t ion and compensa t ing for t emper a t ur e expa n-
sion and cont r a ct ion.
Inst a ll all t he lines so you can r emove t hem wit hout dismant ling a cir cuit ’s component s
or wit hout bending or spr inging t hem t o a ba d angle. Add suppor t s t o t he lines at fr equent
int er va ls t o minimize vibr at ion or movement ; never weld t he lines t o t he suppor t s. Since
flexible hose ha s a t endency t o shor t en when subject ed t o pr essur e, allow enough slack t o
compensat e for t his pr oblem.
Keep a ll t he pipes, t ubes, or fit t ings clean a nd fr ee fr om scale and ot her for eign ma t t er .
Clea n ir on or st eel pipes, t ubes, a nd fit t ings wit h a boiler -t ube wir e br ush or wit h com-
mer cia l pipe-clea ning equipment . Remove r ust a nd sca le fr om shor t , st r a ight pieces by
sandbla st ing t hem, a s long a s no sa nd par t icles will r ema in lodged in blind holes or pocket s
a ft er you flush a piece. In t he case of long pieces or pieces bent t o complex sha pes, r emove
r ust a nd sca le by pickling (cleaning met a l in a chemical bat h). Cap a nd plug t he open ends
of t he pipes, t ubes, and fit t ings t hat will be st or ed for a long per iod. Do not use r ags or wa st e
for t his pur pose because t hey deposit har mful lint t hat can ca use sever e da mage in a
hydr aulic syst em.
2-10. Fi tt ings and Connec tors . Fit t ings ar e used t o connect t he unit s of a fluid-power ed
syst em, including t he individua l sect ions of a cir culat or y syst em. Ma ny differ ent t ypes of
connect or s ar e a va ilable for fluid-power ed syst ems. The t ype t hat you will use will depend
on t he t ype of cir culat or y syst em (pipe, t ubing, or flexible hose), t he fluid medium, and t he
ma ximum oper at ing pr essur e of a syst em. Some of t he most common t ypes of connect or s ar e
descr ibed below:
a . Threaded Connectors. Thr ea ded connect or s a r e used in some low-pr essur e liquid-
power ed syst ems. They ar e usua lly made of st eel, copper , or br ass, in a var iet y of designs
(Figur e 2-24, pa ge 2-22). The connect or s ar e made wit h st anda r d female t hr ea ding cut on
t he inside sur face. The end of t he pipe is t hreaded wit h outside (male) t hr ea ds for connect ing.
FM 5-499
2-22 Hydraulic Systems
Fi gure 2-24. Threade d-pi pe conne c tors
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-23
St a ndar d pipe t hr ea ds ar e t a per ed slight ly
t o ensur e t ight connect ions.
To pr event seizing (t hr eads st icking),
apply a pipe-t hr ead compound t o t he
t hr eads. Keep t he t wo end t hr ea ds fr ee of
t he compound so t hat it will not cont a minat e
t he fluid. Pipe compound, when impr oper ly
applied, may get inside t he lines a nd har m
t he pumps a nd t he cont r ol equipment .
b. Flared Connectors. The common con-
nect or s used in cir culat or y syst ems consist
of t ube lines. These connect or s pr ovide safe,
st r ong, dependa ble connect ions wit hout hav-
ing t o t hr ead, weld, or solder t he t ubing. A
connect or consist s of a fit t ing, a sleeve, and
a nut (see Figur e 2-25).
Fit t ings a r e ma de of st eel, a luminum a lloy, or br onze. The fit t ings should be of a mat e-
r ia l t hat is similar t o t hat of a sleeve, nut , a nd t ubing. Fit t ings ar e made in unions, 45- a nd
90-degr ee elbows, Ts, a nd va r ious ot her shapes. Figur e 2-26, page 2-24, shows some of t he
most common fit t ings used wit h flar ed connect or s.
Fit t ings ar e a vailable in many differ ent t hr ea d combinat ions. Unions have t ube connec-
t ions on ea ch end; elbows ha ve t ube connect ions on one end a nd a ma le pipe t hr ead, female
pipe t hr ea d, or a t ube connect ion on t he opposit e end; cr osses a nd Ts have sever a l differ ent
combina t ions.
Tubing used wit h flar ed connect or s must be flar ed befor e being assembled. A nut fit s
over a sleeve and, when t ight ened, dr aws t he sleeve and t ubing flar e t ight ly against a male
fit t ing t o for m a sea l. A male fit t ing ha s a cone-sha ped sur face wit h t he sa me angle as t he
inside of a fla r e. A sleeve suppor t s t he t ube so t hat vibr at ion does not concent r at e at t he
edge of a flar e but t hat it does dist r ibut e t he shea r ing act ion over a wider a r ea for a dded
st r engt h. Tight en t he t ubing nut s wit h a t or que wr ench t o t he va lue specified in a pplicable
r egulat ions.
If a n a luminum alloy flar ed connect or leaks a ft er t ight ening t o t he specified t or que, do
not t ight en it fur t her . Disa ssemble t he leaking connect or a nd cor r ect t he fault . If a st eel
connect or lea ks, you ma y t ight en it 1/6 t ur n beyond t he specified t or que in a n a t t empt t o
st op t he lea k. If you ar e unsuccessful, disa ssemble it a nd r epair it .
Flar ed connect or s will lea k if—
• A fla r e is dist or t ed int o t he nut t hr ea ds.
• A sleeve is cr acked.
• A fla r e is cr a cked or split .
• A fla r e is out -of-r ound.
• A fla r e is eccent r ic t o t he t ube’s OD.
• A fla r e's inside is r ough or scr at ched.
• A fit t ing cone is r ough or scr at ched.
Fitting
Nut
Sleeve
Tubing
Fi gure 2-25. Flared-t ube c onne ctor
FM 5-499
2-24 Hydraulic Systems
Fi gure 2-26. Fl are d-t ube fi tt i ngs
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-25
• The t hr ea ds of a fit t ing or
nut ar e dir t y, dama ged, or
br oken.
c. Flexible-Hose Couplings. If
a hose a ssembly is fabr icat ed wit h
field at t acha ble couplings (Figur e
2-27), use t he same couplings when
fabr icat ing t he r epla cement assem-
bly, as long a s t he fa ilur e (lea k or
br ea k) did not occur a t a coupling.
If fa ilur e occur r ed at a coupling,
discar d it .
When measur ing a r epla ce-
ment hose a ssembly for scr ew-on
couplings, measur e fr om t he edge
of a r et aining bolt (Figur e 2-28).
Place t he hose in hose blocks and
t hen in a bench vice (Figur e 2-29).
Use t he fr ont or r ea r por t ion of a
hacksaw bla de for cut t ing. (If you
use t he middle por t ion of a blade, it could t wist and br eak.) For effect ive cut t ing, a blade
should ha ve 24 or 32 t eet h per inch. To r emove a n old coupling on a hose assembly t ha t is
fabr icat ed wit h per manent ly at t ached couplings, you just disca r d t he ent ir e assembly (see
Figur e 2-30, pa ge 2-26).
d. Reusable Fit tings. To use a skived fit t ing (Figur e 2-31, page 2-26), you must st r ip
(skive) t he hose t o a lengt h equa l t o t ha t fr om a not ch on a fit t ing t o t he end of t he fit t ing. (A
not ch on a female por t ion of a fit t ing in Figur e 2-31 indicat es it t o be a skived fit t ing.) To
assemble a conduct or using skived fit t ings—
Straight 45°bent tube
90°bent tube
long drop
90°bent tube
short drop
Fi gure 2-27. Fi e ld-at tac hable c oupli ngs
Measure from edge
of hex
Length
measurement
Measure from edge
of retaining bolt
Fi gure 2-28. Hos e -le ngth meas ureme nt
Fi gure 2-29. Hose c ut ti ng
FM 5-499
2-26 Hydraulic Systems
Fi gure 2-30. Pe rmanent ly at tac hed coupli ngs
Fi gure 2-31. Ski ved fi t ti ng
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-27
• Det er mine t he lengt h of t he skive.
• Make a cut ar ound t he hose wit h a sha r p knife. Make sur e t hat you cut complet ely
t hr ough t he r ubber cover of t he hose.
• Cut lengt hwise t o t he end of t he hose (Figur e 2-32). Lift t he hose fla p and r emove
it wit h plier s.
• Repeat t he pr ocess on t he opposit e end of t he hose.
• Place t he female por t ion of t he fit t ing in a bench vice (Figur e 2-33) and secur e it in
pla ce.
• Lubr icat e t he skived por t ion of t he hose wit h hose lubr icant (hydr aulic fluid or
engine oil, if necessa r y).
• Inser t t he hose int o t he female socket and t urn t he hose count er clockwise unt il it
bot t oms on t he shoulder of t he female socket , t hen back off 1/4 t ur n.
• Place t he fema le socket in an upr ight posit ion (Figur e 2-34, page 3-28) and inser t
t he male nipple int o t he fema le socket .
• Tur n t he ma le nipple clockwise (Figur e 2-35, pa ge 3-28) unt il t he hex is wit hin 1/32
inch of t he fema le socket .
• Repeat t he a bove pr ocess on t he opposit e end of t he hose.
When a ssembling conduct or s using nonskived-t ype fit t ings, follow t he above pr oce-
dur es. However , do not skive a hose. Nonskived fit t ings do not have a not ch on t he female
por t ion of a fit t ing (Figur e 2-36, page 2-28).
Figur e 2-37, pa ge 2-28, diagr am A, shows a female hose coupling. One end of t he hose
has a spir al r idge (cour se t hr ead) t ha t pr ovides a gr ipping a ct ion on t he hose. The ot her end
(small end) has machine t hr eads int o which t he ma le, fixed or swivel nipple, is inser t ed.
Figur e 2-37, diagr a m B shows t he ma le adapt er , and diagr a m C shows t he ma le and t he
fema le swivel body. These fit t ings cont ain a fixed or swivel hex-nut connect or on one end.
The opposit e end is t a per ed and has ma chine t hr eads t hat mat e wit h t he t hr ea ds in a female
fit t ing. Wit h a long t aper inser t ed int o a hose and scr ewed int o a female coupling, t he t a per
Fi gure 2-32. Tri mmi ng a hos e Fi gure 2-33. Femal e port i on of a fi tt i ng
FM 5-499
2-28 Hydraulic Systems
Fi gure 2-34. Male and fe male porti ons
of a fi tt i ng
Fi gure 2-35. Ti ght e ni ng a fi tt i ng
Fi gure 2-36. Nonski ve d fi t ti ng
Female hose
coupling
A
Male
adapter
B
(Male and female)
swivel body
C
Fi gure 2-37. Fi t ti ngs
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-29
t ends t o expand a hose, for cing it a ga inst t he
inside dia met er of a female fit t ing.
Figur e 2-38 shows t he assembly of a
cla mp-t ype coupling. If you use t his coupling,
do not skive t he hose. Lubr ica t e t he ID of a
hose a nd t he OD of a st em. Clamp a hose st em
in a bench vice a nd inst all a hose. Tur n t he
hose count er clockwise unt il it bot t oms a ga inst
t he shoulder of t he st em (Figur e 2-38, diagr a m
A). If you do not ha ve a vice, for ce t he st em
int o t he hose by pushing or st r iking t he st em
wit h a wooden block. Place t he cla mp ha lves in
posit ion (Figur e 2-38, diagr am B) and dr aw
t hem t oget her wit h a vice or wit h ext r a long
bolt s unt il t he st andar d bolt s pr ot r ude far
enough t o gr ip t he nut s. Remove t he ext r a long
bolt s and place r et aining bolt s t hrough t he
clamp. Tight en t he nut s unt il you get t he
requir ed t orque (Figur e 2-38, diagr am C).
NOTE: You may have t o
re ti ght e n the bolts aft er the
hose asse mbly has be en operat-
i ng about 10 t o 20 hours. Use
clamp-t ype c oupli ngs on hos e
ass e mbl ie s wi t h di amet ers of 1
i nch or gre ate r. Us e re usable
screw-type fi t ti ngs on hos e
ass e mbl ie s wi t h di amet ers le s s
than 1 i nch.
2-11. Leakage . Any hydr a ulic syst em will
have a cer t ain amount of leaka ge. Any lea kage
will r educe efficiency and ca use power loss.
Some leaka ge is built in (pla nned), some is not .
Lea kage may be int er na l, ext er nal, or bot h.
a. Internal. This t ype of leaka ge (nonposi-
t ive) must be built int o hydr aulic component s
t o lubr icat e va lve spools, shaft s, pist ons, bear -
ings, pumping mecha nisms, a nd ot her moving
par t s. In some hydr a ulic valves a nd pump a nd
mot or compensa t or cont r ols, leaka ge pa t hs a r e
built in t o pr ovide pr ecise cont r ol and t o avoid
hunt ing (oscillat ion) of spools and pist ons. Oil
is not lost in int er nal leaka ge; it r et ur ns t o a r eser voir t hr ough r et ur n lines or specia lly pr o-
vided dr a in pa ssa ges.
Too much int er na l leakage will slow down a ct uat or s. The power loss is accompanied by
t he heat gener at ed at a lea kage pat h. In some inst a nces, excess leaka ge in a valve could
cause a cylinder t o dr ift or even cr eep when a valve is supposedly in neut r a l. In t he ca se of
A
B
C
Fi gure 2-38. Asse mbly of clamp-t ype
c oupli ng
FM 5-499
2-30 Hydraulic Systems
flow or pr essur e-cont r ol valves, lea kage can oft en r educe effect ive cont r ol or even cause con-
t r ol t o be lost .
Nor mal wea r incr eases int er na l lea kage, which pr ovides la r ger flow pat hs for t he leak-
ing oil. An oil t ha t is low in viscosit y lea ks mor e r ea dily t han a hea vy oil. Ther efor e a n oil’s
viscosit y and viscosit y index a r e impor t a nt consider a t ions in pr oviding or pr event ing int er -
nal lea kage. Int er na l leaka ge also incr eases wit h pr essur e, just a s higher pr essur e ca uses a
gr eat er flow t hr ough an or ifice. Oper at ing above t he r ecommended pr essur es a dds t he dan-
ger of excessive int er na l lea kage a nd heat gener a t ion t o ot her possible ha r mful effect s.
A blown or r upt ur ed int er na l seal ca n open a la r ge enough leaka ge pa t h t o diver t all of a
pump's deliver y. When t his ha ppens, ever yt hing except t he oil flow a nd hea t gener a t ion at a
lea kage point can st op.
b. External. Ext er na l lea kage can be ha zar dous, expensive, a nd unsight ly. Fa ult y
inst a lla t ion and poor maint ena nce ar e t he pr ime ca uses of ext er na l leakage. J oint s may
leak because t hey wer e not put t oget her pr oper ly or because shock and vibr at ion in t he lines
shook t hem loose. Adding suppor t s t o t he lines pr event s t his. If a ssembled and inst a lled
cor r ect ly, component s seldom lea k. However , failur e t o connect dr a in lines, excessive pr es-
sur es, or cont amina t ion can cause seals t o blow or be da ma ged, r esult ing in ext er nal leakage
fr om t he component s.
c. Prevention. Pr oper inst a llat ion, cont r ol of oper a t ing condit ions, and pr oper maint e-
nance help pr event lea kage.
(1) Inst alla t ion. Inst a lling piping a nd t ubing a ccor ding t o a manufact ur er 's r ecommen-
da t ions will pr omot e long life of ext er na l seals. Vibr a t ion or st r esses t hat r esult fr om
impr oper inst alla t ion can shake loose connect ions and cr eat e puddles. Avoid pinching, cock-
ing, or incor r ect ly inst alling seals when assembling t he unit s. Use a ny special t ools t ha t t he
ma nufa ct ur er r ecommends for inst a lling t he seals.
(2) Oper a t ing Condit ions. To ensur e cor r ect sea l life, you must cont r ol t he oper at ing
condit ions of t he equipment . A shaft sea l or pist on-r od sea l exposed t o moist ur e, salt , dir t , or
any ot her a br a sive cont amina t e will have a shor t ened life span. Also, oper at or s should
alwa ys t r y t o keep t heir loa ds wit hin t he r ecommended limit s t o pr event lea kage caused by
excessive pr essur es.
(3) Maint enance. Regular filt er and oil changes, using a high-qualit y hydr aulic oil, add
t o sea l life. Using infer ior oil could wear on a sea l and int er fer e wit h desir able oil pr oper t ies.
Pr oper ma int enance pr event s impur it y deposit s a nd cir culat ing ingr edient s t ha t could wear
on a dyna mic sea l.
Never use a ddit ives wit hout appr ova l fr om t he equipment a nd oil supplier s. Lubr ica -
t ion can be cr it ica l t o a seal's life in dynamic a pplica t ions. Synt het ics do not absor b much oil
and must be lubr icat ed quickly or t hey will r ub. Leat her and fiber do a bsor b oil. Manufa c-
t ur er s r ecommend soaking a sea l over night in oil befor e inst alling it . Do not inst all a sea l
dr y. Alwa ys coa t it in clea n hydr a ulic oil befor e inst alling it .
2-12. Se al s . Sea ls a r e packing mat er ials used t o pr event leaks in liquid-power ed syst ems.
A seal is any gasket , pa cking, seal r ing, or ot her par t designed specifica lly for sea ling. Seal-
ing a pplicat ions a r e usually st a t ic or dynamic, depending if t he pa r t s being sea led move in
r ela t ion t o one anot her . Sea ling keeps t he hydr aulic oil flowing in pa ssa ges t o hold pr essur e
and keep for eign mat er ials fr om get t ing int o t he hydr aulic pa ssages. To pr event lea kage,
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-31
use a posit ive sealing met hod, which
involves using a ct ual sea ling pa r t s or
ma t er ia ls. In most hydr a ulic compo-
nent s, you can use nonposit ive sealing
(lea kage for lubr ica t ion) by fit t ing t he
par t s closely t oget her . The st r engt h
of a n oil film t ha t t he par t s slide
against pr ovides an effect ive sea l.
a. S tatic S eals. Pipe-t hr eaded
seals, sea l r ings used wit h t ube fit -
t ings, valve end-ca p seals, a nd ot her
seals on nonmoving pa r t s ar e st at ic
seals. Mount ing ga sket s and seals
ar e st a t ic, as a r e seals used in making
connect ions bet ween component s. A
st at ic seal or ga sket is placed bet ween
par t s t ha t do not move in r elat ion t o
each ot her . Figur e 2-39 shows some
t ypical st at ic sea ls in flanged connec-
t ions.
b. Dynamic S eals. In a dynamic
sealing a pplica t ion, eit her a r ecipr o-
cat ing or a r ot a r y mot ion occur s bet ween t he t wo
par t s being sealed; for example, a pist on-t o-bar -
r el sea l in a hydr a ulic cylinder or a dr ive-sha ft
seal in a pump or mot or .
(1) O-Ring (Figur e 2-40). An O-r ing is a
posit ive seal t ha t is used in st at ic and dynamic
applicat ions. It has r epla ced t he flat gasket on
hydr a ulic equipment . When being inst a lled,
an O-r ing is squeezed a t t he t op a nd bot t om in
it s gr oove and a ga inst t he mat ing par t . It is
capable of sealing ver y high pr essur e. Pr essur e
for ces t he seal a ga inst t he side of it s gr oove,
and t he r esult is a posit ive seal on t hr ee sides.
Dynamic a pplicat ions of an O-r ing ar e usua lly
limit ed t o r ecipr oca t ing par t s t hat have r ela -
t ively shor t mot ion.
To r emove an O-r ing seal, you need a spe-
cia l t ool ma de of soft ir on or aluminum or a
br a ss r od (Figur e 2-41, pa ge 2-32). Ma ke sur e
t ha t t he t ool’s edges a r e flat a nd t ha t you polish
any bur r s a nd r ough sur faces.
(2) Backup Ring (Figur e 2-42, page 2-32).
Usua lly, ma de of st iff nylon, you can use a
ba ckup r ing wit h an O-r ing so t hat it is not
BASIC FLANGE JOINTS
Gasket
Simple
METAL-TO-METAL JOINTS
Tongue-and groove
Tongue-and groove
Fi gure 2-39. Stat i c seal s
No
pressure
Pressure
Figure 2-40. O-ri ng place ment
FM 5-499
2-32 Hydraulic Systems
for ced int o t he spa ce bet ween t he mat ing
pa r t s. A combinat ion of high pr essur e a nd
clea r a nce bet ween t he pa r t s could call for a
ba ckup r ing.
(3) Lat he-Cut Sea l. This sea l is like an O-
r ing but is squar e in cr oss-sect ion r at her t han
r ound. A lat he-cut r ing is cut fr om ext r uded
t ubes, while an O-r ing must be individua lly
molded. In ma ny st a t ic applica t ions, r ound-
and squa r e-sect ion seals ar e int er changeable, if
ma de fr om t he sa me mat er ial.
(4) T-Ring Sea l (Figure 2-43). This seal is
r einfor ced wit h back-up r ings on ea ch side. A T-
r ing seal is used in r ecipr oca t ing dynamic a ppli-
ca t ions, par t icula r ly on cylinder pist ons and
ar ound pist on r ods.
(5) Lip Seal (Figur e 2-44). This a dynamic
seal used ma inly on r ot a t ing shaft s. A sea ling
lip pr ovides a posit ive seal a ga inst low pr es-
sur e. A lip is inst alled t owa r d t he pr essur e
sour ce. Pr essur e against a lip ba lloons it out t o
aid in sealing. Ver y high pr essur e, however ,
ca n get pa st t his kind of seal because it does not
have t he ba ckup suppor t t ha t a n O-r ing ha s.
Somet imes, double-lip seals a r e
used on t he shaft s of r ever sible pumps
or mot or s. Rever sing a unit can give
an alt er nat ing pr essur e and vacuum
condit ion in t he cha mber adja cent t o a
seal. A double-lip seal, t her efor e, pr e-
vent s oil fr om get t ing out or a ir a nd
dir t fr om get t ing in.
(6) Cup Sea l (Figur e 2-45). This is
a posit ive sea l t ha t is used on hydr a ulic
cylinder pist ons a nd seals much like a
lip seal. A cup seal is backed up so t ha t
it ca n ha ndle ver y high pr essur es.
(7) Pist on Ring (Figur e 2-46). A
pist on r ing is used t o seal pr essur e a t
t he end of a r ecipr ocat ing pist on. It
helps keep fr ict ion a t a minimum in a
hydr aulic cylinder a nd offer s less r esis-
t ance t o movement t ha n a cup seal. A
pist on r ing is used in ma ny complex
component s a nd syst ems t o seal fluid
pa ssages lea ding fr om hollow r ot a t ing
Surface must be smooth and
free from scratches.
Corners must not be dented
or bumped.
0.005 radius desired.
Flatten as shown and polish
off burrs and edges.
Fi gure 2-41. O-ri ng re moval tool
O ring
Pressure
Back-up ring
Fi gure 2-42. Bac kup ri ng
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Systems 2-33
shaft s. It is fine for high pr essur es but may not pr ovide a posit ive seal. A posit ive sea l is
mor e likely t o occur when pist on r ings a r e placed side by side. Oft en, a pist on r ing is
designed t o a llow some leaka ge for lubr icat ion.
(8) Fa ce Seal (Figur e 2-47, page 2-34). This sea l has t wo smoot h, flat element s t hat r un
t oget her t o seal a r ot at ing shaft . One element is met allic and t he ot her is nonmet allic. The
element s a r e at t a ched t o a sha ft and a body so t hat one fa ce is st a t ionar y a nd t he ot her t ur ns
against it . One element is oft en spr ing-loa ded t o t a ke up wear . A fa ce seal is used pr imar ily
when t her e is high speed, pr essur e, and t emper a t ur e.
c. Pack ing. Pa cking is a t ype of t wist ed or woven fiber or soft met a l st r a nds t ha t a r e
packed bet ween t he t wo par t s being sea led. A packing gla nd suppor t s a nd ba cks up t he
packing. Pa cking (Figur e 2-48) ca n be eit her st at ic or dynamic. It has been and is used as a
r ot at ing sha ft seal, a r ecipr ocat ing pist on-r od seal, and a gasket in many st at ic applicat ions.
In st at ic applicat ions, a sea l is r epla cing a pa cking. A compr ession packing is usually
pla ced in a coil or la yer ed in a bor e a nd compr essed by t ight ening a flanged member . A
molded pa cking is molded int o a pr ecise cr oss-sect ional for m, such a s a U or V. Sever al
Seal
Back-up ring
Fi gure 2-43. T-ri ng seal
Spring
lip
High
pressure
Seal housing
Fi gure 2-44. Li p s e al
Cylinder
Cup seals
Piston
Fi gure 2-45. Cup seal
Piston
Seal ring
Cylinder
barrel
O ring
Fi gure 2-46. Pi ston ri ng
FM 5-499
2-34 Hydraulic Systems
pa ckings can be used t oget her , wit h a backup
t hat is spr ing-loaded t o compensat e for wea r .
d. S eal Materials. The ea r liest sealing
mat er ials for hydr aulic component s wer e
mainly leat her , cor k, and impr egna t ed fiber s.
Cur r ent ly, most sea ling mat er ia ls in a hydr au-
lic syst em a r e ma de fr om synt het ic mat er ials
such a s nit r ile, silicone, a nd neopr ene.
(1) Leat her Seals. Lea t her is st ill a good
sea ling ma t er ia l and ha s not been complet ely
r eplaced by elast omer s. It is t ough, r esist s
a br a sion, and ha s t he abilit y t o hold lubr icat -
ing fluids in it s fiber s. Impr egna t ing leat her
wit h synt het ic r ubber impr oves t he lea t her 's
sea ling abilit y and r educes it s fr ict ion.
Leat her 's disa dva nt ages a r e t hat it t ends t o
squeal when it is dr y, and it ca nnot st and high
t emper at ur es.
(2) Nit r ile Seals. Nit r ile is a compar a-
t ively t ough ma t er ia l wit h excellent wear abil-
it y. It s composit ion var ies t o be compa t ible
wit h pet r oleum oils, a nd it can easily be
molded int o differ ent sea l shapes. Some
nit r ile sea ls ca n be used, wit hout difficult y, in
t emper a t ur es r anging fr om -40 degr ees Fahr -
enheit t o +230° F.
(3) Silicone Sea ls. Silicone is an ela s-
t omer t ha t ha s a much wider t emper at ur e
r ange t han some nit r ile seals ha ve. Silicone
cannot be used for r ecipr oca t ing seals because
it is not as t ough. It t ear s, elongat es, and
a br a des fa ir ly ea sily. Many lip-t ype sha ft
sea ls made fr om silicone a r e used in ext r eme
t emper a t ur e applicat ions. Silicone O-r ings a r e
used for st at ic a pplica t ions. Silicone has a t en-
dency t o swell since it absor bs a fair volume of
oil while r unning hot . This is an advant age, if
t he swelling is not object iona ble, because a sea l ca n r un dr y for a longer t ime at st ar t -up.
(4) Neopr ene. At ver y low t emper at ur es, neopr ene is compa t ible wit h pet r oleum oil.
Above 150 degr ees, it has a ha bit of cooking or vulca nizing, ma king it less useful.
(5) Nylon. Nylon is a plast ic (also known as fluor o-ela st omer ) t ha t combines fluor ine
wit h a synt het ic r ubber . It is used for backup r ings, ha s sealing mat er ia ls in specia l applica -
t ions, and has a ver y high hea t r esist ance.
Housing
Sealing face
Preloading
spring
Shaft
High pressure
Low pressure
Fi gure 2-47. Face seal
Compression
packings
Pressure
Figure 2-48. Compre ssi on packing
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-1
CHAPTER 3
Pumps
Hydraulic pumps convert mechanical energy from a prime mover (engine or electric
motor) int o hydraulic (pressure) energy. The pressure energy is used t hen t o operat e an actu-
ator. Pumps push on a hydraulic fluid and create flow.
3-1. Pump Clas s ifi c ati ons . All pumps cr eat e flow. They oper a t e on t he displacement
pr inciple. Fluid is t aken in and displa ced t o a not her point . Pumps t ha t dischar ge liquid in a
cont inuous flow a r e nonposit ive-displa cement t ype. Pumps t hat dischar ge volumes of liquid
separ at ed by per iods of no discha r ge a r e posit ive-displacement t ype.
a. Nonpositive-Displacement Pumps. Wit h t his pump, t he volume of liquid deliver ed for
each cycle depends on t he r esist ance offer ed t o flow. A pump pr oduces a for ce on t he liquid
t ha t is const ant for each par t icula r speed of t he pump. Resist a nce in a discha r ge line pr o-
duces a for ce in t he opposit e dir ect ion. When t hese for ces ar e equal, a liquid is in a st at e of
equilibr ium and does not flow.
If t he out let of a nonposit ive-displa cement pump is complet ely closed, t he discha r ge
pr essur e will r ise t o t he ma ximum for a pump oper a t ing a t a ma ximum speed. A pump will
chur n a liquid and pr oduce heat . Figur e 3-1 shows a nonposit ive-displa cement pump. A
wat er wheel picks up t he fluid and moves it .
b. Positive-Displacement Pumps. Wit h t his pump, a definit e volume of liquid is deliv-
er ed for each cycle of pump oper a t ion, r ega r dless of r esist ance, a s long as t he capa cit y of t he
power unit dr iving a pump is not exceeded. If a n out let is complet ely closed, eit her t he unit
dr iving a pump will st all or somet hing will br eak. Ther efor e, a posit ive-displacement -t ype
pump r equir es a pr essur e r egulat or or pr essur e-r elief valve in t he syst em. Figur e 3-2, pa ge
3-2, shows a r ecipr ocat ing-t ype, posit ive-displacement pump.
Figur e 3-3, page 3-2, shows
anot her posit ive-displacement
pump. This pump not only cr ea t es
flow, but it a lso ba cks it up. A
sealed case a r ound t he gear t r a ps
t he fluid a nd holds it while it
moves. As t he fluid flows out of
t he ot her side, it is sea led aga inst
ba ckup. This sea ling is t he posi-
t ive pa r t of displa cement . Wit h-
out it , t he fluid could never
over come t he r esist a nce of t he
ot her par t s in a syst em.
c. Characteristics. The t hr ee
cont r ast ing cha r a ct er ist ics in t he
Fi gure 3-1. Nonpos i t i ve-di splace ment pump
FM 5-499
3-2 Pumps
oper a t ion of posit ive- and nonposit ive-displa cement pumps a r e as follows:
• Nonposit ive-displa cement pumps pr ovide a smoot h, cont inuous flow; posit ive-
displa cement pumps ha ve a pulse wit h ea ch st r oke or each t ime a pumping cha m-
ber opens t o an out let por t .
• Pr ess ur e ca n r educe a nonposit ive pump’s deliver y. High out let pr essur e ca n
st op a ny ou t put ; t he liquid simply r ecir cula t es inside t he pump. I n a posit ive-
displa cement pump, pr essur e affect s t he out put only t o t he ext ent t ha t it
incr eases int er nal lea ka ge.
• Nonposit ive-displa cement pumps, wit h t he inlet s a nd out let s connect ed hydr auli-
cally, cannot cr eat e a vacuum sufficient for self-pr iming; t hey must be st ar t ed
wit h t he inlet line full of liquid and fr ee of air . Posit ive-displacement pumps oft en
ar e self-pr iming when st ar t ed pr oper ly.
3-2. Pe rformanc e . Pumps ar e usua lly r a t ed a ccor ding t o t heir volumet r ic out put and pr es-
sur e. Volumet r ic out put (deliver y r at e or ca pacit y) is t he a mount of liquid t hat a pump ca n
deliver a t it s out let por t per unit of t ime at a given dr ive speed, usua lly expr essed in GPM or
cubic inches per minut e. Because cha nges in pump dr ive affect volumet r ic out put , pumps
a r e somet imes r at ed accor ding t o displace-
ment , t hat is t he a mount of liquid t ha t
t hey ca n deliver per cycle or cubic inches
per r evolut ion.
Pr essur e is t he for ce per unit a r ea of a
liquid, usually expr essed in psi. (Most of
t he pr essur e in t he hydr aulic syst ems cov-
er ed in t his ma nual is cr eat ed by r esis-
t ance t o flow.) Resist ance is usually
ca used by a r est r ict ion or obst r uct ion in a
pat h or flow. The pr essur e developed in a
syst em ha s an effect on t he volumet r ic
out put of t he pump supplying flow t o a
syst em. As pr essur e incr eases, volumet r ic
out put decr ea ses. This dr op in out put is
caused by an incr ease in int er nal leaka ge
(slippa ge) fr om a pump's out let side t o it s
inlet side. Slippage is a mea sur e of a
pump’s efficiency a nd usually is expr essed
in per cent . Some pumps ha ve gr eat er
int er nal slippage t ha n ot her s; some
pumps a r e r a t ed in t er ms of volumet r ic
out put at a given pr essur e.
3-3. Di splac eme nt . Displacement is t he
a mount of liquid t r a nsfer r ed fr om a
pump’s inlet t o it s out let in one r evolut ion
or cycle. In a r ot a r y pump, displacement
is expr essed in cubic inches per r evolut ion
a nd in a r ecipr ocat ing pump in cubic
inches per cycle. If a pump has mor e t han
Fi gure 3-2. Rec i procat i ng-t ype , posi ti ve -
di spl aceme nt pump
Fi gure 3-3. Posi ti ve -di splace ment pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-3
one pumping cha mber , it s displa cement is equal t o t he displacement of one cha mber mult i-
plied by t he number of chamber s. Displa cement is eit her fixed or var ia ble.
a. Fixed-Displacement Pump. In t his pump, t he GPM out put can be cha nged only by
va r ying t he dr ive speed. The pump can be used in a n open-cent er syst em—a pump’s out put
has a fr ee-flow pat h ba ck t o a r eser voir in t he neut r al condit ion of a cir cuit .
b. Variable-Displacement Pump. In t his pump, pumping-cha mber sizes ca n be changed.
The GPM deliver y ca n be changed by moving t he displa cement cont r ol, cha nging t he dr ive
speed, or doing bot h. The pump can be used in a closed-cent er syst em—a pump cont inues t o
oper at e against a load in t he neut r al condit ion.
3-4. Sli ppage . Slippage is oil leaking fr om a pr essur e out let t o a low-pr essur e ar ea or back
t o a n inlet . A dr ain passage allows lea king oil t o r et ur n t o a n inlet or a r eser voir . Some slip-
page is designed int o pumps for lubr ica t ion pur poses. Slippage will incr ea se wit h pr essur e
and as a pump begins t o wea r . Oil flow t hr ough a given or ifice size depends on t he pr essur e
dr ip. An int er na l lea kage pat h is t he same a s an or ifice. Ther efor e, if pr essur e incr ea ses,
mor e flow will occur t hr ough a leakage pa t h a nd less fr om a n out let por t . Any incr ease in
slippa ge is a loss of efficiency.
3-5. Desi gns . In most r ot ar y hydr a ulic pumps (Figur e 3-3), t he design is such t hat t he
pumping chamber s incr ease in size a t t he inlet , t her eby cr eat ing a va cuum. The chamber s
t hen decr ease in size at t he out let t o push fluid int o a syst em. The vacuum at t he inlet is
used t o cr eat e a pr essur e differ ence so t hat fluid will flow fr om a r eser voir t o a pump. How-
ever , in many syst ems, a n inlet is cha r ged or super char ged; t ha t is, a posit ive pr essur e
r at her t ha n a vacuum is cr eat ed by a pr essur ized r eser voir , a hea d of fluid above t he inlet , or
even a low-pr essur e-char ging pump. The essent ials of a ny hydr a ulic pump a r e—
• A low-pr essur e inlet por t , which car r ys fluid fr om t he r eser voir .
• A high-pr essur e out let por t connect ed t o t he pr essur e line.
• Pumping chamber (s) t o car r y a fluid fr om t he inlet t o t he out let por t .
• A mecha nica l means for a ct ivat ing t he pumping cha mber (s).
Pumps may be classified accor ding t o t he specific design used t o cr eat e t he flow of a liq-
uid. Most hydr a ulic pumps ar e eit her cent r ifugal, r ot a r y, or r ecipr ocat ing.
a. Centrifugal Pump. This pump gener a lly is used wher e a la r ge volume of flow is
r equir ed at r ela t ively low pr essur es. It can be connect ed in ser ies by feeding a n out let of one
pump int o a n inlet of anot her . Wit h t his a r r a ngement , t he pumps can develop flow against
high pr essur es. A cent r ifuga l pump is a nonposit ive-displa cement pump, and t he t wo most
common t ypes a r e t he volut e a nd t he diffuser .
(1) Volut e Pump (Figur e 3-4, page 3-4). This pump has a cir cular pumping chamber
wit h a cent r al inlet por t (suct ion pipe) and an out let por t . A r ot at ing impeller is locat ed in a
pumping chamber . A chamber bet ween t he ca sing and t he cent er hub is t he volut e. Liquid
ent er s a pumping chamber t hr ough a cent r a l inlet (or eye) a nd is t r apped bet ween t he whir l-
ing impeller bla des. Cent r ifugal for ce t hr ows a liquid out wa r d at a high velocit y, a nd a con-
t our of a casing dir ect s a moving liquid t hr ough an out let por t .
(2) Diffuser Pump (Figur e 3-5). Similar t o a volut e t ype, a diffuser pump ha s a ser ies of
st at iona r y bla des (t he diffuser ) t hat cur ve in t he opposit e dir ect ion fr om whir ling impeller
FM 5-499
3-4 Pumps
blades. A diffuser r educes t he veloc-
it y of a liquid, decreases slippage, and
increases a pump's abilit y to develop
flow against resist ance.
b. Rotary Pump. In t his posit ive-
displacement -t ype pump, a r ot a r y
mot ion car r ies a liquid fr om a pump’s
inlet t o it s out let . A r ot ar y pump is
usua lly cla ssified a ccor ding t o t he
t ype of element t ha t a ct ually t r a ns-
mit s a liquid, t ha t is, a gear -, vane-,
or pist on-t ype r ot ar y pump.
c. Reciprocating Pump. A r ecip-
r oca t ing pump depends on a r ecipr o-
ca t ing mot ion t o t r a nsmit a liquid
fr om a pump’s inlet t o it s out let . Fig-
ur e 3-2, page 3-2, shows a simplified
r ecipr ocat ing pump. It consist s of a
cylinder t ha t houses a r ecipr oca t ing
pist on, Figur e 3-2, 1; an inlet valve,
Figur e 3-2, 2; and an out let va lve, Fig-
ur e 3-2, 3, which dir ect fluid t o a nd
fr om a cylinder . When a pist on moves
t o t he left , a par t ial vacuum t hat is
cr ea t ed dr aws a ba ll off it s sea t , allow-
ing a liquid t o be dr awn t hr ough an
inlet va lve int o a cylinder . When a
pist on moves t o t he r ight , a ball
r eseat s a nd closes a n inlet va lve.
However , t he for ce of a flow unsea t s a
ball, allowing a fluid t o be for ced out
of a cylinder t hr ough an out let va lve.
3-6. Gear Pumps . Gear pumps a r e
ext er na l, int er nal, or lobe t ypes.
a. Ext ernal. Figur e 3-6 shows
t he oper at ing pr inciple of a n ext er na l
gear pump. It consist s of a dr iving
gea r and a dr iven gear enclosed in a closely fit t ed housing. The gear s r ot at e in opposit e
dir ect ions and mesh at a point in t he housing bet ween t he inlet a nd out let por t s. Bot h set s
of t eet h pr oject out war d fr om t he cent er of t he gear s. As t he t eet h of t he t wo gea r s sepa r a t e,
a pa r t ia l va cuum for ms and dr aws liquid t hr ough an inlet por t int o cha mber A. Liquid in
cha mber A is t r apped bet ween t he t eet h of t he t wo gea r s and t he housing so t ha t it is car r ied
t hr ough t wo sepa r a t e pa t hs ar ound t o chamber B. As t he t eet h a ga in mesh, t hey pr oduce a
for ce t hat dr ives a liquid t hr ough a n out let por t .
Fi gure 3-4. Volut e pump
Fi gure 3-5. Di ffuse r pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-5
b. Internal. Figur e 3-7
shows a n int er nal gear
pump. The t eet h of one gea r
pr oject out war d, while t he
t eet h of t he ot her gear pr oject
inwar d t owar d t he cent er of
t he pump. One gea r wheel
st ands inside t he ot her . This
t ype of gea r ca n r ot a t e, or be
r ot at ed by, a suit ably con-
st r uct ed companion gear . An
ext er na l gea r is dir ect ly
at t ached t o t he dr ive shaft of
a pump and is pla ced off-cen-
t er in r ela t ion t o an int er na l
gea r . The t wo gea r s mesh on
one side of a pump chamber ,
bet ween an inlet a nd t he dis-
char ge. On t he opposit e side
of t he cha mber , a cr escent -
shaped for m st a nds in t he
spa ce bet ween t he t wo gear s t o pr ovide a close t oler a nce.
The r ot at ion of t he int er nal gear by a sha ft causes t he ext er na l gea r t o r ot a t e, since t he
t wo ar e in mesh. Ever yt hing in t he cha mber r ot at es except t he cr escent , ca using a liquid t o
be t r a pped in t he gea r spa ces a s t hey pass t he cr escent . Liquid is ca r r ied fr om a n inlet t o t he
dischar ge, wher e it is for ced out of a pump by t he gear s meshing. As liquid is car r ied a wa y
Fi gure 3-6. Ext ernal ge ar pump
Fi gure 3-7. Internal gear pump
FM 5-499
3-6 Pumps
fr om a n inlet side of a pump, t he pr essur e
is diminished, and liquid is for ced in fr om
t he supply sour ce. The size of t he cr escent
t ha t separ a t es t he int er na l and ext er nal
gear s det er mines t he volume deliver y of
t his pump. A small cr escent a llows mor e
volume of a liquid per r evolut ion t ha n a
lar ger cr escent .
c. Lobe. Figur e 3-8 shows a lobe
pump. It differ s fr om ot her gea r pumps
beca use it uses lobed element s inst ead of
gear s. The element dr ive also differ s in a
lobe pump. In a gea r pump, one gea r
dr ives t he ot her . In a lobe pump, bot h ele-
ment s ar e dr iven t hr ough suit able ext er na l
gear ing.
3-7. Vane Pumps . In a va ne-t ype pump,
a slot t ed r ot or splined t o a dr ive shaft
r ot at es bet ween closely fit t ed side plat es
t hat ar e inside of an ellipt ical- or cir cula r -shaped r ing. Polished, har dened va nes slide in
and out of t he r ot or slot s a nd follow t he r ing cont our by cent r ifuga l for ce. Pumping cha m-
ber s ar e for med bet ween succeeding va nes, car r ying oil fr om t he inlet t o t he out let . A pa r t ia l
va cuum is cr eat ed a t t he inlet a s t he space bet ween vanes incr eases. The oil is squeezed out
at t he out let as t he pumping chamber ’s size decr eases.
Beca use t he nor mal wear point s in a va ne pump a r e t he vane t ips a nd a r ing’s sur fa ce,
t he va nes a nd r ing ar e specially har dened a nd gr ound. A vane pump is t he only design t ha t
has a ut omat ic wea r compensat ion built in. As wea r occur s, t he vanes simply slide far t her
out of t he r ot or slot s and cont inue t o follow a r ing’s cont our . Thus efficiency r ema ins high
t hr oughout t he life of t he pump.
a. Characteristics. Displacement of a va ne-t ype pump depends on t he widt h of t he r ing
and r ot or a nd t he t hr ow of t he cam r ing. Int er cha ngea ble r ings a r e designed so a ba sic
pump conver t s t o sever a l displacement s. Ba la nced design vane pumps a ll ar e fixed displace-
ment . An unba la nced design ca n be built in eit her a fixed- or var iable-displacement pump.
Vane pumps have good efficiency and dur abilit y if oper a t ed in a clea n syst em using t he cor -
r ect oil. They cover t he low t o medium-high pr essur e, ca pa cit y, a nd speed r a nges. Package
size in r elat ion t o out put is sma ll. A vane pump is gener ally quiet , but will whine at high
speeds.
b. Unbalanced Vane Pumps. In t he unba la nced design, (Figur e 3-9), a cam r ing’s sha pe
is a t r ue cir cle t ha t is on a differ ent cent er line fr om a r ot or ’s. Pump displacement depends
on how far a r ot or and r ing ar e eccent r ic. The advant age of a t r ue-cir cle r ing is t hat cont r ol
ca n be a pplied t o va r y t he eccent r icit y a nd t hus va r y t he displa cement . A disadva nt age is
t hat an unbalanced pr essur e at t he out let is effect ive a ga inst a small a r ea of t he r ot or ’s edge,
imposing side loads on t he shaft . Thus t her e is a limit on a pump’s size unless ver y lar ge
hear ings and heavy suppor t s ar e used.
c. Balanced Vane Pumps. In t he ba lanced design (Figur e 3-10), a pump has a st a t ion-
ar y, ellipt ical cam r ing a nd t wo set s of int er nal por t s. A pumping cha mber is for med
Fi gure 3-8. Lobe pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-7
bet ween any t wo va nes t wice
in each r evolut ion. The t wo
inlet s a nd out let s a r e 180
degr ees a pa r t . Back pr es-
sur es against t he edges of a
r ot or cancel each ot her .
Recent design impr ovement s
t ha t a llow high oper at ing
speeds a nd pr essur es ha ve
ma de t his pump t he most
univer sal in t he mobile-
equipment field.
d. Double Pumps. Va ne-
t ype double pumps (Figur e 3-
11, pa ge 3-8) consist of t wo
separ at e pumping devices.
Each is cont a ined in it s own r espec-
t ive housing, mount ed in t a ndem, and
dr iven by a common shaft . Each pump
also has it s own inlet and out let por t s, which may be combined by using manifolds or piping.
Design var iat ions a r e available in which bot h ca r t r idges a r e cont ained wit hin one body. An
addit iona l pump is somet imes a t t ached t o t he head end t o supply auxilia r y flow r equir e-
ment s.
Double pumps ma y be used t o pr ovide fluid flow for t wo separ a t e cir cuit s or combined
for flow r equir ement s for a single cir cuit . Combining pump deliver ies does not a lt er t he
ma ximum pr essur e r at ing of eit her ca r t r idge. Sepa r a t e cir cuit s r equir e separ at e pr essur e
cont r ols t o limit maximum pr essur e in ea ch cir cuit .
Figur e 3-12, pa ge 3-8, shows a n
inst alla t ion in which double pumps
ar e used t o pr ovide fluid flow for oper -
at ion of a cylinder in r a pid a dvance
and feed. In cir cuit B, t wo r elief
va lves a r e used t o cont r ol pumping
oper at ion. In cir cuit A, one r elief valve
and one unloading valve ar e used t o
cont r ol pumping oper a t ions. In bot h
cir cuit s, t he deliver ies of t he pump
car t r idges ar e combined aft er passing
t hr ough t he valves. This combined
flow is dir ect ed t o a four -way valve
and t o t he r est of t he cir cuit .
In cir cuit B, an upper r elief valve
is vent ed when a cylinder r od r eaches
and t r ips a pilot valve. A vent ed r elief
va lve dir ect s t he deliver y of a shaft -
end pump car t r idge fr eely ba ck t o a
t a nk. Anot her r elief valve cont r ols t he
ma ximum pr essur e of a cir cuit . An
Fi gure 3-10. Balance d vane pump
Fi gure 3-9. Unbalanc ed vane pump
FM 5-499
3-8 Pumps
Head
Packing
Body
Bearing
Flange
Head
Bushing
Ring
Rotor
Bushing
Shaft
Flange
Gasket
Bearing
Packing
Gaskets
Bushing Ring Rotor
Bushing
Fi gure 3-11. Vane -type double pump
A
CIRCUIT USING REMOTE-
CONTROLLED UNLOADING VALVE
B
CIRCUIT USING VENTING-
TYPE RELIEF VALVE
Fi gure 3-12. Flui d fl ow from vane -type double pumps
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-9
unloading valve and a r elief va lve in cir cuit A do t he same oper at ion. The out put of bot h
pump car t r idges combines t o supply fluid for a r a pid a dvance por t ion of a cycle. When t he
out put of one cir cuit r et ur ns t o t he t ank, aft er r eaching a cer t a in point in t he cycle, t he ot her
cir cuit complet es t he advance por t ion of a cycle. Bot h pump out put s are then combined for r apid
ret urn.
e. Two-S tage Pumps. Two-st age pumps consist of t wo separ at e pump assemblies con-
t ained in one housing. The pump assemblies ar e connect ed so t hat flow fr om t he out let of
one is dir ect ed int er nally t o t he inlet of t he ot her . Single inlet and out let por t s ar e used for
syst em connect ions. In const r uct ion, t he pumps consist of separ a t e pumping ca r t r idges
dr iven by a common dr ive sha ft cont ained in one housing. A dividing va lve is used t o equa l-
ize t he pr essur e loa d on ea ch st age a nd cor r ect for minor flow differ ences fr om eit her car -
t r idge.
In oper a t ion, developing
fluid flow for each ca r t r idge
is t he same a s for single
pumps. Figur e 3-13 shows
fluid flow in a va ne-t ype,
t wo-st a ge pump. Oil fr om a
r eser voir ent er s a pump’s
inlet por t and passes t o t he
out let s of t he fir st -st age
pump ca r t r idge. (Passa ges in
a pump’s body car r y t he dis-
char ge fr om t his st age t o an
inlet of t he second st a ge.)
Out let pa ssages in t he sec-
ond st a ge dir ect t he oil t o a n
out let por t of t he pump. Pa s-
sage U connect s bot h cham-
ber s on t he inlet side of a
second-st a ge pump and
assur es equal pr essur e in
bot h chamber s. (Pr essur es
ar e t hose t ha t a r e imposed on
a pump fr om ext er na l
sour ces.)
A dividing valve (see Figur e 3-13) consist s of sliding pist ons A and B. Pist on A is
exposed t o out let pr essur e t hr ough passa ge V. Pist on B is exposed t o t he pr essur e bet ween
st ages t hr ough pa ssage W. The pist ons r espond t o ma int ain a pr essur e loa d on a fir st -st a ge
pump equal t o half t he out let pr essur e a t a second-st a ge pump. If t he dischar ge fr om t he
fir st st a ge exceeds t he volume t ha t ca n be accept ed at t he second st a ge, a pr essur e r ise
occur s in pa ssa ge W. The unba la nced for ce act ing on pist on B causes t he pist ons t o move in
such a manner t hat excess oil flows past pist on B t hr ough pa ssage Y t o t he inlet cha mber of
a fir st -st age car t r idge. Fluid t hr ot t ling acr oss pist on B in t his manner maint ains pr essur e
in passage V.
If t he dischar ge fr om a fir st -st a ge pump is less t ha n t he volume r equir ed a t a second-
st age pump, a r educed pr essur e occur s a t pist on B. An unbalanced for ce act ing on pist on A
Fi gure 3-13. Vane -type , two-st age pump
FM 5-499
3-10 Pumps
ca uses t he pist ons t o move so t hat oil flows pa st pist on A int o passages X and W t o r eplenish
a second-st a ge pump and cor r ect t he unbala nced condit ion. Passages Z a nd Y pr ovide a
means for leaka ge ar ound t he pist ons t o r et ur n t o t he inlet cha mber of a fir st -st age pump.
Pist ons A and B alwa ys seek a posit ion t hat equally divides t he loa d bet ween t he t wo pump-
ing unit s.
3-8. Pi ston Pumps . Pist on pumps ar e eit her r a dial or a xial.
a . Radial. In a r adial piston pump (Figure 3-14), t he pist ons a r e a r r anged like wheel
spokes in a shor t cylindr ical block. A dr ive shaft , which is inside a cir cula r housing, r ot a t es
a cylinder block. The block
t ur ns on a st a t ionar y pint le
t ha t cont a ins t he inlet and
out let por t s. As a cylinder
block t ur ns, cent r ifugal for ce
slings t he pist ons, which fol-
low a cir cular housing. A
housing’s cent er line is offset
fr om a cylinder block’s cent er -
line. The amount of eccent r ic-
it y bet ween t he t wo
det er mines a pist on st r oke
a nd, t her efor e, a pump’s dis-
pla cement . Cont r ols can be
a pplied t o change a housing’s
loca t ion and t her eby var y a
pump’s deliver y fr om zer o t o
ma ximum.
Figur e 3-15 shows a nine-
pist on, r adial pist on pump.
When a pump has an uneven
number of pist ons, no mor e
t han one pist on is complet ely blocked by a pint le a t one t ime, which r educes flow pulsa t ions.
Wit h a n even number of pist ons spa ced a r ound a cylinder block, t wo pist ons could be blocked
by a pint le a t t he sa me t ime. If t his happens, t hr ee pist ons would dischar ge at one t ime and
four a t anot her t ime, and pulsat ions would occur in t he flow. A pint le, a cylinder block, t he
pist ons, a r ot or , a nd a dr ive sha ft const it ut e t he ma in wor king par t s of a pump.
(1) Pint le. A pint le is a r ound ba r t ha t ser ves a s a st at iona r y shaft ar ound which a cyl-
inder block t ur ns. A pint le sha ft (Figur e 3-16) has four holes bor ed fr om one end lengt hwise
t hr ough par t of it s lengt h. Two holes ser ve a s an int ake a nd t wo as a discha r ge. Two slot s
a r e cut in a side of t he shaft so t hat each slot connect s t wo of t he lengt hwise holes. The slot s
a r e in-line wit h t he pist ons when a cylinder block is assembled on a pint le. One of t hese
slot s pr ovides a pa t h for a liquid t o pa ss fr om t he pist ons t o t he discha r ge holes bor ed in a
pint le. Anot her slot connect s t he t wo inlet holes t o t he pist ons when t hey a r e dr awing in liq-
uid. The discha r ge holes a r e connect ed t hr ough a ppr opr ia t e fit t ings t o a discha r ge line so
t hat a liquid can be dir ect ed int o a syst em. The ot her pair of holes is connect ed t o an inlet
line.
Fi gure 3-14. Si mpli fi e d radi al pi ston pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-11
(2) Cylinder Block. A cylinder
block (Figur e 3-17, page 3-12) is a
block of met al wit h a hole bor ed
t hr ough it s cent er t o fit t he pint le’s
and cylinder ’s holes t ha t a r e bor ed
equal dist a nces apar t ar ound it s
out side edge. The cylinder ’s holes
connect wit h t he hole t hat r eceives
a pint le. Designs differ ; some cylin-
der s appear t o be almost solid,
while ot her s ha ve spokelike cylin-
der s r a dia t ing out fr om t he cent er .
A cylinder ’s and pint le’s holes a r e
accur at ely machined so t ha t liquid
loss a r ound a pist on is minimal.
(3) Pist ons. Pist ons ar e ma nu-
fact ur ed in differ ent designs (see
Figur e 3-18, page 3-12). Diagr am A
shows a pist on wit h sma ll wheels
t ha t r oll a r ound t he inside cur ve of
a r ot or . Dia gr am B shows a pist on
in which a conical edge of t he t op
bear s dir ect ly a ga inst a r ea ct ion
r ing of t he r ot or . In t his design, a
pist on goes ba ck a nd for t h in a cylinder while it r ot at es a bout it s a xis so t hat t he t op sur face
will wear unifor mly. Diagr a m C shows a pist on a t t a ched t o cur ved plat es. The cur ved
pla t es bear a ga inst and slide a r ound t he inside sur face of a r ot or . The pist ons’ sides a r e
accur at ely machined t o fit t he cylinder s so
t ha t t her e is a minimum loss of liquid
bet ween t he walls of a pist on a nd cylinder .
No pr ovision is ma de for using pist on r ings
t o help sea l aga inst pist on lea kage.
(4) Rot or s. Rot or designs may differ
fr om pump t o pump. A r ot or consist s of a
cir cula r r ing, ma chine finished on t he
inside, a ga inst which t he pist ons bea r . A
r ot or r ot a t es wit hin a slide block, which can
be shift ed fr om side t o side t o cont r ol t he
pist on’s lengt h of st r oke. A slide block has
t wo pair s of machined sur faces on t he ext e-
r ior so t hat it ca n slide in t r acks in t he
pump case.
(5) Dr ive Sha ft . A dr ive sha ft is connect ed t o a cylinder block a nd is dr iven by a n out -
side for ce such as a n elect r ic mot or .
b. Axial Piston Pumps. In axia l pist on pumps, t he pist ons st r oke in t he same dir ect ion
on a cylinder block’s cent er line (axia lly). Axial pist on pumps ma y be a n in-line or a ngle
Case
Slide block
Rotor
Cylinder
Piston
Pintle
Figure 3-15. Ni ne-pi ston radi al pi ston pump
Port
Port
Fi gure 3-16. Pintle for a radi al pi st on
pump
FM 5-499
3-12 Pumps
design. In ca pacit y, pist on pumps r ange fr om
low t o ver y high. Pr essur es a r e as high as
5,000 psi, a nd dr ive speeds a r e medium t o
high. Efficiency is high, a nd pumps gener ally
have excellent dur a bilit y. Pet r oleum oil fluids
ar e usually r equir ed. Pulsat ions in deliver y
ar e small a nd of medium fr equency. The
pumps ar e quiet in oper at ion but may have a
gr owl or whine, depending on condit ion.
Except for in-line pumps, which ar e compa ct
in size, pist on pumps a r e heavy and bulky.
(1) In-Line Pump. In an in-line pist on
pump (Figur e 3-19, dia gr a m A), a dr ive shaft
and cylinder block ar e on t he sa me cent er line.
Recipr ocat ion of t he pist ons is caused by a
swash plat e t ha t t he pist ons r un a ga inst as a
cylinder block r ot at es. A dr ive sha ft t ur ns a
cylinder block, which car r ies t he pist ons
ar ound a shaft . The pist on shoes slide a ga inst
a swash plat e and a r e held against it by a
shoe pla t e. A swash pla t e’s a ngle causes t he
cylinder s t o r ecipr oca t e in t heir bor es. At t he
point wher e a pist on begins t o r et r act , an
opening in t he end of a bor e slides over an
inlet slot in a valve plat e, a nd oil is dr a wn int o
a bor e t hr ough somewhat less t han half a r ev-
olut ion. Ther e is a solid a r ea in a valve plat e
as a pist on becomes fully r et r a ct ed. As a pis-
t on begins t o ext end, an opening in a cylinder
ba r r el moves over an out let slot , a nd oil is
for ced out a pr essur e por t .
(a) Displa cement . Pump displa cement
depends on t he bor e a nd st r oke of a pist on and
t he number of pist ons. A swash plat e’s angle
(Figur e 3-19, dia gr am B) det er mines t he
st r oke, which can var y by changing t he a ngle.
In a fixed a ngle’s unit , a swash plat e is st at iona r y in t he housing. In a va r ia ble unit ’s, it is
mount ed on a yoke, which can t ur n on pint les. Differ ent cont r ols can be at t ached t o t he pin-
t les t o va r y pump deliver y fr om zer o t o t he ma ximum. Wit h cer t a in cont r ols, t he dir ect ion of
flow ca n be r ever sed by swinging a yoke past cent er . In t he cent er posit ion, a swa sh plat e is
per pendicular t o t he cylinder ’s, a nd t her e is no pist on r ecipr oca t ion; no oil is pumped.
(b) Component s. The major component s of a t ypical, fixed-displa cement in-line pump
ar e t he housing, a bear ing-suppor t ed dr ive shaft , a r ot at ing gr oup, a shaft seal, a nd a va lve
pla t e. A va lve plat e cont ains an inlet and a n out let por t a nd funct ions as t he ba ck cover . A
r ot at ing gr oup consist s of a cylinder block t hat is splined t o a dr ive shaft , a splined spher ica l
wa sher , a spr ing, nine pist ons wit h shoes, a swa sh pla t e, a nd a shoe plat e. When a gr oup is
assembled, a spr ing for ces a cylinder block a ga inst a va lve pla t e a nd a spher ica l wa sher
Fi gure 3-17. Cyli nder block for a radi al
pi ston pump
Fi gure 3-18. Pi stons for a radi al pi st on
pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-13
against a shoe plat e. This a ct ion holds t h e pist on shoes a ga inst a swa sh pla t e, ensur ing
t h a t t he pist ons will r ecipr oca t e as t he cylinder t ur ns. A swa sh pla t e is st a t ionar y in a fixed-
displa cement design.
(c) Oper at ion. A va r ia ble-displa cement in-line pump oper at es t he sa me as a fixed angle
except t hat a swash plat e is mount ed on a pivot ed yoke. A yoke can be swung t o change a
pla t e a ngle a nd t hus change a pump’s displacement . A yoke ca n be posit ioned manua lly
wit h a scr ew or lever or by a compensa t or cont r ol, which posit ions a yoke aut omat ically t o
ma int ain const ant out put pr essur e under var iable flow r equir ement s. A compensat or con-
t r ol consist s of a va lve t hat is balanced bet ween a spr ing a nd syst em pr essur e and a spr ing-
loaded, yoke-act uat ing pist on t hat is cont r olled by a va lve. A pump’s compensa t or cont r ol
t hus r educes it s out put only t o t he volume r equir ed t o ma int a in a pr eset pr essur e. Ma xi-
mum deliver y is a llowed only when pr essur e is less t han a compensat or ’s set t ing.
(2) Wobble-Pla t e In-Line Pump. This is a va r ia t ion of a n in-line pist on pump. In t his
design, a cylinder ba r r el does not t ur n; a plat e wobbles as it t ur ns, a nd t he wobbling pushes
t he pist ons in and out of t he pumping chamber s in a st at iona r y cylinder bar r el. In a wobble-
pla t e pump, separ at e inlet and out let check va lves a r e r equir ed for each pist on, since t he pis-
t ons do not move past a por t .
A
B
Fi gure 3-19. In-li ne pi ston pump
FM 5-499
3-14 Pumps
(3) Bent -Axis Axial Pist on Pump. In an angle- or a bent -axis-t ype pist on pump (Figur e
3-20), t he pist on r ods a r e at t ached by ba ll joint s t o a dr ive sha ft ’s fla nge. A univer sal link
keys a cylinder block t o a shaft so t ha t t hey r ot a t e t oget her but at an offset a ngle. A cylinder
ba r r el t ur ns a ga inst a slot t ed valve plat e t o which t he por t s connect . Pumping act ion is t he
same as an in-line pump. The a ngle of offset det er mines a pump’s displacement , just a s t he
swash plat e’s a ngle det er mines a n in-line pump's displa cement . In fixed-deliver y pumps,
t he a ngle is const ant . In var iable models, a yoke mount ed on pint les swings a cylinder block
t o var y displa cement . Flow dir ect ion ca n be r ever sed wit h a ppr opr ia t e cont r ols.
3-9. Pump Ope rat i on. The following par agr aphs a ddr ess some of t he pr oblems t ha t could
occur when a pump is oper a t ing:
a. Overloading. One r isk of over loading is t he da nger of excess t or que on a dr ive shaft .
Tor que is cir cular for ce on a n object . An incr ea se in pr essur e/pump displacement will
incr ease t he t or que on a sha ft if pump displacement /pr essur e r emains const ant . Oft en in a
given package size, a higher GPM pump will ha ve a lower pr essur e r a t ing t han a lower GPM
pump. Somet imes a field conver sion t o get mor e speed out of an act ua t or will ca use a pump
t o be over loa ded. You may need a lar ger pump.
b. Excess S peed. Running a pump at t oo high a speed causes loss of lubr ica t ion, which
ca n ca use ea r ly failur e. If a needed deliver y r equir es a higher dr ive speed t han a pump's r a t -
ing, use a higher displacement pump. Excess speed also r uns a r isk of dama ge fr om cavit a -
t ion.
c. Cavitation. Ca vit at ion occur s wher e a va ilable fluid does not fill a n exist ing space. It
oft en occur s in a pump’s inlet when condit ions a r e not r ight t o supply enough oil t o keep a n
inlet flooded. Cavit a t ion ca uses t he met al in a n inlet t o er ode a nd t he hydr aulic oil t o det er i-
or at e quicker . Cavit at ion ca n occur if t her e is t oo much r esist a nce in an inlet ’s line, if a r es-
Figure 3-20. Be nt-axi s axial pi st on pump
FM 5-499
Pumps 3-15
er voir ’s oil level is t oo far below t he inlet , or if an oil’s viscosit y is t oo high. It ca n a lso occur
if t her e is a va cuum or even a slight posit ive pr essur e a t t he inlet . A badly cavit at ing pump
has oil bubbles exploding in t he void. The only way t o be sur e a pump is not cavit a t ing is t o
check t he inlet wit h a vacuum gauge.
To pr event cavit at ion, keep t he inlet clean a nd fr ee of obst r uct ions by using t he cor r ect
lengt h of an inlet ’s line wit h minimum bends. Anot her met hod is t o cha r ge a n inlet. The eas-
iest way t o do t his is t o flood it by locat ing t he reser voir above the pump’s inlet . If t his is not
possible a nd you cannot cr ea t e good inlet condit ions, use a pr essur ized r eser voir . You ca n
also use a n auxilia r y pump t o maint a in a supply of oil t o an inlet a t low pr essur e. You could
use a cent r ifuga l pump, but it is mor e common t o use a posit ive-displa cement gea r pump
wit h a pr essur e-r elief va lve t hat is set t o ma int ain t he desir ed char ging pr essur e.
d. Operating Problems. Pr essur e loss, slow oper at ion, no deliver y, a nd noise ar e com-
mon oper a t ing pr oblems in a pump.
(1) Pr essur e Loss. Pr essur e loss mea ns t hat t her e is a high lea kage pa t h in a syst em. A
ba dly wor n pump could cause pr essur e loss. A pump will lose it s efficiency gr a dua lly. The
act ua t or speed slows down a s a pump wear s. However , pr essur e loss is mor e oft en caused by
leaks somewher e else in a syst em (r elief valve, cylinder s, mot or s).
(2) Slow Oper a t ion. This can be ca used by a wor n pump or by a par t ial oil lea k in a sys-
t em. Pr essur e will not dr op, however , if a load moves at all. Ther efor e, hp is st ill being used
and is being conver t ed int o heat at a lea kage point . To find t his point , feel t he component s
for unusual hea t .
(3) No Deliver y. If oil is not being pumped, a pump—
• Could be assembled incor r ect ly.
• Could be dr iven in t he wr ong dir ect ion.
• Has not been pr imed. The r easons for no pr ime a r e usually impr oper st a r t -up,
inlet r est r ict ions, or low oil level in a r eser voir .
• Has a br oken dr ive sha ft .
(4) Noise. If you hear any unusual noise, shut down a pump immediat ely. Ca vit at ion
noise is ca used by a r est r ict ion in a n inlet line, a dir t y inlet filt er , or t oo high a dr ive speed.
Air in a syst em also causes noise. Air will sever ely da mage a pump because it will not ha ve
enough lubr icat ion. This can occur fr om low oil in a r eser voir , a loose connect ion in an inlet ,
a lea king shaft seal, or no oil in a pump befor e st ar t ing. Also, noise can be ca used by wor n
or da ma ged par t s, which will spr ea d har mful pa r t icles t hr ough a syst em, causing mor e da m-
age if an oper a t ion cont inues.
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-1
CHAPTER 4
Hydrauli c Actuators
A hydraulic actuat or receives pressure energy and converts it to mechanical force and
motion. An actuator can be linear or rot ary. A linear actuator gives force and mot ion outputs
in a straight line. It is more commonly called a cylinder but is also referred to as a ram,
reciprocating motor, or linear motor. A rotary act uator produces torque and rotating motion.
It is more commonly called a hydraulic motor or motor.
4-1. Cyli nders . A cylinder is a hydr a ulic a ct uat or t hat is const r uct ed of a pist on or plunger
t ha t oper at es in a cylindr ica l housing by t he act ion of liquid under pr essur e. Figur e 4-1
shows t he basic pa r t s of a cylinder . A cylinder housing is a t ube in which a plunger (pist on)
oper at es. In a r a m-t ype cylinder , a r a m a ct uat es a loa d dir ect ly. In a pist on cylinder , a pis-
t on r od is connect ed t o a pist on t o act uat e a load. An end of a cylinder fr om which a r od or
plunger pr ot r udes is a r od end. The opposit e end is a hea d end. The hydr a ulic connect ions
ar e a hea d-end por t and a r od-end por t (fluid supply).
a. S ingle-Acting Cylinder. This cylinder (Figur e 4-1) only has a hea d-end por t and is
oper at ed hydr a ulically in one dir ect ion. When oil is pumped int o a por t , it pushes on a
plunger , t hus ext ending it . To r et ur n or r et r a ct a cylinder , oil must be r eleased t o a r eser -
voir . A plunger r et ur ns eit her beca use of t he weight of a load or fr om some mecha nical for ce
such as a spr ing. In mobile equipment , flow t o and fr om a single-act ing cylinder is cont r olled
by a r ever sing dir ect ional valve of a single-act ing t ype.
b. Double-Acting Cylinder. This cylin-
der (Figur e 4-2, pa ge 4-2) must have por t s
at t he hea d a nd r od ends. Pumping oil int o
t he head end moves a pist on t o ext end a
r od while any oil in t he r od end is pushed
out and r et ur ned t o a r eser voir . To r et r act
a r od, flow is r ever sed. Oil fr om a pump
goes int o a r od end, and a head-end por t is
connect ed t o a llow r et ur n flow. The flow
dir ect ion t o a nd fr om a double-act ing cylin-
der can be cont r olled by a double-act ing
dir ect ional va lve or by act ua t ing a cont r ol
of a r ever sible pump.
c. Different ial Cylinder. In a differ en-
t ial cylinder , t he ar ea s wher e pr essur e is
applied on a pist on a r e not equal. On a
hea d end, a full pist on a r ea is available for
applying pr essur e. At a r od end, only an
annula r ar ea is a va ila ble for applying
pr essur e. A r od’s a r ea is not a fa ct or , and
Fluid
supply
Rod end
Ram
Gland nut
Cylinder
housing
Head end
Packed
gland
Fi gure 4-1. Si ngl e-act i ng c yli nder
FM 5-499
4-2 Hydraulic Actuators
wha t space it does t ake up r educes
t he volume of oil it will hold. Two
gener a l r ules a bout a differ ent ia l
cylinder ar e t hat —
• Wit h a n equal GPM
deliver y t o eit her end, a
cylinder will move
fast er when r et r act ing
beca use of a r educed vol-
ume ca pacit y.
• Wit h equal pr essur e a t
eit her end, a cylinder
can exer t mor e for ce
when ext ending because
of t he gr eat er pist on
ar ea . In fa ct , if equa l
pr essur e is applied t o
bot h por t s at t he sa me
t ime, a cylinder will
ext end beca use of a
higher r esult ing for ce
on a head end.
d. Nondifferential Cylinder.
This cylinder (Figur e 4-3) ha s a pis-
t on r od ext ending fr om ea ch end. It
has equa l t hr ust and speed eit her
way, pr ovided t hat pressure and flow
ar e unchanged. A nondiffer ent ial cylinder is r a r ely used on mobile equipment .
e. Ram-Type Cylinder. A r a m-t ype cylinder is a cylinder in which a cr oss-sect iona l a r ea
of a pist on r od is mor e t han one-ha lf a cr oss-sect ional a r ea of a pist on hea d. In ma ny cylin-
der s of t his t ype, t he r od a nd pist on heads ha ve equal ar ea s. A r am-t ype a ct uat ing cylinder
is used mainly for push
funct ions r at her t han
pull.
Figur e 4-1, pa ge 4-1,
shows a single-a ct ing,
r a m-t ype cylinder . A sin-
gle-act ing r am a pplies
for ce in one dir ect ion.
This cylinder is oft en
used in a hydr a ulic ja ck.
In a double-a ct ing, r am-
t ype cylinder , bot h
st r okes of a r a m a r e pr o-
duced by pr essur ized
fluid. Figur e 4-2 shows
t his cylinder .
Fi gure 4-2. Double-ac ti ng cyli nder
Fi gure 4-3. Nondi ffe re nt i al c yli nde r
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-3
Figur e 4-4 shows a t elescop-
ing, r a m-t ype, act ua t ing cylinder,
which can be a single- or double-
a ct ing t ype. In t his cylinder , a
ser ies of r ams ar e nest ed in a t ele-
scoping assembly. Except for t he
sma llest r am, ea ch r am is hollow
a nd ser ves as a cylinder housing
for t he next smaller r a m. A r am
a ssembly is cont a ined in a ma in
cylinder housing, which also pr o-
vides t he fluid por t s. Alt hough an
a ssembly r equir es a sma ll space
wit h all of t he r ams r et r act ed, a
t elescoping act ion of a n a ssembly
pr ovides a r elat ively long st r oke
when t he r a ms a r e ext ended.
f. Piston-Type Cylinder. In
t his cylinder , a cr oss-sect iona l
a r ea of a pist on head is r efer r ed t o
a s a pist on-t ype cylinder . A pis-
t on-t ype cylinder is used mainly
when t he push a nd pull funct ions
a r e needed.
A single-act ing, pist on-t ype cylinder uses fluid pr essur e t o a pply for ce in one dir ect ion.
In some designs, t he for ce of gr a vit y moves a pist on in t he opposit e dir ect ion. However , most
cylinder s of t his t ype apply for ce in bot h dir ect ions. Fluid pr essur e pr ovides for ce in one
dir ect ion and spr ing t ension pr ovides for ce in t he opposit e dir ect ion.
Figur e 4-5 shows a single-
a ct ing, spr ing-loaded, pist on-
t ype cylinder . In t his cylinder , a
spr ing is locat ed on t he r od side
of a pist on. In some spr ing-
loaded cylinder s, a spr ing is
loca t ed on a blank side, a nd a
fluid por t is on a r od end of a cyl-
inder .
Most pist on-t ype cylinder s
a r e double-act ing, which means
t ha t fluid under pr essur e ca n be
a pplied t o eit her side of a pist on
t o pr ovide movement and apply
force in a cor responding dir ec-
t ion. Figur e 4-6 shows a double-
a ct ing pist on-t ype cylinder .
Fi gure 4-4. Te le sc opi ng, ram-t ype , act uati ng
c yli nder
Fluid port
Piston
Return spring
Piston rod
Air vent
Seals
Fi gure 4-5. Si ngle -act ing, s pri ng-loade d, pi s t on-
t ype cyli nder
FM 5-499
4-4 Hydraulic Actuators
This cylinder cont ains one pist on a nd pist on-r od assembly a nd oper at es fr om fluid flow in
eit her dir ect ion. The t wo fluid por t s, one near ea ch end of a cylinder , a lt er na t e as a n inlet
and a n out let , depending on t he dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lve flow dir ect ion. This is an unba l-
anced cylinder , which means t hat t her e is a differ ence in t he effect ive wor king a r ea on t he
t wo sides of a pist on. A cylinder is nor mally inst a lled so t ha t t he hea d end of a pist on car r ies
t he gr eat er loa d; t ha t is, a cylinder car r ies t he gr ea t er load dur ing a pist on-r od ext ension
st r oke.
Figur e 4-6 shows a bal-
a nced, double-act ing, pist on-
t ype cylinder . The effect ive
wor king a r ea on bot h sides of
a pist on is t he same, a nd it
exer t s t he sa me for ce in bot h
dir ect ions.
g. Cushioned Cylinder.
To slow an act ion a nd pr event
shock at t he end of a pist on
st r oke, some act ua t ing cylin-
der s ar e const r uct ed wit h a
cushioning device at eit her or bot h ends of a cylinder . This cushion is usually a met er ing
device built int o a cylinder t o r est r ict t he flow a t a n out let por t , t her eby slowing down t he
mot ion of a pist on. Figur e 4-7 shows a cushioned act uat ing cylinder .
h. Lockout Cylinders. A
lockout cylinder is used t o
lock a suspension mechanism
of a t r acked vehicle when a
vehicle funct ions as a st a ble
pla t for m. A cylinder also
ser ves as a shock a bsor ber
when a vehicle is moving.
Each lockout cylinder is con-
nect ed t o a r oa d ar m by a
cont r ol lever . When each
r oad wheel moves up, a con-
t r ol lever for ces t he r espec-
t ive cylinder t o compr ess.
Hydr a ulic fluid is for ced
ar ound a pist on hea d t hr ough r est r ict or por t s causing a cylinder t o act as a shock a bsor ber .
When hydr aulic pressure is applied t o an inlet por t on each cylinder ’s connect ing eye, an inner
cont r ol-valve pist on is for ced against a spr ing in each cylinder . This a ct ion closes t he r est r ic-
t or por t s, blocks t he main pist on’s mot ion in ea ch cylinder , and locks t he suspension syst em.
4-2. Construc ti on and Appli cat i on. A cylinder is const r uct ed of a ba r r el or t ube, a pist on
and rod (or ram), t wo end caps, and suit able oil seals. A barr el is usually seamless steel t ubing,
or ca st , and t he int er ior is finished ver y t r ue and smoot hly. A st eel pist on r od is highly pol-
ished a nd usually ha r d chr ome-pla t ed t o r esist pit t ing a nd scor ing. It is suppor t ed in t he
end cap by a bushing or polished sur fa ce.
Figure 4-6. Double-ac ti ng, pi ston-type c yl i nde r
Fi gure 4-7. Cushi one d, act uat i ng c yl i nde r
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-5
The cylinder 's por t s a r e built int o t he end caps, which can be scr ewed on t o t he t ubes,
welded, or a t t a ched by t ie bolt s or bolt ed fla nges. If t he cylinder bar r el is cast , t he hea d-end
cap ma y be int egr al wit h it . Mount ing pr ovisions oft en a r e made in t he end caps, including
fla nges for st a t ionar y mount ing or clevises for swinging mount s.
Sea ls a nd wiper s ar e inst alled in t he r od's end ca p t o keep t he r od clean and t o pr event
ext er nal leakage ar ound t he r od. Ot her point s wher e seals ar e used ar e at t he end cap and
joint s a nd bet ween t he pist on and ba r r el. Depending on how t he r od is a t t a ched t o t he pis-
t on, a sea l ma y be needed. Int er na l leakage should not occur pa st a pist on. It wa st es ener gy
and ca n st op a load by a hydr ost a t ic lock (oil t r a pped behind a pist on).
Figur e 4-8, page 4-6, shows for ce-and-mot ion a pplica t ions of cylinder s. Beca use fluid
power syst ems have many r equir ement s, act uat ing cylinder s ar e ava ila ble in differ ent
shapes a nd sizes. A cylinder -t ype a ct uat or is ver sa t ile and ma y be t he most t r ouble-fr ee
component of fluid-power ed syst ems. A cylinder and a mecha nical member of a unit t o be
act ua t ed must be aligned cor r ect ly. Any misalignment will ca use excessive wear of a pist on,
a pist on r od, and t he seals. Also, a pist on r od and a n a ct uat ing unit must st a y pr oper ly
adjust ed. Clean t he exposed ends of t he pist on r ods t o ensur e t hat for eign mat t er does not
get int o t he cylinder s.
4-3. Mai nt enance . Hydr aulic cylinder s ar e compa ct and r ela t ively simple. The key point s
t o wat ch ar e t he seals and pivot s. The following list s ser vice t ips in ma int aining cylinder s:
a. External Leakage. If a cylinder ’s end ca ps ar e leaking, t ight en t hem. If t he lea ks st ill
do not st op, r epla ce t he gasket . If a cylinder leaks ar ound a pist on r od, r eplace t he pa cking.
Make sur e t hat a sea l lip faces t owar d t he pr essur e oil. If a seal cont inues t o leak, check
par agr aphs 4-3e t hr ough i.
b. Internal Leakage. Lea kage pa st t he pist on seals inside a cylinder ca n ca use sluggish
movement or set t ling under load. Pist on leakage can be ca used by wor n pist on sea ls or r ings
or scor ed cylinder walls. The lat t er may be caused by dir t and gr it in t he oil.
NOTE: Whe n repai ri ng a c yli nder, replac e all the seals and packi ngs
be fore re ass e mbly.
c. Creeping Cylinder. If a cylinder cr eeps when st opped in midst r oke, check for int er na l
leakage (par a gr aph 4-3b). Anot her ca use could be a wor n cont r ol valve.
d. S luggish Operation. Air in a cylinder is t he most common cause of sluggish act ion.
Int er na l lea kage in a cylinder is anot her ca use. If an act ion is sluggish when st ar t ing up a
syst em, but speeds up when a syst em is wa r m, check for oil of t oo high a viscosit y (see t he
ma chine's oper at ing ma nual). If a cylinder is st ill sluggish aft er t hese checks, t est t he whole
cir cuit for wor n component s.
e. Loose Mount ing. Pivot point s and mount s ma y be loose. The bolt s or pins ma y need
t o be t ight ened, or t hey may be wor n out . Too much slop or float in a cylinder ’s mount ings
dama ges t he pist on-r od sea ls. Per iodically check all t he cylinder s for loose mount ings.
f. Misalignment . Pist on r ods must wor k in-line at a ll t imes. If t hey ar e side-loa ded, t he
pist on r ods will be galled and t he packings will be damaged, causing lea ks. Event ually, t he
pist on r ods may be bent or t he welds br oken.
FM 5-499
4-6 Hydraulic Actuators
Fi gure 4-8. Appli cat i ons of cyli nde rs
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-7
g. Lack of Lubrication. If a pist on r od ha s no lubr ica t ion, a r od packing could seize,
which would r esult in an er r at ic st r oke, especia lly on single-act ing cylinder s.
h. Abrasives on a Pist on Rod. When a pist on r od ext ends, it can pick up dir t a nd ot her
ma t er ia l. When it r et r act s, it car r ies t he gr it int o a cylinder , da ma ging a r od sea l. For t his
r eason, r od wiper s a r e oft en used a t t he r od end of a cylinder t o clean t he r od as it r et r act s.
Rubber boot s a r e also used over t he end of a cylinder in some ca ses. Pist on r ods r ust ing is
anot her pr oblem. When st or ing cylinder s, alwa ys r et r act t he pist on r ods t o pr ot ect t hem. If
you ca nnot r et r a ct t hem, coat t hem wit h gr ea se.
i. Burrs on a Piston Rod. Exposed pist on r ods ca n be damaged by impact wit h har d
object s. If a smoot h sur face of a r od is mar r ed, a r od seal may be da ma ged. Clea n t he bur r s
on a r od immediat ely, using cr ocus clot h. Some r ods a r e chr ome-plat ed t o r esist wea r .
Repla ce t he sea ls aft er r est or ing a r od sur face.
j. Air Vents. Single-a ct ing cylinder s (except r a m t ypes) must have an air vent in t he dr y
side of a cylinder . To pr event dir t fr om get t ing in, use differ ent filt er devices. Most ar e self-
clea ning, but inspect t hem per iodically t o ensur e t ha t t hey oper at e pr oper ly.
4-4. Hydrauli c Mot ors. Hydr aulic mot or s conver t hydr a ulic ener gy int o mechanica l
ener gy. In indust r ial hydr aulic cir cuit s, pumps a nd mot or s a r e nor ma lly combined wit h a
pr oper valving a nd piping t o for m a hydr aulic-power ed t r ansmission. A pump, which is
mechanically linked t o a pr ime mover , dr aws fluid fr om a r eser voir and for ces it t o a mot or .
A mot or , which is mechanically linked t o t he wor kloa d, is act uat ed by t his flow so t hat
mot ion or t or que, or bot h, ar e conveyed t o t he wor k. Figur e 4-9 shows t he basic oper at ions of
a hydr aulic mot or .
Fi gure 4-9. Basi c operat i ons of a hydrauli c motor
FM 5-499
4-8 Hydraulic Actuators
The pr incipal r at ings of a mot or a r e t or que, pr essur e, a nd displa cement . Tor que a nd
pr essur e r at ings indicat e how much load a mot or can handle. Displacement indicat es how
much flow is r equir ed for a specified dr ive speed a nd is expr essed in cubic inches per r evolu-
t ions, t he sa me as pump displacement . Displacement is t he a mount of oil t hat must be
pumped int o a mot or t o t ur n it one r evolut ion. Most mot or s ar e fixed-displa cement ; how-
ever , var ia ble-displa cement pis-
t on mot or s a r e in use, mainly in
hydr ost a t ic dr ives. The main
t ypes of mot or s a r e gear , vane,
a nd pist on. They ca n be unidi-
r ect ional or r ever sible. (Most
mot or s designed for mobile
equipment a r e r ever sible.)
a . Gear-Type Motors. Fig-
ur e 4-10 shows a gear -t ype
mot or . Bot h gear s ar e dr iven
gear s, but only one is connect ed
t o t he out put sha ft . Oper at ion is
essent ially t he r ever se of t hat of
a gear pump. Flow fr om t he
pump ent er s cha mber A and
flows in eit her dir ect ion ar ound
t he inside sur fa ce of t he ca sing,
for cing t he gear s t o r ot at e as
indicat ed. This r ot ar y mot ion is
t hen availa ble for wor k at t he
out put shaft .
b. Vane-Type Motors. Fig-
ur e 4-11 shows a vane-t ype
mot or . Flow fr om t he pump
ent er s t he inlet , for ces t he r ot or
a nd va nes t o r ot a t e, and pa sses
out t hr ough t he out let . Mot or
r ot a t ion ca uses t he out put sha ft
t o r ot at e. Since no cent r ifuga l
for ce exist s unt il t he mot or
begins t o r ot a t e, somet hing,
usually spr ings, must be used t o
init ia lly hold t he va nes against
t he ca sing cont our . However ,
spr ings usua lly ar e not neces-
sar y in va ne-t ype pumps
beca use a dr ive shaft init ia lly
supplies cent r ifuga l for ce t o
ensur e va ne-t o-casing cont a ct .
Fi gure 4-10. Ge ar-type mot or
Fi gure 4-11. Vane-t ype motor
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-9
Vane mot or s a r e ba lanced
hydr aulica lly t o pr event a r ot or
fr om side-loading a shaft . A
shaft is suppor t ed by t wo ba ll
bear ings. Tor que is developed
by a pr essur e differ ence as oil
fr om a pump is for ced t hr ough a
mot or . Figur e 4-12 shows pr es-
sur e differ ent ia l on a single
va ne a s it passes t he inlet por t .
On t he t r a iling side open t o t he
inlet por t , t he vane is subject t o
full syst em pr essur e. The
chamber leading t he va ne is
subject t o t he much lower out let
pr essur e. The differ ence in
pr essur e exer t s t he for ce on t he
va ne t hat is, in effect , t angen-
t ial t o t he r ot or . This pr essur e
differ ence is effect ive a cr oss
va nes 3 and 9 a s shown in Fig-
ur e 4-13. The ot her vanes ar e
subject t o essent ia lly equal for ce
on bot h sides. Ea ch will develop
t or que as t he r ot or t ur ns. Fig-
ur e 4-13 shows t he flow condi-
t ion for count er clockwise
r ot at ion as viewed fr om t he
cover end. The body por t is t he
inlet , and t he cover por t is t he
out let . Rever se t he flow, a nd
t he r ot at ion becomes clockwise.
In a vane-t ype pump, t he
vanes ar e pushed out against a
cam r ing by cent r ifuga l for ce
when a pump is st a r t ed up. A
design mot or uses st eel-wir e
r ocker a r ms (Figur e 4-14, page
4-10) t o push t he vanes against
t he cam r ing. The a r ms pivot on
pins a t t a ched t o t he r ot or . The
ends of ea ch ar m suppor t t wo
va nes t ha t a r e 90 degr ees a par t .
When t he cam r ing pushes va ne
A int o it s slot , va ne B slides out .
The r ever se a lso happens. Amo-
t or ’s pr essur e pla t e funct ions t he
same as a pump's. It sea ls t he
side of a r ot or a nd r ing against
Fi gure 4-12. Pre ss ure di ffe re nti al on a vane -type
mot or
Fi gure 4-13. Flow condi ti on i n a vane-t ype pump
FM 5-499
4-10 Hydraulic Actuators
int er na l lea kage, a nd it feeds syst em
pr essur e under t he va nes t o hold t hem
out a gainst a r ing. This is a simple
oper a t ion in a pump because a pr es-
sur e plat e is r ight by a high-pr essur e
por t in t he cover .
c. Piston-Type Motors. Pist on-
t ype mot or s ca n be in-line-axis or
bent -a xis t ypes.
(1) In-Line-Axis, Pist on-Type
Mot or s. These motor s (Figure 4-15) ar e
a lmost ident ica l t o t he pumps. They
a r e built -in, fixed- and var ia ble-dis-
placement models in sever al sizes.
Tor que is developed by a pr essur e dr op
t hr ough a mot or . Pr essur e exer t s a
for ce on t he ends of t he pist ons, which
is t r anslat ed int o shaft r ot a t ion. Shaft
r ot at ion of most models can be
r ever sed anyt ime by r ever sing t he flow
dir ect ion.
Oil fr om a pump is for ced int o t he cylinder bor es t hr ough a mot or ’s inlet por t . For ce on
t he pist ons at t his point pushes t hem against a swash plat e. They can move only by sliding
along a swash plat e t o a point fur t her away fr om a cylinder ’s bar r el, which causes it t o
r ot at e. The bar r el is t hen splined t o a shaft so t ha t it must t ur n.
Fi gure 4-14. Roc ker arms pus hi ng vane s
i n a pump
Fi gure 4-15. In-li ne-axi s, pi ston-type mot or
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-11
A mot or 's displacement depends on t he a ngle of a swash plat e (Figur e 4-16). At maxi-
mum angle, displacement is at it s highest because t he pist ons t r avel at maximum lengt h.
When t he a ngle is r educed, pist on t r avel shor t ens, r educing displacement . If flow r ema ins
const ant , a mot or r uns fast er , but t or que is decr eased. Tor que is gr eat est at maximum dis-
pla cement because t he component of pist on for ce par a llel t o a swa sh pla t e is gr ea t est .
(2) Bent -Axis, Pist on-Type Mot or s. These mot or s ar e a lmost ident ical t o t he pumps.
They ar e a va ilable in fixed- a nd va r iable-displacement models (Figur e 4-17), in sever a l sizes.
Var iable-displacement mot or s can be cont r olled mechanically or by pr essur e compensa -
t ion. These mot or s oper a t e similar ly t o in-line mot or s except t ha t pist on t hr ust is a ga inst a
dr ive-shaft fla nge. A par a llel component of t hr ust ca uses a fla nge t o t ur n. Tor que is ma xi-
mum at ma ximum displacement ; speed is at a minimum. This design pist on mot or is ver y
hea vy and bulky, par t icula r ly t he var iable-displacement mot or . Using t hese mot or s on
mobile equipment is limit ed.
Alt hough some pist on-
t ype mot or s a r e cont r olled by
dir ect ional-cont r ol va lves, t hey
ar e oft en used in combina t ion
wit h var iable-displacement
pumps. This pump-mot or
combina t ion (hydr a ulic t r ans-
mission) is used t o pr ovide a
t r ansfer of power bet ween a
dr iving element , such a s an
elect r ic mot or , and a dr iven
element . Hydr aulic t r a nsmis-
sions may be used for applica-
t ions such as a speed r educer ,
va r ia ble speed dr ive, const ant
speed or const ant t or que
Figure 4-16. Swas h plate
Cylinder block
C
y
lin
d
e
r

