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# CRAFT & HAWKINS DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

fundamentals of Petrophysics

TAMMY BOURGOYNE, PHD., P.E.

AND

JULIUS LANGLINAlS, PhD., P.E.

FIRST EDITION

PETROLEUM SERVICES INTERNATIONAL, PUBLISHING DIVISION

BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA

2003

1

© 2003 by Petroleum Services International. All rights reserved. No part of this docu-

ment may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing

from the publisher. Contact Petroleum Services International, Publishing Division at 225-

766-6536.

·2

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION .................................................. .4 9. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF ROCK ......... 66

2. REGARDING THE GREEK ALPHABET .•.••••..•. 5

FORMATION RESISTIVITY FACTOR ............................ 69

FORMATION RESISTIVITY INDEX ............................... 72

THE GREEK ALPHABET ............................................... 5 WATER SATURATION DETERMINATION ..................... 72

NOMENCLATURE ......................................................... 5 EFFECT OF CLAY IN ROCK ......................................... 74

3. DIMENSIONAL DECEPTIONS ........................... 7 10. ABSOLUTEPERMEABILITY ••••••••.••.•.••••••..•.•• 77

UNlTS AND DIMENSIONS : ........................................... 7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ....................................... 78

UNITS OF LENGTH AND MAss ..................................... 8 DARCY'S LAW EXTENDED ......................................... 79

UNIT CONVERSION ...................................................... 6 THE UNITS OF PERMEABILITY ................................... 83

UNITS OF FORCE .......................................................... 9 PERMEABILITY IN RESERVOIRS ................................. 85

WEIGHT .................................................................... 12 EFFECT OF NET OVERBURDEN .................................. 85

UNIT SYSTEMS .......................................................... 12 RELATIONSHIP TO RESISTIVITy ................................. 86

CONSISTENT UNITS & EQUATIONS ............................. 15 EFFECT OF CLAY DISTRIBUTION ............................... 87

4. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS REVISITED •...••••...••.••••. 20 11. APPLICATION OF DARCY'S LA W ................ 90

STATES OF MATTER .................................................. 20 LINEAR FLOW ............................................................ 90

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVlTY ............................. 20 RADIAL FLO\)' ........................................................... 91

IDEAL GAS LAW ............................. , .......................... 21 ApPARENT PERMEABILITY IN SERIES ........................ 92

REAL GAS LAW ......................................................... 22 ApPARENT PERMEABILITY IN P ARALLEL. .................. 94

IDEAL LIQUIDS .......................................................... 23 DIRECTIONAL NATURE OF PERMEABILITY ................ 93

SLIGHTLY COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS ............................ 24

FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR .................................. 27

12. EFFECTIVE PERMEABILITY ...................... 100

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE .......................................... 27 EFFECTIVE PERMEABILITY ........................................ 98

ARCHIMEDES' PRINCIPLE .......................................... 27 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY ....................................... 101

VISCOSITY ................................................................. 28 EFFECT OF SATURATION HISTORY .......................... 102

FLUID FLOW REGIMES .............................................. 28

POISELLE'sLAW ........................................................ 28

13. CAPILLARY FORCES ..................................... 107

5. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY REVISITED ........... 30

SURFACE TENSION (GAS-LIQUID) ........................... 105

INTERFACIAL TENSION (LIQUID-LIQUID) ................ 110

NATURE OF RESERVOIR ROCKS ................................. 30 WETTING AT LIQUID-SOLID INTERFACES ................ 112

PROCESS OF RESERVOIR FORMATION ........................ 31 RELATIVE WETT ABILITY ......................................... 113

RESERVOIR FLUID DISTRIBUTION ............................. 33 CAPILLARY RISE ..................................................... 115

RESERVOIRPRESSURE ............................................... 33

14. RESERVOIR CAPILLARY PRESSURE ....... 119

6. POROSITY ............................................................ 35

DISTRIBUTION OF FLUIDS IN RESERVOIR ................. 120

POROSITY DETERMINATION ...................................... 36 RELATIONSHIP TO WATER SATURATION ................. 125

SOURCES OF POROSITY ............................................ .43 EFFECT OF SATURATION HISTORY .......................... 124

FACTORS AFFECTING POROSITY .............................. .44 EFFECT OF HEIGHT ABOVE WATER LEVEL .............. 125

7. FLUID SATURATION •••••••••••••••••.••••••••••...•••••..••• 50

EFFECT OF PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTI(,)N ...................... l25

EFFECT OF DENSITY DIFFERENCE ........................... 126

IRREDUCIBLE WATER SATURATION .......................... 52 EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL TENSION .......................... 129

RESIDUAL OIL OR GAS SATURATION ........................ 52 EFFECT OF ROCK WETTABILITY .............................. 129

DISPLACEABLE PORE VOLUME ................................. 53

RECOVERY FACTOR .................................................. 53

15. PRACTICE & REVIEW PROBLEMS ........... 128

INITIAL OIL VOLUME ................................................. 54

BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................. 145

8. COMPRESSIBILITY OF ROCK ........................ 55

NOMENCLATURE ........................................... 146

3

Introduction

An understanding of the properties of petroleum-bearing rocks

and the interaction between these rocks'and the associated fluids

provides the petroleum engineer with valuable insight when pre-

dicting and optimizing the production of oil and gas,

A

s will be discussed in this course, petroleum-bearing rocks act as both the

storage container and the initial transport medium or conduit for the

production of oil and gas, Without a basic understanding of the proper-

ties of petroleum-bearing rocks and the fluids associated with them fluids

and their interactions, petroleum engineering calculations become meaningless and

abstract, We first study rock properties or petrophysical properties (PETE 2031),

then fluid properties (PETE 2032), and then these are then combined in reservoir

engineering (PETE 4051 & 4052),

Furthermore, the science of petrophysics is directly applied in formation evalua-

tion (PETE 4088) which strives to link rock properties which may be measured

directly using logging and core analysis to other properties of interest to the petro-

leum engineer which may not be directly measured underground. In petrophysics,

the properties associated with petroleum-bearing rocks and the phenomena asso-

ciated which the interaction between fluids and the rock are studied.

This text is not intended to be an all encompassing survey course. The purpose is

to firmly establish a foundation in petrophysics, which permits the development of

the more advanced concepts of Petroleum Engineering.

4

Regarding the Greek Alphabet

As in mathematics and other sciences, Greek letters are a com-

monjy used short-hand notation to represent physical properties

and concepts in engineering.

S

cientific and technical fields such as engineering requite a large number of

symbols to represent physical properties and concepts. The use of the

Greek alphabet to provide a set of useful symbols in addition to the Roman

alphabet used to communicate ideas in the English and other languages be-

gan hundreds of years ago when Greek and Latin were commonly learned by

scholars.

THE GREEK ALPHABET

Today Greek is rarely a topic of study in the conventional public education cur-

riculum. The vast majority of us are introduced only to the Greek alphabet

through their use as symbols to represent abstract ideas in mathematics. Those

who go on to more advanced levels of study in technical fields such as engineering

become familiar with their use as a short-hand notation to represent physical

properties and concepts. Table 2.1 lists all of the letters in the Greek alphabet,

upper-case and lower-case, with their names and pronunciations. The pronuncia-

tions listed are those commonly used today in English speaking countries.

NOMENCLATURE

Familiarity with the Greek Alphabet will enhance your ability to express and to

interpret technical concepts in the study and practice of engineering. In general,

the property or concept represented by each symbol is not universal. Each disci-

pline has its own customary usage for the Greek alphabet. For example, in petro-

leum engineering the Greek letter ~ (pronounced "FEE'') traditionally represents

the physical property of a rock called porosity. However, the same letter in ther-

modynamics, the study of heat transfer, represents a property referred to as avail-

ability which has nothing at all to do with the porosity of a rock. Therefore, to

avoid miscommunication good engineering practice requires that the particular use

5

of each symbol is defined on a case -by -case basis whenever symbols are used to

convey ideas. This is commonly done in textbooks and technical papers as a list-

ing of each symbol used along with a description of the property or idea it repre-

sents. This listing is commonly called the Nomenclature. Nomenclature is given

as needed throughout this text. An abridged listing of the nomenclature used in

this text is also given in Appendix C.

TABLE 2.1: LETTERS OF THE GREEK ALPHABET

Upper- Lower- Name Pronunciation Example of Usage

case case

(Upper/Lower)

A a

ALPHA "AL-fuh" / Angle in geometry

B

BETA "BAY-tuh" / Angle in geometry

r y

GAMMA Torque/Specific gravity

L'. 8

DELTA "DEL-tuh" Change / partial derivative

E E

EPSILON "EP-sil-on"

Z 1;

ZETA "ZAY-tuh

P

H

11

ETA "AY-tuh" /Mobility Ratio

<9 e

THETA "THA Y -tuh" / Contact Angle

I t

IOTA "eye-OH-tuh"

K K

KAPPA "KAP-uh"

A Ie

LAiVlBDA "LAM-duh" /Mobility Ratio

M

f.L

MU "1vfYOO" /Viscosity

N V

NU "NOO" /velocity

'"

C,

XI "KS-EYE"

0 0

OMICRON "OM-i-KRON"

IT n

PI "PIE" /3.142

P

P

RHO "ROW" /Density

L IT

SIGMA "SIG-muh" Summation /Surface Tension

T 1:

TAU "TAW' /Tortuosity

y

tJ

UPSILON "OOP-si-LON"

<D

cI>

PHI "FEE" Flow Po\ential/Porosity

X

X

CHI "I <-EYE"

'¥

'l'

PSI "SIGH"

n OJ

OMEGA "Oh-MAY-guh" Ohm (unit)/

6

Values combined

with units convey

a physical quan-

tity_

©2003. All RI

Dimensional Deceptions

Numerical values alone do not convey a pqysical quantity. Both

a numerical value and a unit must be stated together to convey

meaningful pqysical information.

A

n inherent source of error and confus-ion for the engineer is the use of

dimensional unit systems, particularly inconsistent ones. The engineer

must use both metric and English units because of the differences be-

tween science and technology. Routine conversions between these units

are only mildly troublesome, but the intermixing of gravitational and absolute unit

systems can easily complicate matters. For example, when pounds force and

pounds mass appear in the same equation, confusion will frequently arise. To

avoid these complications, the differences between these quantities - force and

mass - should be clearly understood, and their units and dimensions watched

closely in all formulas and calculations.

UNITS AND DIMENSIONS

Conveying the magnitude of a physical quantity requires 2 elements. First, a dimen-

sion which identifies the nature of the quantity is required. The dimension, such as

lengrh or time, determines the choices available for the unit of measurement to be

used. A unit provides a basis of comparison or a standard reference. For exam-

ple, the dimension length might be measured in inches, feet, miles, meters, etc.

For convenience and accuracy, the unit chosen usually depends qpon the scale of

the dimension being measured. A relatively large distance might be reported in

miles or feet while a relatively small distance might be measured in inches or cen-

timeters.

Second, a numerical value which conveys how many of the standard reference

units are in the physical quantity is also required to convey meaning. The unit of

measurement chosen determines the magnitude of the numerical value. For ex-

ample, 12 inches, 1 foot, and 0.3048 meters all represent the same distance, but

the numerical value attached defining the number of unit lengths in the distance

are not equal because the standard of reference is not equal. As a result, any

7

A sufficient choice

of primary quantities

for most engineering

work is mass,

length, time, and

temperature. All

other quantities can

be expressed in

terms of these four.

©2003. ALL RIGHTS -RESERVED.

statement of a physical quantity having dimension is incomplete or meaningless

without explicitly including the unit of measurement.

Consider the following scenario. In response to the question regarding the vol-

ume of oil produced, one student answers 42,000 and the other answers 5,615.

The volume in question is 1,000 barrels. Neither student states what unit of vol-

ume he/she is using. Without stating the units, the answer is incomplete so its ac-

curacy cannot be judged without further information. When prompted, the first

student answered 42,000 gallons and the other student answered 5,615 cubic feet.

As it turns out, both of these quantities are equivalent. That is, both represent the

same volume and are also equivalent to 1000 barrels. Both students were correct

and in agreement, but the numerical value alone could not convey the volume of

oil produced. For this reason, units must always be stated explicitly in an engi-

neering calculation.

The majority of physical quantities have dimensions which can be expressed in

terms of the dimensions of a limited number of fundamental quantities. Velocity is

defined as the time rate of change of position. Velocity can also be expressed as a

length divided by a time interval. Thus, velocity will require a unit for length

combined with a unit for time. Likewise, other physical quantities may be ex-

pressed in terms of a set of primary quantities which cannot be broken down any

further. A sufficient choice of primary quantities for most engineering work is

mass, length, time, and temperature. All other quantities can be expressed in

terms of these four primary quantities. Any quantity which is not one of these

four primary quantities is referred to as a secondary quantity.

UNITS OF LENGTH AND MASS

The fundamental standards of length and mass designed for the entire world are

the distance between two lines inscribed on a particular platinum-iridium bar and

the mass of a certain block of platinum. Known as the international meter bar and

kilogram mass, these standards are maintained at the International Bureau of

Weights and Measures in Sevres, France. At present, the commonly used unit of

time is the second, was defined as 1/86,400 part of a mean solar day. Customary

English units of length and mass for the U. S. are defined by reference to the

standard yard and avoirdupois pound. But, these have been statidardized by the

U. S. Congress in terms of the international meter and kilogram mass, as:

1 yard = 0.9144 meters (i.e., 1 inch = 2.54 em exactly)

1 pound mass = 0.4535924277 kilogram mass

UNIT CONVERSION

A measurement in a particular set of units can be converted to an equivalent quan-

tity using a different set of units of the same dimensions. This algebraic manipula-

8

Learn and apply

this technique to

greatly reduce unit

conversion errors.

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

tion is accomplished by multiplying the measurement by an appropriate "well cho-

sen value of one".

Example Problem 3.1

A car is traveling at a speed of 90 miles per hour. Express its speed in (a) feet per second,

and (h) meters per minute.

1hr

First, we make use of the fact 1

60 min

1 hr

---, and any expression can be multi-

60 min

plied by 1 without changing its value. Other values of 1 are used as needed.

Solution:

mile 0 mile hr min 5280 ft

(a) 90--=9 --x x x

hr hr 60 min 60 sec

(90)(5280) ft = 1 3 2 ~

(60)(60) sec sec mile

mile 90 mile hr 5280 ft 0.3048 meter

(h) 90--= --x x x-'..:.-'--'--

2414 meter

mm hr hr 60 min mile ft

When this procedure is used, the probability of error is greatly reduced. Each

conversion involves the multiplication of the original quantity by a series of well

chosen, dimensionless factors, each having a numerical value of unity (one). To

verify this last statement, notice that the numerator of each factor is equal to its

denominator. That is, the fraction [ (1 hour) / (60 min)] has a value of unity, and

therefore can be used as a multiplier since multiplying by 1 does not change the

value of the original fraction.

A listing of some of the more commonly used conversion ratios or "well-chosen

l's" are listed in Table 3.1. Using these ratios and the technique illustrated in Ex-

ample 3.1

UNITS OF FORCE

It would be difficult, if not impossible, to maintain a fixed quantity of force as an

unvarying physical standard. For by its nature, the very existence of a force can

only be inferred from the changes it produces in the state of motion of a material

body. By Newton's law of motion, the acceleration, a, produced in a body of con-

stant mass, m, is attributed to the action of a force, F, whose magnitude is propor-

tional to the mass and acceleration of the body, or:

F oc rna

9

Length

©2003. All RIGHTS RESERVED.

