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Examines human experiences through descriptions provided by the people involved c. Bracketing • The researcher releases expectations and biases prior to doing the research. d. End purpose • To determine themes and patterns of behavior, etc. 2. Ethnographic Studies a. Collection and analysis of data about cultural groups. b. End purpose • To develop cultural theories. c. Method • Participant observation and interviews with “key informants” 3. Grounded Theory Studies a. Data are collected and analyzed and then a theory is developed that is grounded on the data. b. Method • Purposeful sampling, done in field or naturalistic setting. c. Concerned with generation rather than testing the hypothesis. 4. Historical Studies a. Identification, location, evaluation, and synthesis of data of the past b. End purpose • To relate the past to the present and the future. c. Sources of data for historical research 1. Documents a. Oral history, written research, diaries, eyewitness accounts, pictorial services. 2. Relics and artifacts a. Physical evidence. d. Classification of sources can be: 1. Primary a. An account of the event from the person himself. 2. Secondary a. Summarized or retold by another. e. Evaluation or Critism of the data 1. External a. Authentically or genuineness of the source 2. Internal a. Accuracy of the data in the source. 5. Case study • In-depth examination of people.
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Steps: 1. Identify the problem a. Broad topic, narrowed down b. May be the most difficult and will take the most amount of time c. Sources of study problems i. Personal experiences ii. Literature sources iii. Previous research iv. Testing of theories d. Characteristics of a good problem statement i. Stated as a question ii. Specifies the population and the variables 1. One-variable studies • Also called Univariate. • Eg. What is the primary motivation of student nurses in preparing the Licensure examination? 2. Two-variable studies • Also Bivariate. • Can be cause and effect in experimental studies. But in a correlational study, the two variables are not “cause and effect” but may be two variables that are compared or contrasted. 3. Multiple-variable studies. • Also called Multivariate • Eg. Why do nursing students fail on NLE? iii. Emphirically testable • Hearing, sight, taste, touch, smell. 1. Ethicai and value issues, “right or wrong”, are not empirically testable but can be measured based on their effect to a subject . • Eg. Should patients be allowed an unlimited number of visitors during their stay in the hospital?” can be measured if “Is there a difference in the comfort level of hospitalized patients who receive an unlimited number of visitors compared to those limited to two visitors compared to those limited to two visitors per day?” 2. Avoid words like “cause” and “effect”. e. Is there a significant difference in the average weight of school age children who eat fast food twice a week than those who eat fast food once a week? f. Problem Statement Format: i. Correlational statement: Is there a correlation between X and Y in the population? ii. Comparative statement: Is there a difference in Y between people in the population with X characteristics and those who do not have X characteristics.
To assist in the selection of the study variables and in defining them. Review of Related Literature a.Experimental study: Is there a difference in Y between group A who received X treatment and group B who did not receive X treatment. To develop a conceptual and theoretical framework for the study. Define why the study ids being made (often mistakenly interchanged with problem statement). Determine the purpose of the study a. iii. Develop a Theoretical/Conceptual Framework. or the article written by the researcher). 3. Must state the significance and use of the study results in order to get approval. Seen in Nursing Journals. Review of related literature must be done on a continuous basis so as to ensure that researcher’s informations are up to date. ii. Instrument and tools). iii. i. Eg. . Research problem considerations: Ethical issues Significance to nursing Personal motivation Researcher qualifications Feasibility of the study 1. To determine what knowledge already exist on the topic to be studied. Purpose i. Secondary source Summary of the research as written by someone other than the researcher. v. Equipment and Supplies 4. Primary vs. ii. Cost 3. g. Time 2. Availability of Subjects 2. To help the researcher plan the study methods (eg. c. i. Secondary sources Written by the original researcher (eg. iii. ii. Administrative support 5. Research without a theory provides a set of isolated facts. 4. To develop a better understanding of the significance of consumption of fast food in the growing number of cases of obesity and overweight among school aged children. b. Peer support 6. iv. b. c. The Thesis itself.
Mental health. Conceptual framework • Explains relationship between concept but links concepts selected from several theories. Conceptual Models – made of concepts and propositions that state the relationship between the concepts. Eg. Newton’s Theories of motion. general explanation of the relationships between concept of interest in a research study. Bacteria causes disease. and from the researcher’s own experience. Thermometer. Eg. vii. Anger iii. Hate. complex phenomenon. Women are likely to pass the board exams than men. Concept a. v. must be inferred by certain concrete or less abstract indicators. Maybe concrete or abstract. d. ii. Eg. Wellness. There is a relationship between anger and increase in BP”. from previous research results. c. Definition of terms: Theory Set of related statements that describes or explains phenomena in a systematic way. Proposition Statement of assertion of the relationship between anger concept. Theoretical framework Broad. Self esteem. • Eg. Model Symbolic representation of some phenomenon or phenomena. Conceptual framework i. Eg. Eg. ii. Construct Highly abstract. . Based on the existing theory. b. vi. Theoretical vs. Hypothesis Researcher’s expectations about the study. Eg. Cannot be directly observed by. The building blocks of theory d. Empirical Generalization When a similar pattern of events is found in the empirical data of a number of different studies. Callista Roy Adaptation Theory. Flowchart or diagram. iv. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Job satisfaction theory. Assertiveness. i. A word picture or mental idea of phenomenon.
