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Scene Reconstruction 2 Crime Scene Reconstruction and Analysis Why do we have crime scene reconstruction and analysis? How did criminology originate and develop into the science it has now become? Most important is; who or what will speak for the silenced victim of a brutal homicide? The victim has been silenced and all that remains is their lifeless body. No other humans witnessed this barbarous event except the victim now deceased and;the perpetrator or UNSUB as BAU calls them. Were any indicatorsor evidence left that will lead to the capture and prosecution of the suspect? What can now be done for the victim other than burial? And; how does one go about finding out what exactly happened? By utilizing something called crime scene reconstruction!
Whatis by definition crime scene reconstruction and analysis? “The use of scientific methods, physical evidence, deductive and inductive reasoning, and their interrelationships to gain explicit knowledge of the series of events that surround the commission of a crime.” - Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction. (http://www.acsr.org/
) Crime scene reconstruction is more comprehensiveand focused on final problem resolutions than criminal investigative analysis. A foremost forensic analyst and crime scene investigator hasthis to say about
reconstruction. “Reconstruction is different from re-enactment, re-creation, and criminal profiling.” (Lee, et. al., 2001: 272) When should reconstruction be undertaken? “Crime-scene reconstruction is of value when reconstruction is started at the scene during the initial phases of the investigation, during the investigation, and during the adjudication process. The reconstruction analyst may determine, while the interviews are being conducted, if the stories being told by the victims, witnesses, and/or suspects are true. By knowing the events as reconstructed, the detectives conducting the interviews may be able to detect deception or Crime Scene Reconstruction 3 inconsistencies. The use of this knowledge can be a powerful tool in the hands of an experienced investigator.” (Turvey 1999: 78-9) Who set the standards and who were the forerunners of this process that is used to make accurate and determinate analysis? Who provided the pattern observed by the investigators at the scene of today’s homicide setting? The progressive investigative pattern can be seen in procedural steps to be followed at every crime scene. At the crime scene the following steps are followed for each item of evidence: “Recognition, Preservation, Documentation, Collection, Transportation, Identification/classification, Comparison, Individuation, and Interpretation/reconstruction. Traditionally, the specific duties are broken down as follows: Detective/investigator/forensic technician 1. Recognition 2. Preservation Forensic technician (aka crime scene technician) 3. Documentation 4. Collection 5. Transportation Forensic scientist/criminalist 6. Identification/classification
How this is executed is summed up in the last sentence. etc. And then they should proceed through the crime scene paying particular attention to every bit of relevant evidence at that particular crime scene. forensic job titles abound. forensic technician. laboratory specialist. with more than one to describe the same set of duties—crime scene investigator. The crime scene should be viewed as a puzzle with each piece of evidence forming a small but integral part of the overall composite. training. forensic specialist. education. evidence technician.7. As a result. a mosaic if you will. The crime scene investigator must start with an overall evaluation of the crime scene in question by pausing at the determined point of entry and then scanning the entire crime scene to form an overall picture (crime scene composite) in their mind. training. But. Comparison 8. i. forensic investigator. It is the work that defines the professional. This will provide a mental composite to compare the final processed results against. Interpretation/reconstruction The problem is that these forensic titles and roles are often mixed. or outright confused. Individuation 9. and the quality of work. misunderstood. forensic analyst. What is important to remember about titles is that they are administrative and not necessarily suggestive of a particular background. criminalist. sometimes over many generations of professionals in a given system. forensic scientist. laboratory technician.e. or Crime Scene Reconstruction 4 expertise. are we getting a little ahead of ourselves here? . education. and the quality of work products that define expertise. crime scene technician. experience. training. experience. (Chisum & Turvey 2007: xvi) The aforementioned proceedings and responsibilities clearly define necessary specifics for crime scene investigation. It is education.