Since this is a proportionality, we can make the equation an equality by introduc-

ing a constant of proportionality, g" and write:

1

F=-ma

g,

(3.1)

This equation involves four quantities, force, mass, length, and time. Only three

need be fundamental, thus defining the fourth. If mass, length, and time are rec-

ognized as the primary quantities, Equation (3.1) defines the dimensions of the

derived quantity, force, as a mass times a length divided by the square of a time

interval.

More complex quantities, such as pressure and energy, are defined in terms of a

force. We do not reduce such quantities to the primary quantities as a matter of

convenience to avoid needless complexity. Instead, force is used as a convenient

secondary dimension. The size of the unit force is determined by an arbitrary

choice of acceleration effect it must produce in a given mass. Once these standard

effects have been specified, the proportionality ~ o n s t a n t , &' is adjusted to preserve

the numerical and dimensional equality of the equation (3.1) expressed above.

TABLE 3.1: C01-hI10NLY USED CONVERSION RATIOS OR tlWElL-CHOSEN 1 'S".

Mass Area Viscosity Volume

1 foot = 12 inches 1 kg - 1 000 grams 1 Acre = 43,560 feet' 1000 cp - 1 Pa-s 1 gallon - 231 in'

,

I

1 yard - 3 feet 1 pound - 453.6 grams 1 barrel - 42 gallons I

1 mile = 5280 feet 1 Acre ft - 43,560 ft' ,

1 inch - 2.54 cm_

100 cm = 1 meter

Example 3.2

A particular unit of force, called a dyne, is defined as that force required to accelerate a

gram of mass at the rate of one centimeter per second squared. Calculate the value of the

constant, gc, to be used with set of units.

Solution:

When the above definition is introduced into Equation 2.1, we have, by definition

1 1 2

F = -rna = -(1 gm)(1 cm/sec ) = 1 dyne

gc gc

To preserve dimensional as well as numerical equality, gc must have the value:

g = 1 gm(cm/sec

2

)

c dyne

10

I

Remember that

the constant, ge, is

not an accelera ..

tion term, but a

conversion factor

between the unit

of force and its

assigned primary

units.

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Thus, we see that the constant go serves the twofold purpose of (1) defining the standard

effects expected of a certain nnit force, and (2) identifying this unit by name. Since mass

and force are not independenr quantities, the conversion factor go will appear in all prob-

lems that involve dynamics, for it allows the simultaneous use of both quantities in the

same equation.

Example 3.3

Develop an expression for the kinetic energy Ek of a body of mass m, moving at a con-

stant velocity v using the definition of Work = force x disrance.

Solution:

Assume the body to be originally at resr. Upon application of a steady unbalanced force

(F) acting through a sufficient distance (s), the body will acquire the required velocity (v).

In accordance with Equation (3.1), this force gives the body of mass m a constant accel-

eration a:

1

F=-ma

g,

and the distance s traveled by the body while acquiring the velocity v is relared to its ac-

celeration as follows:

Unreliable mental conversions are eliminated by the presence of the constant gc. The

definition of each force unit is contained within the definitiDn of gc for each system of

units.

The energy imparted to the body is then

Ek mv

2

= gm (em/sec):

g, 2a 2g, 2gmem/sec

dyne

mv

2

--dynecm

2

This last equation, as given in elementary physics, probably did not contain go. But the

dimensions of the result, (m L' / t') or (gm-cm

2

/s

2

), are not associated with energy until

one makes the mental conversion 1 dyne:= 1 gm-em / 52, Unreliable mental conversions

are eliminated by the presence of go.

11

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED .

. WEIGHT

The force of attraction which the earth exerts on a material body is called the

weight of the body. Being a force quantity, the weight, W, of a body of mass, m,

may be calculated using Newton's law in the form

1

W=-mg

g,

(3.2)

where g is the acceleration which gravity would impart to the body in a free fall.

Unfortunately, the term "weight" is sometimes used improperly as a synonym for

mass. Therefore, it cannot be over-emphasized that weight has the dimensions of

force.

UNIT SYSTEMS

Each time an arbitrary choice of basic units is made for mass, length, and time, a

new system of units is established together with' an opportunity for defining a new

unit of force. Unit systems commonly used in scientific and engineering calcula-

tions are listed in Table 3.2. While each system is self-consistent, the various sys-

tems are not compatible with each other. The units of force are defined by the

following statements:

•

•

•

•

•

A force of 1 dyne will accelerate a one gram mass at the rate of 1 cm/ S2.

A force of 1 gram force (gf) will accelerate a one gram mass (gm) at the rate of

980.665 ft/ S2.

A force of 1 pound force (lbf) will accelerate a one pound mass (Ibm) at the

rate of 32.174 ft/ S2.

A force of 1 pound force will accelerate a mass of one slug at the rate of 1

ftls'.

A force of 1 Newton (N) will accelerate a mass of one kilogram (kg) at the rate

of 1 mls'.

12

Remember that

the constant gc is

not an accelera-

tion term but is a

conversion factor

between the unit

offorce and its

assigned primary

units.

•

Quantity

IvIass

Length

Time

Force

Conversion

constant, gc

Velocity

Accelera-

tion, gravity

Area

Volume

Density

Flow Rate

Specific

Volume

Absolute

Viscosity

Energy

(work)

Power

Pressure

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED .

TABLE 3.2: C01:1J\[ON PHYSICAL QUAl'\lTITIES AND THEIR DIlYIENSIONS AND UNITS.

Symbol CGS SI Engineer - Engineer- Technical

Metric English

English

M gram, g kilogram, Gram (mass), Pound (mass), Slug

kg gm Ibm

L centimeter, Meter, m centimeter, foot, ft Foot, ft

em em

T second, s second, s second, s second, S Second, s

F; ML

dyne Newton, gram (force), Pound (force), Pound

r'

Nt gf lbf (force),

lbf

ML

gem 1 kg m

gem

32.17lbmft

slugft

g, = FT'

1

1--

980.7--

2 Ibf s'

dynes

2

Nts

2

• gf s

lbf S2

v=L/T em/s m/s em/s ft/s ft/s

g= L/T' g=980.7 g = 9.81 g = 980.7 g =32.17 g = 32.17

em/5

2

mis' em/5

2

ft/s' ft/s'

U em' m' em' ft' ft'

L' em

3

m

3

em

3

ft

3

ft

3

p=M/L'

g/em

3

kg/m

3

gm/em

3

lbm/ ft

3

slug/ft3

Q = L3/T cm

3

/sec m

3

/sec cm

3

/sec ft

3

/sec ft

3

/sec

V =L3/lbm

----- ---- ----- ft

3

/lbf ft

3

/lbf

-g- ~

gm

lbm slug

M

--

fi= LT

em s ms em s ft s ft s

(pa s)

(poise)

E=FL Dyne-em Nt-m gkm Ft-Ibf Ft-Ibf

(erg) Goule)

P=FL/T erg/s J/s

gf-em /s Hp = 550 Hp=550

(Watt)

ft-Ibf/s

ft-Ibf/s

P=F/L' Dyne/em

2

Nt/m' gf/cm 2 lbf/ft' Ibf/ft

2

(pascal)

13

Even though the

numerical values

of mass and

weight are often

equal, the dimen-

sions and units of

the 2 quantities

are not.

To eliminate confu-

sion, the pound

mass is often ab ..

breviated as Ibmthe

pound force as Ibf,

and the gram mass

asgm.

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

FOOD FOR THOUGHT

Frequently, the terms )ve;{ghtand mass are often used interchangeably. Notice that in those

unit systems wherein the acceleration due to gravity was included "in the definition (i.e.,

gram force, pound force) the mass of an object located on the surface of the earth is nu-

merically equal to the weight. In other systems of units, the force unit is defined such that

the value of the conversion constant gc is 1. For these reasons, the conversion constant,

g, is typically dropped from equations relating mass and force. However, when this con-

version constant is 1, weight and mass are not numerically equaL Even though the nu-

merical values of mass and weight (when measured on the surface of the earth) are often

equal, the dimensions and units of the 2 quantities are not.

Inclusion of the constant gc serves as a reniinder of the relationship between the quantities

of mass and weight and their units. In addition, its inclusion is required when the object

is not strictly located on the surface of the earth! Furthermore, a "weight" reported in

kilograms is really a mass and is NOT numerically equal to its true weight in Newtons in

the SI system of units. For example, a mass of 1 kg weighs 9.80 N on the surface of the

earth.

The units and numerical value of g, are obtained by substitution of the defining

statements of the force units into the general form of Newton's equation as previ-

ously illustrated in Example 3.2. These values are given along with the primary

and derived units for each system are listed in Table 3.2. Remember that the

constant & is not an acceleration term but is a conversion factor between the unit

of force and its assigned primary units. This is illustrated in Examples 3.4.1 and

3.4.2. Note in each example that each ratio has a value of 1, so the equality is pre-

served. In this way, the conversion factor between any quantity within or among

any system of units can de determined using a few "well-chosen ones" either from

memory or using Table 3.1 and Table 3.2.

Example 3.4.1

Calculate a factor for converting pounds of force to equivalent dynes of force.

Solution:

1 Ibf = 1 Ibf X 32.17 Ibm ft x 453.6gm x 2.54cm x 12in x dyne sec'

Ibf sec' Ibm in ft I gm em

Ilbf= (32.17)(453.6)(2.54)(12) dyne = 444,773.7 dynes

(I)

14

The equation is in

balance dimen-

sionally or is di-

mensionally co-

herentwhich must

be true for any

valid equation.

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Example 3.4.2

Calculate a factor for converting pounds of force to equivalent Newtons (N) of force.

Solution:

llbf= 11bfx

32.17 Ibm ft 453.6 gm 1 kg 2.54 em 12 in m N s'

x x x x--x x---

Ibfs' Ibm 1000 gm In ft 100 em I kgm

Ilbf= (32.17)(453.6)(2.54)(12) N = 4.447737 N

(1000)(100)

CONSISTENT UNITS & EQUATIONS

Rather than an arbitrary choice of units for each secondary quantity, mechanical

units not listed in Table 3.2 are derived from the units of mass, length, time, and

force specified for each system. For example, area is defined as the square of

length. As a result, the consistent unit adopted for area in the engineering English

system is the square foot since the foot has already been selected as the unit of

length. Likewise, the consistent unit choice for area in the CGS system is the

square centimeter.

Similarly in the engineering English system, the consistent unit for volume is cubic

feet, for pressure is pounds force per square foot (ps£), for volumetric flow rate is

cubic feet per second, and for work or energy is foot pounds force. In the deriva- .

tion of a physical equation, exclusive use of a consistent system of units, including

the ubiquitous gO' has a distinct advantage. The resulting expression can be used

with any other system of consistent units without further modifications.

Example 3.5

The pressure drop required to maintain a fluid in laminar flow through a horizontal pipe

is given by the equation:

where p denotes pressure, fl denotes viscosity of the fluid, L denotes length of the pipe, V

denotes velocity of the fluid, and d denotes diameter of the pipe. Referring to the second

column of Table 3.2, let us investigate the dimensional properties of this equation:

15

A good engineer

always knows the

units of each value

given or calCUR

lated. Units may

always be used as

an error check or

as a reminder of

the definition or

dimensions of any

secondary quan-

tity.

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

As shown above, the dimensions of the pressure term on the left shown to be the same as

the combined dimensions of all terms on the right. Therefore, the equation is in balance

dimensionally or is dimensionallY coherent which must be true for any valid equation.

This dimensional balance may also be shown by substituting consistent units from any sys·

tern of units. Referring to Table 3.2, repeat the process substituting units from the engi-

neering English system:

lbl Ibm ft

--=--x-x

ft' ft s 1

ft Ibf s' 1 lbl

-x x--=--

s Ibm ft ft' ft'

As a consequence, consistent units from ~ system may be used in this equation as given,

without any other conversion factors or additional qualifying remarks.

Empirical equations based on experimental data rather than derived mathemati-

cally from fundamental engineering or scientific principles, as well as physical

equations which have been modified to accept certain quantities expressed in

more Hpractical" units, are usually inconsistent. These equations cannot stand

alone, but must be ac!,ompanied by a detailed listing of particular units to be used

with each different quantity.

Example 3.6

Modify the equation for pressure drop presented in Example 2.5 to accept the following

"field units" or preferred set of inconsistent units:

Quantity:

LIp

!l

L v d

Desired Unit: lbf/in' , psi centipoise (cp) ft ftls in

Solution:

Since the original equation as given will accept any consistent set of units, the desired

"field" units will be converted to consistent engineering English units for substitution into

the original equation.

16

©2003. All RIGHTS RESERVED .

.

Quantity:

"'p fl

L v d

Desired Unit: Ibf/in

2

, psi centipoise (cp) ft ft/s In

Consistent Unit: Ibf/fe Ibm/ (ft s) ft ft/s ft

Let us adopt the convention that the original variable (i.e., "'p) represents a value for the

quantity expressed in the consistent unit while the same vatiable primed (i.e., "'p') repre-

sents the correspondingvalue for the quantity expressed in the desired unit. Note that

the numerical values are not equal, but the physical quantity represented by the value and

unit combination are equal. For example, !'J.p '" !'J.p' numerically, but the physical pres-

sure drop represented is the same (1Ibf/ft

2

= 1/144Ibf/in

2

).

'" Ibf = '" ,fbi X (12in )'

.p ft' .p in' (ft)'

(

'" ,lbl)(i 44 in' ) = 144('" ') lbl

.p in' ft' .p ft'

Ibm, Pa s (N/m') kg ill Ibm • 1000 gm ill 2.54 em 12 in

f.l --=J..l cp x X x--

2

-x _ X X X x--

ft s 1000 ep Pa N s 453.6 gm kg 100 em in 1ft

Ibm, 1 1 1000 2.54 1 12 ( p' ) Ibm

Ji fts =Ji cpx

lOOO

x 453.6

x

-I-

x

-I-

x

IOO

x

-I = 1488.2 fig

Lft=L'ft

ft , ft

V -=v -

s s

d ft = d' in x J..!!... = (£) ft

12 in 12

These variables representing values in the desired units have now been expressed in terms

of the consistent unit. Because these expressions are in terms of a set of consistent units,

they may now be substituted into the original equation.

(

')

(32) P LV

(

144!'J. ') = 1488.2

.p ( ')'

32.17 ~ 2

(32)(12)' jlL'v'

(32.17)(1488.2) (df

!'J. ,_ 0.09625 p'L'v'

P - 144 (d')'

=> !'J.p' = 0.00066840 p'L'v'

( d')'

0.09625 p'L'v'

(d'?

where all values must be in specified "desired" units. Our final equation is no longer con-

sistent, for all quantities must now be expressed in the desired units specified, or else the

equation will give a wrong answer.

17

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

FOOD FOR THOUGHT

One might ask, "\'V'hy must we go through all the trouble of altering the equation to fit

our desired units? ... Wouldn't it be straight forward to simply convert the values to the

proper consistent umts before inserting them into the equation? ... \'7hy alter the equa-

tion and then be forced to remember the "practical" units for the altered form of the

equation?"

In answer, a hint is given in the common names for these inconsistent sets of units which

are often referred to as "practical" or "field" units. These "practical" or "field" units, as

the names imply, are the units in which quantities are measured by the practicing engineer

or technician on site in the oil field or laboratory. Suppose that as an engineer or techni-

cian or field hand, you wish to estimate the pressute drop through section of horizontal

pipe in the field. The pressute itself in the section of pipe of interest cannot be readily

measured, but you can easily measure or already know the viscosity of the fluid in centi-

poise (cp), the length of the pipe section in feet (ft), the velocity of the flowing fluid inside

the pipe in feet per second (ft/ s), and the diameter of the pipe in inches (in). Thus, you

have all the information you need to estimate the pressure drop .

.