b
lo
c
k
a
x
is
Output shaft
axis
Output shaft
Pistons
Valve plate
Figure 4-17. Be nt-axi s, pi ston-type mot or
FM 5-499
Hydraulic Actuators 4-12
dr ive, and t or que conver t er . Some a dvant ages a hydr aulic t r a nsmission has over a mecha n-
ica l t r a nsmission is t ha t it ha s—
• Quick, ea sy speed adjust ment over a wide r a nge while t he power sour ce is oper a t -
ing a t const ant (most efficient ) speed.
• Rapid, smoot h acceler a t ion or deceler at ion.
• Cont r ol over maximum t or que a nd power .
• A cushioning effect t o r educe shock loa ds.
• A smoot h r ever sal of mot ion.
FM 5-499
Valves 5-1
CHAPTER 5
Val ves
Valves are used in hydraulic systems t o control the operation of t he actuators. Valves reg-
ulate pressure by creating special pressure conditions and by controlling how much oil will
flow in portions of a circuit and where it will go. The t hree categories of hydraulic valves are
pressure-control, flow- (volume-) control, and directional -control (see Figure 5-1). S ome
valves have multiple funct ions, placing them into more than one cat egory. Valves are rated
by their size, pressure capabilities, and pressure drop/ flow.
5-1. Pre ssure -Control Valve s . A pr essur e-cont r ol valve may limit or r egulat e pr essur e,
cr ea t e a par t icular pr essur e condit ion r equir ed for cont r ol, or cause act ua t or s t o oper at e in a
specific or der . All pur e pr essur e-cont r ol valves oper a t e in a condit ion a ppr oaching hydr aulic
ba lance. Usually t he ba la nce is ver y simple: pr essur e is effect ive on one side or end of a ball,
poppet , or spool and is opposed by a spr ing. In oper at ion, a va lve t a kes a posit ion wher e
hydr aulic pr essur e ba la nces a spr ing for ce. Since spr ing for ce var ies wit h compr ession, dis-
t a nce a nd pr essur e a lso ca n var y. Pr essur e-cont r ol valves a r e sa id t o be infinit e posit ioning.
This mea ns t ha t t hey ca n t a ke a posit ion a nywher e bet ween t wo finit e flow condit ions,
which changes a lar ge volume of flow t o a small volume, or pass no flow.
Most pr essur e-cont r ol valves ar e cla ssified as nor ma lly closed. This mea ns t hat flow t o
a va lve's inlet por t is blocked fr om an out let por t unt il t her e is enough pr essur e t o ca use a n
unbalanced oper at ion. In nor mally open valves, fr ee flow occur s t hr ough t he valves unt il
t hey begin t o oper at e in balance. Flow is par t ially r est r ict ed or cut off. Pr essur e over r ide is
a cha r act er ist ic of nor ma lly closed-pr essur e cont r ols when t hey ar e oper a t ing in balance.
Because t he for ce of a compr ession spr ing incr ea ses as it lower s, pr essur e when t he valves
fir st cr ack is less t ha n when t hey a r e pa ssing a la r ge volume or full flow. The differ ence
bet ween a full flow and cr acking pr essur e is called over r ide.
Figure 5-1. Valve s
FM 5-499
5-2 Valves
a. Relief Valves. Relief valves a r e t he most common t ype of pr essur e-cont r ol valves.
The r elief valves’ funct ion may var y, depending on a syst em's needs. They can pr ovide over -
loa d pr ot ect ion for cir cuit component s or limit t he for ce or t or que exer t ed by a linea r act ua -
t or or r ot ar y mot or .
The int er na l design of all r elief valves is basica lly simila r . The valves consist of t wo sec-
t ions: a body sect ion cont aining a pist on t ha t is r et ained on it s sea t by a spr ing(s), depend-
ing on t he model, a nd a cover or pilot -valve sect ion t ha t hydr a ulically cont r ols a body
pist on’s movement . The adjust ing scr ew a djust s t his cont r ol wit hin t he r ange of t he valves.
Valves t hat pr ovide emer gency over loa d pr ot ect ion do not oper at e a s oft en since ot her
va lve t ypes ar e used t o loa d and unloa d a pump. However , r elief valves should be cleaned
r egular ly by r educing t heir pr essur e adjust ment s t o flush out any possible sludge deposit s
t hat ma y accumula t e. Oper at ing
under r educed pr essur e will clean
out sludge deposit s and ensur e t ha t
t he valves oper a t e pr oper ly aft er t he
pr essur e is a djust ed t o it s pr escr ibed
set t ing.
(1) Simple Type. Figur e 5-2
shows a simple-t ype r elief va lve.
This va lve is inst alled so t hat one
por t is connect ed t o t he pr essur e line
or t he inlet a nd t he ot her por t t o t he
r eser voir . The ball is held on it s sea t
by t hr ust of t he spr ing, which ca n be
cha nged by t ur ning t he adjust ing
scr ew. When pr essur e at t he valve’s
inlet is insufficient t o over come
spr ing for ce, t he ba ll r ema ins on it s
seat and t he va lve is closed, pr event -
ing flow t hr ough it . When pr essur e
at t he valve’s inlet exceeds t he
adjust ed spr ing for ce, t he ba ll is
for ced off it s seat and t he va lve is
opened. Liquid flows fr om t he pr es-
sur e line t hr ough t he valve t o t he
r eser voir . This diver sion of flow pr e-
vent s fur t her pr essur e incr ease in
t he pr essur e line. When pr essur e
decr ea ses below t he valve’s set t ing,
t he spr ing r eseat s t he ball and t he
va lve is again closed.
The pr essur e at which a va lve fir st begins t o pa ss flow is t he cr a cking pr essur e of a
va lve. The pr essur e at which a valve passes it s full-r a t ed capacit y is t he full-flow pr essur e
of a va lve. Beca use of spr ing r a t e, a full-flow pr essur e is higher t han a cr acking pr essur e.
This condit ion is r efer r ed t o as pr essur e over r ide. A disadvant a ge of a simple-t ype r elief
va lve is it s r elat ively high-pr essur e over r ide at it s r a t ed capa cit y.
Fi gure 5-2. Simple re li e f valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-3
(2) Compound
Type. Figur e 5-3
shows a compound-
t ype r elief va lve.
Pa ssage C is used
t o keep t he pist on
in hydr aulic bal-
ance when t he
va lve's inlet pr es-
sur e is less t ha n it s
set t ing (diagr a m
A). The valve set -
t ing is det er mined
by a n adjust ed
t hr ust of spr ing 3
against poppet 4.
When pr essur e at
t he valve’s inlet
r eaches t he va lve’s
set t ing, pr essur e in
passage D also
r ises t o over come t he t hr ust of spr ing 3. When flow t hr ough pa ssage C cr eat es a sufficient
pr essur e dr op t o over come t he t hr ust of spr ing 2, t he pist on is r aised off it s sea t (dia gr am B).
This allows flow t o pass t hr ough t he dischar ge por t t o t he r eser voir and pr event s fur t her r ise
in pr essur e.
b. Pressure-Reducing Valves. These va lves limit pr essur e on a br a nch cir cuit t o a lesser
amount t han r equir ed in a main cir cuit . For exa mple, in a syst em, a br a nch-cir cuit pr essur e
is limit ed t o 300 psi, but a ma in cir cuit must oper at e at 800 psi. A r elief va lve in a ma in cir -
cuit is adjust ed t o a set t ing above 800 psi t o meet a ma in cir cuit 's r equir ement s. However , it
would sur pa ss a br anch-cir cuit pr essur e of 300 psi. Ther efor e, besides a r elief va lve in a
ma in cir cuit , a
pr essur e-r educ-
ing valve must be
inst alled in a
br a nch cir cuit
and set at 300
psi. Figur e 5-4
shows a pr essur e-
r educing valve.
In a pr essur e-
r educing valve
(diagr am A),
adjust ing t he
spr ing’s compr es-
sion obt ains t he
ma ximum br anch-
cir cuit pr essur e.
The spr ing a lso
holds spool 1 in
Fi gure 5-3. Compound re l i e f valve
Fi gure 5-4. Pre s sure-re duci ng valve
FM 5-499
5-4 Valves
t he open posit ion. Liquid fr om t he main cir cuit ent er s t he va lve a t t he inlet por t C, flows
pa st t he va lve spool, a nd ent er s t he br anch cir cuit t hr ough t he out let por t D. Pr essur e at
t he out let por t act s t hr ough t he pa ssage E t o t he bot t om of spool. If t he pr essur e is insuffi-
cient t o over come t he t hr ust of t he spr ing, t he va lve r ema ins open.
The pr essur e at t he out let por t (diagr am B) and under t he spool exceeds t he equivalent
t hr ust of t he spr ing. The spool r ises a nd t he va lve is pa r t ia lly closed. This incr eases t he
va lve's r esist a nce t o flow, cr eat es a gr ea t er pr essur e dr op t hr ough t he va lve, a nd r educes t he
pr essur e at t he out let por t . The spool will posit ion it self t o limit maximum pr essur e a t t he
out let por t r egar dless of pr essur e fluct ua t ions at t he inlet por t , as long a s wor kloa d does not
ca use back flow a t t he out let por t . Back flow would close t he valve and pr essur e would
incr ease.
(1) X-Ser ies Type. Figur e 5-5 shows t he int er na l const r uct ion of a n X-ser ies pr essur e-
r educing valve. The t wo ma jor a ssemblies ar e a n a djust able pilot -va lve a ssembly in t he
cover , which det er mines t he oper a t ing pr essur e of t he valve, and a spool assembly in t he
body, which r esponds t o t he a ct ion of t he pilot va lve t o limit ma ximum pr essur e a t t he out let
por t .
The pilot -valve assembly consist s of a poppet 1, spr ing 2, a nd adjust ing scr ew 3. The
posit ion of t he adjust ing scr ew set s t he spr ing load on t he poppet , which det er mines t he set -
t ing of t he va lve. The spool a ssembly consist s of spool 4 and spr ing 5. The spr ing is a low-
r a t e spr ing, which t ends t o for ce t he spool downwa r d and hold t he valve open. The posit ion
of t he spool det er mines t he size of pa ssa ge C.
Fi gure 5-5. X-s e ri e s , pre s s ure -re duci ng valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-5
When pr essur e at t he valve inlet (dia gr a m A) does not exceed t he pr essur e set t ing, t he
va lve is complet ely open. Fluid pa sses fr om t he inlet t o t he out let wit h minimal r esist a nce
in t he r a t ed capacit y of t he valve. Passage D connect s t he out let por t t o t he bot t om of t he
spool. Passage E connect s t he cha mber s at each end of t he spool. Fluid pr essur e a t t he out -
let por t is pr esent on bot h ends of t he spool. When t hese pr essur es a r e equa l, t he spool is
hydr aulica lly ba la nced. The only effect ive for ce on t he spool is t he downwar d t hr ust of t he
spr ing, which posit ions t he spool a nd t ends t o maint ain pa ssa ge C at it s ma ximum size.
When t he pr essur e a t t he va lve’s out let (dia gr am B) appr oaches t he pr essur e set t ing of
t he valve, t he liquid's pr essur e in cha mber H is sufficient t o over come t he t hr ust of t he
spr ing a nd for ce t he poppet off it s seat . The pilot valve limit s t he pr essur e in chamber F.
Mor e pr essur e r ises a s t he out let pushes t he spool upwa r d against t he combined for ce of t he
spr ing a nd t he pr essur e in cha mber F.
As t he spool moves upwa r d, it r est r ict s t he opening t o cr eat e a pr essur e dr op bet ween
t he inlet a nd out let por t s. Pr essur e at t he out let is limit ed t o t he sum of t he equivalent
for ces of spr ings 2 and 5. In nor ma l oper a t ion, pa ssa ge C never closes complet ely. Flow
must pass t hr ough t o meet a ny wor k r equir ement s on t he low-pr essur e side of t he valve plus
t he flow r equir ed t hr ough passa ge E t o maint a in t he pr essur e dr op needed t o hold t he spool
at t he cont r ol posit ion. Flow t hr ough r est r ict ed pa ssage E is cont inua l when t he valve is
cont r olling t he r educed pr essur e. This flow is out t he dr a in por t and should be r et ur ned
dir ect ly t o t he t ank.
(2) XC-Ser ies Type. An
XC-ser ies pr essur e-r educing
valve limit s pr essur e at t he out -
let in t he sa me wa y t he X-ser ies
does when flow is fr om it s inlet
por t t o it s out let por t . An int e-
gr al check va lve a llows r ever se
fr ee flow fr om out let t o inlet
por t even at pr essur es above t he
va lve set t ing. However , t he
same pr essur e-r educing a ct ion
is not pr ovided for t his dir ect ion
of flow. Figur e 5-6 shows t he
int er nal const r uct ion of a n XC-
ser ies valve.
c. S equence Valves.
Sequence va lves cont r ol t he
oper at ing sequence bet ween t wo
br a nches of a cir cuit . The
va lves a r e commonly used t o
r egulat e an oper a t ing sequence
of t wo separ at e wor k cylinder s
so t ha t one cylinder begins
st r oking when t he ot her com-
plet es st r oking. Sequence
va lves used in t his manner ensur e t hat t her e is minimum pr essur e equal t o it s set t ing on t he
fir st cylinder dur ing t he subsequent oper at ions a t a lower pr essur e.
Fi gure 5-6. Inte rnal c onstruc ti on of an XC-se ri e s
val ve
FM 5-499
5-6 Valves
Figur e 5-7, diagr am A, shows how t o obt ain t he oper at ion of a sequencing pr essur e by
adjust ing a spr ing's compr ession, which holds pist on 1 in t he closed posit ion. Liquid ent er s
t he valve at inlet por t C, flows fr eely past pist on 1, a nd ent er s t he pr imar y cir cuit t hr ough
por t D. When pr essur e of t he liquid flowing t hr ough t he valve is below t he va lve’s set t ing,
t he for ce act ing upwar d on pist on 1 is less t ha n t he downwar d for ce of t he spr ing 2. The pis-
t on is held down a nd t he valve is in t he closed posit ion.
When r esist a nce in
t he pr imar y cir cuit
ca uses t he pr essur e t o
r ise so it over comes t he
for ce of spr ing 2, pist on 1
r ises. The valve is t hen
open (Figur e 5-7, dia-
gr am B). Liquid ent er -
ing t he va lve can now
flow t hr ough por t E t o
t he secondar y cir cuit .
Figur e 5-8 shows an
applicat ion of a
sequence valve. The
va lve is set a t a pr essur e
in excess of t hat r equir ed
t o st a r t cylinder 1 (pr i-
ma r y cylinder ). In it s
Fi gure 5-7. Se que nc e valve
Fi gure 5-8. Appli cat i on of s e que nc e valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-7
fir st oper at ing sequence, pump flow goes t hr ough por t s A a nd C (pr ima r y por t s) t o for ce cyl-
inder 1 t o st r oke. The valve st ays closed because t he pr essur e of cylinder 1 is below t he
va lve’s set t ing. When cylinder 1 finishes st r oking, flow is blocked, a nd t he syst em pr essur e
inst ant ly incr eases t o t he valve set t ing t o open t he va lve. Pump flow t hen st a r t s cylinder 2
(seconda r y cylinder ).
Dur ing t his phase, t he flow of pilot oil t hr ough t he ba la nce or ifice gover ns t he posit ion of
t he ma in pist on. This pist on t hr ot t les flow t o por t B (seconda r y por t ) so t ha t pr essur e equa l
t o t he va lve set t ing is maint a ined on t he pr imar y cir cuit dur ing movement of cylinder 2 a t a
lower pr essur e. Back pr essur e cr eat ed by t he r esist ance of cylinder 2 cannot int er fer e wit h
t he t hr ot t ling act ion because t he seconda r y pr essur e below t he st em of t he main pist on also
is applied t hr ough t he dr ain hole t o t he t op of t he st em and t her eby canceled out . When cyl-
inder 2 is r et r a ct ed, t he r et ur n flow fr om it bypasses t he sequence valve t hr ough t he check
va lve.
d. Counterbalance Valves. A count er ba lance valve allows fr ee flow of fluid in one dir ec-
t ion a nd maint a ins a r esist ance t o flow in anot her dir ect ion unt il a cer t ain pr essur e is
r eached. A va lve is nor ma lly loca t ed in a line bet ween a dir ect iona l-cont r ol valve and an out -
let of a ver t ica lly mount ed act ua t ing cylinder , which suppor t s weight or must be held in posi-
t ion for a per iod of t ime. A
count er ba la nce va lve ser ves as a
hydr aulic r esist ance t o an act ua t -
ing cylinder . For example, a
count er ba la nce va lve is used in
some hydr a ulically oper at ed for k
lift s. It offer s a r esist ance t o t he
flow fr om a n act ua t ing cylinder
when a for k is lower ed. It a lso
helps suppor t a for k in t he up
posit ion.
Figur e 5-9 shows a count er -
ba lance va lve. The va lve element
is ba la nce-spool va lve 4 t ha t con-
sist s of t wo pist ons which ar e per -
ma nent ly fixed on eit her end of
t he sha ft . The inner pist on ar ea s
ar e equal; t her efor e, pr essur e a ct s
equally on bot h ar eas r egar dless
of t he posit ion of t he va lve, a nd
has no effect on t he movement of
t he valve, hence, t he t er m ba l-
anced. A sma ll pilot pist on is
at t ached t o t he bot t om of t he
spool valve.
When t he valve is in t he
closed posit ion, t he t op pist on of
t he spool valve blocks discha r ge
por t 8. If fluid fr om t he a ct uat ing
Fi gure 5-9. Counte rbalance val ve
FM 5-499
5-8 Valves
unit ent er s inlet por t 5, it ca nnot flow t hr ough t he va lve because dischar ge por t 8 is blocked.
However , fluid will flow t hr ough t he pilot passa ge 6 t o t he small pilot pist on. As t he pr es-
sur e incr eases, it act s on t he pilot pist on unt il it over comes t he pr eset pr essur e of spr ing 3.
This for ces t he spool up and a llows t he fluid t o flow ar ound t he sha ft of t he spool valve and
out t he dischar ge por t 8.
Dur ing r ever se flow, t he fluid ent er s por t 8. Spr ing 3 for ces spool valve 4 t o t he closed
posit ion. The fluid pr essur e over comes t he spr ing t ension of check valve 7. It opens and
allows fr ee flow a r ound t he sha ft of t he spool valve a nd out por t 5. The oper at ing pr essur e of
t he valve ca n be a djust ed by t ur ning a djust ment scr ew 1, which incr ea ses or decr ea ses t he
t ension of t he spr ing. This adjust ment depends on t he weight t ha t t he va lve must suppor t .
Small amount s of fluid will leak ar ound t he t op pist on of t he spool valve and int o t he
ar ea ar ound spr ing 3. An accumulat ion would ca use a hydr a ulic lock on t he t op of t he spool
va lve (since a liquid cannot be compr essed). Dr ain 2 pr ovides a passage for t his fluid t o flow
t o por t 8.
e. Pressure S wit ches.
Pr essur e swit ches ar e
used in var ious applica-
t ions t ha t r equir e a n a djus-
t able, pr essur e-act ua t ed
elect r ica l swit ch t o ma ke or
br ea k an elect r ica l cir cuit
at a pr edet er mined pr es-
sur e. An elect r ical cir cuit
ma y be used t o act uat e an
elect r ica lly cont r olled valve
or cont r ol a n elect r ic-
mot or st ar t er or a signal
light . Figur e 5-10 shows a
pr essur e swit ch. Liquid,
under pr essur e, ent er s
cha mber A. If t he pr essur e
exceeds t he adjust ed pr es-
sur e set t ing of t he spr ing behind ba ll 1, t he ball is unsea t ed. The liquid flows int o chamber
B and moves pist on 2 t o t he r ight , act ua t ing t he limit t o ma ke or br ea k a n elect r ical cir cuit .
When pr essur e in cha mber A falls below t he set t ing of t he spr ing behind ball 1, t he
spr ing r eseat s ball 1. The liquid in chamber B is t hr ot t led pa st va lve 3 a nd ba ll 4 beca use of
t he a ct ion of t he spr ing behind pist on 2. The t ime r equir ed for t he limit swit ch t o r et ur n t o
it s nor mal posit ion is det er mined by valve 3’s set t ing.
5-2. Di rect i onal-Cont rol Valve s. Dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lves a lso cont r ol flow dir ect ion.
However , t hey va r y consider ably in physical char act er ist ics and oper a t ion. The valves may
be a—
• Poppet t ype, in which a pist on or ba ll moves on and off a seat .
• Rot ar y-spool t ype, in which a spool r ot a t es a bout it s axis.
Fi gure 5-10. Pre ssure swi tch
FM 5-499
Valves 5-9
• Sliding-spool t ype, in which a spool slides axia lly in a bor e. In t his t ype, a spool is
oft en classified accor ding t o t he flow condit ions cr eat ed when it is in t he nor mal or
neut r a l posit ion. A closed-cent er spool blocks all va lve por t s fr om ea ch ot her when in
t he nor mal posit ion. In an open-cent er spool, a ll valve por t s a r e open t o each ot her
when t he spool is in t he nor ma l posit ion.
Dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lves may also be classified accor ding t o t he met hod used t o act ua t e
t he va lve element . A poppet -t ype valve is usua lly hydr aulica lly oper a t ed. A r ot ar y-spool
t ype ma y be manua lly (lever or plunger a ct ion), mechanically (cam or t r ip a ct ion), or elect r i-
cally (solenoid act ion) oper at ed. A sliding-spool t ype may be manua lly, mechanica lly, elect r i-
cally, or hydr a ulically oper at ed, or it ma y be oper a t ed in combina t ion.
Dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lves ma y also be cla ssified a ccor ding t o t he number of posit ions of
t he va lve element s or t he t ot al number of flow pa t hs pr ovided in t he ext r eme posit ion. For
example, a t hr ee-posit ion, four -way va lve ha s t wo ext r eme posit ions a nd a cent er or neut r al
posit ion. In each of t he t wo ext r eme posit ions, t her e a r e t wo flow pat hs, making a t ot al of
four flow pat hs.
Spool va lves (see Figur e 5-11) a r e popular on moder n hydr aulic syst ems because t hey—
• Can be pr ecision-gr ound for fine-oil met er ing.
• Can be ma de t o ha ndle flows in many dir ect ions by adding ext r a la nds a nd oil
por t s.
• St a ck easily int o one compact cont r ol package, which is impor t ant on mobile sys-
t ems.
Spool va lves, however , r equir e good
ma int enance. Dir t y oil will da ma ge t he
ma t ing sur fa ces of t he valve lands, causing
t hem t o lose t heir a ccur acy. Dir t will ca use
t hese valves t o st ick or wor k er r at ically.
Also, spool va lves must be a ccur at ely
ma chined a nd fit t ed t o t heir bor es.
a. Poppet Valve. Figure 5-12, page 5-10,
shows a simple poppet valve. It consist s
pr ima r ily of a mova ble poppet t ha t closes
a ga inst a valve seat . Pr essur e fr om t he
inlet t ends t o hold t he valve t ight ly closed.
A slight for ce applied t o t he poppet st em
opens t he poppet . The act ion is similar t o
t he va lves of an aut omobile engine. The
poppet st em usua lly has an O-r ing sea l t o
pr event lea kage. In some va lves, t he pop-
pet s a r e held in t he seat ed posit ion by
spr ings. The number of poppet s in a valve
depends on t he pur pose of t he va lve.
Fi gure 5-11. Spool valve
FM 5-499
5-10 Valves
b. S liding-S pool Valve. Figur e 5-13 shows a
sliding-spool va lve. The valve element slides back
and for t h t o block and uncover por t s in t he housing.
Somet imes ca lled a pist on t ype, t he sliding-spool
va lve has a pist on of which t he inner ar ea s a r e equa l.
Pr essur e fr om t he inlet por t s act s equally on bot h
inner pist on a r ea s r ega r dless of t he posit ion of t he
spool. Sea ling is done by a machine fit bet ween t he
spool a nd va lve body or sleeve.
c. Check Valves. Check va lves a r e t he most commonly used in fluid-power ed syst ems.
They a llow flow in one dir ect ion and pr event flow in t he ot her dir ect ion. They ma y be
inst a lled independent ly in a line, or t hey may be incor por a t ed a s an int egr al par t of a
sequence, count er balance, or pr essur e-r educing valve. The valve element may be a sleeve,
cone, ball, poppet , pist on, spool, or disc. For ce of t he moving fluid opens a check valve; back-
flow, a spr ing, or gr avit y closes t he valve. Figur es 5-14, 5-15 and 5-16 show var ious t ypes of
check valves.
(1) St andar d Type (Figur e 5-17, pa ge 5-12). This va lve ma y be a r ight -angle or an in-
line t ype, depending on t he r ela t ive locat ion of t he por t s. Bot h t ypes oper a t e on t he sa me
pr inciple. The valve consist s essent ia lly of a poppet or ba ll 1 held on a seat by t he for ce of
spr ing 2. Flow dir ect ed t o t he inlet por t a ct s against spr ing 2 t o unsea t poppet 1 and open
t he valve for t hr ough flow (see Figur e 5-17, diagr a m B, for bot h va lve t ypes). Flow ent er ing
t he valve t hr ough t he out let por t combines wit h spr ing act ion t o hold poppet 1 on it s sea t t o
check r ever se flow.
These valves ar e a va ilable wit h var ious cr a cking pr essur es. Convent ional a pplicat ions
usually use t he light spr ing because it ensur es r esea t ing t he poppet r ega r dless of t he va lve's
Figure 5-12. Ope rat i on of a si m-
ple poppet valve
Fi gure 5-13. Ope rat i on of s li di ng-s pool ,
di re ct i onal-c ont rol val ve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-11
mount ing posit ion. Hea vy
spr ing unit s a r e gener a lly used
t o ensur e t he a va ila bilit y of at
least t he minimum pr essur e
r equir ed for pilot oper at ions.
(2) Rest r ict ion Type (Fig-
ur e 5-18, page 5-12). This
valve has or ifice plug 1 in t he
nose of poppet 2, which makes
it differ ent fr om a conven-
t iona l, r ight -angle check valve.
Flow dir ect ed t o t he inlet por t
opens t he va lve, allowing fr ee
flow t hr ough t he va lve.
Rever se flow dir ect ed in t hr ough
t he out let por t sea t s poppet 2.
Flow is r est r ict ed t o t he amount
of oil, which can be alt er ed, t o
a llow a suit a ble bleed when t he
poppet is closed. Uses of a
r est r ict ion check va lve can be t o
cont r ol t he lower ing speed of a
down-moving pist on a nd t he
r at e of decompr ession in lar ge
pr esses.
(3) Pilot -Oper a t ed Type
(Figur e 5-19, pa ge 5-13). In dia-
gr a m A, t he valve has poppet 1
sea t ed on st a t ionar y sleeve 2 by
spr ing 3. This valve opens t he sa me a s a
convent ional check valve. Pr essur e a t t he
inlet por t s must be sufficient t o over come
t he combined for ces of any pr essur e a t t he
out let por t and t he light t hr ust of spr ing 3
so t hat poppet 1 r aises a nd allows flow
fr om t he inlet por t s t hr ough t he out let
por t . In t his sit ua t ion, t her e is no pr essur e
r equir ed at t he pilot por t .
In dia gr am B, t he valve is closed t o
pr event r ever se flow. Pr essur e at t he out -
let por t a nd t he t hr ust of spr ing 3 hold pop-
pet 1 on it s seat t o block t he flow. In t his
case, t he pilot por t has no pr essur e.
In dia gr am C, pr essur e applied at t he
pilot por t is sufficient t o over come t he
t hr ust of spr ing 3. The net for ces exer t ed
Fi gure 5-14. Swi ng-type chec k valve
Figure 5-15. Ve rt i cal che ck valve
Fi gure 5-16. Spri ng-loade d che ck valve
FM 5-499
5-12 Valves
A
B
Fi gure 5-17. St andard c he c k valve
Fi gure 5-18. Re s t ri ct ion che ck valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-13
by pr essur es a t t he ot her por t s r aise pist on 4 t o unseat poppet 1 and a llow cont r olled flow
fr om t he out let t o t he inlet por t s. Wit h no pr essur e a t t he inlet por t s, pilot pr essur e must
exceed 40 per cent of t hat imposed at out let t o open t he poppet .
Figur e 5-20 shows anot her pilot -oper a t ed check valve. This valve consist s of poppet 1
secur ed t o pist on 3. Poppet 1 is held against sea t 4 by t he act ion of spr ing 2 on pist on 3. In
diagr am A, t he valve is in t he fr ee-flow posit ion. Pr essur e at t he inlet por t , act ing downwar d
against poppet 1, is sufficient t o over come t he combined for ces of spr ing 2 against pist on 3
and t he pr essur e, if any, at t he out let por t . (The pr essur e a t t he out let por t is exer t ed over a
gr ea t er effect ive ar ea t ha n t ha t a t t he inlet beca use of t he poppet st em.) The dr ain post is
open t o t he t ank, a nd t her e is no pr essur e a t t he pilot por t . Diagr a m B shows t he valve in a
posit ion t o pr event r ever se flow, wit h no pr essur e a t t he pilot por t a nd t he dr ain opening t o
t he t ank.
Fi gure 5-19. Pi lot -operated chec k valve
Figure 5-20. Pi lot -operated c hec k valve , s e cond t ype
FM 5-499
5-14 Valves
Diagr a m C shows t he pilot oper at ion of t he valve. When sufficient pr essur e is applied at
t he pilot por t t o over come t he t hr ust of spr ing 2 plus t he net effect of pr essur e a t t he ot her
por t s, poppet 1 is unsea t ed t o allow r ever se flow. Pilot pr essur e must be equa l t o a bout 80
per cent of t hat imposed at t he out let por t t o open t he va lve a nd allow r ever se flow.
d. Two-Way Valve. A t wo-way valve is gener ally used t o cont r ol t he dir ect ion of fluid
flow in a hydr a ulic cir cuit and is a sliding-spool t ype. Figur e 5-21 shows a t wo-wa y, sliding-
spool, dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lve. As t he spool moves back and for t h, it eit her allows or pr e-
vent s fluid flow t hr ough t he va lve. In eit her shift ed posit ion in a t wo-way valve, a pr essur e
por t is open t o one cylinder por t , but t he opposit e cylinder por t is not open t o a t a nk. A t a nk
por t on t his va lve is used pr ima r ily for dr aining.
e. Four-Way Valves. Four -way, dir ect ional-cont r ol valves a r e used t o cont r ol t he dir ec-
t ion of fluid flow in a hydr aulic cir cuit , which cont r ols t he dir ect ion of movement of a wor k
cylinder or t he r ot a t ion of a fluid mot or . These valves a r e usually t he sliding-spool t ype. A
t ypica l four -wa y, dir ect ional-cont r ol valve has four por t s:
• One pr essur e por t is connect ed t o a pr essur e line.
• One r et ur n or exha ust por t is connect ed t o a r eser voir .
• Two wor king por t s a r e connect ed, by lines, t o a n a ct uat ing unit .
Four -way va lves consist of a r ect a n-
gula r ca st body, a sliding spool, and a way
t o posit ion a spool. A spool is pr ecision-
fit t ed t o a bor e t hr ough t he longit udinal
a xis of a va lve’s body. The lands of a spool
divide t his bor e int o a ser ies of sepa r at e
chamber s. Por t s in a va lve’s body lead
int o a chamber so t hat a spool's posit ion
det er mines which por t s ar e open t o each
ot her and which ones ar e sea led off fr om
ea ch ot her . Por t s t hat ar e sealed off fr om
ea ch ot her in one posit ion ma y be int er -
connect ed in a not her posit ion. Spool posi-
t ioning is a ccomplished manua lly,
mecha nica lly, elect r ically, or hydr a uli-
cally or by combing any of t he four .
Figur e 5-22 shows how t he spool posi-
t ion det er mines t he possible flow condi-
t ions in t he cir cuit . The four por t s ar e
mar ked P, T, A, a nd B: P is connect ed t o
t he flow sour ce; T t o t he t a nk; a nd A and
B t o t he r espect ive por t s of t he wor k cylin-
der , hydr a ulic mot or , or some ot her va lve
in t he cir cuit . In dia gr am A, t he spool is
in such a posit ion t ha t por t P is open t o
por t A, a nd por t B is open t o por t T. Por t s
A and B a r e connect ed t o t he por t s of t he
cylinder , flow t hr ough por t P, a nd cause
Fi gure 5-21. Two-way valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-15
t he pist on of t he cylinder t o move t o t he r ight . Ret ur n flow fr om t he cylinder passes t hr ough
por t s B and T. In diagr a m B, por t P is open t o por t B, and t he pist on moves t o t he left .
Ret ur n flow fr om t he cylinder passes t hr ough por t s A and T.
Ta ble 5-1, pa ge 5-16, list s some of t he classificat ions of dir ect ional-cont r ol valves. These
va lves could be ident ified a ccor ding t o t he—
• Number of spool posit ions.
• Number of flow pat hs in t he ext r eme posit ions.
• Flow pa t t er n in t he cent er or cr ossover posit ion.
• Met hod of shift ing a spool.
• Met hod of pr oviding spool r et ur n.
(1) Poppet -Type Valve. Figur e 5-23, page 5-16, shows a t ypical four -way, poppet -t ype,
dir ect ional-cont r ol valve. It is a manua lly oper a t ed valve a nd consist s of a gr oup of conven-
t ional spr ing-loaded poppet s. The poppet s ar e enclosed in a common housing and a r e int er -
connect ed by duct s so as t o dir ect t he fluid flow in t he desir ed dir ect ion.
The poppet s a r e a ct uat ed by ca ms on t he ca mshaft . They a r e a r r anged so t ha t t he
shaft , which is r ot a t ed by it s cont r olling lever , will open t he cor r ect poppet combinat ions t o
dir ect t he fluid flow t hr ough t he desir ed line t o t he act ua t ing unit . At t he same t ime, fluid
will be dir ect ed fr om t he opposit e line of t he act ua t ing unit t hr ough t he valve and back t o t he
r eser voir or exhaust ed t o t he at mospher e.
Fi gure 5-22. Flow condi ti ons in a c irc ui t
FM 5-499
5-16 Valves
Spr ings hold t he poppet s t o t heir
seat s. A camsha ft unsea t s t hem t o
allow fluid flow t hr ough t he valve.
The camshaft is cont r olled by moving
t he ha ndle. The va lve is oper at ed by
moving t he ha ndle manually or by
connect ing t he ha ndle, by mechanica l
linkage, t o a cont r ol ha ndle. On t he
ca mshaft ar e t hr ee O-r ing packings
t o pr event int er nal and ext er na l leak-
age. The ca mshaft has t wo lobes
(r a ised por t ions). The cont our
(sha pe) of t hese lobes is such t ha t
when t he shaft is placed in t he neu-
t r a l posit ion, t he lobes will not t ouch
any of t he poppet s.
Fi gure 5-23. Worki ng vi e w of poppet -type, four-
way valve
Table 5-1. Classi fi cati ons of di re c ti onal-cont rol valve s
Classification Description
Path-of-flow type Two way
Four way
Allows a total of two possible flow paths in two
extreme spool positions
Allows a total of four possible flow paths in two
extreme spool positions
Control type Manual operated
Pilot operated
Solenoid operated
Solenoid controlled, pilot oper-
ated
Hand lever is used to shift the spool.
Hydraulic pressure is used to shift the spool.
Solenoid action is used to shift the spool.
Solenoid action is used to shift the integral pilot
spool, which directs the pilot flow to shift the main
spool.
Position type Two position
Three position
Spool has two extreme positions of dwell.
Spool has two extreme positions plus one interme-
diate or center position.
Spring type Spring offset
No spring
Spring centered
Spring action automatically returns the spool to the
normal offset position as soon as shifter force is
released. (Spring offset is always a two-way
valve.)
Spool is not spring-loaded; it is moved only by
shifter force, and it remains where it is shifted (may
be two- or three-position type, but three-position
type uses detent).
Spring action automatically returns the spool to the
center position as soon as the shifter force is
released. (Spring-centered is always a three-
position valve.)
Spool type Open center
Closed center
Tandem center
Partially closed center
Semi-open center
These are five of the more common spool types.
They refer to the flow pattern allowed when the
spool is in the center position (three-position
valves) or in the cross-over position (two-position
valves).
FM 5-499
Valves 5-17
One cam lobe oper a t es t he t wo pr essur e poppet s; t he ot her lobe oper at es t he t wo r et ur n/
exha ust poppet s. To st op t he r ot at ing camsha ft a t t he exa ct posit ion, a st op pin is secur ed t o
t he body and ext ended t hr ough a cut out sect ion of t he ca mshaft flange. This st op pin pr e-
vent s over t r avel by ensur ing t ha t t he cam lobes st op r ot a t ing when t he poppet s ha ve
unseat ed as high as t hey can go.
Figur e 5-23 shows a wor king view of a poppet -t ype, four -wa y va lve. The ca mshaft
r ot at es by moving t he cont r ol ha ndle in eit her dir ect ion fr om neut r al. The lobes r ot at e,
unseat ing one pr essur e poppet and one r et ur n/exha ust poppet . The valve is now in a wor k-
ing posit ion. Pr essur e fluid, ent er ing t he pr essur e por t , t r avels t hr ough t he ver t ica l fluid
passages in bot h pr essur e poppet seat s. Since only one pr essur e poppet is unseat ed by t he
cam lobe, t he fluid flows past t he open poppet t o t he inside of t he poppet sea t . It t hen flows
out one wor king por t a nd t o t he a ct uat ing unit . Ret ur n fluid fr om t he a ct uat ing unit ent er s
t he ot her wor king por t . It t hen flows t hr ough t he dia gonal fluid pa ssa ges, past t he unseat ed
r et ur n poppet , t hr ough t he ver t ical fluid pa ssa ges, and out t he r et ur n/exhaust por t . By
r ot at ing t he ca mshaft in t he opposit e dir ect ion unt il t he st op pin hit s, t he opposit e pr essur e
and r et urn poppet s ar e unseat ed, and t he fluid flow is r ever sed. This causes t he act uat ing
unit t o move in t he opposit e dir ect ion.
(2) Sliding-Spool Va lve. The four -wa y, sliding-spool, dir ect ional-cont r ol valve is simple
in oper a t ion pr inciple a nd is pr oba bly t he most dur a ble and t r ouble fr ee of all four -wa y,
dir ect ional-cont r ol valves in cur r ent use. Figur e 5-24 shows a t ypical four -way, sliding-
spool, dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lve. The va lve body cont a ins four fluid por t s: pr essur e, r et ur n/
exha ust , and t wo wor king por t s (r efer r ed t o as cylinder por t s). A hollow st eel sleeve fit s int o
t he main bor e of t he body. Ar ound t he out side diamet er of t he sleeve a r e O-r ing ga sket s.
These O-r ings for m a sea l bet ween t he sleeve and t he body.
In Figur e 5-24, dia gr am A, t he valve is a t t he far r ight in it s cylinder . Liquid fr om t he
pump flows t o t he r ight end of t he cylinder por t , while liquid fr om t he left end r et ur ns t o t he
r eser voir . In diagr a m C, t he sit uat ion is r ever se. The pist on is t o t he far left in it s cylinder .
Liquid fr om t he pump flows t o t he left end of t he cylinder por t , while liquid fr om t he r ight
end r et ur ns t o t he r eser voir . In diagr am B, t he pist on is in a n int er media t e posit ion. Flow
t hr ough t he valve fr om t he pump is shut off, and bot h ends of t he cylinder can dr ain t o t he
Figure 5-24. Schemat i c of a four-way, di re ct ional-control, sli di ng-spool valve
FM 5-499
5-18 Valves
r eser voir unless ot her valves a r e set t o cont r ol t he flow.
In a closed-cent er spool valve, a pist on is solid, and all passages t hrough a valve ar e blocked
when a pist on is cent er ed in it s cylinder (see Figur e 5-24, diagr a m B). A closed-cent er va lve
is used when a single pump or a n accumulat or per for ms mor e t ha n one oper a t ion and wher e
t her e must be no pr essur e loss in shift ing a st r oke dir ect ion a t a wor k point .
In a n open-cent er spool va lve, t he spools on a pist on a r e slot t ed or channeled so t ha t a ll
pa ssages ar e open t o ea ch ot her
when a pist on is cent er ed (see Figur e
5-25). In some open-cent er va lves,
pa ssages t o a cylinder por t a r e
blocked when a valve is cent er ed a nd
liquid fr om a pump is ca r r ied
t hr ough a pist on a nd out t he ot her
side of a valve t o a r eser voir (see Fig-
ur e 5-26). Liquid must be ca r r ied t o
bot h ends of a pist on of a dir ect iona l
va lve t o keep it ba la nced. Inst ead of
dischar ging int o a r eser voir when a
va lve is cent er ed, liquid may be
dir ect ed t o ot her va lves so t ha t a set
of oper at ions is per for med in
sequence.
Open-cent er va lves ar e used
when a wor k cylinder does not have
t o be held in posit ion by pr essur e a nd
wher e power is used t o per for m a sin-
gle oper at ion. These va lves also
avoid shock t o a syst em when a va lve
spool is moved fr om one posit ion t o
anot her , since in t he int er media t e
Fi gure 5-25. Clos e d-ce nte r spool valve
Fi gure 5-26. Open-ce nt er spool valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-19
posit ion, pr essur e is t empor ar ily r elieved by liquid passing fr om a pump dir ect ly t o t he r es-
er voir .
(3). Ma nually Oper a t ed Four -Way Valve. This valve is used t o cont r ol t he flow dir ect ion
ma nually. A spool is shift ed by oper a t ing a hand lever (Figur e 5-27, pa ge 5-20). In a spr ing-
offset model, a spool is nor ma lly in an ext r eme out posit ion and is shift ed t o a n ext r eme in
posit ion by moving a lever t owa r d a valve. Spr ing a ct ion aut omat ically r et ur ns bot h spool
and lever t o t he nor mal out posit ion when a lever is r elea sed. In a t wo-posit ion, no-spr ing
model, a spool is shift ed ba ck t o it s or iginal posit ion. (Figur e 5-27 does not show t his va lve.)
In a t hr ee-posit ion no-spr ing model, a det ent (a devise which locks t he movement ) r et ains a
spool in any one of t he t hr ee select ed posit ions aft er lever for ce is r eleased. In a t hr ee-posi-
t ion, spr ing-cent er ed model, a lever is used t o shift a spool t o eit her ext r eme posit ion away
fr om t he cent er . Spr ing a ct ion aut omat ically r et ur ns a spool t o t he cent er posit ion when a
lever is r elea sed.
(4) Pilot -Oper at ed, Four -Way Va lve. This t ype of va lve is used t o cont r ol t he flow dir ec-
t ion by using a pilot pr essur e. Figur e 5-28, page 5-21, shows t wo unit s in which t he spool is
shift ed by applying t he pilot pr essur e a t eit her end of t he spool. In t he spr ing-offset model,
t he spool is held in it s nor mal offset posit ion by spr ing t hr ust a nd shift ed t o it s ot her posit ion
by applying pilot pr essur e t o t he fr ee end of t he spool. Removing pilot pr essur e shift s t he
spool back t o it s nor mal offset posit ion. A det ent does not hold t his valve, so pilot pr essur e
should be maint a ined a s long a s t he valve is in t he shift ed posit ion.
(5) Solenoid-Oper at ed, Two- a nd Four -Way Va lves. These valves a r e used t o cont r ol t he
dir ect ion of hydr aulic flow by elect r ica l mea ns. A spool is shift ed by ener gizing a solenoid
t ha t is loca t ed a t one or bot h ends of t he spool. When a solenoid is ener gized, it for ces a push
r od a ga inst t he end of a spool. A spool shift s a wa y fr om t he solenoid and t owar d t he opposit e
end of t he valve body (see Figur e 5-29, page 5-21). In a spr ing-offset model, a single solenoid
shift s a spr ing-loaded spool. When a solenoid is deener gized, a spr ing r et ur ns a spool t o it s
or igina l posit ion.
5-3. Flow-Control Valve s. Flow-cont r ol va lves ar e used t o cont r ol an act uat or ’s speed by
met er ing flow. Met er ing is measur ing or r egulat ing t he flow r a t e t o or fr om an act ua t or . A
wa t er faucet is a n example of a flow-cont r ol valve. Flow r at e va r ies a s a faucet ha ndle is
t ur ned clockwise or count er clockwise. In a closed posit ion, flow st ops. Ma ny flow-cont r ol
va lves used in fluid-power ed syst ems ar e similar in design and oper at ion t o a wat er fa ucet ’s.
In hydr a ulic cir cuit s, flow-cont r ol valves a r e gener a lly used t o cont r ol t he speed of
hydr aulic mot or s and wor k spindles a nd t he t r a vel r a t es of t ool hea ds or slides. Flow-cont r ol
va lves incor por at e an int egr al pr essur e compensat or , which causes t he flow r at e t o r ema in
subst a nt ially unifor m r egar dless of cha nges in wor kloa d. A nonpr essur e, compensat ed flow
cont r ol, such as a needle va lve or fixed r est r ict ion, a llows cha nges in t he flow r at e when
pr essur e dr op t hr ough it cha nges.
Var iat ions of t he basic flow-cont r ol va lves ar e t he flow-cont r ol-a nd-check va lves and t he
flow-cont r ol-and-over load r elief valves. Models in t he flow-cont r ol-and-check-va lve ser ies
incor por a t e an int egr a l check valve t o a llow r ever se fr ee flow. Models in t he flow-cont r ol-
and-over load-r elief-valve ser ies incor por at e a n int egr al r elief valve t o limit syst em pr essur e.
Some of t hese valves ar e gasket -mount ed, and some a r e panel-mount ed.
FM 5-499
5-20 Valves
Figure 5-27. Shift i ng s pool by hand leve r
FM 5-499
Valves 5-21
a. Gate Valve. In t his t ype of valve, a wedge or ga t e cont r ols t he flow. To open and close
a passage, a ha ndwheel moves a wedge or ga t e up and down acr oss a flow line. Figur e 5-30,
page 5-22, shows t he pr incipal element s of a ga t e valve. Ar ea A shows t he line connect ion
and t he out side st r uct ur e of t he valve; ar ea B shows t he wedge or gat e inside t he va lve and
t he st em t o which t he gat e and t he ha ndwheel ar e at t a ched. When t he valve is opened, t he
ga t e st a nds up inside
t he bonnet wit h it s
bot t om flush wit h t he
wa ll of t he line. When
t he valve is closed, t he
ga t e blocks t he flow by
st anding st r a ight
acr oss t he line wher e it
r est s fir mly a ga inst
t he t wo sea t s t ha t
ext end complet ely
ar ound t he line.
A gat e va lve
allows a st r aight flow
and offer s lit t le or no
r esist ance t o t he fluid
flow when t he valve is
complet ely open.
Somet imes a ga t e
va lve is in t he par t ially
open posit ion t o
r est r ict t he flow r a t e.
Fi gure 5-28. Spool shi fted by pi lot pre ss ure
Pressure
In
Return Return
Valve
spool
Solenoid 2 Solenoid 1
Actuator
Fi gure 5-29. Solenoi d-operate d, sli ding-spool , di rect i onal-
c ontrol valve
FM 5-499
5-22 Valves
However , it s main use is in t he fully open or fully
closed posit ions. If t he valve is left pa r t ly open, t he
valve's face st ands in t he fluid flow, which will a ct on
t he face a nd cause it t o er ode.
b. Globe Valve. A disc, which is scr ewed dir ect ly
on t he end of t he st em, is t he cont r olling member of a
globe valve. A valve is closed by lower ing a disc int o a
valve sea t . Since fluid flows equally on a ll sides of t he
cent er of suppor t when a va lve is open, t her e is no
unbalanced pr essur e on a disc t o cause uneven wear .
Figur e 5-31 shows a globe va lve.
c. Needle Valve. A needle va lve is similar in
design a nd oper at ion t o a globe va lve. Inst ea d of a
disc, a needle valve has a long, t a per ed point a t t h e
end of a va lve st em. Figur e 5-32 shows a sect ional
view of a needle valve. A long t aper a llows a needle
valve t o open or close gr a dually. A needle va lve is
used t o cont r ol flow—
• Int o delica t e gauges, which could be da m-
a ged if high-pr essur e fluid wa s suddenly
deliver ed.
• At t he end of an oper a t ion when wor k
mot ion should ha lt slowly.
• At ot her point s wher e pr ecise flow a djust -
ment s ar e necessa r y.
• At point s wher e a small flow r at e is desir ed.
Control
wheel
B
A
Seal
Bonnet
Gate
Control
screw
Seat
Fi gure 5-30. Cross s e ct i on of a
gate valve
Control screw
Disc
Seat
Fi gure 5-31. Operati on of a globe valve
Closed
Open
Fi gure 5-32. Se ct i onal vi e w of a
ne e dle valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-23
d. Restrictor. A rest r ict or is used in liquid-powered
syst ems t o limit t he movement speed of cer t ain a ct u-
at ing devices by limit ing flow r a t e in a line. Figur e 5-
33 shows a fixed r est r ict or . Figur e 5-34 shows a var i-
able r est r ict or , which var ies t he r est r ict ion a mount
and is a modified needle va lve. This valve ca n be pr e-
adjust ed t o a lt er t he oper at ing t ime of a pa r t icula r
subsyst em. Also, it ca n be a djust ed t o meet t he
r equir ement s of a par t icula r syst em.
e. Orifice Check Valve. This valve is used in liquid-
power ed syst ems t o a llow nor mal speed of oper at ion
in one dir ect ion a nd limit ed speed in
anot her . Figur e 5-35 shows t wo or ifice
check valves.
f. Flow Equalizer. A flow equa l-
izer (flow divider ) is used in some
hydr aulic syst ems t o synchr onize t he
oper at ion of t wo a ct uat ing unit s. An
equalizer divides a single st r eam of
fluid fr om a dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lve
int o t wo equal st r eams. Ea ch act ua t -
ing unit r eceives t he sa me flow r at e;
bot h move in unison. When t he t wo
st r eams of r et ur n fluid oper at e in oppo-
sit e dir ect ions, a flow equalizer com-
bines t hem a t a n equal r at e. Thus, a
flow equalizer synchr onizes t he act ua t -
ing unit s' movement s dur ing bot h
oper at ional dir ect ions.
Figur e 5-36, pa ge 5-24, shows one
t ype of flow equalizer ; t he valve is in t he
split t ing (divided-flow) posit ion. Fluid,
under pr essur e fr om t he dir ect iona l-
cont r ol valve, ent er s por t 3. This pr es-
sur e over comes spr ing t ension and
Fi gure 5-33. Fi xed re s t ri ct or
Adjusting
screw
Bonnet
Fi gure 5-34. Vari able re s t ri c tor
Inlet
Inlet
Outlet
Outlet
3
4
2
1
5
A
B
1. Outlet port 4. Inlet port
2. Cone 5. Orifice
3. Orifice
Figure 5-35. Orifi c e c hec k valve
FM 5-499
5-24 Valves
Fi gure 5-36. Flow e quali zer
FM 5-499
Valves 5-25
for ces plug 4 down a nd uncover s t he t wo or ifices in sleeve 2. The fluid t hen split s a nd should
flow equally t hr ough side pa ssa ges 1 a nd 5. The fluid flows t hr ough—
• Split t ing check valves 7 a nd 15.
• Met er ing gr ooves 10 a nd 14.
• Por t s 9 a nd 13.
• The connect ing lines t o t he a ct uat ing cylinder s.
Any differ ence in t he flow r at e bet ween t he t wo passages r esult s in a pr essur e differ en-
t ial bet ween t hese t wo pa ssa ges. Fr ee-floa t ing met er ing pist on 11 shift s t o equalize t he
int er nal pr essur e, equa lizing t he flow.
5-4. Valve Install at i on. Since a flow-cont r ol va lve met er s flow in one dir ect ion only, t he
inlet and out let por t s must be cor r ect ly connect ed in a cir cuit in r ela t ion t o t he flow dir ect ion
t o be met er ed. A va lve's dr ain connect ion must be piped t o a t a nk so t hat a connect ion will
not be subject ed t o possible pr essur e sur ges. The locat ion of a flow-cont r ol valve wit h
r espect t o wor kload ha s an affect on a cir cuit 's oper a t ing char a ct er ist ics. The t hr ee basic
t ypes of flow-cont r ol-
va lve inst allat ions
ar e t he met er -in,
met er -out , and bleed-
off cir cuit s.
a. Meter-In Cir-
cuit (Figur e 5-37).
Wit h t his cir cuit , a
flow-cont r ol valve is
inst alled in a pr es-
sur e line t hat lea ds t o
a wor k cylinder . All
flow ent er ing a wor k
cylinder is fir st
met er ed t hr ough a
flow-cont r ol valve.
Since t his met er ing
act ion involves r educ-
ing flow fr om a pump
t o a wor k cylinder , a
pump must deliver
mor e fluid t han is
r equir ed t o act ua t e a cylinder a t t he desir ed speed. Excess fluid r et ur ns t o a t a nk t hr ough a
r elief va lve. To conser ve power a nd avoid undue st r ess on a pump, a r elief va lve’s set t ing
should be only slight ly higher t han a wor king pr essur e’s, which a cylinder r equir es.
A met er -in cir cuit is ideal in a pplicat ions wher e a load a lways offer s a posit ive r esis-
t a nce t o flow dur ing a cont r olled st r oke. Examples would be feeding gr inder t ables, welding
ma chines, milling ma chines, and r ot a r y hydr aulic mot or dr ives. A flow-cont r ol-a nd-check
va lve used in t his t ype of cir cuit would allow r ever se fr ee flow for t he r et ur n st r oke of a cylin-
der , but it would not pr ovide cont r ol of r et ur n st r oke speed.
Fi gure 5-37. Typi cal me te r-in ci rc ui t
FM 5-499
5-26 Valves
b. Meter-Out
Circuit (Figur e 5-38,
pa ge 5-26). Wit h a
met er -out cir cuit , a
flow-cont r ol va lve is
inst alled on t he
r et ur n side of a cyl-
inder so t ha t it con-
t r ols a cylinder 's
a ct uat ion by met er -
ing it s discha r ge
flow. A r elief valve
is set slight ly above
t he oper at ing pr es-
sur e t hat is r equir ed
by t he t ype of wor k.
This t ype of cir -
cuit is ideal for over -
hauling load
applicat ions in which a wor kload t ends t o pull an oper a t ing pist on fast er t han a pump's
deliver y would wa r r ant . Examples would be for dr illing, r eaming, bor ing, t ur ning, t hr ead-
ing, t apping, cut t ing off, and cold sa wing machines. A flow-cont r ol-a nd-check valve used in
t his cir cuit would a llow r ever se fr ee flow, but it would not pr ovide a cont r ol of r et ur n st r oke
speed.
c. Bleed-Off Circuit. A t ypical bleed-off cir cuit is not inst alled dir ect ly in a feed line. It
is Td int o t his line wit h it s out let connect ed t o a r et urn line. A valve r egulat es flow t o a cyl-
inder by diver t ing an a djust able por t ion of a pump’s flow t o a t ank. Since fluid deliver ed t o a
wor k cylinder does not have t o pa ss t hr ough a flow-cont r ol va lve, excess fluid does not ha ve
t o be dumped t hr ough a r elief va lve. This t ype of cir cuit usua lly involves less heat gener a -
t ion beca use pr essur e on a pump equa ls t he wor k r esist ance dur ing a feed oper a t ion.
d. Compensated Flow. The flow-cont r ol va lves pr eviously discussed do not compensat e
for cha nges in fluid t emper a t ur e or pr essur e a nd a r e consider ed noncompensa t ing valves.
Flow r a t e t hr ough t hese valves ca n va r y at a fixed set t ing if eit her t he pr essur e or t he fluid's
t emper at ur e cha nges. Viscosit y is t he int er na l r esist ance of a fluid t hat ca n st op it fr om
flowing. A liquid t ha t flows ea sily ha s a high viscosit y. Viscosit y changes, which can r esult
fr om t emper at ur e changes, can ca use low var iat ions t hr ough a valve. Such a valve can be
used in liquid-power ed syst ems wher e slight flow va r iat ions ar e not cr it ica l consider a t ion
fact or s.
However , some syst ems r equir e ext r emely a ccur a t e cont r ol of an act ua t ing device. In
such a syst em, a compensa t ed flow-cont r ol valve is used. This va lve a ut oma t ica lly changes
t he a djust ment or pr essur e dr op acr oss a r est r ict ion t o pr ovide a const ant flow at a given set -
t ing. A va lve met er s a const a nt flow r egar dless of var iat ion in syst em pr essur e. A compen-
sat ed flow-cont r ol va lve is used mainly t o met er fluid flowing int o a cir cuit ; however , it can
be used t o met er fluid as it leaves a cir cuit . For clar it y, t his manual will r efer t o t his valve
as a flow r egula t or .
Figure 5-38. Typi c al met er-out ci rc ui t
FM 5-499
Valves 5-27
5-5. Valve Fai lure s and Re me di e s. Hydr aulic valves a r e pr ecision-ma de and must be
ver y accur a t e in cont r olling a fluid’s pr essur e, dir ect ion, and volume wit hin a syst em. Gen-
er ally, no packings ar e used on va lves since leaka ge is slight , as long as t he va lves ar e ca r e-
fully fit t ed and kept in good condit ion.
Cont a minant s, such as dir t in t he oil, ar e t he ma jor pr oblems in valve failur es. Sma ll
amount s of dir t , lint , r ust , or sludge can ca use a nnoying malfunct ions and ext ensively dam-
age va lve par t s. Such ma t er ia l will ca use a valve t o st ick, plug small openings, or a br a de t he
ma t ing sur faces unt il a valve lea ks. Any of t hese condit ions will r esult in poor ma chine
oper at ion, or even complet e st oppa ge. This da ma ge may be elimina t ed if oper at or s use ca r e
in keeping out dir t .
Use only t he specified oils in a hydr aulic syst em. Follow t he r ecommenda t ions in a
ma chine’s oper a t or 's ma nua l. Beca use oxida t ion pr oduces r ust par t icles, use a n oil t ha t will
not oxidize. Change t he oil a nd ser vice t he filt er s r egular ly.
a. S ervicing Valves. Do t he following befor e ser vicing a va lve:
• Disconnect t he elect r ical power sour ce befor e r emoving a hydr aulic va lve’s compo-
nent s. Doing so elimina t es st ar t ing t he equipment a ccident ally or shor t ing out
t he t ools.
• Move a valve's cont r ol lever in all dir ect ions t o r elease t he syst em’s hydr a ulic
pr essur e befor e disconnect ing any hydr aulic va lve component s.
• Block up or lower all hydr a ulic wor king unit s t o t he gr ound befor e disconnect ing
any par t s.
• Clean a va lve and it s sur r ounding ar ea befor e r emoving any par t for ser vice. Use
st eam-cleaning equipment if availa ble; however , do not a llow wa t er t o ent er a sys-
t em. Be cer t a in t hat all hose a nd line connect ions a r e t ight .
• Use fuel oil or ot her suit a ble solvent s t o clea n wit h if st ea m cleaning is not possi-
ble. However , never use paint t hinner or a cet one. Plug t he por t holes immedi-
at ely aft er disconnect ing t he lines.
b. Disassembling Valves. Do t he following when disassembling a valve:
• Do not per for m ser vice wor k on a hydr aulic valve’s int er ior on t he shop floor , on
t he gr ound, or wher e t her e is da nger of dust or dir t being blown int o t he par t s.
Use only a clean bench ar ea . Be cer t ain t hat a ll t ools a r e clea n and fr ee of gr ease
and dir t .
• Be car eful t o ident ify t he pa r t s when disassembling for la t er r eassembly. Spools
ar e select ively fit t ed t o valve bodies and must be r et urned t o t hose same bodies.
You must r eassemble t he valve sect ions in t he same or der .
CAUTION
Be very careful when removing a backup plug on a
spring-loaded valve. Personal injury could result.
FM 5-499
5-28 Valves
• Be ver y car eful when you ha ve t o clamp a valve housing in a vise. Do not da ma ge
t he component . If possible, use a vise equipped wit h lea d or br ass jaws, or pr ot ect
t he component by wr a pping it in a pr ot ect ive cover ing.
• Make sur e t ha t you sea l all t he valve's housing openings when you r emove t he
component s dur ing ser vice wor k. Doing so will pr event for eign ma t er ial fr om
ent er ing t he housing.
• Use a pr ess t o r emove spr ings t hat ar e under high pr essur e.
• Wash a ll valve component s in a clea n miner al-oil solvent (or ot her noncor r osive
clea ner ). Dr y t he pa r t s wit h compr essed a ir , and place t hem on a clean sur face
for inspect ion. Do not wipe a valve wit h wast e pa per or r a gs. Lint deposit s on
any par t s may ent er t he hydr aulic syst em a nd ca use t r ouble.
• Do not use car bon t et r a chlor ide as a clea ning solvent ; it can det er ior at e t he r ub-
ber sea ls.
• Coat t he pa r t s wit h a r ust -inhibit ing hydr a u-
lic oil immedia t ely a ft er clea ning a nd dr ying
t hem. Ma ke sur e t o keep t he par t s clea n and
fr ee fr om moist ur e unt il you r einst all t hem.
• Inspect t he va lve spr ings ca r efully when dis-
assembling t hem. Replace all t he spr ings
t ha t show signs of being cocked or cr ooked or
ones t hat cont ain br oken, fr a ct ur ed, or r ust y
coils.
• Use a spr ing t est er t o check t he st r engt h of
t he spr ings, in pounds, compr essed t o a spec-
ified lengt h (see Figur e 5-39).
c. Repairing Valves. The following par agr aphs
addr ess r epa ir of dir ect ional-cont r ol, volume-cont r ol,
and pr essur e-cont r ol va lves:
(1) Dir ect ional-Cont r ol Valves. Dir ect iona l-con-
t r ol-valve spools ar e inst a lled in t he valve housing by a
select hone fit . This is done t o pr ovide t he closest possi-
ble fit bet ween a housing a nd a spool for minimum
int er na l leakage a nd ma ximum holding qualit ies. To
ma ke t his close fit , you would need specia l fact or y t ech-
niques a nd equipment . Ther efor e, most valve spools
and bodies a r e fur nished for ser vice only in ma t ched set s and a r e not availa ble individua lly
for r eplacement .
When r epair ing t hese valves, inspect t he valve spools a nd bor es for bur r s and scor ing a s
shown in Figur e 5-40. The spools may become coa t ed wit h impur it ies fr om t he hydr a ulic oil.
When scor ing or coat ing is not deep enough t o ca use a lea kage pr oblem, polish t he sur faces
wit h cr ocus clot h. Do not r emove any of t he valve mat er ial. Repla ce a valve’s body a nd spool
if scor ing or coa t ing is excessive. If a valve’s a ct ion was er r a t ic or st icky befor e you r emoved
it , it ma y be unba la nced because of wea r on t he spools or body; r eplace t he va lve.
Fi gure 5-39. Spri ng te st er
FM 5-499
Valves 5-29
(2) Volume-Cont r ol Va lve. On valve spools
wit h or ifices, inspect for clogging fr om dir t or
ot her for eign mat t er (see Figur e 5-41). Clean a
va lve wit h compr essed air or a sma ll wir e.
Rewa sh all t he pa r t s t hor oughly t o r emove a ll
emer y or met a l par t icles. Any such a br asives
could quickly damage a n ent ir e hydr aulic sys-
t em. Check a va lve spool for fr eedom of move-
ment in a bor e. When light ly oiled, a va lve
should slide int o a bor e fr om it s own weight .
(3) Pr essur e-Cont r ol Valve (Figur e 5-42).
Check for a weak r elief-valve spr ing wit h a
spr ing t est er if syst em checks have indicat ed
low pr essur e. You can r emedy t his by r eplacing
a spr ing or by adding shims t o incr ea se t he com-
pr ession of a spr ing, in some cases. Never add
so many shims t hat a spr ing is compr essed solid.
(4) Va lve Seat s a nd Poppet s. Check t he
va lve sea t s for possible leaka ge by scor ing.
Repla ce a va lve if flat spot s appear on a seat or
on t he poppet s. You can sur fa ce polish t he
met al va lve sea t s and poppet s if t he scor ing is
not deep. Do not r emove a ny va lve ma t er ia l.
Some seat s and valve poppet s a r e ma de of
nylon, which is long wear ing and ela st ic enough
t o confor m per fect ly t o mat ing sur fa ces, giving a
t ight sea l. The nylon seat s on t he poppet valves
will t ake wear , wit h no da mage t o t he mat ing
met al point . When r epa ir ing t hese va lves,
alwa ys r eplace t he nylon par t s wit h new nylon
ser vice pa r t s.
(5) Nona djust a ble, Ca r t r idge-Type Relief
Valves. If a r elief valve's scr een or or ifice
becomes plugged, oil cannot ent er it s body t o
equalize t he pr essur e in a n a r ea bet ween a n
or ifice plat e a nd a pilot assembly (see Figur e 5-
43, pa ge 5-30). This plugging causes a valve t o
open a t lower pr essur es t han it should. The
r esult is sluggish oper at ing hydr aulic unit s.
Keep a r elief valve's scr een and or ifice clean a t
all t imes. Also check t he O-r ings for da mage,
which might ca use leaka ge.
Each relief valve's cart r idge is st amped wit h
a par t number , a pr essur e limit , a nd t he dat e of
ma nufact ur e (see Figur e 5-44, pa ge 5-30). Use
Inspect seal
for leakage.
Check for
scoring
on lands.
Inspect for burring
of edges.
Look for coating
in this area.
Fi gure 5-40. Valve i nspe c ti on
Check orifice
for clogging.
Inspect valve
spool for scoring.
Inspect
spring.
Check for burring
at edges of ports.
Fi gure 5-41. Volume-c ontrol valve
Check mating
seats.
Look for scoring
on valve.
Inspect for burring
in housing bore.
Fi gure 5-42. Pre ss ure-c ont rol valve
FM 5-499
5-30 Valves
t his code when t est ing t he ca r t r idges. Test a
va lve's ca r t r idges for pr essur e set t ing by
inst a lling t hem in a syst em and oper a t ing it
unt il you r ea ch t he valve's opening pr es-
sur e. Rea d t he pr essur e on a ga uge t hat is
inst a lled in a va lve's cir cuit .
5-6. Valve Asse mbly. Do t he following
when assembling valves:
• Ensur e t hat t he valves ar e clean.
Wash t heir pa r t s in ker osene, blow
dr y t hem wit h a ir , and t hen dip t hem
in hydr a ulic oil wit h r ust inhibit or t o
pr event r ust ing. Doing so will a id in
assembly a nd pr ovide init ia l lubr ica-
t ion. You ca n use pet r oleum jelly t o
hold t he sealing r ings in pla ce dur ing
assembly.
• Double check t o ma ke sur e t ha t a va lve's ma t ing sur fa ces ar e fr ee of bur r s and paint .
• Repla ce all t he sea ls a nd ga sket s when r epa ir ing a valve assembly. Soak t he new
seals and gasket s in clean hydr a ulic oil befor e a ssembling. Doing so will pr event
da ma ge and help seal a valve’s par t s.
• Make sur e t ha t you inser t a va lve’s spools in t heir mat ched bor es. You must a ssem-
ble a valve’s sect ions in t heir cor r ect or der .
• Make sur e t ha t t her e is no dist or t ion when mount ing va lves. Dist or t ion ca n be
ca used by uneven t ension on t he mount ing bolt s and oil-line fla nges, uneven mount -
ing sur fa ces, impr oper valve locat ion, or insufficient a llowance for line expansion
when t he oil t emper at ur e r ises. Any of t hese could r esult in va lve-spool binding.
• Check t he a ct ion of a valve’s spools
aft er you t ight en t he bolt s. If t her e
is any st icking or binding, adjust t he
t ension of t he mount ing bolt s.
5-7. Troubleshooti ng Valve s . List ed
below ar e a r eas t hat you ca n dia gnose in
hydr aulic valves. When wor king on a spe-
cific machine, r efer t o a machine's t echnical
ma nual for mor e infor mat ion.
a. Pressure-Control Valves. The follow-
ing list s infor mat ion when t r oubleshoot ing
r elief, pr essur e-r educing, pr essur e-
sequence, and unloading valves:
(1) Relief Valves. Consider t he follow-
ing when t r oubleshoot ing r elief va lves
beca use t hey have low or er r a t ic pr essur e:
Check screen
for clogging.
Inspect O-rings
for damage.
Inspect for
clogged orifice.
Check seats
for damage.
Fi gure 5-43. Cart ri dge-t ype reli ef valve
Part number
Pressure limit
Date of manufacture
Fi gure 5-44. Readi ngs on a c art ri dge -type
re li ef valve
FM 5-499
Valves 5-31
• Adjust ment is incor r ect .
• Dir t , chip, or bur r s ar e holding t he va lve par t ially open.
• Poppet s or sea t s a r e wor n or damaged.
• Valve pist on in t he ma in body is st icking.
• Spr ing is weak.
• Spr ing ends ar e damaged.
• Valve in t he body or on t he sea t is cocking.
• Or ifice or balance hold is blocked.
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing r elief valves because t hey have no pr es-
sur e:
• Or ifice or balance hole is plugged.
• Poppet does not sea t .
• Valve has a loose fit .
• Valve in t he body or t he cover binds.
• Spr ing is br oken.
• Dir t , chip, or bur r s ar e holding t he va lve par t ially open.
• Poppet or sea t is wor n or da ma ged.
• Valve in t he body or on t he sea t is cocking.
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing r elief valves because t hey have excessive
noise or chat t er :
• Oil viscosit y is t oo high.
• Poppet or sea t is fault y or wor n.
• Line pr essur e has excessive r et ur n.
• Pr essur e set t ing is t oo close t o t ha t of a not her valve in t he cir cuit .
• An impr oper spr ing is used behind t he valve.
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing r elief valves because you ca nnot a djust
t hem pr oper ly wit hout get t ing excessive syst em pr essur e:
• Spr ing is br oken.
• Spr ing is fa t igued.
• Valve has a n impr oper spr ing.
• Dr ain line is r est r ict ed.
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing r elief valves because t hey might be over -
hea t ing t he syst em:
• Oper at ion is cont inuous a t t he r elief set t ing.
• Oil viscosit y is t oo high.
• Valve seat is lea king.
FM 5-499
Valves 5-32
(2) Pr essur e-Reducing Valves. Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing pr essur e-
r educing valves because t hey have er r at ic pr essur e:
• Dir t is in t he oil.
• Poppet or sea t is wor n.
• Or ifice or balance hole is r est r ict ed.
• Valve spool binds in t he body.
• Dr ain line is not open fr eely t o a r eser voir .
• Spr ing ends ar e not squa r e.
• Valve has a n impr oper spr ing.
• Spr ing is fa t igued.
• Valve needs an adjust ment .
• Spool bor e is wor n.
(3) Pr essur e-Sequence Valves. Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing pr essur e-
sequence valves beca use t he valve is not funct ioning pr oper ly:
• Inst a llat ion wa s impr oper .
• Adjust ment wa s impr oper .
• Spr ing is br oken.
• For eign mat t er is on a plunger seat or in t he or ifices.
• Ga sket is lea ky or blown.
• Dr ain line is plugged.
• Valve cover s ar e not t ight ened pr oper ly or a r e inst a lled wr ong.
• Valve plunger is wor n or scor ed.
• Valve-st em seat is wor n or scor ed.
• Or ifices ar e t oo lar ge, which causes a jer ky oper a t ion.
• Binding occur s because moving par t s ar e coat ed wit h oil impur it ies (due t o over -
hea t ing or using impr oper oil).
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing pr essur e-sequence valves beca use t her e is
a pr emat ur e movement t o t he secondar y oper a t ion:
• Valve set t ing is t oo low.
• An excessive loa d is on a pr imar y cylinder .
• A high iner t ia loa d is on a pr imar y cylinder .
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing pr essur e-sequence valves beca use t her e is
no movement or t he seconda r y oper at ion is slow:
• Valve set t ing is t oo high.
• Relief-va lve set t ing is t oo close t o t ha t of a sequence va lve.
• Valve spool binds in t he body.
FM 5-499
Valves 5-33
(4) Unloading Valves. Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing t h ese valves
beca use a va lve fails t o complet ely unloa d a pump:
• Valve set t ing is t oo high.
• Pump does not build up t o t he unloading valve pr essur e.
• Valve spool binds in t he body.
b. Directional-Control Valves. Dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lves include spool, r ot ar y, and
check valves. Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing t hese va lves because t her e is
fault y or incomplet e shift ing:
• Cont r ol linkage is wor n or is binding.
• Pilot pr essur e is insufficient .
• Solenoid is bur ned out or fa ult y.
• Cent er ing spr ing is defect ive.
• Spool adjust ment is impr oper .
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing dir ect ional-cont r ol valves because t he
act ua t ing cylinder cr eeps or dr ift s:
• Valve spool is not cent er ing pr oper ly.
• Valve spool is not shift ed complet ely.
• Valve-spool body is wor n.
• Lea kage occur s pa st t he pist on in a cylinder .
• Valve seat s ar e leaking.
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing dir ect ional-cont r ol valves because a cylin-
der loa d dr ops wit h t he spool in t he cent er ed posit ion:
• Lines fr om t he va lve housing ar e loose.
• O-r ings on lockout spr ings or plugs a r e leaking.
• Lockout spr ing is br oken.
• Relief valves a r e leaking.
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing dir ect ional-cont r ol valves because a cylin-
der loa d dr ops slight ly when it is r a ised:
• Check-valve spr ing or seat is defect ive.
• Spool va lve's posit ion is adjust ed impr oper ly.
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lves beca use t he oil
hea t s (closed-cent er syst ems):
• Valve seat lea ks (pr essur e or r et ur n cir cuit ).
• Valves ar e not adjust ed pr oper ly.
c. Volume-Control Valves. Volume-cont r ol va lves include flow-cont r ol a nd flow-divider
va lves. Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing t hese valves because t her e a r e va r ia-
t ions in flow:
FM 5-499
Valves 5-34
• Valve spool binds in t he body.
• Cylinder or mot or leaks.
• Oil viscosit y is t oo high.
• Pr essur e dr op is insufficient a cr oss a valve.
• Oil is dir t y.
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing volume-cont r ol valves because of er r at ic
pr essur e:
• Valve's poppet or sea t is wor n.
• Oil is dir t y.
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing volume-cont r ol valves because of impr oper
flow:
• Valve wa s not a djust ed pr oper ly.
• Valve-pist on t r avel is r est r ict ed.
• Pa ssages or or ifice is r est r ict ed.
• Valve pist on is cocked.
• Relief valves lea k.
• Oil is t oo hot .
Consider t he following when t r oubleshoot ing volume-cont r ol valves because t he oil
hea t s:
• Pump speed is impr oper .
• Hydr aulic funct ions ar e holding in r elief.
• Connect ions ar e incor r ect .
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-1
CHAPTER 6
Ci rcui t Di agrams and
Troubleshooti ng
Hydraulic-circuit diagrams are complete drawings of a hydraulic circuit. Included in
the diagrams is a description, a sequence of operations, notes, and a components list. Accu-
rate diagrams are essential t o the designer, the people who build the machine, and the person
who repairs it. Hydraulic mechanisms are precision units, and their cont inued smooth oper-
ation depends on frequent inspection and servicing. Personnel must maintain the equipment
and system by performing frequent inspections and servicing. The systems must be kept
clean, with the oil and filters changed at established int ervals.
6-1. Hydrauli c -Ci rc ui t Di agrams . The four t ypes of hydr aulic-cir cuit diagr a ms a r e block,
cut away, pict or ial, a nd gr a phical. These diagr a ms show t he—
• Component s and how t hey will int er act .
• Manufa ct ur ing engineer and a ssembler how t o connect t he component s.
• Field t echnician how t he syst em wor ks, wha t each component should be doing,
and wher e t he oil should be going so t hat t he t echnicia n can dia gnose a nd r epa ir
t he syst em.
a. Block Diagram. A block diagr am shows t he component s wit h lines bet ween t he
clocks, which indicat e connect ions a nd/or int er act ions.
b. Cut away Diagram. A cut a wa y diagr a m shows t he int er na l const r uct ion of t he com-
ponent s a s well as t he flow pat hs. Because t he dia-
gr am uses color s, sha des, or var ious pa t t er ns in t he
lines a nd passages, it can show t he ma ny differ ent
flow and pr essur e condit ions.
c. Pictorial Diagram. A pict or ial dia gr a m shows
a cir cuit ’s piping ar r angement . The component s ar e
seen ext er nally and ar e usually in a close r epr oduc-
t ion of t heir act ual shapes and sizes.
d. Graphical Diagram. A gr a phical diagr a m
(Figur e 6-1), t he shor t -hand syst em of t he indust r y,
is usua lly pr efer r ed for design a nd t r oubleshoot ing.
Simple geomet r ic symbols r epr esent t he component s
and t heir cont r ols and connect ions.
6-2. Uni t e d Stat e s of Ameri can Standards Insti -
tut e (USASI) Graphi c al Symbol s . The USASI, t he old Amer ican St a nda r ds Associa t ion
(ASA), and t he J oint Indust r y Confer ence (J IC) ar e t hr ee syst ems of symbols used in cir cuit
dia gr ams. This manua l uses t he USASI symbols shown in Figur e 6-2, pa ges 6-2 a nd 6-3.
Steering circuit
Lift
circuit
Double
pump
Reservoir
Fi gure 6-1. Graphi c al-ci rc ui t
di agram
FM 5-499
6-2 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Fi gure 6-2. USASI graphi cal symbol s
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-3
Fi gure 6-2. USASI graphi cal symbols (conti nued)
FM 5-499
6-4 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
a. Reservoir. The symbol for a r eser -
voir is a r ect angle; t he hor izont a l side is
t he longest side (see Figur e 6-3). If a r es-
er voir is vent ed t o t he a t mospher e, t he
t op of t he symbol is open. If a r eser voir
is pr essur ized, t he t op is closed. Lines
t hat connect t o a r eser voir usually a r e
dr a wn fr om t he t op, r egar dless of wher e
t hey connect . If t he line t er minat es
below t he fluid level, it is dr awn t o t he
bot t om of t he symbol. A line connect ed
t o t he bot t om of a r eser voir ma y be
dr a wn fr om t he bot t om of t he symbol, if
t he bot t om connect ion is essent ia l t o t he
syst em's oper at ion. For exa mple, when
t he pump's inlet must be char ged or flooded by a posit ive hea d of oil a bove t he inlet 's por t ,
t hey would be posit ioned above t he pump symbol and t he suct ion line dr awn out t he bot t om
of t he symbol. Ever y r eser voir has at least t wo hydr aulic lines connect ed t o it ; some have
mor e. The r eser voir is usually t he only component pict ur ed mor e t ha n once so t hat compo-
nent s a nd r et ur n or dr a in lines t o and fr om t he r eser voir a r e r epr esent ed cor r ect ly.
b. Lines. Figur e 6-4 shows t he symbols for hydr aulic lines, which ar e as follows:
• Wor king line: A solid line t hat r epr esent s a hydr a ulic pipe, t ube, hose, or ot her
conduct or t hat car r ies t he liquid bet ween component s.
• Pilot line: Long da shes t hat r epr esent cont r ol lines.
• Dr ain line: Shor t dashes t hat r epr esent t he dr ain lines for leaking oil.
• Flexible line: A solid, ar ced line t hat is dr awn bet ween t wo dot s which r epr esent s
a flexible line in t he syst em.
Figur e 6-5, diagr am A, shows cr ossed lines
t hat ar e not connect ed. Syst ems 1 a nd 2 r epr e-
sent t wo wa ys t o indica t e a n int er sect ion, one
wit h a loop, one wit hout a loop. Dia gr am B
shows lines t ha t a r e connect ed. The lines in
syst em 1 use a dot a t t he cr ossing, indica t ing
t hat loops a r e used t o designat e t he cr ossing.
The lines in syst em 2 do not use a dot a t t he
cr ossing, indicat ing t hat loops a r e not used at
t he cr ossing.
c. Pump. The ba sic symbol of a pump is a
cir cle wit h a black t r iangle in t he cir cle point -
ing out wa r d (see Figur e 6-6). The pr essur e line
fr om t he pump is dr awn fr om t he t ip of t he t r iangle; t he suct ion line is dr awn opposit e it .
The t r ia ngle indicat es t he flow dir ect ion. If a pump is r ever sible, it will ha ve t wo t r ia ngles,
one point ing out of ea ch por t . Por t connect ions t o t he pump (or any ot her component except
t he r eser voir ) ar e at t he point s wher e t he lines t ouch t he symbols. A var iable (or adjust able)
component is designat ed by an ar r ow dr awn t hr ough t he component s at a 45-degr ee angle.
Vented
reservoir
Pressurized
reservoir
Line terminating
above fluid level
Line terminating
below fluid level
Fi gure 6-3. Re se rvoi r symbol s
Working line
Pilot line
Drain line
Flexible line
Fi gure 6-4. Hydrauli c li ne symbol s
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-5
d. Motor. Mot or symbols ar e cir cles wit h
black t r iangles point ing inwa r d, indicat ing t hat
t he mot or r eceives pr essur e ener gy (see Figur e
6-7, page 6-6). One t r ia ngle indicat es a nonr e-
ver sible mot or ; t wo t r ia ngles indicat e a r ever s-
ible mot or . Flow dir ect ion in a single t r iangle
is t he wa y t he t r iangle point s. In t he r ever sible
mot or , st udying t he pump and valve symbols is
t he way t o t r ace t he flow dir ect ion. The a r r ows
t ha t a r e out side t he lines show t he flow dir ec-
t ion, which is always awa y fr om t he pump's
pr essur e por t a nd int o t he mot or por t t ha t is
connect ed t o t he pr essur e line. The opposit e
por t t hen discha r ges back t o t he t a nk.
e. Cylinder. The ba sic cylinder symbol is a
simple r ect angle (a bar r el) and a T-sha ped fig-
ur e (a pist on a nd a r od). The symbol ca n be
dr a wn in any posit ion. The following descr ibes
four differ ent cylinder symbols (see Figur e 6-8,
page 6-6):
• Single-act ing cylinder : One hydr aulic
line dr a wn t o t he basic cylinder symbol;
t he end opposit e t he por t is open.
• Double-a ct ing cylinder : Bot h ends of
t he symbol ar e closed; t wo lines meet
t he ba sic cylinder symbol at t he por t
connect ions.
• Double-end r od cylinder : A r od line
ext ends fr om each end of t he basic cylin-
der symbol.
• Cushioned cylinder : Small r ect a ngles
ar e placed a ga inst t he pist on line. If t he
cushion ha s a n adjust able or ifice, a
sla nt ed a r r ow is dr awn a cr oss t he sym-
bol. Ther e is no symbol for flow dir ec-
t ion, so lines must be wat ched t o see
wher e t hey ar e connect ed, which should
help det er mine flow.
f. Pressure-Control Valves. The basic symbol
is a squa r e wit h ext er nal por t connect ions and
an ar r ow inside t o show t he flow dir ect ion (see
Figur e 6-9, page 6-6). This valve oper a t es by
ba lancing t he pump out let t o t he r eser voir .
System 1
to loop
System 2
not to loop
Nonconnecting lines
A
System 1 to dot
System 2 not to dot
Connecting lines
B
Figure 6-5. Cros si ng li ne s A and B
Fixed displacement
Variable
displacement
(simplified)
Variable displacement
pressure compensated
(complete)
Reversible with
lever control
Fi gure 6-6. Pump symbol s
FM 5-499
6-6 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
(1) Relief Va lve (Figur e 6-10). The r elief
va lve's symbol goes bet ween t he pr essur e line a nd
t he t a nk. The flow-dir ect ion a r r ow point s a wa y
fr om t he pr essur e-line por t and t owar d t he t ank
por t . When pr essur e in t he syst em over comes t he
va lve spr ing, flow is fr om t he pr essur e por t t o t he
t a nk por t .
(2) Sequence Va lve (Figur e 6-11). A sequence
va lve uses t he r elief va lve. However , t he inlet
por t is connect ed t o a pr ima r y cylinder line; t he
out let por t is connect ed t o t he secondar y cylinder
line. Pilot pr essur e fr om t he pr imar y cylinder
line sequences t he flow t o t he out let por t when it
r eaches t he va lve's set t ing. Since t he sequence
va lve is ext er nally dr a ined, a dr a in connect ion is
added t o t he symbol a t t he dr a in's locat ion in t he
va lve.
(3) Check Va lve (Figur e 6-12, page 6-8). A
check valve uses a sequence valve for fr ee r et ur n
flow when t he cylinder s a r e r ever sed. In Figur e
6-12, dia gr am A shows t he valves a s separ at e
unit s. Dia gr am B shows t he check va lve built int o
t he sequence valve. The box a r ound t he valves is
an enclosur e, which shows t he limit s of a compo-
nent or an assembly t ha t cont a ins mor e t ha n one
component . The enclosur e is an alt er nat e long
and shor t da shed line. Ext er na l por t s ar e
assumed t o be on t he enclosur e line a nd indica t e
connect ions t o t he component s.
Valves
Valves
Nonreversible
motor
Reversible
motor
Fi gure 6-7. Mot or symbol s
Ports
Double-acting
Port Port
or
Single-acting
Double end rod
Adjustable Nonadjustable
Cushioned
Fi gure 6-8. Cyli nder symbol s
Inlet
Inlet
Spring
Pilot
pressure
Outlet Outlet
NORMALLY
CLOSED
NORMALLY
OPEN
Fi gure 6-9. Pre ss ure -control-valve
symbol s
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-7
(4) Count er ba la nce Valve (Figur e 6-
13, page 6-8). A count er ba la nce valve is
a nor mally closed pr essur e-cont r ol wit h
an int egral check valve. A dir ect ly con-
t rolled valve uses t he same symbol as in
Figur e 6-13, wit h t he pr imar y por t con-
nect ed t o t he bot t om por t of t he cylinder
and t he secondar y por t t o t he dir ec-
t ional valve. The va lve is dr a ined int er -
nally, so t he symbol shows no dr ain
connect ion. If t he valve body has t wo
pr ima r y por t s, t he symbol should show
one of t hem plugged.
(5) Pr essur e-Reducing Va lve. Fig-
ur e 6-14, page 6-9 shows t he nor ma lly
opened pr essur e-r educing valve. The
symbol shows t he out let pr essur e oppo-
sit e t he spr ing t o modula t e or shut off
t he flow when t he va lve set t ing is
r eached.
g. Flow-Control Valves. Figure 6-15,
page 6-9, shows t he symbols for t he
ba sic flow-cont r ol, adjust able and nonad-
justable va lves. The figur e a lso shows
t he symbol for a complet ely a djust a ble,
pr essur e-compensa t ed, flow-cont r ol
va lve wit h a built -in bypass.
h. Directional-Control Valves. A
dir ect ional-cont r ol-valve symbol uses a
mult iple envelope syst em t hat has a
separ at e r ect a ngle for ea ch posit ion. All
t he por t connect ions a r e made t o t he
envelope, which shows t he neut r al con-
dit ion of t he valve. Ar r ows in each
envelope show t he flow pa t hs when t he
va lve shift s t o t hat posit ion.
(1) Unloading Va lve (Figur e 6-16,
page 6-9). The symbol for t his va lve ha s
t wo envelopes. In t he nor ma lly closed
posit ion, flow is shown blocked inside
t he valve. The spr ing cont r ol is pla ced
adjacent t o t his envelope, indica t ing
t ha t t he spr ing cont r ols t his posit ion.
The ext er na l pilot pr essur e is pla ced
against t he bot t om envelope, indicat ing
t he flow condit ion when t he pilot pressure
Pressure line
Pump Relief valve
Fi gure 6-10. Reli ef-valve symbol
Relief valve Pump
Directional valve
Sequence valve
To primary
cylinder
To secondary
cylinder
Drain
Fi gure 6-11. Seque nce -val ve s ymbol
FM 5-499
6-8 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
A - SEPARATE UNITS
B - INTEGRAL SEQUENCE
AND CHECK
Directional
valve
Sequence
valve
To primary
cylinder
No-flow
direction
Free-flow
direction
To secondary
cylinder
Check
valve
Pump
Relief valve
Component enclosure
Fi gure 6-12. Check-valve symbol
Plugged
port
To directional valve
Enclosure
Counterbalance
and check valve
Fi gure 6-13. Count erbalance -valve s ymbol
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-9
t a kes over . If t he lower envelope wer e super imposed on t he t op envelope, t he symbol would
show t hat t he flow pa t h's ar r ow connect s t he pump out let t o t he r eser voir .
(2) Or dinar y Four -Way Va lve (Figur e 6-17, page 6-10). If t his va lve is a t wo-posit ion
va lve, t he symbol will ha ve t wo envelopes. If t he valve has a cent er posit ion, t he symbol will
have t hr ee envelopes. The a ct uat ing-cont r ol symbols ar e pla ced at t he ends of t he envelopes.
The ext r eme envelopes show t he flow condit ions when t heir a dja cent cont r ols a r e act ua t ed.
(3) Mobile Dir ect ional-Va lve Sect ion (Figur e 6-18, page 6-10). The symbol for t his valve
sect ion r esembles a four -way-valve symbol; however , it ha s added connect ions and flow
pat hs t o r epr esent t he bypa ss pa ssa ge. Ther e is a separ a t e envelope for ea ch finit e posit ion,
and connect ions a r e shown t o t he cent er or neut r al posit ion. The symbol shows a ma nua l
lever cont r ol wit h cent er ing spr ings at
each end.
i. Accessories. The symbol for a fluid
condit ioner is a squar e (Figur e 6-19,
page 6-11) t hat is t ur ned 45 degr ees and
has t he por t connect ions t o t he cor ner s.
A dot t ed line at r ight a ngles t o t he por t
connect ions indica t es t ha t t he condi-
t ioner is a filt er or st r a iner . A cooler
symbol has a solid line at a r ight angle t o
t he fluid line wit h ener gy t r iangles (indi-
cat ing heat ) point ing out . An accumula-
t or (Figur e 6-20, pa ge 6-11) symbol is an
ova l, wit h added inside det ails t o indi-
cat e spr ing load, ga s char ge, or ot her fea-
t ur es.
Reduced-pressure outlet
Fi gure 6-14. Pre ss ure -re duci ng-valve
symbol
Nonadjustable
Adjustable
Fi gure 6-15. Flow-c ont rol-valve symbol
From pump
To pilot-pressure
source
Fi gure 6-16. Unloadi ng-valve symbol
FM 5-499
6-10 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Two-position, controlled
by external pilot pressure
Two-position, controlled
by solenoids
Three-position, spring-centered,
closed-center controlled by soleniod
with internal pilot pressure
Solenoid-
control
symbol
Solenoid control
with internal pilot
pressure
A B
P T
Fi gure 6-17. Four-way, di re ct ional-c ontrol-val ve symbol
Manual control
Check valve in
pressure line
Float detent
Spring centered
By-pass passage
View A
Double-acting D-spool
View C
Floating C-spool
View B
Motor B-spool
View D
Single-acting T-spool
Fi gure 6-18. Mobi le di re c ti onal-cont rol-valve s ymbol
Other titles available online www.govmedia.com
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-11
6-3. Typi c al Mobi le Ci rc ui t s. Hydr aulic-lift , power -st eer ing, and r oad-pat r ol-t r uck cir -
cuit s a r e consider ed t ypica l mobile cir cuit s.
a. Hydraulic-Lift Circuit . Figur e 6-21 shows t he lift por t ion of t he hydr a ulic syst em.
The cir cuit has t wo cylinder s: a single-act ing lift cylinder and a double-act ing t ilt cylinder .
The lift cylinder moves t he lift ing for k up and down. The t ilt cylinder t ilt s t he mast ba ck
and for t h t o suppor t or dump t he load.
A t wo-sect ion, mult iple-unit dir ect ional va lve cont r ols t he cylinder 's oper a t ion. The fir st
va lve ha s a double-act ing D-spool t o oper at e t he t ilt cylinder , hydr aulically, in eit her dir ec-
t ion. The out er envelopes show t he t ypical four flow pa t hs for r ever sing t he cylinder . The
second va lve has a single-act ing T-spool t o oper at e t he lift cylinder . This cylinder is
r et ur ned by gr a vit y;
t he bypa ss unloa ds
t he pump.
The pump is
dr iven by t he lift
t r uck's engine and
supplies t he cir cuit
fr om t he la r ge vol-
ume end. The enclo-
sur e ar ound t he t wo
pump symbols indi-
cat es t hat bot h
pumping unit s ar e
cont ained in a single
assembly. The sa me
applies t o t he t wo
dir ect ional va lves
and t he r elief valve
t ha t a r e enclosed.
They a r e in a single
assembly.
Filter or strainer
Fi gure 6-19. Flui d-condi t ioner
symbol s
Spring loaded
Gas charged
Fi gure 6-20. Accumulat or symbol
Lift cylinder
T-spool
section
D-spool section
To steering
circuit
Tilt cylinder
Fi gure 6-21. Hydrauli c -li ft c i rc ui t i n neut ral
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-12
Figur e 6-21 shows t he cir cuit in neut r al; t he va lves a r e cent er ed. If t he figur e wer e t o
show t he oper at ing mode, t he out er envelopes on t he va lve symbols would be shift ed over t o
align wit h t he por t s at t he cent er envelopes. The ar r ows in t he envelopes would t hen show
t he flow pa t hs fr om t he pr essur e inlet t o t he cylinder s and/or t he r et ur n flow t o t ank.
b. Power-S teering Circuits. Hydr a ulic
power st eer ing incor por at es a hydr aulic boost
int o a ba sic manua l-st eer ing syst em. A basic
ma nual-st eer ing syst em is a n a r r a ngement of
gea r s in a box t hat mult iplies t he input t or que
fr om t he st eer ing wheel t o a much gr ea t er
t or que a t t he st eer ing sha ft (Figur e 6-22). The
st eer ing shaft , t hr ough t he pit ma n ar m (or
st eer ing-sha ft a r m), t r ansmit s t his incr ea sed
t or que t hr ough t he st eer ing linka ge t o t he
st eer ing a r ms t ha t t ur n t he wheels. The ba sic
syst em of ma nual-st eer ing gea r s and st eer ing
linkage is a st eer ing wheel, st eer ing gea r , a nd
linkage t o t he st eer ed wheel.
The hydr aulic boost , which is a mecha ni-
cally oper a t ed hydr aulic ser vo, may be a pplied
t o t he st eer ing linka ge (Figur e 6-23) or wit hin
t he st eer ing gea r . St eer ing-wheel movement
act ua t es t he st eer ing valve, which dir ect s t he
fluid under pr essur e t o t he st eer ing-va lve body
t ha t follows t he va lve spool. Hydr a ulic boost is
applied only when t he st eer ing wheel is being
moved.
An int egr al power -st eer ing syst em has t he
hydr aulic-boost subsyst em built int o t he
mechanical st eer ing gear . The st eer ing valve
is act uat ed by moving t he st eer ing shaft . The
va lve cont r ols t he oper at ion of t he power cylin-
der . Thr ust fr om t he power cylinder is t r a ns-
mit t ed dir ect ly t o t he st eer ing shaft . Roa d
shock t r ansmit t ed back fr om t he wheels is
t a ken up in t he st eer ing gea r .
Figur e 6-24, pa ge 6-13, shows t he semi-
int egr al power -st eer ing syst em, or valve-on-
gea r syst em. The st eer ing valve is built int o
t he st eer ing gea r . The power cylinder is
at t ached t o t he vehicle's fr ame and t o t he link-
age. Road shock a nd t hr ust ar e absor bed in
t he fr ame.
c. Road-Patrol-Truck Circuits. Figur e 6-25,
page 6-14, dia gr ams A and B r espect ively,
shows a r oad-pat r ol t r uck's hydr a ulic syst em
and a hydr a ulic cir cuit 's schemat ic, a s a com-
par ison. The t r uck needs t hr ee double-a ct ing
Wheel
Wheel pivot
(king pin or ball studs)
Steering arm
Linkage
Pitman arm Steering shaft
Steering gear
Steering wheel
Fi gure 6-22. Manual-st eeri ng-gear
layout
Integral steering unit
Pitman arm
C
A
D
B
Figure 6-23. Power-st eeri ng l ayout
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-13
cylinder s t o oper at e it s bla des and dump body: a plow hoist cylinder for t he fr ont plow, an
under blade cylinder , and a dump-body hoist cylinder . The t r uck also ha s a power -st eer ing
syst em oper a t ed fr om one-ha lf of t he double pump. (The st eer ing syst em ha s been omit t ed
fr om dia gr am B). The schema t ic shows t ha t t he t hr ee cylinder s a r e oper a t ed t hr ough a
t hr ee-spool, mobile dir ect ional valve fed fr om t he lar ge volume end of t he double pump.
6-4. Troubleshooti ng. Per sonnel should follow a syst em when t r oubleshoot ing. The fol-
lowing shows t he STOP syst em:
• St udy t he cir cuit diagr a ms.
• Test by using a r elia ble t est er .
• Or ganize t he knowledge gained fr om t he cir cuit -t est r esult s.
• Per for m r epair s, t aking t ime t o do t he job well.
a. Causes of Improper Operat ions. If impr oper oper at ion does occur , t he ca use can gen-
er ally be t r aced t o one of t he following:
• Use of t he wr ong oil viscosit y or t ype.
• Insufficient fluid in t he syst em.
• Pr esence of a ir in t he syst em.
• Mechanica l da ma ge or st r uct ur al fa ilur e.
• Int er na l or ext er na l lea kage.
• Dir t , decomposed packing, wat er , sludge, r ust , a nd ot her for eign ma t t er in t he
syst em.
• Impr oper adjust ment s.
• Heat excha nger t ha t is plugged, dir t y, or leaking.
b. Testing a Hydraulic Circuit. To t est complet e or individua l pa r t s of a hydr aulic cir -
cuit , use a hydr aulic cir cuit t est er (see pa r a-
gr aph 2-8, page 2-18). The best t est er t o use is
a compact por t able unit t ha t can check flow,
pr essur e, a nd t emper a t ur e.
c. Comparing Test Results with S pecifica-
tions. Hydr aulic-power ed syst ems ar e power -
t r ansmission syst ems. The only pur pose of t he
component s a nd t he cir cuit is t he cont r olled
t r ansfer of power fr om t he mot or shaft t o t he
point of effect ive wor k.