Hans Gross and he became known as the father of criminalistics from his seminal work. The idea amused me. The first mention of criminalistics came from Dr. of his eagle face. of his curious ways. and a systematic approach to holistic crime reconstruction against uninformed experience and overspecialization. he could read his patients and students like a book. Police Officers. Specifically. and Lawyers (Gross. Dr. It was a watershed event in which Gross proclaimed the virtues of science against intuition.” (Chisum & Turvey 2007: 5) This is the same Doyle that gave life to Sherlock Holmes via his novels depicting the ever observant detective. Paying attention to every detail no matter what. Joseph E. I would try [to see] if I could get this effect. His influence was noted and extended through one of his students Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Doyle wrote of his teacher and mentor Dr. Bell: “I thought of my teacher Joe Bell. of his eerie trick of spotting details. Bell (18371911) impressed upon his students the necessity of astute observation and inference. It was surely possible in real life. If he were a detective he would surely reduce the fascinating unorganized business [of detective work] to something nearer an exact science. always careful to note his surroundings. “(Ibid: 17) .The history of crime reconstruction can teach us many things. 1906)]. Gross wrote on the importance of objectivity and theory falsification when seeking to reconstruct events. “Handbuch fur Unterschunsrichter als System der Kriminalistik [Criminal Investigation. and. so why should I not make it plausible in fiction? It is all very well to say that a man is clever. A Practical Textbook for Magistrates. but the reader Crime Scene Reconstruction 5 wants to see examples of this—such examples as Bell gave us every day in the wards.
1934. Confusion in the forensic science community and among students has resulted. It has been misstated. Translation: Searching for traces is not. Crime Scene Reconstruction 6 Le principe est celui-ci.Locard’s Exchange Principle. the violent action constituting a crime. and sometimes stains. C’est une occupation probablement aussi vieille que I‘humanité. This principle amplifies one of the most salient points in criminology. tantôt de simples traces. and that is “every contact leaves a trace. in the original French. and misattributed over the years by those lecturing and writing authoritatively on the subject. an innovation of modern criminal jurists. Locard is most famous for the forensic axiom that bears his name: Locard’s Exchange Principle.Whereas Dr. sometimes simple traces. “However. It should be specifically noted and categorized in the memory of any and all investigative criminalists. Toute action de l’homme. une innovation des criminalistes modernes. tantôt des taches. . 7—8): A recherche des traces n’est pas. A reference from Locard found in La Police et Les Méthodes Scientifiques. Misrepresented. l’action violente qu’est un crime. L’admirable est Ia variété de ces marques. Tantôt cc seront des empreintes. Sometimes they will be prints. What is admirable is the variety of these marks. may be of use to understand what he actually meant (Locard. ne peut pas se dérouler sans laisser quelque marque. as much as one could believe it.” I include relevance as to origin and translation of Locard’s seminal hypothesis. and obviously. Any action of an individual. cannot occur without leaving a mark. It is an occupation probably as old as humanity. the first crime laboratory was established by Edmond Locard. pp. The principle is this one. et afortiori.’s Bell and Gross were definite forerunners in criminalistics. autant qu’on pourrait le croire.
y sobre todo actuar con la intensidad que supone 1a acción criminal. “Precisely what happened? Precisely when did it happen? Precisely where did it happen? Why did it happen? Who did it?” “It’s all like a mosaic. What questions should be asked of and at any crime scene? Where do we find the precedent and progenitor of this inquiry? The man responsible for asking the right questions concerning crime analysis was. 107): AJ maihechor le es imposible actuar. There is a caveat to . In that way.In 1935. “Crime analysis is an orderly procedure. p. sin dejars indicios de su paso. and every Crime Scene Reconstruction 7 fact must be evaluated before it can be fitted into the pattern. and mainly to act with the intensity that supposes criminal action.” (Ibid: 23-24) Can we understand the significance of Locard’s Principle? There is always something left behind regardless of its minutiaeand it is up to the criminalists to find it! The victim can no longer speak about what happened to them. every fact as it is developed and equated becomes a clue. the evidence (especially trace evidence) can reveal volumes about what really happened. but. Edward Oscar Heinrich (1881-1953).” he usually said.” (Ibid: 27) And how did it happen was added to the five questions investigators ask of their crime scenes. without leaving indications of his step. it is impossible for him to act. Translation: To the criminal. It’s precise and it follows always the same questions. There are multiple individuals that set the standards for modern crime scene technological processing and evaluation. a Spanish translation of this same general principle was provided in Locard (1935. “Understand this first. Each one built upon another’s work until we have an extensive and comprehensive data base of knowledge and applications.