Now further consider that this is a routine calculation which you perform often. You

have !\Va options:

• Convert each measured value to its corresponding consistent Engineering Eng-

lish unit each time you need to calculate the pressure drop and then convert the

calculated pressure drop in Ibf/ ft' to the more familiar Ibf/in

2

or "psi" so that

the value will have physical meaning to you since psi is the pressure unit that you

work with on a daily basis, OR

Convert the equation itself for use with your set of units as shown in Example

2.6 and use the measured values directly in the equation without need of conver-

sion. In addition, the computed answer js in the desired units of "psi".

Keeping in mind that this calculation is one that you make often, the second option is

obviously preferable.

18

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Common Oil Field Units and Measurements

Linear and Distance Measurements

Depths and lengths in the U.S. are measured in feet, but world wide, the meter is typically

used. By definition, 1 inch = 2.54 em, or

. (2.54cm)

1£t= 12m in = 30.48 em

or 1 ft = 0.3048 meters. Inversely, 1 meter = 3.28 ft

For example, a 10,000 ft well is

(

lmeter)

10,000 = 3048 meters

3.28 ft

Tubing diameter is measured in inches or em, e.g., 2 ;3/8 inch aD tubing has a 1.995 inch

. (2.54cm)

ID, and 2.375m in = 6.0325 em (60.325 mm) and 1.995 in ID = 5.067 em

(50.67 mm)

Area

5280

2

(ft/mD2

An acre is defined as 1/640 of a square mile or 2 = 43,560 ft

2

/acre (/1.

640 acres/mi

section of land is defined as a mile by a mile in area (mile

2

), and again by definition, the

square mile of area contains 640 acres).

Thus 1 acre = 43,560 ft

2

(1 m/3.28 ft)2 = 4048.9 m

2

Since a hectare is 10,000 m

2

(100 m x 100 m), then 1 acre = 0.405 hectares,

or,1 hectare = 1/0.405 = 2.47 acres

Flow Rates

Liquid Flow Rate

Typically, flow rate is measured in barrels, which is defined to be 42 gallons. A gallon is

defined to be 231 in

3

, or a barrel is

1 bbl(42 gal)(231 in

3

J( ft

3

J=5.615ft

3

bbl gal 1

2

3

in

3 ,

19

©2 __003. All RIGHTS RESERVED.

(

1 bblJ( lday J( lhr ) .

1 bbl/day = -- --- . =0.000694 bbls/mm = 0.029 gal/min

day 24 hrs 60 mm

(

5.615ft3 J(0.3048m)3

For flow rates in m

3

/day, start with 1 bbl, or = 0.159 m

3

/bbl

bbl ft

Inversely, 0.159 m

3

/bbl implies 6.29 bbls/m

3

. Thus, a well flowing 500 m

3

/day of oil is a

rate of 3,145 bbls/ day. A well flowing 400 bbls/day is flowing 63.6 m

3

/day.

Gas Flow Rate

Gas flow rate is given in standard cubic ft per day, or scf/ d. We also use msef/ day for

1000 scf/ day, and mmscf/ d for 1,000,000 scf/ day. To convert flow rate to a different

pressure, we use

P, v, PV

--=--

1; Z, TZ

where

P - pressure, psia

v - Volume, ft

3

Z - gas deviation factor (Z = 1 at standard conditions)

s - refers to standard conditions, eg, 14.7 psia and 60 deg F (520 deg Rankine)

For example, a well flowing 10 mmscf/d has a flow rate at 1000 psia and 100 deg F of

14.7(10,000,000) (1000)V

----''----''-'--- or V = 140,260 ft

3

. Therefore, the actual flow

(460+60)(1) (460+100)(0.886)

rate will be 140.26 mef/day (at 100 deg F and 1000 psia).

Density:

In addition to standard measures of density, such as Ibm/ ft

3

, petroleum engineers also use

densities such as Ibm/gal. For example, fresh water has a density of 62.4Ibm/ft

3

• Con-

verting this to Ibm/gal (ppg)

20

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

(

62.4lbmJ(_ft_J(231in

3

J =8.34 lbm/ al

ft

3

12in

3

gal g

Specific gravity is a very useful concept when comparing densities. In the case of liquids

and solids, their densities are compared to the density of water, or

density of material

Specific gravity = ---"------

density of water

For example, a specific gravity = 2 implies the material is twice as heavy as water (twice

the density). A 16 ppg mud has a specific gravity of 16/8.34 = 1.92. A cubic foot of this

mud would have a mass of 1.92 (62.4) = 119.7 Ibm, which would weight 119.7(g) / g, =

119.7Ibf.

Oil density is typically given in degrees API, which is a scale varying from 0 upwards to

values such as 60 or so (larger the number, the less dense the oil). The relationship be-

tween specific gravity and API is

141.5

Specific Gravity = -----

131.5+ API

Pressure

Engineers typically measure pressure in Ibf/in

2

, but the engineering system of units re-

quires Ibf/ ft

2

. A factor of 144 is needed, that is,

1 lbf ( 144in2 J= 144 Ibf

in

2

l ft

2

~ ft

2

The SI u ~ t of pressure is the Pascal, or Nt/m

2

• to convert from SI to psi, we use

1 . 1 ~ f ( in )2 [4.4477 Nt](100em)2 = 6,894Nt/m

2

In 2.54 em Ib

f

m

This is a rather large number, so typically we USe the unit of kilopascal, or 1000 pascals.

Thus, 1 psi = 1 Ibf/in

2

= 6.894 kilopascals. For example, a pressure of SilO psia is 500

(6.894) = 3447 kpa .

21

©2003. ALL RI

Physics of Fluids Revisited

A general understanding of some basic definitions and concepts

in fluid mechanics is helpful bifore discussing the nature of pe-

troleum accumulations and the rocks associated with them.

M

uch of the material presented in this chapter is a review of material

covered in previous courses in physical science or physics. Specifically,

several fundamental definitions and concepts related to fluid mechanics

will be revisited before proceeding with a discussion of the nature of

petroleum accumulations and the rocks associated with them. In addition, a few

definitions specific to petroleum engineering have been included.

STATES OF MATTER

Matter exists is 3 ordinary states which are solid, liquid, and gas. The 3 states are

distinguished by the degree to which each maintains its shape and volume. Except

under crushing forces, a solid maintains its shape under an applied force. Aliquid

is also able to maintain its volume almost constant under pressure, but its shape is

dictated by the container or other forces acting on it. A gas maintains neither a

fixed shape or volume. A gas expands or compresses as needed to exactly fit its

container. A substance which is able to flow is referred to as a fluid. Thus, a fluid

can either be a liquid or a gas.

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Density is defined as mass per unit volume and is often denoted by the lower case

of the Greek letter ''RHO'', p. Density may be expressed mathematically as fol-

lows:

m

p=-

V

(4.1)

Specific gravity of a liquid or solid is defined as the ratio of the density of the solid

or liquid to the density of water at 40°C. Specific gravity is a .dimensionless num-

22

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ber often denoted in petroleum engineering by the lower case of the Greek letter

"GANIMA" and may be expressed mathematically as follows:

p .

Y=

Pw@40'C

(4.2)

Similarly, the specific gravity of a gas is defined as the ratio of the density of the

gas to the density of air at a given pressure and temperature. Gas specific gravity

is most often defined at standard conditions. It is also a dimensionless number

and is also often denoted in petroleum engineering by the lower case of the Greek

letter "GAtvIMA" with the subscript "g" to denote gas and may be expressed

mathematically as follows:

IDEAL GAS LAw

Pg@p,T

Y '=

g @ T

Pair p,

(4.3)

The Ideal Gas Law is a combination of Charles' and Boyle's laws which expresses

the changes in g;g; volume as a result of changes in pressure and or temperature.

The Ideal Gas Law may be used for real gases at pressures close to atmospheric.

The Ideal Gas Law may be expressed mathematically as follows where p is the ab-

solute pressure, V is the volume, n is the number of moles of gas, R is the uruver-

sal gas constant and T is the absolute temperature.

pV = nRT (4.4)

"When pressure is measured using a gauge the pressure reading is relative to at-

mospheric pressure. A gauge indicating a pressure of Zero on the surface of the

earth would be indicating an absolute pressure equal to atmospheric pressure.

Atmospheric pressure depends upon elevation and also changes slightly from day

to day. It is customary to use a standard or reference value for atmospheric pres-

sure when determining a gas volume at standard conditions. A standard atmos-

phere of 14.7 psi is generally used when applying the gas law. This value will be

approximately equal to atmospheric pressure at sea level. However, when working

with gases in a laboratory, measuring and using the actual barometric pressure in

the laboratory is necessary to accurately determine the absolute pressure from the

pressure gauge readings.

The pressure indicated by the gauge is often referred to as the gauge pressure. Abso-

lute pressure is equal to the gauge pressure plus a pressure equal to 1 atmosphere.

For example when pressure is in units of pounds force per square inch (psi), abso-

lute pressure is equal to gauge pressure plus 14.7 psi.

Absolute p = Gauge p + 1 atmosphere (4.5)

23

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Often a gauge pressure reported in petroleum engineering practice in units of psi

will be reported in "units" of "psig" where the "g" serves as a reminder that the

pressure is a gauge pressure reading not an absolute pressure. Likewise, absolute

pressures are often reported in "units" of "psia". Note that each pressure is actu-

ally in ~ h e same pressure units of "psi" and that the "g" or "a" serve only as a

shorthand reminder to convert the pressure from a gauge reading relative to at-

mospheric pressure to an absolute pressure when needed.

The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) now discourages this practice and sug-

gests that the word "pressure" be preceded by the qualifier "gauge" or "absolute"

in the text or heading. For example, a pressure should be reported as an absolute

pressure of 1000 psi rather than a pressure of 1000 psia. Likewise, pressure reading

should be reported as a gattge pressure of 1 000 psi rather than a pressure of 1000 psig.

The unit of absolute temperature most frequently used in petroleum engineering is

degrees Rankine ~ R ) which is related to degrees Fahrenheit by the following rela-

tionship:

(4.6)

The numerica1 value of the universa1 gas constant (R) depends upon the units cho-

sen for the other variables. For practica1 petroleum engineering units where pres-

sure is in psi, volume is in cubic feet, and temperature is in oR, the va1ue an units

of R are as follows:

R = 10.73 psi ft3

oR

Recall that moles (n) are defined as follows:

m

(4.7)

n=- (4.8)

M

where m is the mass of the gas and M is the molecu1ar weight of the gas. Molecu-

lar weight is a physica1 property which is constant for a given gas ..

REAL GAS LAW

Natura1 gases do not follow the Idea1 Gas Law closely enough to allow it's use at

the higher pressures commonly found in the subsurface of the earth. To more

closely approximate the behavior of natura1 gases at high pressure, a deviation fac-

tor is added to the Idea1 Gas Law. This modified form of the Gas Law referred to

as the Real Gas Law. The deviation factor is commonly designated by the letter Z

and is commonly referred to in petroleum engineering as the :cfactor.

24

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

pV=znRT (4.9)

. This deviation factor is not a constant but is a function of pressure, temperature,

and the gas composition. The z -factor is the ratio of the actual volume of a gas

to the volume of the gas as if it were behaving ideally at a given temperature and

pressure. At low pressures, natural gases approach ideal behavior and as a result

the z-factor approaches 1.0. The z-factor is defined as follows:

Actual volume ocuppied by n moles of gas @ p, T

z = ----------"-"---"-----"'---"'-'-''----

Ideal volume ocuppied by n moles of gas @ p, T

(4.1 0)

Since the value of z-factor is a function of pressure and temperature for a given

gas composition, these values must be determined experimentally. Tables, charts,

and correlations (equations) based on these experimental measurements have been

compiled and published in various handbooks and other literature. An example of

one of these correlations for estimating the z-factor for a natural gas is listed as a

set of equations in Table 4.1. •

IDEAL LIQUIDS

Under isothermal (constant temperature) conditions, an ideal liquid is one which

has a constant compressibility factor, c. The compressibility factor expresses the

change in either volume or density with changes in pressure. In equation form, the

compressibility factor of an ideal liquid is defined as follows:

1 dV 1 dp

C = ----;or:c =--

Vdp pdp

(4.11)

where V is the original liquid volume, p is the liquid density and p is the pressure.

A useful form of this equation may be obtained by separating the variables and

integrating between a pressure where the density is known and a pressure where

the density is desired. Putting this result in exponential form we get the following:

p = poec(p-po) (4.12)

By inspection of Equation (4.11) or (4.12), the compressibility factor for a fluid

whose volume or density is constant as a function of pressure is equal to zero. A

value of zero for the variable c in Equation (4.12) would yield a density equal to

the original density regardless of pressure. A liquid with a compressibility factor

of zero is called incompressible. As the term implies, an incompressible liquid can-

not be compressed. Neither volume nor density will change no matter how much

or litde pressure is applied.

25

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

'L\BLE 4.1: EXAMPLE Z-FACTOR CORRELATION

PARAi\fETER NAME SYNIBOL i\.t"'lDjOR EQUATION

PSUEDO-CRITlCAL

Ppc PRESSURE;

PSUEDO-REDUCED

p

PRESSURE:

Ppr=-

Ppc

TfuvfPERATURE, oR:

T

PSUEDO-CRITlCAT.

Tpc TEMPERATURE, oR:

PSUEDO-REDUCED

T

TENfPERATURE;

Tp'=-

TpC

Z-FACTOR (Z)

Z = A+(l- A)e(-B)

where:

A -0.92 -0.36I;" -0.101

B=B1+B2+B3 .

B1= pp,(0.62-0.23I;,,)

B2 = 2 [0.066 _ 0.037]

P

P

' (I;,r -0.86)

6

B3=0.32( . P

P

' )

J20.723 (Tl'-ll]

C = 0.l32- 0.32Log

lO

(I;,,)

D=e

G

G = 0.715 -1. 128(I;" ) + 0.42(T),)

SLIGHTLY COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

A fluid with a very small compressibility factor (c) is referred to as slightly compressi-

ble. Liquids such as oil and water are slighdy compressible. Expanding the expo-

nent term in Equation (4.12) by using Maclauren's series, we get: .

(4.13)

The series in Equation (4.13) may be truncated after the second term in the pa-

renthesis to get a very useful equation for the density of slighdy compressible liq-

uidsas follows: p= Po(l+c(p-po)) (4.14)

26

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR

The petroleum producing industry uses the formation volume factor, B, to relate

fluid volumes in the reservoir to fluid volumes at surface conditions. This factor

includes both compressibility and solubility changes with the change in pressure

and temperature. The factor is defined simply as the volume occupied by the fluid

at the reservoir pressure and temperature divided by the volume it would occupy

at the surface pressure and temperature (most often taken to be standard condi-

tions). Subscripts w, 0, and g are used to signiry water, oil and gas. The factor

should be dimensionless, but this is not always the case --- especially for gas --- so

beware of units!

The formation volume factor for oil is .defined as follows:

liquid oil volume in the reservoir

B = - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

o liquid oil volume in the stock tank

(4.15)

The formation volume factor for gas is defined as follows:

B = volume ocuppied by gas in the reservoir

g volume occupied by gas at standard conditions

(4.16)

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

Suppose for a moment that you are swimming in the ocean. As you swim deeper

below the surface of the water, the pressure on Y0ll! body increases. Just as in the

deep end of a swimming pool, Y0ll! ears begin to hurt if you go deeper than about

10 feet. The pain is caused by the increase in pressure as you submerge in a body

of water. As the water depth increases so does the pressure. This pressure due to

a change in elevation within a motionless (static) body of water is referred to as

hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure is the reason that a maximum limit exists

for safe scuba diving. If you go too far down in the water, the pressure becomes

greater than your body can withstand safely.