wher e—
HP = hydraulic horsepower
f = flow, in GPM
p = pressure, in psi
HP
fp
1 714 ,
--------------- =
Steering column
Steering valve
Steering gear
Fi gure 6-24. Se mi -i nt egral power-
s t eeri ng sys t em
FM 5-499
6-14 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Figure 6-25. Hydrauli c ci rcui t di agram for a road-pat rol truck
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-15
By measur ing t hose t wo fact or s at t he sa me t ime, it is possible t o r ead t he effect ive out -
put a t a ny point . Compar ing t est r esult s wit h specificat ions will give t he necessar y fa ult -
finding fa ct s.
d. S lippage. All hydr aulic syst ems ha ve some slippage (see par agr aph 3-4, pa ge, page
3-3) even when new. As wea r incr eases, slippa ge at wea r point s incr ea ses, causing a
decr ea se in GPM. However , syst em pr essur e is maint ained. In t ime, wear can be so great
t ha t a ll flow is lost . Only a t a complet e br ea kdown will a pr essur e ga uge show wher e t he
t r ouble is. Conduct ing a flow, pr essur e, a nd t emper at ur e (FPT) t est would have indicat ed
such a pr oblem and a voided a complet e br ea kdown.
NOTE: At low oi l t emperature and low pre s sure (or li ght loads ) the
machine wi ll c onti nue to operate but at le ss spe e d.
e. Flow and Pressure. Alwa ys t est flow and pr essur e t oget her . Connect a hydr a ulic
t est er int o t he hydr aulic cir cuit a t var ious point s t o isola t e a nd check component s (pumps,
va lves, or cylinder s) for efficiency. Figur e 6-26 shows a hydr aulic t est er , connect ed t o t he
pump's out put , checking t he flow at var ious pr essur es t ha t , in t ur n, checks t he pump's per -
for mance a ga inst t he r ecommended specifica t ion. When isola t ing a nd t est ing individua l
component s wit h a hydr aulic t est er , dir ect t he r et urn fluid t o t he r eser voir . If t he fluid
r et ur ns t o t he r eser voir t hr ough t he syst em's piping, you will not get a cor r ect r ea ding
beca use of buildup of ba ck pr essur e.
Test t he
whole cir cuit a s
descr ibed, a nd
t hen isolat e por -
t ions and t est
for a complet e
ana lysis of t he
syst em. If a t est
on a full cir cuit
indicat es a mal-
funct ion, isolat e
a por t ion a nd
t est t he r ema in-
ing por t ions
unt il you find
t he malfunct ion-
ing par t . Gener -
ally, cylinder s
will fa il fir st .
Pa cking will
wea r beca use of fr ict ion and loa ding against t he cylinder wa lls. Ther efor e, isola t e t he cylin-
der s fir st . If t est r esult s indica t e t hat t he cir cuit is oper a t ing pr oper ly, t he cylinder s ha ve a
pr oblem. Dur ing t est ing, det er mine t he set t ing a nd condit ion of t he r elief va lve. If fur t her
t est s a r e necessa r y, isolat e t he dir ect iona l-cont r ol va lve t o check t he pump's efficiency a nd
inlet hose.
f. Other Conditions. Ot her pr oblems could occur t ha t a r e not dir ect ly r ela t ed t o nor
caused by t he va r ious pa r t s of t he hydr a ulic syst em. These pr oblems could show t he same
TROUBLESHOOTING A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Isolate and check the following:
• Directional-control valves
for leakage, efficiency.
• System’s relief valves
for leakage, proper settings.
• Pump’s GPM flow at
various pressures.
• Cylinder’s efficiency.
Fi gure 6-26. Hydraul ic t ester c onnect ed to a pump’s out put
FM 5-499
6-16 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
gener a l malfunct ions of an impr oper ly oper a t ing syst em. Exa mples a r e leaking hose, pack-
ing gla nds, and sea ls, which would be visually evident ; a bind in t he dir ect ional-cont r ol
va lve or t he cylinder 's pist on r od; a dent ed or defor med hydr aulic cylinder ; or a cr imped or
r est r ict ed pr essur e line, which would be har der t o det ect .
g. S pecific Troubles, Causes, and S olutions. Ta bles 6-1 t hr ough 6-5, pa ges 6-17 t hr ough
6-21 list some possible pr oblems and solut ions in a hydr aulic syst em.
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-17
Tabl e 6-1. Problems and soluti ons wi t h pump operat i ons
No Fuel Delivery
Problems Solutions
Fluid level in the reservoir is low. Add the recommended oil; check the level on both sides of
the tank's baffle to be certain that the pump suction is sub-
merged.
Oil intake pipe or inlet filter is plugged. Clean the filter; otherwise, remove the obstruction.
Air leak in the inlet line prevents priming or causes
noise and irregular action of the control circuit.
Repair the leaks.
The pump shaft turns too slowly to prime itself
(vane-type pumps only).
Check the appropriate manual's minimum speed recommen-
dations.
The oil viscosity is too heavy to pick up the prime. Use a lighter oil viscosity; follow the appropriate manual's
recommended temperatures and services.
Shaft rotates in the wrong direction. Reverse the rotation immediately to prevent seizure and
parts from breaking due to lack of oil.
Pump shaft is broken, parts are broken inside the
pump, or the shear pin or shear linkage is broken.
See the appropriate manual for replacement instructions.
Pump has dirt in it. Dismantle and clean the pump; flush the system.
The stroke is incorrect on variable delivery pumps. See the appropriate manual for instructions.
No Pressure in the System
Pump does not deliver oil for any reasons given in
above section.
Follow the remedies given.
• Relief-valve setting is not high enough.
• Relief valve leaks.
• Relief-valve spring is broken.
• Increase the pressure setting of the valve; check the
appropriate manual for the correct pressure.
• Check the seat for score marks and reseat.
• Replace the spring and readjust the valve.
Vane is stuck in the rotor slots (vane-type pumps
only).
Inspect for wedged chips; inspect the oil for excessive vis-
cosity.
The head is loose (very infrequent occurrence). Tighten the head; check the appropriate manuals before
tightening.
Oil to the tank recirculates freely through the sys-
tem.
Check to see if a return line is open due to either a direc-
tional valve set in the open-center neutral position or some
other valve is left open.
Control valves have internal leakage. Block off various parts of the circuit to determine where the
leak is; repair when located.
Noisy Pump
Intake line, filter, or restricted intake pipe is partially
clogged.
Clean out the intake or strainer, or eliminate the restrictions;
ensure that the inlet line is open.
FM 5-499
6-18 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Table 6-1. Problems and sol uti ons wi t h pump ope rat i ons (c onti nued)
Noisy Pump (continued)
Problems Solutions
• Air leaks occur at the pump's intake piping joints.
• Air leaks are present at the pump's shaft packing.
• Air is drawn in through the inlet pipe openings.
• Pour oil on the joints while listening for a change in the
operating sounds; tighten the joints as required.
• Pour oil around the shaft while listening for a change in
the operating sounds; follow the appropriate manual
instructions when changing the packing.
• Ensure that the inlet and return lines are well below the oil
level in the reservoir; add oil to the reservoir if necessary.
Air bubbles are present in the intake oil. Use hydraulic oil that has a foam depressant.
Reservoir's air vent is plugged. Clean or replace the breather.
Pump is running too fast. See the appropriate manuals for recommended maximum
speeds.
Oil viscosity is too high. Use a lower oil viscosity; check the appropriate manuals for
the recommended temperatures and services.
Coupling is misaligned. Realign the coupling.
Pump vane is stuck (vane-type pump). Inspect the pump for wedged chips or sticky oil; reassemble.
Parts are worn or broken. Replace worn or broken parts.
External Oil Leaks
Shaft packing is worn. Replace the worn parts.
A head of oil is present on an inlet-pipe connection. Keep all the joints tight; slight leakage may be necessary.
Excessive Wear
Abrasive matter in the hydraulic oil is being circu-
lated through the pump.
Install an adequate filter or replace the oil more often.
Oil viscosity is too low for working conditions. Check the appropriate manual's recommendations or the
lubrication chart for information.
Sustained high pressure occurs above the maxi-
mum pump rating.
Check the relief or regular valve's maximum setting.
Drive is misaligned or belt drive is tight. Check the parts; correct the problem.
Air recirculation is causing a chatter in the system. Remove the air from the system.
Broken Parts Inside the Pump Housing
Excessive pressure above the maximum pump rat-
ing is present.
Check the relief or regulator valve's maximum setting.
Seizure occurs due to lack of oil. Check the reservoir level, oil filter, and possibility of restric-
tion in the inlet line.
Solid matter is being wedged in the pump. Install a filter in the suction line.
Head screws are too tight. Check appropriate manual’s recommendations; adjust.
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-19
Table 6-2. Probl ems and solut i ons wi th act uati ng mec hani sm
Inoperative System
Problems Solutions
System fails because of any problem listed in
Tables 6-1 through 6-5.
Follow recommened solution.
Mechanism Creeps (Stopped in Intermediate Position)
Internal leakage occurs in the actuating cylinders or
operating valves.
Replace the piston packing or cylinder, if the walls are
scored; replace or repair the valve.
Longer Operating Times Than Specified
Air is present in the system. Bleed the system.
Actuating cylinder or directional-control valve has
an internal leak.
Replace the piston packing or replace the cylinder if the
walls are scored; replace or repair the valve; clean the unit to
remove foreign matter; check the cam clearance.
Pump is worn. Repair or replace the pump.
Action is sluggish on start up but less so after oper-
ating temperatures have increased, or action slows
down after warm up. Depending on equipment and
circuit design, could indicate that the oil viscosity is
too high.
Check appropriate manual’s lubrication order.
External Oil Leaks
End caps leak. Tighten caps, if possible, or replace the gasket.
Chevron seals leak. Adjust or replace the seals.
Abnormal Packing-Gland Wear
Cylinder is not securely fastened to the frame,
causing it to vibrate.
Tighten the cylinder; check it periodically.
Cylinder and piston-rod extension are misaligned. Check the parts; correct the problem.
Side load occurs on the piston rod. Check for cylinder alignment or worn pins or ball joints.
FM 5-499
6-20 Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting
Table 6-3. Problems and soluti ons wi t h heati ng oi l
Heating Caused by Power Unit (Reservoir, Pump, Relief Valve, Coolers)
Problems Solutions
Relief valve is set at a higher pressure than neces-
sary; excess oil dissipated through increased slip-
page in various parts or through the relief valve or
directional valve.
Check manual for the correct pressure; reset the relief valve.
Internal oil leaks occur due to wear in the pump. Repair or replace the pump.
Oil viscosity is too high. Check appropriate manual for correct oil viscosity to use at
various temperatures.
Overhauled pumps may be assembled too tightly,
which reduces clearances and increases friction.
Follow the appropriate manuals when rebuilding a pump.
Pump has leaking check or relief valves. Repair or replace the valves.
Oil cooler or coolant functions improperly in cut off. Inspect cooler; clean inside and outside; ensure that air flow
or coolant flow around fins is not cut off.
Conditions in System Cause Excessive Heating
Lines are restricted. Replace the lines if they are crimped; remove any obstruc-
tion if lines are partially plugged.
Large pump deliveries do not unload properly. Ensure that the open-center valves are neutralized and that
any pressure-relieving valves are in the correct position.
(Allow only small pumps to stay at high pressures when run-
ning idle for long periods.)
Radiation is insufficient. Use artificial cooling.
Pump has internal leaks. Locate leaks; replace the packing.
Reservoir is too small to provide adequate cooling. Replace unit with a larger reservoir.
Valves or piping is undersized. Check flow velocity through the lines and valves; compare
them with the manual’s recommendations. If velocity is
excessive, install larger equipment.
Other titles available online www.govmedia.com
FM 5-499
Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting 6-21
Table 6-4. Problems and solut i ons wi th flui d motors
Motor Turns in the Wrong Direction
Problems Solutions
Conductors are crossed between the control valve
and the motor.
Check circuit to determine the correct conductor connection
between the control valve and motor.
Motor Does Not Turn or Does Not Develop Proper Speed or Torque
System’s overload-relief-valve adjustment is not set
high enough.
Check system’s pressure; reset the relief valve.
Relief valve sticks open. Clean or replace the relief valve; adjust.
Oil to the reservoir freely recirculates through the
system.
Check control-valve linkage; directional-control valve may be
in open-center neutral.
Driven mechanism binds because of misalignment. Check the motor shaft for alignment.
Pump does not deliver enough GPM or pressure. Check pump’s GPM and pressure; repair or replace.
Motor yoke is not set at the proper angle. Adjust the pump’s yoke angle.
External Oil Leak From the Motor
Seals leak (drain may not be connected from motor
to tank).
Check motor for 3rd line (a drain line that must go to tank
used on piston and vane motors).
NOTE: See Table 6-1 for improper operation of pump.
Table 6-5. Problems and sol uti ons wi t h ac cumulat or operati on
Sudden Drop in Accumulator Pressure (Position of Selector Valve is Changed)
Problems Solutions
Accumulator has an internal or external leak. Repair the leak or replace the accumulator.
No Pressure When Pump Stops Running (Normal Pressure When Pump Was Running)
Hydraulic line has a leaking gas or check valve. Replace the check or the gas valve.
Sluggish Response for Accumulator
Oil screen in the accumulator stops. Dismantle the accumulator; clean the screen.
Gas precharge is not sufficient. Precharge according to recommendations in the manual;
check for gas leaks.
NOTE: Release all internal pressure before making repairs on accumulators.
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-1
CHAPTER 7
Electri cal De vi ce s:
Trouble shooti ng and Safety
This chapter describes the process of locating the cause of malfunctions in electrical cir-
cuits associated with hydraulic-cont rol systems. The information includes testing devices
and types of grounding points. Also addressed in this chapt er are the safety measures person-
nel should tak e when work ing on or around electrical circuits.
7-1. Hydrauli c s and El ect ri ci ty. Hydr aulics a nd elect r icit y ar e oft en compar ed because
t he syst ems ha ve simila r it ies. A hydr aulic cir cuit r equir es a power sour ce (usually a pump),
a loa d device (act ua t or ), and conduct or s. The cir cuit s differ mainly in t he—
• Types of devices used t o cont r ol, dir ect , a nd r egulat e t he hydr a ulic fluid flow.
• Type and ca pa cit y of t he act ua t or s used t o a ccomplish t he wor k, which va r ies,
depending on t he applica t ion.
An elect r ical cir cuit also r equir es a power sour ce (bat t er y, gener a t or ), a loa d device
(light , bell, mot or ), a nd pr oper connect ions. An a ssor t ment of devices a lso cont r ols, dir ect s,
and r egula t es t he flow of elect r ical cur r ent .
Hydr aulic a nd elect r ica l component s a r e usually r epr esent ed on dia gr ams by t heir own
set of st andar dized symbols. Elect r ical diagr ams ar e oft en called schemat ics. Figur e 7-1,
page 7-2, shows some of t he mor e common symbols. Hydr a ulic a nd elect r ica l syst ems a nd
cir cuit s ha ve many differ ences. For exa mple, elect r ical cur r ent is invisible, hydr a ulic fluid is
not ; elect r ica l cur r ent flows t hr ough solid wir es, hydr a ulic fluid flows t hr ough hollow lines.
Figur e 7-2, page 7-3, shows symbols for elect r ical a nd hydr aulic component s. Figur e 7-3,
page 7-4, compa r es a hydr a ulic cir cuit and a n elect r ical cir cuit .
7-2. Trouble shooti ng Ele c tri cal Devi c e s. Elect r ical t r oubleshoot ing is t he pr ocess of
loca t ing t he cause of malfunct ions in elect r ical cir cuit s. The following par agr aphs cont ain
some gener a l t r oubleshoot ing infor mat ion as well a s specific t est s for det er mining t he st at us
of some elect r ical devices. Skill in t r oubleshoot ing elect r ical equipment and cir cuit s
r equir es—
• Knowledge of elect r ical pr inciples t o under st a nd how a cir cuit or device should func-
t ion.
• Skill in r eading a nd int er pr et ing elect r ical schema t ics, diagr ams, pr oduct dat a, and
so for t h.
• Skill in oper a t ing t est equipment and int er pr et ing t est mea sur ement s.
• Abilit y t o ana lyze pr oblems in a logica l manner .
Following syst ema t ic s t eps t ha t n a r r ow down t he pr oblem t o a s ma ller a r ea of t he
equipment is much mor e efficient t ha n t r ia l-a nd-er r or met hods. The t r ou bleshoot ing
FM 5-499
7-2 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
Fi gure 7-1. Common e lect ri cal sc hemat i c symbol s
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-3
Fi gure 7-2. Compari son of e le c tri c al and hydrauli c c ompone nt s
FM 5-499
7-4 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
Power source
M
Pressure drop
(Restriction
orifice)
Directional valve
Load
(motor)
Regulation
(relief valve)
Pressure reference
(tank)
Pump
Motor
HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT
Power source
Power supply
Voltage drop
Directional switch
Load
(motor)
(Resistor)
Regulation
(zener diode)
Motor M
Generator
Voltage reference
(ground)
Fi gure 7-3. Compari son of e le ct ri c al and hydrauli c ci rcuit s
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-5
pr ocedur e det a iled below can be ver y useful in or ganizing t he pr oblem-solving effor t and
r educing equipment downt ime:
a. Procedure. The following t r oubleshoot ing pr ocedur e consist s of five st eps t hat you
should per for m in or der . These st eps r epr esent t he most r eliable met hod of lea r ning and
applying a logical appr oa ch t o pr oblem solving and ca n be applied t o any equipment , r ega r d-
less of size.
(1) St ep One: Ident ify t he Sympt om. A sympt om is a n ext er nal indicat ion t hat a cir -
cuit or device is not funct ioning cor r ect ly. You ca n ident ify a sympt om by invest iga t ing t he
pr oblem by sight , sound, smell, a nd t ouch. For example, visua lly inspect ing t he equipment
ma y r eveal t ha t a cir cuit component ha s over heat ed a nd changed color or t hat an indict or
la mp which should be on is not . A peculiar odor ma y lead you t o discover melt ed insula t ion,
or a chat t er ing noise could indica t e t hat a solenoid is about t o fail. Moving cont r ols or
adjust ing knobs may change t he pr oblem or ha ve no effect at all. The fact t hat t he equip-
ment is not oper at ing is a sympt om.
If someone else wa s oper at ing t he equipment when it failed, ask t he per son if he
not iced anyt hing unusua l befor e it failed. Funny noises, t hings t hat do not look quit e r ight ,
and impr oper oper at ing sequences ar e sympt oms t ha t could lead t o t he ca use of t he pr oblem.
If you cannot find any immedia t ely ident ifia ble sympt oms, t r y oper at ing t he equipment once
you det er mine t hat it is safe t o do so. Wat ch what wor ks and wha t does not wor k. Not e a ny-
t hing t hat does not seem r ight , no ma t t er how small. Take t he t ime t o conduct a t hor ough
invest iga t ion.
(2) St ep Two: Analyze t he Sympt om. In t his st ep, you ident ify t he funct ions wher e
sympt oms indica t e a malfunct ion. Use t he infor mat ion you obt a ined dur ing your ident ifica -
t ion, a long wit h t he schema t ic and funct ional block dia gr ams and knowledge of how t he
equipment is supposed t o oper at e, t o ma ke logica l t echnica l deduct ions. For exa mple, a ft er
car eful exa minat ion, you find t hat a cla mp in a plast ic-inject ion molding machine will not
pr essur ize. Fur t her ana lysis, wit hout using t est equipment , nar r ows t he pr oblem t o a cla mp
t ha t is closed, clamp pr essur izat ion, or pr efill shift , a ny of which might cont a in t he fa ult y
cir cuit .
(3) St ep Thr ee: Isola t e t he Single Fa ult y Funct ion. In t his st ep, you use t est equip-
ment t o decide which fa ult y funct ion is act ua lly ca using t he malfunct ion. When making
t hese t est s, use t he following guidelines:
• Make only t hose t est s t hat ar e sa fe t o make.
• Make t he least difficult t est s fir st .
• Test t hose funct ions fir st t ha t will eliminat e one or mor e of t he ot her possible
fault y funct ions.
For example, if t aking a n ohmmet er r eading ca n det er mine t he fault , do not t a ke a
volt met er r ea ding as t ha t r equir es power on t he equipment . If you must disa ssemble ha lf of
t he machine t o r each a t est point , per for m a simpler t est fir st . Test at a midway point in t he
cir cuit r y, if possible. A good r ea ding a t t he midwa y point eliminat es t he pr eceding funct ions
and indicat es t hat t he pr oblem is in t he r emaining cir cuit s. A fault y signal at t he midway
point mea ns t ha t t he pr oblem is in t he funct ions t hat pr ocess t he signal befor e t he midwa y
point .
FM 5-499
7-6 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
In t he inject ion molding example, t est t he clamp's pr essur izat ion cir cuit s wher e t he
clamp's fully closed signal input eit her eliminat es t hat funct ion or confir ms t hat t he ca use of
t he pr oblem is a cla mp t ha t is not fully closed and, t her efor e, cannot be pr essur ized. Con-
t inue t est ing input s and out put s of t he suspect funct ions unt il you ident ify and confir m t he
single fa ult y funct ion.
(4) St ep Four : Isolat e t he Fault y Cir cuit . In t his st ep, you locat e t he single ma lfunc-
t ioning cir cuit wit hin a funct ional gr oup of cir cuit s. Use t he accumulat ed sympt om and t est
da t a t o close in on t he single fa ult y cir cuit . Follow t he guidelines fr om st ep t hr ee, but a pply
t hem t o t he cir cuit s r elat ed t o t he fa ult y funct ion. Use schemat ic and block diagr a ms t o
loca t e t est point s.
In t he inject ion-molding-ma chine example, a ssume t hat t he clamp's fully closed signal
is not pr esent at t he input t o t he clamp's pr essur izat ion cir cuit s. Test wit hin t he clamp’s
closed cir cuit s unt il you ident ify a single fa ult y cir cuit . The fir st t est ma y r eveal t hat t he
out put of t he clamp's fully closed cir cuit is ba d. A check of t he input s t o t his cir cuit may indi-
ca t e t hat t he input fr om a cla mp's closed-limit swit ch is ba d but t hat all ot her s a r e good.
You can now ident ify t he pr oblem as being a ssociat ed wit h one of t he r elat ively few pa r t s
cont ained in a single cir cuit .
(5) St ep Five: Loca t e/Ver ify t he Cause of t he Malfunct ion. The t est s you make in t his
st ep ident ify t he failing par t wit hin t he fault y cir cuit . Test t he cir cuit unt il you find t he
cause of t he malfunct ion. Examine and t est t he fault y par t t o ver ify t hat it has caused t he
pr oblem and pr oduced t he obser ved sympt oms.
In checking out t he clamp's fully closed cir cuit , for exa mple, r emove t he suspect ed limit
swit ch fr om t he cir cuit a nd t est it wit h an ohmmet er t o det er mine if t he swit ch's cont a ct s a r e
closing cor r ect ly t o complet e t he cir cuit . Connect t he ohmmet er a cr oss t he cont act s of t he
swit ch and a ct uat e t he swit ch's ar m sever al t imes while checking t he met er r ea ding. If t he
cont act s close pr oper ly, t he met er should r ead zer o ohms when t he ar m is in one posit ion a nd
infinit y when t he ar m is in t he ot her posit ion.
If t he met er point er does not move when t he swit ch a r m is act ua t ed, disa ssemble and
exa mine t he swit ch. If t his last exa minat ion r evea ls t hat t he mecha nical linkage connect ing
t he swit ch's a r m t o t he cont a ct s is br oken, t hen you ha ve found t he cause of t he ma lfunct ion.
A fina l a nalysis should show t hat t his cause expla ins t he obser ved sympt oms. However , t he
pr ocedur e is not complet e unt il you ver ify t he findings. In t his exa mple, you would inst a ll a
new limit swit ch in t he cir cuit a nd oper a t e t he equipment t o confir m t hat you have fixed t he
pr oblem.
b. Test ing Devices. The following par agr aphs out line some ba sic elect r ical t est s t hat
you ca n conduct on specific pieces of equipment t hat wer e discussed ea r lier . As par t of a
t r oubleshoot ing t est , you should mechanica lly inspect t hese devices. Also, if spar e par t s ar e
availa ble, subst it ut e a good pa r t for a suspect pa r t a s a quick met hod of r et ur ning t he equip-
ment t o oper at ion. Test t he suspect par t and eit her r epair it or discar d it .
(1) Pot ent iomet er . Since a pot ent iomet er is a var ia ble-r esist a nce device, it should be
disconnect ed fr om it s cir cuit a nd t est ed wit h an ohmmet er , if it is suspect . Only t wo of t he
t hr ee leads need t o be disconnect ed for t his t est . Be ver y car eful when a djust ing small
pot ent iomet er s on pr int ed cir cuit boa r ds. They a r e quit e fr agile a nd can easily be br oken if
r ot at ed beyond t he end st ops. Test a pot ent iomet er a s follows:
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-7
• Det er mine t he expect ed r esist a nce va lue fr om a schemat ic dia gr am for t he cir cuit .
The va lue ma y a lso be pr int ed on t he case of t he device.
• Connect t he ohmmet er acr oss t he ends of t he pot ent iomet er and confir m t ha t t he
r eading mat ches t he expect ed value.
• Remove a t est lea d fr om one end and move it t o t he middle t er minal.
• Rot a t e t he shaft or t ur n t he scr ew t hat var ies t he r esist ance of t he device. The
ohmmet er r eading should indicat e zer o ohms a t one end of t he shaft r ot a t ion a nd
t he full expect ed r esist a nce va lue of t he pot ent iomet er at t he ot her end. It should
also show a smoot h cha nge in r esist ance a s t he sha ft is t ur ned.
• Move t he lead t hat is st ill connect ed t o an end t er minal over t o t he ot her end.
• Rot a t e t he shaft a ga in while looking for t he same smoot h t r ansit ion fr om zer o t o
ma ximum r esist ance.
(2) Solenoid Coil. If a solenoid is t hought t o be fault y, do t he following:
• Remove it fr om t he ma chine (plug t he opened por t s on t he va lves if necessa r y).
• Disassemble and examine t he solenoid for signs of over heat ing or mecha nical
pr oblems.
• Test t he solenoid coil by at t aching an ohmmet er (set t o a low r esist ance r ange)
acr oss t he coil t er minals. If t he coil is good, t he met er will show a r elat ively low
r eading (a few t housa nd ohms or less). A zer o r eading would indica t e t ha t t he coil
windings ar e shor t ed t o ea ch ot her , pr obably a s a r esult of melt ed insula t ion. An
infinit y r ea ding on t he ohmmet er mea ns t ha t t he coil has opened up and is defec-
t ive.
(3) Rela y. Test a suspect r elay as follows:
• Act uat e t he r elay a r mat ur e, manually.
• Remove t he r ela y fr om t he equipment .
• Exa mine t he r ela y car efully for signs of mechanical pr oblems.
• Check t he r elay coil in t he same wa y a s a solenoid coil, if you do not find a ny
mechanical pr oblems. Test t he elect r ical cont a ct s wit h a n ohmmet er a s you do
t he swit ch cont a ct s. The met er should r ea d zer o when t he cont a ct s a r e closed and
infinit y when t hey a r e open.
• Test t he nor ma lly open a nd t he nor ma lly closed cir cuit s.
(4) Tr ansfor mer . When you det er mine, by volt age r eadings or sympt om infor mat ion,
t ha t a t r ansfor mer ma y be t he cause of a malfunct ion, check t he pr ima r y a nd t he secondar y
coil r esist a nce wit h a n ohmmet er . Disconnect one end of t he pr ima r y winding and one end of
t he secondar y winding fr om t he r est of t he cir cuit befor e t est ing. If t he failur e is t he r esult of
an open winding, t he ohmmet er will r ea d infinit y when connect ed acr oss t he defect ive wind-
ing. If t he fa ilur e is caused by shor t ed t ur ns wit hin a winding, t he pr oblem is mor e difficult
t o diagnose beca use t he ohmmet er will indicat e a ver y low r esist a nce. Since a winding con-
sist s of a lengt h of conduct or wound int o a coil, t he r esist a nce r eadings a r e nor mally quit e
low a nyway. If you suspect shor t ed t ur ns—
• Use t he expect ed pr imar y and secondar y oper a t ing volt ages t o det er mine t he
appr oximat e t ur ns r at io. Divide t he secondar y volt age int o t he pr imar y volt a ge t o
get t he r a t io. For exa mple, 120 volt s divided by 24 volt s equa ls a r a t io of 5:1.
FM 5-499
7-8 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
• Use t his r a t io t o compa r e t he measur ed pr ima r y r esist a nce t o t he measur ed sec-
ondar y r esist a nce. In t he exa mple, if t he pr ima r y r esist ance is 20 ohms, t hen t he
seconda r y r esist a nce should be a bout 4 ohms (20/5).
Be sur e t o a djust t he zer o-ohms cont r ol befor e ma king t he measur ement ; hold t he t est
pr obes by t he insulat ed por t ion only. You may ha ve difficult y det er mining if t he r ea ding is
accur a t e since t he measur ement is so close t o t he low end of t he ohms scale. Compar e t he
r eadings t o a r epla cement t r ansfor mer ’s, if one is a va ilable. To posit ively ver ify t hat t he
t r ansfor mer is fa ult y, you may have t o subst it ut e a good t r ansfor mer for t he suspect one.
(5) Diode. You can use a simple r esist a nce check wit h a n ohmmet er t o t est a diode's
abilit y t o pass cur r ent in one dir ect ion only. To t est a suspect diode—
• Remove one end of t he diode fr om t he cir cuit .
• Connect t he posit ive ohmmet er lead t o t he anode and t he negat ive lead t o t he
ca t hode. When t he ohmmet er is connect ed t his wa y, t he diode is for wa r d biased,
and t he measur ed r eading should be ver y low. Set t he ohmmet er for t he a ppr opr i-
at e diode t est r ange.
• Rever se t he ohmmet er connect ions. When t he negat ive ohmmet er lead is
at t ached t o t he a node a nd t he posit ive lea d is at t ached t o t he ca t hode, t he diode is
r ever se bia sed, and t he met er should r ead a high r esist ance.
A good diode should have r eal low r esist ance when for wa r d bia sed a nd high r esist a nce
when r ever se biased. If t he diode r ea ds a high r esist ance in bot h dir ect ions, it is pr oba bly
open. If t he r eadings ar e low in bot h dir ect ions, t he diode is shor t ed. A defect ive diode could
show a differ ence in for war d and ba ckwar d r esist ance. In t his ca se, t he r at io of for wa r d t o
ba ckwar d r esist a nce is t he impor t ant fact or . The a ct ual r at io depends on t he t ype of diode.
As a r ule of t humb, a small signal diode should ha ve a r a t io of sever a l hundr ed t o one. A
power r ect ifier ca n oper at e wit h a r at io as low as t en t o one.
7-3. Ground. Ever y elect r ical cir cuit has a point of r efer ence t o which all cir cuit volt ages
ar e compa r ed. This r efer ence point is called gr ound, a nd cir cuit volt ages ar e eit her posit ive
or nega t ive wit h r espect t o gr ound. Connect ions t o gr ound t hat ar e made for sa fet y r ea sons
r efer t o ear t h gr ound. When volt a ge mea sur ement s a r e t aken, t he differ ence of pot ent ia l
bet ween a point in t he cir cuit a nd a gr ound point is mea sur ed by t he volt met er . This t ype of
gr ound is r efer r ed t o a s chassis or common gr ound.
a. Earth Ground. Init ia lly, gr ound r efer r ed t o t he ear t h it self and since has r epr esent ed
a point of zer o pot ent ial or zer o volt s. A shor t cir cuit wit hin a device t ha t connect s live volt -
age t o t he fr a me could ca use a ser ious shock t o anyone t ouching it . However , if t he fr a me is
connect ed t o ea r t h gr ound, it is held at t he sa fe pot ent ia l of zer o volt s, a s t he ear t h it self
absor bs t he volt age.
Toda y, a t hir d pr ong on gr ounded power plugs connect s most st a t ionar y equipment t o
ear t h gr ound t hr ough t he elect r ical wir ing syst em. Some equipment is connect ed t o ear t h
gr ound by a conduct or t hat goes fr om t he met a l fr a me of t he equipment t o a long copper r od
t hat is dr iven int o t he ea r t h. Some appliances ar e oft en gr ounded by connect ing t he conduc-
t or t o a wat er pipe r unning int o t he gr ound. In a ny ca se, t he fr a mes of all equipment con-
nect ed t o t he ea r t h ar e a t t he same zer o volt pot ent ial. This pr event s shocks t hat might
occur should a per son t ouch t wo pieces of ungr ounded equipment at t he sa me t ime.
FM 5-499
Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety 7-9
b. Chassis or Common Ground. In some ca ses, elect r ical cir cuit s used t oda y ar e not con-
nect ed dir ect ly t o ear t h gr ound; however , t hey st ill r equir e a point of r efer ence or a common
point t o which element s of ea ch cir cuit ar e connect ed. For example, a por t able bat t er y-oper -
at ed t r ansist or r adio does not have a gr ound conduct or connect ing it wit h t he ear t h. A st r ip
of conduct ing foil on t he int er nal cir cuit boar d is used a s t he common point . In an a ut omo-
bile bat t er y, t he negat ive t er minal is gener ally connect ed t o t he engine block or chassis
fr ame by a heavy ca ble. The connect ing point , a s well as ever y ot her point on t he met a l
fr ame, is consider ed t o be a gr ound for t he elect r ica l cir cuit s of t he vehicle. The r ubber t ir es
insula t e t he vehicle fr om t he ea r t h gr ound. In t hese exa mples, gr ound is simply a zer o r efer -
ence point in a n elect r ica l cir cuit and is r efer r ed t o a s chassis gr ound. All volt ages in t he cir -
cuit ar e measur ed wit h r espect t o t his common point .
c. Zero Reference Point . Wit hout a zer o r efer ence point , volt age could not be expr essed
a s a posit ive or negat ive va lue. The schema t ic diagr ams in Figur e 7-4 illust r at e t his point :
• Diagr am A shows a volt met er connect ed t o t he t wo t er mina ls of a 6-volt , dr y-cell
bat t er y. Wit hout a gr ound in t he cir cuit , t he mea sur ed volt a ge is 6 volt s bet ween
t he t wo t er minals. It is neit her posit ive nor nega t ive.
• Diagr am B shows t ha t t he negat ive bat t er y t er minal is connect ed t o gr ound. The
volt met er mea sur es t he differ ence of pot ent ia l bet ween t he posit ive t er minal and
6 V
battery
Voltmeter
indicates 6 V.
It is neither +
nor -.
V
V
+
+
+
+
-
-
- -
V
12 V
+
+
+
A
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
C
-
-
-
-
Voltmeter
indicates -6 V.
Voltmeter
indicates +6 V.
B
+6 V
-6 V
A. VOLTAGE READING
WITHOUT GROUND
B. NEGATIVE TERMINAL
GROUNDED
C. POSITIVE TERMINAL
GROUNDED
D. PLACEMENT OF GROUND PROVIDES
BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE VOLTAGE
Figure 7-4. Schemat i c di agrams i ll ustrat ing zero re fe renc e point
Other titles available online www.govmedia.com
FM 5-499
7-10 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
t he gr ound point . The mea sur ed volt age is +6 volt s because t he ungr ounded t er -
minal is 6 volt s mor e posit ive t ha n t he gr ound or zer o r efer ence point .
• Diagr a m C shows t hat t he volt met er measur e -6 volt s when t he posit ive t er minal
of t he bat t er y is connect ed t o t he zer o r efer ence point . The ungr ounded bat t er y
t er minal is now 6 volt s mor e negat ive t ha n t he r efer ence point .
• Diagr a m D shows t wo 6-volt bat t er ies t hat ar e connect ed in ser ies. The volt a ge
bet ween point s A a nd C is 12 volt s. When a gr ound is placed a t point B, which is
bet ween t he t wo bat t er ies, + 6 volt s a r e available bet ween point s A a nd B, a nd -6
volt s a r e availa ble bet ween point s C a nd B. (Many moder n elect r onic cir cuit s
r equir e bot h posit ive and negat ive volt a ge for pr oper oper a t ion. This would be
impossible wit hout a zer o r efer ence point in t he cir cuit .)
d. Isolation Between Earth and Chassis Ground. Indust r ial equipment oft en r equir es
an ear t h a nd a sepa r at e chassis gr ound for pr oper oper a t ion. The ear t h gr ound r epr esent s
an act ua l pot ent ia l of zer o volt s, while t he chassis gr ound is used only a s a r efer ence point
and may be at some pot ent ial above or below t he ear t h gr ound. In t hese cases, t he ear t h
gr ound and t he chassis gr ound ar e not connect ed t oget her a t a ny point in t he equipment .
However , dur ing inst alla t ion or r epair s, t he chassis gr ound ma y be ina dver t ent ly connect ed
t o t he ea r t h gr ound. To check for t his condit ion, use a 1.5-volt , D-cell ba t t er y and holder ,
connect ing wir es, and a volt met er . Make sur e t hat t he equipment is OFF befor e ma king t he
t est .
In Figur e 7-5, t he bat t er y is inst a lled bet ween t he chassis gr ound a nd t he ear t h gr ound.
The volt met er , set t o mea sur e 1.5 volt s dir ect cur r ent (DC), is connect ed acr oss t he ba t t er y.
If a connect ion exist s bet ween t he chassis and t he ea r t h gr ound, it will pla ce a shor t cir cuit
acr oss t he bat t er y, and t he volt met er will indica t e zer o volt s. If t his is t he ca se, t empor a r ily
disconnect one end of t he bat t er y t o keep it fr om dischar ging while looking for t he impr oper
connect ion bet ween t he gr ounds. When you find t he connect ion, r emove it a nd r econnect t he
ba t t er y and t he met er . The volt met er should r ea d t he bat t er y pot ent ia l of 1.5 volt s. If t he
volt met er r eading is st ill zer o volt s, an impr oper connect ion st ill exist s in t he equipment .
Repeat t he t est unt il t he volt met er r eads t he ba t t er y volt a ge. Remember t o disconnect t he
ba t t er y aft er complet ing t he t est .
7-4. Safe t y. Effect ive sa fet y mea sur es a r e a blend of common sense a nd t he knowledge of
ba sic elect r ical a nd hydr aulic pr inciples and of how a syst em or cir cuit oper at es, including
any da nger s associa t ed wit h t ha t oper a t ion. Gener a l sa fet y infor ma t ion and safet y pr a ct ices
ar e list ed below. The list is not all inclusive, is not int ended t o alt er or r epla ce cur r ent ly
est ablished safet y pr act ices, and does not include safet y pr a ct ices for hydr aulic equipment .
a. Information. When wor king wit h elect r ical equipment , consider t he following infor -
ma t ion r egar ding safet y:
• Injur ies a ssociat ed wit h elect r ical wor k ma y include elect r ical shocks; bur ns; and
punct ur e, la cer a t ion, or a br a sion wounds.
• Cur r ent flowing t hr ough t he body can be fa t a l. As lit t le as 0.01 a mp pr oduces
muscle pa r a lysis a nd ext r eme br eat hing difficult y in t he aver a ge per son; per ma-
nent physical damage and dea t h ca n r esult fr om 0.1 a mp flowing t hr ough t he
hear t .
• The amount of cur r ent r eceived fr om an elect r ica l shock depends on t he volt a ge
applied and t he r esist a nce of t ha t pa r t of t he body t hr ough which t he cur r ent
FM 5-499
7-12 Electrical Devices: Troubleshooting and Safety
• Never wor k on live cir cuit s when wet , a s t his lower s t he body’s r esist ance and
incr eases t he chance for a fat al shock.
• Never wor k alone on elect r ical equipment . Shocks above 0.01 amp can par alyze
your muscles and leave you unable t o r emove your self fr om t he sour ce of t he cur -
r ent flow. Always be sur e someone else is ar ound t o help in a n emer gency.
• Use t he pr oper equipment for cir cuit t est ing. Check for cor r ect junct ion set t ings,
r a nge swit ches, pr oper insula t ion on t est pr obes, a nd so for t h.
• Remove a ll wat ches, r ings, cha ins, and any ot her met al jewelr y t hat ma y come in
cont act wit h a n elect r ical pot ent ial or get ca ught in moving mechanical par t s. Do
t his befor e you wor k on any elect r ical equipment , cir cuit , or bat t er y.
• Have a good under st anding about t he cir cuit you a r e wor king on. Think about
what you need t o do befor e wor king on t he cir cuit . Ask for help if you do not know
enough about t he t a sk you ar e t o per for m.
FM 5-499
Appendix-225
Appendi x A
Metri c Conve rsi on Chart
A-1. Purpos e . This char t complies wit h cur r ent Ar my dir ect ives which st a t e t ha t t he Met r ic
Syst em will be incor por a t ed int o a ll new publicat ions. This Appendix will pr ovide a cha r t t o
conver t t he English mea sur ement s t o Met r ic.
Table A-1. Metric conversion chart
To Convert Into Multiply By
Cubic feet
Cubic Centimeters
28,320.0 x 10
4
Cubic Meters 0.02832
Liters 28.32
Cubic inches
Cubic Centimeters 28,320.0
Cubic Meters
1.639 x 10
-5
Liters 0.01639
Feet
Centimeters 6.0
Kilometers
3.048 x 10
4
Meters 0.3048
Millimeters 304.8
Foot pound
BTU
1.286 x 10
-3
Kilowatt-hours
3.766 x 10
-7
Gallons
Cubic Centimeters 3,785.0
Cubic Feet 0.1337
Cubic Inches 231.0
Cubic Meters
3.785 x 10
-3
Liters 3.785
horsepower
BTU per min 42.44
hp (metric) 1.014
FM 5-499
Appendix-226
Temper a t ur e Conver sion Char t : Celsius = 5/9 (°F - 32)
Fa hr enheit = 9/5 (°C + 32)
Inches
Centimeters 2.540
Meters
2.540 x 10
-2
Millimeters 25.40
Miles (statute)
Centimeters
1.6093 x 10
5
Meters 1,609.3
Kilometers 1.609.3
Miles/hr
cms/sec 44.70
kms/hr 1.609
kms/min 0.02682
Pounds Kilograms 0.4536
Pounds/sq in (psi) kgs/sq meter 703.1
Square Inches sq centimeters 6.452
Square feet
sq cms 929.0
sq meters 0.09290
sq millimeters
9.290 x 10
4
Square miles
sq kms 2.590
sq meters
2.590 x 10
6
Tons
Kilograms 907.1848
Tons (metric) .9078
Yards
Centimeters 91.44
Kilometers
9.144 x 10
-4
Meters 0.9144
Millimeters 914.4
Table A-1. Metric conversion chart
To Convert Into Multiply By
FM 5-499
Glossary-227
Glossary
°F degr ee Fahr ehheit
AC alt er nat ing cur r ent
ASA Amer ica n St a ndar ds Associat ion
ATTN at t ent ion
axi al pi st on pump A pump in which t he pist ons st r oke in t he sa me dir ec-
t ion on t he cylinder block's cent er line; t hese pumps
ar e eit her a n in-line or a ngle design.
Be rnoulli 's Pri nci ple La w which st a t es t hat t he st at ic pr essur e of a moving
liquid va r ies inver sely wit h it s velocit y; t ha t is, a s ve-
locit y incr eases, st at ic pr essur e decr ea ses.
BTU Br it ish t her ma l unit
capaci ty Same a s volumet r ic out put .
cavi tat i on A condit ion t hat occur s in pumping when availa ble
fluid does not fill t he exist ing space; cavit at ion causes
er osion of t he met a l in t he inlet and speeds det er ior a-
t ion of t he hydr aulic oil.
ce ntri fugal pump A nonposit ive-displa cement pump t hat is used in a
hydr aulic syst em wher e a la r ge volume of flow is r e-
quir ed a t r elat ively low pr essur es; a cent r ifugal pump
is eit her a volut e or diffuser t ype.
cfs cubic foot (feet ) per second
chas s i s ground The differ ence of pot ent ial bet ween a point in t he cir -
cuit and a gr ound point t ha t is measur ed by t he volt -
met er . Also ca lled common ground. S ee also e art h
ground; ground; zero re fe re nce poi nt .
FM 5-499
Glossary-228
clos e d-c ent er system A pump syst em wher e t he pump cont inues t o oper a t e
against a load in t he neut r al condit ion.
common ground Same a s chas s i s ground.
cyl cylinder
cyli nder A hydr a ulic a ct uat or t hat is const r uct ed of a pist on or
plunger which oper a t es in a cylindr ica l housing by t he
act ion of liquid under pr essur e; a cylinder can be one
of sever al t ypes: single act ing, double act ing, differ en-
t ial, nondiffer ent ial, r a m t ype, pist on t ype, cushioned,
or lockout .
DA Depa r t ment of t he Ar my
DC dir ect cur r ent
de l ive ry rat e Same a s volumet r ic out put .
di rec ti onal-cont rol valve s Valves t hat cont r ol t he flow dir ect ion; t hey ca n be a
poppet , a sliding-spool, a check, a t wo-way, or a four -
wa y valve. S ee also flow-c ontrol val ve s , pre s s ure -
cont rol valves; valve s.
di s placeme nt The amount of liquid t hat is t r a nsfer r ed fr om t he
pump's inlet t o it s out let in one r evolut ion or cycle;
displa cement is eit her fixed or var ia ble. See also
fixed-displacement pump; var ia ble-displa cement
pump.
di s placeme nt pri nc i ple Pr inciple which expla ins how fluid is t a ken in at one
point and is displa ced t o a not her point ; displacement
is eit her nonposit ive or posit ive. S ee also nonposit ive-
displa cement pump; posit ive-displacement pump.
earth ground Connect ions t o gr ound t hat ar e made for safet y r ea -
sons. S ee also chass i s ground; ground; zero re fe r-
e nc e poi nt.
e ne rgy The abilit y t o do wor k, expr essed in ft lb. S ee also
fri c ti on; heat e nergy; kinet i c e nergy; pot ent i al
e ne rgy.
fi xe d-di splac eme nt pump A pump in which t he GPM out put can be cha nged only
by var ying t he dr ive speed. S ee also di splaceme nt ;
vari able -di spl aceme nt pump.
fl ow The movement of t he hydr a ulic fluid caused by a dif-
fer ence in t he pr essur e a t t wo point s; velocit y and
flow r at e a r e t he t wo wa ys t o mea sur e flow. S ee also
FM 5-499
Glossary-229
fl ow rat e ; velocit y.
fl ow rat e The mea sur e of how much volume of a liquid pa sses a
gpoint in a given t ime, measur e in GPM. S ee also
fl ow; veloc i ty.
fl ow-c ont rol valve s Valves t ha t a r e used t o cont r ol t he act uat or speed by
met er ing t he flow; t hey ca n be a ga t e, a globe, a nee-
dle, a r est r ict or , an or ifice-check, or a flow-equlizer
va lve. S ee also di re ct i onal-c ontrol val ve s ;
pre ssure -cont rol valve s; valve s.
FM field ma nual
forc e Anyt hing t hat t ends t o pr oduce or modify mot ion, ex-
pr essed in pounds.
fps foot (feet ) per second
FPT flow, pr essur e, and t emper a t ur e
fri c ti on The r esist ance t o r elat ive mot ion bet ween t wo bodies.
S ee also energy; heat ene rgy; ki net i c e nergy; po-
tenti al e nergy.
ft foot (feet )
ft lb foot -pound
GPM ga llon(s) per minut e
ground A point of r efer ence in a n elect r ica l cir cuit t o which a ll
cir cuit volt ages ar e compa r ed; cir cuit volt ages a r e ei-
t her posit ive or nega t ive wit h r espect t o gr ound. S ee
also c hassi s ground; e art h ground; zero re fe r-
e nc e poi nt.
head The ver t ica l dist a nce bet ween t wo levels in a fluid.
heat e nergy The ener gy a body possesses beca use of it s hea t ; con-
sider ed a dynamic fact or . S ee also e nergy; fri ct i on
ki ne ti c ene rgy; pote nti al energy.
hp hor sepower ; st a nda r d unit of power ; one HP is equal
t o 550 ft lb of wor k ever y second.
HP hydr aulic hp
HQ headquar t er s
hydrauli c ac tuat or A piece of equipment t hat r eceives pr essur e ener gy
FM 5-499
Glossary-230
and conver t s it t o mechnical for ce and mot ion.
hydrauli c mot ors A piece of equipment t hat conver t s hydr aulic ener gy
int o mecha nical ener gy; hydr a ulic mot or s can be gea r ,
va ne, or pist on t ypes.
hydrauli c te st ers light weight unit s used t o check or t r oubleshoot a hy-
dr a ulic-power ed syst em.
hydrauli cs The science of t r ansmit t ing for ce and/or mot ion
t hr ough t he medium of a confined liquid.
ID inside dia met er
JIC J oint Indust r y Confer ence
ki ne ti c e ne rgy The ener gy a body possesses beca use of it s mot ion; t he
amount of kinet ic ener gy in a moving liquid is dir ect ly
pr opor t ional t o t he squar e of it s velocit y; consider ed a
dyna mic fa ct or . S ee also fric ti on; heat e ne rgy; po-
tenti al e nergy; veloc i ty pre s sure .
lami nar flow Flow t hat occur s when par t icles of a liquid move in
st r aight lines par allel t o t he flow dir ect ion. S ee also
turbule nt flow.
lb pound
MO Missour i
N C nor mally closed
N O nor mally open
nonposi ti ve -di spl aceme nt pump This t ype of pump dischar ges liquid in a cont inuous
flow. S ee also di splac eme nt pri nci ple ; posi ti ve -
di splaceme nt pump.
OD out side diamet er
open-ce nt er system A pump syst em wher e t he pump's out put ha s a fr ee
flow pat h ba ck t o t he r eser voir in t he cir cuit 's neut r a l
condit ion.
Pas c al's Law Basic law of hydr aulics t hat Blaise Pa sca l for mulat ed
in t he 17t h cent ur y; Pa sca l st at es t hat pr essur e in a
FM 5-499
Glossary-231
confined fluid is t r ansmit t ed undiminished in ever y
dir ect ion and a ct s wit h equa l for ce on equa l a r ea a nd
at r ight a ngles t o t he cont ainer 's wa lls.
posi ti ve -di splace ment pump This t ype of pump dischar ges volumes of liquid t hat
ar e sepa r a t ed by per iods of no discha r ge. S ee also di s-
plac eme nt pri nc i ple ; nonposi ti ve -di splac eme nt
pump.
pot ent i al energy Ener gy due t o posit ion; in hydr aulics, pot ent ial ener -
gy is a st at ic fa ct or . S ee also e ne rgy; fri ct i on; heat
e ne rgy; ki ne t i c e ne rgy.
pre ssure The for ce exer t ed a ga inst a specific a r ea, expr essed in
psi.
pre ssure -cont rol valve s Valves t hat ma y limit or r egulat e pr essur e, cr eat e a
par t icular pr essur e condit ion r equir ed for cont r ol, or
cause a ct uat or s t o oper at e in a specific or der . Pr es-
sur e-cont r ol va lves can be a r elief, a pr essur e-r educ-
ing, a sequence, or a count er ba lance valve. S ee also
di re c ti onal-control valve s ; flow-control valve s ;
valve s.
ps i pound(s) per squa r e inch
radi al pi st on pump A pump in which t he pist ons a r e ar r anged like wheel
spokes in a shor t cylindr ica l block.
re ci proc ati ng pump A t ype of pump t ha t depends on a r ecipr oca t ing mo-
t ion t o t r ansmit liquid fr om it s inlet side t o it s out let
side.
re s is t anc e A condit ion in a hydr aulic syst em t hat is usua lly
caused by a r est r ict ion or obst r uct ion in t he pa t h or
flow.
rot ary pump A posit ive-displa cement pump in which r ot a r y mot ion
car r ies t he liquid fr om t he pump's inlet t o it s oulet .
rpm r evolut ion(s) per minut e
sli ppage The mea sur e of a pump's efficiency expr essed in per -
cent ; oil leaks fr om t he pr essur e out let t o a low-pr es-
sur e ar ea or back t o t he inlet ; some slippa ge is
designed int o pump syst ems for lubr ica t ion pur poses.
SPDT single pole-double t hr ow swit ch
SPST single pole-single t hr ow swit ch
sq i n squa r e inches
Other titles available online www.govmedia.com
FM 5-499
Glossary-232
STOP syste m Tr oubleshoot ing syst em in hydr aulics in which a per -
son should St udy t he cir ucit diagr a ms, Test by using
a r elia ble t est er , Or ganize t he knowledge ga ined fr om
t he cir cuit -t est r esult s, and Per for m r epa ir s, t aking
t ime t o do t he job well.
torque Cir cula r for ce on an object .
turbule nt fl ow Flow t ha t develops when flow speed incr ea ses beyond
a given point . S ee also lami nar flow.
two-stage pump A pump t ha t consist s of t wo sepa r at e pump assem-
blies t hat ar e cont ained in one housing.
typi cal mobi le c i rcui t s Hydr aulic-lift , power -st eer ing, a nd r oa d-pat r ol-t r uck
cir cuit s.
USAES Unit ed St at es Ar my Engineer School
USASI Unit ed St at es of Amer ica n St a ndar ds Inst it ut e
valve s Object s in a hydr aulic syst em t hat cont r ol t he oper a-
t ion of t he act ua t or s; valves r egula t e pr essur e by cr e-
at ing special pr essur e condit ions and by cont r olling
how much oil will flow in por t ions of t he cir cuit and
wher e it will go. S ee also di rec ti onal-cont rol
valve s ; flow-cont rol valve s ; pre s s ure -control
valve s .
vane-t ype pump A pump in which a slot t ed r ot or splined t o a dr ive
shaft r ot a t es bet ween closely fit t ed side pla t es t ha t
ar e inside of an ellipt ical- or cir cular -shaped r ing;
va ne pumps can be couble, unbalanced, or ba la nced.
vari able-di spl aceme nt pump A pump in which t he pumping-chamber sizes can be
changed; t he GPM deliver y can be changed by moving
t he displacement cont r ol, changing t he dr ive speed, or
doing bot h. S ee also di splac eme nt; fi xed-
di splaceme nt pump.
veloci t y The aver age speed of a fluid's par t icles past a given
point , mea sur ed in fps. S ee also flow; flow rat e .
veloci t y pre ss ure Pr essur e caused by kinet ic ener gy. S ee also ki ne ti c
e ne rgy.
volumet ri c output The a mount of liquid a pump can deliver at it s out let
por t per unit of t ime a t a given dr ive speed, usually
expr essed in GPM or cubic inches per minut e. Also
called deli very rate or c apac i ty.
FM 5-499
Glossary-233
V volt
VOM volt -ohm-milla mmet er
work The mea sur e of for ce mult iplied by dist ance.
zero refere nce poi nt volt a ge point in a n elect r ical cir cuit t ha t is neit her
nega t ive or posit ive. S ee also c has s i s ground, e art h
ground; ground.
FM 5-499
References-1
Re ferences
SOURCES USED
These ar e t he sour ces quot ed or pa r a phr a sed in t his publicat ion.
Nonmilitary Publications
Hydraulics. Deer e a nd Compa ny Ser vice Publica t ions, Moline, Illinois. 1997.
Indust rial Hyydraulics Manual. Vicker s Tr a ining Cent er , Rochest er Hills, Michiga n. 1993.
DOCUMENTS NEEDED
These document s must be a va ila ble t o t he user s of t his publica t ion;
Department of the Army Forms
DA For m 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. Febr uar y 1974.
Index
A
accumulators (para 2-6)
bag-type (para 2-6b)
maintenance of (para 2-6d)
piston-type (para 2-6c)
spring-loaded (para2-6a)
actuator
air vents (para 4-3j)
American Standards Association (ASA) (para 6-2)
area (para 1-1b)
ASA. See American Standards Association (ASA)
assembling a clamp-type coupling (para 2-10d)
assembling a conductor (para 2-10d)
B
baffle plate (para 2-3f)
bends in tubing (para 2-9d)
Bernouilli’s principle (para 1-4d)
C
camshaft (para 5-2d(1))
capacity (para 3-2)
centrifugal force (para 4-4b)
cfs. See cubic foot (feet) per second (cfs)
circuits
hydraulic-lift (para 6-3a)
mobile (para 6-3a)
operation problems in (para 6-4a)
power-steering (para 6-3b)
road-patrol-truck (para 6-3c)
testing (para 6-4b)
troubleshooting (para 6-4)
circulatory system (para 2-9)
requirements (para 2-9)
colors in figures (para 2-2)
connecting tubing (para 2-9d)
connectors (para 2-10)
flared (para 2-10b)
threaded (para 2-10a)
couplings (para 2-3f)
flexible-hose (para 2-10c)
cubic foot (feet) per second (cfs) (para 2-7)
cylinder block (para 3-8a(2)), (para 3-8a(5))
cylinder housing (para 4-1)
cylinder ports (para 4-2)
cylinders (para 4-1)
construction of (para 4-2)
cushioned (para 4-1g)
differential (para 4-1c)
double-acting (4-1b)
lockout (para 4-1h)
nondifferential (para 4-1d)
piston (para 4-1)
piston-type (para 4-1f)
problems with, abrasives on a piston rod (para 4-3h)
problems with, burrs on a piston rod (para 4-3i)
problems with, creeping (para 4-3c)
problems with, loose mounting (para 4-3e)
problems with, misalignment (para 4-3f)
problems with, no lubrication (para 4-3g)
problems with, sluggish operation (para 4-3d)
ram-type (para 4-1), (para 4-1e)
single-acting (para 4-1a)
D
dash number of tubing (para 2-9a)
delivery rate (para 3-2)
diagrams
hydraulic-circuit (para 6-1)
hydraulic-circuit, block (para 6-1a)
hydraulic-circuit, cutaway (para 6-1b)
diode (para 7-2b(5))
displacement (para 3-3), (para 4-4), (para 4-4c(1))
distance (para 1-2)
drive shaft (para 3-8b(1))
E
electrical equipment (para 7-4a)
practices (para 7-4b)
safety (para 7-4)
energy (para 1-4)
heat (para 1-4c)
kinetic (para 1-4b), (para 1-4d)
potential (para 1-4a), (para 1-4d
F
filters (para 2-4b)
active, absorbent (para 2-5)
element, depth-type (para 2-5)
element, edge-type (para 2-5)
element, surface-type (para 2-5)
full-flow (para 2-4b(1))
inactive, absorbent (para 2-5)
mechanical (para 2-5)
proportional-flow (para 2-4b(2))
fittings (para 2-10)
crosses (para 2-10b)
elbows (para 2-10b)
skived (para 2-10d)
unions (para 2-10b)
flared connectors leaking (para 2-10b)
flaring a tube (para 2-9d)
flow (para 1-3), (para 2-7), (para 3-1), (para 5-2c(2)), (para 5-2e)
laminar (para 1-4c)
turbulent (para 1-4c)
flow, pressure, and temperature (FPT) (para 6-4d)
fluid pressure (para 4-1f)
foot (feet) per second (fps) (para 1-3a)
foot-pound (ft lb) (para 1-4)
force (para 1-1b), (para 1-2)
fps. See foot (feet) per second (fps)
FPT. See flow, pressure, and temperature (FPT)
friction (para 1-4c), (para 1-4d)
ft lb. See foot-pound (ft lb)
G
gallon(s) per minute (GPM) (para 1-3b)
gas (para 1-1)
gauges
pressure (para 2-7)
GPM. See gallon(s) per minute (GPM)
gravity (para 4-1f)
ground (para 7-3)
chassis or common (para 7-3b)
earth (para 7-3a)
zero reference point (para 7-3c)
H
head (para 1-1a), (para 1-4c)
horsepower (HP) (para 1-4f), (para 2-1c(3))
hose (para 2-9c(1))
rubber (para 2-9c(1))
Teflon-type (para 2-9c(2))
HP. See horsepower (HP)
hydraulic balance (para 5-1)
hydraulic boost (para 6-3b)
hydraulic motors (para 4-4)
bent-axis piston-type (para 4-4c(2))
gear-type (para 4-4a)
in-line-axis piston-type (para 4-4c(1))
piston-type (para 4-4c)
principal ratings of (para 4-4)
vane-type (para 4-4b)
variable-displacement (para 4-4c(2))
hydraulic pump essentials (para 3-5)
hydraulic systems (para 2-1)
closed-center (para 2-1d), (para 2-1d), (para 2-1d)
hydraulic-jack (para 2-1a)
improperly operating (para 2-8b)
motor-reversing (para 2-1b)
open-center (para 2-1c)
problems with (para 6-4f)
solutions for (para 6-4g)
with fixed-displacement pump and accumulator (para 2-1d(1))
with flow divider (para 2-1c(3))
with series connection (para 2-1c(1))
with series/parallel connection (para 2-1c(2))
with variable-displacement pump (para 2-1c(2))
hydraulic transmission (para 4-4c(2))
I
ID. See inside diameter (ID)
inside diameter (ID) (para 2-9b)
J
JIC. See Joint Industry Conference (JIC)
Joint Industry Conference (JIC) (para 6-2)
L
leakage
external (para 2-11b), (para 4-3a)
in a hydraulic system (para 2-11)
internal (para 2-11a), (para 4-3b)
prevention of (para 2-11c)
prevention of by properly operating equipment (para 2-11c(2))
prevention of through maintenance of equipment (para 2-11c(3))
prevention of through proper installation of materials (para 2-11c(1))
lines in liquid-powered systems (para 2-9)
flexible hosing (para 2-9c)
piping (para 2-9b)
tubing (para 2-9a)
liquid (para 1-1a), (para 1-4c)
levels (para 1-1a(1))
M
metering (para 5-3)
meters (para 2-7b)
nutating-piston-disc type (para 2-7b)
O
OD. See outside diameter (OD)
O-ring (para 5-2a), (para 5-2e(1)), (para 5-23(2))
O-rings (para 2-12b(1))
outside diameter (OD) (para 2-9a)
override (para 5-1)
P
packing (para 2-12c)
Pascal’s law (para 1-2)
pilot-valve assembly (para 5-1b(1))
pintle (para 3-8a(1))
pistons (para 3-8a(3))
Pitman arm (para 6-3b)
pivots (para 4-3)
port connections (para 6-2c)
potentiometer (para 7-2b(1))
pound(s) per square inch (psi) (para 1-1), (para 1-1a(2))
power (para 1-4f)
power-steering system (para 6-3b)
pressure (para 1-1), (para 1-1a), (para 2-7), (para 3-2), (para 4-4b), (para 5-1b), (para 5-1b(1))
atmospheric (para 1-1a), (para 1-1a(2)), (para 2-7a)
static (para 1-4c), (para 1-4d)
pressure plate (para 4-4b)
pressure switches (para 5-1e)
psi. (Emphasis>See pound(s) per square inch (psi)
psi. See pound(s) per square inch (psi)
pump
volute (para 3-5a)
pump cavitation (para 2-3d)
pumps
centrifugal (para 3-5a)
characteristics of (para 3-1c)
characteristics of vane-type (para 3-7a)
charging (para 2-1d(2))
design (para 3-5)
diffuser (para 3-5a(2))
displacement (para 3-8b(1)(a))
external gear (para 3-6a)
fixed-displacement (para 3-3a)
in-lin, operation of (para 3-8b(1)(c))
in-line, components of (para 3-8b(1)(b))
in-line, wobble-plate type (para 3-8b(2))
internal gear (para 3-6b)
lobe (para 3-6c)
nonpositive-displacement (para 3-1a)
operating problems, cavitation (para 3-9c)
operating problems, excess speed (para 3-9b)
operating problems, no delivery (para 3-9d(3))
operating problems, noise (para 3-9d(4))
operating problems, overloading (para 3-9)
operating problems, pressure loss (para 3-9d(1))
operating problems, slow operation (para 3-9d(2))
piston (para 3-8)
piston, axial-type (para 3-8b)
piston, bent-axis type (para 3-8b(3))
piston, in-line-type (para 3-8b(1))
piston, radial-type (para 3-8a)
positive-displacement (para 3-1b)
reciprocating (para 3-5c)
two-stage design (para 3-7e)
types of (para 3-a)
vane (para 3-7)
vane-type, balanced design (para 3-7c)
vane-type, double design (para 3-7d)
vane-type, unbalanced design (para 3-7b)
variable-displacement (para 3-3b)
R
relay (para 7-2b(3))
replacing hose (para 2-10c)
reservoir (para 2-3), (para 6-2a)
construction of (para 2-3a)
location of (para 2-3d)
shape of (para 2-3b)
size of (para 2-3c)
ventilation and pressurization of (para 2-3e)
reservoirs
line connections for (para 2-3f)
maintenance of (para 2-3g)
resistance (para 3-2), (para 5-1c)
revolution(s) per minute (rpm) (para 2-1d(2))
rings
backup (para 2-12b(2))
piston (para 2-12b(7))
rotors (para 3-8a(4))
rpm. See revolution(s) per minute (rpm)
S
seals (para 2-12), (para 4-2), (para 4-3)
cup (para 2-12b(6))
dynamic (para 2-12b)
face (para 2-12b(8))
lathe-cut (para 2-12b(3))
leather (para 2-12d(1))
lip (para 2-12b(5))
materials (para 2-12d)
neoprene (para 2-12d(4))
nitrile (para 2-12d(2))
nylon (para 2-12d(5))
silicone (para 2-12d(3))
static (para 2-12a)
T-ring (para 2-12b(4))
seizing in connectors (para 2-10a)
sleeve (para 2-10b)
slippage (para 3-2)
solenoid coil (para 7-2b(2))
spring tester (para 5-5b)
strainer (para 2-4a)
swash plate (para 3-8b(1)), (para 3-8b(1)(a)), (para 4-4c(1))
symbols
accumulator (para 6-2i)
cooler (para 6-2i)
cylinder (para 6-2e)
cylinder, cushioned (para 6-2e)
cylinder, double-acting (para 6-2e)
cylinder, double-end rod (para 6-2e)
cylinder, single-acting (para 6-2e)
drain line (para 6-2b)
flexible line (para 6-2b)
fluid conditioner (para 6-2i)
graphical, United States of American Standards Institute (USASI) (para 6-2)
hydraulic lines (para 6-2b)
motor (para 6-2d)
pilot line (para 6-2b)
pump (para 6-2c)
reservoir (para 6-2a)
valves, check (para 6-2f(3))
Other titles available online www.govmedia.com
valves, counterbalance (para 6-2f(4)
valves, directional-control (para 6-2h)
valves, flow-control (para 6-2g)
valves, four-way (para 6-2h(2))
valves, mobile directional (para 6-2h(3)
valves, pressure-control (para 6-2f)
valves, pressure-reducing (para 6-2f(5))
valves, relief (para 6-2f(1))
valves, sequence (para 6-2f(2))
valves, unloading (para 6-2h(1))
working line (para 6-2b)
T
testers
hydraulic-circuit (para 2-8a)
testing devices for electical circuits. See potentiometer, solenoid coil, relay, transformer, diode
torque (para 4-4b), (para 4-4c(2))
transformer (para 7-2b(4))
troubleshooting procedures for electrical circuits (para 7-2a)
analyze the symptom (para 7-2a(2))
identify the symptom (para 7-2a(1))
isolate the faulty circuit (para 7-2a(4))
isolate the single faulty function (para 7-2a(3))
locate/verify the cause of the malfunction (para 7-2a(5))
tube installation (para 2-9d)
tube maintenance (para 2-9d)
U
USASI. See symbols
graphical, United States of American Standards Institute (USASI)
V
valves (para 2-1a)
assembly of (para 5-6)
check (para 5-2c)
check, elements of (para 5-2c)
check, orifice (para 5-3e)
check, pilot-operated (para 5-2c(3))
check, pilot-operated-type (para 5-2c(3))
check, restriction-type (para 5-2c(2))
check, standard-type (para 5-2c(1))
closed-center spool (para 5-2e(2))
compensated flow for (para 5-4d)
compound-relief-type (para 5-1a(2))
control (para 2-1c(1)), (para 2-1d), (para 2-1d(1))
counterbalance (para 5-1d)
repairing (para 5-5c)
restrictor (para 5-3d)
rotary-spool-type (para 5-2)
seats and poppets (para 5-5c(4))
sequence (para 5-1c)
sequence, application of (para 5-1c)
servicing (para 5-5a)
simple-relief-type (para5-1a(1))
sliding-spool (para 5-2b)
sliding-spool-type (para 5-2)
solenoid-operated two-and four-way (para 5-2e(5))
troubleshooting of (para 5-7)
two-way (para 5-2d)
unloading-type, unloading problem (para 5-7a(4))
variations of flow-control (para 5-3)
volume-control (para 5-5c(2))
volume-control, flow-variation problem (para 5-7c)
volume-control, improper-flow problem (para 5-7c)
volume-control, oil-heating problem (para 5-7c)
volume-control, pressure problem (para 5-7c)
XC-series pressure-reducing (para 5-1b(2))
X-series pressure-reducing (para 5-1b(1))
velocity (para 1-3a), (para 1-4d)
venturi throat (para 2-4b(2))
volumetric output (para 3-2)
W
weight para 1-1a)
water (para 1-1a)
wipers (para 4-2)
work (para 1-4e)
working parts of a pump (para 3-8a)
Y
yoke (para3-8b(1)(c))
FM 5-499
1 AUGUST 1997
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
03710
DISTRIBUTION:
Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve: To be distributed in
accordance with the initial distribution number 115487, requirements for FM 5-499.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Training Solutions
 
