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The Renaissance & the Scientific Age
Is change good?
Europe in the Middle Ages
Rise of Feudalism
Protection needed from invaders Powerful rulers gave way to local kings
Kings hired knights for protection in exchange for land Peasants farmed land, paid taxes in exchange for protection (serfdom) Rise of Nobility (land-owners)
Magna Carta: limited power of King
Influence of Catholic Church
Pope becomes head of Christian power
Schism: Questioned authority of Pope
Became involved in political matters Catholic Church = complete authority
Christians vs. Muslims over Holy Land
Black Death wipes out 1/3 of pop. Sig?
Time for a Change
What was the Renaissance?
Literally, it means rebirth A dramatic shift in the way that many viewed the world around them and their place within it.
Secular: worldly? In other words Search for new explanations, new definitions of truth & beauty Begins in Italian city-states, spreads widely through Western Europe
Results in Western Europe becoming dominant philosophical, political force
What caused the Renaissance?
The Black Death
Fall of feudalism, question of authority Search for new sources of truth
Trade & Wealth
Rise of merchant class
Democratization of information (?)
New Ways of Thinking
Intellectual movement of the Renaissance, focused on study of classic Greek & Roman writings.
Petrarch: Father of Humanism Goal: To advance mankind through a greater understanding of the human condition
Challenged accepted ideas of time regarding education (Catholic Church)
Individuality and Free Will
New emphasis placed individual ability
Well-rounded citizens (education) Connection to wealth of merchants?
Expanding notion of free will
ability of individuals to choose Religious, political implications?
What is status of art in today¶s society? What about the status of the artist?
An Artistic Rebirth
Sought to imitate nature in their work
Human body: central focus of beauty
New artistic techniques
Fresco: painting on fresh plaster with water-based paint Perspective: provides depth, realism
Strived to depict ideal human beauty
Perfection of nature and the individual Religious characters popular subjects
Value of Art & Artist
Wealth of Church, Merchant Class
Commissioned artists to decorate
Artist became synonymous with genius Masters of the High Renaissance
Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael
Do people cause changes to their conditions or do conditions cause people to change?
The Reformation, Part I
Corruption of Catholic Church
Clergy focused on non-spiritual duties Salvation through indulgences
Forgiveness for some or all of sin Selling indulgences = buying salvation
Luther & his Ninety-Five Theses
Disgusted German monk & professor
Stunning attack on church practices Excommunicated, 1521
Rise of Lutheranism (Protestantism)
Simplification of Christian worship
Salvation possible through faith alone Individual relationship with God?
Why did so many follow Luther?
Gave the poor hope, dignity, meaning to life The rich & powerful could gain more power Impact of the Guttenberg printing press
³If we punish thieves with the gallows, robbers with the sword, and heretics with fire, why do we not all the more fling ourselves with all our weapons upon these masters of perdition, these cardinals, these popes, and all this stink of [Catholic] sodomy that ceaselessly corrupts the church of God and wash our hands in their blood so that we may free ourselves and all who belong to us from this most dangerous fire?´
~ Martin Luther, 1521
The Reformation, Part II
The Wars of Religion
Protestant German Princes vs. Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Princes could choose their religion
John Calvin and the Calvinists
Reformed church of Geneva in 1520s Based on a literal reading of scriptures
Predeterminism: God s mind made up
Henry VIII of England
Wanted an annulment of his marriage
Had mistress, no male heir to throne
Church of England became Protestant
Five more marriages, zero sons
The Catholic Reformation (1545)
Reform effort within Catholic Church
Reformation Role-Play 1. Read the excerpt related to your topic in section 12-3 or 12-4. 2. Write a 1-2 minute scene that portrays the main ideas of your particular topic. * What are the significant people, places, events, ideas, etc. of your topic? * How might you be able to explain this info in a fun and entertaining way? 3. Perform this scene for the rest of the class. * Each group member must have at least one line of dialogue.
How do we know something to be true? What separates the truth from fiction, opinion, or speculation?
The Scientific Age
Traditional Sources of Knowledge
The Bible, The works of Aristotle During the Renaissance
New problems called for new solutions accurate measurements & calculations needed for business Humanists master Latin, discover new theories like
The Ptolemaic System
Ptolemy: Greek astronomer, c. 200AD
Calculated past, present pos. of planets
Geocentric model of the Universe
Centered on stationary Earth Larger & larger revolving spheres » Solid & transparent, with heavenly bodies embedded within Outer sphere: Prime Mover (Heaven) Supported by Catholic Church
The Scientific Age
Challenges to Traditional Thought
Nicholas Copernicus (Polish)
Church administrator, astronomer Said Ptolemaic system too complicated Heliocentric System (1543)
Sun in the center of universe, planets orbit the sun, moon orbits the Earth Earth rotates on axis
Not published until Copernicus was on his deathbed (why?)
Johannes Kelper (German)
Math that proved planetary motion
Galileo Galilei (Italian)
First to use telescope for astronomy The Starry Messenger (1610)
Heavenly bodies made of matter Spread heliocentric idea to the masses
Catholic Church puts Galileo on Trial
The Scientific Age
Dawn of Modern Science
Isaac Newton (English)
Tied together theories of Copernicus, Kepler, & Galileo in his Principia (1687):
Universal law of gravitation (gravity) used math to explain forces of nature World-Machine concept dominant view until Einstein s relativity
The Scientific Method
Systematic procedure for collecting & analyzing evidence
Developed by Sir Francis Bacon Relies on scientific observations of carefully organized experiments Instead of ideas of ancient authorities
Freedom of Inquiry
Are we free to discover new truths? » Limited by authorities? » Any room for morality in science?
CONTEMPORARY CONNECTION: The Teaching of Evolution, Creationism, & Intelligent Design in Public Schools