Hydrostatic pressure is due to the weight of the overlying water. Recalling that

pressure is defmed as a force applied per unit area and that the weight of the over-

lying water can be related to the density of the water, the following expression for

hydrostatic pressure can be found:

F W mg (pV)g p(Ah)g pgh

p 0" - = - = - = -"-.-'-"-

A A Ag, Ag, Ag, g,

(4.17)

27

Pressure change

due to a change in

elevation within a

motionless (static)

body of water is

referred to as hy-

drostatic pressure.

I

water

r······ .... i.

1

hI

: ................................ "."" ....... i

water

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Thus, hydrostatic pressure is directly related to the density (p) of the water (or

other fluid) and the change in elevation (h) where the surface of the water has an

elevation of zero and downward is positive.

The change in hydrostatic pressure per foot of change in elevation is called the

hydrostatic gradient. By inspection, the hydrostatic gradient in a particular liquid is

constant as long as the liquid's density is constant. The hydrostatic gradient in

fresh water is about 0,433 pounds force per square inch per foot. The hydrostatic

gradient in salt water (brine) is slightly higher since salt water is heavier than fresh

water. The hydrostatic gradient in some sea water is about 0,465 psi/ft.

Example 4.1

A manometer is an instrument which measures pressure using the concept of hydrostatic

pressure. Determine the pressure difference existing across the wall of the soap bubble

formed on the end of a pipe which is attached to a manometer as shown if the difference

in elevation between the 2 water levels shown in the manometer is 1.2 mm.

Solution:

The hydrostatic pressure in a column of fluid is equal along lines of constant ele-

vation. Moving downward in a column of fluid causes pressure to increase while

moving upward causes pressure to decrease. At atmospheric pressure, the change

in hydrostatic pressure due to a change in elevation in the air may be neglected.

Since the system is open to the atmosphere at both ends, the pressure difference

across the bubble can be determined as follows:

Pout = PlItm

P

.=P +pgh,_pgh2=p +pg(h-h)

In aim aim 12

gc gc K

= + pg t:Jz = + (lgml ee)(980.7eml S2) (1.2mm X lem )

Pm Pat", P

atm

gm em 10

g, 980.7 mm

gfs2

= + gf = 0 12 gf

Pin Patm 2 Patm +. 2

10 em em

I'1p = Pin - P

au

, = P

atm

+0.12 gf2 - Pol'" = 0.12 gf2

em em

Notice that a manometer inherently measures a pressure difference directly as a height or

elevation difference. Pressure expressed as an elevation difference is often referred to as a

head. In this example, the pressure difference is a water head of 1.2 mm.

28

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ARCHIMEDES' PRINCIPLE

Archimedes' Principle states that the apparent weight loss of a solid immersed in

liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the solid. In other words,

the buoyant force on a body immersed in liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid

displaced by the body. Thus, by immersing a solid of unknown volume or density

into a liquid of known density and measuring the apparent weight loss of the im-

mersed solid, the volume or density of the solid may be calculated. Determining

the volume or density of an object by fluid displacement is especially useful when

the volume of an object may not be easily or accurately determined by measure-

ment of its physical dimensions.

As the story goes, Archimedes was inspired one day while taking a bath and pon-

dering how he might discover the authenticity of the king's new "gold" crown.

Archimedes knew that the specific gravity of pure gold is 19.3. Archimedes also

knew that he could easily determine the specific gravity of the crown if he knew its

volume. However, directly calculating the volmne of an irregularly-shaped crown

is not easily accomplished. Archimedes realized that the buoyant force acting on a

body immersed in liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body.

Using this principle, Archimedes was able to determine the specific gravity of the

crown.

Example 4.2

Suppose that the king's crown weighed 14.7 kg when measured in air and that it appeared

to weigh 13.4 kg when submerged in \-vater.

Solution:

Note that the "weights" are reported in kilograms which means that these quantities are

actually mass and "apparent mass". The mass does not really change, but only appears to

change due to the lifting effect of buoyancy. Recalling that the buoyant force (Ph) acting

on a body immersed in liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced ('\fIf) by the

body and using the relationships among weight, mass, and density, an expression relating

weight to mass and to density can be written as follows:

mog

W

gc w;, gc Po

(mo -m;)g

W

f

PfVfg

Pf

gc

gc

29

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

w

rno 1 Po ;:=Po =Yo

m, -m, Pj Pw

.6. ~ p p a r e n t

14.7 kg

(14.7 kg - 13.4kg)

Yo = 11.3

Thus, the specific gravity (y) of an object submerged in water is equal to the ratio of the

objects true weight to its apparent loss in weight. As shown, the same is also true with

regards to the object's mass. The specific gravity of the crown in this case is not equal to

19.3, the specific gravity of gold, but rather is equal to the specific gravity of lead.

VISCOSITY

Viscosity is a property of fluids which is a measure of the internal friction existing

between the different layers of a fluid in motion. In liquids, this internal friction is

due to the cohesive forces between the molecules of the liquid. In gases, the in-

ternal friction results from the collisions occurring among the gas molecules. In

general, the internal friction for a liquid in motion is much greater than the inter-

nal friction for a gas in motion. Thus, the viscosity of a liquid is generally greater

than the viscosity of a gas. Viscosity is often denoted by the lower case Greek let-

ter "MU" (fl) in petroleum engineering.

FLUID FLOW REGIMES

Fluid flows in 2 distinct regimes. Fluid that is flowing smoothly along orderly

paths called streamlines is said to be in laminar flow. Streamlines never cross one

another and are well-defined paths or flow boundaries which may be predicted

mathematically. Fluid that is flowing in unpredictable and complex eddies similar

to tiny whirlpools is said to be in turbulent flow. The fluid velocity is one of the

factors which determines the flow regime. For a given fluid in a given flow system

of a given geometry, a particular velocity exists above which the fluid flow regime

will change from laminar to turbulent.

POI SELLE'S LAw

In the early 1800's a French physicist named]. Poiseuille was interested in describ-

ing blood circulation. In the course of his work, Poiseuille developed a relation-

ship to predict the flow rate of a viscous fluid in a capillary tube. The relationship

is now known as Poiseuille's Law and can be expressed as follows for a tube of

radius, r, transmitting a fluid with viscosity, fl under a pressure gradient (dp/ dl):

30

_,,-r

4

dp

q = 81' dl

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

(4.18)

Note that the volumetric flow rate, q, is directly proportional to the pressure gra-

dient and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid. The viscosity unit

poise is named after Poiseuille. Later in this course, a law developed for the flow of

fluids in petroleum reservoirs will be discussed which will be very similar to Equa-

tion (4.18) .

31

©2003. ALL RI

Petroleum Geology Revisited

A general understanding of the process in which hydrocarbon-

bearing rocks were formed provides insZght into the study of

rock properties and the natural distribution of fluids within the

rock.

A

common misconception is that oil and gas (hydrocatbons) accumulate

and exist as "latge undergtound pools" which are surrounded by "solid"

rock. This misconception is fueled by the notion that all rock is a "solid"

(non-porous) material. In reality, rock which is capable of bearing hydro-

carbons is porous like a sponge.

The "solid" portion of the rock is referred to as the rock matrix and the often mi-

croscopic void spaces in the rock are referred to as pores. The hydrocarbons reside

within the pores of the rock itself. The particular volume of rock wherein the oil

and natural gas resides is referred to as the rese1710ir: Understanding of the process

in which hydrocarbon-bearing rocks were formed provides insight into the study

of petrophysics (rock properties) and the natural distribution of fluids within the

reservoir.

NATURE OF RESERVOIR ROCKS

Hydrocatbon-bearing rocks are generally sedimentary rocks. As the name implies,

the rocks ate composed primarily of sediment or pieces of broken rock eroded and

carried by water. The sediment is washed away from its source and into lakes and

rivers which transport and deposit the sediment downstream, eventually ending in

the ocean. Sedimentaty rocks may also be composed of chemicals which result

from a chemical process or prectpztate in the water, such as calcium carbonate.

Note that in either case water is involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks.

32

The primary type of

hydrocarbon-bearing

rock is the sedimen-

tary rock.

A particular layer

of rock deposited

at a particular time

is often referred to

as a formation.

©2003. All RIGHTS RESERVED

Successive !.lyers of sediment are deposited one on top the other in the deposi-

tional environment. The weight of the overlying layers acts to compress and

compact the underlying sediments while the precipitation of minerals from the

water ill-which the sediment was deposited acts to cement the sediment grains to-

gether. The result is a layer of sedimentary rock. The rock matrix is composed of

some combination of rock grains and cement and the pores are originally filled

with water. A particular layer of rock deposited at a particular time is often re-

ferred to as a formation. Because a formation is a unit of rock created at the same

time and in the same environment, the physical properties of a formation are gen-

erally consistent over a wide area.

Types of sedimentary rock which commonly bear hydrocarbons include sand-

stone, limestone, and dolomite. As the name implies, the primary ingredient in

sandstone is sand or quartz. Likewise the primary ingredient in limestone is lime

(calcium carbonate). Dolomite is a secondary form of limestone.

PROCESS OF RESERVOIR FORMATION

Although the exact process by which hydrocarbons are created is not fully known,

the geologic conditions favorable to forming petroleum reservoirs are known.

The theory explaining petroleum reservoir formation may be summarized as fol-

lows. When organic material becomes buried to a sufficient depth, the elevated

temperature and pressure cause it to be converted to petroleum. Tectonic forces

in the earth's crust and the huge pressures generated by the weight of overlying

rock layer caused the petroleum to ooze from its source and migrate upward fol-

lowing a meandering and tortuous path through pores of the overlying rock layers

toward the surface until a barrier to flow is encountered.

FOOD FOR THOUGHT

You might be asking yourself, "Why does the petroleum migrate upward? Why not flow

in other directions?" In response, consider that the pores of sedimentary rocks are

originally filled with water according to the theory of sedimentary rock formation (dis-

cussed in the previous section). Also recall that oil and natural gas are generally less dense

(lighter) than water. As a result, gravity will tend to cause gas, oil, and water to segregate

(separate) with the lightest fluid on top. This mechanism is often referred to as gravity segre-

gation. In processes driven by gravity segregation, the fluids will redistribute until the

lighter fluid (petroleum) floats on top of the heavier fluid (water).

A barrier to flow will halt upward migration of the oozing droplets of petroleum.

As a result, the petroleum droplets will begin to coalesce (combine) and accumu-

late beneath the barrier. Without some type of barrier, the petroleum would con-

tinue to percolate upward through the subsurface rock layers until it reached the

surface of the earth. Thus, one of the necessary geologic conditions for the for-

mation of a petroleum reservoir is the presence of a barrier which prevents further

33

One of the neces-

sary geologic con-

ditions for the ac-

cumulation of hy-

drocarbons in the

subsurface is a

trap.

©2003. All RIGHTS RESERVED

migration. The combination of the barrier and the rock layers containing the

cumulated petroleum is referred to as a trap. According to this definition, the

ervoir rock itself is part of the trap.

Traps are classified as either Jtratigraphic or combination. As the name

plies, structural traps are usually associated with some type of deformation of the

original configuration of the rock layers, such as folding or faulting. Examples of

structural traps include anticlinal traps, fault traps, and dome plug traps. \'{Ihereas

stratigraphic traps are usually associated with a condition or process associated

with the deposition of the sediments. Examples of stratigraphic traps include

conformities and lenticular traps.

An unconformity can be thought of ",S a "time gap in the geologic record" (Van

Dyke, 1987). When a previously formed layer of rock is brought to the surface, it

will begin to erode. If after a period of erosion, a new layer or sediment is

ited over the eroded surface, an unconformity will result. Lenticular traps derive

their name from the shape of the reservoir roGk which resembles a lens. Often

these reservoirs result from an uneven deposition of sand and clay as will often

occur in the formation of river sandbars. Once buried, the sandbar may form a

lenticular trap.

Structural traps are often associated with a structural anomaly or irregularity in the

subsurface. In the earliest days of petroleum exploration before the mechanics of

reservoir formation were understood, petroleum prospectors looked for

rive geologic structures outcropping at the surface. Experience had shown these

prospectors that oil and gas reservoirs could often be found by drWing around

pographic features such as salt domes. Salt domes often are indicated on the

face by a hill. A hill in the middle of a coastal marsh

area is a very distinctive indication of a structural anomaly (irregularity) in the

surface rock layers. In the past, the structure of the subsurface had to be inferred

from an analysis of the surface. With the advent and advance of seismic

ogy, much more is known about the subsurface structures associated with the

formation of petroleum reservoirs and traps.

RESERVOIR FLUID DISTRIBUTION

Reservoir rock typically contains 2 or 3 types of fluid in varying proportions

within the pore space. These 3 fluids are water, oil, and/or natural gas. The

ence of oil and/or gas is required for the rock to be classified as a reservoir. The

presence of the water along with the oil and/or gas and the location and

ration of the fluids within the pores is a result of the following:

(1) the process .in which sedimentary rocks are formed,

(2) the properties of the reservoir rock,

(3) the properties of the fluids within the rock, and

(4) the interaction between the roc)< & the fluids contained within it.

34

Normal pressure in

the Gulf Coast re-

gion of the United

States is 0.456

pounds force per

square inch per

foot of depth.

©2003. All RIGHTS RESERVED

Typically, water coats all grains of the reservoir rock and exists as a flim between

the inner surfaces of the rock's pores and the oil and/or gas. \'V'hen both oil and

gas are present, gas occupies the largest pore spaces while the oil occupies the in-

termediate pore spaces. The smallest pore spaces remain completely filled with

water. This configuration, while not always true, is mote common than the alter-

native. The reasons and mechanisms behind both the typical and alternative dis-

tribution of fluids within the reservoir rock are too complex to be discussed here.

Explaining these mechanisms will be the purpose behind many of the future top-

ics of this course in petrophysics.

RESERVOIR PRESSURE

Petroleum reservoirs are generally under pressure. In other words, the pressure

within the pore space of the reservoir rock is greater than the pressure at the sur-

face of the earth. The level of pressure within a particular reservoir is a function

of the geologic conditions in which the rock was created. The pressure exhibited

by a particular reservoir is strongly dependent upon the depth of the reservoir be-

low the surface of the earth. As depth increases so does pressure.

The vast majority of reservoirs are normally pressured while some exhibit a pressure

greater than would be expected at a particular depth and are abnormally pressured.

As the name implies, normal pressure is that level of pressure which can be ex-

pected at a particular depth. What is considered normal.varies regionally. In the

Gulf Coast region of the United States, the normal pressure is 0.465 pounds force

per square inch per foot of depth. Consider again the process which creates sedi-

mentary rocks. Sediments are transported and deposited in water then buried and

compacted by successive layers of sediment deposited over time. Since the sedi-

ment is deposited in water, water occupies all of the spaces between the individual

particles of sediment. As the sediments are buried and compacted, some of the

water is pushed our. As long as the water has a escape path to the top of the

sediments (the sea floor), the sediments will not be under an additional or abnor-

mal pressure. That is, the pressure within the rock that these sediments eventually

form will exhibit a normal pressure. If the water's path of escape to the surface is

removed or sealed, the water will not be able to escape as the sediments are com-

pacted. This trapped and compressed volume of water will lead to an abnormally

high pressure or abnormal pressure within the rock.

FOOD FOR THOUGHT

What does this value tell us about the subsurface pressure in the area of the Gulf of Mex-

ico? This means that for every foot down below the surface of the earth in the area of the

Gulf of Mexico, the pressure will increase by 0.465 pounds force per square inch. At a

. depth of 10,000 feet below the surface of the earth on the campus ofLSU, one would

expect to find a pressure of (0.465 psi/ft)(10,000 ftl = 4,650 psi.

