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## Ratio of resistance and effort forces SERIES CIRCUITS PARALLEL CIRCUITS

Work = Force * Distance Series circuits are connected end- Parallel circuits have both ends of
to-end with a single path for current the components connected together,
effort distance If MA > 1: Less effort force; greater effort
IMA= to flow. with multiple paths for the current to
distance
resistance distance flow.
Current through every series
If MA < 1: Greater effort force; less effort
AMA= resistance force component is equal. Voltage across every parallel
distance
effort force component is equal.
Total resistance is sum of
Moment = Force * Distance
component resistances. Total resistance is equal to the
Static Equilibrium: Effort Moment = Resistance Moment reciprocal of the sum of the
Sum of all voltage drops is equal
Torque: A force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion. component resistances' reciprocals.
to total applied voltage (KVL).
SIMPLE MACHINES MULTIMETER USAGE
LEVER <-- When measuring voltage,
use parallel connection.
CLASS 1
When measuring amperage, use
series connection. -->
CLASS 2 CLASS 3
MA is always > 1 MA is always < 1 THERMODYNAMICS
The study of the effects of work, heat flow, and energy on a system.
Thermal energy: Kinetic energy in transit from one object to another due to
temperature differences.
Temperature: the average kinetic energy of particles in an object.
WHEEL AND AXLE PULLEY Absolute Zero: 0 K = -273OC
Effort and resistance distances are the Fixed pulley: IMA 1 Thermal equilibrium: when touching objects within a system reach the
diameters of the wheel and axle. same temperature. Work can't be done.
Movable pulley: IMA 2
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
INCLINED PLANE WEDGE
Zeroth Law: Commutative property
Effort distance = slope Effort distance: Wedge length
First Law: Thermal energy can change form and location, but it cannot be
Resistance = vertical Effort resistance: Wedge width created or destroyed. Can be increased within a system by adding thermal
SCREW energy or performing work.
Second Law: Entropy is the measure of how evenly distributed heat is in a
Effort arm distance is screw head, or length of wrench if using one. system. The total amount of energy in the universe does not change, but the
Resistance distance = Pitch = the distance between threads. Traveled by availability of that energy constantly decreases.
one rotation of the screw. THERMAL TRANSFER
GEARS, BELTS, AND SPROCKETS Convection: Energy moving through movement of warmed matter.
Gears travel in opposite directions Conduction: Energy moving from particle to particle.
Belt systems and sprockets travel in the same direction Radiation: Energy traveling through a vacuum. EM waves.
output teeth output diameter input angular velocity R-Value = material’s ability to resist heat. U-Value = ability to conduct heat
= =
input teeth input diameter output angular velocity STATICS
output torque
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
input torque
1) An object in a state of rest or uniform motion will continue to be so unless
WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER acted upon by another force.
1 joule (work) = 1 Newton (force) * 1 meter (parallel distance) 2) Force = Mass x Acceleration
1 watt (power) = 1 joule (work) / 1 second (time) 3) For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force
Forms of energy: Potential, kinetic, chemical, radiant, electrical. VECTORS
Conductors: 1-3 valance electrons Scalar = magnitude only. Vector = magnitude and direction
Semiconductors: 4 valance electrons STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
Insulators: 5-8 valence electrons Moment of inertia: Mathematical property of cross-
CURRENT, VOLTAGE, AND RESISTANCE section (in4). Stiffness of an object related to shape.
Higher MoI = greater resistance
Current (amperes): flow of electric charge. Current is only there when
circuit is completed. Modulus of Elasticity (E): Stiffness of object related to material.

Electrons flow out of the positive side and into the negative side. This Calculating beam deflection: 
technically isn't true, but engineers follow this idea. F = Force. E = MoE. I = MoI. L = Length
Voltage (volts): the force or pressure that causes current to flow. Voltage is
there whether or not circuit is completed.
Resistance (ohms): Opposition of current flow. High resistance results in
lower current.