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Uploaded by James Mishra

This contains most of what was taught during the first semester of POE at Shakopee.

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Work = Force * Distance Series circuits are connected end- Parallel circuits have both ends of

to-end with a single path for current the components connected together,

effort distance If MA > 1: Less effort force; greater effort

IMA= to flow. with multiple paths for the current to

distance

resistance distance flow.

Current through every series

If MA < 1: Greater effort force; less effort

AMA= resistance force component is equal. Voltage across every parallel

distance

effort force component is equal.

Total resistance is sum of

Moment = Force * Distance

component resistances. Total resistance is equal to the

Static Equilibrium: Effort Moment = Resistance Moment reciprocal of the sum of the

Sum of all voltage drops is equal

Torque: A force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion. component resistances' reciprocals.

to total applied voltage (KVL).

SIMPLE MACHINES MULTIMETER USAGE

LEVER <-- When measuring voltage,

use parallel connection.

CLASS 1

When measuring amperage, use

series connection. -->

CLASS 2 CLASS 3

MA is always > 1 MA is always < 1 THERMODYNAMICS

The study of the effects of work, heat flow, and energy on a system.

Thermal energy: Kinetic energy in transit from one object to another due to

temperature differences.

Temperature: the average kinetic energy of particles in an object.

WHEEL AND AXLE PULLEY Absolute Zero: 0 K = -273OC

Effort and resistance distances are the Fixed pulley: IMA 1 Thermal equilibrium: when touching objects within a system reach the

diameters of the wheel and axle. same temperature. Work can't be done.

Movable pulley: IMA 2

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

INCLINED PLANE WEDGE

Zeroth Law: Commutative property

Effort distance = slope Effort distance: Wedge length

First Law: Thermal energy can change form and location, but it cannot be

Resistance = vertical Effort resistance: Wedge width created or destroyed. Can be increased within a system by adding thermal

SCREW energy or performing work.

Second Law: Entropy is the measure of how evenly distributed heat is in a

Effort arm distance is screw head, or length of wrench if using one. system. The total amount of energy in the universe does not change, but the

Resistance distance = Pitch = the distance between threads. Traveled by availability of that energy constantly decreases.

one rotation of the screw. THERMAL TRANSFER

GEARS, BELTS, AND SPROCKETS Convection: Energy moving through movement of warmed matter.

Gears travel in opposite directions Conduction: Energy moving from particle to particle.

Belt systems and sprockets travel in the same direction Radiation: Energy traveling through a vacuum. EM waves.

output teeth output diameter input angular velocity R-Value = material’s ability to resist heat. U-Value = ability to conduct heat

= =

input teeth input diameter output angular velocity STATICS

output torque

NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

input torque

1) An object in a state of rest or uniform motion will continue to be so unless

WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER acted upon by another force.

1 joule (work) = 1 Newton (force) * 1 meter (parallel distance) 2) Force = Mass x Acceleration

1 watt (power) = 1 joule (work) / 1 second (time) 3) For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force

Forms of energy: Potential, kinetic, chemical, radiant, electrical. VECTORS

Conductors: 1-3 valance electrons Scalar = magnitude only. Vector = magnitude and direction

Semiconductors: 4 valance electrons STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

Insulators: 5-8 valence electrons Moment of inertia: Mathematical property of cross-

CURRENT, VOLTAGE, AND RESISTANCE section (in4). Stiffness of an object related to shape.

Higher MoI = greater resistance

Current (amperes): flow of electric charge. Current is only there when

circuit is completed. Modulus of Elasticity (E): Stiffness of object related to material.

Electrons flow out of the positive side and into the negative side. This Calculating beam deflection:

technically isn't true, but engineers follow this idea. F = Force. E = MoE. I = MoI. L = Length

Voltage (volts): the force or pressure that causes current to flow. Voltage is

there whether or not circuit is completed.

Resistance (ohms): Opposition of current flow. High resistance results in

lower current.

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