]uglnns cinerea of the eastern states, Sometimes known as white walnut: (X so


Stuck in

The southern CalifornIa wlid'~ll.n~t;- Juglans callfornlca. (X~)



inevitable since forever

Chinquapin. (Nutand bur natural sise.)

Beyond Agriculture

As with many of you, I too have become seduoed w i \1 the hope of

civilization' scollapse. The primitivist critiques of ur present


situation hRve been clear and powerful. The road betw en' theory and

practice can lead down many paths. Th~s paper hopes t I Ilhow some of

food consuming activities; in particular, how these ac ivities relate

. . 1 d' I

to agr~cu ture an alternatives to it. I

After workin~ in agriculture for many years, I wlJld have to Ii I

I is usually

unsustainabl~. Don,'t "beI1eve' the h;ype, Sustain~ble a i,tculture rarely ever ex1sts. It 1s imposs1ble to take from a s pe ce y "T after year without replenishing the soil. • 'Chemical farms don't fry about soil

e, mical



Organ1c farlls replenish the sol1, but wh " e does the

. ,-

agree with many o~,the critiques leveled against it.

health, quickly destroying it, which fosters further


material, uiied:. ·to. r~plen1sh, oome from? More often t 'r' n l'lot, Factory farm' or trawler"'l'ef~~vers ~re used 'on 'cert1f1ed organ i i farms (Sorry

, II

Vegans). Factory farm en1mpls are usually fed chemic ~lY grown food

because there just isn't enough animal product fertil lier to go around. Most organic farms are not sustainable because they . ,~ort their

, !

nutrients and biomass from elsewhere. This usually


which Rre also·used to run mac~inery on most farms. farmers point out that a percentage of foss11 fuels with 'sustainably produced' fuels. Many of these, I on even more agriculture for production.. since alte theoretically be implemented sometime 1n the undeter

lies fossil fuels,




!'rld be replaced

II! biodiesel, rely


tive fuels w111

I .

fell fu~ure,. they

in the present.

become the perfect excuse to cont1nue fuel consumpt1

production exi Gardening or small-scale farming can use.home~ade'

composts AI1!! oJI posted hum!ll1 manure. The Chinese developed a


sustainable ol.Jl11z"tlol1 by Integratlng human waste back into the

system. 'The AJI ah continue a somewhat susta Inab1e pre-fossil fuel


system that re ires a low population density.and much hard work. Blo-

intensive garj ing has substituted labor for oUtsidelnputs and Spaoe. It has the ad'/ tage of being able to Support a fairly dense populace, but also requj s heavy labor. ,Masanob~ Fukuoka h!ls'achieved higher

,II ,'. '. '. .

than average Ids without outSide inputs, using a complex minimal


The abu ,:: of Jr •• m. 'U"'IMbl. ".nd orgsnio w11l llkelyonly

! II

worsen, cons,id ' ing th~ corporate buyout of large organio oomP'lnies.

Altho'UgJ: t is h"rd to grow demanding (nutrient and water)

I, .

annuals withou unsustainable practices, sUstaInable examples of annual

'. "i·--

labor system ,tIoulAr to his sIte. He encourages living in a mud hut

with very lltJ£! ~eohnolOg'y in order to develop a system suited to 'your own location. '.Iii ew have taken him up on that. His rants against soientifio faj n~ and mechanization along with hfs antl-work "Do-

Nothing" Philo') phy are quite inspiring.


But even: !' f the whole world grew food in these idYllio lIIanners.

It would tota1111 fail to be biologically equal to the ecosystem it

II .

replaced and wo ld provide llttle habitst forthat whioh is Wild. How


many eagles uv' in the strawberry" field? Seen any bobcats in the

garden re~entlV You cannot purchase a solution to this problem. Basically, if V are buying OOl\vent ional I'o,od .< (;rganio or 1II0t). yoU


are bldireotly, pportlnl'; the eradioation or supprekllion of the wild.