 
 
 
 
 
Training Solutions
 
Hydraulics

Training Manual 3

Basic Hydraulic System & Components 
 
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS


Section Page

Subcourse Overview ................................................................................................................... i

Terminal Learning Objective....................................................................................................... ii

Administrative Instructions ......................................................................................................... iv

Grading and Certification Instructions ........................................................................................ iv

Lesson 1: Hydraulic Reservoirs, Filters, Pumps,
Accumulators, and Motors ........................................................................................ 1

Practice Exercise ....................................................................................................... 19

Answer Key and Feedback ....................................................................................... 22

Lesson 2: Basic Construction and Operation of Hydraulic
Actuating Devices, Flow Control, and Directional
Devices....................................................................................................................... 25

Practice Exercise ....................................................................................................... 43

Answer Key and Feedback ....................................................................................... 46

Lesson 3: Hydraulic Pressure-Limiting, Controlling, and
Sensing Devices......................................................................................................... 49

Practice Exercise ....................................................................................................... 55

Answer Key and Feedback ....................................................................................... 58

Examination ................................................................................................................................ 61

Appendix: Glossary ..................................................................................................................... 69

Student Inquiry Sheets







iii AL0926

GRADING AND CERTIFICATION INSTRUCTIONS

Examination: This subcourse contains a multiple-choice examination covering the material contained in
this subcourse. After studying the lessons and working through the practice exercises, complete the
examination. Mark your answers in the subcourse booklet, then transfer them to the ACCP Examination
Response Sheet. Completely black out the lettered oval which corresponds to your selection (A, B, C,
or D). Use a number 2 lead pencil to mark your responses. When you complete the ACCP examination
response sheet, mail it in the preaddressed envelope you received with this subcourse. You will receive
an examination score in the mail. You will receive Four credit hours for successful completion of this
examination.





































iv AL0926

LESSON 1

HYDRAULIC RESERVOIRS, FILTERS, PUMPS, ACCUMULATORS, AND MOTORS


STP Tasks: 552-758-1063
552-758-1071



OVERVIEW


LESSON DESCRIPTION:

In this lesson you will learn the basic operation of the hydraulic reservoirs, filters, pumps, accumulators,
and motors.

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:

ACTION: After this lesson you will demonstrate knowledge of hydraulic reservoirs, filters,
pumps, accumulators, and motors.

CONDITIONS: You will study the material in this lesson in a classroom environment or at your
home.

STANDARD: You will correctly answer all the questions in the practice exercise before you
proceed to the next lesson.

REFERENCES: The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications:
AR 310-25, AR 310-50, FM 1-500, FM 1-509, TM 1-1500-204-23 Series, TM 55-
1510-Series (Fixed Wing Maintenance Manuals), TM 55-1520-Series (Rotary wing
Maintenance Manuals) and TM 4301A 05 0267 (Air Force)














1 AL0926

INTRODUCTION

A means of storing hydraulic fluid and minimizing contamination is necessary to any aircraft hydraulic
system. These functions are performed by reservoirs and filters. The component which causes fluid
flow in a hydraulic system--the heart of any hydraulic system--can be a hand pump, power-driven pump,
accumulator, or any combination of the three. Finally, a means of converting hydraulic pressure to
mechanical rotation is sometimes necessary, and this is accomplished by a hydraulic motor.

HYDRAULIC RESERVOIRS

The hydraulic reservoir is a container for holding the fluid required to supply the system, including a
reserve to cover any losses from minor leakage and evaporation. The reservoir can be designed to
provide space for fluid expansion, permit air entrained in the fluid to escape, and to help cool the fluid.
Figure 1-1 shows two typical reservoirs. Compare the two reservoirs item by item and, except for the
filters and bypass valve, notice the similarities.

Filling reservoirs to the top during servicing leaves no space for expansion. Most reservoirs are
designed with the rim at the filler neck below the top of the reservoir to prevent overfilling. Some
means of checking the fluid level is usually provided on a reservoir. This may be a glass or plastic sight
gage, a tube, or a dipstick. Hydraulic reservoirs are either vented to the atmosphere or closed to the
atmosphere and pressurized. A description of each type follows.

Vented Reservoir. A vented reservoir is one that is open to atmospheric pressure through a vent line.
Because atmospheric pressure and gravity are the forces which cause the fluid to flow to the pump, a
vented reservoir is mounted at the highest point in the hydraulic system. Air is drawn into and
exhausted from the reservoir through a vent line. A filter is usually installed in the vent line to prevent
foreign material from being taken into the system.

Pressurized Reservoir. A pressurized reservoir is sealed from the atmosphere. This reservoir is
pressurized either by engine bleed air or by hydraulic pressure produced within the hydraulic system
itself. Pressurized reservoirs are used on aircraft intended for high altitude flight, where atmospheric
pressure is not enough to cause fluid flow to the pump.

In reservoirs pressurized by engine bleed air, the amount of air pressure is determined by an air
pressure regulator--usually 10 to 15 pounds per square inch (psi) gage. An example of a












2 AL0926

hydraulically pressurized reservoir used in the CH-47 hydraulic system is shown in Figure 1-2.

This reservoir, or tank as it is referred to by Boeing-Vertol, is constructed of a metal housing with
two internal pistons, one fixed and the other a floating piston which slides along a central tube.
Attached to the floating piston is a larger tube that projects through the forward end of the tank and is
calibrated to indicate FULL and REFILL fluid levels for ramp-up and ramp-down positions.


Figure 1-1. Typical Hydraulic Reservoirs.

Hydraulic fluid at 3,000 psi flows into the central tube as shown in Figure 1-2, passes through two
outlet holes, and applies pressure at the piston area between the two tubes. Because the smaller piston
has a .5-square-inch (sq in) exposed surface and the floating piston has a 30-sq-in exposed surface, the
3,000-psi pressure acting upon the smaller forward area produces an opposing pressure of 50 psi on the
return fluid stored at the rear of the piston.







3 AL0926

Additional Reservoir Components. Many reservoirs, as shown in Figure 1-1, are constructed with
baffles or fins to keep the fluid from swirling and foaming. Foaming can cause air to become entrained
in the system.

Filters are incorporated in some reservoirs to filter the fluid before it leaves the reservoir.

A bypass valve is used to ensure that the pump does not starve if the filter becomes clogged.

A standpipe is used in a reservoir which supplies a normal and an emergency system. The main
system draws its fluid from the standpipe, which is located at a higher elevation. This ensures an
adequate fluid supply to the secondary system if the main system fails.


Figure 1-2. Hydraulic Reservoir Pressurized With Hydraulic Fluid.

HYDRAULIC FILTER

Contamination of hydraulic fluid is one of the common causes of hydraulic system troubles. Installing
filter units in the pressure and return lines of a hydraulic system allows




4 AL0926

contamination to be removed from the fluid before it reaches the various operating components. Filters
of this type are referred to as line filters.

Line Filter Construction. A typical line filter is shown in Figure 1-3. It has two major parts--the
filter case, or bowl, and the filter head. The bowl holds the head that screws into it. The head has an
inlet port, outlet port, and relief valve. Normal fluid flow is through the inlet port, around the outside of
the element, through the element to the inner chamber, and out through the outlet port. The bypass
valve lets the fluid bypass the filter element if it becomes clogged.


Figure 1-3. Typical Line Filter Assembly.

Types of Filter Elements. The most common filtering element used on Army aircraft is the micronic
type. It is a disposable unit made of treated cellulose and is formed into accordion pleats, as shown in
Figure 1-3. Most filter elements are



5 AL0926

capable of removing all contaminants larger than 10 to 25 microns (1 micron equals 0.00004 inch).

Another type is the cuno filter element. It has a stack of closely spaced disks shaped like spoked
wheels. The hydraulic fluid is filtered as it passes between the disks.

HAND-OPERATED HYDRAULIC PUMP

The heart of any hydraulic system is the pump which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.
The source of mechanical energy may be an electric motor, the engine, or the operator's muscle.

Pumps powered by muscle are called hand pumps. They are used in emergencies as backups for power
pumps and for ground checks of the hydraulic system. The double-action hand pump produces fluid
flow with every stroke and is the only type used on Army aircraft.

Handle to the Right. The double-action hand pump, shown in Figure 1-4, consists of a cylinder
piston with built-in check valve, piston rod, operating handle, and a check valve built into the inlet port.
As the handle is moved to the right, the piston and rod also move to the right. On this stroke, the inlet
check valve opens as a result of the partial vacuum caused by the movement of the piston, allowing fluid
to be drawn into the left chamber. At the same time, the inner check valve closes. As the piston moves
to the right, the fluid in the right chamber is forced out into the system.


Figure 1-4. Double-Action Hand Pump.








6 AL0926

Handle to the Left. When the handle is moved to the left, the piston and rod assembly also move to
the left. The inlet check valve now closes, preventing the fluid in the left chamber from returning to the
reservoir. At the same time, the pistonhead check valve opens, allowing the fluid to enter the right
chamber.

Fluid Into the System. The pump produces pressure on both strokes because of the difference in
volume between the right and left chambers. The piston rod takes up a good share of the space in the
right chamber. Therefore, the excess fluid is forced out of the pump and into the hydraulic system,
creating fluid pressure.

PUMP-DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMPS

Power-driven pumps receive their driving force from an external power source, such as the aircraft
engine. This force is converted into energy in the form of fluid pressure. The four basic types of power-
driven hydraulic pumps are gear, vane, diaphragm, and piston. Of these, the piston type is most
commonly found in Army aircraft. The reason for this is that it operates more efficiently at higher
pressures and has a longer life than any of the others. Piston pumps are further categorized as either
constant delivery or variable delivery.

Pumps are coupled to their driving units by a short, splined coupling shaft, commonly called a drive
coupling. As shown in Figure 1-5, the shaft is designed with a weakened center section called a shear
section, with just enough strength to run the pump under normal circumstances. Should some trouble
develop within the pump causing it to turn unusually hard, the shear section will break. This prevents
damage to the pump or driving unit.


Figure 1-5. Pump Drive Coupling.

Constant-delivery piston pumps deliver a given quantity of fluid per revolution of the drive coupling,
regardless of pressure demands. The quantity of fluid delivered per minute depends on








7 AL0926

pump revolutions per minute (rpm). In a system requiring constant pressure, this type of pump must be
used with a pressure regulator. The two types of constant-delivery piston pumps used in Army aircraft
are the angular and cam.

Angular Piston Pump Construction. The basic components of an angular piston pump are shown in
Figure 1-6. They are--

• (1) A rotating group consisting of a coupling shaft, universal link, connecting rods, pistons,
and cylinder block.

• (2) A stationary group consisting of the valve plate and the pump case or housing.

The cylinder bores lie parallel to, and are evenly spaced around, the pump axis. For this reason, a
piston pump is often referred to as an axial piston pump.

Packings on seals are not required to control piston-to-bore leakage. This is controlled entirely by
close machining and accurate fit between piston and bore. The clearance is only enough to allow for
lubrication by the hydraulic fluid and slight expansion when the parts become heated. Pistons are
individually fitted to their bores during manufacture and must not be changed from pump to pump or
bore to bore.

Pump Operation. As the coupling shaft is turned by the pump power source, the pistons and cylinder
block turn along with it because they are interconnected. The angle that exists between the cylinder
block and coupling shaft causes the pistons to move back and forth in their respective cylinder bores as
the coupling is turned:

• During the first half of a revolution of the pump, a cylinder is aligned with the inlet port in
the valve plate. At this time the piston is moving away from the valve plate and drawing
hydraulic fluid into the cylinder. During the second half of the revolution, the cylinder is
lining up with the outlet port in the valve plate. At this time, the piston is moving toward the
valve plate, thus causing fluid previously drawn into the cylinder to be forced out through the
outlet port.

• Fluid is constantly being drawn into and expelled out of the pump as it turns. This provides a
multiple overlap of the individual spurts of fluid forced from the cylinders and results in
delivery of a smooth, nonpulsating flow of fluid from the pump.











8 AL0926

Cam-Piston Pumps. A cam is used to cause the stroking of the pistons in a cam-piston pump. Two
variations are used: in one the cam rotates and the cylinder block is stationary, and in the other the cam
is stationary and the cylinder block rotates. Both cam-piston pumps are described below:


Figure 1-6. Typical Angular Piston Pump.

• Rotating-cam pump. The rotating-cam pump is the one most commonly used in Army
aviation. As the cam turns in a rotating-cam pump (Figure 1-7), its high and low points pass
alternately and in turn under each


9 AL0926

piston. It pushes the piston further into its bore, causing fluid to be expelled from the bore. When the
falling face of the cam comes under a piston, the piston's return spring pulls the piston down in its bore.
This causes fluid to be drawn into the bore.

Each bore has a check valve that opens to allow fluid to be expelled from the bore by the piston's
movement. These valves are closed by spring pressure during inlet strokes of the pistons. This fluid is
drawn into the bores only through the central inlet passages. The bores only through the central inlet
passages. The movement of the pistons in drawing in and expelling fluid is overlapping, resulting in a
nonpulsating fluid flow.


Figure 1-7. Typical Rotating-Cam Piston Pump.

• Stationary-cam pump. The operation and construction of a stationary-cam pump are
identical to that of the rotating cam except that the cylinder block turns, not the cam. The
stationary-cam pump is not used on the Army's OV-1, AH-1G, and UH-1C.








10 AL0926

VARIABLE-DELIVERY PISTON PUMPS

A variable-delivery piston pump automatically and instantly varies the amount of fluid delivered to the
pressure circuit of a hydraulic system to meet varying system demands. This is accomplished by using a
compensator, which is an integral part of the pump. The compensator is sensitive to the amount of
pressure present in the pump and in the hydraulic system pressure circuit. When the circuit pressure
rises, the compensator causes the pump output to decrease.

Conversely, when circuit pressure drops, the compensator causes pump output to increase. There are
two ways of varying output--demand principle (cam) and stroke-reduction principle (angular).

Demand Principle. The demand principle (Figure 1-8) is based on varying pump output to fill the
system's changing demands by making the piston stroke effective in varying degrees.


Figure 1-8. Variable-Delivery Demand-Principle Cam Pump.







11 AL0926

The pistons are designed with large hollow centers. The centers are intersected by cross-drilled
relief holes that open into the pump case. Each piston is equipped with a movable sleeve, which can
block the relief holes. When these holes are not blocked, fluid displaced by the pistons is discharged
through the relief holes into the pump case, instead of past the pump check valves and out the outlet
port.

When full fluid flow is required, the sleeves are positioned to block the relief holes for the entire
length of piston stroke. When zero flow is required, the sleeves are positioned not to block the flow
during any portion of the piston stroke. For requirements between zero and full flow, the relief holes are
uncovered or blocked accordingly.

The sleeves are moved into their required positions by a device called a pump compensator piston.
The sleeves and compensator piston are interconnected by means of a spider. Fluid pressure for the
compensator piston is obtained from the discharge port (system pressure) through a control orifice.

Stroke-Reduction Principle. The stroke-reduction principle (Figure 1-9) is based on varying the
angle of the cylinder block in an angular pump. This controls the length of the piston's stroke and thus
the volume per stroke.

The cylinder block angle change is achieved by using a yoke that swivels around a pivot pin called a
pintle. The angle is automatically controlled by using a compensator assembly consisting of a pressure-
control valve, pressure-control piston, and mechanical linkage that is connected to the yoke.

As system pressure increases, the pilot valve opens a passageway allowing fluid to act on the control
piston. The piston moves, compressing its spring, and through mechanical linkage moves the yoke
toward the zero flow (zero angle) position. As system pressure decreases, the pressure is relieved on the
piston, and its spring moves the pump into the full flow position.

HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS

The purpose of a hydraulic accumulator is to store hydraulic fluid under pressure. It may be used to--:

• Dampen hydraulic shocks which may develop when pressure surges occur in hydraulic systems.

• Add to the output of a pump during peak load operation of the system, making it possible to use
a pump of much smaller capacity than would otherwise be required.











12 AL0926

• Absorb the increases in fluid volume caused by increases in temperature.

• Act as a source of fluid pressure for starting aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs).

• Assist in emergency operations.


Figure 1-9. Variable Stroke-Reduction Pump.


13 AL0926

Accumulators are divided into types according to the means used to separate the air fluid chambers;
these are the diaphragm, bladder, and piston accumulators.

Diaphragm Accumulator. The diaphragm accumulator consists of two hollow, hemispherical metal
sections bolted together at the center. Notice in Figure 1-10 that one of the halves has a fitting to attach
the unit to the hydraulic system; the other half is equipped with an air valve for charging the unit with
compressed air or nitrogen. Mounted between the two halves is a synthetic rubber diaphragm that
divides the accumulator into two sections. The accumulator is initially charged with air through the air
valve to a pressure of approximately 50 percent of the hydraulic system pressure. This initial air charge
forces the diaphragm upward against the inner surface of the upper section of the accumulator.


Figure 1-10. Diaphragm Accumulator.

When fluid pressure increases above the initial air charge, fluid is forced into the upper chamber
through the system





14 AL0926

pressure port, pushing the diaphragm down and further compressing the air in the bottom chamber.
Under peak load, the air pressure in the lower chamber forces fluid back into the hydraulic system to
maintain operating pressure. Also, if the power pump fails, the compressed air forces a limited amount
of pressurized fluid into the system.

Bladder Accumulator. The bladder accumulator operates on the same principle and for the same
purpose as the diaphragm accumulator but varies in construction, as shown in Figure 1-11. The unit is a
one-piece metal sphere with a fluid pressure inlet at the top and an opening at the bottom for inserting
the bladder. A large screw-type plug at the bottom of the accumulator is a retainer for the bladder that
also seals the unit. A high-pressure air valve is also incorporated in the retainer plug. Fluid enters
through the system pressure port. As fluid pressure increases above the initial air charge of the
accumulator, it forces the bladder downward against the air


Figure 1-11. Bladder Accumulator.




15 AL0926

charge, filling the upper chamber with fluid pressure. The broken lines in Figure 1-11 indicate the
approximate position of the bladder at the time of the initial air charge.

Piston Accumulator. The piston accumulator serves the same purpose and operates by the same
principles as do the diaphragm and bladder accumulators. As shown in Figure 1-12, the unit consists of
a cylinder and piston assembly with ports on each end. Fluid pressure from the system enters the left
port, forcing the piston down against the initial air charge in the right chamber of the cylinder. A high-
pressure air valve is located at the right port for charging the unit. A drilled passage from the fluid side
of the piston to the outside of the piston provides lubrication between the cylinder walls and the piston.


Figure 1-12. Piston Accumulator.

HYDRAULIC MOTORS

Hydraulic motors are installed in hydraulic systems to use hydraulic pressure in obtaining powered
rotation. A hydraulic motor does just the opposite of what a power-driven pump does. A pump receives
rotative force from an engine or other driving unit and converts it into hydraulic pressure. A hydraulic
motor receives hydraulic fluid pressure and converts it into rotative force.

Figure 1-13 shows a typical hydraulic motor. The two main ports through which fluid pressure is
received and return fluid is discharged are marked A and B, respectively. The motor has a cylinder
block-and-piston assembly in which the bores and pistons are in axial arrangement, the same as in a
hydraulic pump. Hydraulic motors can be instantly started, stopped, or reversed under any degree of
load; they can be stalled by










16 AL0926

overload without damage. The direction of rotation of a hydraulic motor can be changed by reversing
the flow of fluid into the ports of the motor.


Figure 1-13. Typical Hydraulic Motor.

SUMMARY

The basic components of any hydraulic system are reservoirs, filters, and pumps (hand or power-driven).
The reservoir holds the fluid supply for the system and helps cool the fluid. Filters are used to ensure
that no contamination reaches the components in a hydraulic system. The pleated micronic filter is the
most common.

The pump converts mechanical energy to fluid flow. The most common power-driven pump is the
piston pump. In all but the simplest hydraulic systems, variable-delivery pumps are used. A variable-
delivery pump delivers only the amount of fluid demanded by the system. This is accomplished through
the use of a compensator.

Depending on the type of aircraft, hydraulic accumulators and hydraulic motors can also be found in the
system. Accumulators are used primarily to supply pressure for starting auxiliary power units and
emergency hydraulic pressure. Hydraulic motors perform a variety of functions, including raising and
lowering cargo doors, operating rescue hoists, and positioning wing flaps.









17 AL0926






















THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

























18 AL0926

LESSON 1

PRACTICE EXERCISE

The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct
answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key
that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the
portion involved.

1. The pistons and cylinder block rotate at what RPM?

___ A. The same.
___ B. 500 RPM.
___ C. 750 RPM.
___ D. 1500 RPM.

2. How many types of hydraulic reservoirs are there?

___ A. One.
___ B. Two.
___ C. Three.
___ D. Four.

3. The stationary-cam pump is NOT used on what three Army aircraft?

___ A. UH-1H, AH-1S, and OV-1B.
___ B. UH-1D, AH-1H, and OV-1.
___ C. OV-1A, AH-1G, and UH-1E.
___ D. OV-1, AH-1G, and UH-1C.

4. What type of pump is often used in Army aviation?

___ A. Piston pump.
___ B. Rotating-cam pump.
___ C. Demand-principle compensator pump.
___ D. Rotating-compensator pump.

5. What is used to control piston-to-bore leakage in piston pumps?

___ A. Wiper rings.
___ B. O-rings.
___ C. Seals.
___ D. Close machining.




19 AL0926






















THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

























20 AL0926

6. What type hydraulic pump would you most likely find on an Army AH-1?

___ A. Compensator pump.
___ B. Drive pump.
___ C. Piston pump.
___ D. Auxiliary pump.

7. The angular pump uses what type of compensator?

___ A. Stroke-reduction.
___ B. Reduction-stroke.
___ C. Cam-reduction.
___ D. Piston-reduction.

8. What component in a hydraulic system protects against pressure surges?

___ A. Double-check valve.
___ B. Stationary-cam pump.
___ C. Accumulator.
___ D. Hand-operated pump.

9. What type of pump has a check valve built into the piston?

___ A. Double-action hand pump.
___ B. Single-action hand pump.
___ C. Single-action cam pump.
___ D. Double-action cam pump.

10. What valve opens as the handle is moved to the right?

___ A. Double check valve.
___ B. Single check valve.
___ C. Outlet check valve.
___ D. Inlet check valve.













21 AL0926

LESSON 1

PRACTICE EXERCISE

ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK


Item Correct Answer and Feedback

1. A. The same RPM.

Both operate alike because they are connected. (Page 8)

2. B. 2.

The two types of reservoirs are classified as vented and pressurized. (Page 2)

3. D. OV-l, AH-1G, and UH-1C.

All Army aircraft do not have the stationary-cam pump as an operating component. (Page
10)

4. B. Rotating-cam pump.

More Army aircraft use the rotating-cam pump than any type. (Page 9)

5. D. Close machining.

The piston and bore fit so closely that no other component is necessary to stop leakage.
(Page 8)

6. C. Piston pump.

The Army has selected the most efficient, longest-lasting hydraulic pump to be used on its
aircraft. (Page 7)

7. A. Stroke-reduction principle.

The length of the stroke can be controlled by angling the cylinder block. (Page 12)

8. C. Accumulator.

The accumulator can absorb increases in fluid volume to prevent damage to the system.
(Page 12)



22 AL0926

9. A. Double-action hand pump.

The double-action hand pump has two check valves which allow fluid to be drawn into the
left and right chambers. (Page 6)

10. D. Inlet check valve.

Moving the handle to the right results in a slight vacuum, which opens the inlet check valve
as a result of the partial vacuum caused by the movement of the piston, allowing fluid to be
drawn into the left chamber. (Page 6)





































23 AL0926






















THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

























24 AL0926

LESSON 2

BASIC CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC
ACTUATING DEVICES, FLOW CONTROL, AND DIRECTIONAL DEVICES


STP Tasks: 552-758-1003
552-758-1071


OVERVIEW


LESSON DESCRIPTION:

In this lesson you will learn the basic construction and operation of hydraulic actuating devices, flow
control, and directional devices.

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:

ACTION: After this lesson you will demonstrate a knowledge of the basic construction and
operation of hydraulic actuating devices, flow control, and directional devices.

CONDITIONS: You will study the material in this lesson in a classroom environment or at home.

STANDARD: You will correctly answer all the questions in the practice exercise before you
proceed to the next lesson.

REFERENCES: The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications:
AR 310-25, AR 310-50, FM 1-500, FM 1-509, TM 1-1500-204-23 Series, TM 55-
1510-Series, TM 55-1520-Series and TM 4301A 05 0267 (Airforce).


INTRODUCTION


So that fluid pressure produced by a pump can be used to move some object, the pressure must be
converted to usable forces by









25 AL0926

means of an actuating unit. A device called an actuating cylinder is used to impart powered straight-line
motion to a mechanism.

Hydraulic systems must also have devices to control or direct the fluid pressure to the various
components. Such devices include selector valves, check valves, ratchet valves, irreversible valves,
sequence valves, and priority valves. Each is described in the paragraphs that follow.

ACTUATING CYLINDERS

A basic actuating cylinder consists of a cylinder housing, one or more pistons and piston rods, and one
or more seals. The cylinder housing contains a polished bore in which the piston operates and one or
more ports through which fluid enters and leaves the bore. The piston and rod form an assembly which
moves forward and backward within the cylinder bore. The piston rod moves into and out of the
cylinder housing through an opening in one or both ends. The seals are used to prevent leakage between
the piston and cylinder bore, and between the piston rod and housing. The two major types of actuating
cylinders are single-action and double-action.

Single-Action Actuating Cylinder. The single-action actuating cylinder, shown in Figure 2-1,
consists of a cylinder housing with one fluid port, a piston and rod assembly, a piston return spring, and
seals.

When no pressure is applied to the piston, the return spring holds it and the rod assembly in the
retracted position. When hydraulic pressure is applied to the inlet port, the piston, sealed to the cylinder
wall by an O-ring, does not allow the fluid to pass. This causes the piston to extend.

As the piston and rod extend, the return spring compresses. A vent on the spring side of the piston
allows air to escape. When pressure is relieved, the return spring forces the piston to retract, pushing the
fluid out of the cylinder. A wiper in the housing keeps the piston rod clean.

The cylinder can be pressure-operated in one direction only. A three-way control valve is normally
used to control cylinder operation.

Double-Action Actuating Cylinder. The double-action actuating cylinder consists of a cylinder with
a port at either end and a piston and rod assembly extending through one end of the cylinder (Figure 2-
2).












26 AL0926

Pressure applied at port A causes the piston to extend, forcing the fluid on the opposite side of the
piston out of port B. When pressure is applied to port B, the piston and rod retract, forcing the fluid in
the opposite chamber out through port A.


Figure 2-1. Single-Action Actuating Cylinder.

This type of cylinder is powered in both directions by hydraulic pressure. A selector valve is
normally used to control a double-action actuating cylinder. Selector valves are discussed in the next
paragraph.


Figure 2-2. Double-Action Actuating Cylinder.

SELECTOR VALVES

Used in hydraulic systems to control the direction of operation of a mechanism, selector valves are also
referred to as directional control valves or control valves. They provide pathways for the simultaneous
flow of two streams of fluid, one under pressure into the actuating unit, and the other, a return stream,
out of the actuating unit. The selector valves have




27 AL0926

various numbers of ports determined by the requirements of the system in which the valve is used.
Selector valves with four ports are the most commonly used; they are referred to as four-way valves.
Selector valves are further classified as closed-center or open-center types.

Closed-Center Selector Valve. When a closed-center selector valve is placed in the the OFF
position, its pressure passage is blocked to the flow of fluid. Therefore, no fluid can flow through its
pressure port, and the hydraulic system stays at operating pressure at all times. The four-way, closed-
center selector valve is the most commonly used selector valve in aircraft hydraulics. There are two
types:

• The rotor-type, closed-center selector valve is shown in Figure 2-3. It has a rotor as its valving
device. The rotor is a thick circular disk with drilled fluid passages. It is placed in its various
operating positions by relative movement of the valve control handle. In the OFF position, the
rotor is positioned to close all ports. In the first ON position, the rotor interconnects the pressure
port with the number 1 cylinder port. The number 2 cylinder port is open to return. In the
second ON position the reverse takes place.

• The spool-type, closed-center selector valve, is shown in Figure 2-4. This valve has a housing
containing four ports and a spool (pilot valve). The spool is made from a round shaft having
machined sections forming spaces to allow hydraulic fluid to pass. A drilled passage in the spool
interconnects the two end chambers of the selector valve. The large diameters of the spool are
the bearing and sealing surfaces and are called "lands" (see Glossary). In operation, the spool
valve is identical to the rotor type.
























28 AL0926


Figure 2-3. Typical Rotor Closed-Center Selector Valve.

29 AL0926


Figure 2-4. Typical Spool Closed-Center Selector Valve.

Open-Center Selector Valve. In external appearance, the open-center selector valve looks like the
closed-center one. Like closed-center valves, open-center selector valves have four ports and operate in
one OFF and two ON



30 AL0926

positions. The difference between the closed-center and open-center valves is in the OFF position. In
the closed-center valve none of the ports are open to each other in the OFF position. In the open-center
valve, the pressure and return ports are open to each other when the valve is OFF. In this position, the
output of the system pump is returned through the selector valve to the reservoir with little resistance.
Hence, in an open-center system, operating pressure is present only when the actuating unit is being
operated.

An open-center, rotor-type selector valve is shown in Figure 2-5. As you can see, when the valve is
in the OFF position, fluid from the pump enters the pressure port, passes through the open center
passage in the rotor, and back to the reservoir. When the valve is in either of the two ON positions, it
functions the same as a closed-center valve.


Figure 2-5. Typical Open-Center Rotor Selector Valve.

An open-center, spool-type selector valve is shown in Figure 2-6. Notice that this valve differs from
the closed-center type in that a third land is machined on the spool. This land is used to cover the
pressure port when the valve is in the OFF position. It provides an inter-passage in the spool which
allows fluid from the pump to return to the reservoir. Operation in both of the ON positions is the same
as the closed-center selector valve.











31 AL0926


Figure 2-6. Typical Open-Center Spool Selector Valve.

Hydraulic systems are classified as open-center or closed-center depending upon the type of selector
valves used. In an open-

32 AL0926

center system that has more than one selector valve, the valves are arranged one behind the other (in
series).

In a closed-center system, the valves are arranged parallel to each other. An open-center system has
fluid flow but no pressure in the system when the selector valve is off.

In a closed-center system, fluid is under pressure throughout the system when the hydraulic pump is
operating. Both systems are discussed in the paragraphs that follow.

Open-Center System. Figure 2-7 shows a basic open-center hydraulic system which uses a relief
valve to limit system pressure. As was mentioned earlier, this type of system


Figure 2-7. Basic Open-Center Hydraulic System.

33 AL0926

has fluid flow but no pressure until some hydraulic device is operated. When the selector valves are
OFF, fluid flows from the reservoir to the pump through the open-center passage of each valve, then
back to the reservoir. No restrictions exist in the system; therefore, no pressure is present. When one
valve is placed in the operating position, a restriction is created by the device the valve controls. Fluid
then flows under pressure to that hydraulic device.

Closed-Center System. Figure 2-8 shows a basic closed-center system. Fluid is under pressure
throughout a closed-center system when the pump is operating. When the selector valves are in the OFF
position, fluid cannot flow through the closed centers. This causes pressure to build in the system; it is
available at any time a selector valve is turned on. A relief valve is used to keep system pressure from
going above a predetermined amount when all valves are off.


Figure 2-8. Basic Closed-Center System.





34 AL0926

HYDRAULIC SERVO

A servo is a combination of a selector valve and an actuating cylinder in a single unit. When the pilot
valve of a servo is opened by the operator, it is automatically closed by movement of the servo (or
actuating) unit as explained below. Hydraulic servos are used in aircraft when precise control is
necessary over the distance a component moves.

Typical Hydraulic Servo. Figure 2-9 shows a typical hydraulic servo. In operation, when the pilot
valve is displaced from center, pressure is directed to one chamber of the power piston. The other
chamber is open to return flow. As the power piston travels the pilot valve housing travels because the
two are attached. The pilot valve itself is being held stationary by the operator, and the ports again
become blocked by the lands of the pilot valve stopping the piston when it has moved the required
distance.


Figure 2-9. Hydraulic Servo Incorporating Sloppy Link and Bypass Valve.

Servo Sloppy Link. Notice the servo sloppy link in Figure 2-9. It is the connection point between
the control linkage, pilot valve, and servo piston rod. Its purpose is to permit the servo piston to be
moved either by fluid pressure or manually. The sloppy link provides a limited amount of slack between
connecting linkage and pilot valve. Because of the slack between the piston rod and the connecting
linkage, the pilot valve can be moved to an ON position by the connecting linkage without moving the
piston rod.








35 AL0926

Bypass Valve. A bypass valve is provided to minimize the resistance of the servo piston to
movement when it must be moved manually. The valve opens automatically when there is no operating
pressure on the servo. This allows fluid to flow freely between the chambers on each side of the piston.

IRREVERSIBLE VALVE

During normal aircraft operation, external forces from an aircraft's control surfaces, such as rotor blades
and ailerons, tend to move servo cylinders. This movement creates a pumplike action in the servo called
feedback. The irreversible valve prevents feedback through the servo to the control stick.

Figure 2-10 is a simplified schematic version of an irreversible valve. The broken-line block represents
the housing of the


Figure 2-10. Simplified Irreversible Valve.


36 AL0926

valve. The check valve allows fluid from the pump to flow in the normal direction as shown by the
arrow. Feedback forces tend to move the servo piston opposite to the direction of pump-produced
pressure. This tends to force fluid backward through the irreversible valve. The check valve keeps the
servo piston from yielding to feedback by locking the rear-ward flow of fluid. The relief valve is a
safety device to limit the pressure produced by feedback-induced movement of the servo piston. It
opens to allow fluid to bypass to the return line if the feedback pressure exceeds a predetermined safe
limit.

RATCHET VALVE

A ratchet valve is used with a double-action actuating cylinder to aid in holding a load in the position
where it has been moved. The ratchet valve ensures that there is trapped fluid on each side of the
actuating cylinder piston. This is necessary for the cylinder to lock a load against movement in either
direction.

A typical ratchet valve is shown in Figure 2-11. It consists of a housing with four ports, a polished bore,
two ball check valves and a piston. The piston has extensions on either end to unseat the two ball check
valves. Springs keep these valves on their seats when no pressure is applied to the system.


Figure 2-11. Typical Application of Ratchet Valve.







37 AL0926

Valve Operation With no Pressure. In A, Figure 2-11, the ratchet valve is shown with no pressure
applied. The piston is centered in its bore and both ball check valves are closed. This locks the
actuating cylinder in position by trapping all fluid in the cylinder.

Valve Operation With Pressure Applied. In B, Figure 2-11, the ratchet valve is shown with pressure
applied to port 1. This forces the piston to the right where it unseats ball check valve b. Pressure
entering port 1 also unseats ball check valve a on the left side. Fluid then flows through the ratchet
valve and the piston moves to the right.

CHECK VALVES

A check valve is installed in a hydraulic system to control the direction flow of hydraulic fluid. The
check valve allows free flow of fluid in one direction, but no flow or a restricted one in the other
direction.

There are two general designs in check valves. One has its own housing and is connected to other
components with tubing or hose. Check valves of this design are called in-line check valves. In the
other design, the check valve is part of another component and is called an integral check valve. It will
not be covered because its operation is identical to the in-line check valve. The two types of in-line
check valves, simple and orifice, are described in the following paragraphs.

Simple In-Line Check Valve. As illustrated in Figure 2-12, the simple inline check valve consists of
a casing, inlet and outlet ports, and a ball-and-spring assembly. The ball and spring permit full fluid
flow in one direction and block flow completely in the opposite direction. Fluid pressure forces the ball
off its seat against the spring pressure, permitting fluid flow. When flow stops, the spring forces the ball
against its seat, blocking reverse flow.

Orifice In-Line Check Valve. The orifice check valve shown in Figure 2-13 is used to allow free
flow in one direction and limited flow in the opposite direction. This is accomplished by drilling a
passage in the valve seat connecting the inlet side of the valve to the outlet side.

SEQUENCE VALVE

A sequence valve, shown in Figure 2-14, is placed in a hydraulic system to delay the operation of one
portion of that system until another portion of the same system has functioned. For












38 AL0926

Figure 2-12. Simple In-Line Check Valve.


Figure 2-13. Orifice In-Line Check Valve.

39 AL0926

example, it would be undesirable for the landing gear to retract before the gear compartment doors are
completely open. A sequence valve actuated by the fully open door would allow pressure to enter the
landing gear retract cylinder.

The sequence valve consists of a valve body with two ports, a ball and seal spring-loaded to the closed
position, and a spring-loaded plunger. Compressing the plunger spring off-seats the ball and allows the
passage of fluid to the desired actuator. The typical sequence valve is mechanically operated, or it can
be solenoid-operated by means of microswitches. In either case, the valve is operated at the completion
of one phase of a multiphase hydraulic cycle.


Figure 2-14. Mechanically Actuated Sequence Valve.

PRIORITY VALVE

A priority valve is installed in some hydraulic systems to provide adequate fluid flow to essential units.
The valve is installed in the line between a nonessential actuating unit and its source of pressure. It
permits free, unrestrained flow of fluid to nonessential units as long as system pressure is






40 AL0926

normal. When system pressure drops below normal, the priority valve automatically reduces the flow of
fluid to the nonessential units.

The priority valve (Figure 2-15) resembles a check valve in both external appearance and internal
operation. A spring acts against a hollow piston to maintain contact with a valve seat. With no system
pressure, the priority valve is in the Spring-loaded position, closed. The piston is against the valve seat.
As pressure is applied to the system, fluid passes through the valve seat and also through drilled
passages to act against the face of the piston. With normal flow and pressure, the piston moves against
the spring tension and allows passage of fluid. If pressure decreases, the spring forces the piston to seat,
assuring a supply of fluid for the essential portion of the system.


Figure 2-15. Typical Priority Valve.

SUMMARY

The hydraulic actuating cylinder is used to convert fluid pressure to straight-line motion. The two types
are single-and double-acting.

Selector valves are used with actuating cylinders to control their operation. The typical selector valve
has two ON






41 AL0926

positions to extend and retract the cylinder and one OFF position.

Hydraulic systems are classified as either open-center or closed-center. Open-center systems have only
open-center selector valves and closed-center systems only closed-center valves.

Hydraulic servos are physical combinations of actuators and selector valves. They are used when
precise control of movement is required and normally found in the flight control system of an aircraft.
Irreversible valves are used in line with servos to prevent feedback to the flight controls.

Ratchet valves are locking devices for actuating cylinders; they
hold the cylinders in any desired position.

If full fluid flow in one direction only is required, a simple in-line check valve is used. When full flow
in one direction and restricted flow in the opposite direction is desired, an orifice check valve is used.

When more than one function must be performed in a hydraulic system and a definite order must be
followed, sequence valves are used. Sequence valves ensure that the proper order of operations is
maintained. In a reduction of pressure or fluid flow, certain components can be cut out of the hydraulic
system to ensure an adequate supply of fluid for the essential components, such as flight controls.
Priority valves are used to automatically shut off the supply of fluid to nonessential components.



























42 AL0926

LESSON 2

PRACTICE EXERCISE

The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct
answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key
that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the
portion involved.

1. The piston in a double-action actuating cylinder can--

___ A. retract only.
___ B. extend only.
___ C. retract and extend.
___ D. neither extend nor retract.

2. What type of valve prevents feedback through the servo to the control stick?

___ A. Ratchet valve.
___ B. Spool selector valve.
___ C. Orifice check valve.
___ D. Irreversible valve.

3. What is used to limit system pressure?

___ A. Relief valve.
___ B. Check valve.
___ C. Ratchet valve.
___ D. Selector valve.

4. What type of valve is installed in a closed-center hydraulic system?

___ A. Return valve.
___ B. Check valve.
___ C. Ratchet valve.
___ D. Selector valve.

5. What controls the direction of fluid flow?

___ A. Relief valve.
___ B. Check valve.
___ C. Ratchet valve.
___ D. Selector valve.




43 AL0926






















THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

























44 AL0926

6. What valve resembles a check valve in appearance and operation?

___ A. Selector valve.
___ B. Priority valve.
___ C. Sequence valve.
___ D. Ratchet valve.

7. What is used to prevent leakage in the single-action actuating cylinder?

___ A. Polished bore.
___ B. Close-tolerance machining.
___ C. Wiper rings.
___ D. Seals.

8. What holds the piston in the retracted position in a single-action actuating cylinder?

___ A. Fluid pressure.
___ B. Static pressure.
___ C. Spring pressure.
___ D. Return pressure.

9. What is used with double-action cylinders to hold loads?

___ A. Relief valve.
___ B. Check valve.
___ C. Ratchet valve.
___ D. Selector valve.

10. What permits limited flow in one direction and full flow in the other direction?

___ A. Sequence valve.
___ B. Selector valve.
___ C. Orifice check valve.
___ D. Priority valve.













45 AL0926

LESSON 2

PRACTICE EXERCISE

ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

Item Correct Answer and Feedback

1. C. Retract and extend.

The piston of a double-action actuating cylinder can move in either direction, depending on
which of the two ports has pressure applied. (Page 27)

2. D. Irreversible valve.

The irreversible valve prevents the shock and vibration of the rotor blades from feeding
back to the pilot's hands through the control stick. (Page 36)

3. A. Relief valve.

A relief valve does just what the name implies. It releases pressure at a predetermined
pressure level. (Page 33)

4. D. Selector valve.

The selector valve determines the flow of fluid. (Page 34)

5. B. Check valve.

A check valve basically allows fluid to flow only in one direction. When fluid flow tries to
reverse its direction, the reverse direction of fluid pushes a ball against its seat and shuts off
any reverse fluid flow. (Page 38)

6. B. Priority valve.

Allows flow of fluid to nonessential parts as long as the pressure remains normal. As soon
as there is a pressure drop, it immediately reduces pressure to any nonessential
components. (Page 41)









46 AL0926

7. D. Seals.

Seals are used to prevent leakage in fluid-operated components. (Page 26)

8. C. Spring pressure.

The spring prevents the piston from moving until an overriding fluid force is applied
against it. (Page 26)

9. C. Ratchet valve.

This valve allows enough trapped fluid on both sides of the piston to lock a load against
movement in either direction. (Page 37)

10. C. Orifice check valve.

A small passage is formed in the valve seat which connects the inlet side to the outlet side.
When fluid tries to reverse the flow, the ball closes against the seat and only a small portion
is allowed to flow through the small passage. (Page 38)




























47 AL0926






















THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

























48 AL0926

LESSON 3

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE-LIMITING, CONTROLLING, AND SENSING DEVICES

STP Tasks: 552-758-1003
552-758-1006
552-758-1071


OVERVIEW


LESSON DESCRIPTION:

In this lesson you will learn the basic construction and operation of hydraulic pressure-limiting,
controlling, and sensing devices.

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:

ACTION: After this lesson unit you will demonstrate knowledge of the basic construction and
operation of hydraulic controlling, pressure-limiting, and sensing devices.

CONDITIONS: You will study the material in this lesson in a classroom environment or at home.

STANDARD: You will correctly answer all the questions in the practice exercise before you
proceed to the subcourse examination.

REFERENCES: The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications.
AR 310-25, AR 310-50, FM 1-500, FM 1-509, TM 1-1500-204-23 Series, TM 55-
1510-Series, TM 55-1520-Series, and TM 4301A 05 0267 (Airforce).


INTRODUCTION

The hydraulic systems in modern Army aircraft operate at pressures up to 3,000 psi. These systems
must be protected against excessively high pressure that can cause seals and lines to fail. Pressure relief
valves are used to keep system pressure from exceeding a predetermined safe limit.

A complex hydraulic system can use any number of components: actuators, servos, irreversible valves,
selector valves, check valves, accumulators, hydraulic motors, etc. Each of these various components in
one hydraulic system can operate most efficiently at a different pressure. In systems having a single
hydraulic pump, pressure reducers are used to vary operating pressures to the different components.





49 AL0926

If hydraulic pressure becomes too low for safe operation, a hydraulic pressure switch can be used to
close an electrical circuit. This actuates a warning light in the cockpit or turns on a secondary system, or
does both.

In this chapter you will learn of the devices used to limit, control, and sense hydraulic pressure.

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES

A relief valve is installed in any system containing a confined liquid subject to pressure. The use of
relief valves falls into one or more of three categories:

• In the first category, a relief valve is used to protect a hydraulic system if the pump compensator
fails. The relief valve is adjusted to open at a pressure slightly higher than normal system
operating pressure.

• In the second category, a relief valve is used to protect a system subject to pressure increases
caused by thermal expansion.

• In the third category, a relief valve is used as the sole means of pressure control in a hydraulic
system.

Relief Valves. The configurations for relief valves are either two-port or four-port. Both types
operate in the same way. The main reason for additional ports is convenience in connecting the
plumbing. For simplicity, only the two-port pressure relief valve is described in this text.

Two-Port Relief Valve. A typical two-port relief valve is shown in Figure 3-1. It consists of a
housing with an inlet and an outlet port, a valving device, a compression spring, and an adjustment
screw. When the hydraulic system is pressurized, the pressure acts against the valving device; in this
case, a ball. The ball is held against its seat by a coil spring. When the fluid pressure is great enough
against the ball to overcome the

















50 AL0926

force of the spring, the ball is unseated and allows fluid to pass.

The exact pressure at which this takes place is called the cracking pressure. This pressure can be
adjusted to any desired pressure by means of the pressure adjustment screw. Fluid passing the valving
ball flows into return lines and back to the reservoir.


Figure 3-1. Pressure Relief Valve.

PRESSURE REDUCER

A pressure reducer provides more than one level of pressure in a system that has a single hydraulic
pump. The reducer (Figure 3-2) consists of a three-port housing, piston, poppet and spring, adjusting
spring, and adjusting screw. A poppet is a valving device with a flat face. The three ports of the
housing are input pressure port, reduced-pressure port, and return port.



51 AL0926


Figure 3-2. Pressure Reducer.

Withholding Pressure. The pressure reducer operates on the principle of withholding pressure rather
than relieving it. With no pressure in the system, the adjusting spring tension holds the poppet open. As
system pressure builds up, fluid passes through the poppet to the reduced-pressure port. When the
pressure acting against the piston exceeds the force of the adjusting spring in the pressure reducer, the
poppet moves to close the inlet port. Further buildup of system pressure does not affect the reduced
pressure until it decreases enough to allow the inlet to be opened by spring tension.

Relieving Pressure. Pressure reducers also relieve increased pressure resulting from thermal
expansion. As the pressure at the reduced pressure port increases, the piston moves against the adjusting
spring, opening the return port and relieving the excessive pressure.

PRESSURE SWITCHES

A pressure switch is designed to open or close an electrical circuit in response to a predetermined
hydraulic pressure; the switch activates a warning or protective device. At a set minimum pressure, the
switch can turn on a light to warn the pilot, turn a pump off, or activate a solenoid-controlled valve. The
types of pressure switches, piston and diaphragm, commonly used in Army aircraft are described in the
following paragraphs.

Piston Pressure Switch. The piston pressure switch (Figure 3-3) consists of a housing, a cylinder
bore and piston, an adjustable spring for loading the piston, a microswitch and linkage for transmitting
movements of the piston to the microswitch. The housing has a pressure port for connection to system
pressure and an electrical receptable for connecting the switch to an electrical circuit.








52 AL0926


Figure 3-3. Piston Pressure Switch.


Diaphragm Pressure Switch. The diaphragm pressure switch consists of a housing, a diaphragm, an
adjustable spring to load the diaphragm, a microswitch, and linkage for transmitting movements of the
diaphragm to the microswitch. The housing has ports for the same functions as those in the piston
switch.

Pressure Switch Operation. The two types of pressure switches have the same operating principles;
only the piston one is covered here. Fluid pressure enters the pressure port and moves the face of the
piston against the adjustment spring.

53 AL0926

When the pressure becomes great enough to overcome the force of the spring, the piston moves and
causes the pivot lever to rotate. The movement of the lever is transmitted through the linkage to the
microswitch button. This closes the electrical circuit.

SUMMARY

Hydraulic systems have devices to protect against excessive pressure. These are called pressure relief
valves. The valves are adjustable and are set to open at a point slightly above maximum system
pressure. When this occurs, the fluid is returned to the system reservoir.

Pressure reducers are used to deliver the correct pressure to each component in a hydraulic system. This
makes it possible to use one hydraulic pump, delivering one set pressure in a system that requires several
different pressures.

Pressure switches are physical combinations of a hydraulic device (pressure port, piston, and sprint) and
an electrical device (microswitch and wiring). Pressure switches are used to sense hydraulic pressure.
Depending on the switch, if the pressure is too high or too low, the microswitch closes and energizes a
valve, stops or starts a pump, or illuminates a warning light.





























54 AL0926

LESSON 3

PRACTICE EXERCISE

The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct
answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key
that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the
portion involved.

1. What are the configurations for relief valves?

___ A. One and two ports.
___ B. One and four ports.
___ C. Two and four ports.
___ D. Two and three ports.

2. What part of a single hydraulic pump provides more than one level of pressure in a hydraulic
system?

___ A. Return port.
___ B. Pressure reducer.
___ C. Pressure port.
___ D. Compression spring.

3. How many types of pressure switches are most often used on Army aircraft?

___ A. One.
___ B. Two.
___ C. Three.
___ D. Four.

4. What device is used to protect against excessive pressure?

___ A. Pressure relief valve.
___ B. Pressure reducer valve.
___ C. Pressure sequence valve.
___ D. Pressure selector valve.

5. Pressure switches are used to sense--

___ A. excessive pressure.
___ B. electrical current.
___ C. hydraulic pressure.
___ D. electrical voltage.



55 AL0926






















THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

























56 AL0926

6. What is used to relieve increased pressure from thermal expansion?

___ A. Pressure sequential valve.
___ B. Pressure selector valve.
___ C. Pressure relief valve.
___ D. Pressure reducer valve.

7. When a pressure switch senses a drop in system fluid pressure, what does the switch activate?

___ A. Warning device.
___ B. Sensing device.
___ C. Pressure device.
___ D. Sequential device.

8. What are the two types of pressure switches commonly used in Army aircraft?

___ A. Sensing and warning.
___ B. Piston and diaphragm.
___ C. Warning and diaphragm.
___ D. Diaphragm and sensing.

9. What does the piston pressure switch consist of?

___ A. Cylinder housing, bore and piston, microswitch.
___ B. Housing, cylinder bore and piston, microswitch, spring.
___ C. Piston, cylinder bore and switch spring, microswitch.
___ D. Warning device, cylinder bore and piston.

10. What is the term used to describe the action of fluid pressure in a valve becoming high enough
against the ball to overcome the force of the spring?

___ A. Spring pressure.
___ B. Reducing pressure.
___ C. Cylinder pressure.
___ D. Cracking pressure.












57 AL0926

LESSON 3

PRACTICE EXERCISE

ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

Item Correct Answers and Feedback

1. C. Two and four ports.

There are two configurations for relief valves. They are two- and four-port and are used to
relieve pressure. A four-port relief valve is for connecting additional plumbing that may be
incorporated into a more complex hydraulic system. (Page 50)

2. B. Pressure reducer.

A pressure reducer provides the different pressures which are required to operate some
components. (Page 51)

3. C. Two.

There are only two types of pressure switches used in Army aircraft. (Page 52)

4. A. Pressure relief valve.

In a pressure relief valve, when fluid pressure reaches a certain point, the relief valve opens
to relieve excessive fluid pressure, allowing it to return to the system reservoir. (Page 50)

5. C. hydraulic pressure.

This switch senses any under- or over-pressurization of hydraulic fluid. (Page 52)

6. D. Pressure reducer valve.

The pressure reducer valve senses abnormal pressure buildup and opens to relieve the
excessive pressure. (Page 52)

7. A. Warning device.

A pressure switch activates a warning device at a predetermined fluid pressure. (Page 52)







58 AL0926

8. B. Piston and diaphragm.

There are two types of pressure switches used in Army aircraft. (Page 52)

9. B. Housing, cylinder bore and piston, microswitch, spring.

The main components of a pressure switch are housing, cylinder bore and piston,
microswitch, spring. (Page 52)

10. D. Cracking pressure.

The cracking pressure is the pressure above normal at which the relief valve will-open.
(Page 51)


































59 AL0926

APPENDIX
GLOSSARY

Accumulator--device for storing liquid under pressure, usually consisting of a chamber separated into a
gas compartment and a liquid compartment by a bladder, piston, or diaphragm. An accumulator also
smooths out pressure surges in a hydraulic system.

Actuating cylinder--device that converts fluid power into linear mechanical force and motion.

Actuating cylinder, double-action--actuating cylinder in which both strokes are produced by pressurized
fluid.

Actuating cylinder, single-action--actuating cylinder in which one stroke is produced by pressurized
fluid and the other stroke is produced by some other force, such as gravity or spring tension.

Angular piston pump--hydraulic pump that has the cylinder block placed at an angle to the drive shaft
plate where the pistons are attached. The angular configuration causes the pistons to stroke as the pump
shaft is turned.

Baffle--metal plate installed in a reservoir to keep the fluid from swirling and surging.

Bladder--synthetic rubber bag inserted in an accumulator to hold the air charge.

Bypass valve--valve used to allow fluid to go around a filtering element if the element becomes clogged.

Cam pump--type of hydraulic pump that utilizes a cam to cause stroking of the pistons.

Check valve--valve that permits fluid flow in one direction, but prevents flow in the reverse direction.

Closed-center valve--type of valve that has its pressure passage blocked to fluid flow when the valve is
in the OFF position.

Cracking pressure--pounds per square inch pressure at which the valving device of a pressure relief
valve clears its seat just enough to permit fluid to seep through.

Diaphragm--synthetic rubber device that divides an accumulator into two separate compartments, one
for air and the other for
fluid.

Displacement--volume of fluid that can pass through a pump, motor, or cylinder in a single revolution or
stroke.

Double-action actuating cylinder--See Actuating cylinder, double-action.




66 AL0926

Drive coupling--device that transmits torque from a driving unit to a hydraulic pump drive shaft.

Efficiency--ratio of output power to input power, generally expressed as a percentage.

Energy--ability or capacity to do work.

Filter--device used to remove contaminants from hydraulic fluid.

Fixed-displacement pump--pump in which the volume of fluid per cycle cannot be varied.

Fluid--any liquid, gas, or mixture thereof.

Hydraulics--that branch of mechanics or engineering that deals with the action or use of liquids forced
through tubes or lines under pressure to operate various mechanisms.

Irreversible valve--device used in conjunction with a servo to block feedback.

Land--smooth machined surface on the spool of a spool selector valve.

Micron--millionth of a meter, or about 0.00004 inch.

Open-center valve--type of valve that has its pressure passage open to return when the valve is in the
OFF position.

Orifice--device used to restrict the flow of fluid in order to slow the operation of a component.

Pilot valve--valve used to control the operation of another valve, the spool in a selector valve.

Piston--that part of an actuating cylinder, servo, or motor that the hydraulic fluid works against. In a
pump, the pistons work against the fluid.

Poppet--valving device similar to the valves found in an automobile engine.

Port--opening for the intake or exhaust of fluid.

Power--rate of doing work or expending energy.

Pressure--amount of force distributed over each unit area expressed in pounds per square inch (psi).

Pressure reducer--device for lowering the pressure in a hydraulic system to allow a component to
operate at a lower pressure than the rest of the system.






67 AL0926

Pressure relief valve--pressure control valve used to keep system pressure from exceeding
predetermined limits.

Pressure switch--electrical switch operated by the increase or decrease of fluid pressure.

Priority valve--valve used to route fluid to those components requiring immediate completion of action
when a reduction in normal system flow and pressure occurs.

Pump--device that converts mechanical energy into fluid energy.

Ratchet valve--valve used with double-action actuator cylinders to aid the cylinder in holding a load in
the position selected by the operator.

Reservoir--container that serves primarily as a supply source of the fluid for a hydraulic system.

Selector valve--valve used to control the direction of movement of an actuating unit.

Servo--device used to convert a small movement into a greater movement or force.

Sloppy link--point of interconnection between control linkage, pilot valve, and servo piston rod in a
servo.

Standpipe--pipe located in a reservoir where the main hydraulic system draws its fluid.

Stroke--distance a piston moves in its bore from bottom to top, a single movement of a piston from one
end of its range to the other.

Thermal expansion--increase in volume of a substance due to temperature change.

Variable-delivery pump--type of pump in which the volume of fluid per cycle can be varied.















*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2000-528-075/20366

68 AL0926

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Training Solutions
 
 
 
 
 
 
Training Solutions
 
Hydraulics

Training Manual 4

Fluid Power
 
 
 