appearances and perception are every bit as important as knowledge. The criminal element (including their lawyers) is determined to get away with murder. skills. Appearance and perception as well as the ability to communicate effectively to a jury are equally important. as well!” To put it another way. I once attended a class at the FBI Academy and still remember the instructor’s advice: “It’s not only important to be sharp. you have to look sharp. His own words concerning its use: “During the 0. The two victims could not speak. If the Simpson crime scene would have been properly processed by competent criminalists. and ability. at least in the eyes of the jury and the public. but. Simpson trial. In a way I was flattered to have become a footnote in the “trial of the century:” however. the evidence . the case and jury decision would certainly be different than it was. I learned a lesson from this case — there is much more to crime scene investigation than simply proper police investigative techniques and forensic scientific and technical skill. friends and colleagues from around the United States and beyond called to tell me that the fifth edition of this textbook was being used by the defense team to raise questions about the crime scene procedures used by the police. Barry A.” (Fisher 2000: Prologue) It is important to see the ingenuity of the criminal element (and their lawyers) capitalizing on the genius of forensic scientists by using their own work to challenge the Crime Scene Reconstruction 8 evidence against them or their client (s) if they represent the suspect. Fisher was used to discredit the prosecution.their work however as was found in the “trial of the century” wherein the excellent works of LA’s Scientific Services Bureau Director. J.J. I was also concerned that some of the statements made in this text were misconstrued and taken out of context.
Kirk we can determine the following.this is of Crime Scene Reconstruction 9 paramount importance! Each piece of evidence speaks. Not only a voice. 5. Physical can establish the identity of persons associated with the crime. Following the thoughts of Dr. Physical evidence is expected by juries in criminal cases. A suspect confronted with physical evidence may make admissions or even confess.could. Kirk (1902-1970) says this about evidence. It is not confused by the excitement of the moment. it cannot be wholly absent. 6. The evidence if uncontaminated at the crime scene. We can see the value of evidence in any crime investigation and this importance cannot be minimized! The proper procedures must be followed at every crime scene. 3. Physical evidence can prove that a crime has been committed and establish the key elements of a crime. invalidated! Dr. and speaks against the suspect that committed the crime. Only its interpretation can err” (Chisum & Turvey 2007:28). “This is evidence that does not forget. challenged. 2. Kirk’s evaluation on evidence here. Physical evidence can corroborate the victim’s testimony. 4. it was contaminated and became questionable. It is not absent because human witnesses are. 7. but. a small fragment of a picture that when completed. Physical evidence can place the suspect in contact with the victim or with the crime scene.) 8. but. cannot be in error. Physical evidence can exonerate the innocent. speaks for the victim. will give the . (Remember Dr. Only the human element can cause the evidence to become contaminated and of little or no use whatsoever. and. It is factual evidence. Court decisions have made physical evidence more important. it cannot perjure itself. Each piece of evidence has a voice that must be heard. Paul L. Physical evidence cannot be wrong. 9. and. Physical evidence is more reliable than eyewitnesses to crimes. (Fisher 2000: 1-5) 1.