I .houi. r"I~~1 tho .", eader that if they must consum~' domesticated food; A plant bAsed' " et is less destructive than a meat-based one and a

• .' .1 i '.

dumIlster-based " et beats all.






some areas,

provide an abundance of food. For t~lS to be an 0

1n a nat1ve

A hunter-gatherer food sYlltem, on the othe-: hfl I'

. I


comp~etely compatible w1th the env1ronment and can,

ecosystem, property l1lles cannot exist because tra

regions 1s necessary. There has been a reduction

diversity, and availab1lity of these important reg1 productive land has been degraded to the polnt

could take hu~dreds or thousands of years. In yields are now decreasing despite.m~sslve outside


At this

point much of the current, populatiol!. is buUt nr e ",aT-(L[)llIH carbon oredit nature issued us.

on the


lrim~t1ve ~xistence without a ~,rans1t1on pe r-Lcd I wondered if there was a way

per square

foot than conventional agriculture,

criteria of a hunter gatherer food system. I

nexus pOInts

between the worlds that would be applicable to

of the


Monoculture attempts to.make the environment

into the

eoonomlc system by producing a high yield of one spaqe. Scientlf1c'studies show that increased


can be achieved by excluding other plants.

against anything competlnr, wlth hir production of


system is designed to


things. Monocultures have varying degrees of s


diversified small~scale annual farming to massive operations.

Polyculture, on the other hand, attempts individual amount of many items. Poly,?ultures


speoies (sometlmeshul\dreds) sharing the sun and soi ,at the same time.

Typical Monoculrura Environment

All plants grow to similar height at the same time

Exposed soil is lost by erosion

Ground level

All roots occupy similar depths

Nutrients here are less accessible to plants


Drawing b)' lhwn


Leached nutrients become pollutants

Typical Woodland Environment

Habitats for wildlife encourage biodiversity

Nutrients from decaying material are reabsorbed

Plant roots draw nutrients from a wide range of depths

Tradltlo~l polyculturea have usually been (Bub)tropicB ,The massive

viable option for almost any ecosystem;


diversity of !enetlc material currently available makes

~ycultures a

Studles have often shown that polycultures can

ce far more ,

total yleld per square foot than monocultures. Some

indigenous polycultures have contained more dlversit'y th the

", . .J> .... r I

surroundiIig native forest. Experiments' in Europe:and Am ~ica have

I, ,

shown that adding nut trees to gralR.flelda will decreas grain yields

but cah increase total 11elds by ;"p' to 50)(. Fl;Qm a str! ,I !lY economic

:~r:::lln:~d m::::::::r:: e a::a:::::::~ :::'::1 ::::: :::~,ti ~.J., ::y .: a

subsistence.' !: I

Native American cultures practiced some annual gar ,jning in many places. Usually, the scale and style of this annual cu I ,:iNation did

, !

not resemble modern agriculture.

'production to


Many tribes used annua

supplement their gathered foodstuffs, Whlle,others were ,qre dependent I, i

on this type of production. Each tr1 be evolved a sys tem li~ased .0; its

knOWledge, native genetic stock, and the local ecosyste 'n' I In areas

, I: I

lacking natural richness or having extreme temperatures i"I.,I., •... r and

summer,gardening can replace gathering. ,

West Coast tribes practiced a modified gatherer stem in which

I:W,t~h ~~rnln~~

iquea. The

Ian ~ver-

E:xact llnl lir~? would ,reduce bur potential routes away from civilization to t 1,1,,1e routes that

existed prior to civlization. .

A!roforestr~.~ttempts tO,Bolve SOme ,of,~he ecolog jl pl;oblems associated with monocultur~; Manr orop~ are grown in

'(." ~at1ve wild planta were managed to the people's advanta

., nOl'l-destructlve'harvesting, and other a~Phlstlcated teo

Indigenous project has much,to teach, but Nature provid

c~angl'llg oollal5e of landscapes and cultures.

!! same space,

, I

Consider fertile, Garden

example of Iraq. Once upon a time it was such-a tush, verdant land that the authors of Genesis located the

there. "

top'the bucolic plague!

Now look at it: stretches upon stretches of' lands inhospitable to human beings, empty of trees and rolling green grasses.

of desertification. Stage I: Natural vegetation of trees, shrubs, and grasm serrli.nritll realon. Stage 2: Trees cleared, land Cultivated and grazed. Stage 3: Erosion :, bared ground, resulting in los, of productivity, Stage 4: Ultimately, : diminish." drastically and the degraded land resembles • desert.