C O N T E N T S
CHAP TER
1. Int r oduct ion t o Fluid Power .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. For ces in Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Hydr aulic Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Fluid Lines and Fit t ings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Sealing Devices and Mat er ials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Measur ement and Pr essur e Cont r ol Devices . . . . . . . . . .
9. Reser voir s, St r ainer s, Filt er s, and Accumulat or s . . . . . .
10. Act uat or s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Pneumat ics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. Basic Diagr ams and Syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AP P ENDI X
I. Glossar y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II. Mechanical Symbols Ot her t han Aer onaut ical
for Fluid Power Diagr ams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III. Aer onaut ical Mechanical Symbols for Fluid
Power Diagr ams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page
1-1
2-1
3-1
4-1
5-1
6-1
7-1
8-1
9-1
10-1
11-1
12-1
AI-1
AII-1
AIII-1
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEX-1
. . .
i i i
C R E D I T S
The companies list ed below have pr ovided per mission t o use cer t ain
t r adenames/t r ademar ks in t his edit ion of Fluid Power. Per mission t o use t hese
t r adenames/t r ademar ks is gr at efully acknowledged. Per mission t o r epr oduce
or use t hese t r adenames/t r ademar ks must be obt ained fr om t he sour ce.
SOURCE TEXT ON PAGE
DuPont
Gr eene, Tweed and Company
Minnesot a Rubber
5-8
7-5
7-15
i v
CHAP TER 1
I NTRODUCTI ON TO F LUI D P OWER
Fluid power is a t er m which was cr eat ed t o
include t he gener at ion, cont r ol, and applicat ion
of s moot h , effect i ve p ower of p u mp ed or
compr essed fluids (eit her liquids or gases) when
t his power is used t o pr ovide for ce and mot ion
t o mechanisms. This for ce and mot ion maybe in
t he for m of pushing, pulling, r ot at ing, r egulat ing,
or dr iving. Fluid power includes hydr aulics, which
involves liquids, and pneumat ics, which involves
gases. Liquids and gases ar e similar in many
r espect s. The differ ences ar e point ed out in t he
appr opr iat e ar eas of t his manual.
This manual pr esent s many of t he funda-
ment al concept s in t he fields of hydr aulics and
pneumat ics. It is int ended as a basic r efer ence for
all per sonnel of t he Navy whose dut ies and
r esponsibilit ies r equir e t hem t o have a knowledge
of t he funda ment a ls of fluid power . Conse-
quent ly, emphasis is placed pr imar ily on t he
t heor y of oper at ion of t ypical fluid power syst ems
and component s t hat have applicat ions in naval
equipment . Many applicat ions of fluid power ar e
pr esent ed in t his manual t o illust r at e t he funct ions
and oper at ion of differ ent syst ems and com-
ponent s. However , t hese ar e only r epr esent at ive
of t he many applicat ions of fluid power in naval
equipment . Individual t r aining manuals for each
r at e pr ovide infor mat ion concer ning t he applica-
t ion of fluid power t o specific equipment for
which t he r at ing is r esponsible.
A br ief summa r y of t he cont ent s of t his
t r a i n i n g ma n u a l i s gi ven i n t h e fol l owi n g
pa r a gr a phs:
Chapt er 2 cover s t he char act er ist ics of liquids
and t he fact or s affect ing t hem. It also explains
t he behavior of liquids at r est , ident ifies t he
char act er ist ics of liquids in mot ion, and explains
t he oper at ion of basic hydr aulic component s.
Chapt er 3 discusses t he qualit ies of fluids
accept able for hydr aulic syst ems and t he t ypes of
fluids used. I ncluded a r e sect ions on sa fet y
pr ecaut ions t o follow when handling pot ent ially
ha za r dous fluids, liquid cont a mina t ion, a nd
cont r ol of cont aminant s.
Chapt er 4 cover s t he hydr aulic pump, t he
compon en t i n t h e h ydr a u l i c s ys t em wh i ch
gener at es t he for ce r equir ed for t he syst em t o
per for m it s design funct ion. The infor mat ion
pr ovided cover s classificat ions, t ypes, oper at ion,
and const r uct ion of pumps.
Chapt er 5 deals wit h t he piping, t ubing and
flexible hoses, and connect or s used t o car r y fluids
under pr essur e.
Chapt er 6 discusses t he classificat ion, t ypes,
and oper at ion of valves used in t he cont r ol of
flow, pr essur e, and dir ect ion of fluids.
Chapt er 7 cover s t he t ypes and pur poses of
sealing devices used in fluid power syst ems,
including t he differ ent mat er ials used in t heir
const r uct ion. Addit iona lly, t he guidelines for
select ing, inst alling, and r emoving O-r ings ar e
included.
Chapt er 8 discusses t he oper at ion of devices
used t o measur e and r egulat e t he pr essur e of fluids
and t o measur e t he t emper at ur e of fluids.
Chapt er 9 descr ibes t he funct ions and t ypes
of r eser voir s, st r ainer s, filt er s, and accumulat or s,
and t heir uses in fluid power syst ems.
Chapt er 10 discusses t he t ypes and oper at ion
of a ct u a t or s u s ed t o t r a n s for m t h e en er gy
gener at ed by hydr aulic syst ems int o mechanical
for ce and mot ion.
Chapt er 11 deals wit h pneumat ics. It discusses
t he or igin of pneumat ics, t he char act er ist ics and
compr essibilit y of gases, and t he most commonly
used gases in pneumat ic syst ems. Also, sect ions
ar e included t o cover safet y pr ecaut ions and t he
pot ent ial hazar ds of compr essed gases.
Chapt er 12 ident ifies t he t ypes of diagr ams
encount er ed in fluid power syst ems. This chapt er
also discusses how component s of chapt er s 4, 5,
6, 8, 9, and 10 ar e combined t o for m and oper at e
t oget her as a syst em.
A glossar y of t er ms commonly used in fluid
power is pr ovided in appendix I. Appendix II
pr ovides symbols used in aer onaut ical mechanical
1-1
syst ems, and appendix III pr ovides symbols used
in nonaer onaut ical mechanical syst ems.
The r emainder of chapt er 1 is devot ed t o t he
advant ages and pr oblems of fluid power appli-
cat ions. Included ar e br ief sect ions on t he hist or y,
development , and applicat ions of hydr aulics,
t he st at es of mat t er .
ADVANTAGES OF FLUI D P OWER
and
The ext ensive use of hydr aulics and pneuma-
t ics t o t r ansmit power is due t o t he fact t hat
pr oper ly const r uct ed fluid power syst ems possess
a number of fa vor a ble cha r a ct er ist ics. They
eliminat e t he need for complicat ed syst ems of
gear s, cams, and lever s. Mot ion can be t r ans-
mit t ed wit hout t he slack inher ent in t he use of
solid machine par t s. The fluids used ar e not
subject t o br eakage as ar e mechanical par t s, and
t he mechanisms ar e not subject ed t o gr eat wear .
The differ ent par t s of a fluid power syst em
can be convenient ly locat ed at widely separ at ed
point s, since t he for ces gener at ed ar e r apidly
t r ansmit t ed over consider able dist ances wit h small
loss. These for ces can be conveyed up and down
or ar ound cor ner s wit h small loss in efficiency and
wit hout complica t ed mecha nisms. Ver y la r ge
for ces can be cont r olled by much smaller ones and
can be t r ansmit t ed t hr ough compar at ively small
lines and or ifices.
If t he syst em is well adapt ed t o t he wor k it is
r equir ed t o per for m, and if it is not misused, it
ca n pr ovide smoot h, flexible, unifor m a ct ion
wit hout vibr at ion, and is unaffect ed by var iat ion
of load. In case of an over load, an aut omat ic
r elease of pr essur e can be guar ant eed, so t hat t he
syst em is pr ot ect ed against br eakdown or st r ain.
Fluid power syst ems can pr ovide widely var iable
mot ions in bot h r ot ar y and st r aight -line t r ans-
mission of power . The need for cont r ol by hand
ca n be minimized. I n a ddit ion, fluid power
syst ems ar e economical t o oper at e.
The quest ion may ar ise as t o why hydr aulics
is used in some applicat ions and pneumat ics in
ot her s. Many fact or s ar e consider ed by t he user
and/or t he manufact ur er when det er mining which
t ype of syst em t o use in a specific applicat ion.
Ther e a r e no ha r d a nd fa st r ules t o follow;
however , past exper ience has pr ovided some
sound ideas t hat ar e usually consider ed when such
decisions ar e made. If t he applicat ion r equir es
speed, a medium amount of pr essur e, and only
fair ly accur at e cont r ol, a pneumat ic syst em may
be used. If t he applicat ion r equir es only a medium
amount of pr essur e and a mor e accur at e cont r ol,
a combinat ion of hydr aulics and pneumat ics may
be used. If t he applicat ion r equir es a gr eat amount
of pr essur e and/or ext r emely accur at e cont r ol, a
hydr aulic syst em should be used.
SP ECI AL P ROBLEMS
The ext r eme flexibilit y of fluid power element s
pr esent s a number of pr oblems. Since fluids have
no shape of t heir own, t hey must be posit ively
confined t hr oughout t he ent ir e syst em. Special
consider at ion must be given t o t he st r uct ur al
int egr it y of t he par t s of a fluid power syst em.
St r ong pipes and cont ainer s must be pr ovided.
Lea ks must be pr event ed. This is a ser ious
pr oblem wit h t he high pr essur e obt ained in many
fluid power inst allat ions.
The oper at ion of t he syst em involves const ant
movement of t he fluid wit hin t he lines a nd
component s. This movement ca uses fr ict ion
wit hin t he fluid it self and against t he cont aining
sur faces which, if excessive, can lead t o ser ious
losses in efficiency. For eign mat t er must not be
allowed t o accumulat e in t he syst em, wher e it will
clog small passages or scor e closely fit t ed par t s.
Chemical act ion may cause cor r osion. Anyone
wor king wit h fluid power syst ems must know how
a fluid power syst em and it s component s oper at e,
bot h in t er ms of t he gener al pr inciples common
t o all physical mechanisms and of t he peculiar it ies
of t he par t icular ar r angement at hand.
HYDRAULI CS
The wor d hydraulics is based on t he Gr eek
wor d for wat er , and or iginally cover ed t he st udy
of t he physical behavior of wat er at r est and in
mot ion. Use has br oadened it s meaning t o include
t he behavior of all liquids, alt hough it is pr imar ily
concer ned wit h t he mot ion of liquids.
Hydr aulics includes t he manner in which
liquids act in t anks and pipes, deals wit h t heir
pr oper t ies, and explor es ways t o t ake advant age
of t hese pr oper t ies.
DEVELOP MENT OF HYDRAULI CS
Al t h ou gh t h e moder n devel opmen t of
hydr aulics is compar at ively r ecent , t he ancient s
wer e familiar wit h many hydr aulic pr inciples and
t heir applicat ions. The Egypt ians and t he ancient
people of Per sia, India, and China conveyed wat er
1-2
a long cha nnels for ir r iga t ion a nd domest ic
pur poses, using dams and sluice gat es t o cont r ol
t he flow. The ancient Cr et ans had an elabor at e
plumbing syst em. Ar chimedes st udied t he laws of
float ing and submer ged bodies. The Romans
const r uct ed aqueduct s t o car r y wat er t o t heir
cit ies.
Aft er t he br eakup of t he ancient wor ld, t her e
wer e few new development s for many cent ur ies.
Th en , over a compa r a t i vel y s h or t per i od,
beginning near t he end of t he sevent eent h cent ur y,
It alian physicist , Evangelist a Tor r icelle, Fr ench
physicist , Edme Ma r iot t e, a nd la t er , Da niel
Ber noulli conduct ed exper iment s t o st udy t he
element s of for ce in t he discha r ge of wa t er
t hr ough small openings in t he sides of t anks and
t hr ough shor t pipes. Dur ing t he same per iod,
Blaise Pascal, a Fr ench scient ist , discover ed t he
fundament al law for t he science of hydr aulics.
Pascal’s law st at es t hat incr ease in pr essur e on
t he sur face of a confined fluid is t r ansmit t ed
undiminished t hr oughout t he confining vessel or
syst em (fig. 1-1). (This is t he basic pr inciple of
hydr aulics and is cover ed in det ail in chapt er 2
of t his manual.)
For Pascal’s law t o be made effect ive for
pr act ical applicat ions, it was necessar y t o have a
pist on t hat “fit exact ly.” It was not unt il t he lat t er
par t of t he eight eent h cent ur y t hat met hods wer e
found t o make t hese snugly fit t ed par t s r equir ed
in hydr aulic syst ems. This was accomplished by
t he invent ion of machines t hat wer e used t o cut
and shape t he necessar y closely fit t ed par t s and,
par t icular ly, by t he development of gasket s and
packings. Since t hat t ime, component s such as
valves, pumps, act uat ing cylinder s, and mot or s
h a ve been devel oped a n d r efi n ed t o ma ke
hydr aulics one of t he leading met hods of t r ans-
mit t ing power .
Fi gu r e 1-1.—For ce t r a n smi t t ed t h r ou gh flu i d .
Use of Hyd r a u li cs
The hydr aulic pr ess, invent ed by Englishman
J ohn Br a hma h, wa s one of t he fir st wor k-
able pieces of machiner y developed t hat used
hydr aulics in it s oper at ion. It consist ed of a
plunger pump piped t o a lar ge cylinder and a r am.
This pr ess found wide use in England because it
pr ovided a mor e effect ive and economical means
of applying lar ge for ces in indust r ial uses.
Today, hydr aulic power is used t o oper at e
ma ny differ ent t ools a nd mecha nisms. I n a
gar age, a mechanic r aises t he end of an aut o-
mobile wit h a hydr aulic jack. Dent ist s and bar ber s
use hydr aulic power , t hr ough a few st r okes of a
cont r ol lever , t o lift and posit ion t heir chair s t o
a convenient wor king height . Hydr aulic door st ops
keep hea vy door s fr om sla mming. Hydr a ulic
br akes have been st andar d equipment on aut o-
mobiles since t he 1930s. Most aut omobiles ar e
equipped wit h aut omat ic t r ansmissions t hat ar e
hydr aulically oper at ed. Power st eer ing is anot her
a pplica t ion of hydr a ulic power . Const r uct ion
wor ker s depend upon hydr aulic power for t he
oper a t i on of va r i ou s compon en t s of t h ei r
equipment . For example, t he blade of a bulldozer
is nor mally oper at ed by hydr aulic power .
Dur ing t he per iod pr eceding Wor ld War II,
t he Navy began t o apply hydr aulics t o naval
mecha nisms ext ensively. Since t hen, na va l
applicat ions have incr eased t o t he point wher e
many ingenious hydr aulic devices ar e used in t he
solut ion of pr oblems of gunner y, aer onaut ics, and
navigat ion. Aboar d ship, hydr aulic power is used
t o oper at e such equipment as anchor windlasses,
cr anes, st eer ing gear , r emot e cont r ol devices, and
power dr ives for elevat ing and t r aining guns and
r ocket launcher s. Elevat or s on air cr aft car r ier s use
hydr aulic power t o t r ansfer air cr aft fr om t he
hangar deck t o t he flight deck and vice ver sa.
Hydr aulics and pneumat ics (chapt er 11) ar e
combined for some applicat ions. This combina-
t ion is r efer r ed t o as h yd r opn eu m at i cs . A n
example of t his combinat ion is t he lift used in
gar ages and ser vice st at ions. Air pr essur e is
applied t o t he sur face of hydr aulic fluid in a
r eser voir . The air pr essur e for ces t he hydr aulic
fluid t o r aise t he lift .
STATES OF MATTER
The mat er ial t hat makes up t he univer se is
known a s mat t er. Ma t t er is defined a s a ny
subst ance t hat occupies space and has weight .
1-3
Mat t er exist s in t hr ee st at es: solid, liquid, and gas;
each has dist inguishing char act er ist ics. Solids have
a definit e volume and a definit e shape; liquids
have a definit e volume, but t ake t he shape of t heir
cont aining vessels; gases have neit her a definit e
shape nor a definit e volume. Gases not only t ake
t he shape of t he cont aining vessel, but also expand
and fill t he vessel, r egar dless of it s volume.
Examples of t he st at es of mat t er ar e ir on, wat er ,
and air .
Mat t er can change fr om one st at e t o anot her .
Wat er is a good example. At high t emper at ur es
it is in t he gaseous st at e known as st eam. At
moder at e t emper at ur es it is a liquid, and at low
t emper at ur es it becomes ice, which is definit ely
a solid st at e. In t his example, t he t emper at ur e is
t he dominant fact or in det er mining t he st at e t he
subst ance assumes.
Pr essur e is anot her impor t ant fact or t hat will
affect changes in t he st at e of mat t er . At pr essur es
lower t han at mospher ic pr essur e, wat er will boil
and t hus change int o st eam at t emper at ur es lower
t han 212° Fahr enheit (F). Pr essur e is also a cr it ical
fact or in changing some gases t o liquids or solids.
Nor mally, when pr essur e and chilling ar e bot h
applied t o a gas, t he gas assumes a liquid st at e.
Liquid air , which is a mixt ur e of oxygen and
nit r ogen, is pr oduced in t his manner .
In t he st udy of fluid power , we ar e concer ned
pr imar ily wit h t he pr oper t ies and char act er ist ics
of liquids and gases. However , you should keep
in mind t hat t he pr oper t ies of solids also affect
t he char act er ist ics of liquids and gases. The lines
and component s, which ar e solids, enclose and
cont r ol t he liquid or ga s in t heir r espect ive
syst ems.
1-4
CHAP TER 2
FORCES I N LI QUI DS
The st udy of liquids is divided int o t wo main
par t s: liquids at r est (hydr ost at ics) and liquids in
mot ion (hydr aulics).
The effect s of liquids a t r est ca n oft en
be expr essed by simple for mulas. The effect s
of l i qu i ds i n mot i on a r e mor e di ffi cu l t t o
expr ess due t o fr ict iona l a nd ot her fa ct or s
whose act ions cannot be expr essed by simple
mat hemat ics.
In chapt er 1 we lear ned t hat liquids have a
definit e volume but t a ke t he sha pe of t heir
cont aining vessel. Ther e a r e t wo a ddit iona l
char act er ist ics we must explor e pr ior t o pr o-
ceeding.
Li qu i ds a r e a l mos t i n compr es s i bl e. For
example, if a pr essur e of 100 pounds per squar e
inch (psi) is applied t o a given volume of wat er
t hat is at at mospher ic pr essur e, t he volume will
decr ease by only 0.03 per cent . It would t ake a
for ce of appr oximat ely 32 t ons t o r educe it s
volume by 10 per cent ; however , when t his for ce
is r emoved, t he wat er immediat ely r et ur ns t o it s
or iginal volume. Ot her liquids behave in about
t he same manner as wat er .
Anot her cha r a ct er ist ic of a liquid is t he
t endency t o keep it s fr ee sur face level. If t he
sur face is not level, liquids will flow in t he
dir ect ion which will t end t o make t he sur face
level.
LI QUI DS AT REST
I n s t u dyi n g fl u i ds a t r es t , we a r e con -
cer n ed wi t h t h e t r a n s mi s s i on of for ce a n d
t he fact or s which affect t he for ces in liquids.
Addit ionally, pr essur e in and on liquids and
fa ct or s a ffect ing pr essur e a r e of gr ea t im-
por t ance.
P RESSURE AND FORCE
Th e t er ms force a n d pr es s u r e a r e u s ed
ext ensively in t he st udy of fluid power . I t
is essent ial t hat we dist inguish bet ween t he
t er ms . For ce mea n s a t ot a l pu s h or pu l l .
I t is t he push or pull exer t ed a ga inst t he
t ot al ar ea of a par t icular sur face and is expr essed
in pounds or gr ams. Pr essur e means t he amount
of push or pull (for ce) applied t o each unit ar ea
of t he sur face and is expr essed in pounds per
s qu a r e i n ch (l b/i n
2
) or gr a ms per s qu a r e
cent imet er (gm/cm
2
). Pr essur e maybe exer t ed in
one dir ect ion, in sever al dir ect ions, or in all
dir ect ions.
Comp u t i n g For ce, P r essu r e, a n d Ar ea
A for mu l a i s u s ed i n compu t i n g for ce,
pr essur e, and ar ea in fluid power syst ems. In t his
for mula, P r efer s t o pr essur e, F indicat es for ce,
and A r epr esent s ar ea.
For ce equals pr essur e t imes ar ea. Thus, t he
for mula is wr it t en
Equat ion 2-1.
Pr essur e equals for ce divided by ar ea. By
r ear r anging t he for mula, t his st at ement may be
condensed int o
Equat ion 2-2.
Since ar ea equals for ce divided by pr essur e,
t he for mula is wr it t en
Equat ion 2-3.
2-1
Fi gu r e 2-1.—Devi ce for d et er mi n i n g t h e a r r a n gemen t of t h e
for ce, p r essu r e, a n d a r ea for mu la .
Figur e 2-1 illust r at es a memor y device for
r ecalling t he differ ent var iat ions of t his for mula.
Any let t er in t he t r iangle may be expr essed as t he
pr oduct or quot ient of t he ot her t wo, depending
on it s posit ion wit hin t he t r iangle.
For example, t o find ar ea, consider t he let t er
A as being set off t o it self, followed by an equal
sign. Now look at t he ot her t wo let t er s. The let t er
F is above t he let t er P; t her efor e,
NOTE : Somet imes t he a r ea ma y not be
expr essed in squa r e unit s. I f t he sur fa ce is
r ect a ngula r , you ca n det er mine it s a r ea by
mult iplying it s lengt h (say, in inches) by it s widt h
(also in inches). The major it y of ar eas you will
consider in t hese calculat ions ar e cir cular in shape.
Eit her t he r adius or t he diamet er may be given,
but you must know t he r adius in inches t o find
t he ar ea. The r adius is one-half t he diamet er . To
det er mine t he ar ea, use t he for mula for finding
t he ar ea of a cir cle. This is wr it t en A = r mz, wher e
A is t he ar ea, n is 3.1416 (3.14 or 3 1/7 for most
calculat ions), and r
2
indicat es t he r adius squar ed.
At mosp h er i c P r essu r e
The at mospher e is t he ent ir e mass of air t hat
sur r ounds t he ear t h. While it ext ends upwar d for
about 500 miles, t he sect ion of pr imar y int er est
is t he por t ion t hat r est s on t he ear t h’s sur face and
ext ends upwar d for about 7 1/2 miles. This layer
is called t he t r opospher e.
If a column of air 1-inch squar e ext ending all
t he way t o t he “t op” of t he at mospher e could
be weighed, t his column of air would weigh
appr oximat ely 14.7 pounds at sea level. Thus,
at mospher ic pr essur e at sea level is appr oximat ely
14.7 psi.
As one ascends, t he at mospher ic pr essur e
decr eases by appr oximat ely 1.0 psi for ever y 2,343
feet . However , below sea level, in excavat ions and
depr essions, at mospher ic pr essur e incr eases.
Pr essur es under wat er differ fr om t hose under air
only because t he weight of t he wat er must be
added t o t he pr essur e of t he air .
At mospher ic pr essur e can be measur ed by any
of sever a l met hods. The common la bor a t or y
met hod uses t he mer cur y column bar omet er . The
height of t he mer cur y column ser ves a s a n
indicat or of at mospher ic pr essur e. At sea level and
at a t emper at ur e of 0° Celsius (C), t he height of
t he mer cur y column is appr oximat ely 30 inches,
or 76 cent imet er s. This r epr esent s a pr essur e of
appr oximat ely 14.7 psi. The 30-inch column is
used as a r efer ence st andar d.
Anot her device used t o measur e at mospher ic
pr essur e is t he aner oid bar omet er . The aner oid
ba r omet er uses t he cha nge in sha pe of a n
evacuat ed met al cell t o measur e var iat ions in
at mospher ic pr essur e (fig. 2-2). The t hin met al of
t he aner oid cell moves in or out wit h t he var iat ion
of pr essur e on it s ext er nal sur face. This movement
is t r ansmit t ed t hr ough a syst em of lever s t o a
point er , which indicat es t he pr essur e.
The a t mospher ic pr essur e does not va r y
unifor mly wit h alt it ude. It changes mor e r apidly
at lower alt it udes because of t he compr essibilit y
of t he air , which causes t he air layer s close t o t he
ear t h’s sur face t o be compr essed by t he air masses
above t hem. This effect , however , is par t ially
count er act ed by t he cont r act ion of t he upper
Fi gu r e 2-2.—Si mp le d i a gr a m of t h e a n er oi d ba r omet er .
2-2
la yer s due t o cooling. The cooling t ends t o
incr ease t he densit y of t he air .
At mospher ic pr essur es ar e quit e lar ge, but in
most inst ances pr act ically t he same pr essur e is
pr esent on all sides of object s so t hat no single
sur face is subject ed t o a gr eat load.
At mospher ic pr essur e act ing on t he sur face of
a liquid (fig. 2-3, view A) is t r ansmit t ed equally
t hr oughout t he liquid t o t he walls of t he cont ainer ,
but is balanced by t he same at mospher ic pr essur e
act ing on t he out er walls of t he cont ainer . In view
B of figur e 2-3, at mospher ic pr essur e act ing on
t he sur face of one pist on is balanced by t he same
pr essur e act ing on t he sur face of t he ot her pist on.
The differ ent ar eas of t he t wo sur faces make no
differ ence, since for a unit of ar ea, pr essur es ar e
balanced.
TRANSMI SSI ON OF FORCES
THROUGH LI QUI DS
When t he end of a solid bar is st r uck, t he main
for ce of t he blow is car r ied st r aight t hr ough t he
bar t o t he ot her end (fig. 2-4, view A). This
happens because t he bar is r igid. The dir ect ion
of t he blow a lmost ent ir ely det er mines t he
dir ect ion of t he t r ansmit t ed for ce. The mor e r igid
Fi gu r e 2-4.—Tr a n smi ssi on of for ce: (A) soli d ; (B) flu i d .
t he bar , t he less for ce is lost inside t he bar or
t r a nsmit t ed out wa r d a t r ight a ngles t o t he
dir ect ion of t he blow.
When a for ce is applied t o t he end of a column
of con fi n ed l i qu i d (fi g. 2-4, vi ew B), i t i s
t r ansmit t ed st r aight t hr ough t o t he ot her end and
also equally and undiminished in ever y dir ect ion
t hr oughout t he column—for war d, backwar d, and
sideways—so t hat t he cont aining vessel is lit er ally
filled wit h pr essur e.
An example of t his dist r ibut ion of for ce is
illust r at ed in figur e 2-5. The flat hose t akes on
Fi gu r e 2-3.—Effect s of a t mosp h er i c p r essu r e. Fi gu r e 2-5.—Di st r i bu t i on of for ce.
2-3
a cir cular cr oss sect ion when it is filled wit h wat er
under pr essur e. The out war d push of t he wat er
is equal in ever y dir ect ion.
So fa r we ha ve expla ined t he effect s of
at mospher ic pr essur e on liquids and how ext er nal
for ces ar e dist r ibut ed t hr ough liquids. Let us now
focus our at t ent ion on for ces gener at ed by t he
weight of liquids t hemselves. To do t his, we must
fir st discuss densit y, specific gr avit y, and Pascal’s
law.
Den si t y a n d Sp eci fi c Gr a vi t y
The densit y of a subst ance is it s weight per unit
volume. The unit volume in t he English syst em
of measur ement is 1 cubic foot . In t he met r ic
syst em it is t he cubic cent imet er ; t her efor e, densit y
is expr essed in pounds per cubic foot or in gr ams
per cubic cent imet er .
To find t he densit y of a subst ance, you must
know it s weight and volume. You t hen divide it s
weight by it s volume t o find t he weight per unit
volume. In equat ion for m, t his is wr it t en as
Equat ion 2-4.
EXAMPLE: The liquid t hat fills a cer t ain
cont a iner weighs 1,497.6 pounds. The
cont ainer is 4 feet long, 3 feet wide, and
2 feet deep. It s volume is 24 cubic feet
(4 ft x 3 ft x 2 ft ). If 24 cubic feet of t his
liquid weighs 1,497.6 pounds, t hen 1 cubic
foot weighs
or 62.4 pounds. Ther efor e, t he densit y of
t he liquid is 62.4 pounds per cubic foot .
This is t he densit y of wat er at 4°C and is
usua lly used a s t he st a nda r d for compa r ing
densit ies of ot her subst ances. The t emper at ur e of
4°C was select ed because wat er has it s maximum
densit y at t his t emper at ur e. In t he met r ic syst em,
t h e den s i t y of wa t er i s 1 gr a m per cu bi c
cent imet er . The st andar d t emper at ur e of 4°C is
used whenever t he densit y of liquids and solids
is measur ed. Changes in t emper at ur e will not
change t he weight of a subst ance but will change
t he volume of t he subst ance by expansion or
cont r act ion, t hus changing t he weight per unit
volume.
In physics, t he wor d specific implies a r at io.
Weight is t he measur e of t he ear t h’s at t r act ion for
a body. The ear t h’s at t r act ion for a body is called
gr avit y. Thus, t he r at io of t he weight of a unit
volume of some subst ance t o t he weight of an
equal volume of a st andar d subst ance, measur ed
under st andar d pr essur e and t emper at ur e con-
dit ions, is ca lled specific gr a vit y. The t er ms
specific weight and specific density ar e somet imes
used t o expr ess t his r at io.
The following for mulas ar e used t o find t he
specific gr avit y (sp gr ) of solids and liquids, wit h
wat er used as t he st andar d subst ance.
or ,
The same for mulas ar e used t o find t he specific
gr avit y of gases by subst it ut ing air , oxygen, or
hydr ogen for wat er .
If a cubic foot of a cer t ain liquid weighs 68.64
pounds, t hen it s specific gr avit y is 1.1,
Thus, t he specific gr avit y of t he liquid is t he
r at io of it s densit y t o t he densit y of wat er . If t he
specific gr avit y of a liquid or solid is known, t he
densit y of t he liquid or solid maybe obt ained by
mult iplying it s specific gr avit y by t he densit y of
wat er . For example, if a cer t ain hydr aulic liquid
has a specific gr avit y of 0.8, 1 cubic foot of t he
liquid weighs 0.8 t imes as much as a cubic foot
of wat er —0.8 t imes 62.4, or 49.92 pounds. In t he
met r ic syst em, 1 cubic cent imet er of a subst ance
wit h a specific gr avit y of 0.8 weighs 1 t imes 0.8,
or 0.8 gr ams. (Not e t hat in t he met r ic syst em t he
specific gr avit y of a liquid or solid has t he same
numer ical value as it s densit y, because wat er
weighs 1 gr am per cubic cent imet er .)
Specific gr avit y and densit y ar e independent
of t he size of t he sample under consider at ion and
depend only on t he subst ance of which it is made.
A device called a hydr omet er is used for
measur ing t he specific gr avit y of liquids.
2-4
P a sca l’s La w
Recall fr om chapt er 1 t hat t he foundat ion of
moder n hydr aulics was est ablished when Pascal
discover ed t hat pr essur e in a fluid act s equally in
all dir ect ions. This pr essur e act s at r ight angles
t o t he cont a ining sur fa ces. I f some t ype of
pr essur e gauge, wit h an exposed face, is placed
beneat h t he sur face of a liquid (fig. 2-6) at a
specific dept h and point ed in differ ent dir ect ions,
t he pr essur e will r ead t he same. Thus, we can say
t ha t pr essur e in a liquid is independent of
dir ect ion.
Pr essur e due t o t he weight of a liquid, at any
level, depends on t he dept h of t he fluid fr om t he
sur face. If t he exposed face of t he pr essur e gauges,
figur e 2-6, ar e moved closer t o t he sur face of t he
liquid, t he indicat ed pr essur e will be less. When
t he dept h is doubled, t he indicat ed pr essur e is
doubled. Thus t he pr essur e in a liquid is dir ect ly
pr opor t ional t o t he dept h.
Consider a cont a iner wit h ver t ica l sides
(fig. 2-7) t hat is 1 foot long and 1 foot wide. Let
it be filled wit h wat er 1 foot deep, pr oviding 1
cubic foot of wat er . We lear ned ear lier in t his
chapt er t hat 1 cubic foot of wat er weighs 62.4
pounds. Using t his infor mat ion and equat ion 2-2,
P = F/A, we can calculat e t he pr essur e on t he
bot t om of t he cont ainer .
Since t her e ar e 144 squar e inches in 1 squar e foot ,
This can be st at ed as follows: t he weight of a
column of wat er 1 foot high, having a cr oss-
sect ional ar ea of 1 squar e inch, is 0.433 pound.
If t he dept h of t he column is t r ipled, t he
weight of t he column will be 3 x 0.433, or 1.299
pounds, and t he pr essur e at t he bot t om will be
1.299 lb/in
2
(psi), since pr essur e equals t he for ce
divided by t he ar ea. Thus, t he pr essur e at any
dept h in a liquid is equal t o t he weight of t he
column of liquid at t hat dept h divided by t he
Fi gu r e 2-6.—P r essu r e of a li qu i d i s i n d ep en d en t of d i r ect i on .
cr oss-sect ional ar ea of t he column at t hat dept h.
The volume of a liquid t hat pr oduces t he pr essur e
is r efer r ed t o as t he fluid head of t he liquid. The
pr essur e of a liquid due t o it s fluid head is also
dependent on t he densit y of t he liquid.
If we let A equal any cr oss-sect ional ar ea of
a liquid column and h equal t he dept h of t he
column, t he volume becomes Ah. Using equat ion
2-4, D = W/V, t he weight of t he liquid above ar ea
A is equal t o AhD.
Fi gu r e 2-7.—Wa t er p r essu r e i n a 1-cu bi c-foot con t a i n er .
2-5
Since pr essur e is equal t o t he for ce per unit ar ea,
set A equal t o 1. Then t he for mula pr essur e
becomes
P = h D Equat ion 2-5.
It is essent ial t hat h and D be expr essed in similar
unit s. That is, if D is expr essed in pounds per
cubic foot , t he value of h must be expr essed in
feet . If t he desir ed pr essur e is t o be expr essed in
pounds per squar e inch, t he pr essur e for mula,
equat ion 2-5, becomes
Equat ion 2-6.
P a s ca l wa s a l s o t h e fi r s t t o pr ove by
exper iment t ha t t he sha pe a nd volume of a
cont ainer in no way alt er s pr essur e. Thus in figur e
2-8, if t he pr essur e due t o t he weight of t he liquid
at a point on hor izont al line H is 8 psi, t he
pr essur e is 8 psi ever ywher e at level H in t he
syst em. Equat ion 2-5 also shows t hat t he pr essur e
is independent of t he shape and volume of a
cont ainer .
P r essu r e a n d For ce i n Flu i d P ower Syst ems
Fi gu r e 2-9.—For ce t r a n smi t t ed t h r ou gh flu i d .
of t he shape of t he cont ainer . Consider t he effect
of t his in t he syst em shown in figur e 2-9. If t her e
is a r esist ance on t he out put pist on and t he input
pist on is pushed downwar d, a pr essur e is cr eat ed
t hr ough t he fluid, which act s equally at r ight
angles t o sur faces in all par t s of t he cont ainer .
If for ce 1 is 100 pounds and t he ar ea of t he
input pist on is 10 squar e inches, t hen t he pr essur e
in t he fluid is 10 psi
Recall t hat , accor ding t o Pascal’s law, any
for ce applied t o a confined fluid is t r ansmit t ed
in all dir ect ions t hr oughout t he fluid r egar dless
NOTE: Fluid pr essur e cannot be cr eat ed
wit hout r esist ance t o flow. In t his case, r esist ance
Fi gu r e 2-8.—P r essu r e r ela t i on sh i p
2-6
wi t h sh a p e.
is pr ovided by t he equipment t o which t he
out put pist on is a t t a ched. The for ce of r e-
sist a nce a ct s a ga inst t he t op of t he out put
pist on. The pr essur e cr ea t ed in t he syst em
by t he input pist on pushes on t he under side of
t he out put pist on wit h a for ce of 10 pounds on
each squar e inch.
In t his case, t he fluid column has a unifor m
cr oss sect ion, so t he ar ea of t he out put pist on
is t he same as t he ar ea of t he input pist on,
or 10 squa r e inches. Ther efor e, t he upwa r d
for ce on t h e ou t pu t pi s t on i s 100 pou n ds
(10 psi x 10 sq. in.), t he same as t he for ce applied
t o t he input pist on. All t hat was accomplished in
t his syst em was t o t r ansmit t he 100-pound for ce
ar ound t he bend. However , t his pr inciple under -
lies pr act ically all mechanical applicat ions of fluid
power .
At t his point you should not e t ha t since
Pa sca l’s la w is independent of t he sha pe of
t he cont a iner , it is not necessa r y t ha t t he
t ube connect ing t he t wo pist ons have t he same
cr oss-sect ional ar ea of t he pist ons. A connect ion
of any size, shape, or lengt h will do, as long as
an unobst r uct ed passage is pr ovided. Ther efor e,
t he syst em shown in figur e 2-10, wit h a r elat ively
s ma l l , ben t pi pe con n ect i n g t wo cyl i n der s ,
will act exact ly t he same as t he syst em shown in
figur e 2-9.
MULTI P LI CATI ON OF FORCES.— Con-
sider t he sit uat ion in figur e 2-11, wher e t he input
pist on is much smaller t han t he out put pist on.
Assume t hat t he ar ea of t he input pist on is 2
squar e inches. Wit h a r esist ant for ce on t he out put
pist on a downwar d for ce of 20 pounds act ing on
t he input pist on cr eat es a pr essur e of ~ or 10 psi
Fi gu r e 2-10.—Tr a n smi t t i n g for ce t h r ou gh a sma ll p i p e.
Fi gu r e 2-11.—Mu lt i p li ca t i on of for ces.
in t he fluid. Alt hough t his for ce is much smaller
t han t he for ce applied in figur es 2-9 and 2-10, t he
pr essur e is t he same. This is because t he for ce is
applied t o a smaller ar ea.
This pr essur e of 10 psi act s on all par t s of t he
fluid cont a iner , including t he bot t om of t he
out put pist on. The upwar d for ce on t he out put
pist on is 200 pounds (10 pounds of pr essur e on
each squar e inch). In t his case, t he or iginal for ce
has been mult iplied t enfold while using t he same
pr essur e in t he fluid as befor e. In any syst em wit h
t hese dimensions, t he r at io of out put for ce t o
input for ce is always t en t o one, r egar dless of t he
applied for ce. For example, if t he applied for ce
of t he input pist on is 50 pounds, t he pr essur e in
t he syst em will be 25 psi. This will suppor t a
r esist ant for ce of 500 pounds on t he out put pist on.
The syst em wor ks t he same in r ever se. If we
change t he applied for ce and place a 200-pound
for ce on t he out put pist on (fig. 2-11), making it
t he input pist on, t he out put for ce on t he input
pist on will be one-t ent h t he input for ce, or 20
pounds. (Somet imes such r esult s ar e desir ed.)
Ther efor e, if t wo pist ons ar e used in a fluid power
syst em, t he for ce act ing on each pist on is dir ect ly
pr opor t ional t o it s ar ea, and t he magnit ude of
each for ce is t he pr oduct of t he pr essur e and t he
ar ea of each pist on.
Not e t he whit e ar r ows at t he bot t om of figur e
2-11 t hat indicat e up and down movement . The
movement t hey r epr esent will be explained lat er
in t he discussion of volume and dist ance fact or s.
2-7
DI FFERENTI AL AREAS.— Consider t he
special sit uat ion shown in figur e 2-12. Her e, a
single pist on (1) in a cylinder (2) has a pist on r od
(3) at t ached t o one of it s sides. The pist on r od
ext ends out of one end of t he cylinder . Fluid under
pr essur e is admit t ed equally t o bot h ends of t he
cylinder . The opposed faces of t he pist on (1)
behave like t wo pist ons act ing against each ot her .
The ar ea of one face is t he full cr oss-sect ional ar ea
of t he cylinder , say 6 squar e inches, while t he ar ea
of t he ot her face is t he ar ea of t he cylinder minus
t he ar ea of t he pist on r od, which is 2 squar e
inches. This leaves an effect ive ar ea of 4 squar e
inches on t he r ight face of t he pist on. The pr essur e
on bot h faces is t he same, in t his case, 20 psi.
Applying t he r ule just st at ed, t he for ce pushing
t he pist on t o t he r ight is it s ar ea t imes t he pr essur e,
or 120 pounds (20 x 6). Likewise, t he for ce
pushing t he pist on t o t he left is it s ar ea t imes t he
pr essur e, or 80 pounds (20 x 4). Ther efor e, t her e
is a net unbalanced for ce of 40 pounds act ing t o
t he r ight , a nd t he pist on will move in t ha t
dir ect ion. The net effect is t he same as if t he pist on
and t he cylinder had t he same cr oss-sect ional ar ea
as t he pist on r od.
VOLUME AND DI STANCE FACTORS.—
You have lear ned t hat if a for ce is applied t o a
syst em and t he cr oss-sect ional ar eas of t he input
and out put pist ons ar e equal, as in figur es 2-9 and
2-10, t he for ce on t he input pist on will suppor t
an equal r esist ant for ce on t he out put pist on. The
pr essur e of t he liquid at t his point is equal t o t he
for ce applied t o t he input pist on divided by t he
pist on’s ar ea. Let us now look at what happens
when a for ce gr eat er t han t he r esist ance is applied
t o t he input pist on.
In t he syst em illust r at ed in figur e 2-9, assume
t hat t he r esist ance for ce on t he out put pist on is
100 psi. If a for ce slight ly gr eat er t han 100 pounds
is applied t o t he input pist on, t he pr essur e in t he
syst em will be slight ly gr eat er t han 10 psi. This
incr ease in pr essur e will over come t he r esist ance
for ce on t he out put pist on. Assume t hat t he input
pist on is for ced downwar d 1 inch. The movement
displaces 10 cubic inches of fluid. The fluid must
go somewher e. Since t he syst em is closed and t he
fluid is pr act ically incompr essible, t he fluid will
move t o t he r ight side of t he syst em. Because t he
out put pist on also has a cr oss-sect ional ar ea of
10 squar e inches, it will move 1 inch upwar d t o
accommodat e t he 10 cubic inches of fluid. You
may gener alize t his by saying t hat if t wo pist ons
in a closed syst em have equal cr oss-sect ional ar eas
and one pist on is pushed and moved, t he ot her
pist on will move t he same dist ance, t hough in t he
opposit e dir ect ion. This is because a decr ease in
volume in one par t of t he syst em is balanced by
one equal incr ease in volume in anot her par t of
t he syst em.
Apply t his r easoning t o t he syst em in figur e
2-11. If t he input pist on is pushed down a dist ance
Fi gu r e 2-12.—Di ffer en t i a l a r ea s on a p i st on .
2-8
of 1 inch, t he volume of fluid in t he left cylinder
will decr ease by 2 cubic inches. At t he same t ime,
t he volume in t he r ight cylinder will incr ease by
2 cubic inches. Since t he diamet er of t he r ight
cylinder cannot change, t he pist on must move
upwar d t o allow t he volume t o incr ease. The
pist on will move a dist ance equal t o t he volume
incr ease divided by t he sur face ar ea of t he pist on
(equal t o t he sur face ar ea of t he cylinder ). In t his
example, t he pist on will move one-t ent h of an inch
(2 cu. in. ÷ 20 sq. in.). This leads t o t he second
basic r ule for a fluid power syst em t hat cont ains
t wo pist ons: The dist ances t he pist ons move ar e
inver sely pr opor t ional t o t he ar eas of t he pist ons.
Or mor e simply, if one pist on is smaller t han t he
ot her , t he smaller pist on must move a gr eat er
dist ance t han t he lar ger pist on any t ime t he pist ons
move.
LI QUI DS I N MOTI ON
In t he oper at ion of fluid power syst ems, t her e
must be a flow of fluid. The amount of flow will
var y fr om syst em t o syst em. To under st and fluid
power syst ems in a ct ion, it is necessa r y t o
under st and some of t he char act er ist ics of liquids
in mot ion.
Liquids in mot ion have char act er ist ics dif-
fer ent fr om liquids at r est . Fr ict ional r esist ances
wit hin a fluid (viscosit y) and iner t ia cont r ibut e t o
t hese differ ences. (Viscosit y is discussed in chapt er
3.) Inertia, which means t he r esist ance a mass
offer s t o being set in mot ion, will be discussed
lat er in t his sect ion. Ther e ar e ot her r elat ionships
of liquids in mot ion wit h which you must become
familiar . Among t hese ar e volume and velocit y
of fl ow, fl ow r a t e a n d s peed, l a mi n a r a n d
t ur bulent flow, and mor e impor t ant ly, t he for ce
and ener gy changes which occur in flow.
VOLUME AND VELOCI TY OF FLOW
The volume of a liquid passing a point in a
given t ime is known as it s volume of flow or flow
r at e. The volume of flow is usually expr essed in
gallons per minut e (gpm) and is associat ed wit h
r elat ive pr essur es of t he liquid, such as 5 gpm at
40 psi.
The velocity of flow or velocit y of t he fluid
is defined as t he aver age speed at which t he fluid
moves past a given point . It is usually expr essed
in feet per second (fps) or feet per minut e (fpm).
Velocit y of flow is an impor t ant consider at ion in
sizing t he hydr aulic lines. (Hydr aulic lines ar e
discussed in chapt er 5.)
Vol u me a n d vel oci t y of fl ow a r e oft en
consider ed t oget her . Wi t h ot h er con di t i on s
una lt er ed—t ha t is, wi t h vol u me of i n pu t
unchanged—t he velocit y of flow incr eases as t he
cr oss sect ion or size of t he pipe decr eases, and t he
velocit y of flow decr eases as t he cr oss sect ion
incr eases. For example, t he velocit y of flow is slow
at wide par t s of a st r eam and r apid at nar r ow
par t s, yet t he volume of wat er passing each par t
of t he st r eam is t he same.
In figur e 2-13, if t he cr oss-sect ional ar ea of
t he pipe is 16 squar e inches at point A and 4
squar e inches at point B, we can calculat e t he
r elat ive velocit y of flow using t he flow equat ion
Q = v A Equat ion 2-7.
wher e Q is t he volume of flow, v is t he velocit y
of flow and A is t he cr oss-sect ional ar ea of t he
liquid. Since t he volume of flow at point A, Q
1
,
is equal t o t he volume of flow at point B, Q
2
, we
can use equat ion 2-7 t o det er mine t he r at io of t he
Fi gu r e 2-13.—Volu me a n d veloci t y of flow.
2-9
velocit y of flow at point A, v
1
, t o t he velocit y of
flow at point B, v
2
.
Si n ce Q
1
= Q
2
, A
1
v
1
= A
2
v
2
Fr om figur e 2-13; A
1
= 16sq. in., A
2
= 4sq. in.
Su bs t i t u t i n g: 16v
1
= 4V
2
or v
2
= 4v
I
Ther efor e, t he velocit y of flow at point B is four
t imes t he velocit y of flow at point A.
VOLUME OF FLOW AND SP EED
If you consider t he cylinder volume you must
fill and t he dist ance t he pist on must t r avel, you
can r elat e t he volume of flow t o t he speed of t he
pist on. The volume of t he cylinder is found by
mult iplying t he pist on ar ea by t he lengt h t he pist on
must t r avel (st r oke).
Su ppos e you h a ve det er mi n ed t h a t t wo
cylinder s have t he same volume and t hat one
cylinder is t wice as long as t he ot her . In t his case,
t he cr oss-sect ional ar ea of t he longer t ube will be
half of t he cr oss-sect ional ar ea of t he ot her t ube.
If fluid is pumped int o each cylinder at t he same
r at e, bot h pist ons will r each t heir full t r avel at t he
same t ime. However , t he pist on in t he smaller
cylinder must t r avel t wice as fast because it has
t wice as far t o go.
Ther e ar e t wo ways of cont r olling t he speed
of t he pist on, (1) by var ying t he size of t he cylinder
and (2) by var ying t he volume of flow (gpm) t o
t he cylinder s. (Hydr aulic cylinder s ar e discussed
in det ail in chapt er 10. )
STREAMLI NE AND
TURBULENT F LOW
At low velocit ies or in t ubes of small diamet er ,
flow is st r eamlined. This means t hat a given
par t icle of fluid moves st r aight for war d wit hout
bumping int o ot her par t icles and wit hout cr ossing
t heir pat hs. St r eamline flow is oft en r efer r ed t o
as laminar flow, which is defined as a flow
sit uat ion in which fluid moves in par allel lamina
or layer s. As an example of st r eamline flow,
consider figur e 2-14, which illust r at es an open
st r eam flowing at a slow, unifor m r at e wit h logs
float ing on it s sur face. The logs r epr esent par t icles
of fluid. As long as t he st r eam flows at a slow,
unifor m r at e, each log float s downst r eam in it s
Fi gu r e 2-14.—St r ea mli n e flow.
own pat h, wit hout cr ossing or bumping int o t he
ot her .
If t he st r eam nar r ows, however , and t he
volume of flow r emains t he same, t he velocit y
of flow incr ea ses. I f t he velocit y incr ea ses
sufficient ly, t he wat er becomes t ur bulent . (See
fig. 2-15.) Swir ls, eddies, and cr oss-mot ions ar e
set up in t he wat er . As t his happens, t he logs ar e
t hr own against each ot her and against t he banks
of t he st r eam, and t he pat hs followed by differ ent
logs will cr oss and r ecr oss.
Par t icles of fluid flowing in pipes act in t he
same manner . The flow is st r eamlined if t he fluid
flows slowly enough, and r emains st r eamlined at
gr eat er velocit ies if t he diamet er of t he pipe is
small. If t he velocit y of flow or size of pipe is
incr eased sufficient ly, t he flow becomes t ur bulent .
While a high velocit y of flow will pr oduce
t ur bulence in any pipe, ot her fact or s cont r ibut e
t o t ur bulence. Among t hese ar e t he r oughness of
t he inside of t he pipe, obst r uct ions, t he degr ee of
cur vat ur e of bends, and t he number of bends in
t he pipe. In set t ing up or maint aining fluid power
syst ems, car e should be t aken t o eliminat e or
Fi gu r e 2-15.—Tu r bu len t flow.
2-10
minimize a s ma ny ca uses of t ur bulence a s
possible, since t he ener gy consumed by t ur bulence
is wast ed. Limit at ions r elat ed t o t he degr ee
and number of bends of pipe ar e discussed in
chapt er 5.
While designer s of fluid power equipment do
what t hey can t o minimize t ur bulence, it cannot
be avoided. For example, in a 4-inch pipe at 68°F,
flow becomes t ur bulent at velocit ies over appr oxi-
mat ely 6 inches per second or about 3 inches per
second in a 6-inch pipe. These velocit ies ar e far
below t hose commonly encount er ed in fluid power
syst ems, wher e velocit ies of 5 feet per second and
above ar e common. In st r eamlined flow, losses
due t o fr ict ion incr ease dir ect ly wit h velocit y. Wit h
t ur bulent flow t hese losses incr ease much mor e
r apidly.
FACTORS I NVOLVED I N FLOW
An under st anding of t he behavior of fluids in
mot ion, or solids for t hat mat t er , r equir es an
under st anding of t he t er m inertia. Iner t ia is t he
t er m used by scient ist s t o descr ibe t he pr oper t y
possessed by all for ms of mat t er t hat makes t he
mat t er r esist being moved if it is at r est , and
likewise, r esist any change in it s r at e of mot ion
if it is moving.
The ba sic st a t ement cover ing iner t ia is
Newt on’s fir st law of mot ion—iner t ia. Sir Isaac
Newt on was a Br it ish philosopher and mat he-
mat ician. His fir st law st at es: A body at rest tends
to remain at rest, and a body in motion tends to
remain in motion at the same speed and direction,
unless act ed on by some unbalanced force.
This simply sa ys wha t you ha ve lea r ned by
exper ience—t hat you must push an object t o st ar t
it moving and push it in t he opposit e dir ect ion
t o st op it again.
A familiar illust r at ion is t he effor t a pit cher
must exer t t o make a fast pit ch and t he opposit ion
t he cat cher must put for t h t o st op t he ball.
Similar ly, consider able wor k must be per for med
by t he engine t o ma ke a n a ut omobile begin
t o r oll; alt hough, aft er it has at t ained a cer t ain
velocit y, it will r oll along t he r oad at unifor m
speed if just enough effor t is expended t o
over come fr ict ion, while br akes ar e necessar y t o
st op it s mot ion. Iner t ia also explains t he kick or
r ecoil of guns and t he t r emendous st r iking for ce
of pr oject iles.
I n er t i a
To
a n d For ce
over come t he t endency of an object t o
r esist any change in it s st at e of r est or mot ion,
some for ce t hat is not ot her wise canceled or
u n ba l a n ced mu s t a ct on t h e object . Some
unbalanced for ce must be applied whenever fluids
ar e set in mot ion or incr eased in velocit y; while
conver sely, for ces ar e made t o do wor k elsewher e
whenever fluids in mot ion a r e r et a r ded or
st opped.
Ther e is a dir ect r elat ionship bet ween t he
magnit ude of t he for ce exer t ed and t he iner t ia
against which it act s. This for ce is dependent
on t wo fa ct or s : (1) t h e ma s s of t h e object
(which is pr opor t ional t o it s weight ), and (2)
t he r a t e a t which t he velocit y of t he object
is cha nged. The r ule is t hat t he for ce in
pounds r equir ed t o over come iner t ia is equal
t o t he weight of t he object mult iplied by t he
change in velocit y, measur ed in feet per second,
and divided by 32 t imes t he t ime in seconds
r equir ed t o accomplish t he change. Thus, t he r at e
of change in velocit y of an object is pr opor t ional
t o t he for ce applied. The number 32 appear s
because it is t he conver sion fact or bet ween weight
and mass.
Ther e ar e five physical fact or s t hat can act on
a fluid t o affect it s behavior . All of t he physical
act ions of fluids in all syst ems ar e det er mined by
t he r elat ionships of t hese five fact or s t o each
ot her . Summar izing, t hese five fact or s ar e as
follows:
1. Gr avit y, which act s at all t imes on all
bodies, r egar dless of ot her for ces
2. At mospher ic pr essur e, which a ct s on
a ny pa r t of a syst em exposed t o t he open
air
3. Specific applied for ces, which mayor may
not be pr esent , but which, in any event , ar e
ent ir ely independent of t he pr esence or absence
of mot ion
4. Iner t ia, which comes int o play whenever
t her e is a change fr om r est t o mot ion or t he
opposit e, or whenever t her e is a cha nge in
dir ect ion or in r at e of mot ion
5. Fr ict ion, which is always pr esent whenever
t her e is mot ion
2-11
Figur e 2-16 illust r at es a possible r elat ionship
of t hese fact or s wit h r espect t o a par t icle of fluid
(P) in a syst em. The differ ent for ces ar e shown
in t er ms of head, or in ot her wor ds, in t er ms of
ver t ical columns of fluid r equir ed t o pr ovide
t he for ces. At t he pa r t icula r moment under
consider at ion, a par t icle of wat er (P) is being act ed
on by applied for ce (A), by at mospher ic pr essur e
(B), and by gr avit y (C) pr oduced by t he weight
of t he fluid st anding over it . The par t icle possesses
sufficient iner t ia or velocit y head t o r ise t o level
P1, since head equivalent t o F was lost in fr ict ion
as P passed t hr ough t he syst em. Since at mospher ic
pr essur e (B) act s downwar d on bot h sides of t he
syst em, what is gained on one side is lost on t he
ot her .
If all t he pr essur e act ing on P t o for ce it
t hr ough t he nozzle could be r ecover ed in t he for m
of elevat ion head, it would r ise t o level Y. If
account is t aken of t he balance in at mospher ic
pr essur e, in a fr ict ionless syst em, P would r ise t o
level X, or pr ecisely as high as t he sum of t he
gr avit y head and t he head equivalent t o t he
applied for ce.
Ki n et i c En er gy
It was pr eviously point ed out t hat a for ce must
be applied t o an object in or der t o give it a velocit y
or t o incr ease t he velocit y it alr eady has. Whet her
t he for ce begins or changes velocit y, it act s over
a cer t ain dist ance. A for ce act ing over a cer t ain
dist ance is wor k. Wor k and all for ms int o which
it ca n be cha nged a r e cla ssified a s ener gy.
Obviously t hen, ener gy is r equir ed t o give an
object velocit y. The gr eat er t he ener gy used, t he
gr eat er t he velocit y will be.
Disr ega r ding fr ict ion, for a n object t o be
br ought t o r est or for it s mot ion t o be slowed
down, a for ce opposed t o it s mot ion must be
applied t o it . This for ce also act s over some
dist ance. In t his way ener gy is given up by t he
object and deliver ed in some for m t o what ever
opposes it s cont inuous mot ion. The moving object
is t her efor e a means of r eceiving ener gy at one
place (wher e it s mot ion is incr eased) and deliver ing
it t o a not her point (wher e it is st opped or
r et ar ded). While it is in mot ion, it is said t o
cont ain t his ener gy as ener gy of mot ion or kinetic
ener gy.
Since ener gy can never be dest r oyed, it follows
t hat if fr ict ion is disr egar ded t he ener gy deliver ed
t o st op t he object will exact ly equal t he ener gy
t hat was r equir ed t o incr ease it s speed. At all t imes
t he amount of kinet ic ener gy possessed by an
object depends on it s weight and t he velocit y at
which it is moving.
Fi gu r e 2-16.—P h ysi ca l fa ct or s gover n i n g flu i d flow.
2-12
The mat hemat ical r elat ionship for kinet ic
ener gy is st at ed in t he r ule: “Kinet ic ener gy in
foot -pounds is equal t o t he for ce in pounds which
cr eat ed it , mult iplied by t he dist ance t hr ough
which it was applied, or t o t he weight of t he
moving object in pounds, mult iplied by t he squar e
of it s velocit y in feet per second, and divided by
64.s”
The r ela t ionship bet ween iner t ia for ces,
velocit y, and kinet ic ener gy can be illust r at ed by
analyzing what happens when a gun fir es a
pr oject ile against t he ar mor of an enemy ship. (See
fig. 2-17.) The explosive for ce of t he powder in
t he br each pushes t he pr oject ile out of t he gun,
giving it a high velocit y. Because of it s iner t ia,
t he pr oject ile offer s opposit ion t o t his sudden
velocit y and a r eact ion is set up t hat pushes t he
gun backwar d (kick or r ecoil). The for ce of t he
explosion act s on t he pr oject ile t hr oughout it s
movement in t he gun. This is for ce act ing t hr ough
a dist ance pr oducing wor k. This wor k appear s as
kinet ic ener gy in t he speeding pr oject ile. The
r esist ance of t he air pr oduces fr ict ion, which uses
some of t he ener gy and slows down t he pr oject ile.
Event ually, however , t he pr oject ile hit s it s t ar get
and, because of t he iner t ia, t r ies t o cont inue
moving. The t ar get , being r elat ively st at ionar y,
t ends t o r emain st at ionar y because of it s iner t ia.
The r esult is t hat a t r emendous for ce is set up t hat
eit her leads t o t he penet r at ion of t he ar mor or
t he shat t er ing of t he pr oject ile. The pr oject ile
is simply a means of t r ansfer r ing ener gy, in
t his inst ance for dest r uct ive pur pose, fr om t he
gun t o t he enemy ship. This ener gy is t r ansmit t ed
in t he for m of ener gy of mot ion or kinet ic
ener gy.
A similar act ion t akes place in a fluid power
syst em in which t he fluid t akes t he place of t he
pr oject ile. For example, t he pump in a hydr aulic
Fi gu r e 2-17.—Rela t i on sh i p of i n er t i a , veloci t y, a n d k i n et i c
e n e r gy.
s ys t em i mpa r t s en er gy t o t h e fl u i d, wh i ch
over comes t he iner t ia of t he fluid at r est and
causes it t o flow t hr ough t he lines. The fluid flows
against some t ype of act uat or t hat is at r est . The
fluid t ends t o cont inue flowing, over comes t he
iner t ia of t he act uat or , and moves t he act uat or
t o do wor k. Fr ict ion uses up a por t ion of t he
ener gy as t he fluid flows t hr ough t he lines and
component s.
RELATI ONSHI P OF FORCE,
P RESSURE, AND HEAD
In dealing wit h fluids, for ces ar e usually
consider ed in r elat ion t o t he ar eas over which t hey
ar e applied. As pr eviously discussed, a for ce
act ing over a unit ar ea is a pr essur e, and pr essur e
can alt er nat ely be st at ed in pounds per squar e inch
or in t er ms of head, which is t he ver t ical height
of t he column of fluid whose weight would
pr oduce t hat pr essur e.
In most of t he applicat ions of fluid power in
t he Navy, applied for ces gr eat ly out weigh all ot her
for ces, and t he fluid is ent ir ely confined. Under
t hese cir cumst ances it is cust omar y t o t hink of t he
for ces involved in t er ms of pr essur es. Since t he
t er m head is encount er ed fr equent ly in t he st udy
of fluid power , it is necessar y t o under st and what
it means and how it is r elat ed t o pr essur e and
for ce.
All five of t he fact or s t hat cont r ol t he act ions
of fluids can, of cour se, be expr essed eit her as
for ce, or in t er ms of equivalent pr essur es or head.
In each sit uat ion, t he differ ent fact or s ar e r efer r ed
t o in t he same t er ms, since t hey can be added and
subt r act ed t o st udy t heir r elat ionship t o each
ot her .
At t his point you need t o r eview some t er ms
in gener al use. Gr avit y head, when it is impor t ant
enough t o be consider ed, is somet imes r efer r ed
t o as head. The effect of at mospher ic pr essur e is
r efer r ed t o as at mospher ic pr essur e. (At mospher ic
pr essur e is fr equent ly and impr oper ly r efer r ed t o
as suct ion.) Iner t ia effect , because it is always
dir ect ly r elat ed t o velocit y, is usually called
velocit y head; and fr ict ion, because it r epr esent s
a loss of pr essur e or head, is usually r efer r ed t o
as fr ict ion head.
STATI C AND DYNAMI C FACTORS
Gr a vit y, a pplied for ces, a nd a t mospher ic
pr essur e ar e st at ic fact or s t hat apply equally t o
2-13
fluids at r est or in mot ion, while iner t ia and
fr ict ion ar e dynamic fact or s t hat apply only t o
fluids in mot ion. The ma t hema t ica l sum of
gr avit y, applied for ce, and at mospher ic pr essur e
is t he st at ic pr essur e obt ained at any one point
in a fluid at any given t ime. St at ic pr essur e exist s
in addit ion t o any dynamic fact or s t hat may also
be pr esent at t he same t ime.
Remember , Pascal’s law st at es t hat a pr essur e
set up in a fluid act s equally in all dir ect ions and
at r ight angles t o t he cont aining sur faces. This
cover s t he sit uat ion only for fluids at r est or
pr act ically at r est . It is t r ue only for t he fact or s
making up st at ic head. Obviously, when velocit y
becomes a fact or it must have a dir ect ion, and
as pr eviously explained, t he for ce r elat ed t o t he
velocit y must a lso ha ve a dir ect ion, so t ha t
Pascal’s law alone does not apply t o t he dynamic
fact or s of fluid power .
The dynamic fact or s of iner t ia and fr ict ion ar e
r elat ed t o t he st at ic fact or s. Velocit y head and
fr ict ion head ar e obt ained at t he expense of st at ic
head. However , a por t ion of t he velocit y head can
always be r econver t ed t o st at ic head. For ce, which
can be pr oduced by pr essur e or head when dealing
wit h fluids, is necessar y t o st ar t a body moving
if it is at r est , and is pr esent in some for m when
t he mot ion of t he body is ar r est ed; t her efor e,
whenever a fluid is given velocit y, some par t of
it s or iginal st at ic head is used t o impar t t his
velocit y, which t hen exist s as velocit y head.
BERNOULLI ’S P RI NCI P LE
Consider t he syst em illust r at ed in figur e 2-18.
Chamber A is under pr essur e and is connect ed by
a t ube t o chamber B, which is also under pr essur e.
The pr essur e in chamber A is st at ic pr essur e of
100 psi. The pr essur e at some point (X) along t he
connect ing t ube consist s of a velocit y pr essur e of
Fi gu r e 2-18.—Rela t i on of st a t i c a n d d yn a mi c fa ct or s—
Ber n ou lli ’s p r i n ci p le.
10 psi exer t ed in a dir ect ion par allel t o t he line
of flow, plus t he unused st at ic pr essur e of 90 psi,
which st ill obeys Pascal’s law and oper at es equally
in all dir ect ions. As t he fluid ent er s chamber B
it is slowed down, and it s velocit y is changed back
t o pr essur e. The for ce r equir ed t o absor b it s
iner t ia equals t he for ce r equir ed t o st ar t t he fluid
moving or iginally, so t hat t he st at ic pr essur e in
chamber B is equal t o t hat in chamber A.
This sit uat ion (fig. 2-18) disr egar ds fr ict ion;
t her efor e, it would not be encount er ed in act ual
pr a ct ice. For ce or hea d is a lso r equir ed t o
over come fr ict ion but , unlike iner t ia effect , t his
for ce cannot be r ecover ed again, alt hough t he
ener gy r epr esent ed st ill exist s somewher e as heat .
Ther efor e, in an act ual syst em t he pr essur e in
chamber B would be less t han in chamber A by
t he a mount of pr essur e used in over coming
fr ict ion along t he way.
At all point s in a syst em t he st at ic pr essur e is
always t he or iginal st at ic pr essur e, less any velocit y
head at t he point in quest ion and less t he fr ict ion
head consumed in r eaching t hat point . Since bot h
t he velocit y head and t he fr ict ion head r epr esent
ener gy t hat came fr om t he or iginal st at ic head,
and since ener gy cannot be dest r oyed, t he sum of
t he st at ic head, t he velocit y head, and t he fr ict ion
head at any point in t he syst em must add up t o
t he or igina l st a t ic hea d. This is known a s
Ber noulli's pr inciple, which st a t es: For t he
horizontal flow of fluid through a tube, the sum
of the pressure and the kinetic energy per unit
volume of the fluid is constant. This pr inciple
gover ns t he r elat ions of t he st at ic and dynamic
fact or s concer ning fluids, while Pascal’s law st at es
t he manner in which t he st at ic fact or s behave
when t aken by t hemselves.
MI NI MI ZI NG FRI CTI ON
Fluid power equipment is designed t o r educe
fr ict ion t o t he lowest possible level. Volume and
velocit y of flow ar e made t he subject of car eful
st udy. The pr oper fluid for t he syst em is chosen.
Clean, smoot h pipe of t he best dimensions for t he
par t icular condit ions is used, and it is inst alled
along as dir ect a r out e as possible. Shar p bends
and sudden changes in cr oss-sect ional ar eas ar e
avoided. Valves, gauges, and ot her component s
ar e designed t o int er r upt flow as lit t le as possible.
Car eful t hought is given t o t he size and shape of
t he openings. The syst ems ar e designed so t hey
2-14
can be kept clean inside and var iat ions fr om
nor mal oper at ion can easily be det ect ed and
r emedied.
OP ERATI ON OF HYDRAULI C
COMP ONENTS
To t r a n s mi t a n d con t r ol power t h r ou gh
pr essur ized fluids, a n a r r a ngement of int er -
connect ed component s is r equir ed. Such a n
ar r angement is commonly r efer r ed t o as a syst em.
The number and ar r angement of t he component s
var y fr om syst em t o syst em, depending on t he
par t icular applicat ion. In many applicat ions, one
main syst em supplies power t o sever al subsyst ems,
which ar e somet imes r efer r ed t o as cir cuit s. The
complet e syst em may be a small compact unit ;
mor e oft en, however , t he component s ar e locat ed
at widely separ at ed point s for convenient cont r ol
and oper at ion of t he syst em.
The basic component s of a fluid power syst em
ar e essent ially t he same, r egar dless of whet her t he
syst em uses a hydr aulic or a pneumat ic medium.
Ther e ar e five basic component s used in a syst em.
These basic component s ar e as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Reser voir or r eceiver
Pump or compr essor
Lines (pipe, t ubing, or flexible hose)
Dir ect ional cont r ol valve
Act uat ing device
Sever al applicat ions of fluid power r equir e
only a simple syst em; t hat is, a syst em which uses
only a few component s in addit ion t o t he five
basic component s. A few of t hese applicat ions ar e
pr esent ed in t he following par agr aphs. We will
explain t he oper at ion of t hese syst ems br iefly at
t his t ime so you will know t he pur pose of each
component a nd ca n bet t er under st a nd how
hydr aulics is used in t he oper at ion of t hese
syst ems. Mor e complex fluid power syst ems ar e
descr ibed in chapt er 12.
HYDRAULI C J ACK
The hydr aulic jack is per haps one of t he
simplest for ms of a fluid power syst em. By
moving t he handle of a small device, an individual
can lift a load weighing sever al t ons. A small
init ial for ce exer t ed on t he handle is t r ansmit t ed
by a fluid t o a much lar ger ar ea. To under st and
t his bet t er , st udy figur e 2-19. The small input
pist on has an ar ea of 5 squar e inches and is
dir ect ly connect ed t o a lar ge cylinder wit h an
out put pist on having an ar ea of 250 squar e inches.
The t op of t his pist on for ms a lift plat for m.
If a for ce of 25 pounds is applied t o t he input
pist on, it pr oduces a pr essur e of 5 psi in t he fluid,
t ha t is, of cour se, if a sufficient a mount of
r esist ant for ce is act ing against t he t op of t he
out put pist on. Disr egar ding fr ict ion loss, t his
pr essur e act ing on t he 250 squar e inch ar ea of t he
out put pist on will suppor t a r esist ance for ce of
1,250 pounds. In ot her wor ds, t his pr essur e could
over come a for ce of slight ly under 1,250 pounds.
An input for ce of 25 pounds has been t r ansfor med
int o a wor king for ce of mor e t han half a t on;
however , for t his t o be t r ue, t he dist ance t r aveled
by t he input pist on must be 50 t imes gr eat er t han
t he dist ance t r aveled by t he out put pist on. Thus,
for ever y inch t hat t he input pist on moves, t he
out put pist on will move only one-fift iet h of an
i n c h .
This would be ideal if t he out put pist on needed
t o move only a shor t dist ance. However , in most
inst ances, t he out put pist on would have t o be
capable of moving a gr eat er dist ance t o ser ve a
pr act ical applicat ion. The device shown in figur e
2-19 is not capable of moving t he out put pist on
far t her t han t hat shown; t her efor e, some ot her
means must be used t o r aise t he out put pist on t o
a gr eat er height .
Fi gu r e 2-19.—Hyd r a u li c ja ck .
2-15
The out put pist on can be r aised higher and
maint ained at t his height if addit ional component s
ar e inst alled as shown in figur e 2-20. In t his
illust r at ion t he jack is designed so t hat it can be
r aised, lower ed, or held at a const ant height .
These r esult s ar e at t ained by int r oducing a number
of valves and also a r eser ve supply of fluid t o be
used in t he syst em.
Not ice t hat t his syst em cont ains t he five basic
component s—t he r eser voir ; cylinder 1, which
ser ves as a pump; valve 3, which ser ves as a
dir ect ional cont r ol valve; cylinder 2, which ser ves
as t he act uat ing device; and lines t o t r ansmit t he
fluid t o and fr om t he differ ent component s. In
addit ion, t his syst em cont ains t wo valves, 1 and
2, whose funct ions ar e explained in t he following
discussion.
As t he input pist on is r aised (fig. 2-20, view
A), valve 1 is closed by t he back pr essur e fr om
t he weight of t he out put pist on. At t he same t ime,
valve 2 is opened by t he head of t he fluid in t he
r eser voir . This for ces fluid int o cylinder 1. When
t he input pist on is lower ed (fig. 2-20, view B), a
pr essur e is developed in cylinder 1. When t his
pr essur e exceeds t he head in t he r eser voir , it closes
valve 2. When it exceeds t he back pr essur e fr om
t he out put pist on, it opens valve 1, for cing fluid
int o t he pipeline. The pr essur e fr om cylinder 1 is
Fi gu r e 2-20.—Hyd r a u li c ja ck ; (A) u p st r ok e; (B) d own st r ok e.
t hus t r ansmit t ed int o cylinder 2, wher e it act s t o
r aise t he out put pist on wit h it s at t ached lift
plat for m. When t he input pist on is again r aised,
t he pr essur e in cylinder 1 dr ops below t hat in
cylinder 2, causing valve 1 t o close. This pr event s
t he r et ur n of fluid and holds t he out put pist on
wit h it s at t ached lift plat for m at it s new level.
Dur ing t his st r oke, valve 2 opens again allowing
a new supply of fluid int o cylinder 1 for t he next
power (downwar d) st r oke of t he input pist on.
Thus, by r epeat ed st r okes of t he input pist on, t he
lift plat for m can be pr ogr essively r aised. To lower
t he lift plat for m, valve 3 is opened, and t he fluid
fr om cylinder 2 is r et ur ned t o t he r eser voir .
HYDRAULI C BRAKES
The hydr a ulic br a ke syst em used in t he
aut omobile is a mult iple pist on syst em. A mult iple
pist on syst em allows for ces t o be t r ansmit t ed t o
t wo or mor e pist ons in t he manner indicat ed in
figur e 2-21. Not e t hat t he pr essur e set up by t he
for ce applied t o t he input pist on (1) is t r ansmit t ed
undiminished t o bot h out put pist ons (2 and 3),
and t hat t he r esult ant for ce on each pist on is
pr opor t ional t o it s ar ea. The mult iplicat ion of
for ces fr om t he input pist on t o each out put pist on
is t he same as t hat explained ear lier .
The hydr aulic br ake syst em fr om t he mast er
cyl i n der s t o t h e wh eel cyl i n der s on mos t
Fi gu r e 2-21.—Mu lt i p le p i st on syst em.
2-16
aut omobiles oper at es in a way similar t o t he
syst em illust r at ed in figur e 2-22.
When t he br a ke peda l is depr essed, t he
pr essur e on t he br ake pedal moves t he pist on
wit hin t he mast er cylinder , for cing t he br ake fluid
fr om t he mast er cylinder t hr ough t he t ubing and
flexible hose t o t he wheel cylinder s. The wheel
cylinder s cont ain t wo opposed out put pist ons,
each of which is at t ached t o a br ake shoe fit t ed
inside t he br ake dr um. Each out put pist on pushes
t he at t ached br ake shoe against t he wall of t he
br ake dr um, t hus r et ar ding t he r ot at ion of t he
wheel. When pr essur e on t he pedal is r eleased, t he
spr ings on t he br ake shoes r et ur n t he wheel
cylinder pist ons t o t heir r eleased posit ions. This
a ct ion for ces t he displa ced br a ke fluid ba ck
t hr ough t he flexible hose and t ubing t o t he mast er
cylinder .
The for ce applied t o t he br ake pedal pr oduces
a pr opor t iona l for ce on ea ch of t he out put
pist ons, which in t ur n apply t he br ake shoes
fr ict iona lly t o t he t ur ning wheels t o r et a r d
r ot at ion.
As pr eviously ment ioned, t he hydr aulic br ake
syst em on most aut omobiles oper at es in a similar
way, as shown in figur e 2-22. It is beyond t he
scope of t his manual t o discuss t he var ious br ake
syst ems.
Fi gu r e 2-22.—An a u t omobi le br a k e syst em.
2-17
CHAP TER 3
HYDRAULI C FLUI DS
Dur ing t he design of equipment t hat r equir es
fluid power , ma ny fa ct or s a r e consider ed in
select ing t he t ype of syst em t o be used—hydr aulic,
pneumat ic, or a combinat ion of t he t wo. Some
of t he fact or s ar e r equir ed speed and accur acy of
oper at ion, sur r ounding at mospher ic condit ions,
economic condit ions, availabilit y of r eplacement
fluid, r equir ed pr essur e level, oper at ing t emper a-
t ur e r ange, cont aminat ion possibilit ies, cost of
t r ansmission lines, limit at ions of t he equipment ,
lubr icit y, safet y t o t he oper at or s, and expect ed
ser vice life of t he equipment .
Aft er t he t ype of syst em has been select ed,
many of t hese same fact or s must be consider ed
in select ing t he fluid for t he syst em. This chapt er
is devot ed t o hydr aulic fluids. Included in it ar e
sect ions on t he pr oper t ies and char act er ist ics
desir ed of hydr aulic fluids; t ypes of hydr aulic
fluids; hazar ds and safet y pr ecaut ions for wor king
wit h, ha ndling, a nd disposing of hydr a ulic
liquids; t ypes and cont r ol of cont aminat ion; and
sampling.
P ROP ERTI ES
If fluidit y (t he physical pr oper t y of a subst ance
t hat enables it t o flow) and incompr essibilit y wer e
t he only pr oper t ies r equir ed, any liquid not t oo
t hick might be used in a hydr a ulic syst em.
However , a sat isfact or y liquid for a par t icular
syst em must possess a number of ot her pr oper t ies.
The most impor t ant pr oper t ies and some char ac-
t er ist ics ar e discussed in t he following par agr aphs.
VI SCOSI TY
Vi s cos i t y i s on e of t h e mos t i mpor t a n t
pr oper t ies of hydr aulic fluids. It is a measur e of
a fluid’s r esist ance t o flow. A liquid, such as
gasoline, which flows easily has a low viscosit y;
and a liquid, such as t ar , which flows slowly has
a high viscosit y. The viscosit y of a liquid is
affect ed by changes in t emper at ur e and pr essur e.
As t he t emper at ur e of a liquid incr eases, it s
viscosit y decr eases. That is, a liquid flows mor e
easily when it is hot t han when it is cold. The
viscosit y of a liquid incr eases as t he pr essur e on
t he liquid incr eases.
A sat isfact or y liquid for a hydr aulic syst em
must be t hick enough t o give a good seal at
pumps, mot or s, valves, and so on. These com-
ponent s depend on close fit s for cr eat ing and
ma int a ining pr essur e. Any int er na l lea ka ge
t hr ough t hese clear ances r esult s in loss of pr essur e,
inst a nt a neous cont r ol, a nd pump efficiency.
Leakage losses ar e gr eat er wit h t hinner liquids
(low viscosit y). A liquid t hat is t oo t hin will also
allow r apid wear ing of moving par t s, or of par t s
t hat oper at e under heavy loads. On t he ot her
hand, if t he liquid is t oo t hick (viscosit y t oo high),
t he int er nal fr ict ion of t he liquid will cause an
incr ease in t he liquid’s flow r esist ance t hr ough
clea r a nces of closely fit t ed pa r t s, lines, a nd
int er nal passages. This r esult s in pr essur e dr ops
t h r ou gh ou t t h e s ys t em, s l u ggi s h oper a t i on
of t he equipment , and an incr ease in power
consumpt ion.
Mea su r emen t of Vi scosi t y
Viscosit y is nor mally det er mined by measur ing
t he t ime r equir ed for a fixed volume of a fluid
(a t a given t emper a t ur e) t o flow t hr ough a
calibr at ed or ifice or capillar y t ube. The inst r u-
ment s used t o measur e t he viscosit y of a liquid
ar e known as viscomet er s or viscosimet er s.
Sever al t ypes of viscosimet er s ar e in use t oday.
The Saybolt viscomet er , shown in figur e 3-1,
measur es t he t ime r equir ed, in seconds, for 60
millilit er s of t he t est ed fluid at 100°F t o pass
t hr ough a st andar d or ifice. The t ime measur ed is
3-1
Fi gu r e 3-1.—Sa ybolt vi scomet er .
used t o expr ess t he fluid’s viscosit y, in Saybolt
univer sal seconds or Saybolt fur ol seconds.
The glass capillar y viscomet er s, shown in
figur e 3-2, ar e examples of t he second t ype of
viscomet er used. These viscomet er s ar e used t o
measur e kinemat ic viscosit y. Like t he Saybolt
viscomet er , t he glass capillar y measur es t he t ime
in seconds r equir ed for t he t est ed fluid t o flow
t hr ough t he capillar y. This t ime is mult iplied by
t he t emper at ur e const ant of t he viscomet er in use
t o pr ovide t he viscosit y, expr essed in cent ist r okes.
The following for mula s ma y be used t o
conver t cent ist r okes (cSt unit s) t o appr oximat e
Saybolt univer sal seconds (SUS unit s).
For SUS values bet ween 32 and 100:
For SUS values gr eat er t han 100:
Alt hough t he viscomet er s discussed above ar e
used in labor at or ies, t her e ar e ot her viscomet er s
in t he supply syst em t hat ar e available for local
use. These viscomet er s can be used t o t est t he
viscosit y of hydr aulic fluids eit her pr ior t o t heir
being added t o a syst em or per iodically aft er t hey
have been in an oper at ing syst em for a while.
Fi gu r e 3-2.–Va r i ou s st yles of gla ss ca p i lla r y vi scomet er s.
3-2
Addit ional infor mat ion on t he var ious t ypes
of viscomet er s and t heir oper at ion can be found
in t he Physical Measurements Training Manual,
NAVAI R 17-35QAL-2.
Vi scosi t y I n d ex
The viscosit y index (V.I.) of an oil is a number
t hat indicat es t he effect of t emper at ur e changes
on t he viscosit y of t he oil. A low V.I. signifies
a r elat ively lar ge change of viscosit y wit h changes
of t emper at ur e. In ot her wor ds, t he oil becomes
ext r emely t hin at high t emper at ur es and ext r emely
t hick at low t emper at ur es. On t he ot her hand, a
high V.I. signifies r ela t ively lit t le cha nge in
viscosit y over a wide t emper at ur e r ange.
An i dea l oi l for mos t pu r pos es i s on e
t hat maint ains a const ant viscosit y t hr oughout
t emper at ur e changes. The impor t ance of t he V.I.
can be shown easily by consider ing aut omot ive
lubr ica nt s. An oil ha ving a high V.I. r esist s
excessive t hickening when t he engine is cold and,
consequent ly, pr omot es r apid st ar t ing and pr ompt
cir culat ion; it r esist s excessive t hinning when t he
mot or is hot and t hus pr ovides full lubr icat ion and
pr event s excessive oil consumpt ion.
Anot her example of t he impor t ance of t he V.I.
is t he need for a high V.I. hydr aulic oil for milit ar y
air cr aft , since hydr aulic cont r ol syst ems may be
exposed t o t emper at ur es r anging fr om below
–65°F at high alt it udes t o over 100°F on t he
gr ound. For t he pr oper oper at ion of t he hydr aulic
cont r ol syst em, t he hydr aulic fluid must have a
sufficient ly high V.I. t o per for m it s funct ions at
t he ext r emes of t he expect ed t emper at ur e r ange.
Liquids wit h a high viscosit y have a gr eat er
r esist ance t o heat t han low viscosit y liquids which
have been der ived fr om t he same sour ce. The
aver age hydr aulic liquid has a r elat ively low
viscosit y. For t unat ely, t her e is a wide choice of
liquids available for use in t he viscosit y r ange
r equir ed of hydr aulic liquids.
The V.I. of an oil may be det er mined if it s
viscosit y at any t wo t emper at ur es is known.
Tables, based on a lar ge number of t est s, ar e
issued by t he Amer ica n Societ y for Test ing
a nd Ma t er ia ls (ASTM). These t a bles per mit
calculat ion of t he V.I. fr om known viscosit ies.
LUBRI CATI NG P OWER
If mot ion t akes place bet ween sur faces in
cont act , fr ict ion t ends t o oppose t he mot ion.
When pr essur e for ces t he liquid of a hydr aulic
syst em bet ween t he sur faces of moving par t s, t he
liquid spr eads out int o a t hin film which enables
t he par t s t o move mor e fr eely. Differ ent liquids,
including oils, var y gr eat ly not only in t heir
lubr icat ing abilit y but also in film st r engt h. Film
st r engt h is t he capabilit y of a liquid t o r esist being
wiped or squeezed out fr om bet ween t he sur faces
when spr ead out in an ext r emely t hin layer . A
liquid will no longer lubr icat e if t he film br eaks
down, since t he mot ion of par t against par t wipes
t he met al clean of liquid.
Lubr icat ing power var ies wit h t emper at ur e
changes; t her efor e, t he climat ic and wor king