35

The hydrostatic

gradient in sea

water is aboUt.

0.442 psi/ft.

©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The hydrostatic pressure gradient in the sea water is 0.442 psi/ft. Notice that the change

in pressure per foot of depth observed in the subsurface rock layers in the normally pres-

sured areas of the Gulf Coast is approximately equal to that observed in a body of sea

water. Why is that?

Imagine that you have an open tank filled with clean sea water. Leaving the tank open,

gravel is placed into the water-filled tank until the gravel reaches the top of the tank and

no more gravel will fit into the tank. What will happen as the gravel is placed into the

tank? Since the tank is open, a volume of water equal to the volume of the gravel in the

tank will slosh over the sides of the tank. Once the gravel has settled to the "bottom" of

the tank, what will be the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the tank?

Consider the following facts:

(1) the hydrostatic pressure gradient is related to the density of the fluid,

(2) all of the water in the tank is still in contact or communication with itself (i.e.

none of it is sealed off or trapped), and

(3) the gravel particles have settled so that they are resting one on top of the

other and are not suspended in the water.

The water occupies all of the space in the tank among the pieces of gravel except for

where the pieces of gravel touch each other. Because the gravel is not suspended in the

water, the density of the sea water within the tank remains the same as before. The

weight of the bottom-most layer of gravel is suppotted by the bottom of the tank. The

weight in the next layer of gravel upward is supported by the bottom-most layer of gravel.

Likewise, each successive layer of gravel is supported by the layer directly below it. Thus,

the presence of the gravel in the tank under these conditions does not affect the hydro-

static gradient in the tank. It is the same as before, 0.442 psi! ft. This illustrates concep-

tually why the normal in subsurface layers of rock is essentially equal to

the hydrostatic pressure gradient of the sea water in which they were originally deposited.

36

© 2003 by Petroleum Services International. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Contact Petroleum Services International, Publishing Division at 225766-6536.

·2

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION .................................................. .4

2. REGARDING THE GREEK ALPHABET .•.••••..•. 5 THE GREEK ALPHABET ............................................... 5 NOMENCLATURE ......................................................... 5 3. DIMENSIONAL DECEPTIONS ........................... 7 UNlTS AND DIMENSIONS :........................................... 7 UNITS OF LENGTH AND MAss ..................................... 8 UNIT CONVERSION ...................................................... 6 UNITS OF FORCE .......................................................... 9 WEIGHT .................................................................... 12 UNIT SYSTEMS .......................................................... 12 CONSISTENT UNITS & EQUATIONS ............................. 15 4. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS REVISITED •...••••...••.••••. 20 STATES OF MATTER .................................................. 20 DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVlTY ............................. 20 IDEAL GAS LAW ............................. ,.......................... 21 REAL GAS LAW ......................................................... 22 IDEAL LIQUIDS .......................................................... 23 SLIGHTLY COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS ............................ 24 FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR .................................. 27 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE .......................................... 27 ARCHIMEDES' PRINCIPLE .......................................... 27 VISCOSITY ................................................................. 28 FLUID FLOW REGIMES .............................................. 28 POISELLE'sLAW ........................................................ 28 5. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY REVISITED ........... 30 NATURE OF RESERVOIR ROCKS ................................. 30 PROCESS OF RESERVOIR FORMATION ........................ 31 RESERVOIR FLUID DISTRIBUTION ............................. 33 RESERVOIRPRESSURE ............................................... 33 6. POROSITY ............................................................ 35 POROSITY DETERMINATION ...................................... 36 SOURCES OF POROSITY ............................................ .43 FACTORS AFFECTING POROSITY .............................. .44 7. FLUID SATURATION •••••••••••••••••.••••••••••...•••••..••• 50 IRREDUCIBLE WATER SATURATION .......................... 52 RESIDUAL OIL OR GAS SATURATION ........................ 52 DISPLACEABLE PORE VOLUME ................................. 53 RECOVERY FACTOR .................................................. 53 INITIAL OIL VOLUME ................................................. 54 8. COMPRESSIBILITY OF ROCK ........................ 55 NOMENCLATURE ........................................... 146 9. ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF ROCK ......... 66 FORMATION RESISTIVITY FACTOR ............................ 69 FORMATION RESISTIVITY INDEX ............................... 72 WATER SATURATION DETERMINATION ..................... 72 EFFECT OF CLAY IN ROCK ......................................... 74 10. ABSOLUTEPERMEABILITY ••••••••.••.•.••••••..•.•• 77 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ....................................... 78 DARCY'S LAW EXTENDED ......................................... 79 THE UNITS OF PERMEABILITY ................................... 83 PERMEABILITY IN RESERVOIRS ................................. 85 EFFECT OF NET OVERBURDEN .................................. 85 RELATIONSHIP TO RESISTIVITy ................................. 86 EFFECT OF CLAY DISTRIBUTION ............................... 87 11. APPLICATION OF DARCY'S LAW ................ 90 LINEAR FLOW ............................................................ 90 RADIAL FLO\)' ........................................................... 91 ApPARENT PERMEABILITY IN SERIES ........................ 92 ApPARENT PERMEABILITY IN P ARALLEL. .................. 94 DIRECTIONAL NATURE OF PERMEABILITY ................ 93 12. EFFECTIVE PERMEABILITY ...................... 100 EFFECTIVE PERMEABILITY ........................................ 98 RELATIVE PERMEABILITY ....................................... 101 EFFECT OF SATURATION HISTORY .......................... 102 13. CAPILLARY FORCES ..................................... 107 SURFACE TENSION (GAS-LIQUID) ........................... 105 INTERFACIAL TENSION (LIQUID-LIQUID) ................ 110 WETTING AT LIQUID-SOLID INTERFACES ................ 112 RELATIVE WETT ABILITY ......................................... 113 CAPILLARY RISE ..................................................... 115 14. RESERVOIR CAPILLARY PRESSURE ....... 119 DISTRIBUTION OF FLUIDS IN RESERVOIR ................. 120 RELATIONSHIP TO WATER SATURATION ................. 125 EFFECT OF SATURATION HISTORY .......................... 124 EFFECT OF HEIGHT ABOVE WATER LEVEL .............. 125 EFFECT OF PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTI(,)N ...................... l25 EFFECT OF DENSITY DIFFERENCE ........................... 126 EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL TENSION .......................... 129 EFFECT OF ROCK WETTABILITY .............................. 129 15. PRACTICE & REVIEW PROBLEMS ........... 128 BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................. 145

3

petroleum engineering calculations become meaningless and abstract.Introduction An understanding of the properties of petroleum-bearing rocks and the interaction between these rocks'and the associatedfluids provides the petroleum engineer with valuable insight when predicting and optimizing the production of oil and gas. and then these are then combined in reservoir engineering (PETE 4051 & 4052). 4 . A s will be discussed in this course. the science of petrophysics is directly applied in formation evaluation (PETE 4088) which strives to link rock properties which may be measured directly using logging and core analysis to other properties of interest to the petroleum engineer which may not be directly measured underground. then fluid properties (PETE 2032). which permits the development of the more advanced concepts of Petroleum Engineering. The purpose is to firmly establish a foundation in petrophysics. Without a basic understanding of the properties of petroleum-bearing rocks and the fluids associated with them fluids and their interactions. In petrophysics. petroleum-bearing rocks act as both the storage container and the initial transport medium or conduit for the production of oil and gas. the properties associated with petroleum-bearing rocks and the phenomena associated which the interaction between fluids and the rock are studied. This text is not intended to be an all encompassing survey course. We first study rock properties or petrophysical properties (PETE 2031). Furthermore.

Therefore. NOMENCLATURE Familiarity with the Greek Alphabet will enhance your ability to express and to interpret technical concepts in the study and practice of engineering. the property or concept represented by each symbol is not universal. Table 2. in petroleum engineering the Greek letter ~ (pronounced "FEE'') traditionally represents the physical property of a rock called porosity. cientific and technical fields such as engineering requite a large number of symbols to represent physical properties and concepts. The vast majority of us are introduced only to the Greek alphabet through their use as symbols to represent abstract ideas in mathematics. with their names and pronunciations.Regarding the Greek Alphabet As in mathematics and other sciences. the same letter in thermodynamics. For example. the study of heat transfer. Those who go on to more advanced levels of study in technical fields such as engineering become familiar with their use as a short-hand notation to represent physical properties and concepts. S THE GREEK ALPHABET Today Greek is rarely a topic of study in the conventional public education curriculum. However.1 lists all of the letters in the Greek alphabet. represents a property referred to as availability which has nothing at all to do with the porosity of a rock. Greek letters are a commonjy used short-hand notation to represent physicalproperties and concepts in engineering. The use of the Greek alphabet to provide a set of useful symbols in addition to the Roman alphabet used to communicate ideas in the English and other languages began hundreds of years ago when Greek and Latin were commonly learned by scholars. The pronunciations listed are those commonly used today in English speaking countries. In general. to avoid miscommunication good engineering practice requires that the particular use 5 . Each discipline has its own customary usage for the Greek alphabet. upper-case and lower-case.

8 E "DEL-tuh" E Z H "EP-sil-on" "ZAY-tuhP "AY-tuh" "THAY-tuh" "eye-OH-tuh" "KAP-uh" 1. An abridged listing of the nomenclature used in this text is also given in Appendix C. This listing is commonly called the Nomenclature.L V "LAM-duh" "1vfYOO" "NOO" /Mobility Ratio /Viscosity /velocity '" 0 IT P L T y C.of each symbol is defined on a case -by -case basis whenever symbols are used to convey ideas. TABLE 2. Nomenclature is given as needed throughout this text.1: LETTERS OF THE GREEK ALPHABET Uppercase Lowercase Name Pronunciation "AL-fuh" A B a ~ y ALPHA BETA GAMMA DELTA EPSILON ZETA ETA THETA IOTA KAPPA LAiVlBDA MU NU XI Example of Usage (Upper/Lower) / Angle in geometry / Angle in geometry Torque/Specific gravity Change / partial derivative "BAY-tuh" ~'GA1vI-uh" r L'. 11 t K /Mobility Ratio / Contact Angle <9 I K A M N e Ie f. 0 "KS-EYE" "OM-i-KRON" "PIE" "ROW" "SIG-muh" "TAW' OMICRON PI RHO SIGMA TAU UPSILON PHI CHI PSI OMEGA n P IT 1: /3.142 /Density Summation /Surface Tension /Tortuosity Flow Po\ential/Porosity tJ "OOP-si-LON" "FEE" <D X cI> X "I<-EYE" '¥ n 'l' OJ "SIGH" "Oh-MAY-guh" Ohm (unit)/ 6 . This is commonly done in textbooks and technical papers as a listing of each symbol used along with a description of the property or idea it represents.

particularly inconsistent ones. The dimension. the unit chosen usually depends qpon the scale of the dimension being measured. 1 foot. For example. As a result. All RI Dimensional Deceptions Numerical values alone do not convey a pqysical quantity. A Values combined with units convey n inherent source of error and confus-ion for the engineer is the use of dimensional unit systems.force and mass . such as lengrh or time.should be clearly understood. 12 inches. Both a numerical value and a unit must be stated together to convey meaningfulpqysical information. feet. the dimension length might be measured in inches.©2003. any 7 . a numerical value which conveys how many of the standard reference units are in the physical quantity is also required to convey meaning. For example. The unit of measurement chosen determines the magnitude of the numerical value. and their units and dimensions watched closely in all formulas and calculations. miles. meters. and 0. but the intermixing of gravitational and absolute unit systems can easily complicate matters. confusion will frequently arise. the differences between these quantities .3048 meters all represent the same distance. First. To avoid these complications. a dimension which identifies the nature of the quantity is required. UNITS AND DIMENSIONS a physical quantity_ Conveying the magnitude of a physical quantity requires 2 elements. A relatively large distance might be reported in miles or feet while a relatively small distance might be measured in inches or centimeters. The engineer must use both metric and English units because of the differences between science and technology. A unit provides a basis of comparison or a standard reference. but the numerical value attached defining the number of unit lengths in the distance are not equal because the standard of reference is not equal. determines the choices available for the unit of measurement to be used. Routine conversions between these units are only mildly troublesome. etc. Second. For example. For convenience and accuracy. when pounds force and pounds mass appear in the same equation.

both of these quantities are equivalent. But. one student answers 42. Velocity can also be expressed as a length divided by a time interval.615 cubic feet. Without stating the units. All other quantities can be expressed in terms of these four. the first student answered 42. Likewise. units must always be stated explicitly in an engineering calculation. At present.e. S. A sufficient choice of primary quantities for most engineering work is mass. 1 inch = 2.. velocity will require a unit for length combined with a unit for time. both represent the same volume and are also equivalent to 1000 barrels. other physical quantities may be expressed in terms of a set of primary quantities which cannot be broken down any further. ALL RIGHTS -RESERVED. and temperature. For this reason. In response to the question regarding the volume of oil produced. Any quantity which is not one of these four primary quantities is referred to as a secondary quantity. That is.©2003. Consider the following scenario. length. time. Both students were correct and in agreement. A sufficient choice of primary quantities for most engineering work is mass. time. As it turns out.000 and the other answers 5. statement of a physical quantity having dimension is incomplete or meaningless without explicitly including the unit of measurement.000 barrels. the answer is incomplete so its accuracy cannot be judged without further information. these have been statidardized by the U. are defined by reference to the standard yard and avoirdupois pound. France. Customary English units of length and mass for the U. length. UNITS OF LENGTH AND MASS The fundamental standards of length and mass designed for the entire world are the distance between two lines inscribed on a particular platinum-iridium bar and the mass of a certain block of platinum. these standards are maintained at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres.615. the commonly used unit of time is the second. When prompted. Congress in terms of the international meter and kilogram mass. Thus. S. This algebraic manipula- 8 . was defined as 1/86. The volume in question is 1.54 em exactly) 1 pound mass 0. The majority of physical quantities have dimensions which can be expressed in terms of the dimensions of a limited number of fundamental quantities. but the numerical value alone could not convey the volume of oil produced.4535924277 kilogram mass = UNIT CONVERSION A measurement in a particular set of units can be converted to an equivalent quantity using a different set of units of the same dimensions.9144 meters (i. as: 1 yard = 0. Neither student states what unit of volume he/she is using.000 gallons and the other student answered 5. and temperature.400 part of a mean solar day. All other quantities can be expressed in terms of these four primary quantities. Velocity is defined as the time rate of change of position. Known as the international meter bar and kilogram mass.

1 A car is traveling at a speed of 90 miles per hour. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Express its speed in (a) feet per second. notice that the numerator of each factor is equal to its denominator.x x x-'. or: F oc rna 9 . Other values of 1 are used as needed. to maintain a fixed quantity of force as an unvarying physical standard.-'--'-hr hr 60 min mile ft When this procedure is used. and therefore can be used as a multiplier since multiplying by 1 does not change the value of the original fraction.. A listing of some of the more commonly used conversion ratios or "well-chosen l's" are listed in Table 3.1 UNITS OF FORCE It would be difficult.:.3048 meter (h) 90--= . By Newton's law of motion. a. whose magnitude is proportional to the mass and acceleration of the body..1.. the probability of error is greatly reduced. if not impossible. the very existence of a force can only be inferred from the changes it produces in the state of motion of a material body.©2003.. and any expression can be multi1 hr 60 min plied by 1 without changing its value. produced in a body of constant mass. is attributed to the action of a force.x mile hr 0 mile hr hr 60 min x min 5280 ft x 60 sec mile (90)(5280) ft = 132~ (60)(60) sec sec 2414 meter mm mile 90 mile hr 5280 ft 0. dimensionless factors.. each having a numerical value of unity (one). That is. Learn and apply this technique to Example Problem 3. . Each conversion involves the multiplication of the original quantity by a series of well chosen. For by its nature. To verify this last statement. we make use of the fact 1 Solution: greatly reduce unit conversion errors. the acceleration. the fraction [ (1 hour) / (60 min)] has a value of unity. tion is accomplished by multiplying the measurement by an appropriate "well chosen value of one". and (h) meters per minute. First.. F. 60 min 1hr (a) 90--=9 . m. Using these ratios and the technique illustrated in Example 3.