That's a message from the happens wnen people don't take care of it.

I (i"

1,," \

although far less thaR in a traditional polyculture. chosen.

and organized for an e1'f1clo.,t harvest and maximum rna etab'ility,

usually iN the nlche market industry. Agroforestry, ile being an

." ,fmportant step, still exists in a surplus caplt811st 1':.,ra •.... r.·oap~si9amn.d· 'thelr . Agrofor~stry offers much valuable research into' lIany .'

.use Ln a polycultural setting. \1:: .

Permaculture is an all encompassing lifestyle tit integrates

mBBY ecolo~lcal prlnciples, including polyculture and groforestry,

into its food production system. It relies heavily 0 [uman management and stresses making' natural connections to increase e ~CienCY'" Overly inana~ed systems CaR, as demonstrated by the European II:rjedt' .result In

organized time, less personal .freedom, and all increas workload.


i .

These problems can become even more acute when domesto an1mals are

. [I ..

included. Some elaborate designs even include fences '(that need to be I!

maintained) rURnlng everywhere to help manage the ani ~s. Overall, however, permsculture has much to offer and is an 8CC ~te academic

bllueprint of nhatural .cIYtClets. 'ahltdi ~ulmalnsf' reltaitionshi~ I'! t'. themi· It is a so very wort y f~r. s ec R cs. It orlls on and 1n rat on.

Since I live 111 the Paclfic NW, I have focused I:,': research on food systems similar to that of the local Natlves. M I:tnterest in the ·~riml.t1Te. haS broadened my scope to include:al1 non-a" tcultural

peop Lea livin9 'P«) hi"ori.,,;y in 'all ',imila< c l Im I! ..• [s.. M~ ~atred of global capital and civilization has alBa. informed " resea.r'ph. . I

. . I;

"".: •• "",.' ••• t or tho ""?" t"t~ cs " ~d~f 1'.,I.r gatherer .food systems ,forest gardening, or paradise gardemn.

b" .• :: :'::::.:,~, t :::~:':'::t:i::::n::'::a::: Il~: en M:::::. t;: t

the economic system. Most breedln~ has been' forappe ince and sale-

ability (inoreased siZe and water content), "better" ste (sugar

content) r

storage/transport issues (shelf life end reduced handling

damage) .


characteristics, which were unknown or ignore.d. have

been lost

the inevitible trade-off. Domestic 'plants have fewer protein. and lower anti-oxidant activity

relntlves. Most have less struoturnl Integrity (fruit

lodgea) and are more disease-prone than their wild

Some annuals used to be perennIal. before that was traded

Many highly bred plants have had their

pete In the ~oo.syS tem so reduced as to. be totally

t"n PU til'.' 'Thes~ inputs inolude fenoes .gr~enhouses, tractors and soil CUltivation devices. Genetic

(un)Ml;ural extension o'f t~18 breeding, will only

It should be noted .that ourrent' non-commercial on va~tlY different results·including. increased

and' higher nut'ritiol1. Some unconscious breeding

through pioking (selection), consumption, and

planting (

Wild plants haTe a muoh higher' nutrition so the

ies produoed ~n '. ~.g~ven space is not the only criteria

for a


diet relies on a greater dIverSity of plants to nutrition rather than obsessing about soil hea.lth. Of

ent depleted Bolls occur in the city, which ~lready that are not highly trafficked, disturbed; or

Even with' these obstacles,

fresh, nutrient rl~h.


well oompete heslth,,:wlse wIth domesticated vegetables


the supermsrketafter sitting for da~s. Convincing the' domestloated veg~tables was the only healthy food

be finanoially advsntageous to someb~dy. And,

Malva mcschata. (X ~6)


• Percent of Western water

(78); By domestic and commercial

:.:1' J ~Lm'l:. tfIi. 1. ~ 'I W

'I [ 1\ ),\1, , •. ' il

~(: II 'fl ) .,(. ,"

Typha anguslifoJia '