” In addition. and for the want of a horse the rider was lost. you’re not supposed to do that. the crime scene specialist. The process must be right the first time. This cannot be the proverbial “micturatingcontest” as to jurisdiction. the coroner. You usually only have one opportunity to process the crime scene without contamination. Each element of the criminal investigation — the uniformed officer. As such. The full investigation of criminal acts involves scores of people who often work for different organizations. All investigations must be teamwork oriented.” (Fischer 2000: 20) "For the want of a nail. the shoe was lost. and all the other vital players in the “system” — have to work cooperatively to make the entire process work. For complex systems to work. professional and timely manner to make every component function properly. the forensic pathologist. the forensic scientist. for the want of a shoe the horse was lost.Benjamin Franklin Pay attention to detail! [Emphasis Mine] A case can be either won or lost at the crime scene. Rarely Crime Scene Reconstruction 10 . This system was purposefully designed so that no one person or entity can operate independently. the detective. No one element or person is more important than any other person or element. Fisher says this about teamwork: “The final element in crime scene investigation is teamwork. there will always be “turf” issues that arise — “This is my responsibility. If it rains. the prosecutor. positions. the evidence can be washed away. teamwork is of the utmost importance. the evidence will be trampled and become useless. all for the want of care about a horseshoe nail. Each person has a vital role to play and each element must be accomplished in a responsible. we are more likely to be dealing with people who are faceless voices at the other end of the telephone." -.investigative team a complete picture of what exactly happened! It is up to those gathering evidence. as we move to larger and more complex criminal justice systems. the photographer. to be careful and diligent in their collection and observations. and the usual problems with inter-departmental agendas. being overtaken and slain by the enemy. including trace. If the crime scene is exposed to the regular human element on a daily basis.
p.are there go backs or. And. training for this eventuality must be a departmental prerequisite.has been left by the criminal.” This is a “phenomenon in which actual investigations are driven by the expectations of the millions of people who watch fake whodunits on TV. One of the problems encountered by crime scene investigators can be found in what is called the “CSI Effect. cannot be minimized. it is first responder’s duty to preserve this evidence for forensics. and. This role. can these events be glorified and somewhat inaccurate for glamorization effect? [Lengthy quote now included for relevance to subject matter. 2003.” (Hempel. First responder will follow departmental protocol until relieved of position by Investigative Detective or higher ranking officer responding to scene.” Do television CSI type programs correctly portray actualizations or. First responder must take extensive measures to ensure that this does happen. Remembering Locard’s Exchange Principle that evidence no matter how minute. Preparation cannot be understated! At every crime scene there is evidence that must be preserved for the investigative team. do over’s! Usually the first responder or the first officer at the scene is confronted with a dynamic rapidly changing environment and attention to detail must be their primary concern. seven of the top 20 TV . It has contributed to jurors’ desire to see more forensic testimony from the stand. position. Their subsequent actions may be the determining factor in that particular case.] “Forensic fraud and forensic incompetence may only intensify in the future in response to the so-called “CSI effect. 13) In a Nielsen’s rating poll.
he can’t be guilty.S. ignore actual time lines for testing and raise expectations of the general public. First. 2005 Del. New Jersey.’? If they don’t have fingerprints. the error was ruled harmless because “the evidence introduced at trial produced overwhelming proof of guilt”)” (Fisher 2000: 517-18). The CSI effect may exacerbate the forensic fraud problem in two respects. this is real life” (Boatswain v. 2005).I. State. Regrettably. For instance. Can they meet ‘C. watch these shows each week (Salmon and O’Brien. they would have found fingerprints.” The prosecutor argued that the new standard is “the TV expectation that [criminal defendants) hope folks like you want. as these “shows tend to embellish and exaggerate the science. and judicial system to an extremely absurd and totally unrealistic level” (Wecht. p. D03). 2005). On TV. as quoted in Coscarelli. LEXIS 168 at *3.shows were premised on forensic investigations and courtroom dramas. meaning that more than 120 million viewers. a prosecutor in Ocean County. 2003. many of whom are prospective jurors in criminal cases. It appears that imitations to reality sometimes can prove detrimental to actual crime scene . the Delaware Supreme Court held that a trial judge abused his discretion when he failed to reprimand a prosecutor who complained to a jury that the standard for guilt was no longer “beyond a reasonable doubt. But this isn’t TV. Hollywood’s Crime Scene Reconstruction 11 portrayal of forensic science is far from accurate. the CSI effect has raised their burden of proof to such an extent that it is “killing” legitimate prosecutions (Terrence Farley. law enforcement. according to many prosecutors.