condit ions must ent er int o t he det er minat ion of
t he lubr ica t ing qua lit ies of a liquid. Unlike
viscosit y, which is a physica l pr oper t y, t he
lubr icat ing power and film st r engt h of a liquid
i s di r ect l y r el a t ed t o i t s ch emi ca l n a t u r e.
Lubr icat ing qualit ies and film st r engt h can be
impr oved by t he addit ion of cer t ain chemical
agent s.
CHEMI CAL STABI LI TY
Chemical st abilit y is anot her pr oper t y which
is exceedingly impor t ant in t he select ion of a
hydr aulic liquid. It is defined as t he liquid’s abilit y
t o r esist oxidat ion and det er ior at ion for long
per iods. All liquids t end t o under go unfavor able
changes under sever e oper at ing condit ions. This
is t he case, for example, when a syst em oper at es
for a con s i der a bl e per i od of t i me a t h i gh
t emper at ur es.
Excessive t emper at ur es, especially ext r emely
high t emper at ur es, have a gr eat effect on t he life
of a liquid. The t emper at ur e of t he liquid in t he
r eser voir of an oper at ing hydr aulic syst em does
not always indicat e t he oper at ing condit ions
t hr oughout t he syst em. Localized hot spot s occur
on bear ings, gear t eet h, or at ot her point s wher e
t he liquid under pr essur e is for ced t hr ough small
or ifices. Cont inuous passage of t he liquid t hr ough
t hese point s may pr oduce local t emper at ur es high
enough t o car bonize t he liquid or t ur n it int o
sludge, yet t he liquid in t he r eser voir may not
indicat e an excessively high t emper at ur e.
Liquids may br eak down if exposed t o air ,
wat er , salt , or ot her impur it ies, especially if t hey
ar e in const ant mot ion or subject ed t o heat . Some
met als, such as zinc, lead, br ass, and copper , have
undesir a ble chemica l r ea ct ions wit h cer t a in
liquids.
These chemical r eact ions r esult in t he for ma-
t ion of sludge, gums, car bon, or ot her deposit s
which clog openings, cause valves and pist ons t o
st ick or leak, and give poor lubr icat ion t o moving
3-3
par t s. Once a small amount of sludge or ot her
deposit s is for med, t he r at e of for mat ion gener ally
incr eases mor e r apidly. As t hese deposit s ar e
for med, cer t a in cha nges in t he physica l a nd
chemical pr oper t ies of t he liquid t ake place. The
liquid usua lly becomes da r ker , t he viscosit y
incr eases and damaging acids ar e for med.
The ext ent t o which changes occur in differ ent
liquids depends on t he t ype of liquid, t ype of
r efining, and whet her it has been t r eat ed t o
pr ovide fur t her r esist a nce t o oxida t ion. The
st a bilit y of liquids ca n be impr oved by t he
a ddi t i on of oxi da t i on i n h i bi t or s . I n h i bi t or s
select ed t o impr ove st abilit y must be compat ible
wit h t he ot her r equir ed pr oper t ies of t he liquid.
FREEDOM FROM ACI DI TY
An ideal hydr aulic liquid should be fr ee fr om
acids which cause cor r osion of t he met als in t he
syst em. Most liquids cannot be expect ed t o r emain
complet ely noncor r osive under sever e oper at ing
condit ions. The degr ee of acidit y of a liquid, when
new, may be sat isfact or y; but aft er use, t he liquid
may t end t o become cor r osive as it begins t o
det er ior at e.
Many syst ems ar e idle for long per iods aft er
oper at ing at high t emper at ur es. This per mit s
moist ur e t o condense in t he syst em, r esult ing in
r ust for mat ion.
Cer t ain cor r osion- and r ust -pr event ive addi-
t ives ar e added t o hydr aulic liquids. Some of t hese
addit ives ar e effect ive only for a limit ed per iod.
Ther efor e, t he best pr ocedur e is t o use t he liquid
specified for t he syst em for t he t ime specified by
t he syst em manufact ur er and t o pr ot ect t he liquid
a n d t h e s ys t em a s mu ch a s pos s i bl e fr om
cont aminat ion by for eign mat t er , fr om abnor mal
t emper at ur es, and fr om misuse.
F LASHP OI NT
Flashpoint is t he t emper at ur e at which a liquid
gives off vapor in sufficient quant it y t o ignit e
moment ar ily or flash when a flame is applied. A
high flashpoint is desir able for hydr aulic liquids
because it pr ovides good r esist ance t o combust ion
a nd a low degr ee of eva por a t ion a t nor ma l
t emper at ur es. Requir ed flashpoint minimums
var y fr om 300°F for t he light est oils t o 510°F for
t he heaviest oils.
FI RE P OI NT
Fir e point is t he t emper at ur e at which a
subst ance gives off vapor in sufficient quant it y
t o ignit e and cont inue t o bur n when exposed t o
a spar k or flame. Like flashpoint , a high fir e point
is r equir ed of desir able hydr aulic liquids.
MI NI MUM TOXI CI TY
Toxicit y is defined as t he qualit y, st at e, or
degr ee of being t oxic or poisonous. Some liquids
cont ain chemicals t hat ar e a ser ious t oxic hazar d.
These t oxic or poisonous chemicals may ent er t he
body t hr ough inhalat ion, by absor pt ion t hr ough
t he skin, or t hr ough t he eyes or t he mout h. The
r esult is sickness and, in some cases, deat h.
Ma nufa ct ur er s of hydr a ulic liquids st r ive t o
pr oduce suit able liquids t hat cont ain no t oxic
chemicals and, as a r esult , most hydr aulic liquids
ar e fr ee of har mful chemicals. Some fir e-r esist ant
liquids ar e t oxic, and suit able pr ot ect ion and car e
in handling must be pr ovided.
DENSI TY AND COMP RESSI BI LI TY
A fluid wit h a specific gr avit y of less t han 1.0
is desir ed when weight is cr it ical, alt hough wit h
pr oper syst em design, a fluid wit h a specific
gr avit y gr eat er t han one can be t oler at ed. Wher e
avoidance of det ect ion by milit ar y unit s is desir ed,
a fluid which sinks r at her t han r ises t o t he sur face
of t he wat er is desir able. Fluids having a specific
gr avit y gr eat er t han 1.0 ar e desir ed, as leaking
fluid will sink, allowing t he vessel wit h t he leak
t o r emain undet ect ed.
Recall fr om chapt er 2 t hat under ext r eme
pr essur e a fluid may be compr essed up t o 7
per cent of it s or igina l volume. Highly com-
pr essible fluids pr oduce sluggish syst em oper at ion.
This does not pr esent a ser ious pr oblem in small,
low-speed oper at ions, but it must be consider ed
in t he oper at ing inst r uct ions.
FOAMI NG TENDENCI ES
Foam is an emulsion of gas bubbles in t he
fluid. Foam in a hydr aulic syst em r esult s fr om
compr essed gases in t he hydr aulic fluid. A fluid
under high pr essur e can cont ain a lar ge volume
of air bubbles. When t his fluid is depr essur ized,
as when it r eaches t he r eser voir , t he gas bubbles
in t he fluid expa nd a nd pr oduce foa m. Any
amount of foaming may cause pump cavit at ion
and pr oduce poor syst em r esponse and spongy
3-4
cont r ol. Ther efor e, defoaming agent s ar e oft en
added t o fluids t o pr event foaming. Minimizing
air in fluid syst ems is discussed lat er in t his
chapt er .
CLEANLI NESS
Cleanliness in hydr aulic syst ems has r eceived
consider able at t ent ion r ecent ly. Some hydr aulic
syst ems, such as aer ospace hydr aulic syst ems, ar e
ext r emely sensit ive t o cont a mina t ion. Fluid
cleanliness is of pr imar y impor t ance because
cont aminant s can cause component malfunct ion,
pr event pr oper va lve sea t ing, ca use wea r in
component s, and may incr ease t he r esponse t ime
of ser vo valves. Fluid cont aminant s ar e discussed
lat er in t his chapt er .
The inside of a hydr aulic syst em can only be
kept as clean as t he fluid added t o it . Init ial fluid
cleanliness can be achieved by obser ving st r ingent
cleanliness r equir ement s (discussed lat er in t his
chapt er ) or by filt er ing all fluid added t o t he
syst em.
TYP ES OF HYDRAULI C FLUI DS
Ther e have been many liquids t est ed for use
in hydr aulic syst ems. Cur r ent ly, liquids being used
include miner a l oil, wa t er , phospha t e est er ,
wa t er -ba sed et hylene glycol compounds, a nd
silicone fluids. The t hr ee most common t ypes of
hydr aulic liquids ar e pet r oleum-based, synt het ic
fir e-r esist ant , and wat er -based fir e-r esist ant .
P ETROLEUM-BASED FLUI DS
The most common hydr aulic fluids used in
shipboar d syst ems ar e t he pet r oleum-based oils.
These fluids cont ain addit ives t o pr ot ect t he fluid
fr om oxidat ion (ant ioxidant ), t o pr ot ect syst em
met als fr om cor r osion (ant icor r osion), t o r educe
t endency of t he fluid t o foam (foam suppr essant ),
and t o impr ove viscosit y.
Pet r oleum-based fluids ar e used in sur face
s h i ps ’ el ect r oh ydr a u l i c s t eer i n g a n d deck
ma ch i n er y s ys t ems , s u bma r i n es ’ h ydr a u l i c
syst ems, and air cr aft aut omat ic pilot s, shock
absor ber s, br akes, cont r ol mechanisms, and ot her
hydr aulic syst ems using seal mat er ials compat ible
wit h pet r oleum-based fluids.
SYNTHETI C FI RE-RESI STANT FLUI DS
Pet r oleum-ba sed oils cont a in most of t he
desir ed pr oper t ies of a hydr aulic liquid. However ,
t hey ar e flammable under nor mal condit ions and
can become explosive when subject ed t o high
pr essur es and a sour ce of flame or high t emper a-
t ur es. Nonflammable synt het ic liquids have been
developed for use in hydr aulic syst ems wher e fir e
hazar ds exist .
P h osp h a t e Est er Fi r e-Resi st a n t Flu i d
Ph os ph a t e es t er fi r e-r es i s t a n t fl u i d for
shipboar d use is cover ed by specificat ion MIL-
H-19457. Ther e ar e cer t ain t r ade names closely
associat ed wit h t hese fluids. However , t he only
accept able fluids confor ming t o MIL-H-19457 ar e
t he ones list ed on t he cur r ent Qualified Pr oduct s
List (QPL) 19457. These fluids will be deliver ed
in cont ainer s mar ked MIL-H-19457C or a lat er
s peci fi ca t i on r evi s i on . Ph os ph a t e es t er i n
cont ainer s mar ked by a br and name wit hout a
specificat ion ident ificat ion must not be used in
shipboar d syst ems, as t hey may cont ain t oxic
chemicals.
These fluids will bur n if sufficient heat and
fla me a r e a pplied, but t hey do not suppor t
combust ion. Dr awbacks of phosphat e est er fluids
ar e t hat t hey will at t ack and loosen commonly
used paint s and adhesives, det er ior at e many t ypes
of insula t ions used in elect r ica l ca bles, a nd
det er ior a t e ma ny ga sket a nd sea l ma t er ia ls.
Ther efor e, gasket s and seals for syst ems in which
phosphat e est er fluids ar e used ar e manufact ur ed
of specific mat er ials. Naval S hips’ Technical
Manual, chapt er 262, specifies paint s t o be used
on ext er ior sur faces of hydr aulic syst ems and
component s in which phosphat e est er fluid is used
and on ship st r uct ur e and decks in t he immediat e
vicinit y of t his equipment . Naval S hips’ Technical
Manual, chapt er 078, specifies gasket and seal
mat er ials used. NAVAIR 01-1A-17 also cont ains
a list of mat er ials r esist ant t o phosphat e est er
fluids.
Tr ade names for phosphat e est er fluids, which
do not confor m t o MIL-H-19457 include Pydr aul,
Skydr ol, and Fyr e Safe.
P HOSP HATE ESTER FLUI D SAFETY.—
As a maint enance per son, oper at or , super visor ,
or cr ew member of a ship, squadr on, or naval
shor e inst a lla t ion, you must under st a nd t he
hazar ds associat ed wit h hydr aulic fluids t o which
you may be exposed.
3-5
Phosphat e est er fluid confor ming t o specifi-
cat ion MIL-H-19457 is used in air cr aft elevat or s,
ballast valve oper at ing syst ems, and r eplenish-
ment -at -sea syst ems. This t ype of fluid cont ains
a cont r olled a mount of neur ot oxic ma t er ia l.
Because of t he neur ot oxic effect s t hat can r esult
fr om ingest ion, skin absor pt ion, or inhalat ion of
t h es e fl u i ds , be s u r e t o u s e t h e fol l owi n g
pr ecaut ions:
1. Avoid cont act wit h t he fluids by wear ing
pr ot ect ive clot hing.
2. Use chemical goggles or face shields t o
pr ot ect your eyes.
3. If you ar e expect ed t o wor k in an
at mospher e cont aining a fine mist or spr ay,
wear a cont inuous-flow air line r espir at or .
4. Thor oughly clean skin ar eas cont aminat ed
by t his fluid wit h soap and wat er .
5. If you get any fluid in your eyes, flush t hem
wit h r unning wat er for at least 15 minut es
and seek medical at t ent ion.
If you come in cont act wit h MIL-H-19457
fluid, r epor t t he cont act when you seek medical
aid and whenever you have a r out ine medical
examinat ion.
Naval S hips’ Technical Manual, chapt er 262,
cont ains a list of pr ot ect ive clot hing, along wit h
nat ional st ock number s (NSN), for use wit h fluids
confor ming t o MIL-H-19457. It also cont ains
pr ocedur es for r epair wor k and for low-level
leakage and massive spills cleanup.
P HOSP HATE ESTER F LUI D DI SP OSAL.—
Wast e MIL-H-19457 fluids and r efuse (r ags and
ot her mat er ials) must not be dumped at sea. Fluid
should be placed in bung-t ype dr ums. Rags and
ot her mat er ials should be placed in open t op
dr ums for shor e disposal. These dr ums should be
mar ked wit h a war ning label st at ing t heir cont ent ,
safet y pr ecaut ions, and disposal inst r uct ions.
Det ailed inst r uct ions for phosphat e est er fluids
disposal can be found in Naval S hips’ Technical
Manual, chapt er 262, and OPNAVINST 5090.1.
Si li con e Syn t h et i c Fi r e-Resi st a n t Flu i d s
Silicone synt het ic fir e-r esist ant fluids ar e
fr equent ly used for hydr aulic syst ems which
r equir e fir e r esist ance, but which have only
mar ginal r equir ement s for ot her chemical or
physical pr oper t ies common t o hydr aulic fluids.
Silicone fluids do not ha ve t he det r iment a l
char act er ist ics of phosphat e est er fluids, nor
do t hey pr ovide t he cor r osion pr ot ect ion and
lubr icat ion of phosphat e est er fluids, but t hey ar e
excel l en t for fi r e pr ot ect i on . Si l i con e fl u i d
confor ming t o MIL-S-81087 is used in t he missile
holddown and lockout syst em aboar d submar ines.
Li gh t wei gh t Syn t h et i c Fi r e-Resi st a n t Flu i d s
I n a pplica t ions wher e weight is cr it ica l,
light weight synt het ic fluid is used in hydr aulic
syst ems. MIL-H-83282 is a synt het ic, fir e-r esist ant
hydr aulic fluid used in milit ar y air cr aft and
hydr ofoils wher e t he r equir ement t o minimize
weight dict at es t he use of a low-viscosit y fluid.
It is also t he most commonly used fluid in aviat ion
suppor t equipment . NAVAIR 01-1A-17 cont ains
addit ional infor mat ion on fluids confor ming t o
specificat ion MIL-H-83282.
WATER-BASED FI RE-RESI STANT
F LUI DS
The most widely used wat er -based hydr aulic
fluids may be classified as wat er -glycol mixt ur es
and wat er -synt het ic base mixt ur es. The wat er -
glycol mixt ur e cont ains addit ives t o pr ot ect it fr om
oxidat ion, cor r osion, and biological gr owt h and
t o enhance it s load-car r ying capacit y.
Fir e r esist ance of t he wat er mixt ur e fluids
depends on t he vapor izat ion and smot her ing
effect of st eam gener at ed fr om t he wat er . The
wat er in wat er -based fluids is const ant ly being
dr iven off while t he syst em is oper at ing. Ther e-
for e, fr equent checks t o maint ain t he cor r ect r at io
of wat er ar e impor t ant .
The wa t er -ba sed fluid used in ca t a pult
r et r a ct ing engines, jet bla st deflect or s, a nd
weapons elevat or s and handling syst ems confor ms
t o MIL-H-22072.
The safet y pr ecaut ions out lined for phosphat e
est er fluid and t he disposal of phosphat e est er
fluid also apply t o wat er -based fluid confor ming
t o MIL-H-22072.
CONTAMI NATI ON
Hydr a u l i c fl u i d con t a mi n a t i on ma y be
descr ibed as any for eign mat er ial or subst ance
whose pr esence in t he fluid is capable of adver sely
affect ing syst em per for mance or r eliabilit y. It may
assume many differ ent for ms, including liquids,
gases, and solid mat t er of var ious composit ion,
sizes, and shapes. Solid mat t er is t he t ype most
oft en found in hydr aulic syst ems and is gener ally
3-6
r efer r ed t o as par t iculat e cont aminat ion. Con-
t aminat ion is always pr esent t o some degr ee, even
in new, unused fluid, but must be kept below a
level t hat will adver sely affect syst em oper at ion.
Hydr a ulic cont a mina t ion cont r ol consist s of
r equir ement s, t echniques, and pr act ices necessar y
t o minimize and cont r ol fluid cont aminat ion.
CLASSI FI CATI ON
Ther e ar e many t ypes of cont aminant s which
ar e har mful t o hydr aulic syst ems and liquids.
These cont aminant s may be divided int o t wo
differ ent classes—par t iculat e and fluid.
P a r t i cu la t e Con t a mi n a t i on
This class of cont aminant s includes or ganic,
met allic solid, and inor ganic solid cont aminant s.
These cont aminant s ar e discussed in t he following
par agr aphs.
ORGANI C CONTAMI NATI ON.— Or ganic
solids or semisolids found in hydr aulic syst ems
ar e pr oduced by wear , oxidat ion, or polymer iza-
t ion. Minut e par t icles of O-r ings, seals, gasket s,
and hoses ar e pr esent , due t o wear or chemical
r eact ions. Synt het ic pr oduct s, such as neopr ene,
silicones, a nd hypa lon, t hough r esist a nt t o
chemical r eact ion wit h hydr aulic fluids, pr oduce
small wear par t icles. Oxidat ion of hydr aulic fluids
incr eases wit h pr essur e and t emper at ur e, alt hough
ant ioxidant s ar e blended int o hydr aulic fluids t o
mi n i mi ze s u ch oxi da t i on . Th e a bi l i t y of a
hydr a ulic fluid t o r esist oxida t ion or poly-
mer izat ion in ser vice is defined as it s oxidat ion
st abilit y. Oxidat ion pr oduct s appear as or ganic
acids, asphalt ics, gums, and var nishes. These
pr oduct s combine wit h par t icles in t he hydr aulic
fluid t o for m sludge. Some oxidat ion pr oduct s ar e
oil soluble a nd ca use t he hydr a ulic fluid t o
incr ease in viscosit y; ot her oxidat ion pr oduct s ar e
not oil soluble and for m sediment .
METALLI C SOLI D CONTAMI NATI ON.—
Met allic cont aminant s ar e almost always pr esent
in a hydr aulic syst em and will r ange in size fr om
micr oscopic par t icles t o par t icles r eadily visible
t o t he naked eye. These par t icles ar e t he r esult of
wear ing and scor ing of bar e met al par t s and
plat ing mat er ials, such as silver and chr omium.
Alt hough pr act ically all met als commonly used
for par t s fabr icat ion and plat ing may be found
in hydr aulic fluids, t he major met allic mat er ials
found ar e fer r ous, aluminum, and chr omium
par t icles. Because of t heir cont inuous high-speed
int er nal movement , hydr aulic pumps usually
cont r ibut e most of t he met a llic pa r t icula t e
cont aminat ion pr esent in hydr aulic syst ems. Met al
par t icles ar e also pr oduced by ot her hydr aulic
syst em component s, such as valves and act uat or s,
due t o body wear and t he chipping and wear ing
away of small pieces of met al plat ing mat er ials.
I NOR GANI C S OL I D C ONT AMI NA-
TI ON.— This cont aminant gr oup includes dust ,
paint par t icles, dir t , and silicat es. Glass par t icles
fr om glass bead peening and blast ing may also
be found as cont aminant s. Glass par t icles ar e ver y
undesir able cont aminant s due t o t heir abr asive
effect on synt het ic r ubber seals and t he ver y fine
sur faces of cr it ical moving par t s. At mospher ic
dust , dir t , paint par t icles, and ot her mat er ials ar e
oft en dr awn int o hydr aulic syst ems fr om ext er nal
sour ces. For example, t he wet pist on shaft of a
hydr a ulic a ct ua t or ma y dr a w some of t hese
for eign mat er ials int o t he cylinder past t he wiper
and dynamic seals, and t he cont aminant mat er ials
a r e t h en di s per s ed i n t h e h ydr a u l i c fl u i d.
Cont aminant s may also ent er t he hydr aulic fluid
dur ing maint enance when t ubing, hoses, fit t ings,
and component s ar e disconnect ed or r eplaced. It
is t her efor e impor t ant t hat all exposed fluid por t s
be sealed wit h appr oved pr ot ect ive closur es t o
minimize such cont aminat ion.
Flu i d Con t a mi n a t i on
Air , wat er , solvent , and ot her for eign fluids
ar e in t he class of fluid cont aminant s.
AI R CONTAMI NATI ON.— Hydr aulic fluids
ar e adver sely affect ed by dissolved, ent r ained, or
fr ee air . Air may be int r oduced t hr ough impr oper
maint enance or as a r esult of syst em design. Any
maint enance oper at ion t hat involves br eaking int o
t he hydr aulic syst em, such as disconnect ing or
r emoving a line or component will invar iably
r esult in some air being int r oduced int o t he
syst em. This sour ce of a ir ca n a nd must be
minimized by pr ebilling r eplacement component s
wit h new filt er ed fluid pr ior t o t heir inst allat ion.
Failing t o pr efill a filt er element bowl wit h fluid
is a good example of how air can be int r oduced
int o t he syst em. Alt hough pr ebilling will minimize
int r oduct ion of air , it is st ill impor t ant t o vent t he
syst em wher e vent ing is possible.
Most hydr aulic syst ems have built -in sour ces
of air . Leaky seals in gas-pr essur ized accumulat or s
and r eser voir s can feed gas int o a syst em fast er
3-7
t han it can be r emoved, even wit h t he best of
maint enance. Anot her lesser known but major
sour ce of air is air t hat is sucked int o t he syst em
past act uat or pist on r od seals. This usually occur s
when t he pist on r od is st r oked by some ext er nal
means while t he act uat or it self is not pr essur ized.
WATER CONTAMI NATI ON.— Wat er is a
s er i ou s con t a mi n a n t of h ydr a u l i c s ys t ems .
Hydr a u l i c fl u i ds a r e a dver s el y a ffect ed by
dissolved, emulsified, or fr ee wa t er . Wa t er
cont aminat ion may r esult in t he for mat ion of ice,
which impedes t he oper at ion of valves, act uat or s,
and ot her moving par t s. Wat er can also cause t he
for mat ion of oxidat ion pr oduct s and cor r osion
of met allic sur faces.
SOLVENT CONTAMI NATI ON.— Solvent
cont aminat ion is a special for m of for eign fluid
cont aminat ion in which t he or iginal cont ami-
nat ing subst ance is a chlor inat ed solvent . Chlor i-
na t ed solvent s or t heir r esidues ma y, when
int r oduced int o a hydr aulic syst em, r eact wit h any
wat er pr esent t o for m highly cor r osive acids.
Chlor inat ed solvent s, when allowed t o com-
bine wit h minut e amount s of wat er oft en found
in oper at ing hydr aulic syst ems, change chemically
int o hydr ochlor ic acids. These acids t hen at t ack
i n t er n a l met a l l i c s u r fa ces i n t h e s ys t em,
par t icular ly t hose t hat ar e fer r ous, and pr oduce
a sever e r ust -like cor r osion. NAVAIR 01-1A-17
a nd N S T M, ch a pt er 556, con t a i n t a bl es of
solvent s for use in hydr aulic maint enance.
FOREI GN-FLUI DS CONTAMI NATI ON.—
Hydr aulic syst ems can be ser iously cont aminat ed
by for eign fluids ot her t han wat er and chlor inat ed
solvent s. This t ype of cont aminat ion is gener ally
a r esult of lube oil, engine fuel, or incor r ect
hydr aulic fluid being int r oduced inadver t ent ly int o
t he syst em dur ing ser vicing. The effect s of such
cont aminat ion depend on t he cont aminant , t he
amount in t he syst em, and how long it has been
pr esent .
NOTE: It is ext r emely impor t ant t hat t he
differ ent t ypes of hydr aulic fluids ar e not mixed
in one syst em. If differ ent t ype hydr aulic fluids
ar e mixed, t he char act er ist ics of t he fluid r equir ed
for a specific pur pose a r e lost . Mixing t he
differ ent t ypes of fluids usually will r esult in a
heavy, gummy deposit t hat will clog passages and
r equir e a major cleaning. In addit ion, seals and
packing inst alled for use wit h one fluid usually
ar e not compat ible wit h ot her fluids and damage
t o t he seals will r esult .
ORI GI N OF CONTAMI NATI ON
Recall t hat cont aminant s ar e pr oduced fr om
wea r a nd chemica l r ea ct ions, int r oduced by
impr oper maint enance, and inadver t ent ly int r o-
duced dur ing ser vicing. These met hods of con-
t aminant int r oduct ion fall int o one of t he four
major ar eas of cont aminant or igin.
1. Par t icles or iginally cont ained in t he syst em.
These par t icles or iginat e dur ing t he fabr icat ion
and st or age of syst em component s. Weld spat t er
and slag may r emain in welded syst em com-
pon en t s , es peci a l l y i n r es er voi r s a n d pi pe
assemblies. The pr esence is minimized by pr oper
design. For example, seam-welded over lapping
joint s ar e pr efer r ed, and ar c welding of open
sect ions is usually avoided. Hidden passages in
valve bodies, inaccessible t o sand blast ing or ot her
met hods of cleaning, ar e t he main sour ce of
int r oduct ion of cor e sand. Even t he most car efully
designed and cleaned cast ing will almost invar i-
ably fr ee some sand par t icles under t he act ion of
hydr aulic pr essur e. Rubber hose assemblies always
cont a in some loose pa r t icles. Most of t hese
par t icles can be r emoved by flushing t he hose
befor e inst a lla t ion; however , some pa r t icles
wit hst and cleaning and ar e fr eed lat er by t he
act ion of hydr aulic pr essur e.
Par t icles of lint fr om cleaning r ags can
cause abr asive damage in hydr aulic syst ems,
especia lly t o closely fit t ed moving pa r t s. I n
addit ion, lint in a hydr aulic syst em packs easily
int o clear ances bet ween packing and cont act ing
sur fa ces, lea ding t o component lea ka ge a nd
decr eased efficiency. Lint also helps clog filt er s
pr ema t ur ely. The use of t he pr oper wiping
mat er ials will r educe or eliminat e lint cont amina-
t ion. The wiping mat er ials t o be used for a given
applicat ion will be det er mined by
a.
b.
c.
subst ances being wiped or absor bed,
t he amount of absor bency r equir ed,
a n d/or
t he r equir ed degr ee of cleanliness.
These wiping ma t er ia ls a r e ca t egor ized for
cont aminat ion cont r ol by t he degr ee of lint or
debr is t hat t hey may deposit dur ing use. For
int er na l hydr a ulic r epa ir s, t his fa ct or it self
will det er mine t he choice of wiping mat er ial.
3-8
NAVAI R 01-1A-17 a nd NS TM, cha pt er 556,
pr ovides infor mat ion on low-lint wiping clot hs.
Rust or cor r osion init ially pr esent in a
h ydr a u l i c s ys t em ca n u s u a l l y be t r a ced t o
impr oper st or age of mat er ials and component
par t s. Par t icles can r ange in size fr om lar ge flakes
t o abr asives of micr oscopic dimensions. Pr oper
pr eser vat ion of st or ed par t s is helpful in elimi-
nat ing cor r osion.
2. Par t icles int r oduced fr om out side sour ces.
Par t icles can be int r oduced int o hydr aulic syst ems
at point s wher e eit her t he liquid or cer t ain wor king
par t s of t he syst em (for example, pist on r ods) ar e
at least in t empor ar y cont act wit h t he at mospher e.
The most common cont a mina nt int r oduct ion
ar eas ar e at t he r efill and br eat her openings,
cylinder r od packings, and open lines wher e
component s ar e r emoved for r epair or r eplace-
ment . Cont aminat ion ar ising fr om car elessness
dur ing ser vicing oper at ions is minimized by t he
use of filt er s in t he syst em fill lines and finger
st r a iner s in t he filler a da pt er of hydr a ulic
r eser voir s. Hydr a u l i c cyl i n der pi s t on r ods
incor por at e wiper r ings and dust seals t o pr event
t he dust t hat set t les on t he pist on r od dur ing it s
out war d st r oke fr om ent er ing t he syst em when t he
pist on r od r et r act s. Caps and plugs ar e available
and should be used t o seal off t he open lines when
a comp on e n t i s r e move d f or r e p a i r or
r eplacement .
3. Par t icles cr eat ed wit hin t he syst em dur ing
oper at ion. Cont aminant s cr eat ed dur ing syst em
oper at ion ar e of t wo gener al t ypes—mechanical
and chemical. Par t icles of a mechanical nat ur e ar e
for med by wear ing of par t s in fr ict ional cont act ,
such as pumps, cylinder s, and packing gland
component s. These wear par t icles can var y fr om
lar ge chunks of packings down t o st eel shavings
t hat ar e t oo small t o be t r apped by filt er s.
The major sour ce of chemical cont ami-
nant s in hydr aulic liquid is oxidat ion. These
cont aminant s ar e for med under high pr essur e and
t emper at ur es and ar e pr omot ed by t he chemical
act ion of wat er and air and of met als like copper
and ir on oxides. Liquid-oxidat ion pr oduct s appear
init ially as or ganic acids, asphalt ines, gums,
and var nishes—somet imes combined wit h dust
par t icles as sludge. Liquid-soluble oxida t ion
pr oduct s t end t o incr ease liquid viscosit y, while
insoluble t ypes separ at e and for m sediment s,
especia lly on colder element s such a s hea t
exchanger coils.
Liquids cont aining ant ioxidant s have lit t le
t endency t o for m gums and sludge under nor mal
oper at ing condit ions. However , as t he t emper a-
t ur e incr eases, r esist ance t o oxidat ion diminishes.
Hydr aulic liquids t hat have been subject ed t o
excessively high t emper at ur es (above 250°F for
most liquids) will br eak down, leaving minut e
par t icles of asphalt ines suspended in t he liquids.
The liquid changes t o br own in color and is
r efer r ed t o as decomposed liquid. This explains
t he impor t ance of keeping t he hydr aulic liquid
t emper at ur e below specific levels.
The second cont aminant -pr oducing chemi-
cal act ion in hydr aulic liquids is one t hat per mit s
t hese liquids t o r eact wit h cer t ain t ypes of r ubber .
This r eact ion causes st r uct ur al changes in t he
r ubber , t ur ning it br it t le, and finally causing it s
complet e disint egr at ion. For t his r eason, t he
compat ibilit y of syst em liquid wit h seals and hose
mat er ial is a ver y impor t ant fact or .
4. Par t icles int r oduced by for eign liquids. One
of t he most common for eign-fluid cont aminant s
is wat er , especially in hydr aulic syst ems t hat
r equir e pet r oleum-based liquids. Wat er , which
ent er s even t he most car efully designed syst em by
condensat ion of at mospher ic moist ur e, nor mally
s et t l es t o t h e bot t om of t h e r es er voi r . Oi l
movement in t he r eser voir disper ses t he wat er int o
fine dr oplet s, a nd a git a t ion of t he liquid in
t he pump and in high-speed passages for ms an
oil-wat er -air emulsion. This emulsion nor mally
separ at es dur ing t he r est per iod in t he syst em
r eser voir ; but when fine dust a nd cor r osion
par t icles ar e pr esent , t he emulsion is chemically
cha nged by high pr essur es int o sludge. The
damaging act ion of sludge explains t he need for
effect ive filt r at ion, as well as t he need for wat er
separ at ion qualit ies in hydr aulic liquids.
CONTAMI NATI ON CONTROL
Maint aining hydr aulic fluid wit hin allowable
cont aminat ion limit s for bot h wat er and par t icu-
lat e mat t er is cr ucial t o t he car e and pr ot ect ion
of hydr aulic equipment .
Filt er s (discussed in chapt er 9) will pr ovide
adequat e cont r ol of t he par t icular cont aminat ion
pr oblem dur ing a ll nor ma l hydr a ulic syst em
oper at ions if t he filt r at ion syst em is inst alled
pr oper ly and filt er maint enance is per for med
pr oper ly. Filt er maint enance includes changing
element s at pr oper int er vals. Cont r ol of t he size
and amount of cont aminat ion ent er ing t he syst em
fr om a ny ot her sour ce is t he r esponsibilit y
3-9
of t he per sonnel who ser vice and maint ain t he
equipment . Dur ing inst allat ion, maint enance, and
r epair of hydr aulic equipment , t he r et ent ion of
cl ea n l i n es s of t h e s ys t em i s of pa r a mou n t
impor t a nce for subsequent sa t isfa ct or y per -
for ma nce.
The following ma int ena nce a nd ser vicing
pr ocedur es should be adher ed t o at all t imes t o
pr ovide pr oper cont aminat ion cont r ol:
1. All t ools and t he wor k ar ea (wor kbenches
and t est equipment ) should be kept in a clean,
dir t -fr ee condit ion.
2. A suit able cont ainer should always be
pr ovided t o r eceive t he hydr aulic liquid t hat is
spilled dur ing component r emoval or disassembly.
NOTE: The r euse of dr ained hydr aulic
liquid is pr ohibit ed in most hydr aulic syst ems. In
some lar ge-capacit y syst ems t he r euse of fluid is
per mit t ed. When liquid is dr ained fr om t hese
syst ems for r euse, it must be st or ed in a clean and
suit able cont ainer . The liquid must be st r ained
and/or filt er ed when it is r et ur ned t o t he syst em
r eser voir .
3. Befor e hydr a ulic lines or fit t ings a r e
disconnect ed, t he affect ed ar ea should be cleaned
wit h an appr oved dr y-cleaning solvent .
4. All hydr aulic lines and fit t ings should be
capped or plugged immediat ely aft er discon-
nect ion.
5. Befor e a ny hydr a ulic component s a r e
assembled, t heir par t s should be washed wit h an
appr oved dr y-cleaning solvent .
6. Aft er t he pa r t s ha ve been clea ned in
dr y-cleaning solvent , t h ey s h ou l d be dr i ed
t h or ou gh l y wi t h cl ea n , l ow-l i n t cl ot h s a n d
lubr icat ed wit h t he r ecommended pr eser vat ive or
hydr aulic liquid befor e assembly.
NOTE: Only clean, low lint t ype I or II
clot hs as appr opr iat e should be used t o wipe or
dr y component par t s.
7. All packings and gasket s should be r eplaced
dur ing t he assembly pr ocedur es.
8. All par t s should be connect ed wit h car e t o
avoid st r ipping met al sliver s fr om t hr eaded ar eas.
All fit t ings and lines should be inst alled and
t or qu ed a ccor di n g t o a ppl i ca bl e t ech n i ca l
inst r uct ions.
9. All hydr aulic ser vicing equipment should
be kept clean and in good oper at ing condit ion.
Some hydr aulic fluid specificat ions, such as
MIL-H-6083, MIL-H-46170, and MIL-H-83282,
cont ain par t icle cont aminat ion limit s t hat ar e so
low t hat t he pr oduct s ar e packaged under clean
r oom condit ions. Ver y slight amount s of dir t ,
r ust , and met al par t icles will cause t hem t o
fail t he specificat ion limit for cont aminat ion.
Since t hese fluids ar e usually all packaged in
her met ically sealed cont ainer s, t he act of opening
a cont ainer may allow mor e cont aminant s int o t he
fluid t han t he specificat ion allows. Ther efor e,
ext r eme car e should be t aken in t he handling of
t hese fluids. In opening t he cont ainer for use,
obser vat ion, or t est s, it is ext r emely impor t ant t hat
t he ca n be opened a nd ha ndled in a clea n
envir onment . The ar ea of t he cont ainer t o be
opened should be flushed wit h filt er ed solvent
(pet r oleum et her or isopr opyl alcohol), and t he
device used for opening t he cont ainer should be
t hor oughly r insed wit h filt er ed solvent . Aft er t he
cont a iner is opened, a sma ll a mount of t he
mat er ial should be pour ed fr om t he cont ainer and
disposed of pr ior t o pour ing t he sa mple for
a na lysis. Once a cont a iner is opened, if t he
cont ent s ar e not t ot ally used, t he unused por t ion
should be discar ded. Since t he level of con-
t aminat ion of a syst em cont aining t hese fluids
must be kept low, maint enance on t he syst em’s
compon en t s mu s t be per for med i n a cl ea n
envir onment commonly known as a cont r olled
envir onment wor k cent er . Specific infor mat ion
about t he cont r olled envir onment wor k cent er can
be found in t he Aviat ion Hydraulics Manual,
NAVAI R 01-1A-17.
HYDRAULI C FLUI D SAMP LI NG
The condit ion of a hydr aulic syst em, as well
as it s pr obable fut ur e per for mance, can best be
det er mined by analyzing t he oper at ing fluid. Of
par t icular int er est ar e any changes in t he physical
and chemical pr oper t ies of t he fluid and excessive
par t iculat e or wat er cont aminat ion, eit her of
which indicat es impending t r ouble.
Excessive par t iculat e cont aminat ion of t he
fluid indicat es t hat t he filt er s ar e not keeping t he
syst em clean. This can r esult fr om impr oper filt er
maint enance, inadequat e filt er s, or excessive
ongoing cor r osion and wear .
Oper a t ing equipment should be sa mpled
accor ding t o inst r uct ions given in t he oper at ing
3-10
a nd ma int ena nce ma nua l for t he pa r t icula r
equipment or as dir ect ed by t he MRCs.
1. All samples should be t aken fr om cir cu-
lat ing syst ems, or immediat ely upon shut down,
while t he hydr aulic fluid is wit hin 5°C (9°F) of
nor mal syst em oper at ing t emper at ur e. Syst ems
not up t o t emper at ur e may pr ovide nonr epr e-
sent a t ive sa mples of syst em dir t a nd wa t er
cont ent , a nd such sa mples should eit her be
avoided or so indicat ed on t he analysis r epor t . The
fir st oil coming fr om t he sampling point should
be discar ded, since it can be ver y dir t y and does
not r epr esent t he syst em. As a gener al r ule, a
volume of oil equivalent t o one t o t wo t imes t he
volume of oil cont ained in t he sampling line and
valve should be dr ained befor e t he sample is
t a ken.
2. Ideally, t he sample should be t aken fr om
a valve inst alled specifically for sampling. When
sampling valves ar e not inst alled, t he t aking of
samples fr om locat ions wher e sediment or wat er
can collect , such as dead ends of piping, t ank
dr ains, and low point s of lar ge pipes and filt er
bowls, should be avoided if possible. If samples
ar e t aken fr om pipe dr ains, sufficient fluid should
be dr ained befor e t he sample is t aken t o ensur e
t hat t he sample act ually r epr esent s t he syst em.
Samples ar e not t o be t aken fr om t he t ops of
r eser voir s or ot her locat ions wher e t he cont ami-
nat ion levels ar e nor mally low.
3. Unless ot her wise specified, a minimum of
one sample should be t aken for each syst em
loca t ed wholly wit hin one compa r t ment . For
s h i p’s s ys t ems ext en di n g i n t o t wo or mor e
compar t ment s, a second sample is r equir ed. An
except ion t o t his r equir ement is subma r ine
ext er nal hydr aulic syst ems, which r equir e only one
sample. Or iginal sample point s should be labeled
and t he same sample point s used for successive
sampling. If possible, t he following sampling
locat ions should be select ed:
a. A locat ion t hat pr ovides a sample
r epr esent at ive of fluid being supplied
t o syst em component s
b. A r et ur n line as close t o t he supply t ank
as pr act ical but upst r eam of any r et ur n
line filt er
c. For syst ems r equir ing a second sample,
a locat ion as far fr om t he pump as
pr act ical
Oper at ion of t he sampling point should not
int r oduce any significant amount of ext er nal
cont aminant s int o t he collect ed fluid. Addit ional
infor mat ion on hydr aulic fluid sampling can be
found in NAVAIR 01-1A-17.
Most fluid samples ar e submit t ed t o shor e
labor at or ies for analysis. NAVAIR 17-15-50-1
and NS T M, cha pt er 556, cont a in det a ils on
collect ing, labeling, and shipping samples.
NAVAIR 01-1A-17 cont ains pr ocedur es for
unit level, bot h aboar d ship and ashor e, t est ing
of aviat ion hydr aulic fluids for wat er , par t iculat e,
and chlor inat ed solvent cont aminat ion.
3-11
CHAP TER 4
P UMP S
Pumps ar e used for some essent ial ser vices in
t he Navy. Pumps supply wat er t o t he boiler s, dr aw
condensat ion fr om t he condenser s, supply sea
wat er t o t he fir emain, cir culat e cooling wat er for
cooler s and condenser s, pump out bilges, t r ansfer
fuel, supply wat er t o t he dist illing plant s, and
ser ve many ot her pur poses. Alt hough t he pumps
discussed in t his chapt er ar e used pr imar ily in
hydr aulic syst ems, t he pr inciples of oper at ion
apply as well t o t he pumps used in ot her syst ems.
P URP OSE
The pur pose of a hydr aulic pump is t o supply
a flow of fluid t o a hydr aulic syst em. The pump
does not cr eat e syst em pr essur e, since pr essur e can
be cr eat ed only by a r esist ance t o t he flow. As t he
pump pr ovides flow, it t r ansmit s a for ce t o t he
fluid. As t he fluid flow encount er s r esist ance, t his
for ce is changed int o a pr essur e. Resist ance t o
flow is t he r esult of a r est r ict ion or obst r uct ion
in t he pat h of t he flow. This r est r ict ion is nor mally
t he wor k accomplished by t he hydr aulic syst em,
but can also be r est r ict ions of lines, fit t ings, and
valves wit hin t he syst em. Thus, t he pr essur e is
cont r olled by t he load imposed on t he syst em or
t he act ion of a pr essur e-r egulat ing device.
OP ERATI ON
A pump must have a cont inuous supply of
fluid available t o t he inlet por t t o supply fluid t o
t he syst em. As t he pump for ces fluid t hr ough t he
out let por t , a par t ial vacuum or low-pr essur e ar ea
is cr eat ed at t he inlet por t . When t he pr essur e at
t he inlet por t of t he pump is lower t han t he local
at mospher ic pr essur e, at mospher ic pr essur e act ing
on t he fluid in t he r eser voir for ces t he fluid int o
t he pump’s inlet . I f t he pump is loca t ed a t
a level lower t han t he r eser voir , t he for ce of
gr avit y supplement s at mospher ic pr essur e on t he
r eser voir . Air cr aft and missiles t hat oper at e at
high alt it udes ar e equipped wit h pr essur ized
hydr a ulic r eser voir s t o compensa t e for low
a t mos ph er i c pr es s u r e en cou n t er ed a t h i gh
alt it udes.
P ERFORMANCE
Pumps ar e nor mally r at ed by t heir volumet r ic
out put and pr essur e. Volumet r ic out put is t he
amount of fluid a pump can deliver t o it s out let
por t in a cer t ain per iod of t ime at a given speed.
Volumet r ic out put is usually expr essed in gallons
per minut e (gpm). Since changes in pump speed
affect volumet r ic out put , some pumps ar e r at ed
by t heir displacement . Pump displacement is t he
amount of fluid t he pump can deliver per cycle.
Since most pumps use a r ot ar y dr ive, displacement
is usually expr essed in t er ms of cubic inches per
r evolut ion.
As we st at ed pr eviously, a pump does not
cr eat e pr essur e. However , t he pr essur e developed
by t he r est r ict ions in t he syst em is a fact or t hat
affect s t he volumet r ic out put of t he pump. As t he
syst em pr essur e incr eases, t he volumet r ic out put
decr eases. This dr op in volumet r ic out put is t he
r esult of an incr ease in t he amount of int er nal
leakage fr om t he out let side t o t he inlet side of
t he pump. This leakage is r efer r ed t o as pump
slippage and is a fact or t hat must be consider ed
in all pumps. This explains why most pumps ar e
r at ed in t er ms of volumet r ic out put at a given
pr essur e.
CLASSI FI CATI ON OF P UMP S
Many differ ent met hods ar e used t o classify
pumps. Ter ms such as nonpositive displacement,
posi t i ve d i spl acemen t , f i xed d i spl acemen t ,
variable displacement, fixed delivery, variable
delivery, constant volume, and ot her s ar e used t o
descr ibe pumps. The fir st t wo of t hese t er ms
descr ibe t he fundament al division of pumps; t hat
4-1
is, all pumps ar e eit her nonposit ive displacement
or posit ive displacement .
Basically, pumps t hat dischar ge liquid in a
cont inuous flow ar e r efer r ed t o as nonposit ive
displacement , and t hose t hat dischar ge volumes
separ at ed by a per iod of no dischar ge ar e r efer r ed
t o as posit ive displacement .
Alt hough t he nonposit ive-displacement pump
nor mally pr oduces a cont inuous flow, it does not
pr ovide a posit ive seal against slippage; t her efor e,
t he out put of t he pump var ies as syst em pr essur e
va r ies. I n ot her wor ds, t he volume of fluid
deliver ed for each cycle depends on t he r esist ance
t o t he flow. This t ype of pump pr oduces a for ce
on t he fluid t hat is const ant for each par t icular
speed of t he pump. Resist ance in t he dischar ge
line pr oduces a for ce in a dir ect ion opposit e t he
dir ect ion of t he for ce pr oduced by t he pump.
When t hese for ces ar e equal, t he fluid is in a st at e
of equilibr ium and does not flow.
If t he out let of a nonposit ive-displacement
pump is complet ely closed, t he dischar ge pr essur e
will incr ease t o t he maximum for t hat par t icular
pump at a specific speed. Not hing mor e will
happen except t hat t he pump will chur n t he fluid
and pr oduce heat .
In cont r ast t o t he nonposit ive-displacement
pump, t he posit ive-displacement pump pr ovides
a posit ive int er nal seal against slippage. Ther efor e,
t his t ype of pump deliver s a definit e volume of
fluid for each cycle of pump oper at ion, r egar dless
of t he r esist ance offer ed, pr ovided t he capacit y
of t he power unit dr iving t he pump is not
exceeded. If t he out let of a posit ive-displacement
pump wer e complet ely closed, t he pr essur e would
inst ant aneously incr ease t o t he point at which t he
unit dr iving t he pump would st all or somet hing
would br eak.
Posit ive-displa cement pumps a r e fur t her
cla ssified a s fixed displa cement or va r ia ble
displa cement . The fixed-displa cement pump
deliver s t he same amount of fluid on each cycle.
The out put volume ca n be cha nged only by
changing t he speed of t he pump. When a pump
of t his t ype is used in a hydr aulic syst em, a
pr essur e r egulat or (unloading valve) must be
incor por at ed in t he syst em. A pr essur e r egulat or
or unloading valve is used in a hydr aulic syst em
t o cont r ol t he amount of pr essur e in t he syst em
and t o unload or r elieve t he pump when t he
desir ed pr essur e is r eached. This act ion of a
pr essur e r egulat or keeps t he pump fr om wor king
against a load when t he hydr aulic syst em is at
maximum pr essur e and not funct ioning. Dur ing
t his t ime t he pr essur e r egulat or bypasses t he fluid
fr om t he pump back t o t he r eser voir . (See chapt er
6 for mor e det a iled infor ma t ion concer ning
pr essur e r egulat or s.) The pump cont inues t o
deliver a fixed volume of fluid dur ing each cycle.
Such t er ms as fixed delivery, constant delivery,
and constant volume ar e all used t o ident ify t he
fixed-displacement pump.
The va r ia ble-displa cement pump is con-
st r uct ed so t hat t he displacement per cycle can be
var ied. The displacement is var ied t hr ough t he use
of an int er nal cont r olling device. Some of t hese
cont r olling devices ar e descr ibed lat er in t his
chapt er .
Pumps may also be classified accor ding t o t he
specific design used t o cr eat e t he flow of fluid.
Pr act ically all hydr aulic pumps fall wit hin t hr ee
design cla ssifica t ions-cent r ifuga l, r ot a r y, a nd
r ecipr ocat ing. The use of cent r ifugal pumps in
hydr aulics is limit ed and will not be discussed in
t his t ext .
ROTARY P UMP S
All r ot ar y pumps have r ot at ing par t s which
t r ap t he fluid at t he inlet (suct ion) por t and for ce
it t hr ough t he dischar ge por t int o t he syst em.
Gear s, scr ews, lobes, and vanes ar e commonly
used t o move t he fluid. Rot ar y pumps ar e posit ive
displacement of t he fixed displacement t ype.
Rot ar y pumps ar e designed wit h ver y small
clear ances bet ween r ot at ing par t s and st at ionar y
par t s t o minimize slippage fr om t he dischar ge
side back t o t he suct ion side. They ar e designed
t o oper a t e a t r el a t i vel y moder a t e s peeds .
Oper at ing at high speeds causes er osion and
exces s i ve wea r wh i ch r es u l t s i n i n cr ea s ed
clear ances.
Ther e ar e numer ous t ypes of r ot ar y pumps
and var ious met hods of classificat ion. They may
be cl a s s i fi ed by t h e s h a ft pos i t i on —ei t h er
ver t ically or hor izont ally mount ed; t he t ype of
dr ive—elect r ic mot or , gasoline engine, and so
for t h; t heir manufact ur er ’s name; or t heir ser vice
applicat ion. However , classificat ion of r ot ar y
pumps is gener ally made accor ding t o t he t ype of
r ot at ing element . A few of t he most common
t ypes of r ot a r y pumps a r e discussed in t he
following par agr aphs.
GEAR P UMP S
Gear pumps ar e classified as eit her ext er nal
or int er nal gear pumps. In ext er nal gear pumps
t he t eet h of bot h gear s pr oject out war d fr om t heir
4-2
cent er s (fig, 4-1). Ext er nal pumps may use spur
gear s, her r ingbone gear s, or helical gear s t o move
t he fluid. In an int er nal gear pump, t he t eet h of
one gear pr oject out war d, but t he t eet h of t he
ot her gear pr oject inwar d t owar d t he cent er of t he
pump (fig. 4-2, view A). Int er nal gear pumps may
be eit her cent er ed or off-cent er ed.
Sp u r Gea r P u mp
The spur gear pump (fig. 4-1) consist s of t wo
meshed gear s which r evolve in a housing. The
dr ive gear in t he illust r at ion is t ur ned by a dr ive
shaft which is at t ached t o t he power sour ce. The
clear ances bet ween t he gear t eet h as t hey mesh and
bet ween t he t eet h and t he pump housing ar e ver y
small.
The inlet por t is connect ed t o t he fluid supply
line, and t he out let por t is connect ed t o t he
pr essur e line. In figur e 4-1 t he dr ive gear is t ur ning
in a count er clockwise dir ect ion, and t he dr iven
(idle) gear is t ur ning in a clockwise dir ect ion. As
Fi gu r e 4-2.—Off-cen t er ed i n t er n a l gea r p u mp .
t he t eet h pass t he inlet por t , liquid is t r apped
bet ween t he t eet h and t he housing. This liquid is
car r ied ar ound t he housing t o t he out let por t . As
t he t eet h mesh again, t he liquid bet ween t he t eet h
is pushed int o t he out let por t . This a ct ion
pr oduces a posit ive flow of liquid int o t he syst em.
A shear pin or shear sect ion is incor por at ed in t he
dr ive shaft . This is t o pr ot ect t he power sour ce
Fi gu r e 4-1.—Gea r -t yp e r ot a r y p u mp .
4-3
or r educt ion gear s if t he pump fails because of
is pumped in t he same manner as in t he spur gear
excessive load or jamming of par t s.
pump. However , in t he her r ingbone pump, each
set of t eet h begins it s fluid dischar ge phase befor e
t he pr evious set of t eet h ha s complet ed it s
Her r i n gbon e Gea r P u mp
dischar ge phase. Th i s over l a ppi n g a n d t h e
r elat ively lar ger space at t he cent er of t he gear s
The her r ingbone gear pump (fig. 4-3) is a
t end t o minimize pulsat ions and give a st eadier
modificat ion of t he spur gear pump. The liquid
flow t han t he spur gear pump.
Fi gu r e 4-3.—Her r i n gbon e gea r p u mp .
4-4
He lic al Ge ar Pump
Th e h elica l gea r p u mp (fig. 4 - 4 ) is s t ill
a n ot h er mod ifica t ion of t h e s p u r gea r p u mp .
Beca u s e of t h e h elica l gea r d es ign , t h e
over la p p in g of s u cces s ive d is ch a r ges fr om
s p a ces b et ween t h e t eet h is even gr ea t er t h a n it
is in t h e h er r in gb on e gea r p u mp ; t h er efor e, t h e
d is ch a r ge flow is s moot h er . Sin ce t h e d is ch a r ge
flow is s moot h in t h e h elica l p u mp , t h e gea r s
ca n b e d es ign ed wit h a s ma ll n u mb er of la r ge
t eet h —t h u s a llowin g in cr ea s ed ca p a cit y wit h ou t
s a cr ificin g s moot h n es s of flow.
Th e p u mp in g gea r s of t h is t yp e of p u mp a r e
d r iven b y a s et of t imin g a n d d r ivin g gea r s t h a t
h elp ma in t a in t h e r equ ir ed clos e clea r a n ces
wit h ou t a ct u a l met a llic con t a ct of t h e p u mp in g
gea r s . (Met a llic con t a ct b et ween t h e t eet h of t h e
p u mp in g gea r s wou ld p r ovid e a t igh t er s ea l
a ga in s t s lip p a ge; h owever , it wou ld ca u s e r a p id
wea r of t h e t eet h , b eca u s e for eign ma t t er in t h e
liqu id wou ld b e p r es en t on t h e con t a ct
s u r fa ces . )
Roller bea r in gs a t bot h en ds of t h e gea r s h a ft s
ma in t a in pr oper a lign men t a n d min imize t h e
fr ict ion los s in t h e t r a n s mis s ion of power . Su it a ble
pa ckin gs a r e u s ed t o pr even t lea ka ge a r ou n d t h e
s h a ft .
Off-c e nt e re d Int e rnal Ge ar Pump
Th is pu mp is illu s t r a t ed in figu r e 4-2, view B.
Th e dr ive gea r is a t t a ch ed dir ect ly t o t h e dr ive s h a ft
of t h e pu mp a n d is pla ced off-cen t er in r ela t ion t o
t h e in t er n a l gea r . Th e t wo gea r s mes h on on e s ide
of t h e pu mp, bet ween t h e s u ct ion (in let ) a n d
dis ch ar ge por t s . On t h e oppos it e s ide of t h e
ch a mber , a cr es cen t -s h a ped for m fit t ed t o a clos e
t oler a n ce fills t h e s pa ce bet ween t h e t wo gea r s .
Th e r ot a t ion of t h e cen t er gea r by t h e dr ive
s h a ft ca u s es t h e ou t s ide gea r t o r ot a t e, s in ce t h e
t wo a r e mes h ed. Ever yt h in g in t h e ch a mber r ot a t es
except t h e cr es cen t . Th is ca u s es liqu id t o be
t r a pped in t h e gea r s pa ces a s t h ey pa s s t h e
cr es cen t . Th e liqu id is ca r r ied fr om t h e s u ct ion por t
t o t h e dis ch a r ge por t wh er e it is for ced ou t of t h e
pu mp by t h e mes h in g of t h e gea r s . Th e s ize of t h e
cr es cen t t h a t s epa r a t es t h e in t er n a l a n d ext er n a l
gea r s det er min es t h e volu me deliver y of t h e pu mp.
A s ma ll cr es cen t a llows mor e volu me of liqu id per
r evolu t ion t h a n a la r ger cr es cen t .
Figure 4 -4 . —He lic al ge ar pump.
4 -5
Cen t er ed I n t er n a l Gea r P u mp
Anot her design of int er na l gea r pump is
illust r at ed in figur es 4-5 and 4-6. This pump
consist s of a pair of gear -shaped element s, one
wit hin t he ot her , locat ed in t he pump chamber .
The inner gear is connect ed t o t he dr ive shaft of
t he power sour ce.
The oper at ion of t his t ype of int er nal gear
pump is illust r at ed in figur e 4-6. To simplify t he
explanat ion, t he t eet h of t he inner gear and t he
spaces bet ween t he t eet h of t he out er gear ar e
number ed. Not e t hat t he inner gear has one less
t oot h t han t he out er gear . The t oot h for m of each
gear is r elat ed t o t hat of t he ot her in such a way
t hat each t oot h of t he inner gear is always in
sliding cont act wit h t he sur face of t he out er gear .
Each t oot h of t he inner gear meshes wit h t he out er
gear at just one point dur ing each r evolut ion. In
t he illust r at ion, t his point is at t he X. In view A,
t oot h 1 of t he inner gear is meshed wit h space 1
of t he out er gear . As t he gear s cont inue t o r ot at e
in a clockwise dir ect ion and t he t eet h appr oach
point X, t oot h 6 of t he inner gear will mesh wit h
space 7 of t he out er gear , t oot h 5 wit h space 6,
and so on. Dur ing t his r evolut ion, t oot h 1 will
mesh wit h space 2; and dur ing t he following
r evolut ion, t oot h 1 will mesh wit h space 3. As a
r esult , t he out er gear will r ot at e at just six-sevent hs
t he speed of t he inner gear .
At one side of t he point of mesh, pocket s of
incr easing size ar e for med as t he gear s r ot at e,
while on t he ot her side t he pocket s decr ease in size.
In figur e 4-6, t he pocket s on t he r ight -hand side
of t he dr awings ar e incr easing in size t owar d t he
bot t om of t he illust r at ion, while t hose on t he
left -hand side ar e decr easing in size t owar d t he
t op of t h e i l l u s t r a t i on . Th e i n t a ke s i de of
t he pump would t her efor e be on t he r ight and t he
dischar ge side on t he left . In figur e 4-5, since t he
r ight -hand side of t he dr awing was t ur ned over
t o show t he por t s, t he int ake and dischar ge appear
Fi gu r e 4-5.—Cen t er ed i n t er n a l gea r p u mp .
Fi gu r e 4-6.—P r i n ci p les of op er a t i on of t h e i n t er n a l gea r
p u mp .
r ever sed. Act ually, A in one dr awing cover s A in
t he ot her .
LOBE P UMP
The lobe
oper at ion as
pump uses t he same pr inciple of
t he ext er nal gear pump descr ibed
4-6
Fi gu r e 4-7.—Lobe p u mp .
pr eviously. The lobes ar e consider ably lar ger t han
gear t eet h, but t her e ar e only t wo or t hr ee lobes
on each r ot or . A t hr ee-lobe pump is illust r at ed
in figur e 4-7. The t wo element s ar e r ot at ed, one
dir ect ly dr iven by t he sour ce of power , and t he
ot her t hr ough t iming gear s. As t he element s
r ot at e, liquid is t r apped bet ween t wo lobes of each
r ot or and t he walls of t he pump chamber and
ca r r ied a r ound fr om t he suct ion side t o t he
dischar ge side of t he pump. As liquid leaves t he
suct ion chamber , t he pr essur e in t he suct ion
chamber is lower ed, and addit ional liquid is for ced
int o t he chamber fr om t he r eser voir .
The lobes a r e const r uct ed so t her e is a
cont inuous seal at t he point s wher e t hey meet at
t he cent er of t he pump. The lobes of t he pump
illust r at ed in figur e 4-7 ar e fit t ed wit h small vanes
at t he out er edge t o impr ove t he seal of t he pump.
Alt hough t hese vanes ar e mechanically held in
t heir slot s, t hey ar e, t o some ext ent , fr ee t o move
out war d. Cent r ifugal for ce keeps t he vanes snug
a ga inst t he cha mber a nd t he ot her r ot a t ing
member s.
SCREW P UMP
Scr ew pumps for power t r ansmission syst ems
ar e gener ally used only on submar ines. Alt hough
low in efficiency and expensive, t he scr ew pump
is suit able for high pr essur es (3000 psi), and
deliver s fluid wit h lit t le noise or pr essur e
pulsat ion.
Scr ew pumps ar e available in sever al differ ent
designs; however , t hey all oper at e in a similar
manner . In a fixed-displacement r ot ar y-t ype scr ew
pump (fig. 4-8, view A), fluid is pr opelled axially
Fi gu r e 4-8.—Scr ew p u mp s.
4-7
in a const ant , unifor m flow t hr ough t he act ion
of just t hr ee moving par t s-a power r ot or and t wo
idler r ot or s. The power r ot or is t he only dr iven
element , ext ending out side t he pump casing for
power connect ions t o an elect r ical mot or . The
idler r ot or s ar e t ur ned by t he power r ot or t hr ough
t he act ion of t he meshing t hr eads. The fluid
pumped bet ween t he meshing helical t hr eads of
t he idler and power r ot or s pr ovides a pr ot ect ive
film t o pr event met al-t o-met al cont act . The idler
r ot or s per for m no wor k; t her efor e, t hey do not
need t o be connect ed by gear s t o t r ansmit power .
The enclosur es for med by t he meshing of t he
r ot or s inside t he close clear ance housing cont ain
t he fluid being pumped. As t he r ot or s t ur n, t hese
enclosur es move axially, pr oviding a cont inuous
flow. Effect ive per for ma nce is ba sed on t he
following fact or s:
1. The r olling act ion obt ained wit h t he t hr ead
design of t he r ot or s is r esponsible for t he ver y
quiet pump oper at ion. The symmet r ical pr essur e
loading ar ound t he power r ot or eliminat es t he
need for r adial bear ings because t her e ar e no
r adial loads. The car t r idge-t ype ball bear ing in t he
pump posit ions t he power r ot or for pr oper seal
oper at ion. The axial loads on t he r ot or s cr eat ed
by dischar ge pr essur e ar e hydr aulically balanced.
2. The key t o scr ew pump per for mance is t he
oper at ion of t he idler r ot or s in t heir housing
bor es. The idler r ot or s gener at e a hydr odynamic
film t o suppor t t hemselves in t heir bor es like
jour nal bear ings. Since t his film is self-gener at ed,
it depends on t hr ee oper at ing char act er ist ics of
t he pump—speed, dischar ge pr essur e, and fluid
viscosit y. The st r engt h of t he film is incr eased by
incr easing t he oper at ing speed, by decr easing
pr essur e, or by incr easing t he fluid viscosit y. This
is why scr ew pump per for mance capabilit ies ar e
based on pump speed, dischar ge pr essur e, and
fluid viscosit y.
The supply line is connect ed at t he cent er of
t he pump housing in some pumps (fig. 4-8, view
B). Fluid ent er s int o t he pump’s suct ion por t ,
which opens int o chamber s at t he ends of t he
scr ew assembly. As t he scr ews t ur n, t he fluid flows
bet ween t he t hr eads at each end of t he assembly.
The t hr eads car r y t he fluid along wit hin t he
housing t owar d t he cent er of t he pump t o t he
dischar ge por t .
VANE P UMP
Vane-t ype hydr aulic pumps gener ally have
cir cular ly or ellipt ically shaped int er ior and flat
end plat es. (Figur e 4-9 illust r at es a vane pump
wit h a cir cular int er ior .) A slot t ed r ot or is fixed
t o a shaft t hat ent er s t he housing cavit y t hr ough
on e of t h e en d pl a t es . A n u mber of s ma l l
r ect angular plat es or vanes ar e set int o t he slot s
of t he r ot or . As t he r ot or t ur ns, cent r ifugal for ce
causes t he out er edge of each vane t o slide along
t he sur face of t he housing cavit y as t he vanes slide
in and out of t he r ot or slot s. The numer ous
cavit ies, for med by t he vanes, t he end plat es, t he
housing, and t he r ot or , enlar ge and shr ink as t he
r ot or and vane assembly r ot at es. An inlet por t is
inst alled in t he housing so fluid may flow int o t he
cavit ies as t hey enlar ge. An out let por t is pr ovided
t o allow t he fluid t o flow out of t he cavit ies as
t hey become small.
The pump shown in figur e 4-9 is r efer r ed t o
a s a n unba la nced pump beca use a ll of t he
pumping act ion t akes place on one side of t he
r ot or . This causes a side load on t he r ot or . Some
vane pumps ar e const r uct ed wit h an ellipt ically
shaped housing t hat for ms t wo separ at e pumping
ar eas on opposit e sides of t he r ot or . This cancels
out t he side loads; such pumps ar e r efer r ed t o as
balanced vane.
Usually vane pumps ar e fixed displacement
a nd pump only in one dir ect ion. Ther e a r e,
however , some designs of va ne pumps t ha t
pr ovide var iable flow. Vane pumps ar e gener ally
r est r ict ed t o ser vice wher e pr essur e demand does
not exceed 2000 psi. Wear r at es, vibr at ion, and
noise levels incr ease r apidly in vane pumps as
pr essur e demands exceed 2000 psi.
RECI P ROCATI NG P UMP S
The t er m reciprocating is defined as back-and-
for t h mot ion. In t he r ecipr ocat ing pump it is t his
Fi gu r e 4-9.—Va n e p u mp .
4-8
ba ck-a n d-for t h mot i on of pi s t on s i n s i de of
cylinder s t hat pr ovides t he flow of fluid. Recipr o-
cat ing pumps, like r ot ar y pumps, oper at e on
t he posit ive pr inciple—t ha t is, ea ch st r oke
deliver s a definit e volume of liquid t o t he
syst em.
The mast er cylinder of t he aut omobile br ake
syst em, which is descr ibed and illust r at ed in
chapt er 2, is an example of a simple r ecipr ocat ing
pump. Sever al t ypes of power -oper at ed hydr aulic
pumps, such as t he r adial pist on and axial pist on,
ar e also classified as r ecipr ocat ing pumps. These
pumps ar e somet imes classified as r ot ar y pumps,
because a r ot ar y mot ion is impar t ed t o t he pumps
by t he sour ce of power . However , t he act ual
pumping is per for med by set s of pist ons r ecipr o-
cat ing inside set s of cylinder s.
HAND P UMP S
Ther e ar e t wo t ypes of manually oper at ed
r ecipr oca t ing pumps—t he single-a ct ion a nd
t h e dou bl e-a ct i on . Th e s i n gl e-a ct i on pu mp
pr ovides flow dur ing ever y ot her st r oke, while t he
double-act ion pr ovides flow dur ing each st r oke.
Single-a ct ion pumps a r e fr equent ly used in
hydr aulic jacks.
A double-act ion hand pump is illust r at ed in
figur e 4-10. This t ype of pump is used in some
air cr aft hydr aulic syst ems as a sour ce of hydr aulic
power for emer gen ci es , for t es t i n g cer t a i n
s u bs ys t ems du r i n g pr even t i ve ma i n t en a n ce
inspect ions, and for det er mining t he causes of
malfunct ions in t hese subsyst ems.
This pump (fig. 4-10) consist s of a cylinder ,
a pist on cont aining a built -in check valve (A), a
pist on r od, an oper at ing handle, and a check valve
(B) at t he inlet por t . When t he pist on is moved
Fi gu r e 4-10.—Hyd r a u li c h a n d p u mp .
t o t he left , t he for ce of t he liquid in t he out let
chamber and spr ing t ension cause valve A t o close.
This movement causes t he pist on t o for ce t he
liquid in t he out let chamber t hr ough t he out let
por t a nd int o t he syst em. This sa me pist on
movement causes a low-pr essur e ar ea in t he inlet
chamber . The differ ence in pr essur e bet ween t he
inlet chamber and t he liquid (at at mospher ic
pr essur e) in t he r eser vior act ing on check valve
B causes it s spr ing t o compr ess; t hus, opening t he
check valve. This allows liquid t o ent er t he inlet
chamber .
When t he pist on complet es t his st r oke t o t he
left , t he inlet chamber is full of liquid. This
eliminat es t he pr essur e differ ence bet ween t he inlet
cha mber a nd t he r eser vior , t her eby a llowing
spr ing t ension t o close check valve B.
When t he pist on is moved t o t he r ight , t he
for ce of t he confined liquid in t he inlet chamber
act s on check valve A. This act ion compr esses
t he spr ing a nd opens check va lve A which
a l l ows t h e l i qu i d t o fl ow fr om t h e i n t a ke
chamber t o t he out let chamber . Because of t he
a r ea occupied by t he pist on r od, t he out let
chamber cannot cont ain all t he liquid dischar ged
fr om t he inlet chamber . Since liquids do not
compr ess, t he ext r a liquid is for ced out of t he
out let por t int o t he syst em.
P I STON P UMP S
Pist on pumps a r e ma de in a va r iet y of
t ypes and configur at ions. A basic dist inct ion
is made bet ween axial and r adial pumps. The
axial pist on pump has t he cylinder s par allel
t o each ot her and t he dr ive shaft . The r adial
pi s t on des i gn h a s t h e cyl i n der s ext en di n g
r a dia lly out wa r d fr om t he dr ive sha ft like
t he spokes of a wheel. A fur t her dist inct ion
is made bet ween pumps t hat pr ovide a fixed
deliver y and t hose able t o var y t he flow of t he
fluid. Var iable deliver y pumps can be fur t her
divided int o t hose able t o pump fluid fr om zer o
t o full deliver y in one dir ect ion of flow and t hose
able t o pump fr om zer o t he full deliver y in eit her
dir ect ion.
All pist on pumps used in Navy shipboar d
syst ems have t he cylinder s bor ed in a cylinder
block t ha t is mount ed on bea r ings wit hin a
housing. This cylinder block assembly r ot at es wit h
t he pump dr ive shaft .
4-9
Ra d i a l P i st on P u mp s
Figur e 4-11 illust r at es t he oper at ion of t he
r adial pist on pump. The pump consist s of a pint le,
which r emains st at ionar y and act s as a valve; a
Fi gu r e 4-11.—P r i n ci p les of op er a t i on of t h e r a d i a l p i st on
p u mp .
cylinder block, which r evolves ar ound t he pint le
and cont ains t he cylinder s in which t he pist ons
oper at e; a r ot or , which houses t he r eact ion r ing
of har dened st eel against which t he pist on heads
pr ess; and a slide block, which is used t o cont r ol
t he lengt h of t he pist on st r okes. The slide block
does not r evolve but houses and suppor t s t he
r ot or , which does r evolve due t o t he fr ict ion set
up by t he sliding act ion bet ween t he pist on heads
a nd t he r ea ct ion r ing. The cylinder block is
at t ached t o t he dr ive shaft .
Refer r ing t o view A of figur e 4-11, assume t hat
space X in one of t he cylinder s of t he cylinder
block cont ains liquid and t hat t he r espect ive pist on
of t his cylinder is at posit ion 1. When t he cylinder
block a nd pist on a r e r ot a t ed in a clockwise
dir ect ion, t he pist on is for ced int o it s cylinder as
it appr oaches posit ion 2. This act ion r educes t he
volumet r ic size of t he cylinder a nd for ces a
quant it y of liquid out of t he cylinder and int o t he
out let por t above t he pint le. This pumping act ion
is due t o t he r ot or being off-cent er in r elat ion t o
t he cent er of t he cylinder block.
In figur e 4-11 view B, t he pist on has r eached
posit ion 2 and has for ced t he liquid out of t he
open end of t he cylinder t hr ough t he out let above
t he pint le and int o t he syst em. While t he pist on
moves fr om posit ion 2 t o posit ion 3, t he open end
of t he cylinder passes over t he solid par t of t he
pint le; t her efor e, t her e is no int ake or dischar ge
of liquid dur ing t his t ime. As t he pist on and
cylinder move fr om posit ion 3 t o posit ion 4,
cent r ifuga l for ce ca uses t he pist on t o move
out war d against t he r eact ion r ing of t he r ot or .
Dur ing t his t ime t he open end of t he cylinder is
open t o t he int ake side of t he pint le and, t her efor e,
fills wit h liquid. As t he pist on moves fr om
posit ion 4 t o posit ion 1, t he open end of t he
cylinder is against t he solid side of t he pint le and
no int ake or dischar ge of liquid t akes place. Aft er
t he pist on has passed t he pint le and st ar t s t owar d
posit ion 2, anot her dischar ge of liquid t akes place.
Alt er nat e int ake and dischar ge cont inues as t he
r ot or r evolves about it s axis-int ake on one side
of t he pint le and dischar ge on t he ot her , as t he
pist on slides in and out .
Not ice in views A and B of figur e 4-11 t hat
t he cent er point of t he r ot or is differ ent fr om t he
cent er point of t he cylinder block. The differ ence
of t hese cent er s pr oduces t he pumping act ion. If
t he r ot or is moved so t hat it s cent er point is t he
same as t hat of t he cylinder block, as shown in
figur e 4-11, view C, t her e is no pumping act ion,
since t he pist on does not move back and for t h in
t he cylinder as it r ot at es wit h t he cylinder block.
4-10
The flow in t his pump can be r ever sed by
moving t he slide block, and t her efor e t he r ot or ,
t o t he r ight so t he r elat ion of t he cent er s of t he
r ot or and t he cylinder block is r ever sed fr om t he
posit ion shown in views A and B of figur e 4-11.
View D shows t his ar r angement . Liquid ent er s t he
cylinder as t he pist on t r avels fr om posit ion 1 t o
posit ion 2 and is dischar ged fr om t he cylinder as
t he pist on t r avels fr om posit ion 3 t o 4.
In t he illust r at ions t he r ot or is shown in t he
cent er , t he ext r eme r ight , or t he ext r eme left in
r elat ion t o t he cylinder block. The amount of
adjust ment in dist ance bet ween t he t wo cent er s
det er mines t he lengt h of t he pist on st r oke, which
cont r ols t he amount of liquid flow in and out of
t he cylinder . Thus, t his adjust ment det er mines t he
displacement of t he pump; t hat is, t he volume of
liquid t he pump deliver s per r evolut ion. This
adjust ment may be cont r olled in differ ent ways.
Manual cont r ol by a handwheel is t he simplest .
The pump illust r at ed in figur e 4-11 is cont r olled
in t his way. For aut omat ic cont r ol of deliver y
t o accommodat e var ying volume r equir ement s
dur ing t he oper a t ing cycle, a hydr a ulica lly
cont r olled cylinder may be used t o posit ion t he
slide block. A gear -mot or cont r olled by a push
but t on or a limit swit ch is somet imes used for t his
pur pose.
Figur e 4-11 is shown wit h four pist ons for t he
sake of simplicit y. Radial pumps ar e act ually
designed wit h an odd number of pist ons (fig.
4-12). This is t o ensur e t hat no mor e t han one
cylinder is complet ely blocked by t he pint le at any
one t ime. If t her e wer e an even number of pist ons
spaced evenly ar ound t he cylinder block (for
example, eight ), t her e would be occasions when
t wo of t he cylinder s would be blocked by t he
pint le, while a t ot her t imes none would be
blocked. This would cause t hr ee cylinder s t o dis-
char ge at one t ime and four at one t ime, causing
pulsat ions in flow. Wit h an odd number of pist ons
spaced evenly ar ound t he cylinder block, only one
cylinder is complet ely blocked by t he pint le at any
one t ime. This r educes pulsat ions of flow.
Fi gu r e 4-12.—Ni n e-p i st on r a d i a l p i st on p u mp .
4-11
Axi a l P i st on P u mp s
In axial pist on pumps of t he in-line t ype,
wher e t he cylinder s and t he dr ive shaft ar e par allel
(fig. 4-13), t he r ecipr ocat ing mot ion is cr eat ed by
a cam plat e, also known as a wobble plat e, t ilt ing
plat e, or swash plat e. This plat e lies in a plane
t hat cut s acr oss t he cent er line of t he dr ive shaft
and cylinder bar r el and does not r ot at e. In a
fixed-displacement pump, t he cam plat e will be
r igidly mount ed in a posit ion so t hat it int er sect s
t he cent er line of t he cylinder bar r el at an angle
appr oximat ely 25 degr ees fr om per pendicular .
Var iable-deliver y axial pist on pumps ar e designed
so t hat t he angle t hat t he cam plat e makes wit h
a per pendicular t o t he cent er line of t he cylinder
bar r el may be var ied fr om zer o t o 20 or 25 degr ees
t o one or bot h sides. One end of each pist on r od
is held in cont act wit h t he cam plat e as t he cylinder
block and pist on assembly r ot at es wit h t he dr ive
shaft . This causes t he pist ons t o r ecipr ocat e wit hin
t he cyIinder s. The lengt h of t he pist on st r oke is
pr opor t ional t o t he angle t hat t he cam plat e is set
fr om per pendicular t o t he cent er line of t he
cylinder bar r el.
A va r ia t ion of a xia l pist on pump is t he
bent -axis t ype shown in figur e 4-14. This t ype does
not have a t ilt ing cam plat e as t he in-line pump
does. Inst ead, t he cylinder block axis is var ied
fr om t he dr ive sha ft a xis. The ends of t he
Fi gu r e 4-14.—Ben t -a xi s a xi a l p i st on p u mp .
connect ing r ods ar e r et ained in socket s on a disc
t hat t ur ns wit h t he dr ive shaft . The cylinder block
is t ur ned wit h t he dr ive shaft by a univer sal joint
assembly at t he int er sect ion of t he dr ive shaft and
t he cylinder block shaft . In or der t o var y t he pump
displacement , t he cylinder block and valve plat e
ar e mount ed in a yoke and t he ent ir e assembly
is swung in an ar e ar ound a pair of mount ing
pint les at t ached t o t he pump housing.
The pumping act ion of t he axial pist on pump
is made possible by a univer sal joint or link.
Fi gu r e 4-13.—I n -li n e a xi a l p i st on p u mp .
4-12
Figur e 4-15 is a ser ies of dr awings t hat illust r at es
how t he univer sal joint is used in t he oper at ion
of t his pump.
Fir st , a r ocker ar m is inst alled on a hor izont al
shaft . (See fig. 4-15, view A.) The ar m is joined
t o t he shaft by a pin so t hat it can be swung back
and for t h, as indicat ed in view B. Next , a r ing is
placed ar ound t he shaft and secur ed t o t he r ocker
ar m so t he r ing can t ur n fr om left t o r ight as
shown in view C. This pr ovides t wo r ot a r y
mot ions in differ ent planes at t he same t ime and
in var ying pr opor t ions as may be desir ed. The
r ocker ar m can swing back and for t h in one ar c,
and t he r ing can simult aneously move fr om left
Fi gu r e 4-15.–Rela t i on sh i p of t h e u n i ver sa l joi n t i n op er a t i on
of t h e a xi a l p i st on p u mp .
t o r ight in anot her ar c, in a plane at r ight angles
t o t he plane in which t he r ocker ar m t ur ns.
Next , a t ilt ing plat e is added t o t he assembly.
The t ilt ing plat e is placed at a slant t o t he axis
of t he shaft , as depict ed in figur e 4-15, view D.
The r ocker ar m is t hen slant ed at t he same angle
as t he t ilt ing plat e, so t hat it lies par allel t o t he
t ilt ing plat e. The r ing is also par allel t o, and in
cont act wit h, t he t ilt ing plat e. The posit ion of t he
r ing in r elat ion t o t he r ocker ar m is unchanged
fr om t hat shown in figur e 4-15, view C.
Figur e 4-15, view E, shows t he assembly aft er
t he shaft , st ill in a hor izont al posit ion, has been
r ot at ed a quar t er t ur n. The r ocker ar m is st ill in
t he same posit ion as t he t ilt ing plat e and is now
per pendicular t o t he axis of t he shaft . The r ing
has t ur ned on t he r ocker pins, so t hat it has
changed it s posit ion in r elat ion t o t he r ocker ar m,
but it r emains par allel t o, and in cont act wit h, t he
t ilt ing plat e.
View F of figur e 4-15 shows t he assembly aft er
t he shaft has been r ot at ed anot her quar t er t ur n.
The par t s ar e now in t he same posit ion as shown
in view D, but wit h t he ends of t he r ocker ar m
r ever sed. The r ing st ill bear s against t he t ilt ing
plat e.
As t he shaft cont inues t o r ot at e, t he r ocker
ar m and t he r ing t ur n about t heir pivot s, wit h each
changing it s r elat ion t o t he ot her and wit h t he r ing
always bear ing on t he plat e.
Figur e 4-15, view G, shows a wheel added t o
t he assembly. The wheel is placed upr ight and
fixed t o t he shaft , so t hat it r ot at es wit h t he shaft .
I n a ddit ion, t wo r ods, A a nd B, a r e loosely
connect ed t o t he t ilt ing r ing and ext end t hr ough
t wo holes st anding opposit e each ot her in t he fixed
wheel. As t he shaft is r ot at ed, t he fixed wheel
t ur ns per pendicular t o t he shaft at all t imes. The
t ilt ing r ing r ot at es wit h t he shaft and always
r emains t ilt ed, since it r emains in cont act wit h t he
t ilt ing plat e. Refer r ing t o view G, t he dist ance
along r od A, fr om t he t ilt ing r ing t o t he fixed
wheel, is gr eat er t han t he dist ance along r od B.
As t he assembly is r ot at ed, however , t he dist ance
along r od A decr eases as it s point of at t achment
t o t he t ilt ing r ing moves closer t o t he fixed wheel,
while t he dist ance along r od B incr eases. These
changes cont inue unt il aft er a half r evolut ion, at
which t ime t he init ial posit ions of t he r ods have
been r ever sed. Aft er anot her half r evolut ion, t he
t wo r ods will again be in t heir or iginal posit ions.
As t he assembly r ot at es, t he r ods move in and
out t hr ough t he holes in t he fixed wheel. This is
t he way t he axial pist on pump wor ks. To get a
pumping act ion, place pist ons at t he ends of t he
4-13
r ods, beyond t he fixed wheel, and inser t t hem int o
cylinder s. The r ods must be connect ed t o t he
pist ons and t o t he wheel by ball and socket joint s.
As t he assembly r ot at es, each pist on moves back
and for t h in it s cylinder . Suct ion and dischar ge
lines can be ar r anged so t hat liquid ent er s t he
cylinder s while t he spaces bet ween t he pist on
heads and t he bases of t he cylinder s ar e incr easing,
and leaves t he cylinder s dur ing t he ot her half of
each r evolut ion when t he pist ons ar e moving in
t he opposit e dir ect ion.
The main par t s of t he pump ar e t he dr ive
shaft , pist ons, cylinder block, and valve and swash
plat es. Ther e ar e t wo por t s in t he valve plat e.
These por t s connect dir ect ly t o openings in t he
face of t he cylinder block. Fluid is dr awn int o one
por t a n d for ced ou t t h e ot h er por t by t h e
r ecipr ocat ing act ion of t he pist ons.
I N-LI NE VARI ABLE-DI SP LACEMENT
AXI AL P I STON P UMP .— When t he dr ive shaft
is r ot at ed, it r ot at es t he pist ons and t he cylinder
block wit h it . The swash plat e placed at an angle
causes t he pist ons t o move back and for t h in t he
cylinder block while t he shaft , pist on, cylinder
block, and swash plat e r ot at e t oget her . (The shaft ,
pist on, cylinder block, and swash plat e t oget her
is somet imes r efer r ed t o as t he r ot at ing gr oup or
a ssembly.) As t he pist ons r ecipr oca t e in t he
cylinder block, fluid ent er s one por t and is for ced
out t he ot her .
Figur e 4-13 shows pist on A at t he bot t om of
it s st r oke. When pist on A has r ot at ed t o t he
posit ion held by pist on B, it will have moved
upwar d in it s cylinder , for cing fluid t hr ough t he
out let por t dur ing t he ent ir e dist ance. Dur ing t he
r emainder of t he r ot at ion back t o it or iginal
posit ion, t he pist on t r avels downwar d in t he
cylinder . This act ion cr eat es a low-pr essur e ar ea
in t he cylinder . The differ ence in pr essur e bet ween
t he cylinder inlet and t he r eser voir causes fluid
t o flow int o t he inlet por t t o t he cylinder . Since
ea ch one of t he pist ons per for ms t he sa me
oper at ion in succession, fluid is const ant ly being
t aken int o t he cylinder bor es t hr ough t he inlet por t
a nd discha r ged fr om t he cylinder bor es int o
t he syst em. This a ct ion pr ovides a st ea dy,
nonpulsat ing flow of fluid.
The t ilt or angle of t he swash plat e det er mines
t he dist ance t he pist ons move back and for t h in
t heir cylinder s; t her eby, cont r olling t he pump
out put .
When t he swash plat e is at a r ight angle t o t he
shaft , and t he pump is r ot at ing, t he pist ons do
not r ecipr ocat e; t her efor e, no pumping act ion
t akes place. When t he swash plat e is t ilt ed away
fr om a r ight angle, t he pist ons r ecipr ocat e and
fluid is pumped.
Since t he displacement of t his t ype of pump
is var ied by changing t he angle of t he t ilt ing box,
some means must be used t o cont r ol t he changes
of t his angle. Var ious met hods ar e used t o cont r ol
t his movement —manual, elect r ic, pneumat ic, or
hydr aulic.
STRATOP OWER P UMP .— Anot her t ype of
axial pist on pump, somet imes r efer r ed t o as an