,', .1'



that they need products to grow their own


1 plants and aggressive reseeding annu~ls can reprodl


completely eliminating the labor of saving seeds. n own Illon5S,idenatives (not always a good thing?). On been ooll"ot;",d or pUrchnl!l"d, they lntllrseot; very lit


thll with

knowledge of edible weeds and native plants allow tl


food source. Wild (punk) plants require little

to grow and can be a challenge t. a h15hly oultured


therefore, are highly resistant to commod,ification. of mod1f1ed gAtherer food systems and forest

gardening is

the nAturel environment wherever. you .are. Here

using plants of different sizes (trees, shrubs, bulbs) in the same apace . Slnoe private property mgvcmc'n~, system des1gners should draw from the wide variety of

available for their oondit1ons arid space . The thoussnrls ef edible nlant species of plants. with d1fferent spe01es and "(ar1etles now, while

operating. Since past cultureD have largely been the available genetic material, post-c'ollapse cultures

the available material. Once

;equire little care. A knowledge of ,landscape plants can tUrn even an urban area. into a

"Weeds" (plants whose use is not yet discovered)

chesin an eoosystem that OBn be utilized. A,well-

bur e should appear to the layman as a oha.~lo·jUmble. little use as ns.bur'a L events start to interoonnect

and oreate a'd

style of "time." ,Instruotion os n reveal


techniques, but very 11ttle oan be learned in

, ' ." EDIBLE WILD PLANTS' ':',.,,~ i,

•• • 11·

: p ,D WB ,M, Z' X v.s Q, E 0 M K' 1 '

:' :.' ;:." • ,I , ' :.' I',' ":' ; .',:' '.;' ,1',';' , . ,".' '.,..' :.~' , .!; '. :'; ~ -. " ' r

:,' ,G {'C:'I'1 A Y wtN:SM 6s U:;d~':l)

" " ,',,' ,'",'i':,i,' '<.;,"" ',},;,I,;",;

'R ~VOL, 'C' S o E Q (',N E P,;', , "':'\

"M ~': L; J' K'~D" 1,'1' H F L\':~' ~' d'L:: \

, ! "

j " , '

U ~ tA'WL;~ A,V xi ~'T ,

'sik'Y(p E R'S 1M M O,N ',S)~I>'\ \. TtQDIl'PP N ClvIdII Ti(i ,}~' '~,'fq'l~'B>D ,J ;; H'F E.'Ri G 'H T~:D:!

nii 'itA ~,~,;,~:~L~:;!~;~(l,';~ ~~k

• '.', I. ;lJ',·.;/;. ~.):' .' '. .. .. :.'!'~; ,'},' i('~:":: ' ...... ..

{'., D. BE W' KC I H ,CB Z':Y,;,X O! 1,/

'1 ,.. ,:,' ,,','

D''V U T'R Q N O'IN '0 :O:L l.W'

". . , t. . .••• '........ I "',"

Mond,ay's, unllstedctuetwww, ' ' .. , '

Find the listed words hi the 'dIJlgra.n,They ru~ i1:J"alldirections"~

,Corward,backward, up, down and diagonally: '''. ;i",-".' ,

Tuesday's unlisted cI!Je'hint:_:..AND KETCHU,P./·'" '

Brookllme ' ' "Cowpea' , ,:Milkweed " Wild garlic;;', CaHail",: Dandelion", p~rsimmons, .'Wild onion '

Chickweed:" ,Dewberries, Thistles',' , • ,Wild ric$ ,,'

GloverS ,". Ginseng" Violet' p ,

\ \



I" ,:J



t :

Goosetongue Plantago



the classroom. It is the one size fits all textbook agriculture that

has spread like blight over the once pristine lend. Each site must I

have a' personal relet t onsh I p wi th Its users. Most of what you learn

pertains sPecificall~ to your space end therefore remains uncharted. With the· sophisticated knowledge needed to f411y utIlize everything and the lack of straight lines, a complex polTculture is highly resistant

to slave labor and mechanization.

Certainly many of the ideas expressed thus far imply some sort of

management. , They are generally resIstent to the worst ravages of

capitslism. They previde viable options to genetIc engIneerIng In the hope of keeping the .growing population fed and at the same time

l. \

navigate us

into the future

minus the doomsday scenario.