&' is adjusted to preserve the numerical and dimensional equality of the equation (3.2 A particular unit of force.42 gallons I 1 Acre ft . The size of the unit force is determined by an arbitrary choice of acceleration effect it must produce in a given mass. More complex quantities. I 1 pound . Only three need be fundamental. and time are recognized as the primary quantities. we can make the equation an equality by introducing a constant of proportionality. by definition F = -rna = -(1 gm)(1 cm/sec ) = 1 dyne 1 1 2 gc gc To preserve dimensional as well as numerical equality. to be used with set of units. gc.54 cm_ 100 cm = 1 meter Mass 1 kg .43. the proportionality ~onstant. I Example 3. Instead. Once these standard effects have been specified.560 ft' . length. Length 1 foot = 12 inches 1 yard . such as pressure and energy.453.1) expressed above. length. called a dyne.1000 grams Area 1 Acre = 43. Equation (3.1. g" and write: 1 F=-ma g.231 in' .1) This equation involves four quantities. gc must have the value: g = 1 gm(cm/sec c dyne 2 ) 10 . we have.6 grams 1 barrel . and time. force is used as a convenient secondary dimension. force. force.1) defines the dimensions of the derived quantity.560 feet' Viscosity 1000 cp . TABLE 3.©2003. We do not reduce such quantities to the primary quantities as a matter of convenience to avoid needless complexity. If mass. (3. are defined in terms of a force. is defined as that force required to accelerate a gram of mass at the rate of one centimeter per second squared. mass.2. thus defining the fourth. as a mass times a length divided by the square of a time interval. Calculate the value of the constant. Solution: When the above definition is introduced into Equation 2.1 Pa-s Volume 1 gallon .3 feet 1 mile = 5280 feet 1 inch . All RIGHTS RESERVED.1: C01-hI10NLY USED CONVERSION RATIOS OR tlWElL-CHOSEN 1 'S". Since this is a proportionality.

gm (em/sec): 2gmem/sec dyne mv 2 --dynecm 2 This last equation. Example 3.. The energy imparted to the body is then Ek =work=FS=(maJ(~J= mv g.©2003. Develop an expression for the kinetic energy Ek of a body of mass m. Thus. the conversion factor go will appear in all problems that involve dynamics. The definition of each force unit is contained within the definitiDn of gc for each system of units. we see that the constant go serves the twofold purpose of (1) defining the standard effects expected of a certain nnit force. as given in elementary physics. Unreliable mental conversions are eliminated by the presence of go. probably did not contain go. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Since mass and force are not independenr quantities. moving at a constant velocity v using the definition of Work = force x disrance. 2a 2 = 2g. (m L' / t') or (gm-cm2 /s 2 ). are not associated with energy until one makes the mental conversion 1 dyne:= 1 gm-em / 52. Upon application of a steady unbalanced force (F) acting through a sufficient distance (s). and (2) identifying this unit by name. In accordance with Equation (3. the body will acquire the required velocity (v). ge.3 Remember that the constant. is not an accelera. Solution: Assume the body to be originally at resr. tion term. 11 . for it allows the simultaneous use of both quantities in the same equation. and the distance s traveled by the body while acquiring the velocity v is relared to its acceleration as follows: Unreliable mental conversions are eliminated by the presence of the constant gc. but a conversion factor between the unit of force and its assigned primary units. this force gives the body of mass m a constant acceleration a: F=-ma 1 g.1). But the dimensions of the result.

A force of 1 pound force will accelerate a mass of one slug at the rate of 1 ftls'. Therefore. UNIT SYSTEMS Each time an arbitrary choice of basic units is made for mass. the various systems are not compatible with each other. 12 .2.2) where g is the acceleration which gravity would impart to the body in a free fall. The units of force are defined by the following statements: • • • • • A force of 1 dyne will accelerate a one gram mass at the rate of 1 cm/ S2. (3. of a body of mass. A force of 1 Newton (N) will accelerate a mass of one kilogram (kg) at the rate of 1 mls'. Being a force quantity. the weight. WEIGHT The force of attraction which the earth exerts on a material body is called the weight of the body.665 ft/ S2. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED . W. . may be calculated using Newton's law in the form 1 W=-mg g.©2003. and time.174 ft/ S2. a new system of units is established together with'an opportunity for defining a new unit of force. m. the term "weight" is sometimes used improperly as a synonym for mass. A force of 1 gram force (gf) will accelerate a one gram mass (gm) at the rate of 980. length. Unit systems commonly used in scientific and engineering calculations are listed in Table 3. A force of 1 pound force (lbf) will accelerate a one pound mass (Ibm) at the rate of 32. While each system is self-consistent. Unfortunately. it cannot be over-emphasized that weight has the dimensions of force.

17 ft/s' ft' ft3 slug/ft3 ft3 /sec ft3/lbf em' em3 em' em 3 L' p=M/L' Q = L3/T g/em3 cm3/sec gm/em3 cm3 /sec Specific Volume Absolute Viscosity V =L3/lbm ----- ---- ----- M fi= LT -gem s Dyne-em ~ ms (pa s) Nt-m Goule) J/s (Watt) Nt/m' (pascal) gm em s (poise) gkm gf-em /s -ft s lbm slug ft s Ft-Ibf Hp=550 ft-Ibf/s Ibf/ft2 Energy E=FL P=FL/T Ft-Ibf Hp = 550 ft-Ibf/s lbf/ft' (work) Power (erg) erg/s Pressure P=F/L' Dyne/em2 gf/cm 2 13 . lbf 1-Ibf s' slugft ML g. em second. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED . s Pound dyne Newton.2: C01:1J\[ON PHYSICAL QUAl'\lTITIES AND THEIR DIlYIENSIONS AND UNITS. g kilogram.7 em/52 m/s g = 9.7 em/52 ft/s g =32. = FT' 1 gem dynes 2 1 kg m Nts 2 gem 980.7-• gf s 2 32. Ibm foot. • TABLE 3. ft IvIass M L T F. Engineer Metric EngineerEnglish Technical English Slug Foot. Pound (mass). gravity Area Volume Density Flow Rate v=L/T g= L/T' U em/s g=980. ft second.17lbmft lbf S2 Velocity Acceleration.81 mis' m' m3 kg/m3 m3 /sec em/s g = 980. gc Nt gram (force). r' Conversion constant. gm centimeter.©2003. s em second. Remember that the constant gc is Quantity Symbol CGS SI not an acceleration term but is a conversion factor between the unit offorce and its assigned primary units. m second. s Gram (mass). lbf (force).17 ft/s' ft' ft 3 lbm/ ft3 ft 3/sec ft3/lbf ft/s g = 32. s Second. gf Pound (force). ML gram. kg Meter. S Length Time Force centimeter.

breviated as Ibmthe pound force as Ibf.1 and 3.80 N on the surface of the earth.773. Inclusion of the constant gc serves as a reniinder of the relationship between the quantities of mass and weight and their units.6gm x 2.1 and Table 3. Notice that in those unit systems wherein the acceleration due to gravity was included "in the definition (i. the conversion constant.{ghtand mass are often used interchangeably. when this conversion constant is 1. the pound mass is often ab.54)(12) dyne = 444.4. The units and numerical value of g. Example 3. In other systems of units.6)(2.7 dynes asgm.2. and the gram mass Calculate a factor for converting pounds of force Solution: to equivalent dynes of force.©2003. the dimensions and units of the 2 quantities are not. 1 Ibf = 1 Ibf X 32. so the equality is preserved.. a mass of 1 kg weighs 9.2. For these reasons. the dimensions and units of the 2 quantities are not.2.17 Ibm ft x 453. FOOD FOR THOUGHT Even though the numerical values of mass and weight are often equal.4. gram force. (I) 14 . Note in each example that each ratio has a value of 1. the conversion factor between any quantity within or among any system of units can de determined using a few "well-chosen ones" either from memory or using Table 3.54cm x 12in x dyne sec' Ibf sec' Ibm in ft I gm em Ilbf= (32.4.17)(453.2. In this way. g. its inclusion is required when the object is not strictly located on the surface of the earth! Furthermore..e. a "weight" reported in kilograms is really a mass and is NOT numerically equal to its true weight in Newtons in the SI system of units. weight and mass are not numerically equaL Even though the numerical values of mass and weight (when measured on the surface of the earth) are often equal. For example. Frequently.1 To eliminate confusion. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. is typically dropped from equations relating mass and force. are obtained by substitution of the defining statements of the force units into the general form of Newton's equation as previously illustrated in Example 3. In addition. pound force) the mass of an object located on the surface of the earth is numerically equal to the weight. This is illustrated in Examples 3. Remember that the constant & is not an acceleration term but is a conversion factor between the unit of force and its assigned primary units. the force unit is defined such that the value of the conversion constant gc is 1. These values are given along with the primary and derived units for each system are listed in Table 3. However. the terms )ve.

447737 N (1000)(100) CONSISTENT UNITS & EQUATIONS Rather than an arbitrary choice of units for each secondary quantity. the consistent unit for volume is cubic feet.6)(2.17 Ibm ft Ibfs' x 453. Solution: llbf= 11bfx 32. tion of a physical equation. area is defined as the square of length.4. and force specified for each system.6 gm Ibm x 1 kg 1000 gm x 2. Similarly in the engineering English system.54)(12) N = 4.2. including the ubiquitous gO' has a distinct advantage. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.17)(453. for volumetric flow rate is cubic feet per second. the consistent unit choice for area in the CGS system is the square centimeter. Likewise. and d denotes diameter of the pipe.2 Calculate a factor for converting pounds of force to equivalent Newtons (N) of force. L denotes length of the pipe. mechanical units not listed in Table 3.5 The pressure drop required to maintain a fluid in laminar flow through a horizontal pipe is given by the equation: The equation is in balance dimensionally or is di- mensionally coherentwhich must be true for any valid equation. length. V denotes velocity of the fluid. for pressure is pounds force per square foot (ps£). The resulting expression can be used with any other system of consistent units without further modifications. let us investigate the dimensional properties of this equation: 15 . and for work or energy is foot pounds force. For example.2 are derived from the units of mass.©2003. Example 3. In the deriva. fl denotes viscosity of the fluid. As a result. time. the consistent unit adopted for area in the engineering English system is the square foot since the foot has already been selected as the unit of length..54 em In 12 in x--x ft N s' x--100 em I kgm m Ilbf= (32. exclusive use of a consistent system of units. Example 3. Referring to the second column of Table 3. where p denotes pressure.

6 Modify the equation for pressure drop presented in Example 2. consistent units from ~ system may be used in this equation as given.2. Example 3.5 to accept the following "field units" or preferred set of inconsistent units: Quantity: Desired Unit: LIp lbf/in' . without any other conversion factors or additional qualifying remarks. repeat the process substituting units from the engineering English system: 1 lbl lbl Ibm ft ft Ibf s' x--=---=--x-x -x ft' ft s 1 s Ibm ft ft' ft' As a consequence. Empirical equations based on experimental data rather than derived mathematically from fundamental engineering or scientific principles. Referring to Table 3.ompanied by a detailed listing of particular units to be used with each different quantity. Therefore. the dimensions of the pressure term on the left shown to be the same as the combined dimensions of all terms on the right. the desired "field" units will be converted to consistent engineering English units for substitution into the original equation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. the equation is in balance dimensionally or is dimensionallY coherent which must be true for any valid equation.©2003. as well as physical equations which have been modified to accept certain quantities expressed in more Hpractical" units. This dimensional balance may also be shown by substituting consistent units from any sys· tern of units. A good engineer always knows the units of each value given or calCUR lated. 16 . psi !l centipoise (cp) L ft v ftls d in Solution: Since the original equation as given will accept any consistent set of units. These equations cannot stand alone. but must be ac!. Units may always be used as an error check or as a reminder of the definition or dimensions of any secondary quantity. are usually inconsistent. As shown above.

p' numerically.2 (32)(12)' jlL'v' 0.x -I.p ft' Ibm • 1000 gm X X ill X f. but the physical quantity represented by the value and unit combination are equal. 17 . they may now be substituted into the original equation.2 Ibm. (32) ( 144!'J.l --=J. Our final equation is no longer consistent..p in' (ft)' Pa s 1000 ep X ('" .. Because these expressions are in terms of a set of consistent units.00066840 p'L'v' (d')' where all values must be in specified "desired" units.p in' ft' . ..09625 p'L'v' P .fbi X (12in )' .x IOO x -I = 1488. ft s s d ft = d' in x J. ft s (N/m') kg ill Pa Ns x--2 -x 453.17)(1488.6 .09625 p'L'v' ')' 32.©2003.I .54 1 12 ( p' ) Ibm fig Lft=L'ft V -=v - ft .e.!!. Quantity: Desired Unit: Consistent Unit: "'p Ibf/in2 ..17 ( ~2 (32. '" Ibf .lbl)(i 44 in' ) =144('" ') lbl .p ft' = '" .2) (df (d'? !'J._ 0.54 em 12 in in 1ft kg 100 em x-- Ji fts =Ji cpx lOOO x 453..e.p '" !'J. Note that the numerical values are not equal..p' = 0. For example. 1 1 x 1000 2. psi Ibf/fe fl centipoise (cp) Ibm/ (ft s) L ft ft v ft/s ft/s d In ft Let us adopt the convention that the original variable (i. ') = .6 gm _ 2.p ( ') P LV 1488. but the physical pressure drop represented is the same (1Ibf/ft2 = 1/144Ibf/in2). or else the equation will give a wrong answer. . All RIGHTS RESERVED . !'J. "'p') represents the correspondingvalue for the quantity expressed in the desired unit.l cp x Ibm. "'p) represents a value for the quantity expressed in the consistent unit while the same vatiable primed (i.144 (d')' => !'J. for all quantities must now be expressed in the desired units specified. = 12 in (£) 12 ft These variables representing values in the desired units have now been expressed in terms of the consistent unit.

are the units in which quantities are measured by the practicing engineer or technician on site in the oil field or laboratory. The pressute itself in the section of pipe of interest cannot be readily measured. In addition. FOOD FOR THOUGHT One might ask. Keeping in mind that this calculation is one that you make often. you have all the information you need to estimate the pressure drop . Now further consider that this is a routine calculation which you perform often.©2003. and the diameter of the pipe in inches (in).6 and use the measured values directly in the equation without need of conversion. the computed answer js in the desired units of "psi". Thus. OR Convert the equation itself for use with your set of units as shown in Example 2. the velocity of the flowing fluid inside the pipe in feet per second (ft/ s). You have !\Va options: • Convert each measured value to its corresponding consistent Engineering English unit each time you need to calculate the pressure drop and then convert the calculated pressure drop in Ibf/ ft' to the more familiar Ibf/in 2 or "psi" so that the value will have physical meaning to you since psi is the pressure unit that you work with on a daily basis. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.. you wish to estimate the pressute drop through section of horizontal pipe in the field. the second option is obviously preferable. \'7hy alter the equation and then be forced to remember the "practical" units for the altered form of the equation?" In answer. but you can easily measure or already know the viscosity of the fluid in centipoise (cp). the length of the pipe section in feet (ft). Suppose that as an engineer or technician or field hand. These "practical" or "field" units... . as the names imply.. a hint is given in the common names for these inconsistent sets of units which are often referred to as "practical" or "field" units. 18 . "\'V'hy must we go through all the trouble of altering the equation to fit our desired units? . Wouldn't it be straight forward to simply convert the values to the proper consistent umts before inserting them into the equation? .