in-line pump, is commonly r efer r ed t o a s a
St r a t opower pump. This pump is a va ila ble
in eit her t he fixed-displa cement t ype or t he
var iable-displacement t ype.
Two major funct ions ar e per for med by t he
int er nal par t s of t he fixed-displacement St r at o-
power pump. These funct ions ar e mechanical
dr ive and fluid displacement .
The mechanical dr ive mechanism is shown in
figur e 4-16. In t his t ype of pump, t he pist ons and
block do not r ot at e. Pist on mot ion is caused by
r ot at ing t he dr ive cam displacing each pist on t he
full height of t he dr ive cam dur ing each r evolut ion
of t he shaft . The ends of t he pist ons ar e at t ached
t o a wobble plat e suppor t ed by a fr eed cent er pivot
and ar e held inconst ant cont act wit h t he cam face.
As t he high side of t he r ot a t ing dr ive ca m
depr esses one side of t he wobble plat e, t he ot her
side of t he wobble plat e is wit hdr awn an equal
amount , moving t he pist ons wit h it . The t wo cr eep
plat es ar e pr ovided t o decr ease wear on t he
r evolving cam.
A schemat ic diagr am of t he displacement of
fluid is shown in figur e 4-17. Fluid is displaced
by axial mot ion of t he pist ons. As each pist on
advances in it s r espect ive cylinder block bor e,
pr essur e opens t he check valve and a quant it y of
fluid is for ced past it . Combined back pr essur e
and check valve spr ing t ension close t he check
Fi gu r e 4-16.—Mech a n i ca l d r i ve—St r a t op ower p u mp .
4-14
Fi gu r e 4-17.—Flu i d d i sp la cemen t —St r a t op ower p u mp .
valve when t he pist on advances t o it s for emost
posit ion. The low-pr essur e ar ea occur r ing in t he
cylinder dur ing t he pist on r et ur n causes fluid t o
flow fr om t he r eser voir int o t he cylinder .
Th e i n t er n a l fea t u r es of t h e va r i a bl e-
displacement St r at opower pump ar e illust r at ed in
figur e 4-18. This pump oper at es similar ly t o t he
fixed-displacement St r at opower pump; however ,
t his pump pr ovides t he addit ional funct ion of
aut omat ically var ying t he volume out put .
This funct ion is cont r olled by t he pr essur e in
t he hydr aulic syst em. For example, let us t ake a
pump r at ed at 3000 psi, and pr oviding flow t o a
3000 psi syst em. As syst em pr essur e appr oaches,
say 2850 psi, t he pump begins t o unload (deliver
less flow t o t he syst em) and is fully unloaded (zer o
flow) at 3000 psi.
Th e pr es s u r e r egu l a t i on a n d fl ow a r e
cont r olled by int er nal bypasses t hat aut omat ically
adjust fluid deliver y t o syst em demands.
The bypa ss syst em is pr ovided t o supply
self-lubr icat ion, par t icular ly when t he pump is in
nonflow oper at ion. The r ing of bypass holes in
t he pist ons ar e aligned wit h t he bypass passage
each t ime a pist on r eaches t he ver y end of it s
for war d t r avel. This pumps a small quant it y of
fluid out of t he bypass passage back t o t he supply
r eser voir and pr ovides a const ant changing of
fluid in t he pump. The bypass is designed t o pump
against a consider able back pr essur e for use wit h
pr essur ized r eser voir s.
Fi gu r e 4-18.—I n t er n a l fea t u r es of St r a t op ower va r i a ble-d i sp la cemen t p u mp .
4-15
CHAP TER 5
FLUI D LI NES AND FI TTI NGS
The cont r ol and applicat ion of fluid power
would be impossible wit hout suit able means of
t r ansfer r ing t he fluid bet ween t he r eser voir , t he
power sour ce, and t he point s of applicat ion. Fluid
lines ar e used t o t r ansfer t he fluid, and fit t ings
ar e used t o connect t he lines t o t he power sour ce
and t he point s of applicat ion.
This chapt er is devot ed t o fluid lines and
fit t ings. Aft er st udying t his chapt er , you should
have t he knowledge t o ident ify t he
monly used lines and fit t ings, and
explain t he pr ocedur e for fabr icat ing,
labeling t he lines.
TYP ES OF LI NES
The t hr ee t ypes of lines used in
syst ems a r e pipe (r igid), t ubing
a nd hose (flexible). A number of
consider ed when t he t ype of line is
most com-
be able t o
t est ing, and
fluid power
(semir igid),
fact or s ar e
select ed for
a par t icular fluid syst em. These fact or s include
t he t ype of fluid, t he r equir ed syst em pr essur e,
and t he locat ion of t he syst em. For example,
heavy pipe might be used for a lar ge st at ionar y
fluid power syst em, but compar at ively light weight
t ubing must be used in a ir cr a ft a nd missile
syst ems because weight and space ar e cr it ical
fact or s. Flexible hose is r equir ed in inst allat ions
wher e unit s must be fr ee t o move r elat ive t o each
ot her .
P I P ES AND TUBI NG
Ther e ar e t hr ee impor t ant dimensions of any
t ubular pr oduct —out side diamet er (OD), inside
diamet er (ID), and wall t hickness. Sizes of pipe
ar e list ed by t he nominal (or appr oximat e) ID and
t he wall t hickness. Sizes of t ubing ar e list ed by
t he act ual OD and t he wall t hickness.
SELECTI ON OF P I P ES AND TUBI NG
The mat er ial, ID, and wall t hickness ar e
t he t hr ee pr imar y consider at ions in t he selec-
t i on of l i n es for a pa r t i cu l a r fl u i d power
syst em.
Th e I D of a l i n e i s i mpor t a n t , s i n ce i t
det er mines how much fluid can pass t hr ough t he
l i n e i n a gi ven t i me per i od (r a t e of fl ow)
wit hout loss of power due t o excessive fr ict ion
and heat . The velocit y of a given flow is less
t hr ough a lar ge opening t han t hr ough a small
opening. If t he ID of t he line is t oo small for t he
amount of flow, excessive t ur bulence and fr ict ion
heat cause unnecessar y power loss and over heat ed
fluid.
Si zi n g of P i p es a n d Tu bi n g
Pipes ar e available in t hr ee differ ent weight s:
st andar d (STD), or Schedule 40; ext r a st r ong
(XS), or Schedule 80; and double ext r a st r ong
(XXS). The schedule number s r ange fr om 10
t o 160 a n d cover 10 di s t i n ct s et s of wa l l
t hickness. (See t able 5-1.) Schedule 160 wall
t hickness is slight ly t hinner t han t he double ext r a
st r ong.
As ment ioned ear lier , t he size of pipes is
det er mined by t he nominal (appr oximat e) ID. For
example, t he ID for a 1/4-inch Schedule 40 pipe
is 0.364 inch, and t he ID for a 1/2-inch Schedule
40 pipe is 0.622 inch.
It is impor t ant t o not e t hat t he IDs of all pipes
of t he same nominal size ar e not equal. This is
because t he OD r emains const ant and t he wall
t hickness incr ea ses a s t he schedule number
incr eases. For example, a nominal size 1-inch
Schedule 40 pipe has a 1.049 ID. The same size
Schedule 80 pipe has a 0.957 ID, while Schedule
5-1
Ta ble 5-1.—Wa ll Th i ck n ess Sch ed u le Desi gn a t i on s for P i p e
160 pipe has a 0.815 ID. In each case t he OD is
1.315 (t able 5-1) and t he wall t hicknesses ar e
0.133 ( 1“315 ; 1“M9), 0. 179 (1”315 ; 9“957),
a nd 0.250 ( 1“315~0”815) r espect ively. Not e
t ha t t he differ ence bet ween t he OD a nd I D
includes t wo wall t hicknesses and must be divided
by 2 t o obt ain t he wall t hickness.
Tubing differ s fr om pipe in it s size classi-
ficat ion. Tubing is designat ed by it s act ual OD.
(See t able 5-2.) Thus, 5/8-inch t ubing has an OD
of 5/8 inch. As indicat ed in t he t able, t ubing is
available in a var iet y of wall t hicknesses. The
di a met er of t u bi n g i s oft en mea s u r ed a n d
indicat ed in 16t hs. Thus, No. 6 t ubing is 6/16 or
3/8 inch, No. 8 t ubing is 8/16 or 1/2 inch, and
so for t h.
The wall t hickness, mat er ial used, and ID
det er mine t he bur st ing pr essur e of a line or fit t ing.
The gr eat er t he wall t hickness in r elat ion t o t he
ID and t he st r onger t he met al, t he higher t he
bur st ing pr essur e. However , t he gr eat er t he ID for
a given wall t hickness, t he lower t he bur st ing
pr essur e, because for ce is t he pr oduct of ar ea and
pr essur e.
Ma t er i a ls
The pipe and t ubing used in fluid power
syst ems ar e commonly made fr om st eel, copper ,
br ass, aluminum, and st ainless st eel. Each of t hese
met a l s h a s i t s own di s t i n ct a dva n t a ges or
disadvant ages in cer t ain applicat ions.
St eel pipe and t ubing ar e r elat ively inexpensive
and ar e used in many hydr aulic and pneumat ic
syst ems. St eel is used because of it s st r engt h,
s u i t a bi l i t y for ben di n g a n d fl a n gi n g, a n d
adapt abilit y t o high pr essur es and t emper at ur es.
It s chief disadvant age is it s compar at ively low
r esist ance t o cor r osion.
Copper pipe and t ubing ar e somet imes used
for fluid power lines. Copper has high r esist ance
t o cor r osion and is easily dr awn or bent . However ,
it is unsat isfact or y for high t emper at ur es and has
a t endency t o har den and br eak due t o st r ess and
vibr at ion.
Aluminum has many of t he char act er ist ics and
qualit ies r equir ed for fluid power lines. It has high
r esist ance t o cor r osion and is easily dr awn or bent .
In addit ion, it has t he out st anding char act er ist ic
of light weight . Since weight eliminat ion is a vit al
fact or in t he design of air cr aft , aluminum alloy
t ubing is used in t he major it y of air cr aft fluid
power syst ems.
St ainless-st eel t ubing is used in cer t ain ar eas
of many air cr aft fluid power syst ems. As a gener al
r ule, exposed lines and lines subject t o abr asion
or int ense heat ar e made of st ainless st eel.
An impr oper ly piped syst em ca n lea d t o
ser ious power loss and possible har mful fluid
5-2
Ta ble 5-2.—Tu bi n g Si ze Desi gn a t i on
cont aminat ion. Ther efor e in maint enance and P REP ARATI ON OF P I P ES
r epair of fluid power syst em lines, t he basic design AND TUBI NG
r equir ement s must be kept in mind. Two pr imar y
r equir ement s ar e as follows:
1. The lines must have t he cor r ect ID t o
pr ovide t he r equir ed volume and velocit y of flow
wit h t he least amount of t ur bulence dur ing all
demands on t he syst em.
2. The lines must be made of t he pr oper
mat er ial and have t he wall t hickness t o pr ovide
sufficient st r engt h t o bot h cont ain t he fluid at t he
r equir ed pr essur e and wit hst and t he sur ges of
pr essur e t hat may develop in t he syst em.
Fluid power syst ems ar e designed as compact ly
as possible, t o keep t he connect ing lines shor t .
Ever y sect ion of line should be anchor ed secur ely
in one or mor e places so t hat neit her t he weight
of t he line nor t he effect s of vibr at ion ar e car r ied
on t he joint s. The aim is t o minimize st r ess
t hr oughout t he syst em.
Lines should nor mally be kept as shor t and
fr ee of bends as possible. However , t ubing should
not be assembled in a st r aight line, because a bend
t ends t o eliminat e st r ain by absor bing vibr at ion
and also compensat es for t her mal expansion and
5-3
cont r a ct ion. Bends a r e pr efer r ed t o elbows,
because bends cause less of a power loss. A few
of t he cor r ect and incor r ect met hods of inst alling
t ubing ar e illust r at ed in figur e 5-1.
Bends ar e descr ibed by t heir r adius measur e-
ment s. The ideal bend r adius is 2 1/2 t o 3 t imes
t he ID, as shown in figur e 5-2. For example, if
t he ID of a line is 2 inches, t he r adius of t he bend
should be bet ween 5 and 6 inches.
While fr ict ion incr eases mar kedly for shar per
cur ves t han t his, it also t ends t o incr ease up t o
a cer t ain point for gent ler cur ves. The incr eases
in fr ict ion in a bend wit h a r adius of mor e t han
3 pipe diamet er s r esult fr om incr eased t ur bulence
near t he out side edges of t he flow. Par t icles of
fluid must t r avel a longer dist ance in making t he
change in dir ect ion. When t he r adius of t he bend
is less t han 2 1/2 pipe diamet er s, t he incr eased
pr essur e loss is due t o t he abr upt change in t he
dir ect ion of flow, especially for par t icles near t he
inside edge of t he flow.
Dur ing your car eer in t he Navy, you may be
r equir ed t o fa br ica t e new t ubing t o r epla ce
damaged or failed lines. Fabr icat ion of t ubing
con s i s t s of fou r ba s i c oper a t i on s : cu t t i n g,
debur r ing, bending, and joint pr epar at ion.
Tu be Cu t t i n g a n d Debu r r i n g
The object ive of cut t ing t ubing is t o pr oduce
a squar e end t hat is fr ee fr om bur r s. Tubing may
be cut using a st andar d t ube cut t er (fig. 5-3), a
chipless cut t er (fig. 5-4), or a fine-t oot hed
hacksaw if a t ube cut t er is not available.
When you use t he st andar d t ube cut t er , place
t he t ube in t he cut t er wit h t he cut t ing wheel at t he
point wher e t he cut is t o be made. Apply light
pr essur e on t he t ube by t ight ening t he adjust ing
Fi gu r e 5-2.—I d ea l ben d r a d i u s.
knob. Too much pr essur e applied t o t he cut t ing
wheel at onet ime may defor m t he t ubing or cause
excessive bur r s. Rot at e t he cut t er t owar d it s open
side (fig. 5-3). As you r ot at e t he cut t er , adjust t he
t ight ening knob aft er each complet e t ur n t o
maint ain light pr essur e on t he cut t ing wheel.
When you use t he chipless cut t er , t ake t he
following st eps:
1. Select t he chipless cut t er accor ding t o
t ubing size.
2. Rot at e t he cut t er head t o accept t he t ubing
in t he cut t ing posit ion. Check t hat t he cut t er
r at chet is oper at ing fr eely and t hat t he cut t er wheel
is clear of t he cut t er head opening (fig. 5-4).
3. Cent er t he t ubing on t wo r oller s and t he
cut t ing blade.
4. Use t he hex key pr ovided wit h t he
t ur n t he dr ive scr ew in unt il t he cut t er
t ouches t he t ube.
Fi gu r e 5-1.—Cor r ect a n d i n cor r ect met h od s of i n st a lli n g t u bi n g.
5-4
kit t o
wheel
Fi gu r e 5-3.—Tu be cu t t i n g.
5. Tight en t he dr ive scr ew 1/8 t o 1/4 t ur n. Do
not over t ight en t he dr ive scr ew. Over t ight ening
can damage soft t ubing or cause excessive wear
or br eakage of t he cut t er wheel in har d t ubing.
6. Swing t he r at chet handle back and for t h
t hr ough t he available clear ance unt il t her e is a
not iceable ease of r ot at ion. Avoid put t ing side
for ce on t he cut t er handle. Side for ce will cause
t he cut t er wheel t o br eak.
7. Tight en t he dr ive scr ew an addit ional 1/8
t o 1/4 t ur n and swing t he r at chet handle back and
for t h, r et ight ening t he dr ive scr ew as needed unt il
t he cut is complet ed. The complet ed cut should
be 1/2 degr ee squar e t o t he t ube cent er line.
Fi gu r e 5-4.—Ch i p less cu t t er .
Aft er t he t ubing is cut , r emove all bur r s and
shar p edges fr om inside and out side of t he t ube
(fig. 5-5) wit h debur r ing t ools. Clean out t he
t ubing. Make sur e no for eign par t icles r emain.
A convenient met hod for cut t ing t ubing wit h
a hacksaw is t o place t he t ube in a flar ing block
and clamp t he block in a vice. Aft er cut t ing t he
t ubing wit h a hacksaw, r emove all saw mar ks by
filing.
Tu be Ben d i n g
The object ive in t ube bending is t o obt ain a
smoot h bend wit hout flat t ening t he t ube. Tube
bending is usually done wit h eit her a hand t ube
bender or a mechanically oper at ed bender .
Fi gu r e 5-5.—P r op er ly bu r r ed t u bi n g.
5-5
Fi gu r e 5-6.—Ben d i n g t u bi n g wi t h h a n d -op er a t ed t u be ben d er .
HAND TUBE BENDER.— The hand t ube
t ubing. The r adius block is mar ked in degr ees of
bender shown in figur e 5-6 consist s of a handle,
bend r anging fr om 0 t o 180 degr ees. The slide bar
a r adius block, a clip, and a slide bar . The handle
has a mar k which is lined up wit h t he zer o mar k
and slide bar ar e used as lever s t o pr ovide t he
on t he r adius block. The t ube is inser t ed in t he
mechanical advant age necessar y t o bend t he
t ube bender , and aft er t he mar ks ar e lined up, t he
5-6
Fi gu r e 5-7.—Mech a n i ca lly op er a t ed t u be ben d er .
slide bar is moved ar ound unt il t he mar k on t he
slide bar r eaches t he desir ed degr ee of bend on
t he r a dius block. See figur e 5-6 for t he six
pr ocedur a l st eps in
t ube bending wit h t he
hand-oper at ed t ube bender .
MECHANI CAL TUBE BENDER.— Th e
t ube bender shown in figur e 5-7 is issued as a kit .
The kit cont ains t he equipment necessar y for
bending t ubing fr om 1/4 inch t o 3/4 inch in
diamet er .
This t ube bender is designed for use wit h
a ir cr a ft gr a de, high-st r engt hs st a inless-st eel
t ubing, as well as all ot her met al t ubing. It is
designed t o be fast ened t o a bench or t r ipod. The
base is for med t o pr ovide a secur e gr ip in a vise.
This t ype of t ube bender uses a hand cr ank
and gear s. The for ming die is keyed t o t he dr ive
gear and is secur ed by a scr ew.
The for ming die on t he mecha nica l t ube
bender is calibr at ed in degr ees, similar ly t o t he
r adius block of t he hand bender . A lengt h of
r eplacement t ubing may be bent t o a specified
number of degr ees or it may be bent t o duplicat e
a bend eit her in a damaged t ube or in a pat t er n.
Duplicat ing a bend of a damaged t ube or of a
pat t er n is done by laying t he sample or pat t er n
on t op of t he t ube being bent and slowly bending
t he new t ube t o t he r equir ed bend.
Tu be Fla r i n g
Tube flar ing is a met hod of for ming t he end
of a t ube int o a funnel shape so it can be held by
a t hr eaded fit t ing. When a flar ed t ube is pr epar ed,
a flar e nut is slipped ont o t he t ube and t he end
of t he t ube is flar ed. Dur ing t ube inst allat ion, t he
flar e is seat ed t o a fit t ing wit h t he inside of t he
flar e against t he cone-shaped end of t he fit t ing,
and t he flar e nut is scr ewed ont o t he fit t ing,
pulling t he inside of t he flar e against t he seat ing
sur face of t he fit t ing.
Eit her of t wo flar ing t ools (fig. 5-8) may be
used. One gives a single flar e and t he ot her gives
a double flar e. The flar ing t ool consist s of a split
die block t hat has holes for var ious sizes of t ubing,
Fi gu r e 5-8.—Fla r i n g t ools.
5-7
a clamp t o lock t he end of t he t ubing inside t he
die block, and a yoke wit h a compr essor scr ew
and cone t hat slips over t he die block and for ms
t he 45-degr ee flar e on t he end of t he t ube. The
scr ew has a T-handle. A double flar ing t ube has
adapt or s t hat t ur n in t he edge of t he t ube befor e
a r egular 45-degr ee double flar e is made.
To use t he single flar ing t ool, fir st check t o
see t hat t he end of t he t ubing has been cut off
squar ely and has had t he bur r s r emoved fr om
bot h inside and out side. Slip t he flar e nut ont o
t he t ube befor e you make t he flar e. Then, open
t he die block. Inser t t he end of t he t ubing int o
t he hole cor r esponding t o t he OD of t he t ubing
so t hat t he end pr ot r udes slight ly above t he t op
face of t he die blocks. The amount by which t he
t ubing ext ends above t he blocks det er mines t he
finished diamet er of t he flar e. The flar e must be
lar ge enough t o seat pr oper ly against t he fit t ing,
but small enough t hat t he t hr eads of t he flar e nut
will slide over it . Close t he die block and secur e
t he t ool wit h t he wing nut . Use t he handle of t he
yoke t o t ight en t he wing nut . Then place t he yoke
over t he end of t he t ubing and t ight en t he handle
t o for ce t he cone int o t he end of t he t ubing. The
complet ed flar e should be slight ly visible above
t he face of t he die blocks.
F LEXI BLE HOSE
Shock-r esist ant , flexible hose assemblies ar e
r equir ed t o absor b t he movement s of mount ed
equipment under bot h nor mal oper at ing condi-
t ions a nd ext r eme condit ions. They a r e a lso
used for t heir noise-at t enuat ing pr oper t ies and
t o connect moving par t s of cer t ain equipment .
The t wo basic hose t ypes ar e synt het ic r ubber
a nd polyt et r a fluor oet hylene (PTFE), such a s
Du Pont ’s Teflon
®
fluor ocar bon r esin.
Fi gu r e 5-9.—Syn t h et i c r u bber h oses.
pr essur e r anges: low, medium, and high. The
out er cover is designed t o wit hst and ext er nal abuse
and cont ains ident ificat ion mar kings.
Synt het ic r ubber hoses wit h r ubber cover s ar e
ident ified wit h t he milit ar y specificat ion number ,
t he size by dash number , t he quar t er and year of
cur e or manufact ur e, and t he manufact ur er ’s code
ident ificat ion number or feder al supply code
number pr int ed along t heir layline (fig. 5-10, view
A). The layline is a legible mar king par allel t o t he
longit udinal axis of a hose used in det er mining
t he st r aight ness or lay of t he hose.
Synt het ic r ubber hoses wit h wir e br aid cover
ar e ident ified by bands (fig. 5-10, view B) wr apped
ar ound t he hose ends and at int er vals along t he
lengt h of t he hose.
Si zi n g
Rubber hoses ar e designed for specific fluid,
t emper at ur e, a n d pr es s u r e r a n ges a n d a r e
pr ovided in var ious specificat ions. Rubber hoses
(fig. 5-9) consist of a minimum t hr ee layer s; a
seamless synt het ic r ubber t ube r einfor ced wit h one
or mor e layer s of br aided or spir aled cot t on, wir e,
or synt het ic fiber ; and an out er cover . The inner
t ube is designed t o wit hst and t he at t ack of t he
fluid t hat passes t hr ough it . The br aided or
spir aled layer s det er mine t he st r engt h of t he hose.
The gr eat er t he number of t hese layer s, t he gr eat er
is t he pr essur e r at ing. Hoses ar e pr ovided in t hr ee
5-8
The size of a flexible hose is ident ified by t he
dash (-) number , which is t he ID of t he hose
expr essed in 16t hs of an inch. For example, t he
ID of a -64 hose is 4 inches. For a few hose st yles
t his is t he nominal and not t he t r ue ID.
Cu r e Da t e
Synt het ic r ubber hoses will det er ior at e fr om
aging. A cur e dat e is used t o ensur e t hat t hey do
not det er ior at e beyond mat er ial and per for mance
specificat ions. The cur e dat e is t he quar t er and
year t he hose was manufact ur ed. For example,
T ech n i cal Di rect i ve f or Pi pi n g Devi ces an d
Flexible Hose Assemblies, NAVSEA S6430-AE-
TED-010. volume 1. pr ovide det ailed inst r uct ions
on discar ding and downgr ading of r ubber hoses
exceeding t heir shelf life.
P F TE
1Q89 or
t he fir st
Fi gu r e 5-10.—Hose i d en t i fi ca t i on .
1/89 means t he hose was made dur ing
quar t er (1 J an t o 31 Mar ) of 1989.
The cur e dat e limit s t he lengt h of t ime a r ubber
hose can be st or ed, in bulk or as an assembly,
pr ior t o being placed int o ser vice. The st or age or
shelf life for r ubber hose is 4 year s. For t he hose
manufact ur ed in 1Q89, t he st or age or shelf life
will end on t he 31st of Mar ch 1993. At t his point ,
t he hose is no longer consider ed usable and should
be discar ded or downgr aded. The Aviation Hose
and Tube Manual, NAVAIR 01-1A-20, and t he
5-9
PFTE hose is a flexible hose designed t o meet
t he r equir ement s of higher oper at ing pr essur es and
t emper at ur es in pr esent fluid power syst ems. This
t ype of hose is made fr om a chemical r esin, which
is pr ocessed and ext r uded int o a t ube shaped t o
a desir ed size. It is r einfor ced wit h one or mor e
layer s of br aided st ainless-st eel wir e or wit h an
even number of spir al wr ap layer s wit h an out er
wir e br aid layer .
PTFE hose is unaffect ed by all fluids pr esent ly
used in fluid power syst ems. It is iner t t o acids,
bot h concent r at ed and dilut ed. Cer t ain PFTE
hose may be used in syst ems wher e oper at ing
t emper a t ur es r a nge fr om –100°F t o +500°F.
PTFE is nonfla mma ble; however , wher e t he
possibilit y of open flame exist s, a special asbest os
fir e sleeve should be used.
PFTE hose will not absor b moist ur e. This,
t oget her wit h it s chemical iner t ness and ant i-
adhesive char act er ist ics, makes it ideal for missile
fluid power syst ems wher e noncont aminat ion and
cleanliness ar e essent ial.
In lieu of layline mar king, PTFE hoses ar e
ident ified by met al or pliable plast ic bands at t heir
ends and at int er vals along t heir lengt h. Figur e
5-10, view C, shows a hose label for a PTFE hose.
Usually t he only condit ion t hat will shor t en t he
life of PTFE hose is excessive t emper at ur e. For
t his r eason t her e is no manufact ur e dat e list ed on
t he ident ificat ion t ag.
AP P LI CATI ON
As ment ioned ear lier , flexible hose is available
in t hr ee pr essur e r anges: low, medium, and high.
When r eplacing hoses, it is impor t ant t o ensur e
t hat t he r eplacement hose is a duplicat e of t he one
r emoved in lengt h, OD, ma t er ia l, t ype a nd
cont our , and associat ed mar kings. In select ing
hose, sever al pr ecaut ions must be obser ved. The
select ed hose must
1.
2.
be compat ible wit h t he syst em fluid,
have a r at ed pr essur e gr eat er t han t he design
pr essur e of t he syst em,
3. be designed t o give adequat e per for mance and
ser vice for infr equent t r ansient pr essur e peaks
up t o 150 per cent of t he wor king pr essur e of
t he hose, and
4. have a safet y fact or wit h a bur st pr essur e at
a minimum of 4 t imes t he r at ed wor king
pr essur e.
Ther e ar e t emper at ur e r est r ict ions applied t o
t he use of hoses. Rubber hose must not be used
wher e t he oper at ing t emper at ur e exceeds 200°F.
PTFE hoses in high-pr essur e air syst ems must not
be used wher e t he t emper at ur e exceeds 350°F.
PTFE hoses in wat er and st eam dr ain applicat ions
must not be used wher e t he oper at ing t emper at ur e
exceeds 380°F.
FABRI CATI ON AND TESTI NG
The fabr icat ion of flexible hose assemblies is
cover ed in applicable t r aining manuals, t echnical
publicat ions, and NAVAIR 01-1A-20. Aft er a
hose assembly has been complet ely fabr icat ed it
must be cleaned, visually inspect ed for for eign
mat er ials, and pr oof t est ed.
A hose a ssembly is pr oof t est ed by t he
applicat ion of a nondest r uct ive pr essur e for a
minimum of 1 minut e but not longer t han 5
minut es t o ensur e t hat it will wit hst and nor mal
wor king pr essur es. The t est pr essur e, known as
nor mal pr oof pr essur e, is t wice t he r at ed wor king
pr essur e. While t he t est pr essur e is being applied,
t he hose must not bur st , leak, or show signs
of fit t ing sepa r a t ion. NAVAI R 01-1A-20 a nd
NAVSEA S6430-AE-TED-010, volume 1, pr ovide
det ailed inst r uct ions on cleaning of hoses, cleaning
and t est media, pr oof pr essur e and pr oof t est ing.
Aft er pr oof t est ing is complet ed, t he hose must
be flushed and dr ied and t he ends capped or
plugged t o keep dir t and ot her cont aminant s out
of t he hose.
I DENTI FI CATI ON
The final st ep aft er fabr icat ion and sat isfac-
t or y t est ing of a hose assembly is t he at t achment
of ident ificat ion t ags as shown in figur e 5-11 (for
ships) and in figur e 5-12 (for air cr aft ). The t ag
shown in figur e 5-12, view B, is used in ar eas
wher e a t ag maybe dr awn int o an engine int ake.
Hose assemblies t o be inst alled in air cr aft fuel and
oil t anks ar e mar ked wit h an appr oved elect r ic
engr aver on t he socket -wr ench flat s wit h t he
r equir ed infor mat ion.
Fi gu r e 5-11.—Hose a ssembly i d en t i fi ca t i on t a gs (sh i p s).
5-10
Fi gu r e 5-12. —Hose a ssembly
I NSTALLATI ON
Flexible hose must
i d en t i fi ca t i on t a gs (a i r cr a ft ).
not be t wist ed dur ing
inst allat ion, since t his r educes t he life of t he hose
consider ably and may cause t he fit t ings t o loosen
as well. You can det er mine whet her or not a hose
is t wist ed by looking at t he layline t hat r uns along
t he lengt h of t he hose. If t he layline does not spir al
ar ound t he hose, t he hose is not t wist ed. If t he
layline does spir al ar ound t he hose, t he hose is
t wist ed (fig. 5-13, view B) and must be unt wist ed.
Flexible hose should be pr ot ect ed fr om chafing
by using a chafe-r esist ant cover ing wher ever
necessar y.
The minimum bend r adius for flexible hose
var ies accor ding t o t he size and const r uct ion of
t he hose a nd t he pr essur e under which t he
syst em oper at es. Cur r ent applicable t echnical
publicat ions cont ain t ables and gr aphs showing
minimum bend r adii for t he differ ent t ypes of
inst allat ions. Bends t hat ar e t oo shar p will r educe
t he bur st ing pr essur e of flexible hose consider ably
below it s r at ed value.
Flexible hose should be inst alled so t hat it will
be subject ed t o a minimum of flexing dur ing
oper at ion. Suppor t clamps ar e not necessar y wit h
shor t inst allat ions; but for hose of consider able
lengt h (48 inches for example), clamps should be
placed not mor e t han 24 inches apar t . Closer
5-11
Fi gu r e 5-13. —Cor r ect a n d i n cor r ect i n st a lla t i on of flexi ble
h ose.
suppor t s ar e desir able and in some cases may be
r equir ed.
A flexible hose must never be st r et ched t ight ly
bet ween t wo fit t ings. About 5 t o 8 per cent of t he
t ot al lengt h must be allowed as slack t o pr ovide
fr eedom of movement under pr essur e. When
under pr essur e, flexible hose cont r act s in lengt h
and expands in diamet er . Examples of cor r ect and
i n cor r ect i n s t a l l a t i on s of fl exi bl e h os e a r e
illust r at ed in figur e 5-13.
PFTE hose should be handled car efully dur ing
r emoval and inst allat ion. Some PFTE hose is pr e-
for med dur ing fabr icat ion. This t ype of hose t ends
t o for m it self t o t he inst alled posit ion in t he sys-
t em. To ensur e it s sat isfact or y funct ion and r educe
t he likelihood of failur e, anyone who wor ks wit h
PFTE hose should obser ve t he following r ules:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Do not exceed r ecommended bend limit s.
Do not exceed t wist ing limit s.
Do not st r aight en a bent hose t hat has
t aken a per manent set .
Do not hang, lift , or suppor t object s fr om
PFTE hose.
Once flexible hose assemblies ar e inst alled,
t her e ar e no ser vicing or maint enance r equir e-
ment s ot her t han per iodic inspect ions. These
inspect ions ar e conduct ed accor ding t o maint e-
nance inst r uct ion manuals (MIMs), maint enance
r equir ement ca r ds (MRCs), a nd depot -level
specificat ions.
TYP ES OF F I TTI NGS
AND CONNECTORS
Some t ype of connect or or fit t ing must be
pr ovided t o at t ach t he lines t o t he component s of
t he syst em and t o connect sect ions of line t o
each ot her . Ther e ar e many differ ent t ypes of
connect or s and fit t ings pr ovided for t his pur pose.
The t ype of connect or or fit t ing r equir ed for a
specific syst em depends on sever al fact or s. One
det er mining fact or , of cour se, is t he t ype of fluid
line (pipe, t ubing, or flexible hose) used in
t he syst em. Ot her det er mining fact or s ar e t he
t ype of fluid medium and t he maximum oper at ing
pr essur e of t he syst em. Some of t he most common
t ypes of fit t ings and connect or s ar e descr ibed in
t he following par agr aphs.
THREADED CONNECTORS
Ther e ar e sever al differ ent t ypes of t hr eaded
connect or s. In t he t ype discussed in t his sect ion,
bot h t he connect or and t he end of t he fluid line
(pipe) ar e t hr eaded. These connect or s ar e used in
some low-pr essur e fluid power syst ems and ar e
usually made of st eel, copper , or br ass, and ar e
available in a var iet y of designs.
Thr eaded connect or s ar e made wit h st andar d
pipe t hr eads cut on t he inside sur face. The end
of t he pipe is t hr eaded wit h out side t hr eads.
St andar d pipe t hr eads ar e t aper ed slight ly t o
ensur e t ight connect ions. The amount of t aper is
appr oximat ely 3/4 inch in diamet er per foot of
t hr ead.
Met al is r emoved when a pipe is t hr eaded,
t hinning t he pipe and exposing new and r ough
sur faces. Cor r osion agent s wor k mor e quickly at
such point s t han elsewher e. If pipes ar e assembled
wit h no pr ot ect ive compound on t he t hr eads,
cor r osion set s in at once and t he t wo sect ions
st ick t oget her so t hat t he t hr eads seize when
disassembly is at t empt ed. The r esult is damaged
t hr eads and pipes.
To pr event seizing, a suit able pipe t hr ead
compound is somet imes applied t o t he t hr eads.
The t wo end t hr ea ds must be kept fr ee of
5-12
compound so t hat it will not cont aminat e t he
fluid. Pipe compound, when impr oper ly applied,
may get inside t he lines and component s and
damage pumps and cont r ol equipment .
Anot her mat er ial used on pipe t hr eads is
sealant t ape. This t ape, which is made of PTFE,
pr ovides a n effect ive mea ns of sea ling pipe
connect ions a nd elimina t es t he necessit y of
t or quing connect ions t o excessively high values
in or der t o pr event pr essur e leaks. It also pr ovides
for ease of maint enance whenever it is necessar y
t o disconnect pipe joint s. The t ape is applied over
t he male t hr eads, leaving t he fir st t hr ead exposed.
Aft er t he t ape is pr essed fir mly against t he
t hr eads, t he joint is connect ed.
FLANGE CONNECTORS
Bolt ed fla nge connect or s (fig. 5-14) a r e
suit able for most pr essur es now in use. The
flanges ar e at t ached t o t he piping by welding,
br azing, t aper ed t hr eads (for some low-pr essur e
syst ems), or r olling and bending int o r ecesses.
Those illust r at ed ar e t he most common t ypes of
flange joint s used. The same t ypes of st andar d
fit t ing shapes (t ee, cr oss, elbow, and so for t h) ar e
manufact ur ed for flange joint s. Suit able gasket
mat er ial must be used bet ween t he flanges.
WELDED CONNECTORS
The suba ssemblies of some fluid power
syst ems ar e connect ed by welded joint s, especially
in high-pr essur e syst ems which use pipe for fluid
lines. The welding is done accor ding t o st andar d
Fi gu r e 5-14.—Fou r t yp es of bolt ed fla n ge con n ect or s.
specificat ions which define t he mat er ials and
t echniques.
BRAZED CONNECTORS
Silver -br azed connect or s ar e commonly used
for joining nonfer r ous (copper , br ass, and soon)
piping in t he pr essur e and t emper at ur e r ange
wher e t heir use is pr act ical. Use of t his t ype of
connect or is limit ed t o inst allat ions in which t he
piping t emper at ur e will not exceed 425°F and t he
pr essur e in cold lines will not -exceed 3,000 psi.
The alloy is melt ed by heat ing t he joint wit h an
oxyacet ylene t or ch. This causes t he alloy inser t
t o melt and fill t he few t housandt hs of an inch
annular space bet ween t he pipe and t he fit t ing.
A fit t ing of t his t ype which has been r emoved
fr om a piping syst em can be r ebr azed int o a
syst em, as in most cases sufficient alloy r emains
in t he inser t gr oove for a second joint . New alloy
inser t s may be obt ained for fit t ings which do not
have sufficient alloy r emaining in t he inser t for
making a new joint .
FLARED CONNECTORS
Flar ed connect or s ar e commonly used in fluid
power syst ems cont aining lines made of t ubing.
These connect or s pr ovide safe, st r ong, dependable
connect ions wit hout t he need for t hr ea ding,
welding, or solder ing t he t ubing. The connect or
consist s of a fit t ing, a sleeve, and a nut (fig. 5-15).
The fit t ings ar e made of st eel, aluminum alloy,
or br onze. The fit t ing used in a connect ion should
be made of t he same mat er ial as t hat of t he sleeve,
t he nut , and t he t ubing. For example, use st eel
connect or s wit h st eel t ubing and aluminum alloy
Fi gu r e 5-15.—Fla r ed -t u be fi t t i n g.
connect or s wit h aluminum alloy t ubing. Fit t ings
ar e made in union, 45-degr ee and 90-degr ee
elbow, t ee, and var ious ot her shapes (fig. 5-16).
Tees, cr osses, and elbows ar e self-explanat or y.
Univer sal and bulkhead fit t ings can be mount ed
solidly wit h one out let of t he fit t ing ext ending
t hr ough a bulkhead and t he ot her out let (s) posi-
t ioned at any angle. Univer sal means t he fit t ing
can assume t he angle r equir ed for t he specific
inst allat ion. Bulkhead means t he fit t ing is long
enough t o pa ss t hr ough a bulkhea d a nd is
designed so it ca n be secur ed solidly t o t he
bulkhead.
For connect ing t o t ubing, t he ends of t he
fit t ings ar e t hr eaded wit h st r aight machine t hr eads
t o cor r espond wit h t he female t hr eads of t he nut .
In some cases, however , one end of t he fit t ing may
be t hr eaded wit h t aper ed pipe t hr eads t o fit
Fi gu r e 5-16.—Fla r ed -t u be fi t t i n gs.
5-13
t hr ea ded por t s in pumps, va lves, a nd ot her
component s. Sever al of t hese t hr ead combinat ions
ar e shown in figur e 5-16.
Tubing used wit h flar e connect or s must be
flar ed pr ior t o assembly. The nut fit s over t he
sleeve and when t ight ened, it dr aws t he sleeve and
t ubing flar e t ight ly against t he male fit t ing t o for m
a seal.
The male fit t ing has a cone-shaped sur face
wit h t he same angle as t he inside of t he flar e. The
sleeve suppor t s t he t ube so vibr at ion does not
concent r at e at t he edge of t he flar e, and dist r ibut es
t he shear ing act ion over a wider ar ea for added
st r engt h. Tube flar ing is cover ed in Tools and
Their Uses, NAVEDTRA 10085 (ser ies), a nd
ot her applicable t r aining manuals.
Cor r ect and incor r ect met hods of inst alling
flar ed-t ube connect or s ar e illust r at ed in figur e
5-17. Tubing nut s should be t ight ened wit h a
t or que wr ench t o t he value specified in applicable
t echnical publicat ions.
If an aluminum alloy flar ed connect or leaks
aft er being t ight ened t o t he r equir ed t or que, it
must not be t ight ened fur t her . Over t ight ening may
sever ely damage or complet ely cut off t he t ubing
flar e or may r esult in damage t o t he sleeve or nut .
The leaking connect ion must be disassembled and
t he fault cor r ect ed.
If a st eel t ube connect ion leaks, it may be
t ight ened 1/6 t ur n beyond t he specified t or que in
an at t empt t o st op t he leakage; t hen if it st ill leaks,
it must be disassembled and r epair ed.
Un der t i gh t en i n g of con n ect i on s ma y be
ser ious, as t his can allow t he t ubing t o leak at t he
connect or bemuse of insufficient gr ip on t he flar e
by t he sleeve. The use of a t or que wr ench will
pr event under t ight ening.
CAUTI ON
A nut should never be t ight ened when
t her e is pr essur e in t he line, as t his will t end
t o damage t he connect ion wit hout adding
any appr eciable t or que t o t he connect ion.
Fi gu r e 5-17.—Cor r ect a n d i n cor r ect met h od s of i n st a lli n g fla r ed fi t t i n gs.
5-14
FLARELESS-TUBE CONNECTORS
This t ype of connect or eliminat es all t ube
flar ing, yet pr ovides a safe, st r ong, and depend-
able t ube connect ion. This connect or consist s
of a fit t ing, a sleeve or fer r ule, a nd a nut .
(See fig. 5-18.)
NOTE
Alt hough t he use of fla r eless t ube
connect or s is widespr ead, NAVSEA policy
is t o r educe or eliminat e use of flar eless
fit t ings in newly designed ships; t he ext ent
t o which flar eless fit t ings ar e appr oved for
use in a par t icular ship is r eflect ed in
applicable ship dr awings.
Flar eless-t ube fit t ings ar e available in many
of t he same shapes and t hr ead combinat ions as
flar ed-t ube fit t ings. (See fig. 5-16.) The fit t ing has
a count er bor e shoulder for t he end of t he t ubing
t o r est against . The angle of t he count er bor e
causes t he cut t ing edge of t he sleeve or fer r ule t o
cut int o t he out side sur face of t he t ube when t he
t wo ar e assembled.
The nut pr esses on t he bevel of t he sleeve and
causes it t o clamp t ight ly t o t he t ube. Resist ance
t o vibr at ion is concent r at ed at t his point r at her
t han at t he sleeve cut . When fully t ight ened, t he
sleeve or fer r ule is bowed slight ly at t he midsect ion
and act s as a spr ing. This spr ing act ion of t he
sleeve or fer r ule maint ains a const ant t ension
bet ween t he body and t he nut and t hus pr event s
t he nut fr om loosening.
Pr ior t o t he inst allat ion of a new flar eless-t ube
connect or , t he end of t he t ubing must be squar e,
Fi gu r e 5-18. —Fla r eless-t u be con n ect or .
concent r ic, and fr ee of bur r s. For t he connect ion
t o be effect ive, t he cut t ing edge of t he sleeve or
fer r ule must bit e int o t he per ipher y of t he t ube
(fig. 5-19). This is ensur ed by pr eset t ing t he sleeve
or fer r ule on t he t ube.
P r eset t i n g
Pr eset t ing consist s of defor ming t he fer r ule t o
bit e int o t he t ube OD and defor ming t he end of
t he t ube t o for m a shallow conical r ing seat ing
sur face. The t ube and fer r ule assembly should be
pr eset in a pr eset t ing t ool t hat has an end sect ion
ident ical t o a fit t ing body but which is made of
specially har dened st eel. This t ool har dness is
needed t o ensur e t hat all defor mat ion at t he t ube
end seat goes int o t he t ube.
Pr eset t ing is done wit h a hydr aulic pr eset t ing
t ool or a manual pr eset t ing t ool, eit her in t he shop
or aboar d ship. The t ool vendor ’s inst r uct ions
must be followed for t he hydr aulic pr eset t ing t ool.
If a pr eset t ing t ool is not available, t he fit t ing
body int ended for inst allat ion is used in t he same
manner as t he manual pr eset t ing t ool. (If an
aluminum fit t ing is used, it should not be r eused
in t he syst em.) The manual t ool is used as follows:
WARNI NG
Failur e t o follow t hese inst r uct ions may
r esult in impr oper ly pr eset fer r ules wit h
insufficient bit e int o t he t ube. Impr oper ly
pr eset fer r ules have r esult ed in joint s t hat
passed hydr ost at ic t est ing and oper at ed for
weeks or year s, t hen failed cat ast r ophically
under shock, vibr at ion, or nor mal oper at -
ing loads. Flar eless fit t ing failur es have
Fi gu r e 5-19. —Un u sed fer r u les.
5-15
caused per sonnel injur y, damage t o equip-
ment , and unnecessar y int er r upt ion of
pr opulsion power .
1. Cut t he t ubing squar e and light ly debur r
t he inside and out side cor ner s. For cor r osion
r esist ing st eel (CRES) t ubing, use a hacksaw r at her
t han a t ubing cut t er t o avoid wor k har dening t he
t ube end. For CRES, and if necessar y for ot her
mat er ials, dr ess t he t ube end smoot h and squar e
wit h a file. Tube ends wit h ir r egular cut t ing mar ks
will not pr oduce sa t isfa ct or y sea t ing sur fa ce
impr essions.
2. Test t he har dness of t he fer r ule by making
a light scr at ch on t he t ubing at least 1/2 inch back
fr om t he t ube end, using a shar p cor ner on t he
fer r ule. If t he fer r ule will not scr at ch t he t ube,
no bit e will be obt ained. This t est maybe omit t ed
for flush-t ype fer r ules wher e t he bit e will be
visible. Moder at e hand pr essur e is sufficient for
pr oducing t he scr at ch.
3. Lubr ica t e t he nut t hr ea ds, t he fer r ule
leading and t r ailing edges, and t he pr eset t ool
t hr eads wit h a t hr ead lubr icant compat ible wit h
t he syst em. Slide t he nut ont o t he t ubing so t he
t hr eads face t he t ube end. Not e whet her t he
fer r ule is a flush t ype or r ecessed t ype (fig. 5-19),
and slide t he fer r ule ont o t he t ube so t he cut t ing
edge is t owar d t he t ube end (lar ge end t owar d t he
nut ).
4. Bot t om t he end of t he t ubing in t he
pr eset t ing t ool. Slide t he fer r ule up int o t he
pr eset t ing t ool, and confir m t hat t he nut can be
moved down t he t ube sufficient ly t o expose at
least 1/8 inch of t ubing past t he fer r ule aft er t he
pr eset t ing oper a t ion (fig. 5-20) t o a llow for
inspect ion of t he fer r ule.
5. While keeping t he t ube bot t omed in t he
pr eset t ing t ool, t ight en t he nut ont o t he fit t ing
body unt il t he fer r ule just gr ips t he t ube by
fr ict ion. This r ing gr ip point may be ident ified by
light ly t ur ning t he t ube or t he pr eset t ing t ool and
slowly t ight ening t he nut unt il t he t ube cannot
be t u r n ed i n t h e pr es et t i n g t ool by h a n d.
Mar k t he nut and t he pr eset t ing t ool at t his
posit ion.
6. Tight en t he nut accor ding t o t he number
of t ur ns given in t able 5-3, depending on t ube
size.
5-16
Fi gu r e 5-20.—Tu be a n d fer r u le a ssembled for p r eset -
t i n g, sh owi n g n u t p osi t i on r equ i r ed for i n sp ect i n g
fer r u le.
I n sp ect i on
Disassemble and inspect t he fit t ing as follows
(mandat or y):
1. Ensur e t hat t he end of t he t ubing has an
impr ession of t he pr eset t ing t ool seat sur face
(cir cular appear ing r ing) for 360 degr ees. A par t ial
cir cle, a visibly off-cent er cir cle, or a cir cle br oken
by t he r oughness of t he t ube end is unsat isfact or y.
2. Check for pr oper bit e:
a. For flush-t ype fer r ules, a r aised r idge
(fig. 5-21) of t ube met al must be visible complet ely
ar ound t he t ube at t he leading edge of t he fer r ule.
The best pr act ice is t o obt ain a r idge about 50
per cent of t he fer r ule edge t hickness.
Ta ble 5-3.—Nu mber of Tu r n s
Fi gu r e 5-21.—Fer r u les i n st a lled on t u be, p r eset a n d r emoved
for i n sp ect i on .
b. For r ecessed-t ype fer r ules, t he leading
edge must be snug against t he t ube OD. Det er mine
t his visually and by at t empt ing t o r ock t he fer r ule
on t he t ube.
3. Ensur e t hat t he nut end of t he fer r ule (bot h
t ypes) is collapsed ar ound t he t ube t o pr ovide
suppor t against bending loads and vibr at ion.
4. The fer r ule (bot h t ypes) must have lit t le or
no play along t he dir ect ion of t he t ube r un. Check
t his by t r ying t o move t he fer r ule back and for t h
by hand. The fer r ule will oft en be fr ee t o r ot at e
on t he t ubing; t his does not affect it s funct ion.
5. For flush-t ype fer r ules, check t hat t he gap
bet ween t he r aised met al r idge and t he cut t ing end
of t he fer r ule st ays t he same while t he fer r ule is
r ot at ed. (Omit t his check for r ecessed-t ype fer r ules
or if t he flush-t ype fer r ule will not r ot at e on t he
t ube).
6. Check t hat t he middle por t ion of t he fer r ule
(bot h t ypes) is bowed or spr ung int o an ar c. The
leading edge of t he fer r ule may appear flat t ened
int o a cone shape; t his is accept able as long as
t her e is a bowed sect ion near t he middle of t he
fer r ule. If t he whole leading sect ion of t he fer r ule
is flat t ened int o a cone wit h no bowed sect ion,
t he fer r ule (and possibly t he fit t ing body, if used)
has been damaged by over t ight ening and will not
seal r eliably.
Fi n a l Assembly
When you ma ke a fina l a ssembly in t he
syst em, use t he following inst allat ion pr ocedur e:
1. Lubr icat e all t hr eads wit h a liquid t hat is
compat ible wit h t he fluid t o be used in t he syst em.
2. Place t he t ube assembly in posit ion and
check for alignment .
3. Tight en t he nut by hand unt il you feel an
incr ease in r esist ance t o t ur ning. This indicat es
t hat t he sleeve or fer r ule pilot has cont act ed t he
fit t ing.
4. If possible, use a t or que wr ench t o t ight en
flar eless t ubing nut s. Tor que values for specific
inst allat ions ar e usually list ed in t he applicable
t echnical publicat ions. If it is not possible t o use
a t or que wr ench, use t he following pr ocedur es for
t ight ening t he nut s:
Aft er t he nut is handt ight , t ur n t he nut 1/6
t ur n (one flat on a hex nut ) wit h a wr ench. Use
a wr ench on t he connect or t o pr event it fr om
t ur ning while t ight ening t he nut . Aft er you inst all
t he t ube assembly, have t he syst em pr essur e t est ed.
Should a connect ion leak, you may t ight en t he
nut an addit ional 1/6 t ur n (making a t ot al of 1/3
t ur n). If, aft er t ight ening t he nut a t ot al of 1/3
t ur n, leakage st ill exist s, r emove t he assembly and
inspect t he component s of t he assembly for scor es,
cr acks, pr esence of for eign mat er ial, or damage
fr om over t ight ening.
NOTE: Over t ight ening a flar eless-t ube nut
dr ives t he cut t ing edge of t he sleeve or fer r ule
deeply int o t he t ube, causing t he t ube t o be
weakened t o t he point wher e nor mal vibr at ion
could cause t he t ube t o shear . Aft er you complet e
t he inspect ion (if you do not find a ny dis-
cr epancies), r eassemble t he connect ion and r epeat
t he pr essur e t est pr ocedur es.
CAUTI ON: Do not in any case t ight en t he
nut beyond 1/3 t ur n (t wo flat s on t he hex nut );
t his is t he maximum t he fit t ing may be t ight ened
wit hout t he possibilit y of per manent ly damaging
t he sleeve or t he t ube.
CONNECTORS FOR
F LEXI BLE HOSE
As st at ed pr eviously, t he fabr icat ion of flexible
hose assemblies is cover ed in applicable t r aining
manuals, t echnical publicat ions, and NAVAIR
01-1A-20. Ther e ar e var ious t ypes of end fit t ings
for bot h t he piping connect ion side and t he hose
5-17
connect ion side of hose fit t ings. Figur e 5-22 shows
commonly used fit t ings.
P i p i n g Con n ect i on Si d e of Hose Fi t t i n g
The piping side of an end fit t ing comes wit h
sever al connect ing var iat ions: flange, J IC 37°
flar e, O-r ing union, and split clamp, t o name a
few. Not all var iet ies ar e available for each hose.
Ther efor e, inst aller s must consult t he milit ar y
s peci fi ca t i on a n d ma n u fa ct u r er ’s da t a t o
det er mine t he specific end fit t ings available.
Hose Con n ect i on Si d e of Hose F i t t i n g
Hose fit t ings ar e at t ached t o t he hose by
sever al met hods. Each met hod is det er mined by
t he fit t ing manufact ur er and t akes int o con-
sider at ion such t hings as size, const r uct ion, wall
t hickness, and pr essur e r at ing. Hoses used for
flexible connect ions use one of t he following
met hods for at t achment of t he fit t ing t o t he
hose.
ONE-P I ECE REUSABLE SOCKET.— The
socket component of t he fit t ing is fabr icat ed as
a single piece. One-piece r eusable socket s ar e
scr ewed or r ocked ont o t he hose OD, followed
by inser t ion of t he nipple component .
SEGMENTED, BOLTED SOCKET.— The
segment ed, bolt ed socket consist s of t wo or mor e
segment s which ar e bolt ed t oget her on t he hose
aft er inser t ion of t he nipple component .
F i gu r e 5-22.—En d fi t t i n gs a n d h ose fi t t i n gs.
5-18
S E GME NTE D S OCKE T, R I NG AND
BAND ATTACHED.— The segment ed, r ing and
band at t ached socket consist s of t hr ee or mor e
segment s. As wit h t he bolt -t oget her segment s, t he
segment s, r ing and band ar e put on t he hose aft er
inser t ion of t he nipple. A special t ool is r equir ed
t o compr ess t he segment s.
SEGMENTED SOCKET, RI NG AND BOLT
ATTACHED.— The segment ed, r ing and bolt
a t t a ch ed s ocket con s i s t s of t h r ee or mor e
segment s. As wit h ot her segment ed socket -t ype
fit t ings, t he segment s, r ing, and nut s and bolt s
ar e put on t he hose aft er inser t ion of t he nipple.
S O L I D S O C KE T , P E R MAN E N T L Y
ATTACHED.— This t ype of socket is per ma-
nent ly a t t a ched t o t he hose by cr imping or
swaging. It is not r eusable and is only found
on hose assemblies wher e oper at ing condit ions
pr eclude t he use of ot her fit t ing t ypes. Hose
assemblies wit h t his t ype of fit t ing at t achment ar e
pur chased as complet e hose assemblies fr om t he
manufact ur er .
QUI CK-DI SCONNECT COUP LI NGS
Self-sealing, quick-disconnect couplings ar e
used a t va r ious point s in ma ny fluid power
syst ems. These couplings ar e inst alled at locat ions
wher e fr equent uncoupling of t he lines is r equir ed
for inspect ion, t est , and maint enance. Quick-
disconnect couplings ar e also commonly used in
pneumat ic syst ems t o connect sect ions of air hose
and t o connect t ools t o t he air pr essur e lines. This
pr ovides a convenient met hod of at t aching and
det aching t ools and sect ions of lines wit hout losing
pr essur e.
Quick-disconnect couplings pr ovide a means
for quickly disconnect ing a line wit hout t he loss
of fluid fr om t he syst em or t he ent r a nce of
for eign mat t er int o t he syst em. Sever al t ypes of
quick-disconnect couplings have been designed for
use in fluid power syst ems. Figur e 5-23 illust r at es
Fi gu r e 5-23.—Qu i ck -d i scon n ect cou p li n g for a i r li n es.
a coupling t hat is used wit h por t able pneumat ic
t ools. The male sect ion is connect ed t o t he t ool
or t o t he line leading fr om t he t ool. The female
sect ion, which cont a ins t he shut off va lve, is
inst alled in t he pneumat ic line leading fr om
t he pr essur e sour ce. These connect or s can be
separ at ed or connect ed by ver y lit t le effor t on t he
par t of t he oper at or .
The most common quick-disconnect coupling
for hydr aulic syst ems consist s of t wo par t s, held
t oget her by a union nut . Each par t cont ains a
valve which is held open when t he coupling is
con n ect ed, a l l owi n g fl u i d t o fl ow i n ei t h er
di r ect i on t h r ou gh t h e cou pl i n g. Wh en t h e
coupling is disconnect ed, a spr ing in each par t
closes t he valve, pr event ing t he loss of fluid and
ent r ance of for eign mat t er .
MANI FOLDS
Some fluid power syst ems ar e equipped wit h
manifolds in t he pr essur e supply and/or r et ur n
lines. A ma nifold is a fluid conduct or t ha t
pr ovides mult iple connect ion por t s. Manifolds
eliminat e piping, r educe joint s, which ar e oft en
a sour ce of leakage, and conser ve space. For
example, manifolds may be used in syst ems t hat
cont ain sever al subsyst ems. One common line
connect s t he pump t o t he manifold. Ther e ar e
out let por t s in t he ma nifold t o pr ovide con-
nect ions t o each subsyst em. A similar manifold
may be used in t he r et ur n syst em. Lines fr om t he
cont r ol valves of t he subsyst em connect t o t he inlet
por t s of t he manifold, wher e t he fluid combines
int o one out let line t o t he r eser voir . Some
manifolds ar e equipped wit h t he check valves,
r elief valves, filt er s, and so on, r equir ed for t he
syst em. In some cases, t he cont r ol valves ar e
mount ed on t he manifold in such a manner t hat
t he por t s of t he valves ar e connect ed dir ect ly t o
t he manifold.
Manifolds ar e usually one of t hr ee t ypes—
sandwich, cast , or dr illed. The sandwich t ype is
const r uct ed of t hr ee or mor e flat plat es. The
cent er plat e (or plat es) is machined for passages,
and t he r equir ed inlet and out let por t s ar e dr illed
int o t he out er plat es. The plat es ar e t hen bonded
t oget her t o pr ovide a leakpr oof assembly. The cast
t ype of manifold is designed wit h cast passages
and dr illed por t s. The cast ing may be ir on, st eel,
br onze, or aluminum, depending upon t he t ype
of syst em and fluid medium. In t he dr illed t ype
of manifold, all por t s and passages ar e dr illed in
a block of met al.
5-19
A simple manifold is illust r at ed in figur e 5-24.
This manifold cont ains one pr essur e inlet por t and
sever al pr essur e out let por t s t hat can be blocked
off wit h t hr eaded plugs. This t ype of manifold
can be adapt ed t o syst ems cont aining var ious
number s of subsyst ems. A t her mal r elief valve
may be incor por at ed in t his manifold. In t his case,
t he por t labeled T is connect ed t o t he r et ur n line
t o pr ovide a passage for t he r elieved fluid t o flow
t o t he r eser voir .
Figur e 5-25 shows a flow dia gr a m in a
manifold which pr ovides bot h pr essur e and r et ur n
passages. One common line pr ovides pr essur ized
fluid t o t he manifold, which dist r ibut es t he fluid
t o any one of five out let por t s. The r et ur n side
of t he manifold is similar in design. This manifold
is pr ovided wit h a r elief valve, which is connect ed
t o t he pr essur e and r et ur n passages. In t he event
of excessive pr essur e, t he r elief valve opens and
allows t he fluid t o flow fr om t he pr essur e side of
t he manifold t o t he r et ur n side.
Fi gu r e 5-25.—Flu i d ma n i fold —flow d i a gr a m.
P RECAUTI ONARY MEASURES
The fabr icat ion, inst allat ion, and maint enance
of all fluid lines and connect or s ar e beyond t he
scope of t his t r aining manual. However , t her e ar e
some gener al pr ecaut ionar y measur es t hat apply
t o t he maint enance of all fluid lines.
Regar dless of t he t ype of lines or connect or s
used t o make up a fluid power syst em, make
cer t ain t hey ar e t he cor r ect size and st r engt h and
per fect ly clean on t he inside. All lines must be
absolut ely clean and fr ee fr om scale and ot her
for eign mat t er . Ir on or st eel pipes, t ubing, and
fit t ings ca n be clea ned wit h a boiler t ube
wir e br ush or wit h commer cial pipe cleaning
appar at us. Rust and scale can be r emoved fr om
shor t , st r aight pieces by sandblast ing, pr ovided
t her e is no danger t hat sand par t icles will r emain
lodged in blind holes or pocket s aft er t he piece
Fi gu r e 5-24 .—F lu i d ma n i fold .
5-20
is flushed. In t he case of long pieces or pieces bent Open ends of pipes, t ubing, hose, and fit t ings
t o complex shapes, r ust and scale can be r emoved should be capped or plugged when t hey ar e t o be
by pickling (cleaning met al in a chemical bat h). st or ed for any consider able per iod. Rags or wast e
Par t s must be degr eased pr ior t o pickling. The must not be used for t his pur pose, because t hey
ma n u fa ct u r er of t h e pa r t s s h ou l d pr ovi de deposit har mful lint which can cause sever e
complet e pickling inst r uct ions. damage t o t he fluid power syst em.
5-21
CHAP TER 6
VALVES
It is all but impossible t o design a pr act ical
fluid power syst em wit hout some mea ns of
cont r olling t he volume and pr essur e of t he fluid
and dir ect ing t he flow of fluid t o t he oper at ing
unit s. This is accomplished by t he incor por at ion
of differ ent t ypes of valves. A valve is defined as
any device by which t he flow of fluid may be
st ar t ed, st opped, or r egulat ed by a movable par t
t ha t opens or obst r uct s pa ssa ge. As a pplied
in fluid power syst ems, va lves a r e used for
cont r olling t he flow, t he pr essur e, a nd t he
dir ect ion of t he fluid flow.
Valves must be accur at e in t he cont r ol of fluid
flow and pr essur e and t he sequence of oper at ion.
Leakage bet ween t he valve element and t he valve
sea t is r educed t o a negligible qua nt it y by
pr ecision-machined sur faces, r esult ing in car efully
cont r olled clear ances. This is one of t he ver y
impor t ant r easons for minimizing cont aminat ion
in fluid power syst ems. Cont aminat ion causes
valves t o st ick, plugs small or ifices, and causes
abr asions of t he valve seat ing sur faces, which
r esult s in leakage bet ween t he valve element and
valve seat when t he valve is in t he closed posit ion.
Any of t hese can r esult in inefficient oper at ion
or complet e st oppage of t he equipment .
Valves may be cont r olled manually, elect r i-
cally, pneumat ically, mechanically, hydr aulically,
or by combina t ions of t wo or mor e of t hese
met hods. Fact or s t hat det er mine t he met hod of
cont r ol include t he pur pose of t he valve, t he
design and pur pose of t he syst em, t he locat ion of
t he valve wit hin t he syst em, and t he availabilit y
of t he sour ce of power .
The differ ent t ypes of valves used in fluid
power syst ems, t heir classificat ion, and t heir
applicat ion ar e discussed in t his chapt er .
CLASSI FI CATI ONS
Valves ar e classified accor ding t o t heir use:
flow cont r ol, pr essur e cont r ol, and dir ect ional
cont r ol. Some valves have mult iple funct ions t hat
fall int o mor e t han one classificat ion.
FLOW CONTROL VALVES
Flow cont r ol valves ar e used t o r egulat e t he
flow of fluids in fluid-power syst ems. Cont r ol of
flow in fluid-power syst ems is impor t ant because
t he r at e of movement of fluid-power ed machines
depends on t he r at e of flow of t he pr essur ized
fluid. These valves may be manually, hydr au-
lically, elect r ically, or pneumat ically oper at ed.
Some of t he differ ent t ypes of flow cont r ol
valves ar e discussed in t he following par agr aphs.
BALL VALVES
Ball valves, as t he name implies, ar e st op
valves t hat use a ball t o st op or st ar t a flow of
fluid. The ball, shown in figur e 6-1, per for ms t he
Fi gu r e 6-1.—Typ i ca l ba ll va lve.
6-1
same funct ion as t he disk in ot her valves. As t he
valve handle is t ur ned t o open t he valve, t he ball
r ot at es t o a point wher e par t or all of t he hole
t hr ough t he ball is in line wit h t he valve body inlet
and out let , allowing fluid t o flow t hr ough t he
valve. When t he ball is r ot at ed so t he hole is
per pendicular t o t he flow openings of t he valve
body, t he flow of fluid st ops.
Most ball valves ar e t he quick-act ing t ype.
They r equir e only a 90-degr ee t ur n t o eit her
complet ely open or close t he valve. However ,
many ar e oper at ed by planet ar y gear s. This t ype
of gear ing allows t he use of a r elat ively small
handwheel and oper at ing for ce t o oper at e a fair ly
lar ge valve. The gear ing does, however , incr ease
t he oper at ing t ime for t he valve. Some ball valves
also cont ain a swing check locat ed wit hin t he ball
t o give t he valve a check valve feat ur e. Figur e 6-2
shows a ba ll-st op, swing-check va lve wit h a
planet ar y gear oper at ion.
In addit ion t o t he ball valves shown in figur es
6-1 and 6-2, t her e ar e t hr ee-way ball valves t hat
ar e used t o supply fluid fr om a single sour ce t o
one component or t he ot her in a t wo-component
syst em (fig. 6-3).
Fi gu r e 6-2.—Typ i ca l ba ll-st op , swi n g-ch eck va lve.
6-2
Fi gu r e 6-3.—Th r ee-wa y ba ll va lve.
GATE VALVES
Gat e valves ar e used when a st r aight -line flow
of fluid and minimum flow r est r ict ion ar e needed.
Gat e valves ar e so-named because t he par t t hat
eit her st ops or allows flow t hr ough t he valve
act s somewhat like a gat e. The gat e is usually
wedge-shaped. When t he valve is wide open t he
gat e is fully dr awn up int o t he valve bonnet . This
leaves an opening for flow t hr ough t he valve t he
same size as t he pipe in which t he valve is inst alled
(fig. 6-4). Ther efor e, t her e is lit t le pr essur e dr op
or flow r est r ict ion t hr ough t he valve.
Gat e valves ar e not suit able for t hr ot t ling
pur poses. The cont r ol of flow is difficult because
of t he va lve’s design, a nd t he flow of fluid
sla pping a ga inst a pa r t ia lly open ga t e ca n
cause ext ensive damage t o t he valve. Except as
specifically aut hor ized, gat e valves should not be
used for t hr ot t ling.
Gat e valves ar e classified as eit her r ising-st em
or nonr ising-st em valves. The nonr ising-st em
valve is shown in figur e 6-4. The st em is t hr eaded
int o t he gat e. As t he handwheel on t he st em is
r ot at ed, t he gat e t r avels up or down t he st em on
t he t hr eads while t he st em r emains ver t ically
st at ionar y. This t ype of valve will almost always
have a point er indicat or t hr eaded ont o t he upper
end of t he st em t o indicat e t he posit ion of t he gat e.
Valves wit h r ising st ems (fig. 6-5) ar e used
when it is impor t ant t o know by immediat e
inspect ion whet her t he valve is open or closed and
when t he t hr eads (st em and gat e) exposed t o t he
fluid could become damaged by fluid cont ami-
nant s. In t his valve, t he st em r ises out of t he valve
when t he valve is opened.
GLOBE VALVES
Globe valves ar e pr obably t he most common
valves in exist ence. The globe valve get s it s name
Fi gu r e 6-4.—Op er a t i on of a ga t e va lve.
6-3
Fi gu r e 6-5.—Ri si n g st em ga t e va lve.
Fi gu r e 6-6.—Typ es of globe va lve bod i es.
fr om t he globular shape of t he valve body. Ot her
t ypes of valves may also have globular -shaped
bodies. Thus, it is t he int er nal st r uct ur e of t he
valve t hat ident ifies t he t ype of valve.
The inlet and out let openings for globe valves
a r e a r r a n ged i n a wa y t o s a t i s fy t h e fl ow
r equir ement s. Figur e 6-6 shows st r aight -, angle-,
and cr oss-flow valves.
The moving par t s of a globe valve consist of
t he disk, t he valve st em, and t he handwheel. The
st em connect s t he handwheel and t he disk. It is
t hr eaded and fit s int o t he t hr eads in t he valve
bonnet .
The par t of t he globe valve t hat cont r ols flow
is t he disk, which is at t ached t o t he valve st em.
(Disks ar e available in var ious designs.) The valve
is closed by t ur ning t he valve st em in unt il t he disk
is seat ed int o t he valve seat . This pr event s fluid
fr om flowing t hr ough t he valve (fig. 6-7, view A).
The edge of t he disk and t he seat ar e ver y
accur at ely machined so t hat t hey for ma t ight seal
when t he valve is closed. When t he valve is open
(fig. 6-7, view B), t he fluid flows t hr ough t he space
bet ween t he edge of t he disk and t he seat . Since
t he fluid flows equally on all sides of t he cent er
of suppor t when t he valve is open, t her e is no
unbalanced pr essur e on t he disk t o cause uneven
wear . The r at e at which fluid flows t hr ough t he
valve is r egulat ed by t he posit ion of t he disk in
r elat ion t o t he seat . The valve is commonly used
as a fully open or fully closed valve, but it may
be used as a t hr ot t le valve. However , since t he
seat ing sur face is a r elat ively lar ge ar ea, it is not
suit able as a t hr ot t le valve, wher e fine adjust ment s
ar e r equir ed in cont r olling t he r at e of flow.
The globe valve should never be jammed in
t he open posit ion. Aft er a valve is fully opened,
t he handwheel should be t ur ned t owar d t he closed
posit ion appr oximat ely one-half t ur n. Unless t his
is done, t he valve is likely t o seize in t he open
posit ion, making it difficult , if not impossible, t o
close t he valve. Many valves ar e damaged in t his
Fi gu r e 6-7.—Op er a t i on of a globe va lve.
6-4
manner . Anot her r eason for not leaving globe
valves in t he fully open posit ion is t hat it is
somet imes difficult t o det er mine if t he valve is
open or closed. If t he valve is jammed in t he open
posit ion, t he st em may be damaged or br oken by
someone who t hinks t he valve is closed, and
at t empt s t o open it .
It is impor t ant t hat globe valves be inst alled
wit h t he pr essur e against t he face of t he disk t o
keep t he syst em pr essur e away fr om t he st em
packing when t he valve is shut .
NEEDLE VALVES
Needle va lves a r e simila r in design a nd
oper at ion t o t he globe valve. Inst ead of a disk,
a needle valve has a long t aper ed point at t he end
of t he valve st em. A cr oss-sect ional view of a
needle valve is illust r at ed in figur e 6-8.
The long t aper of t he valve element per mit s
a much smaller seat ing sur face ar ea t han t hat of
t he globe valve; t her efor e, t he needle valve is mor e
suit able as a t hr ot t le valve. Needle valves ar e used
t o cont r ol flow int o delica t e ga uges, which
might be damaged by sudden sur ges of fluid under
pr essur e. Needle valves ar e also used t o cont r ol
t he end of a wor k cycle, wher e it is desir able for
mot ion t o be br ought slowly t o a halt , and at ot her
point s wher e pr ecise adjust ment s of flow ar e
necessar y and wher e a small r at e of flow is
desir ed.
Alt hough many of t he needle valves used in
fluid power syst ems ar e t he manually oper at ed
t ype (fig. 6-8), modificat ions of t his t ype of valve
ar e oft en used as var iable r est r ict or s. This valve is
const r uct ed wit hout a handwheel and is adjust ed
t o pr ovide a specific r at e of flow. This r at e of flow
will pr ovide a desir ed t ime of oper at ion for a
par t icular subsyst em. Since t his t ype of valve can
be adjust ed t o confor m t o t he r equir ement s of a
par t icular syst em, it can be used in a var iet y of
syst ems. Figur e 6-9 illust r at es a needle valve t hat
was modified as a var iable r est r ict or .
HYDRAULI C AND P NEUMATI C
GLOBE VALVES
The valve consist s of a valve body and a st em
car t r idge assembly. The st em car t r idge assembly
includes t he bonnet , gland nut , packing, packing
r et ainer , handle, st em, and seat . On small valves
(1/8 and 1/4 inch) t he st em is made in one piece,
but on lar ger sizes it is made of a st em, guide,
and st em r et ainer . The valve disk is made of nylon
and is swaged int o eit her t he st em, for 1/8- and
1/4-inch valves, or t he guide, for lar ger valves.
The bonnet scr ews int o t he valve body wit h
left -hand t hr eads and is sealed by an O-r ing
(including a back-up r ing).
Fi gu r e 6-8. —Cr oss-sect i on a l vi ew of a n eed le va lve. Fi gu r e 6-9. —Va r i a ble r est r i ct or .
6-5
The valve is available wit h eit her a r ising st em
or a non-r ising st em. The r ising st em valve uses
t he same por t body design as does t he non-r ising
st em valve. The st em is t hr eaded int o t he gland
nut and scr ews out war d as t he valve is opened.
This valve does not incor por at e pr ovisions for
t ight ening t he st em packing nor r eplacing t he
packing while t he valve is in ser vice; t her efor e,
complet e va lve disa ssembly is r equir ed for
maint enance. Figur e 6-10 illust r at es a r ising st em
hydr aulic and pneumat ic globe valve. Addit ional
infor mat ion on t his valve is available in S tandard
Navy Valves, NAVSHI PS 0948-012-5000.
P RESSURE CONTROL VALVES
The sa fe a nd efficient oper a t ion of fluid
power syst ems, syst em component s, and r elat ed
equ i pmen t r equ i r es a mea n s of con t r ol l i n g
pr essur e. Ther e ar e many t ypes of aut omat ic
pr essur e cont r ol valves. Some of t hem mer ely
pr ovide an escape for pr essur e t hat exceeds a set
pr essur e; some only r educe t he pr essur e t o a lower
pr essur e syst em or subsyst em; and some keep t he
pr essur e in a syst em wit hin a r equir ed r ange.
RELI EF VALVES
Some fluid power syst ems, even when oper at -
ing nor mally, may t empor ar ily develop excessive
pr essur e; for example, when an unusually st r ong
wor k r esist ance is encount er ed. Relief valves ar e
used t o cont r ol t his excess pr essur e.
Relief valves ar e aut omat ic valves used on
syst em lines and equipment t o pr event over -
pr essur izat ion. Most r elief valves simply lift (open)
at a pr eset pr essur e and r eset (shut ) when t he
pr essur e dr ops slight ly below t he lift ing pr essur e.
They do not maint ain flow or pr essur e at a given
amount , but pr event pr essur e fr om r ising above
a specific level when t he syst em is t empor ar ily
over loaded.
Ma in syst em r elief va lves a r e gener a lly
inst alled bet ween t he pump or pr essur e sour ce and
t he fir st syst em isolat ion valve. The valve must
be lar ge enough t o allow t he full out put of t he
hydr a ulic pump t o be deliver ed ba ck t o t he
r eser voir . In a pneumat ic syst em, t he r elief valve
cont r ols excess pr essur e by dischar ging t he excess
gas t o t he at mospher e.
Fi gu r e 6-10.—Hyd r a u li c a n d p n eu ma t i c globe va lve (r i si n g st em).
6-6
Smaller r elief valves, similar in design and
oper at ion t o t he main syst em r elief valve, ar e oft en
used in isolat ed par t s of t he syst em wher e a check
valve or dir ect ional cont r ol valve pr event s pr essur e
fr om being r elieved t hr ough t he main syst em r elief
valve and wher e pr essur es must be r elieved at a
set point lower t han t hat pr ovided by t he main
syst em r elief. These small r elief valves ar e also
used t o r elieve pr essur es caused by t her mal
expansion (see glossar y) of t he fluids.
Figur e 6-11 shows a t ypical r elief valve. Syst em
pr essur e simply act s under t he valve disk at t he
inlet t o t he valve. When t he syst em pr essur e
exceeds t he for ce exer t ed by t he valve spr ing, t he
valve disk lift s off of it s seat , allowing some of
t he syst em fluid t o escape t hr ough t he valve out let
unt il t he syst em pr essur e is r educed t o just below
t he r elief set point of t he valve.
All r elief va lves ha ve a n a djust ment for
incr easing or decr easing t he set r elief pr essur e.
Some r elief valves ar e equipped wit h an adjust ing
scr ew for t his pur pose. This adjust ing scr ew is
usua lly cover ed wit h a ca p, which must be
r emoved befor e an adjust ment can be made. Some
t ype of locking device, such as a lock nut , is
usually pr ovided t o pr event t he adjust ment fr om
changing t hr ough vibr at ion. Ot her t ypes of r elief
valves ar e equipped wit h a handwheel for making
adjust ment s t o t he valve. Eit her t he adjust ing
scr ew or t he handwheel is t ur ned clockwise t o
incr ease t he pr essur e at which t he valve will open.
In addit ion, most r elief valves ar e also pr ovided
Fi gu r e 6-11 .—Reli ef va lve.
wit h an oper at ing lever or some t ype of device t o
allow manual cycling or gagging t he valve open
for cer t ain t asks.
Va r ious modifica t ions of t he r elief va lve
shown in figur e 6-11 ar e used t o efficient ly ser ve
t he r equir ement s of some fluid power syst ems;
however , t his r elief valve is unsat isfact or y for
some applicat ions. To give you a bet t er under -
st anding of t he oper at ion of r elief valves, we will
discuss some of t he undesir able char act er ist ics of
t his valve.
A s i mpl e r el i ef va l ve, s u ch a s t h e on e
illust r at ed in figur e 6-11, wit h a suit able spr ing
adjust ment can be set so t hat it will open when
t he syst em pr essur e r eaches a cer t ain level, 500
psi for example. When t he valve does open, t he
volume of flow t o be handled may be gr eat er t han
t he capacit y of t he valve; t her efor e, pr essur e in
t he syst em may incr ease t o sever al hundr ed psi
above t he set pr essur e befor e t he valve br ings t he
pr essur e under cont r ol. A simple r elief valve will
be effect ive under t hese condit ions only if it is ver y
lar ge. In t his case, it would oper at e st iffly and t he
valve element would chat t er back and for t h. In
addit ion, t he valve will not close unt il t he syst em
pr essur e decr eases t o a point somewhat below t he
opening pr essur e.
The sur face ar ea of t he valve element must be
lar ger t han t hat of t he pr essur e opening if t he
valve is t o seat sat isfact or ily as shown in figur e
6-12. The pr essur e in t he syst em act s on t he valve
element open t o it . In each case in figur e 6-12,
t he for ce exer t ed dir ect ly upwar d by syst em
pr essur e when t he valve is closed depends on t he
ar ea (A) acr oss t he valve element wher e t he
element seat s against t he pr essur e t ube. The
moment t he valve opens, however , t he upwar d
for ce exer t ed depends on t he hor izont al ar ea (B)
of t he ent ir e valve element , which is gr eat er t han
ar ea A. This causes an upwar d jump of t he valve
element immediat ely aft er it opens, because t he
Fi gu r e 6-12.—P r essu r e a ct i n g on d i ffer en t a r ea s.
6-7
same pr essur e act ing over differ ent ar eas pr oduces
for ces pr opor t ional t o t he ar eas. It also r equir es
a gr eat er for ce t o close t he valve t han was r equir ed
t o open it . As a r esult , t he valve will not close unt il
t he syst em pr essur e has decr eased t o a cer t ain
point below t he pr essur e r equir ed t o open it .
Let us assume t hat a valve of t his t ype is set
t o open at 500 psi. (Refer t o fig. 6-12.) When t he
valve is closed, t he pr essur e act s on ar ea A. If t his
ar ea is 0.5 squar e inch, an upwar d for ce of 250
pounds (500 ~ 0.5) will be exer t ed on t he valve
at t he moment of opening. Wit h t he valve open,
however , t he pr essur e act s on ar ea B. If ar ea B
is 1 squar e inch, t he upwar d for ce is 500 pounds,
or double t he for ce at which t he valve act ually
opened. For t he valve t o close, pr essur e in t he
syst em would have t o decr ease well below t he
point a t which t he va lve opened. The exa ct
pr essur e would depend on t he shape of t he valve
element .
In some hydr aulic syst ems, t her e is a pr essur e
in t he r et ur n line. This back pr essur e is caused
by r est r ict ions in t he r et ur n line and will var y in
r elat ion t o t he amount of fluid flowing in t he
r et ur n line. This pr essur e cr eat es a for ce on t he
back of t he valve element and will incr ease t he
for ce necessar y t o open t he valve and r elieve
syst em pr essur e.
It follows t hat simple r elief valves have a
t endency t o open and close r apidly as t hey “hunt ”
a bove a nd below t he set pr essur e, ca using
pr essur e pulsat ions and undesir able vibr at ions
and pr oducing a noisy chat t er . Because of t he
unsat isfact or y per for mance of t he simple r elief
valve in some applicat ions, compound r elief valves
wer e developed.
Compound r elief valves use t he pr inciples of
oper at ion of simple r elief valves for one st age of
t heir act ion—t hat of t he pilot valve. Pr ovision is
made t o limit t he amount of fluid t hat t he pilot
va l ve mu s t h a n dl e, a n d t h er eby a voi d t h e
wea knesses of simple r elief va lves. (A pilot
valve is a small valve used for oper at ing anot her
valve.)
The oper at ion of a compound r elief valve is
illust r at ed in figur e 6-13. In view A, t he main
valve, which consist s of a pist on, st em, and spr ing,
is closed, blocking flow fr om t he high-pr essur e
line t o t he r eser voir . Fluid in t he high-pr essur e line
flows ar ound t he st em of t he main valves as it
flows t o t he act uat ing unit . The st em of t he main
valve is hollow (t he st em passage) and cont ains
t he main valve spr ing, which for ces t he main valve
against it s seat . When t he pilot valve is open t he
st em passage allows fluid t o flow fr om t he pilot
Fi gu r e 6-13.—Op er a t i on of comp ou n d r eli ef va lve,
6-8
valve, ar ound t he main valve spr ing, and down
t o t he r et ur n line.
Ther e is also a nar r ow passage (pist on passage)
t hr ough t he main valve pist on. This passage
connect s t he high-pr essur e line t o t he va lve
chamber .
The pilot valve is a small, ball-t ype, spr ing-
loaded check valve, which connect s t he t op of t he
passage fr om t he valve chamber wit h t he passage
t hr ough t he main valve st em. The pilot valve is
t he cont r ol unit of t he r elief valve because t he
pr essur e at which t he r elief valve will open
depends on t he t ension of t he pilot valve spr ing.
The pilot valve spr ing t ension is adjust ed by
t ur ning t he adjust ing scr ew so t hat t he ball will
unseat when syst em pr essur e r eaches t he pr eset
limit .
Fluid a t line pr essur e flows t hr ough t he
na r r ow pist on pa ssa ge t o fill t he cha mber .
Because t he line and t he chamber ar e connect ed,
t he pr essur e in bot h ar e equal. The t op and
bot t om of t he main pist on have equal ar eas;
t her efor e, t he hydr aulic for ces act ing upwar d
and downwar d ar e equal, and t her e is no t endency
for t he pist on t o move in eit her dir ect ion.
The only ot her for ce act ing on t he main valve
is t hat of t he main valve spr ing, which holds it
closed.
When t he pr essur e in t he high-pr essur e line
incr eases t o t he point at which t he pilot valve
is set , t he ba ll unsea t s (fig. 6-13, view B).
This opens t he va lve cha mber t hr ough t he
valve st em passage t o t he low-pr essur e r et ur n
line. Fluid immediat ely begins t o flow out of t he
chamber , much fast er t han it can flow t hr ough
t he na r r ow pist on pa ssa ge. As a r esult t he
chamber pr essur e immediat ely dr ops, and t he
pilot va lve begins t o close a ga in, r est r ict ing
t he out war d flow of fluid. Chamber pr essur e
t her efor e incr eases, t he valve opens, and t he cycle
r epeat s.
So far , t he only par t of t he valve t hat has
moved appr eciably is t he pilot , which funct ions
just like any ot her simple spr ing-loaded r elief
valve. Because of t he small size of t he pist on
passage, t her e is a sever e limit on t he amount
of over pr essur e pr ot ect ion t he pilot can pr ovide
t he syst em. All t he pilot valve can do is limit
fluid pr essur e in t he valve chamber above t he
ma in pist on t o a pr eset ma ximum pr essur e,
by allowing excess fluid t o flow t hr ough t he
pist on passage, t hr ough t he st em passage, and
int o t he r et ur n line. When pr essur e in t he syst em
incr eases t o a value t hat is above t he flow capacit y
of t h e pi l ot va l ve, t h e ma i n va l ve open s ,
per mit t ing excess fluid t o flow dir ect ly t o t he
r et ur n line. This is accomplished in t he following
manner .
As syst em pr essur e incr eases, t he upwar d for ce
on t he main pist on over comes t he downwar d
for ce, which consist s of t he t ension of t he main
pist on spr ing and t he pr essur e of t he fluid in t he
valve chamber (fig. 6-13, view C). The pist on t hen