The "mass die off" proponents have a simple theory that allows them to

avoid changing their daily habits while focusing more on negation . . This could lead to a self': fulflll1n!'; prophecy.

It has been espoused that egriculture led to an incre~se. in food supply and therefore an increase in population. Us tng thts logic,

genetic engineering would seem to be the next step of human manipulation ne~ded to feed·everyone. A vast body of information

inefficient, industrial agriculture. The sociel,political, and economic ramifications of agriculture combined with technology, fossil

contradicts -the simplified assumptions. Virtually all wild food books praise the common catt'ail. for example. which grows allover Europe and

Nort~ America. It can Yl'e,~d far more starch (among other things) per


square foot than potatoes and was growing en-masse before the wetlands

were drained (to grow potatoes). Studies of traditional polycuiturea, small-scale farmIng. garde.nIng ,- permacul ture, and agroforestry show a far greater' yield per square foot than ecologically and nutritionally

fuels, end changing values probably played the biggest roles in this

civilization's rise. The ~pt10ns for the future food supply are many, so there is no need to fear civilization's collapae. Post-collapse

scenarios will probably be a mix of all types of food aystems depending

on available knowledge, land, Bnd resouroes. collapse is necessary to

provide the impetus needed to speed up research and development of

sustainable systems. Certa1nly, the oollapse of the economic system

and the reSUlting decentralization lIoulrt quiokly curtail the most

destructive agricultural activities.

The main barrier to the implementation of the viable options·to agriculture is their total incompatibility w1t;h II world organl~ed, around industrial capitalism. But it should be.noted th~t our own habits and cultural programming s,e.~.m. to often be more of B. b_arrier. Wild and perennial food is unlike the '~are we a~e- us~d' to. Plus, let's faoe it, hunter-gatherers were opportunists end 01.lf present cu.Lbur-e of.. excess produces many opportunites t~ be B., bottom feeder with1n it, with little effort.

Unfortunately, a large portion of' the l~ft still xomant Lcd ae agriculture with the ridiculoua Farms' vs , Subdl vlSion.ciuality. Some

rich rural areas have even legiB~Bted fieldS instead of. trees to

preserve the pastoral views. Pasture grasses are! by far, the worst

invasive plants I have experienced.

The intentional gatherer that uses words like "Feral Plants" will

have to cont-end with t he., ire of Native Plant errt hus Laa t s , Whose xenophobic zeal If!l;!. defiriitely prove' that a ,"Native" plant env Lponment; is anthropocentric. Meanwhile .. their da lly f'oqd ohoic6,S are often some

of the most destructive to the planet.

Many do not vigor~usly or1tique agriculture because it might lead to B Qr1tlque of daily life. Turns out, 1t's easl'er, to appease your conscience by revegetating ~verything with ~tives and Just get your


Viburnum prunifollum

Viburnum opuius

Vaccinium vilis-idea

Thistle root is edible. It may be peeled and eaten raw I boiled or roasted.

Dandelion leave's and be eaten They tangy

food somewhere else' Hard to commodify edible invasives are eradicated

. -, .'

while natives are destroyed to make room for profi~ generating crops

Truth ',be told, agriculture has been far more destructive to the environmen~ than all the invasive plants put together.

I oonsider a plant ,to be invasive if it oan live in a native

climax eoosystem. The mgjority of \lnon native" plant invasions take place in disturbed sit'es. This clearly implicates agriculture in

" '1

providing invasive plant habitat. Invasive plants are spreading

everywhere because private property and technology allow people to disturb spaoe thst they will never personally use or 'depend on. ~Iith

invasive plants as a scapegoat, the U.S. ~overnment stands ready to

implement'a proposal that would bsn interstate travel and/or

importation ,of over ,99%' of the world's species of plents, animals, and rilicr60rgimfams . .'::rhes~ laws will allow further enclosure of our lives by

:' governing forces.' www.geocities.com/Dowhitelist

u. , . < ~

1 have not discussed ;nimal product prodh~tion becatise I consume'

very littl:. Intr~ducedplant species, can provide the missing links to a vegan existenoe -Ln most ecosystems. Wild meat is much healthl.er than

domesticated meat. If you plant it, they w1ll oome. A wide diversity of plants will draw in a wide diversity of animals for potential oonsumption. If you build prisons they won'~ oome. You will have to forcibly cage domesticated animals. Personally, being a war~en just doesn't jive with my anarohist ,tendenoies. Some folks seem to like it,

and l'il trade for a homemade wool sweater any day, If lives took seems. to be pervasive in Your area, there'are many aotions yoU can take.