are measured in feet. A gallon is defined to be 231 in3. then 1 acre = 0.405 = 2. Common Oil Field Units and Measurements Linear and Distance Measurements Depths and lengths in the U. the square mile of area contains 640 acres). 640 acres/mi section of land is defined as a mile by a mile in area (mile2). Thus 1 acre = 43. but world wide.067 em Area An acre is defined as 1/640 of a square mile or 5280 2 (ft/mD2 2 = 43. 2 .54cm) = 30. Inversely. the meter is typically used. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.000 m 2 (100 m x 100 m).0325 em (60..3048 meters.48 em in or 1 ft = 0.325 mm) and 1.995 in ID = 5. or . a 10. 1 inch = 2.28 ft For example. or a barrel is 3 3 1 bbl(42 gal)(231 in J( ft J=5.9 m 2 Since a hectare is 10.375m (2. e.47 acres Flow Rates Liquid Flow Rate Typically.000 ( lmeter) = 3048 meters 3.000 ft well is 10. ID.3/8 inch aD tubing has a 1.54 em.28 ft Tubing diameter is measured in inches or em.g.S.560 ft2/acre (/1.©2003.560 ft2 (1 m/3.405 hectares. 1£t= 12m (2.995 inch .615ft 3 bbl gal 12 3 in 3 .1 hectare = 1/0. 19 . 1 meter = 3.28 ft)2 = 4048. or.54cm) in (50. and again by definition. which is defined to be 42 gallons.67 mm) = 6. By definition. flow rate is measured in barrels. and 2.

pressure. v.000694 bbls/mm = 0..26 mef/day (at 100 deg F and 1000 psia). start with 1 bbl. We also use msef/ day for 1000 scf/ day. Z.145 bbls/ day. or scf/ d.000. Thus. or ( Inversely. To convert flow rate to a different pressure.J( lhr. TZ where P .886) rate will be 140. Therefore. 14.000) Density: In addition to standard measures of density.29 bbls/m3.3048m)3 = 0.©2__003.000 scf/ day.029 gal/min ( day 24 hrs 60 mm 5. ) =0. ft3 Z .or V = 140. petroleum engineers also use densities such as Ibm/gal.4Ibm/ft3• Converting this to Ibm/gal (ppg) 20 . the actual flow (460+60)(1) (460+100)(0. Gas Flow Rate Gas flow rate is given in standard cubic ft per day.6 m3 /day.159 m3 /bbl implies 6. fresh water has a density of 62.159 m3 /bbl bbl ft For flow rates in m 3 /day.Volume. 0.refers to standard conditions. we use --=-- P.7 psia and 60 deg F (520 deg Rankine) For example.7(10. A well flowing 400 bbls/day is flowing 63.gas deviation factor (Z = 1 at standard conditions) s . psia v . 1 bbl/day = 1 bblJ( lday . For example. All RIGHTS RESERVED... eg. . and mmscf/ d for 1. such as Ibm/ ft3..615ft3 J(0. a well flowing 500 m3 /day of oil is a rate of 3. 14.260 ft3.000. PV 1. a well flowing 10 mmscf/d has a flow rate at 1000 psia and 100 deg F of (1000)V ----''----''-'--.

so typically we USe the unit of kilopascal. or Nt/m2 • to convert from SI to psi.7 Ibm. In the case of liquids and solids.5 Engineers typically measure pressure in Ibf/in2. but the engineering system of units requires Ibf/ ft 2 .4477 Nt](100em)2 = 6. we use 1. 3 62.92 (62. the less dense the oil)..1~f ( In in 2. The relationship between specific gravity and API is Specific Gravity = . Oil density is typically given in degrees API.54 em )2 [4. a specific gravity = 2 implies the material is twice as heavy as water (twice the density).34 lbm/ al g Specific gravity is a very useful concept when comparing densities..4lbmJ(_ft_J(231in ( ft 3 12in 3 gal J =8. 1psi = 1 Ibf/in2 = 6. A 16 ppg mud has a specific gravity of 16/8. which would weight 119. 1 lbf ( 144in2 in 2 l ft 2 J= 144 Ibf ~ ft 2 The SI u~t of pressure is the Pascal.©2003.5+ API Pressure 141..92.7(g) / g.894Nt/m2 Ib f m This is a rather large number.4) = 119. or 1000 pascals.. Thus.. or density of material Specific gravity = . = 119.34 = 1. A factor of 144 is needed.. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.131..." .density of water For example. which is a scale varying from 0 upwards to values such as 60 or so (larger the number.894 kilopascals.7Ibf.. A cubic foot of this mud would have a mass of 1. For example. a pressure of SilO psia is 500 (6.894) = 3447 kpa . their densities are compared to the density of water. that is. 21 .

several fundamental definitions and concepts related to fluid mechanics will be revisited before proceeding with a discussion of the nature of petroleum accumulations and the rocks associated with them. Specifically. p. a solid maintains its shape under an applied force. uch of the material presented in this chapter is a review of material covered in previous courses in physical science or physics. Specific gravity is a . a fluid can either be a liquid or a gas. Aliquid is also able to maintain its volume almost constant under pressure.1) Specific gravity of a liquid or solid is defined as the ratio of the density of the solid or liquid to the density of water at 40°C. A substance which is able to flow is referred to as a fluid. STATES OF MATTER M Matter exists is 3 ordinary states which are solid. but its shape is dictated by the container or other forces acting on it.dimensionless num- 22 . DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY Density is defined as mass per unit volume and is often denoted by the lower case of the Greek letter ''RHO''. and gas. a few definitions specific to petroleum engineering have been included. Density may be expressed mathematically as follows: m p=V (4. liquid. A gas expands or compresses as needed to exactly fit its container.©2003. A gas maintains neither a fixed shape or volume. Except under crushing forces. The 3 states are distinguished by the degree to which each maintains its shape and volume. ALL RI Physics of Fluids Revisited A general understanding of some basic definitions and concepts in fluid mechanics is helpful bifore discussing the nature of petroleum accumulations and the rocks associated with them. Thus. In addition.

©2003. Y= Pw@40'C (4. Absolute p = Gauge p + 1 atmosphere (4.3) LAw The Ideal Gas Law is a combination of Charles' and Boyle's laws which expresses the changes in g. A gauge indicating a pressure of Zero on the surface of the earth would be indicating an absolute pressure equal to atmospheric pressure. R is the uruversal gas constant and T is the absolute temperature. This value will be approximately equal to atmospheric pressure at sea level. Gas specific gravity is most often defined at standard conditions. absolute pressure is equal to gauge pressure plus 14. volume as a result of changes in pressure and or temperature. The pressure indicated by the gauge is often referred to as the gauge pressure.4) "When pressure is measured using a gauge the pressure reading is relative to atmospheric pressure. T Pair (4. A standard atmosphere of 14. It is customary to use a standard or reference value for atmospheric pressure when determining a gas volume at standard conditions.5) 23 .2) Similarly. Atmospheric pressure depends upon elevation and also changes slightly from day to day. V is the volume.g. n is the number of moles of gas. The Ideal Gas Law may be used for real gases at pressures close to atmospheric.7 psi. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ber often denoted in petroleum engineering by the lower case of the Greek letter "GANIMA" and may be expressed mathematically as follows: p . when working with gases in a laboratory. Absolute pressure is equal to the gauge pressure plus a pressure equal to 1 atmosphere. the specific gravity of a gas is defined as the ratio of the density of the gas to the density of air at a given pressure and temperature. However. For example when pressure is in units of pounds force per square inch (psi).7 psi is generally used when applying the gas law. The Ideal Gas Law may be expressed mathematically as follows where p is the absolute pressure. It is also a dimensionless number and is also often denoted in petroleum engineering by the lower case of the Greek letter "GAtvIMA" with the subscript "g" to denote gas and may be expressed mathematically as follows: Y IDEAL GAS g '= Pg@p. measuring and using the actual barometric pressure in the laboratory is necessary to accurately determine the absolute pressure from the pressure gauge readings. pV = nRT (4.T @ p.

pressure reading should be reported as a gattge pressure of 1000 psi rather than a pressure of 1000 psig. a deviation factor is added to the Idea1 Gas Law. Likewise. For example. volume is in cubic feet. the va1ue an units of R are as follows: R = 10..©2003. 24 .8) where m is the mass of the gas and M is the molecu1ar weight of the gas.73 psi ft3 oR (4. The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) now discourages this practice and suggests that the word "pressure" be preceded by the qualifier "gauge" or "absolute" in the text or heading. a pressure should be reported as an absolute pressure of 1000 psi rather than a pressure of 1000 psia. and temperature is in oR.7) Recall that moles (n) are defined as follows: n=- m M (4. absolute pressures are often reported in "units" of "psia". REAL GAS LAW Natura1 gases do not follow the Idea1 Gas Law closely enough to allow it's use at the higher pressures commonly found in the subsurface of the earth. For practica1 petroleum engineering units where pressure is in psi.6) The numerica1 value of the universa1 gas constant (R) depends upon the units chosen for the other variables. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Often a gauge pressure reported in petroleum engineering practice in units of psi will be reported in "units" of "psig" where the "g" serves as a reminder that the pressure is a gauge pressure reading not an absolute pressure. Note that each pressure is actually in ~he same pressure units of "psi" and that the "g" or "a" serve only as a shorthand reminder to convert the pressure from a gauge reading relative to atmospheric pressure to an absolute pressure when needed. The unit of absolute temperature most frequently used in petroleum engineering is degrees Rankine ~R) which is related to degrees Fahrenheit by the following relationship: (4. Likewise. The deviation factor is commonly designated by the letter Z and is commonly referred to in petroleum engineering as the :cfactor. To more closely approximate the behavior of natura1 gases at high pressure. This modified form of the Gas Law referred to as the Real Gas Law. Molecular weight is a physica1 property which is constant for a given gas .

charts.12) By inspection of Equation (4. p is the liquid density and p is the pressure. and the gas composition. an ideal liquid is one which has a constant compressibility factor.or:c = . An example of one of these correlations for estimating the z-factor for a natural gas is listed as a set of equations in Table 4.- Vdp pdp (4. The z-factor is defined as follows: z Actual volume ocuppied by n moles of gas @ p.11) where V is the original liquid volume. T (4. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED pV=znRT (4. these values must be determined experimentally. In equation form. natural gases approach ideal behavior and as a result the z-factor approaches 1. A value of zero for the variable c in Equation (4. the compressibility factor for a fluid whose volume or density is constant as a function of pressure is equal to zero. and correlations (equations) based on these experimental measurements have been compiled and published in various handbooks and other literature.9) . Neither volume nor density will change no matter how much or litde pressure is applied.1. Putting this result in exponential form we get the following: p = poec(p-po) (4.12). • IDEAL LIQUIDS Under isothermal (constant temperature) conditions. As the term implies. an incompressible liquid cannot be compressed. At low pressures. The z -factor is the ratio of the actual volume of a gas to the volume of the gas as if it were behaving ideally at a given temperature and pressure. Tables. T =----------"-"---"-----"'---"'-'-''---Ideal volume ocuppied by n moles of gas @ p. The compressibility factor expresses the change in either volume or density with changes in pressure.11) or (4. the compressibility factor of an ideal liquid is defined as follows: C= 1 dV 1 dp ----. A liquid with a compressibility factor of zero is called incompressible. A useful form of this equation may be obtained by separating the variables and integrating between a pressure where the density is known and a pressure where the density is desired.12) would yield a density equal to the original density regardless of pressure. 25 .1 0) Since the value of z-factor is a function of pressure and temperature for a given gas composition.0. c. This deviation factor is not a constant but is a function of pressure. temperature.©2003.

32LoglO (I.13) The series in Equation (4. T Tpc T Tp'=TpC Z-FACTOR (Z) Z = A+(l.32( .101 B=B1+B2+B3 .42(T).92 -0. Liquids such as oil and water are slighdy compressible.1: EXAMPLE Z-FACTOR CORRELATION PARAi\fETER NAME SYNIBOL i\.39~I. P P' ) J20.36I.13) may be truncated after the second term in the parenthesis to get a very useful equation for the density of slighdy compressible liquidsas follows: p= Po(l+c(p-po)) (4.037] PP' (I." ) + 0.) B2 = 2 [0. (4.) D=e G G = 0.723 (Tl'-ll] C = 0.) SLIGHTLY COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS A fluid with a very small compressibility factor (c) is referred to as slightly compressible.62-0..r -0. we get: .066 _0. 128(I." -0.©2003.14) 26 .86) 6 B3=0.12) by using Maclauren's series.0.. Expanding the exponent term in Equation (4..l32.23I. oR: PSUEDO-REDUCED TENfPERATURE." -0. TEMPERATURE.715 -1.t"'lDjOR EQUATION PSUEDO-CRITlCAL PRESSURE. PSUEDO-REDUCED PRESSURE: Ppc Ppr=Ppc p TfuvfPERATURE. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 'L\BLE 4. oR: PSUEDO-CRITlCAT..(0. B1= pp.A)e(-B) +C(p~) where: A =1..

Hydrostatic pressure is the reason that a maximum limit exists for safe scuba diving. B. pgh g. The factor should be dimensionless. = -"-. This factor includes both compressibility and solubility changes with the change in pressure and temperature. (pV)g p(Ah)g Ag. As the water depth increases so does the pressure. the pressure becomes greater than your body can withstand safely. to relate fluid volumes in the reservoir to fluid volumes at surface conditions.defined as follows: B o =--~------------------ liquid oil volume in the reservoir liquid oil volume in the stock tank (4.15) The formation volume factor for gas is defined as follows: B g = volume ocuppied by gas in the reservoir volume occupied by gas at standard conditions (4. 0. Hydrostatic pressure is due to the weight of the overlying water.=A W mg Ag. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR The petroleum producing industry uses the formation volume factor. the pressure on Y0ll! body increases. and g are used to signiry water. The factor is defined simply as the volume occupied by the fluid at the reservoir pressure and temperature divided by the volume it would occupy at the surface pressure and temperature (most often taken to be standard conditions). Just as in the deep end of a swimming pool.especially for gas --. Subscripts w. Recalling that pressure is defmed as a force applied per unit area and that the weight of the overlying water can be related to the density of the water. Y0ll! ears begin to hurt if you go deeper than about 10 feet.-'-"Ag. This pressure due to a change in elevation within a motionless (static) body of water is referred to as hydrostatic pressure. oil and gas. the following expression for hydrostatic pressure can be found: p F 0" - A =. but this is not always the case --.©2003.17) 27 .so beware of units! The formation volume factor for oil is . If you go too far down in the water.16) HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Suppose for a moment that you are swimming in the ocean. As you swim deeper below the surface of the water. The pain is caused by the increase in pressure as you submerge in a body of water. (4.