there are subtle differences at each crime scene. Computerized Crime Mapping can present a very detailed presentation of what was found at the scene. But. news and programs of interest. and place everything in proper viewing order. Crime scene reconstruction via either one of these presentations can have an effect towards convicting the suspect if the evidence is conclusive. sans CSI. The killer makes adjustments from the previous crime as they continue to learn from each crime they commit. As the jurists most likely view television as aneveryday habit i. science has also become more complex and more sophisticated in evidence discovery. the computerized presentation would be acceptable and understandable from their jurist’s position and perspectives. off times the evidence is hidden from view! Each crime scene is different! As the criminal and their MO”s or signatures are becoming more complex and harder to discern. in the midst of all of this arise programs. the jury drawstheir own conclusion as to actual events via presentation by the DA’s prosecutorial team. that can assist in courtroom presentations. By placing the model before the jury and explaining each element of the crime. “Modern crime and medical examiner/coroner laboratories use a vast array of scientific . even if the crime is perpetrated by the same serial killer. Another aid to presentation can be found in modeling the Crime Scene Reconstruction 12 crime scene.investigations.e. what evidence revealed. and. Perhaps the investigator thinks that crime scenes are always the same. However. of course! Every crime scene is different. One picture is worth a thousand words. and. so they say. if the evidence is properly presented.
Even cases of other eras can be solved using modern Crime Scene Reconstruction 13 forensic technology. The ballistics expert looks at tools and weapons. One of the major accomplishments for forensic science was the discovery of hiddentrace evidence in the Pan Am Flight 103 destruction. fibers. paint. Bones tell stories of identity. Arsenic remains in the bones and almost every part of the body. investigators needed to collect as much of the wreckage as possible even though the debris was widely scattered. The biologist analyzes blood. rapists. and swindlers to jail. But! The following is detailed in its presentation: “The fact that the airplane victims were found to have suffered lung damage from violent decompression suggested that some catastrophic failure had made the aircraft disintegrate in the air. People constantly exchange bits of themselves with their surroundings. and postmortem mutilation. The crime scene was comprised of almost 1. The airliner was disintegrated by the explosion. pollen. The odontologist analyzes teeth and the marks they make. and glass to determine who was present at a crime scene. saliva. Even the minutest of trace evidence is discernable under the new techniques and microscopes nowutilized by forensics.specialties to exonerate the innocent and send murderers. The trace evidence specialist studies hairs. trauma. Fragments had drifted in two trails of wreckage covering an area of almost a . burglars. soil.000 square miles. long after the individual has died. In order to establish the sequence of events leading to the disaster. The forensic anthropologist reads them. and semen to tie perpetrators to victims or locations” (Owen 2000: 8).
thousand square miles of northern England and part of Scotland. Further investigation revealed the baggage was loaded onto the 747 at Frankfort. Conclusion: . Eventually over ninety percent of the airplane's structure was recovered and used to reconstruct the plane in a huge hangar at a former army ammunition store. and now the conclusion of Pan Am Flight 103 forensically speaking: “Forensic specialists found garment fibers in the fragments of the case. Using a detailed three dimensional reconstruction process led them to the part of the fuselage that held the bomb. Nevertheless more than four million pieces were traced. This then led them to the container that held Crime Scene Reconstruction 14 the baggage with the bomb. These were traced to clothes bought in Malta and flown to Frankfurt on the day of the crash. Germany.” (Owen2000: 142) The crime scene reconstruction and analysis eventually led investigators to the people responsible for this terrible crime.” (Ward 2000: 140) Four million pieces of evidence gathered from approximately 1. though the baggage containing the clothes was accepted. This evidence coupled with the forensic analysis and crime scene reconstruction led investigators to the people responsible for this atrocity that killed 259 people on the plane and 11 on the ground. Investigations on Malta traced the purchase of the clothes to a Libyan who did not actually board the flight to London. and over ninety percent of the airlines structure was gathered! Evidence suggested that an explosion had taken place! Eventually investigators found a tiny piece of circuit board and this then leads them to conclude that a Toshiba radio cassette player was used as the detonation device that destroyed Pan Am Flight 103.000 square miles.