Your local aqz Lcu Lt.u re extens Ion office has lists of "Lnve s i ve" plants that are ·toxio to livestook. These plants represent our best hope for

natural lives took predators. Whioh' invas ive is more destructive to the

ecoEystem: cows or non-nat1ve plants? Genetic engineering Is start1ng tc to genetically pollute most conventional foods. Soon, finding common

foods without any genetic ~.llutlon will ~e impossible. Growing common vegetable/! could make you liable in a lawsuit if a patented gene is found in your crop. Wild edibles may soon be the only edible,planta without genetlc pollutlon. There has never been a better time to jump

sh1p snd go feral.

The explorers 1n the 'New World', looked only, at food plants that could be ,cap1taiized upen , The unknown and underut1l1zed ed1bles may

represent the plants that are most resistant to capital. Our present


proJ~ct 1nvolves cataloglng Rnd exper1mentlng w1th all known perennial plants that H111 grolf In "our" space. We currently have

several hundred species. 'All of our greens and a growing percentage of our staples are oUrrently aoquired from no outside input perennls1

pa~ches. Our b1oreg10n may be more ideal for this than other bioregions. We have found that using perennial food plsnts requires

some time to gather the smaller products.

Overall, time is saved

considering the lower nutr1tlon, digging, and seed'saving associated with conventional annuals. Finding wh1oh' .plants do well on y9~r site

and fit your needs 1s probably the most eff101ent' in the long run.

Civilization only promotes food chOices' that are easily massified

and commodified, but it has also disseminated plants around the world. Once obtained, these plants, combined with existing (native) vegetation, could create an ethnobotany with more choices than ever before. We will have only to heave

the weight of civilization off our backs to realize the full potential of its genetic scramble. !

Fuck going ba~k!

Complex polycultural food systems that draw from the'many plants

c' '.

currently available do not fit into any previously lived models of

exl scence •

white bark pine


l:iOllilEr ..

. licorice fem

CARDOON (Cynara oarduneuluo)

Wild Chil'es .1.llium 8chocllpraSII/li





Asclepias incarnata

Asclepias syrlaca

Asclepias tuberosa

You cannot find the produce from most perennial and w11d plsnts


in the store and most .or it may never be attainable bhr ough ~he ". ~ "

.', ", . ~.. ." .

industrial' distr~ bution s,ysteD!' The plants oould b~ bought-" and .:old.

but if they grew well year after year. the market oould quiokly beoome saturated. ThE more the system flexes to absorb'demand, the more

~. .,

,bsolete it becomes I Plants 'are not ~lant, produot~ h.:l~d""l". Aoqutr1rig Incllplanting plants requires physical participation by the cons~1'ner"in l"der to atta,1n their produots. The ide.a of not being able to just purohase ~h.e~ro~u,ots seems to be unpalatable t o those' w1.th h1gh losftions in the econoniic soolal' order. Sorry, you oan't just PUrohase

. ,', "

SOlu:~Jpn ,to' agriculture. : you haTe to 'live it. '\,gl'icultural solutions ,an'n,ever'be';enV:iromenfal'so"lut'ions because agriculture itself; is

l~he~~~~l; ~~' ~n~ir~met] tal 'problem. ' : -:

Recognizing the,many'plants can seem overwhelming at first, but Ir minds are des 19ned for it ... !3rahd recogni tion in the groc~ry or

ug store 1s this ability! but mutated. We ask the plant~ to giVe us

eir strengt4 when we consume them. We fe"

t::,.: . '~hly b!e.d plants that ,tf"'l' uB;' Besides


nnon survive on their own have littlr

Jduc1ng little nut:r,ition, agriculture

of the most destruotive

nan acti vi ties.' T 1me ;.1s running out the planet and for'our own health.,

.. lplement v1able alternatives

.•.•... _ ... -.:. __ . ~ .