r ises, unseat ing t he st em, and allows t he fluid t o
flow fr om t he syst em pr essur e line dir ect ly int o
t he r et ur n line. This causes syst em pr essur e t o
decr ease r apidly, since t he main valve is designed
t o handle t he complet e out put of t he pump. When
t he pr essur e r et ur ns t o nor mal, t he pilot spr ing
for ces t he ball ont o t he seat . Pr essur es ar e equal
above and below t he main pist on, and t he main
spr ing for ces t he valve t o seat .
As you can see, t he compound valve over -
comes t he gr eat est limit at ion of a simple r elief
valve by limit ing t he flow t hr ough t he pilot valve
t o t he quant it y it can sat isfact or ily handle. This
limit s t he pr essur e above t he main valve and
enables t he main line pr essur e t o open t he main
valve. In t his way, t he syst em is r elieved when an
over load exist s.
P RESSURE REGULATORS
Pr essur e r egulat or s, oft en r efer r ed t o a s
unloading valves, ar e used in fluid power syst ems
t o r egulat e pr essur e. In pneumat ic syst ems, t he
va lve, commonly r efer r ed t o a s a pr essur e
r egulat or , simply r educes pr essur e. This t ype of
valve is discussed lat er in t his chapt er under
pr essur e-r educing valves. In hydr aulic syst ems t he
pr essur e r egulat or is used t o unload t he pump and
t o maint ain and r egulat e syst em pr essur e at t he
desir ed values. All hydr aulic syst ems do not
r equir e pr essur e r egula t or s. The open-cent er
syst em (discussed in chapt er 12) does not r equir e
a pr essur e r egulat or . Many syst ems ar e equipped
wit h var iable-displacement pumps (discussed in
chapt er 4), which cont ain a pr essur e-r egulat ing
device.
Pr essur e r egulat or s ar e made in a var iet y of
t ypes and by var ious manufact ur er s; however , t he
6-9
basic oper at ing pr inciples of all r egulat or s ar e
similar t o t he one illust r at ed in figur e 6-14.
A r egulat or is open when it is dir ect ing fluid
under pr essur e int o t he syst em (fig. 6-14, view A).
In t he closed posit ion (fig. 6-14, view B), t he fluid
in t he par t of t he syst em beyond t he r egulat or is
t r apped at t he desir ed pr essur e, and t he fluid fr om
t he pump is bypassed int o t he r et ur n line and back
t o t he r eser voir . To pr event const ant opening and
closing (chat t er ), t he r egulat or is designed t o open
at a pr essur e somewhat lower t han t he closing
pr essur e. This differ ence is known as differ ent ial
or oper at ing r ange. For example, assume t hat a
pr essur e r egulat or is set t o open when t he syst em
pr essur e dr ops below 600 psi, and close when t he
pr essur e r ises above 800 psi. The differ ent ial or
oper at ing r ange is 200 psi.
Refer r ing t o figur e 6-14, assume t hat t he
pist on has an ar ea of 1 squar e inch, t he pilot valve
has a cr oss-sect ional ar ea of one-four t h squar e
inch, and t he pist on spr ing pr ovides 600 pounds
of for ce pushing t he pist on down. When t he
pr essur e in t he syst em is less t han 600 psi, fluid
fr om t he pump will ent er t he inlet por t , flow t o
t he t op of t he r egulat or , and t hen t o t he pilot
valve. When t he pr essur e of t he fluid at t he inlet
incr eases t o t he point wher e t he for ce it cr eat es
against t he fr ont of t he check valve exceeds t he
for ce cr eat ed against t he back of t he check valve
by syst em pr essur e and t he check valve spr ing, t he
check valve opens. This allows fluid t o flow int o
t he syst em and t o t he bot t om of t he r egulat or
against t he pist on. When t he for ce cr eat ed by t he
syst em pr essur e exceeds t he for ce exer t ed by t he
spr ing, t he pist on moves up, causing t he pilot
valve t o unseat . Since t he fluid will t ake t he pat h
of lea st r esist a nce, it will pa ss t hr ough t he
r egulat or and back t o t he r eser voir t hr ough t he
r et ur n line.
When t he fluid fr om t he pump is suddenly
allowed a fr ee pat h t o r et ur n, t he pr essur e on t he
input side of t he check valve dr ops and t he check
valve closes. The fluid in t he syst em is t hen
t r apped under pr essur e. This fluid will r emain
pr essur ized unt il a power unit is act uat ed, or unt il
pr essur e is slowly lost t hr ough nor mal int er nal
leakage wit hin t he syst em.
When t he syst em pr essur e decr eases t o a point
slight ly below 600 psi, t he spr ing for ces t he pist on
down and closes t he pilot valve. When t he pilot
valve is closed, t he fluid cannot flow dir ect ly t o
t he r et ur n line. This causes t he pr essur e t o incr ease
in t he line bet ween t he pump and t he r egulat or .
This pr essur e opens t he check valve, causing t he
fluid t o ent er t he syst em.
In summar y, when t he syst em pr essur e
decr eases a cer t ain amount , t he pr essur e r egulat or
will open, sending fluid t o t he syst em. When t he
s ys t em pr es s u r e i n cr ea s es s u ffi ci en t l y, t h e
r egulat or will close, allowing t he fluid fr om t he
pump t o flow t hr ough t he r egulat or and back t o
t he r eser voir . The pr essur e r egulat or t akes t he load
off of t he pump and r egulat es syst em pr essur e.
Fi gu r e 6-14.—Hyd r a u li c p r essu r e r egu la t or .
6-10
Fi gu r e 6-15 .—I n st a lla t i on
SEQUENCE VALVES
of sequ en ce va lves.
Sequence va lves cont r ol t he sequence of
oper at ion bet ween t wo br anches in a cir cuit ; t hat
is, t hey enable one unit t o aut omat ically set
anot her unit int o mot ion. An example of t he use
of a sequence valve is in an air cr aft landing gear
act uat ing syst em.
In a landing gear act uat ing syst em, t he landing
gear door s must open befor e t he landing gear
st ar t s t o ext end. Conver sely, t he landing gear must
be complet ely r et r act ed befor e t he door s close. A
sequence valve inst alled in each landing gear
act uat ing line per for ms t his funct ion.
A sequence valve is somewhat similar t o a
r elief valve except t hat , aft er t he set pr essur e has
been r eached, t he sequence valve diver t s t he fluid
t o a second act uat or or mot or t o do wor k in
anot her par t of t he syst em. Figur e 6-15 shows an
inst allat ion of t wo sequence valves t hat cont r ol
t he sequence of oper at ion of t hr ee act uat ing
cylinder s. Fluid is fr ee t o flow int o cylinder A.
The fir st sequence valve (1) blocks t he passage of
fluid unt il t he pist on in cylinder A moves t o t he
end of it s st r oke. At t his t ime, sequence valve 1
opens, allowing fluid t o ent er cylinder B. This
act ion cont inues unt il all t hr ee pist ons complet e
t heir st r okes.
Ther e ar e var ious t ypes of sequence valves.
Some ar e cont r olled by pr essur e and some ar e
cont r olled mechanically.
P r essu r e-Con t r olled Sequ en ce Va lve
The oper at ion of a t ypical pr essur e-cont r olled
sequence valve is illust r at ed in figur e 6-16. The
opening pr essur e is obt ained by adjust ing t he
t ension of t he spr ing t hat nor mally holds t he
pist on in t he closed posit ion. (Not e t hat t he t op
par t of t he pist on has a lar ger diamet er t han t he
lower par t .) Fluid ent er s t he valve t hr ough t he
inlet por t , flows ar ound t he lower par t of t he
pist on and exit s t he out let por t , wher e it flows t o
t he pr imar y (fir st ) unit t o be oper at ed (fig. 6-16,
view A). This fluid pr essur e also act s against t he
lower sur face of t he pist on.
Fi gu r e 6-16.—Op er a t i on of a p r essu r e-con t r olled sequ en ce va lve.
6-11
When t he pr imar y act uat ing unit complet es it s
oper at ion, pr essur e in t he line t o t he act uat ing unit
incr eases sufficient ly t o over come t he for ce of t he
spr ing, and t he pist on r ises. The valve is t hen in
t he open posit ion (fig. 6-16, view B). The fluid
ent er ing t he valve t akes t he pat h of least r esist ance
and flows t o t he secondar y unit .
A dr ain passage is pr ovided t o allow any fluid
leaking past t he pist on t o flow fr om t he t op of
t he valve. In hydr aulic syst ems, t his dr ain line is
usually connect ed t o t he main r et ur n line.
Mech a n i ca lly Op er a t ed Sequ en ce Va lve
The mechanically oper at ed sequence valve
(fig. 6-17) is oper at ed by a plunger t hat ext ends
t hr ough t he body of t he va lve. The va lve is
mount ed so t hat t he plunger will be oper at ed by
t he pr imar y unit .
A check valve, eit her a ball or a poppet , is
inst alled bet ween t he fluid por t s in t he body. It
can be unseat ed by eit her t he plunger or fluid
pr essur e.
Por t A (fig. 6-17) and t he act uat or of t he
pr imar y unit ar e connect ed by a common line.
Por t B is connect ed by a line t o t he act uat or of
t he secondar y unit . When fluid under pr essur e
flows t o t he pr imar y unit , it also flows int o t he
sequence valve t hr ough por t A t o t he seat ed check
valve in t he sequence valve. In or der t o oper at e
t he secondar y unit , t he fluid must flow t hr ough
t he sequence valve. The valve is locat ed so t hat
t he pr imar y unit depr esses t he plunger as it
complet es it s oper at ion. The plunger unseat s
t he check valve and allows t he fluid t o flow
Fi gu r e 6-17.—Mech a n i ca lly op er a t ed sequ en ce va lve.
t h r ou gh t h e va l ve, ou t por t B, a n d t o t h e
secondar y unit .
This t ype of sequence valve per mit s flow in
t he opposit e dir ect ion. Fluid ent er s por t B and
flows t o t he check valve. Alt hough t his is r et ur n
flow fr om t he act uat ing unit , t he fluid over comes
spr ing t ension, unseat s t he check valve, and flows
out t hr ough por t A.
P RESSURE-REDUCI NG VALVES
Pr essur e-r educing valves pr ovide a st eady
pr essur e int o a syst em t hat oper at es at a lower
pr essur e t han t he supply syst em. A r educing valve
can nor mally be set for any desir ed downst r eam
pr essur e wit hin t he design limit s of t he valve. Once
t he valve is set , t he r educed pr essur e will be
ma int a ined r ega r dless of cha nges in supply
pr essur e (as long as t he supply pr essur e is at least
as high as t he r educed pr essur e desir ed) and
r egar dless of t he syst em load, pr oviding t he load
does not exceed t he design capacit y of t he r educer .
Fi gu r e 6-18.—Sp r i n g-loa d ed p r essu r e-r ed u ci n g va lve.
6-12
Th er e a r e va r i ou s des i gn s a n d t ypes of
pr essur e-r educing va lves. The spr ing-loa ded
r edu cer a n d t h e pi l ot -con t r ol l ed va l ve a r e
discussed in t his t ext .
Sp r i n g-Loa d ed Red u cer
The spr ing-loaded pr essur e-r educing valve
(fi g. 6-18) i s common l y u s ed i n pn eu ma t i c
syst ems. It is oft en r efer r ed t o as a pr essur e
r egulat or .
The valve simply uses spr ing pr essur e against
a diaphr agm t o open t he valve. On t he bot t om
of t he diaphr agm, t he out let pr essur e (t he pr essur e
in t he r educed-pr essur e syst em) of t he valve for ces
t he diaphr agm upwar d t o shut t he valve. When
t he out let pr essur e dr ops below t he set point of
t he valve, t he spr ing pr essur e over comes t he out let
pr essur e and for ces t he valve st em downwar d,
opening t he valve. As t he out let pr essur e incr eases,
a ppr oa ching t he desir ed va lue, t he pr essur e
under t he diaphr agm begins t o over come spr ing
pr essur e, for cing t he valve st em upwar ds, shut t ing
t he va lve. You ca n a djust t he downst r ea m
pr essur e by t ur ning t he adjust ing scr ew, which
var ies t he spr ing pr essur e against t he diaphr agm.
This par t icular spr ing-loaded valve will fail in t he
open posit ion if a diaphr agm r upt ur e occur s.
P i lot -Con t r olled P r essu r e-Red u ci n g Va lve
Figur e 6-19 illust r at es t he oper at ion of a
pilot -cont r olled pr essur e-r educing valve. This
valve consist s of an adjust able pilot valve, which
cont r ols t he oper at ing pr essur e of t he valve, and
a spool valve, which r eact s t o t he act ion of t he
pilot valve.
The pilot valve consist s of a poppet (1), a
spr ing (2), and an adjust ing scr ew (3). The valve
Fi gu r e 6-19.—P i lot -con t r olled p r essu r e-r ed u ci n g va lve.
6-13
spool assembly consist s of a valve spool (10) and
a spr ing (4).
Fluid under main pr essur e ent er s t he inlet por t
(11) and under all condit ions is fr ee t o flow
t hr ough t he valve and t he out let por t (5). (Eit her
por t 5 or por t 11 maybe used as t he high-pr essur e
por t .)
Figur e 6-19, view A, shows t he valve in t he
open posit ion. In t his posit ion, t he pr essur e in t he
r educed-pr essur e out let por t (6) has not r eached
t he pr eset oper at ing pr essur e of t he valve. The
fluid also flows t hr ough passage 8, t hr ough smaller
passage 9 in t he cent er of t he valve spool, and int o
chamber 12. The fluid pr essur e at out let por t 6
is t her efor e dist r ibut ed t o bot h ends of t he spool.
When t hese pr essur es ar e equal t he spool is hydr au-
lically balanced. Spr ing 4 is a low-t ension spr ing
and applies only a slight downwar d for ce on t he
spool. It s main pur pose is t o posit ion t he spool
and t o maint ain opening 7 at it s maximum size.
As t he pr essur e incr eases in out let por t 6 (fig.
16, view B), t his pr essur e is t r ansmit t ed t hr ough
passages 8 and 9 t o chamber 12. This pr essur e also
act s on t he pilot valve poppet (1). When t his
pr essur e incr eases above t he pr eset oper at ing
pr essur e of t he valve, it over comes t he for ce of
pilot valve spr ing 2 and unseat s t he poppet . This
allows fluid t o flow t hr ough t he dr ain por t (15).
Because t he small passage (9) r est r ict s flow int o
chamber 12, t he fluid pr essur e in t he chamber
dr ops. This causes a moment ar y differ ence in
pr essur e acr oss t he valve spool (10) which allows
fluid pr essur e act ing against t he bot t om ar ea of
t he valve spool t o over come t he downwar d for ce
of spr ing 4. The spool is t hen for ced upwar d unt il
t he pr essur es acr oss it s ends ar e equalized. As t he
spool moves upwar d, it r est r ict s t he flow t hr ough
opening 7 and causes t he pr essur e t o decr ease in
t he r educed pr essur e out let por t 6. If t he pr essur e
in t he out let por t cont inues t o incr ease t o a value
above t he pr eset pr essur e, t he pilot valve will open
again and t he cycle will r epeat . This allows t he
spool valve t o move up higher int o chamber 12;
t hus fur t her r educing t he size of opening 7.
These cycles r epeat unt il t he desir ed pr essur e is
maint ained in out let 6.
When t he pr essur e in out let 6 decr eases t o a
value below t he pr eset pr essur e, spr ing 4 for ces
t he spool downwar d, allowing mor e fluid t o flow
t hr ough opening 7.
COUNTERBALANCE VALVE
The count er balance valve is nor mally locat ed
in t he line bet ween a dir ect ional cont r ol valve and
t he out let of a ver t ica lly mount ed a ct ua t ing
cylinder which suppor t s weight or must be held
6-14
in posit ion for a per iod of t ime. This valve ser ves
as a hydr aulic r esist ance t o t he act uat ing cylinder .
For example, count er balance valves ar e used in
some hydr aulically oper at ed for klift s. The valve
offer s a r esist ance t o t he flow fr om t he act uat ing
cylinder when t he for k is lower ed. It also helps
t o suppor t t he for k in t he UP posit ion.
Count er balance valves ar e also used in air -
launched weapons loader s. In t his case t he valve
is locat ed in t he t op of t he lift cylinder . The valve
r equir es a specific pr essur e t o lower t he load. If
adequat e pr essur e is not available, t he load cannot
be lower ed. This pr event s collapse of t he load due
t o any malfunct ion of t he hydr aulic syst em.
One t ype of count er balance valve is illust r at ed
in figur e 6-20. The valve element is a balanced
spool (4). The spool consist s of t wo pist ons
per manent ly fixed on eit her end of a shaft . The
inner sur face ar eas of t he pist ons ar e equal;
t her efor e, pr essur e act s equally on bot h ar eas
r egar dless of t he posit ion of t he valve and has no
effect on t he movement of t he valve—hence, t he
t er m balanced. The shaft ar ea bet ween t he t wo
pist ons pr ovides t he ar ea for t he fluid t o flow
Fi gu r e 6-20. —Cou n t er ba la n ce va lve.
when t he valve is open. A small pist on (9) is
at t ached t o t he bot t om of t he spool valve.
When t he valve is in t he closed posit ion, t he
t op pist on of t he spool valve blocks t he dischar ge
por t (8). Wit h t he valve in t his posit ion, fluid
flowing fr om t he act uat ing unit ent er s t he inlet
por t (5). The fluid cannot flow t hr ough t he valve
because dischar ge por t 8 is blocked. However ,
fluid will flow t hr ough t he pilot passage (6) t o t he
small pilot pist on. As t he pr essur e incr eases, it act s
on t he pilot pist on unt il it over comes t he pr eset
pr essur e of spr ing 3. This for ces t he valve spool
(4) up and allows t he fluid t o flow ar ound t he
shaft of t he valve spool and out dischar ge por t
8. Figur e 6-20 shows t he valve in t his posit ion.
Dur ing r ever se flow, t he fluid ent er s por t 8. The
spr ing (3) for ces valve spool 4 t o t he closed
posit ion. The fluid pr essur e over comes t he spr ing
t ension of t he check valve (7). The check valve
opens and allows fr ee flow ar ound t he shaft of
t he valve spool and out t hr ough por t 5.
The oper at ing pr essur e of t he valve can be
adjust ed by t ur ning t he adjust ment scr ew (1),
which incr eases or decr eases t he t ension of t he
spr ing. This adjust ment depends on t he weight
t hat t he valve must suppor t .
It is nor mal for a small amount of fluid t o leak
ar ound t he t op pist on of t he spool valve and int o
t he ar ea ar ound t he spr ing. An accumulat ion
would cause addit ional pr essur e on t op of t he
spool va lve. This would r equir e a ddit iona l
pr essur e t o open t he valve. The dr ain (2) pr ovides
a passage for t his fluid t o flow t o por t 8.
DI RECTI ONAL CONTROL VALVES
Dir ect ional cont r ol valves ar e designed t o
dir ect t he flow of fluid, at t he desir ed t ime, t o t he
point in a fluid power syst em wher e it will do
wor k. The dr iving of a r am back and for t h in it s
cylinder is an example of when a dir ect ional
cont r ol valve is used. Var ious ot her t er ms ar e used
t o ident ify dir ect ional valves, such as select or
valve, t r ansfer valve, and cont r ol valve. This
manual will use t he t er m dir ect ional cont r ol valve
t o ident ify t hese valves.
Di r ect i on a l con t r ol va l ves for h ydr a u l i c
and pneumat ic syst ems ar e similar in design
a nd oper a t ion. However , t her e is one ma jor
differ ence. The r et ur n por t of a hydr aulic valve
is por t ed t hr ough a r et ur n line t o t he r eser voir ,
while t he similar por t of a pneumat ic valve,
commonly r efer r ed t o as t he exhaust por t , is
usually vent ed t o t he at mospher e. Any ot her
differ ences ar e point ed out in t he discussion of
t he valves.
Dir ect ional cont r ol valves may be oper at ed by
differ ences in pr essur e act ing on opposit e sides
of t he valving element , or t hey maybe posit ioned
manually, mechanically, or elect r ically. Oft en t wo
or mor e met hods of oper at ing t he same valve will
be used in differ ent phases of it s act ion.
CLASSI FI CATI ON
Dir ect ional cont r ol valves may be classified in
sever al ways. Some of t he differ ent ways ar e by
t he t ype of cont r ol, t he number of por t s in t he
valve housing, and t he specific funct ion of t he
valve. The most common met hod is by t he t ype
of valving element used in t he const r uct ion of t he
va l ve. Th e mos t common t ypes of va l vi n g
element s ar e t he ball, cone or sleeve, poppet ,
r ot a r y s pool , a n d s l i di n g s pool . Th e ba s i c
oper at ing pr inciples of t he poppet , r ot ar y spool,
and sliding spool valving element s ar e discussed
in t his t ext .
P op p et
The poppet fit s int o t he cent er bor e of t he seat
(fig. 6-21). The seat ing sur faces of t he poppet and
t he seat ar e lapped or closely machined so t hat
t he cent er bor e will be sealed when t he poppet is
Fi gu r e 6-21.—Op er a t i on of a si mp le p op p et va lve.
6-15
seat ed (shut ). The act ion of t he poppet is similar
t o t hat of t he valves in an aut omobile engine. In
most valves t he poppet is held in t he seat ed
posit ion by a spr ing.
The valve consist s pr imar ily of a movable
poppet which closes against t he valve seat . In t he
closed posit ion, fluid pr essur e on t he inlet side
t ends t o hold t he valve t ight ly closed. A small
amount of movement fr om a for ce applied t o t he
t op of t he poppet st em opens t he poppet and
allows fluid t o flow t hr ough t he valve.
The use of t he poppet as a-valving element is
not limit ed t o dir ect ional cont r ol valves.
Rot a r y Sp ool
The r ot ar y spool dir ect ional cont r ol valve
(fig. 6-22) has a r ound cor e wit h one or mor e
passages or r ecesses in it . The cor e is mount ed
wit hin a st at ionar y sleeve. As t he cor e is r ot at ed
wit hin t he st at ionar y sleeve, t he passages or
r ecesses connect or block t he por t s in t he sleeve.
The por t s in t he sleeve ar e connect ed t o t he
appr opr iat e lines of t he fluid syst em.
Sli d i n g sp ool
The oper a t ion of a simple sliding spool
dir ect ional cont r ol valve is shown in figur e 6-23.
The valve is so-named because of t he shape of t he
valving element t hat slides back and for t h t o block
and uncover por t s in t he housing. (The sliding
element is also r efer r ed t o as a pist on.) The inner
pist on ar eas (lands) ar e equal. Thus fluid under
pr essur e which ent er s t he valve fr om t he inlet por t s
CHECK VALVE
Fi gu r e 6-22.—P a r t s of a r ot a r y sp ool d i r ect i on a l con t r ol
va lve.
Fi gu r e 6-23.—Two-wa y, sli d i n g sp ool d i r ect i on a l con t r ol
va lve.
act s equally on bot h inner pist on ar eas r egar dless
of t he posit ion of t he spool. Sealing is usually
a ccomplished by a ver y closely ma chined fit
bet ween t he spool and t he valve body or sleeve.
For valves wit h mor e por t s, t he spool is designed
wit h mor e pist ons or lands on a common shaft .
The sliding spool is t he most commonly used t ype
of valving element used in dir ect ional cont r ol
va lves.
Check valves ar e used in fluid syst ems t o
per mit flow in one dir ect ion and t o pr event flow
in t he ot her dir ect ion. They ar e classified as
one-way dir ect ional cont r ol valves.
The check va lve ma y be inst a lled inde-
pendent ly in a line t o allow flow in one dir ect ion
only, or it may be used as an int egr al par t of
globe, sequence, count er balance, and pr essur e-
r educing valves.
Check valves ar e available in var ious designs.
They ar e opened by t he for ce of fluid in mot ion
flowing in one dir ect ion, and ar e closed by fluid
at t empt ing t o flow in t he opposit e dir ect ion. The
for ce of gr avit y or t he act ion of a spr ing aids in
closing t he valve.
6-16
Fi gu r e 6-24.—Swi n g ch eck va lve.
Figur e 6-24 shows a swing check valve. In t he
open posit ion, t he flow of fluid for ces t he hinged
disk up and allows fr ee flow t hr ough t he valve.
Flow in t he opposit e dir ect ion wit h t he aid of
gr avit y, for ces t he hinged disk t o close t he passage
a nd blocks t he flow. This t ype of va lve is
somet imes designed wit h a spr ing t o assist in
closing t he valve.
Th e mos t common t ype of ch eck va l ve,
inst alled in fluid-power syst ems, uses eit her a ball
or cone for t he sealing element (fig. 6-25). As fluid
pr essur e is applied in t he dir ect ion of t he ar r ow,
t he cone (view A) or ball (view B) is for ced off
it s seat , allowing fluid t o flow fr eely t hr ough t he
valve. This valve is known as a spr ing-loaded
check valve.
The spr ing is inst alled in t he valve t o hold t he
cone or ball on it s seat whenever fluid is not
flowing. The spr ing also helps t o for ce t he cone
or ball on it s seat when t he fluid at t empt s t o flow
in t he opposit e dir ect ion. Since t he opening and
closing of t his t ype of valve is not dependent on
gr avit y, it s locat ion in a syst em is not limit ed t o
t he ver t ical posit ion.
A modificat ion of t he spr ing-loaded check
valve is t he or ifice check valve (fig. 6-26). This
Fi gu r e 6-25.—Sp r i n g-loa d ed ch eck va lves. Fi gu r e 6-26.—Typ i ca l or i fi ce ch eck va lves.
6-17
valve allows nor mal flow in one dir ect ion and
r est r ict ed flow in t he ot her . It is oft en r efer r ed
t o as a one-way r est r ict or .
Figur e 6-26, view A, shows a cone-t ype or ifice
check valve. When sufficient fluid pr essur e is
applied at t he inlet por t , it over comes spr ing
t ension and moves t he cone off of it s seat . The
t wo or ifices (2) in t he illust r at ion r epr esent sever al
openings locat ed ar ound t he slant ed cir cumfer ence
of t he cone. These or ifices allow fr ee flow of fluid
t hr ough t he valve while t he cone is off of it s seat .
When fluid pr essur e is applied t hr ough t he out let
por t , t he for ce of t he fluid and spr ing t ension
move t he cone t o t he left and ont o it s seat . This
act ion blocks t he flow of fluid t hr ough t he valve,
except t hr ough t he or ifice (1) in t he cent er of t he
cone. The size of t he or ifice (in t he cent er of t he
cone) det er mines t he r at e of flow t hr ough t he
valve as t he fluid flows fr om r ight t o left .
Figur e 6-26, view B, shows a ball-t ype or ifice
check valve. Fluid flow t hr ough t he valve fr om
left t o r ight for ces t he ball off of it s seat and
allows nor mal flow. Fluid flow t hr ough t he valve
in t he opposit e dir ect ion for ces t he ball ont o it s
seat . Thus, t he flow is r est r ict ed by t he size of t he
or ifice locat ed in t he housing of t he valve.
NOTE: The dir ect ion of fr ee flow t hr ough t he
or ifice check va lve is indica t ed by a n a r r ow
st amped on t he housing.
SHUTTLE VALVE
In cer t ain fluid power syst ems, t he supply of
fluid t o a subsyst em must be fr om mor e t han one
sour ce t o meet syst em r equir ement s. In some
syst ems an emer gency syst em is pr ovided as a
sour ce of pr essur e in t he event of nor mal syst em
failur e. The emer gency syst em will usually act uat e
only essent ial component s.
The main pur pose of t he shut t le valve is t o
isolat e t he nor mal syst em fr om an alt er nat e or
emer gency syst em. It is small and simple; yet , it
is a ver y impor t ant component .
Figur e 6-27 is a cut away view of a t ypical
shut t le valve. The housing cont ains t hr ee por t s—
nor mal syst em inlet , alt er nat e or emer gency
syst em inlet , and out let . A shut t le valve used t o
oper at e mor e t han one act uat ing unit may cont ain
addit ional unit out let por t s. Enclosed in t he
housing is a sliding par t called t he shut t le. It s
pur pose is t o seal off eit her one or t he ot her inlet
por t s. Ther e is a shut t le seat at each inlet por t .
6-18
Fi gu r e 6-27.—Sh u t t le va lve.
Wh en a s h u t t l e va l ve i s i n t h e n or ma l
oper at ion posit ion, fluid has a fr ee flow fr om t he
nor mal syst em inlet por t , t hr ough t he valve, and
out t hr ough t he out let por t t o t he act uat ing unit .
The shut t le is seat ed against t he alt er nat e syst em
inlet por t a nd held t her e by nor ma l syst em
pr essur e and by t he shut t le valve spr ing. The
shut t le r emains in t his posit ion unt il t he alt er nat e
syst em is act ivat ed. This act ion dir ect s fluid under
pr essur e fr om t he alt er nat e syst em t o t he shut t le
valve and for ces t he shut t le fr om t he alt er nat e
syst em inlet por t t o t he nor mal syst em inlet por t .
Fluid fr om t he alt er nat e syst em t hen has a fr ee
flow t o t he out let por t , but is pr event ed fr om
ent er ing t he nor mal syst em by t he shut t le, which
seals off t he nor mal syst em por t .
The shut t le may be one of four t ypes: (1)
sliding plunger , (2) spr ing-loaded pist on, (3)
spr ing-loaded ball, or (4) spr ing-loaded poppet .
In shut t le valves t hat ar e designed wit h a spr ing,
t he shut t le is nor mally held against t he alt er nat e
syst em inlet por t by t he spr ing.
TWO-WAY VALVES
The t er m two-way indicat es t hat t he valve
cont ains and cont r ols t wo funct ional flow cont r ol
por t s-an inlet and an out let . A t wo-way, sliding
spool dir ect ional cont r ol valve is shown in figur e
6-23. As t he spool is moved back and for t h, it
eit her allows fluid t o flow t hr ough t he valve or
pr event s flow. In t he open posit ion, t he fluid
ent er s t he inlet por t , flows ar ound t he shaft of
t he spool, and t hr ough t he out let por t . The spool
cannot move back and for t h by differ ence of
for ces set up wit hin t he cylinder , since t he for ces
t her e ar e equal. As indicat ed by t he ar r ows against
t he pist ons of t he spool, t he same pr essur e act s
on equal ar eas on t heir inside sur faces. In t he
closed posit ion, one of t he pist ons of t he spool
simply blocks t he inlet por t , t hus pr event ing flow
t hr ough t he valve.
A number of feat ur es common t o most sliding
spool valves ar e shown in figur e 6-23. The small
por t s at eit her end of t he valve housing pr ovide
a pat h for any fluid t hat leaks past t he spool t o
flow t o t he r eser voir . This pr event s pr essur e fr om
building up against t he ends of t he pist ons, which
would hinder t he movement of t he spool. When
spool valves become wor n, t hey may lose balance
because of gr eat er leakage on one side of t he spool
t han on t he ot her . In t hat event , t he spool would
t end t o st ick when it is moved back and for t h.
Small gr ooves ar e t her efor e machined ar ound t he
sliding sur face of t he pist on; and in hydr aulic
valves, leaking liquid will encir cle t he pist ons and
keep t he cont a ct ing sur fa ces lubr ica t ed a nd
cent er ed.
THREE-WAY VALVES
Thr ee-way valves cont ain a pr essur e por t , a
cylinder por t , and a r et ur n or exhaust por t . The
t hr ee-way dir ect ional cont r ol valve is designed t o
oper at e an act uat ing unit in one dir ect ion; it
per mit s eit her t he load on t he act uat ing unit or
a spr ing t o r et ur n t he unit t o it s or iginal posit ion.
Ca m-Op er a t ed Th r ee-Wa y Va lves
Figur e 6-28 shows t he oper at ion of a cam-
oper a t ed, t hr ee-wa y, poppet -t ype dir ect iona l
cont r ol valve. View A shows fluid under pr essur e
for cing t he pist on out war d against a load. The
upper poppet (2) is unseat ed by t he inside cam
(5), per mit t ing fluid t o flow fr om t he line (3) int o
t he cylinder t o act uat e t he pist on. The lower
poppet (1) is seat ed, sealing off t he flow int o t he
r et ur n line (4). As t he for ce of t he pr essur ized fluid
ext ends t he pist on r od, it also compr esses t he
spr ing in t he cylinder .
View B shows t he valve wit h t he cont r ol
handle t ur ned t o t he opposit e posit ion. In t his
posit ion, t he upper poppet (2) is seat ed, blocking
t he flow of fluid fr om t he pr essur e line (3). The
lower poppet (1) is unseat ed by t he out side cam
(6). This r eleases t he pr essur e in t he cylinder and
allows t he spr ing t o expand, which for ces t he
pist on r od t o r et r act . The fluid fr om t he cylinder
flows t hr ough t he cont r ol valve and out t he r et ur n
Fi gu r e 6-28.—Th r ee-wa y, p op p et -t yp e d i r ect i on a l con t r ol
va lve (ca m-op er a t ed ).
6-19
por t (4). In hydr aulic syst ems, t he r et ur n por t is
connect ed by a line t o t he r eser voir . In pneumat ic
syst ems, t he r et ur n por t is usually open t o t he
at mospher e.
P i lot -Op er a t ed Th r ee-Wa y Va lves
A pilot -oper a t ed, poppet -t ype, t hr ee-wa y
dir ect ional cont r ol valve is shown in figur e 6-29.
Valves of t his design ar e oft en used in pneumat ic
syst ems. This valve is nor mally closed and is
for ced open by fluid pr essur e ent er ing t he
pilot chamber . The valve cont ains t wo poppet s
connect ed t o each ot her by a common st em. The
poppet s ar e connect ed t o diaphr agms which hold
t hem in a cent er ed posit ion.
The movement of t he poppet is cont r olled by
t he pr essur e in t he pilot por t and t he chamber
a bove t he upper dia phr a gm. When t he pilot
chamber is not pr essur ized, t he lower poppet is
seat ed against t he lower valve seat . Fluid can flow
fr om t he supply line t hr ough t he inlet por t and
t hr ough t he holes in t he lower diaphr agm t o fill
t he bot t om chamber . This pr essur e holds t he
lower poppet t ight ly against it s seat and blocks
flow fr om t he inlet por t t hr ough t he valve. At t he
same t ime, due t o t he common st em, t he upper
poppet is for ced off of it s seat . Fluid fr om t he
act uat ing unit flows t hr ough t he open passage,
ar ound t he st em, and t hr ough t he exhaust por t
t o t he at mospher e.
When t he pilot chamber is pr essur ized, t he
for ce act ing against t he diaphr agm for ces t he
poppet down. The upper poppet closes against it s
seat , blocking t he flow of fluid fr om t he cylinder
t o t he exhaust por t . The lower poppet opens, and
t he passage fr om t he supply inlet por t t o t he
cylinder por t is open so t hat t he fluid can flow
t o t he act uat ing unit .
The valve in figur e 6-29 is a nor mally closed
valve. Nor mally open valves ar e similar in design.
When no pr essur e is applied t o t he pilot chamber ,
t he upper poppet is for ced off of it s seat and t he
lower poppet is closed. Fluid is fr ee t o flow fr om
t he inlet por t t hr ough t he cylinder t o t he act uat ing
unit . When pilot pr essur e is applied, t he poppet s
ar e for ced downwar d, closing t he upper poppet
and opening t he lower poppet . Fluid can now flow
fr om t he cylinder t hr ough t he valve and out t he
exhaust por t t o t he at mospher e.
FOUR-WAY VALVES
Most act uat ing devices r equir e syst em pr essur e
for oper at ion in eit her dir ect ion. The four -way
dir ect ional cont r ol valve, which cont ains four
por t s, is used t o cont r ol t he oper at ion of such
devices. The four -way valve is also used in some
syst ems t o cont r ol t he oper at ion of ot her valves.
It is one of t he most widely used dir ect ional
cont r ol valves in fluid power syst ems.
The t ypical four -way dir ect ional cont r ol valve
has four por t s: a pr essur e por t , a r et ur n or exhaust
por t , and t wo cylinder or wor king por t s. The
pr essur e por t is connect ed t o t he main syst em
pr essur e line and t he r et ur n line is connect ed t o
t he r eser voir in hydr aulic syst ems. In pneumat ic
syst ems t he r et ur n por t is usually vent ed t o t he
at mospher e. The t wo cylinder por t s ar e connect ed
by lines t o t he act uat ing unit s.
P op p et -Typ e Fou r -Wa y Va lves
Figur e 6-30 shows at ypical four -way, poppet -
t ype dir ect ional cont r ol valve. This is a manually
oper a t ed va l ve a n d con s i s t s of a gr ou p of
convent ional spr ing-loaded poppet s. The poppet s
a r e enclosed in a common housing a nd a r e
int er connect ed by duct s t o dir ect t he flow of fluid
in t he desir ed dir ect ion.
Fi gu r e 6-29.—Th r ee-wa y, p op p et -t yp e, n or ma lly closed d i r ect i on a l con t r ol va lve (p i lot -op er a t ed ).
6-20
The poppet s a r e a ct ua t ed by ca ms on a
camshaft (fig. 6-30). The camshaft is cont r olled
by t he movement of t he handle. The valve may
be oper at ed by manually moving t he handle, or ,
in some cases, t he handle may be connect ed by
mechanical linkage t o a cont r ol handle which is
locat ed in a convenient place for t he oper at or
some dist ance fr om t he valve.
The camshaft may be r ot at ed t o any one
of t hr ee posit ions (neut r a l a nd t wo wor king
posit ions). In t he neut r al posit ion t he camshaft
lobes ar e not cont act ing any of t he poppet s. This
assur es t hat t he poppet spr ings will hold all four
poppet s fir mly seat ed. Wit h all poppet s seat ed,
t her e is no fluid flow t hr ough t he valve. This also
blocks t he t wo cylinder por t s; so when t he valve
is in neut r al, t he fluid in t he act uat ing unit is
t r a pped. Relief va lves a r e inst a lled in bot h
wor king lines t o pr event over pr essur izat ion caused
by t her mal expansion.
NOTE: In some ver sions of t his t ype of valve,
t he ca m lobes a r e designed so t ha t t he t wo
r et ur n/exhaust poppet s ar e open when t he valve
is in t he neut r al posit ion. This compensat es for
t her mal expansion, because bot h wor king lines ar e
open t o t he r et ur n/exhaust when t he valve is in
t he neut r al posit ion.
The poppet s ar e ar r anged so t hat r ot at ion of
t he camshaft will open t he pr oper combinat ion
of poppet s t o dir ect t he flow of fluid t hr ough t he
desir ed wor king line t o an act uat ing unit . At t he
sa me t ime, fluid will be dir ect ed fr om t he
act uat ing unit t hr ough t he opposit e wor king line,
t hr ough t he valve, and back t o t he r eser voir
(hydr a ulic) or exha ust ed t o t he a t mospher e
(pneumat ic).
To st op r ot at ion of t he camshaft at an exact
posit ion, a st op pin is secur ed t o t he body and
ext ends t hr ough a cut out sect ion of t he camshaft
flange. This st op pin pr event s over t r avel by
ensur ing t hat t he camshaft st ops r ot at ing at t he
point wher e t he ca m lobes ha ve moved t he
poppet s t he gr eat est dist ance fr om t heir seat s and
wher e a ny fur t her r ot a t ion would a llow t he
poppet s t o st ar t r et ur ning t o t heir seat s.
O-r ings ar e spaced at int er vals along t he lengt h
of t he shaft t o pr event ext er nal leakage ar ound
t he ends of t he shaft and int er nal leakage fr om
one of t he va lve cha mber s t o a not her . The
camshaft has t wo lobes, or r aised por t ions. The
shape of t hese lobes is such t hat when t he shaft
is placed in t he neut r al posit ion t he lobes will not
cont act any of t he poppet s.
When t he handle is moved in eit her dir ect ion
fr om neut r al, t he camshaft is r ot at ed. This r ot at es
Fi gu r e 6-30.—Cu t a wa y vi ew of p op p et -t yp e, fou r -wa y d i r ect i on a l con t r ol va lve.
6-21
t he lobes, which unseat one pr essur e poppet and
one r et ur n/exhaust poppet (fig. 6-31). The valve
is now in t he wor king posit ion. Fluid under
pr essur e, ent er ing t he pr essur e por t , flows t hr ough
t he ver t ical fluid passages in bot h pr essur e poppet s
seat s. Since only one pr essur e poppet , IN (2), is
unseat ed by t he cam lobe, t he fluid flows past t he
open poppet t o t he inside of t he poppet seat . Fr om
t her e it flows t hr ough t he diagonal passages, out
one cylinder por t , C2, and t o t he act uat ing unit .
Ret ur n fluid fr om t he act uat ing unit ent er s t he
ot her cylinder por t , C1. It t hen flows t hr ough t he
cor r esponding fluid passage, past t he unseat ed
r et ur n poppet , OUT (1), t hr ough t he ver t ical fluid
passages, and out t he r et ur n/exhaust por t . When
t he camshaft is r ot at ed in t he opposit e dir ect ion
t o t he neut r al posit ion, t he t wo poppet s seat and
t he flow st ops. When t he camshaft is fur t her
r ot at ed in t his dir ect ion unt il t he st op pins hit s,
t he opposit e pr essur e and r et ur n poppet s ar e
unseat ed. This r ever ses t he flow in t he wor king
lines, causing t he act uat ing unit t o move in t he
opposit e dir ect ion.
Rot a r y Sp ool Va lve
Four -way dir ect ional cont r ol valves of t his
t ype ar e fr equent ly used as pilot valves t o dir ect
flow t o and fr om ot her valves (fig. 6-32). Fluid
is dir ect ed fr om one sour ce of supply t hr ough t he
r ot ar y valve t o anot her dir ect ional cont r ol valve,
wher e it posit ions t he valve t o dir ect flow fr om
anot her sour ce t o one side of an act uat ing unit .
Fluid fr om t he ot her end of t he main valve flows
t hr ough a r et ur n line, t hr ough t he r ot ar y valve
t o t he r et ur n or exhaust por t .
The pr incipal par t s of a r ot ar y spool dir ec-
t ional cont r ol valve ar e shown in figur e 6-22.
Fi gu r e 6-31.—Wor k i n g vi ew of a p op p et -t yp e, fou r -wa y
d i r ect i on a l con t r ol va lve.
Fi gu r e 6-32.—Sli d i n g sp ool va lve con t r olled by a r ot a r y sp ool
va lve.
Figur e 6-33 shows t he oper at ion of a r ot ar y spool
valve. Views A and C show t he valve in a posit ion
t o deliver fluid t o anot her valve, while view B
shows t he valve in t he neut r al posit ion, wit h all
passages t hr ough t he valve blocked.
Rot ar y spool valves can be oper at ed manually,
elect r ically, or by fluid pr essur e.
Sli d i n g Sp ool Va lve
The sliding spool four -way dir ect ional cont r ol
valve is similar in oper at ion t o t he t wo-way
valve pr eviously descr ibed in t his chapt er . It is
simple in it s pr inciple of oper at ion and is t he
most dur able and t r ouble-fr ee of all four -way
dir ect ional cont r ol valves.
The valve descr ibed in t he following par a-
gr aphs is a manually oper at ed t ype. The same
pr inciple is used in many r emot ely cont r olled
dir ect ional cont r ol valves.
The valve (fig. 6-34) consist s of a valve body
con t a i n i n g fou r fl u i d por t s —pr es s u r e (P),
Fi gu r e 6-33.—Op er a t i on of a r ot a r y sp ool, fou r -wa y
d i r ect i on a l con t r ol va lve.
6-22
Fi gu r e 6-34.—Op er a t i on of a sli d i n g sp ool, fou r -wa y d i r ect i on a l con t r ol va lve.
6-23
r et ur n/exhaust (R), and t wo cylinder por t s (C/1
and C2). A hollow sleeve fit s int o t he main bor e
of t he body. Ther e ar e O-r ings placed at int er vals
ar ound t he out side diamet er of t he sleeve. These
O-r ings for m a seal bet ween t he sleeve and t he
body, cr eat ing chamber s ar ound t he sleeve. Each
of t he chamber s is lined up wit h one of t he fluid
por t s in t he body. The dr illed passage in t he body
account s for a fift h chamber which r esult s in
having t he t wo out boar d chamber s connect ed t o
t he r et ur n/exhaust por t . The sleeve has a pat t er n
of holes dr illed t hr ough it t o allow fluid t o flow
fr om one por t t o anot her . A ser ies of holes ar e
dr illed int o t he hollow cent er sleeve in each
chamber .
The sleeve is pr event ed fr om t ur ning by a
sleeve r et ainer bolt or pin which secur es it t o t he
valve body.
The sliding spool fit s int o t he hollow cent er
sleeve. This spool is similar t o t he spool in t he
t wo-way valve, except t hat t his spool has t hr ee
pist ons or la nds. These la nds a r e la pped or
machine fit t ed t o t he inside of t he sleeve.
One end of t he sliding spool is connect ed t o
a handle eit her dir ect ly or by mechanical linkage
t o a mor e desir able locat ion. When t he cont r ol
handle is moved, it will posit ion t he spool wit hin
t he sleeve. The lands of t he spool t hen line up
di ffer en t combi n a t i on s of fl u i d por t s t h u s
dir ect ing a flow of fluid t hr ough t he valve.
The det ent spr ing is a clot hespin-t ype spr ing,
secur ed t o t he end of t he body by a spr ing
r et aining bolt . The t wo legs of t he spr ing ext end
down t hr ough slot s in t he sleeve and fit int o t he
det ent s. The spool is gr ipped bet ween t he t wo legs
of t he spr ing. To move t he spool, enough for ce
must be applied t o spr ead t he t wo spr ing legs and
allow t hem t o snap back int o t he next det ent ,
which would be for anot her posit ion.
Figur e 6-34, view A, shows a ma nua lly
oper a t ed sliding spool va lve in t he neut r a l
posit ion. The det ent spr ing is in t he cent er det ent
of t he sliding spool. The cent er land is lined up
wit h t he pr essur e por t (P) pr event ing fluid fr om
flowing int o t he valve t hr ough t his por t . The
r et ur n/exhaust por t is also blocked, pr event ing
flow t hr ough t hat por t . Wit h bot h t he pr essur e
and r et ur n por t s blocked, fluid in t he act uat ing
lines is t r apped. For t his r eason, a r elief valve is
usually inst alled in each act uat ing line when t his
t ype of valve is used.
Figur e 6-34, view B, shows t he valve in t he
wor king posit ion wit h t he end of t he sliding spool
r et r act ed. The det ent spr ing is in t he out boar d
det ent , locking t he sliding spool in t his posit ion.
The lands have shift ed inside t he sleeve, and t he
por t s ar e opened. Fluid under pr essur e ent er s t he
sleeve, passes t hr ough it by way of t he dr illed
holes, and leaves t hr ough cylinder por t C2. Ret ur n
fluid, flowing fr om t he act uat or ent er s por t C1,
flows t hr ough t he sleeve, and is dir ect ed out t he
r et ur n por t back t o t he r eser voir or exhaust ed t o
t he at mospher e. Fluid cannot flow past t he spool
lands because of t he lapped sur faces.
Figur e 6-34, view C, shows t he valve in t he
opposit e wor king posit ion wit h t he sliding spool
ext ended. The det ent spr ing is in t he inboar d
det ent . The cent er land of t he sliding spool is now
on t he ot her side of t he pr essur e por t , and t he
fluid under pr essur e is dir ect ed t hr ough t he sleeve
and out por t C1. Ret ur n fluid flowing in t he ot her
cylinder por t is dir ect ed t o t he dr illed passage in
t he body. It flows along t his passage t o t he ot her
end of t he sleeve wher e it is dir ect ed out of t he
r et ur n/exhaust por t .
The dir ect iona l cont r ol va lves pr eviously
discussed ar e for use in closed-cent er fluid power
syst ems. Figur e 6-35 shows t he oper at ion of
Fi gu r e 6-35.—Op en cen t er , sli d i n g sp ool d i r ect i on a l con t r ol
va lve.
6-24
a r epr es en t a t i ve open -cen t er , s l i di n g s pool When t he spool is moved t o t he r ight of t he
dir ect ional cont r ol valve. neut r al posit ion, view B, one wor king line (C1)
is aligned t o syst em pr essur e and t he ot her
When t his t ype of valve is in t he neut r al wor king line (C2) is open t hr ough t he hollow
posit ion (fig. 6-35, view A), fluid flows int o t he spool t o t he r et ur n por t . View C shows t he flow
valve t hr ough t he pr essur e por t (P) t hr ough t he of fluid t hr ough t he valve wit h t he spool moved
hollow spool, and r et ur n t o t he r eser voir . t o t he left of neut r al.
6-25
CHAP TER 7
SEALING DEVICES AND MATERIALS
Recall fr om chapt er 1 t hat Pascal’s t heor em,
fr om which t he fundament al law for t he science
of hydr a ulics evolved, wa s pr oposed in t he
sevent eent h cent ur y. One st ipulat ion t o make t he
law effect ive for pr act ical applicat ions was a
pist on t hat would “fit ” t he opening in t he vessel
“exa ct l y. ” However , it was not unt il t he lat e
eight eent h cent ur y t hat J oseph Br ahmah invent ed
an effect ive pist on seal, t he cup packing. This led
t o Br ahmah's development of t he hydr aulic pr ess.
The packing was pr obably t he most impor t ant
invent ion in t he development of hydr aulics as a
lea ding met hod of t r a nsmit t ing power . The
development of machines t o cut and shape closely
fit t ed pa r t s wa s a lso ver y impor t a nt in t he
development of hydr aulics. However , r egar dless
of how pr ecise t he machining pr ocess is, some t ype
of packing is usually r equir ed t o make t he pist on,
and many ot her par t s of hydr aulic component s,
“fit exact ly.” This also applies t o t he component s
of pneumat ic syst ems.
Thr ough year s of r esear ch and exper iment s,
many differ ent mat er ials and designs have been
cr eat ed in at t empt s t o develop suit able packing
devices. Suit able mat er ials must be dur able, must
pr ovide effect ive sealing, and must be compat ible
wit h t he fluid used in t he syst em.
The packing mat er ials ar e commonly r efer r ed
t o as seals or sealing devices. The seals used in
fluid power syst ems and component s ar e divided
int o t wo gener al classes-st at ic seals and dynamic
sea ls.
The st at ic seal is usually r efer r ed t o as a gasket .
The funct ion of a gasket is t o pr ovide a mat er ial
t hat can flow int o t he sur face ir r egular it ies of
mat ing ar eas t hat r equir e sealing. To do t his, t he
gasket mat er ial must be under pr essur e. This
r equir es t ha t t he joint be t ight ly bolt ed or
ot her wise held t oget her .
The dynamic seal, commonly r efer r ed t o as
a packing, is used t o pr ovide a seal bet ween t wo
par t s t hat move in r elat ion t o each ot her .
These t wo classificat ions of seals—gasket s
a nd pa cking—a pply in most ca ses; however ,
deviat ions ar e found in some t echnical publi-
cat ions. Cer t ain t ypes of seals (for example, t he
O-r ing, which is discussed lat er ) may be used
eit her as a gasket or a packing.
Many of t he seals in fluid power syst ems
pr event ext er nal leakage. These seals ser ve t wo
pur poses—t o seal t he fluid in t he syst em and t o
keep for eign mat t er out of t he syst em. Ot her seals
simply pr event int er nal leakage wit hin a syst em.
NOTE: Alt hough leakage of any kind r esult s
in a loss of efficiency, some leakage, especially
int er nal leakage, is desir ed in hydr aulic syst ems
t o pr ovide lubr icat ion of moving par t s. This also
applies t o some pneumat ic syst ems in which dr ops
of oil ar e int r oduced int o t he flow of air in t he
syst em.
The fir st par t of t his chapt er deals pr imar ily
wit h t he differ ent t ypes of mat er ials used in t he
const r uct ion of seals. The next sect ion is devot ed
t o t he differ ent shapes and designs of seals and
t heir applicat ion as gasket s and/or packings in
fluid power syst ems. Also included in t his chapt er
ar e sect ions concer ning t he funct ions of wiper s
and backup washer s in fluid power syst ems and
t he select ion, st or age, and handling of sealing
devices.
SEAL MATERI ALS
As ment ioned pr eviously, ma ny differ ent
mat er ials have been used in t he development of
sealing devices. The mat er ial used for a par t icular
a pplica t ion depends on sever a l fa ct or s: fluid
compat ibilit y, r esist ance t o heat , pr essur e, wear
r esist ance, har dness, and t ype of mot ion.
The select ion of t he cor r ect packings and
gasket s and t heir pr oper inst allat ion ar e impor t ant
fact or s in maint aining an efficient fluid power
syst em. The t ypes of sea ls t o be used in a
par t icular piece of equipment is specified by t he
equipment manufact ur er .
7-1
Oft en t he select ion of seals is limit ed t o seals
cover ed by milit ar y specificat ions. However , t her e
ar e occasions when nonst andar d or pr opr iet ar y
seals r eflect ing t he advancing st at e of t he ar t may
be appr oved. Thus, it is impor t ant t o follow t he
manufact ur er ’s inst r uct ions when you r eplace
seals. If t he pr oper seal is not available, you
should give car eful consider at ion in t he select ion
of a suit able subst it ut e. Consult t he Naval S hips’
Technical Manual, milit ar y st andar ds, milit ar y
st andar dizat ion handbooks, and ot her applicable
t echnical manuals if you have any doubt s in
select ing t he pr oper seal.
Sea l s a r e ma de of ma t er i a l s t h a t h a ve
been ca r efully chosen or developed for spe-
ci fi c a ppl i ca t i on s . These ma t er ia ls include
t et r a fluor oet hylene (TFE), commonly ca lled
Teflon; synt het ic r ubber (ela st omer s); cor k;
leat her ; met al; and asbest os. Some of t he most
common mat er ials used t o make seals for fluid
power syst ems ar e discussed in t he following
par agr aphs.
CORK
Cor k has sever al of t he r equir ed pr oper t ies,
which makes it ideally suit ed as a sealing mat er ial
in cer t ain applicat ions. The compr essibilit y of
cor k seals makes t hem well suit ed for confined
applicat ions in which lit t le or no spr ead of t he
mat er ial is allowed. The compr essibilit y of cor k
also makes a good seal t hat can be cut t o any
desir ed t hickness and shape t o fit any sur face and
st ill pr ovide an excellent seal.
One of t he undesir able char act er ist ics of cor k
is it s t endency t o cr umble. If cor k is used as
packing or in ar eas wher e t her e is a high fluid
pr essur e and/or high flow velocit y, small par t icles
will be cast off int o t he syst em. Cor k use in fluid
power syst ems is t her efor e limit ed. It is somet imes
used as gasket mat er ials for inspect ion plat es of
hydr aulic r eser voir s.
Cor k is gener ally r ecommended for use wher e
sust ained t emper at ur es do not exceed 275
0
F.
CORK AND RUBBER
Cor k and r ubber seals ar e made by combining
synt het ic r ubber and cor k. This combinat ion has
t he pr oper t ies of bot h of t he t wo mat er ials.
This means t hat seals can be made wit h t he
compr essibilit y of cor k, but wit h a r esist ance t o
fluid compar able t o t he synt het ic r ubber on which
t hey ar e based. Cor k and r ubber composit ion is
somet imes used t o make gasket s for applicat ions
similar t o t hose descr ibed for cor k gasket s.
LEATHER
Leat her is a closely knit mat er ial t hat is
gener ally t ough, pliable, and r elat ively r esist ant
t o a br a sion, wea r , st r ess, a nd t he effect s of
t emper at ur e changes. Because it is por ous, it is
able t o absor b lubr icat ing fluids. This por osit y
makes it necessar y t o impr egnat e leat her for most
uses. In gener al, leat her must be t anned and
t r eat ed in or der t o make it useful as a gasket
ma t er i a l . Th e t a n n i n g pr oces s es a r e t h os e
nor mally used in t he leat her indust r y.
Leat her is gener ally r esist ant t o abr asion
r egar dless of whet her t he gr ain side or t he flesh
side is exposed t o abr asive act ion. Leat her r emains
flexible at low t emper at ur es and can be for ced
wit h compar at ive ease int o cont act wit h met al
fl a n ges . Wh en pr oper l y i mpr egn a t ed, i t i s
imper meable t o most liquids and some gases,
a nd ca pa ble of wit hst a nding t he effect s of
t emper at ur es r anging fr om –70
0
F t o +220
0
F.
Leat her has four basic limit at ions. Fir st , t he
size of t he t ypical hide limit s t he size of t he seals
t h a t ca n be ma de fr om l ea t h er . A s econ d
limit a t ion is t he number of sea ls t ha t a r e
accept able. Anot her limit at ion is t hat under heavy
mechanical pr essur es leat her t ends t o ext r ude.
Fi n a l l y, ma n y of t h e pr oper t i es (s u ch a s
imper mea bilit y, t ensile st r engt h, high- a nd
l ow-t emper a t u r e r es i s t a n ce, pl i a bi l i t y, a n d
compat ibilit y wit h envir onment ) depend upon t he
t ype of leat her and impr egnat ion. Leat her s not
t anned and impr egnat ed for specific condit ions
and pr oper t ies will become br it t le, dr y, and
complet ely degr eased by exposur e t o par t icular
chemicals. Leat her is never used wit h st eam
pr essur e of any t ype, nor wit h acid or alkali
solut ions.
Lea t her ma y be used a s pa cking. When
molded int o V’s and U’s, and cups, and ot her
shapes, it can be applied as dynamic packing,
while in it s flat for m it can be used as st r aight
compr ession packing.
METAL
One of t he most common met al seals used in
Navy equipment is copper . Flat copper r ings ar e
somet imes used as gasket s under adjust ing scr ews
t o pr ovide a fluid seal. Molded copper r ings ar e
somet imes used as packing wit h speed gear s
oper at ing under high pr essur es. Eit her t ype is
7-2
Fi gu r e 7-1.—Sp i r a l-wou n a met a lli c-a sbest os ga sk et .
easily bent and r equir es car eful handling. In
addit ion, copper becomes har d when used over
long per iods and when subject ed t o compr ession.
Whenever a unit or component is disassembled,
t he copper sealing r ings should be r eplaced.
However , if new r ings ar e not available and t he
par t must be r epair ed, t he old r ing should be
soft ened by annealing. (Annealing is t he pr ocess
of heat ing a met al, t hen cooling it , t o make it
mor e pliable and less br it t le.)
Met allic pist on r ings ar e used as packing in
some fluid power act uat ing cylinder s. These r ings
a r e simila r in design t o t he pist on r ings in
aut omobile engines.
Met al is also used wit h asbest os t o for m
spir al-wound met allic-asbest os gasket s (fig. 7-1).
These gasket s ar e composed of int er locked plies
of pr efor med cor r uga t ed met a l a nd a sbest os
st r ips, called a filler .
The filler may or may not be encased in a solid
met al out er r ing. These gasket s ar e used in flanged
connect ions and for connect ing t he body t o t he
bonnet in some valves, and ar e usually r equir ed
i n s peci fi c h i gh -pr es s u r e, h i gh -t emper a t u r e
applicat ions.
RUBBER
Th e t er m r u b b er
and synt het ic r ubber s,
cover s ma n y n a t u r a l
ea ch of which ca n be
compou n ded i n t o n u mer ou s va r i et i es . Th e
char act er ist ics of t hese var iet ies have a wide r ange,
as shown in t able 7-1. The t able shows, wit h t he
except ion of a few basic similar it ies, t hat r ubber s
have diver se pr oper t ies and limit at ions; t her efor e,
specific applicat ions r equir e car eful st udy befor e
t he sealing mat er ial is select ed.
Nat ur al r ubber s have many of t he char ac-
t er ist ics r equir ed in an effect ive seal. However ,
t heir ver y poor r esist ance t o pet r oleum fluids and
r apid aging when exposed t o oxygen or ozone limit
t heir use. Today t heir use has almost ceased.
Ther e ar e t wo gener al classes of synt het ic
r ubber seals. One class is made ent ir ely of a cer t ain
synt het ic r ubber . The t er m homogeneous, which
means having unifor m st r uct ur e or composit ion
t hr oughout , is fr equent ly used t o descr ibe t his
class of seal. The ot her class of seal is made by
impr egnat ing woven cot t on duck or fine-weave
asbest os wit h synt het ic r ubber . This class is
somet imes r efer r ed t o as fabr icat ed seals.
Addit ional infor mat ion on sealing mat er ials
is pr ovided in t he Milit ary Handbook , Gask et
Materials (Nonmetalic), MI L-HDBK-212; a nd
t he Naval S hips’ Technical Manual, chapt er 078.
TYP ES OF SEALS
Fluid power seals ar e usually t yped accor ding
t o t heir shape or design. These t ypes include
T-seals, V-r ings, O-r ings, U-cups and so on. Some
of t he most commonly used seals ar e discussed
in t he r emainder of t his chapt er .
T-SEALS
The T-seal has an elast omer ic bidir ect ional
sealing element r esembling an inver t ed let t er T.
This sealing element is always pair ed wit h t wo
special ext r usion-r esist ing backup r ings, one on
each side of t he T. The basic T-seal configur at ion
is shown in figur e 7-2, view A. The backup r ings
F i g u r e 7 - 2 . – T - s e a l s .
7-3
Ta ble 7-l.—Comp a r i son of P h ysi ca l P r op er t i es for Some Hyd r a u li c Flu i d Sea l Ma t er i a ls
Fi gu r e 7-3.—V-r i n gs.
7-4
ar e single t ur n, bias cut , and usually made of TFE,
molybdenum-disulfide-impr egnat ed nylon, or a
combinat ion of TFE and nylon. Nylon is widely
used for T-seal backup r ings because it pr ovides
excellent r esist ance t o ext r usion and has low
fr ict ion char act er ist ics.
The special T-r ing configur at ion adds st abilit y
t o t he seal, eliminat ing spir aling and r olling.
T-seals ar e used in applicat ions wher e lar ge
clear ances could occur as a r esult of t he expansion
of t he t hin-walled hydr aulic cylinder . The T-r ing
is inst alled under r adial compr ession and pr ovides
a posit ive seal at zer o or low pr essur e. Backup
r ings, one on each side, r ide fr ee of T-r ing flanges
and t he r od or cylinder wall (fig. 7-2, view B).
These clear ances keep seal fr ict ion t o a minimum
at low pr essur e. When pr essur e is applied (fig. 7-2,
view C), t he T-r ing act s t o pr ovide posit ive sealing
act ion as fluid pr essur e incr eases. One fr equent ly
used T-r ing, manufact ur ed by Gr eene, Tweed and
Company, (called a G-Tr ing
®1
), incor por at es a
unique, pat ent ed backup r ing feat ur e. One cor ner
on t he ID of each r adius-st yled backup r ing on
t he G-Tr ing
®
set has been r ounded t o mat e wit h
t he inside cor ner of t he r ubber T. Figur e 7-2, views
B and C, shows t he G-Tr ing
®
.
Ther e is no milit ar y st andar d par t number ing
syst em by which T-seals can be ident ified. In
gener al, each manufact ur er issues pr opr iet ar y par t
number s t o ident ify seals. However , it is common
pr act ice t o ident ify T-seal sizes by t he same
dash number s used for equivalent O-r ing sizes
(discussed lat er in t his chapt er ) as defined by
AS568 a n d MS28775 di men s i on s t a n da r ds .
Typically, an O-r ing gr oove t hat accept s a cer t ain
O-r ing dash number will accept t he same dash
number T-seal.
In t he absence of an exist ing milit ar y st andar d
for i den t i fyi n g T-s ea l s , a n ew a n d s i mpl e
1
G-Tr i n g
®
i s a Gr een e, Tweed Tr a d ema r k ,
number ing syst em was cr eat ed t o ident ify T-seals
r equir ed for hydr aulic act uat or s (pist on seals only)
wit hout r efer ence t o a par t icular manufact ur er ’s
par t number . The Navy number is composed of
t he let t er s G-T followed by a dash number of t hr ee
digit s and one let t er , R, S , or T (for exa mple,
G-T-217T). The t hr ee digit s ar e t he appr opr iat e
O-r ing size dash number accor ding t o AS568 or
MS28775. The let t er s R, S , and T designat e t he
number of backup r ings t hat t he gr oove of t he
T-seal is designed t o accommodat e: none, one,
or t wo, r espect ively.
V-RI NGS
The V-r ing is one of t he most fr equent ly used
dyna mic sea ls in ship ser vice a lt hough it s
ident ificat ion, inst allat ion, and per for mance ar e
pr obably most misunder st ood. Pr oper ly select ed
and inst alled, V-r ings can pr ovide excellent ser vice
life; ot her wise, pr oblems associat ed wit h fr ict ion,
r od and seal wear , noise, and leakage can be
expect ed.
The V-r ing is t he par t of t he packing set t hat
does t he sealing. It has a cr oss sect ion r esembling
t he let t er V, (fig. 7-3) fr om which it s name is
der ived. To achieve a seal, t he V-r ing must be
inst alled as par t of a packing set or st ack, which
includes one male adapt er , one female adapt er ,
and sever al V-r ings (fig. 7-4). The male adapt er
is t he fir st r ing on t he pr essur e end of t he packing
st ack and is flat on one side and wedge-shaped
on t he ot her t o cont ain t he V of t he adjacent
V-r ing. The female adapt er , t he last r ing of t he
Fi gu r e 7-4.—Ou t si d e p a ck ed V-r i n g i n st a lla t i on s.
7-5
packing st ack, is flat on one side and V-shaped
on t he ot her t o pr oper ly suppor t t he adjacent
V-r ing. Pr oper design and inst allat ion of t he
female adapt er has significant impact on t he
ser vice life a nd per for ma nce of t he V-r ings
because t he female adapt er br idges t he clear ance
gap bet ween t he moving sur faces and r esist s
ext r usion.
The packing set is inst alled in a cavit y t hat is
slight ly deeper t han t he fr ee st ack height (t he
nominal over all height of a V-r ing packing set ,
including t he ma le a nd fema le a da pt er s a s
measur ed befor e inst allat ion) and as wide as t he
nominal cr oss sect ion of t he V-r ings. This cavit y,
called a packing gland or st uffing box, cont ains
and suppor t s t he packing ar ound t he shaft , r od,
or pist on. Adjust ment of t he packing gland dept h
t hr ough t he use of shims or spacer s is usually
necessa r y t o obt a in t he cor r ect squeeze or
clear ance on t he packing st ack for good ser vice
life.
Two ba s i c i n s t a l l a t i on s a ppl y t o V-r i n g
packings. The mor e common is r efer r ed t o as an
out side packed inst allat ion, in which t he packing
seals against a shaft or r od, as shown in figur e
7-4. The inside packed inst allat ion, is shown as
a pist on seal in figur e 7-5. When V-r ing packing
is t o be used in an inside packed inst allat ion, only
endless r ing packing should be used. Wher e
pr essur es exist in bot h dir ect ions, a s on a
double-act ing pist on, opposing set s of packing
Fi gu r e 7-5.—I n si d e p a ck ed V-r i n g i n st a lla t i on .
should always be inst alled so t he sealing lips face
away fr om each ot her as in figur e 7-5. This
pr event s t r apping pr essur e bet ween t he set s of
packings. The female adapt er s in inside packed
inst allat ions should always be locat ed adjacent t o
a fixed or r igid par t of t he pist on.
O-RI NGS
An O-r ing is doughnut -shaped. O-r ings ar e
usually molded fr om r ubber compounds; how-
ever , t hey can be molded or machined fr om plast ic
mat er ials. The O-r ing is usually fit t ed int o a
r ect a ngula r gr oove (usua lly ca lled a gla nd)
machined int o t he mechanism t o be sealed. An
O-r ing sea l consist s of a n O-r ing mount ed
in t he gland so t hat t he O-r ing’s cr oss sect ion
is compr essed (squeezed) when t he gla nd is
assembled (fig. 7-6).
An O-r ing sealing syst em is oft en one of t he
fir st sealing syst ems consider ed when a fluid
closur e is designed beca use of t he following
advant ages of such a syst em:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Simplicit y
Ruggedness
Low cost
Ease of inst allat ion
Ease of maint enance
No adjust ment r equir ed
No cr it ical t or que in clamping
Fi gu r e 7-6.—O-r i n g i n st a lled i n a gla n d .
7-6
8.
9.
10.
11.
Low dist or t ion of st r uct ur e
Small space r equir ement
Reliabilit y
Effect iveness over wide pr essur e a nd
t emper at ur e r anges
As st at ed pr eviously, O-r ings ar e used in bot h
st at ic (as gasket s) and dynamic (as packing)
applicat ions. An O-r ing will almost always be t he
mos t s a t i s fa ct or y ch oi ce of s ea l s i n s t a t i c
applicat ions if t he fluids, t emper at ur es, pr essur e,
and geomet r y per mit .
St andar d O-r ing packings ar e not specifically
designed t o be used a s r ot a r y sea ls. When
infr equent r ot a r y mot ion or low per ipher a l
velocit y is involved st andar d O-r ing packings may
be used, pr ovided consist ent sur face finishes over
t he ent ir e gland ar e used and eccent r icit ies ar e
accur at ely cont r olled. O-r ings cannot compensat e
for out -of-r ound or eccent r ically r ot at ing shaft s.
As r ot ar y seals, O-r ings per for m sat isfact or ily
in t wo applicat ion ar eas:
1. In low-speed applicat ions wher e t he sur face
speed of t he shaft does not exceed 200 ft /min
2. In high-speed moder at e-pr essur e appli-
cat ions, bet ween 50 and 800 psi
The use of low-fr ict ion ext r usion-r esist ant
devices is helpful in pr olonging t he life and
impr oving t he per for mance of O-r ings used as
r ot ar y seals.
O-r ings ar e oft en used as r ecipr ocat ing seals
in hydr aulic and pneumat ic syst ems. While best
suit ed for shor t -st r oke, r elat ively small diamet er
applicat ions, O-r ings have been used successfully
in long-st r oke, la r ge dia met er a pplica t ions.
Glands for O-r ings used as r ecipr ocat ing seals ar e
usually designed accor ding t o MIL-G-5514 t o
pr ovide a squeeze t hat var ies fr om 8 t o 10 per cent
minimum and 13.5 t o 16 per cent maximum. A
squeeze of 20 per cent is allowed on O-r ings wit h
a cr oss sect ion of 0.070-inch or less. In some
r ecipr ocat ing pneumat ic applicat ions, a float ing
O-r ing design may simult aneously r educe fr ict ion
and wear by maint aining no squeeze by t he gland
on t he O-r ing. When air pr essur e ent er s t he
cylinder , t he air pr essur e flat t ens t he O-r ing,
causing sufficient squeeze t o seal dur ing t he
st r oke. If t he r et ur n st r oke does not use pneumat ic
power , t he O-r ing r et ur ns t o it s r ound cr oss
sect ion, minimizing dr ag and wear on t he r et ur n
st r oke.
I d en t i fi ca t i on
As a ma i n t en a n ce per s on or s u per vi s or
wor king wit h fluid power syst ems, you must be
able t o posit ively ident ify, inspect , and inst all t he
cor r ect size and t ype of O-r ing t o ensur e t he best
possible ser vice. These t asks can be difficult since
par t number s cannot be put dir ect ly on t he seals
and because of t he cont inual int r oduct ion of new
t ypes of seals and obsolescence of ot her s. (Naval
S hips’ Technical Manual, chapt er 078, cont ains
a t able t hat cr oss-r efer ences obsolet e and cur r ent
O-r ing specificat ions for ship applicat ions.)
O-r ings ar e packaged in individually sealed
envelopes. O-r ing seals manufact ur ed t o gover n-
ment specificat ions ar e mar ked accor ding t o t he
r equir ement s of t he specific milit ar y specificat ion
and st andar d. The r equir ed mar king for each
package is as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Nat ional st ock number (NSN)
Nomenclat ur e
Milit ar y par t number
Mat er ial specificat ion
Manufact ur er ’s
Manufact ur er ’s
Ma nufa ct ur er ’s
name
compound number
bat ch number
Cont r act number
Cur e dat e
NOTE: Keep pr efor med packings in t heir
or iginal envelopes, which pr ovide pr eser vat ion,
pr ot ect ion, ident ificat ion, and cur e dat e.
When you select an O-r ing for inst allat ion,
car efully obser ve t he infor mat ion on t he package.
I f you ca nnot posit ively ident ify a n O-r ing,
disca r d it . The pa r t number on t he sea led
package pr ovides t he most r eliable and complet e
ident ificat ion.
7-7
Si zes
A st a nda r dized da sh number syst em for
O-r ing sizes is used in many milit ar y and indust r ial
specificat ions. The O-r ing size is ident ified by a
dash number r at her t han t he act ual dimensions
for convenience. The basis for t he dash number s
is cont ained in Aer ospace St andar d AS568. For
nongasket O-r ings (packing), t he dash number s
ar e divided int o gr oups of one hundr ed. Each
hundr ed gr oup ident ifies t he cr oss sect ion size of
t he O-r ings wit hin t he gr oup (t able 7-2).
The 900 ser ies dash number s cont ained in
AS568 ident ify all t he pr esent ly st andar dized
st r aight t hr ead t ube fit t ing boss gasket s. Wit h t he
except ion of -901, t he last t wo digit s of t he dash
designat e t he t ube size in 16t hs of an inch. For
example, t he -904 size is for a 1/4-inch t ube.
Di men si on s
The cr it ical dimensions of an O-r ing ar e it s ID,
it s cr oss sect ional diamet er (W), and t he height
and widt h of t he r esidual molding flash (see
fig. 7-7).
Nomi n a l di men s i on s h a ve been u s ed t o
descr ibe O-r ing sizes, alt hough t his pr act ice is
r apidly being r eplaced by t he use of dash number s.
The act ual inside diamet er of a seal will be slight ly
less t han t he nominal ID, but t he act ual OD will
Ta ble 7-2.—O-Ri n g Da sh Nu mber s Ver su s Cr oss Sect i on
Si zes
be slight ly lar ger t han t he nominal OD. For
example, an AS568-429 O-r ing is descr ibed in
nominal dimensions as 5 inches ID by 5-1/2 inches
OD by 1/4-inch W. Act ual dimensions ar e 4.975
inches ID by 5.525 inches OD by 0.275 inches W.
Sp eci fi ca t i on s
Ma t er ia l a nd per for ma nce r equir ement s
for O-r ings a r e oft en ident ified in milit a r y
specificat ions. The dimensions of t hese O-r ings
will usually be found in accompanying slash sheet s
(which bear t he specificat ion number and ar e a
par t of t he specificat ion) or will be ident ified by
var ious dr awings and st andar ds t hat r elat e t o t he
specificat ion. Included among t he specificat ions
a r e Ai r For ce-Na vy St a n da r ds (AN), Mi l i -
t ar y St andar ds (MS), and Nat ional Aer ospace
St andar ds (NAS). If t he specificat ion does not
ident ify sizes, t he sizes should be ident ified by t he
AS568 da sh number . Usua lly, you ca n use
dr awings, t echnical manuals, and allowance par t s
list s (APLs) t o ident ify r eplacement O-r ings.
(Not es 2 and 3 of t able 7-1 list some of t he
fr equent ly used milit ar y specificat ions).
Cu r e Da t e
A cur e dat e is as applicable t o nat ur al or
synt het ic O-r ings as it is t o r ubber hoses. This dat e
is t he basis for det er mining t he age of O-r ings.
It is ext r emely impor t ant t hat t he cur e dat e be
not ed on all packages.
Sh elf Li fe a n d Exp i r a t i on Da t e
All elast omer s change gr adually wit h age;
some cha nge mor e r a pidly t ha n ot her s. The
shelf life for r ubber pr oduct s is cont ained in
MIL-HDBK-695.
Check t he age of nat ur al or synt het ic r ubber
pr efor med pa cki n gs befor e i n s t a l l a t i on t o
det er mine whet her t hey ar e accept able for use.
Make a posit ive ident ificat ion, indicat ing t he
sour ce, cur e dat e, and expir at ion dat e. Ensur e t hat
t his infor mat ion is available for all packing used.
Shelf life r equir ement s do not apply once t he
packing is inst alled in a component .
The expir at ion dat e is t he dat e aft er which
packing should not be inst alled. The expir at ion
dat e of all packings can be det er mined by adding
t he shelf life t o t he cur e dat e.
7-8
Rep la cemen t
Figur e 7-8 shows a t ypical O-r ing inst allat ion.
When such an inst allat ion shows signs of int er nal
or ext er na l lea ka ge, t he component must be
disassembled and t he seals r eplaced. Somet imes
component s must be r esealed because of t he age
limit at ions of t he seals. The O-r ing should also
be r eplaced whenever a gland t hat has been in
ser vice is disassembled and r eassembled.
Oft en a poor O-r ing inst allat ion begins when
an old seal is r emoved. O-r ing r emoval involves
wor king wit h par t s t hat have cr it ical sur face
finishes. If har dened-st eel, point ed, or shar p-
edged t ools ar e used for r emoval of O-r ings or
backup r ings, scr at ches, abr asions, dent s, and
ot her defor mit ies on cr it ical sealing sur faces can
r esult in seal failur e which, in t ur n, can r esult in
Fi gu r e 7-7.—Cr i t i ca l d i men si on s of a n O-r i n g.
might scr at ch or mar component sur faces or
da ma ge t he O-r ing. An O-r i n g t ool ki t i s
available in t he supply syst em for O-r ing in-
st allat ion or r emoval. If t hese t ools ar e not on
hand, special t ools can be made for t his pur pose.
A few examples of t ools used in t he r emoval
and inst allat ion of O-r ings ar e illust r at ed in
funct ional failur e of
Wh en r emovin g
n ot use point ed or
t he equipment .
or inst a lling O-r ings, do
shar p-edged t ools which
Fi gu r e 7-8.–Typ i ca l O-r i n g i n st a la t i on .
7-9
figur e 7-9. These t ools should be fabr icat ed fr om
soft met al such as br ass or aluminum; however ,
t ools made fr om phenolic r od, wood, or plast ic
may also be used.
Tool sur faces must be well r ounded, polished,
and fr ee of bur r s. Check t he t ools oft en, especially
t he sur faces t hat come in cont act wit h O-r ing
gr ooves and cr it ical polished sur faces.
Not i ce i n fi gu r e 7-9, vi ew A, h ow t h e
hook-t ype r emoval t ool is posit ioned under t he
O-r ing and t hen lift ed t o allow t he ext r act or t ool,
as well as t he r emoval t ool, t o pull t he O-r ing fr om
it s cavit y. View B shows t he use of anot her t ype
of ext r act or t ool in t he r emoval of int er nally
inst alled O-r ings.
In view C, not ice t he ext r act or t ool posit ioned
under bot h O-r ings at t he same t ime. This met hod
of manipulat ing t he t ool posit ions bot h O-r ings,
which a llows t he hook-t ype r emova l t ool t o
ext r act bot h O-r ings wit h minimum effor t . View
D shows pr act ically t he same r emoval as view C,
except for t he use of a differ ent t ype of ext r act or
t ool.
The r emoval of ext er nal O-r ings is less difficult
t han t he r emoval of int er nally inst alled O-r ings.
Views E and F show t he use of a spoon-t ype
ext r act or , which is posit ioned under t he seal. Aft er
t he O-r ing is dislodged fr om it s ca vit y, t he
spoon is held st at ionar y while t he pist on is
simult aneously r ot at ed and wit hdr awn. View F
is similar t o view E, except t hat only one O-r ing
is inst alled, and a differ ent t ype of ext r act or t ool
is used. The wedge-t ype ext r act or t ool is inser t ed
beneat h t he O-r ing; t he hook-t ype r emoval t ool
hooks t he O-r ing. A slight pull on t he lat t er t ool
r emoves t he O-r ing fr om it s cavit y.
Aft er r emoving all O-r ings, cleaning of t he
affect ed par t s t hat will r eceive new O-r ings is
Fi gu r e 7-9.—O-r i n g t ools a n d O-r i n g r emova l.
7-10
mandat or y. Ensur e t hat t he ar ea used for such
i n s t a l l a t i on s i s cl ea n a n d fr ee fr om a l l
cont aminat ion.
Remove each O-r ing t hat is t o be inst alled
fr om it s sealed package and inspect it for defect s
such as blemishes, abr asions, cut s, or punct ur es.
Alt hough an O-r ing may appear per fect at fir st
glance, slight sur face flaws may exist . These ar e
oft en capable of pr event ing sat isfact or y O-r ing
per for mance. O-r ings should be r eject ed for flaws
t hat will affect t heir per for mance.
By r olling t he r ing on an inspect ion cone or
dowel, t he inner diamet er sur face can be checked
for small cr acks, par t icles of for eign mat er ial, and
ot her ir r egular it ies t hat will cause leakage or
shor t en it s life. The slight st r et ching of t he r ing
when it is r olled inside out will help t o r eveal some
defect s not ot her wise visible. A fur t her check of
each O-r ing should be made by st r et ching it
bet ween t he finger s, but car e must be t aken not t o
exceed t he elast ic limit s of t he r ubber . Following
t hese inspect ion pr act ices will pr ove t o be a
maint enance economy. It is far mor e desir able t o
t ake car e ident ifying and inspect ing O-r ings t han t o
r epeat edly over haul component s wit h fault y seals.
Aft er inspect ion and pr ior t o inst allat ion,
lubr icat e t he O-r ing, and all t he sur faces t hat it
must slide over wit h a light coat of t he syst em fluid
or a lubr icant appr oved for use in t he syst em.
Consult t he applicable t echnical inst r uct ion or
Naval S hips’ Technical Manual for t he cor r ect
lubr icant for pneumat ic syst ems.
Assembly must be made wit h car e so t hat t he
O-r ing is pr oper ly placed in t he gr oove and not
damaged as t he gland is closed. Dur ing some
inst allat ions, such as on a pist on, it will be
necessar y t o st r et ch t he O-r ing. St r et ch t he O-r ing
as lit t le and as unifor mly as possible. Avoid r olling
or t wist ing t he O-r ing when maneuver ing it int o
place. Keep t he posit ion of t he O-r ing mold line
const ant . O-r ings should not be left in a t wist ed
condit ion aft er inst allat ion.
If t he O-r ing inst allat ion r equir es spanning or
inser t ing t hr ough shar p-t hr eaded ar eas, r idges,
slot s, and edges, use pr ot ect ive measur es, such as
t he O-r ing ent er ing sleeve (fig. 7-10, view A). If
Fi gu r e 7-10.–O-r i n g i n st a lla t i on .
7-11
t he r ecommended O-r ing ent er ing sleeve (a soft ,
t hin wall, met allic sleeve) is not available, paper
sleeves and cover s may be fabr icat ed by using t he
seal package (glossy side out ) or lint -fr ee bond
paper (see views B and C of fig. 7-10).
Aft er you pla ce t he O-r ing in t he ca vit y
pr ovided, gent ly r oll t he O-r ing wit h your finger s
t o r emove any t wist t hat might have occur r ed
dur ing t he inst allat ion. Aft er inst allat ion, an
O-r ing should seat snugly but fr eely in it s gr oove.
If backup r ings ar e inst alled in t he gr oove, be
cer t ain t he backup r ings ar e inst alled on t he
cor r ect side of t he r ing.
BACKUP RI NGS
Backup r ings, also r efer r ed t o as r et ainer r ings,
ant iext r usion devices, and nonext r usion r ings, ar e
washer -like devices t hat ar e inst alled on t he
low-pr essur e side of packing t o pr event ext r usion
of t he packing mat er ial. Backup r ings in dynamic
seals minimize er osion of t he packing mat er ials
and subsequent failur e of t he seal. At lower
pr essur es, backup r ings will pr olong t he nor mal
wear life of t he packing. At higher pr essur es,
backup r ings per mit gr eat er clear ances bet ween
t he moving par t s. Nor mally, backup r ings ar e
r equir ed for oper at ing pr essur es over 1500 psi.
Ba ckup r ings ca n be ma de of polyt et r a -
fluor oet hylene, har d r ubber , leat her , and ot her
mat er ials. The most common mat er ial cur r ent ly
used is t et r afluor oet hylene (TFE). Backup r ings
ar e available as single-t ur n cont inuous (uncut or
solid), single-t ur n (bias) cut , and spir al cut . See
figur e 7-11. Leat her r ings ar e always fur nished in
solid r ing for m (unsplit ). Rings of TFE a r e
available in all t hr ee t ypes.
P a ck a gi n g a n d St or i n g
Backup r ings ar e not color -coded or ot her wise
mar ked and must be ident ified fr om t he packaging
labels. The dash number following t he milit ar y
st andar d number found on t he package indicat es
t he size, and usually r elat es dir ect ly t o t he dash
number of t he O-r ings for which t he backup r ing
is