“every contact leaves a trace. a suspect would have been determined and apprehended. and said simply. (like the O. I turned to Bryan Morgan. John Douglas has determined that the Ramsey’s are telling the truth! “After I had spent about two hours with Ramsey. Examples of irresponsible crime scene processing. after all of this. “I believe him… I gave them my analysis thus far and why I believed the Ramsey’s’ stories” (Douglas & Olshaker 2000). John Douglas and Mark Olshaker in their book “The Cases That Haunt Us”.Every crime scene contains evidence. that it was not handled and processed correctly.” If the crime scene investigator (s) and their team are diligent.J. who’d been in the room the entire time. The victim can no longer speak. Thus. but. the perpetrator has yet to be discovered. he excused himself to go to the rest room. However. It is up to the investigators and the forensic team to hear that voice and respond with investigative results that form a composite pointing towards the perpetrator (s) of that particular crime. evidence will be recovered that will eventually lead to the capture and conviction of the criminal (s) responsible. if the Crime Scene Reconstruction 15 crime scene was processed (reconstructed) correctly. The diligent crime scene processing team will follow established protocol and respond accordingly. there would probably be different results. Crime Scene Reconstruction 16 *Written for Criminal Justice Crime Scene Reconstruction 17 References . thiscrime remains unsolved. and. So. the evidence left behind containsa voice of what happened to them. every crime scene can and will follow Locard’s Exchange Principle. make a determination concerning the Jon Benet Ramsey crime scene.Simpson crime scene) haunt investigators to this day.
(Original work published 1999) Crime Scene Reconstruction and Analysis Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport Document Report this document? Please tell us reason(s) for reporting this document Principio del formulario eb8956fd4094bb doc Spam or junk Porn adult content Hateful or offensive If you are the copyright owner of this document and want to report it. (2001). & Miller. Crime Reconstruction (1st ed. 1). 1). Boca Raton. FL: CRC Press. Vol. Palmbach. Info and Rating Reads: 3. 1). NY: Firefly Books (USA) Inc. San Diego. Vol. Lee. Report Cancel Final del formulario This is a private document. Vol. Vol.131 Uploaded: 03/13/2009 Category: Research Rated: .Chisum. New York: Academic Press. Timothy.. John & Olshaker. Buffalo. David. please follow these directions to submit a copyright infringement notice. Henry Lee's Crime Scene Handbook (2nd ed. Mark. & Turvey. (Original work published 2000) Turvey. Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation (7th ed. Hidden Evidence (1st ed. San Diego.. The Cases That Haunt Us (1st ed. (Original work published 2000) Fisher.. (2000). Brent E. (2004). CA: Academic Press. Vol. 1). 1). New York: Simon & Schuster. CA: Elsevier Academic Press. Criminal Profiling An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis (1st ed. Vol. (2000). (1999). 1). Owen... Marilyn T.. (Original work published 2007) Douglas.. Brent.
4. who or what will speak for the silenced victim of a brutal homicide? The victim has been silenced and all that remains is their lifeless body. (More) Crime Scene Reconstruction and Analysis Why do we have crime scene reconstruction and analysis? How did criminology originate and develop into the science it has now become? Most important is. (Less) find exchange principle investigator homicide rains forensics impossible investigations value (more tags) find exchange principle investigator homicide rains forensics impossible investigations value activity silenced (fewer) Gavin7 Ads by Google ..33333 5 false false 0 (3 Ratings) Crime Scene Reconstruction and Analysis Why do we have crime scene reconstruction and analysis? How did criminology originate and develop into ..
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