If you are horticulturally minded, :botanically inclined, and interested

he ongoing Feral Jihad against agriculture, we urge you to take up plants .inst the empire. If you have a'" critique of this runt we failed to address

ire interested in receiving more s-p~cific plant . infol'mation and genetic )r~lation(seed) emissions suitable t~' zone 7 (pacific NW), you may

mpt to contact us @ :

. @ ahoo.com '1' antibucohc Y




, I

I .j


attributes are often overlooked to our cultural ':'"

obsession with the exotic. Thev don't have hundreds of vears breeding behind them but

they are probably very nutritious and wil] grow well where you live. - ,

Getting to k..'OIV the nut trees will allow you to gather high volumes of'stapies in an urban or rural setting. Chestnuts and Chinquapins are a rich carbohydrate. With a bit of processing, most Oaks can be made into another edible starch. Humans have used the Walnuts extensively pre- historically. They are rich in fats and protein. Hazelnuts are easy to grow and can be very productive. Gatherers can feast on expensive Pine nuts and the many other nuts to be found. Increasing your knowledge will increase your potential gathering niches. Bred cultivars can increase your yield in intensive systems. but are only as productive as their outside inputs. Without water and fertilizer, the same varieties might produce copious quantities of empty shells.

Fruit trees ripen much fruit in a small window of time. This allows you to gather a high volume with little effort. Feral offspring will vary greatly in quality. Fruit bred for large size requires large drying set ups and increased transportation energy. Trading nutrition for domestic attributes may allow you to eat more of it fresh.

Trees with edible leaves are some of our favorites. Making fruit and nuts requires lots of sun. so these have lots of shade potential. Edible tree products can bepurchased as well. Besides fruit and nuts, oils and flavorings can be searched out.

There are many shrubs out there to gather or purchase. Some have more feral tendencies than others. Many shrubs won': produce if they have too much competition for space and light. Bred plants can beworse in this respect. Plants often overlooked because of strong flavor are the most nutritious. Elderberry, Choke cherry. and wild Huckleberries are far more nutritious then common fruit. Salal and Serviceberries are often overlooked because of pithy t1esh. This makes them more tilling and hearty however.

y{any vines exist which can be used to produce food in otherwise unusable vertical space. Civilization provides an excess of structures tor vines to climb. Vines that produce roots from their branches can be trained to climb trees. Vines that.rwine around things are perfect tor buildings und structures.

Much of our research has been with Perennials. We have provided a more detailed list ofour favorites. Planting these en-muss should liberate you at least from vegetable dependence. V ariegarion can tone down otherwise strong varieties. ff you bring this list to any worthy nursery, you should be able to score at least half of these.

Most perennials excel at early spring production. Harvesting is required to maintain and promote continued production. Dehydrate extra greens for winter use.

B . b I' I Che d' b h "" ' al', dandelion

umum u cccastanum- ::111 • nopo turn onus- e Tar3.xacum o,lIelO -

Bl'llSsieacea~ lamii), Crambe marilime. se Oip/olaxis mu..iis(le, .'\mora~ia IUSUc'na. h

Solanaceae family PhYsalis hel:roph;IIJ',

Oenamhe javanica- water dro]

Chenopodium album- I'll ' .' a" I'amii"

Llhace • ,

Levisucurn officinale- lovage Catnpanulaceas family

Camassia spp .• e~ass Hemorcall'ls sPr" day lily

Ziz,. aurea- golden alexanders Cumpanula puuctata-

Aegopodiurn podagaria- bishop

Rosaceae familY

. 'oro' a minor· salad 'own·t San~U\:;O

, 'l'c' ";eed

potentill. anse:'U1o.· suv •

Malvace ae family

Carnpanula ~lomcr.lI.· Other families

Malv. moschata- musk mallow

Malva sylvestris- high mallow

Centrarnhus rubber- red , polygonaceac far.ji~

" arQen som!