.1 I ~ water A manometer is an instrument which measures pressure using the concept of hydrostatic pressure. the pressure difference across the bubble can be determined as follows: Pout = PlItm r······ )~· .. "..P au ._pgh2=p +pg(h-h) PIn aim aim 12 gc gc K i......433 pounds force per square inch per foot...7eml S2) (1... Determine the pressure difference existing across the wall of the soap bubble formed on the end of a pipe which is attached to a manometer as shown if the difference in elevation between the 2 water levels shown in the manometer is 1. the hydrostatic gradient in a particular liquid is constant as long as the liquid's density is constant.2 mm.2mm 980. Pressure expressed as an elevation difference is often referred to as a head. By inspection...12 gf2 em Notice that a manometer inherently measures a pressure difference directly as a height or elevation difference. the change in hydrostatic pressure due to a change in elevation in the air may be neglected.465 psi/ft.i Pm = Pat".. the pressure difference is a water head of 1.. The change in hydrostatic pressure per foot of change in elevation is called the hydrostatic gradient. Example 4.2 mm.12 gf2 .."" . The hydrostatic gradient in salt water (brine) is slightly higher since salt water is heavier than fresh water. drostatic pressure.7 gm em gfs2 X water lem ) 10 mm Pin = Patm + 1(~) 10 em gf2 = Patm +. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Pressure change due to a change in elevation within a motionless (static) body of water is referred to as hy- Thus. Moving downward in a column of fluid causes pressure to increase while moving upward causes pressure to decrease..:±.. 28 .. Solution: The hydrostatic pressure in a column of fluid is equal along lines of constant elevation..=P +pgh. The hydrostatic gradient in fresh water is about 0. The hydrostatic gradient in some sea water is about 0.. Since the system is open to the atmosphere at both ends. ~~···rIz:. 12 0 em em gf2 I'1p = Pin .. hI 1 .. = P atm +0. .. In this example. hydrostatic pressure is directly related to the density (p) of the water (or other fluid) and the change in elevation (h) where the surface of the water has an elevation of zero and downward is positive.. P atm + (lgml ee)(980..Pol'" = 0..l : . At atmospheric pressure.........©2003. + pg t:Jz = g..

but only appears to change due to the lifting effect of buoyancy.4 kg when submerged in \-vater. Solution: Note that the "weights" are reported in kilograms which means that these quantities are actually mass and "apparent mass".©2003. The mass does not really change.. Archimedes realized that the buoyant force acting on a body immersed in liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. Thus. an expression relating weight to mass and to density can be written as follows: mog W Po~g Ll~pparent gc (mo -m.7 kg when measured in air and that it appeared to weigh 13. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ARCHIMEDES' PRINCIPLE Archimedes' Principle states that the apparent weight loss of a solid immersed in liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the solid.)g gc w. Determining the volume or density of an object by fluid displacement is especially useful when the volume of an object may not be easily or accurately determined by measurement of its physical dimensions. Archimedes was able to determine the specific gravity of the crown. and density. Archimedes also knew that he could easily determine the specific gravity of the crown if he knew its volume. Wf gc PfVfg gc Po Pf 29 . the buoyant force on a body immersed in liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. Archimedes knew that the specific gravity of pure gold is 19. mass.2 Suppose that the king's crown weighed 14. directly calculating the volmne of an irregularly-shaped crown is not easily accomplished. by immersing a solid of unknown volume or density into a liquid of known density and measuring the apparent weight loss of the immersed solid.3. As the story goes. However. In other words. Example 4. Using this principle. the volume or density of the solid may be calculated. Archimedes was inspired one day while taking a bath and pondering how he might discover the authenticity of the king's new "gold" crown. Recalling that the buoyant force (Ph) acting on a body immersed in liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced ('\fIf) by the body and using the relationships among weight.

-m. Poiseuille developed a relationship to predict the flow rate of a viscous fluid in a capillary tube. Streamlines never cross one another and are well-defined paths or flow boundaries which may be predicted mathematically. The relationship is now known as Poiseuille's Law and can be expressed as follows for a tube of radius.7 kg (14. Poiseuille was interested in describing blood circulation.:=Po =Yo Pj Pw 14. For a given fluid in a given flow system of a given geometry. r.7 kg . Thus.3 Thus. the specific gravity (y) of an object submerged in water is equal to the ratio of the objects true weight to its apparent loss in weight. Fluid that is flowing smoothly along orderly paths called streamlines is said to be in laminar flow. Viscosity is often denoted by the lower case Greek letter "MU" (fl) in petroleum engineering. but rather is equal to the specific gravity of lead. FLUID FLOW REGIMES Fluid flows in 2 distinct regimes. In the course of his work. POI SELLE'S LAw In the early 1800's a French physicist named]. fl under a pressure gradient (dp/ dl): 30 . The fluid velocity is one of the factors which determines the flow regime.13. the internal friction for a liquid in motion is much greater than the internal friction for a gas in motion. 1 Po . the viscosity of a liquid is generally greater than the viscosity of a gas. The specific gravity of the crown in this case is not equal to 19.©2003. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED w .4kg) Yo = 11. a particular velocity exists above which the fluid flow regime will change from laminar to turbulent.3. the internal friction results from the collisions occurring among the gas molecules. In liquids. the same is also true with regards to the object's mass. this internal friction is due to the cohesive forces between the molecules of the liquid. the specific gravity of gold. As shown. In gases. transmitting a fluid with viscosity. ~pparent rno m. In general. Fluid that is flowing in unpredictable and complex eddies similar to tiny whirlpools is said to be in turbulent flow.6. VISCOSITY Viscosity is a property of fluids which is a measure of the internal friction existing between the different layers of a fluid in motion.

Later in this course.. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED _.18) Note that the volumetric flow rate. The viscosity unit poise is named after Poiseuille.-r 4 dp q = 81' dl (4. 31 .©2003. is directly proportional to the pressure gradient and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid. q. a law developed for the flow of fluids in petroleum reservoirs will be discussed which will be very similar to Equation (4.18) .

such as calcium carbonate. As the name implies. In reality. The particular volume of rock wherein the oil and natural gas resides is referred to as the rese1710ir: Understanding of the process in which hydrocarbon-bearing rocks were formed provides insight into the study of petrophysics (rock properties) and the natural distribution of fluids within the reservoir. Note that in either case water is involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks. The sediment is washed away from its source and into lakes and rivers which transport and deposit the sediment downstream. This misconception is fueled by the notion that all rock is a "solid" (non-porous) material. ALL RI Petroleum Geology Revisited A general understanding of the process in which hydrocarbonbearing rocks were formed provides insZght into the study of rock properties and the natural distribution of fluids within the rock. The "solid" portion of the rock is referred to as the rock matrix and the often microscopic void spaces in the rock are referred to as pores. 32 . eventually ending in the ocean. The hydrocarbons reside within the pores of the rock itself. the rocks ate composed primarily of sediment or pieces of broken rock eroded and carried by water. rock which is capable of bearing hydrocarbons is porous like a sponge. NATURE OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Hydrocatbon-bearing rocks are generally sedimentary rocks. A common misconception is that oil and gas (hydrocatbons) accumulate and exist as "latge undergtound pools" which are surrounded by "solid" rock. Sedimentaty rocks may also be composed of chemicals which result from a chemical process or prectpztate in the water.©2003.

The rock matrix is composed of some combination of rock grains and cement and the pores are originally filled with water. oil. the elevated temperature and pressure cause it to be converted to petroleum.©2003. The weight of the overlying layers acts to compress and compact the underlying sediments while the precipitation of minerals from the water ill-which the sediment was deposited acts to cement the sediment grains together.lyers of sediment are deposited one on top the other in the depositional environment. the fluids will redistribute until the lighter fluid (petroleum) floats on top of the heavier fluid (water). and water to segregate (separate) with the lightest fluid on top. Thus. Tectonic forces in the earth's crust and the huge pressures generated by the weight of overlying rock layer caused the petroleum to ooze from its source and migrate upward following a meandering and tortuous path through pores of the overlying rock layers toward the surface until a barrier to flow is encountered. This mechanism is often referred to as gravity segregation. "Why does the petroleum migrate upward? Why not flow in other directions?" In response. one of the necessary geologic conditions for the formation of a petroleum reservoir is the presence of a barrier which prevents further 33 . the geologic conditions favorable to forming petroleum reservoirs are known. Because a formation is a unit of rock created at the same time and in the same environment. the petroleum would continue to percolate upward through the subsurface rock layers until it reached the surface of the earth. The theory explaining petroleum reservoir formation may be summarized as follows. limestone. FOOD FOR THOUGHT You might be asking yourself. and dolomite. A particular layer of rock deposited at a particular time is often referred to as a formation. In processes driven by gravity segregation. Successive !. As a result. Types of sedimentary rock which commonly bear hydrocarbons include sandstone. consider that the pores of sedimentary rocks are originally filled with water according to the theory of sedimentary rock formation (discussed in the previous section). PROCESS OF RESERVOIR FORMATION Although the exact process by which hydrocarbons are created is not fully known. the physical properties of a formation are generally consistent over a wide area. the petroleum droplets will begin to coalesce (combine) and accumulate beneath the barrier. gravity will tend to cause gas. The result is a layer of sedimentary rock. Also recall that oil and natural gas are generally less dense (lighter) than water. A particular layer of rock deposited at a particular time is often referred to as a formation. Without some type of barrier. Dolomite is a secondary form of limestone. As the name implies. When organic material becomes buried to a sufficient depth. the primary ingredient in sandstone is sand or quartz. All RIGHTS RESERVED The primary type of hydrocarbon-bearing rock is the sedimentary rock. As a result. A barrier to flow will halt upward migration of the oozing droplets of petroleum. Likewise the primary ingredient in limestone is lime (calcium carbonate).

a new layer or sediment is depos~ ited over the eroded surface. An unconformity can be thought of ". the structure of the subsurface had to be inferred from an analysis of the surface. Structural traps are often associated with a structural anomaly or irregularity in the subsurface. (3) the properties of the fluids within the rock. Traps are classified as either . Salt domes often are indicated on the sur~ face by a "dome~shaped" hill. In the past.S a "time gap in the geologic record" (Van Dyke. Examples of structural traps include anticlinal traps. One of the necessary geologic conditions for the accumulation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface is a trap. RESERVOIR FLUID DISTRIBUTION Reservoir rock typically contains 2 or 3 types of fluid in varying proportions within the pore space. and/or natural gas. it will begin to erode. an unconformity will result. \'{Ihereas stratigraphic traps are usually associated with a condition or process associated with the deposition of the sediments. The presence of the water along with the oil and/or gas and the location and configu~ ration of the fluids within the pores is a result of the following: (1) the process . (2) the properties of the reservoir rock. In the earliest days of petroleum exploration before the mechanics of reservoir formation were understood. much more is known about the subsurface structures associated with the formation of petroleum reservoirs and traps. the sandbar may form a lenticular trap. Once buried. If after a period of erosion. and (4) the interaction between the roc)< & the fluids contained within it. According to this definition. petroleum prospectors looked for distinc~ rive geologic structures outcropping at the surface. oil. The pres~ ence of oil and/or gas is required for the rock to be classified as a reservoir. Experience had shown these prospectors that oil and gas reservoirs could often be found by drWing around to~ pographic features such as salt domes. structural traps are usually associated with some type of deformation of the original configuration of the rock layers. and dome plug traps. Lenticular traps derive their name from the shape of the reservoir roGk which resembles a lens. 34 .rtTl4ctttra~ Jtratigraphic or combination. 1987). When a previously formed layer of rock is brought to the surface. As the name im~ plies.in which sedimentary rocks are formed. such as folding or faulting. Often these reservoirs result from an uneven deposition of sand and clay as will often occur in the formation of river sandbars. With the advent and advance of seismic technol~ ogy. Examples of stratigraphic traps include un~ conformities and lenticular traps.©2003. fault traps. the res~ ervoir rock itself is part of the trap. The combination of the barrier and the rock layers containing the ac~ cumulated petroleum is referred to as a trap. These 3 fluids are water. All RIGHTS RESERVED migration. A hill in the middle of a low~lying coastal marsh area is a very distinctive indication of a structural anomaly (irregularity) in the sub~ surface rock layers.

the water will not be able to escape as the sediments are compacted. This configuration. In other words. This trapped and compressed volume of water will lead to an abnormally high pressure or abnormal pressure within the rock. 35 . The pressure exhibited by a particular reservoir is strongly dependent upon the depth of the reservoir below the surface of the earth. water occupies all of the spaces between the individual particles of sediment. The level of pressure within a particular reservoir is a function of the geologic conditions in which the rock was created.465 pounds force per square inch per foot of depth. As the name implies.650 psi. the pressure within the pore space of the reservoir rock is greater than the pressure at the surface of the earth. All RIGHTS RESERVED Typically.©2003. In the Gulf Coast region of the United States. the pressure within the rock that these sediments eventually form will exhibit a normal pressure. some of the water is pushed our. the normal pressure is 0. the pressure will increase by 0.465 pounds force per square inch. Consider again the process which creates sedimentary rocks. RESERVOIR PRESSURE Petroleum reservoirs are generally under pressure.465 psi/ft)(10. If the water's path of escape to the surface is removed or sealed.456 pounds force per square inch per foot of depth. The vast majority of reservoirs are normally pressured while some exhibit a pressure greater than would be expected at a particular depth and are abnormally pressured. depth of 10. As the sediments are buried and compacted. As long as the water has a escape path to the top of the sediments (the sea floor). FOOD FOR THOUGHT What does this value tell us about the subsurface pressure in the area of the Gulf of Mexico? This means that for every foot down below the surface of the earth in the area of the Gulf of Mexico.000 feet below the surface of the earth on the campus ofLSU. The smallest pore spaces remain completely filled with water. is mote common than the alternative. \'V'hen both oil and gas are present. gas occupies the largest pore spaces while the oil occupies the intermediate pore spaces. As depth increases so does pressure. Explaining these mechanisms will be the purpose behind many of the future topics of this course in petrophysics. The reasons and mechanisms behind both the typical and alternative distribution of fluids within the reservoir rock are too complex to be discussed here. That is. water coats all grains of the reservoir rock and exists as a flim between the inner surfaces of the rock's pores and the oil and/or gas.varies regionally. Since the sediment is deposited in water. At a . the sediments will not be under an additional or abnormal pressure. while not always true. one would expect to find a pressure of (0. Sediments are transported and deposited in water then buried and compacted by successive layers of sediment deposited over time.000 ftl = 4. normal pressure is that level of pressure which can be expected at a particular depth. Normal pressure in the Gulf Coast region of the United States is 0. What is considered normal.

36 .442 psi/ft. What will happen as the gravel is placed into the tank? Since the tank is open. 0. the density of the sea water within the tank remains the same as before. The weight of the bottom-most layer of gravel is suppotted by the bottom of the tank. (2) all of the water in the tank is still in contact or communication with itself (i. Leaving the tank open. Once the gravel has settled to the "bottom" of the tank. This illustrates conceptually why the normal pres~ure gradien~ in subsurface layers of rock is essentially equal to the hydrostatic pressure gradient of the sea water in which they were originally deposited.©2003. Notice that the change in pressure per foot of depth observed in the subsurface rock layers in the normally pressured areas of the Gulf Coast is approximately equal to that observed in a body of sea water. Because the gravel is not suspended in the water.442 psi! ft.442 psi/ft. The water occupies all of the space in the tank among the pieces of gravel except for where the pieces of gravel touch each other. The weight in the next layer of gravel upward is supported by the bottom-most layer of gravel. each successive layer of gravel is supported by the layer directly below it. and (3) the gravel particles have settled so that they are resting one on top of the other and are not suspended in the water. gravel is placed into the water-filled tank until the gravel reaches the top of the tank and no more gravel will fit into the tank. Thus. none of it is sealed off or trapped). The hydrostatic pressure gradient in the sea water is 0. 0. the presence of the gravel in the tank under these conditions does not affect the hydrostatic gradient in the tank.e. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED The hydrostatic gradient in sea water is aboUt. what will be the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the tank? Consider the following facts: (1) the hydrostatic pressure gradient is related to the density of the fluid. Likewise. a volume of water equal to the volume of the gravel in the tank will slosh over the sides of the tank. It is the same as before. Why is that? Imagine that you have an open tank filled with clean sea water.