Uruca dicca- Slinging nen RumeK acetOsa• g

, . • ar·oa.'Illl1' rhuba.-h ,

Montia sPP" (Siberian)mir IU\cum roW .

Solanum niJ,Z'Jlll B~r.gin~ce.e family Anchusa officinalis-

Malva neglecta-

Aleen rosen· hollyhock .

Callirnc involucrare- POpP)' malic Prirnula veris- cowslip

Eehium vulgare- vip

Alliaceaetonion) family

Plant.go maritima- sea plan LalTiiaceae\mmll iamily


For more' specific information look for Books on Forest gardening;'

personal favorites are:


permaculture ,>wild and native edible p l ant.s , and agroforestry. 'My

, ~

Plants For A Future

Ken Fern ~,

ISBN 1-85623-011_2

One of the best books

On alternative edible

and useful plants

How To Make A Forest Garden

Patrick ,Whitefield

ISBN 1-85623-008-2

Great rants along with

practical advice

Cornucopia II

Stephen Facciola

, ISBN 0-9628087-2_5

A massive consolidation

and Botanical listing

of all ,known printed edible plant infqrmation '

No pictures

Paradise Gardening Joe Hollis

Great rant

Forest Gardening

Robert Hart

ISBN 0-930031-84-9

A pioneer in the field


, Excellent rant and theory

YOU1<5 PAI<T (FAN INSAN5~ INt3FFIClENT AGRlCUl7lJML.. SY57l3M 77-IAT l</W4t9 ANY- 77-1/Ne THe SOVl575 eV~ R'ANNW/


New book on Invasive Species available.


Critique of a Pseudoscience D. Theodoropoulos. 2003. PB 256pp .: ..____--U, .....

Some of my personal favorite sources for plants are:

HIDDEN SPRINGS NURSERY 170 Hidden Springs Lane

~~~~_Y~~L~~~~~~~ i '

~ catalogue $

om pan ion Plants ,7247 N. Coolville Ridge Rd. ' Athens, Ohio 45701

40) 592~4643.

Burnt Ridge Nursery - 432 Burnt Ridge Rd .• Onalaska. WA 98570, (360) 985-2873. Specializes in unusual trees. shrubs and vines that produce edible nuts or fruits. Also offers nuts for eating including chestnuts. walnuts

_filberts, heartnuts and hickory nuts. . . - .......... """t'--.- ................... ~

Run by Anarchists

·~315~265-6739 \

.,. ,I' .: ••

LoW I., U • .'


Low tech - Catalogue $~

Oikos Tree CI'4

) Ken Asmus

. P.O. Box 19425

. Kalamazoo MI 49019-,

269-624-6233 (Phone

,J. L. HUDSON, SEEDSMAN , Star Route 2, Box 337

La Honda, California,'94020 USA

Fore.st Farm


I 28696 S. Cramer Road

~ I Molalla, OR 97038-8576

! 11 WEB: www.onegreenworld.com

-; ' r,l~ __ ....... .....;,;;;:,.;w_t ... e .... ch ...... • .... ca t""a_lO_g'"!'u .. e .. $_3_:".""""+..--_'Il_· o.:.;I:..I_F ... r"",e60~": 1_-""8_7",,,7_-3 ... 5 ... 3~-4_0;;,;;·2-.8i-·"' _

!_~'. .' " ~'.:.,

. St'Lawrence Nurseries.

:\325 StateHwy 345 .

1"PQtsdam,'New York, 13676

..... .,' , .

990 Tethrow Rd.

Williams, OR 97544

Massive selection of plants

Catalogue $5 ~.

,~:':WEB: . .www.forestfarm.com

Raintree Nursery.' . 391 Butts Road

Morton, WA 98356 www.ralntreenursery.com

(360) 496-6400

Goodwin Creek' Garde~ls . P.O. Box 83

Williams, OR 97544

Phone: (800) 846-7359

FERN. CROZml See Pteretis

POKEWEED SS00'l'8 See Phvtolacca

Figure 9.3 Sorrel


Prim II/a oeris

• I


::r" "; -. ~;.,' .

t.l ' .



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