• Eg. Middle range theories have been found to be more valuable to nursing research than grand theories. ii. Acknowledge the Limitation of the study a. Grand theory Address a broad range of phenomena in the environment or humanity. Extraneous Variables . Observed that workers who receive low salaries have poor work performance – job satisfaction theory. Three types of assumptions: i.e. Eg. Fast food makes you fat. Limitations Uncontrolled variables that may affect the study results and limit the generalizability of the findings. the assumption that children who study in elementary schools are of “school-age”. 6. Assumptions based on theory or research findings Using another research finding assumptions as the basis of one’s study. f. o Eg. iii. Two types of theories i. Eg. Deductive reasoning • Proceeds form general to specific. Inductive reasoning Proceeds from specific to general Empirical date -> Empirical Generalization -> Propositional statement -> theory. Assumptions that are necessary to carry out the study In the mentioned research. • Theory -> Propositional statement -> Hypothesis -> Empirical data. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs – job satisfaction scale. Theory Generation and Development i. Identify the Study Assumption Assumptions o Beliefs that are held to be true but have not necessary been proven. Middle-range theory Concerned only with a small area of the environment or human experiences. ii. Eg. ii. An existing research finding may have stated an assumption that children who eat fast food twice a week tend to be twice more likely to become overweight than children who eat only once a week. 5. Universal assumptions Beliefs assumed to be true by a large percentage of society. “Fast food makes you fat”.
Complex Simple a. 7. hypothesis gives a predicted answer. iv. Complex Relationship between two or more independent or dependent variables. o Problem statements ask the question. In experimental studies. Eg. Independent – the cause b. Dependent – the effect i. Scope The extent to which the study will be made. Formulate the Hypothesis Hypothesis o Predicts the relationship between two or more variables. b. Two main types of variables: a. . iii. ii. Relationship between one independent and one dependent variable. Characteristics of a hypothesis Declarative form Written in present tense Reflects the problem statement Contains the population and the variables Must be testable or empirically verifiable i. Also called Confounding or uncontrolled Variables over which the researcher either has no control or chooses not to exercise control. The attitudes and beliefs of parents of children involved in the study is not being something that the researcher can control. uncontrolled variables are referred to as threats to internal and external validity. c. v. c. Classification of Hypothesis Simple vs. Delimitations Limitations placed on the research by the researcher himself.
ii. A description of the lifestyles. Children who eat fast sood twice a week are morelikely to be overweight that those who eat fast food only once a month. Directional Researcher further predicts the type of relationship. ii. Research Null No relationship exists between two variables. iii. Which types of research require hypothesis? i. o Eg. comparative studies. Do not necessarily require hypothesis. o To allow for replication of the study. Dictionary definitions or Theoretical definitions Obtained from literature sources . customs and practices of indigent Manobos from Central Mindanao. iii. 8. exploratory studies 1. 1. Nondirectional vs. Eg. Research There is a relationship. Experimental. Eg. Descriptive studies. require hypothesis. Weight – can be measured in kilograms or pounds. states the expected relationship. An interaction effect would concern the action of two variables in conjunction with each other. Null vs. ii. Directional Nondirectional Mere prediction that a relationship exists. 2. iv. i. correlationa. Define Study Variables and terms Importance o To make the meaning of terminologies and variables clearer to the researcher and the reader. Types of Research Definitions: Operational definitions o Indicates hoow a variable will be observed or measured.
Those which the researcher cannot control or chooses not to control. Extraneous variables (confounding or intervening or study limitations). Internal validity o Degree to which changes in dependent variable can be directly attributed to the independent variable. a nursing intervention is usually introduced. Qualitative Quantitative a. o Can have the following as threats to validity: Selection Bias o Results are due to subject differences before the independent variables was manipulated. School-age-child – any child from age 7 to 12. Eg. 9. random selection of subjects. i. Non-experimental studies a. History o Some event other than the experimental treatment occurs during the study that influenced the dependent variable. The PLAN for how the study will be conducted. measurement of independent and dependent variable. Can be Experimental and non-experimental Experimental vs. Research design i. Experimental Concerned with cause and effect relationships.Will it examine cause-and-effect or will it only describe existing situations. Highly respected in the scientific world. . b. Must have: Manipulation or control of independent variable. Select the Research Design a. In nursing experimental. ii. Two major types i. Validity of Experimental Design. Fast food – any food that is consumed in eating establishments that are served within a considerably short period of time. More control can be exercised over extraneous variables.
Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design R O1 X O2 (experimental group) R O1 O2 (control group) i. Study participants respond in a certain manner because there are aware that they are being observed. o Avoided by trial runs. this is called the Rosenthal Effect. Threats include: i. In non-experimental research. Mortality o Subject dropout rate is different between the experimental and comprison group. Hawthrone effect 1. Experimenter effect Researcher characteristics or behavior influence subject behavior. ii. ii. or training sessions for judges prior to rating. Subjects are randomly assigned to groups . i. True Experimental Researcher has great deal of control over the research situation. iii. Subjects are randomly assigned i. External Validity Degree to which the study results can be generalized to other people and other settings. Subjects have already been sensitized by the pre-test and may affect post-test results. Maturation o Changes that occur within the subjects during an experiment study influences the study results. i. Reactive effects of the pre-test (measurement effect) 1. One experimental and one comparison group (control group). Instrumentation Change o Difference between the pretest and the post test measurement caused by a change in the accuracy of the instrument of the judge’s ratings. Types of Experimental Designs a. 3 criteria: Manipulation of variables.
Experimental treatment is administered between two of the observations. Experimental group receives treatment. 01 02 03 X 04 05 06. TX X O One-group pretest-posttest design Provides a comparison between a group of subjects before and after the experimental treatment. 01 X 02 ii. control group the usual or no treatment iv. Pre-experimental design Weak researcher has little control over the research. g. Time-series designs Researchers periodically observes measures the subjects. Subjects are randomly assigned to groups b. c. c. o Biggest threat: Selection bias. Posttest only Control Group Design R X O1 (Experimental Group) R O1 (Control Group) a. Pretest given to both groups iii. i. One-shot case study Single group is exposed to an experimental treatment and observed after the treatment. Quasiexperimental Missing one criteria for true experimental design. ii. Posttest given to both groups. Posttest given to both groups. Non-equivalent control group design o Similar to pretest posttest control group design but there is no random assignments of subjects.ii. Types of Non-experimental Research design . b. control group the usual or no treatment. Experimental groups receives treatment.
a. In the case of making the research on the weight gain of school age children who frequently eat fast food. the value of the other variable decreases. we cannot conduct experimental study since doing so can endanger the health of the subjects. Experiemental studies are rarely done in nursing research since this will usually involve experimentation with human beings. 1. Correlation Coefficient Researcher extent to which one variable (X) is related to another variable. and are thus perceived as having ethical issues. Eg. b. 2. and the subjects are followed in the future to observe the dependent variable . and the independent variable that occurred in the past is determined. Survey studies Self report data are collected from samples with purpose of describing populations on some variables of interest. Correlational Studies Researcher extent to which one variable (X) is related to another variable. Prospective studies Independent variable is identified at the present time. Comparative studies Examine the differences between intact groups on some dependent variable of interest.i. + Relationship Also called Direct As the value of one variable increases. Retrospective studies Dependent variable identified in the present. 1. – Relationship Also called Inverse As the variable of one value increase. iii. ii. Almost similar to experimental but has no manipulation of variables. the value of the other variable also increases.
iv. Eg. Target population Also called Universe. Ex post facto studies Data are collected “after the fact” variations in the independent study are studied after the variations have occurred. Two major types of sampling i.Accessible population That group which is actually available for the study. Methodological Studies Concerned with the development. rather than at the time of the occurrence. Sample A subgroup chosen to represent the population and used to make generalizations about the population. Sample Random Sampling Ensures that each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being chosesn. Population Complete set of individuals or objects the posses some common characteristics that is of interest to the researcher. ii. and evaluation of research instruments and methods. Fast food and weight gain. Select the sample a. The group of people or objects to which the researcher wishes to generalize the findings of the study. The accessible population must posses the characteristics similar to the target population. Identify the population a. and vice versa. 1. Probability Everyone in the population has the chance of being selected. b. Post partum depression screening scale. iii. . Eg. 3. 11. 10. i. testing.
Longitudinal study Follows the subject over a period of time (6 months or more). c. Quota Sampling Similar to stratified random but selection not random. a simple random sample is taken from each of the subgroups. Choosing readily available people or objects for a study. Eg. Cluster Random Sampling Large groups or samples become the sampling units. a. 4. Disproportional stratified 3. ii. 1. Geographical area. Judgmental sampling b. 2. 50% females. . Proportional stratified b. Snowball sampling o Study subjects help refer additional subjects. Non-probability Sampling Methods Sample elements are chosen from the population by non-random methods. Systematic Random Sampling a. Handpicking of subjects. Sample is taken from every kth element of the population. 50% male. according to some variable/s of importance. 2. 3. Identify the sample population and list all the elements of the population (sampling frame). then: (k interval = N/n) 1. school. etc. Convenience sampling Accidental or incidental. Time frame for studying the sample i. Eg. b.Stratified Random Sampling Population is divided into subgroups or strata. 1. Table of random numbers.000 population and researcher needs 100 samples. Basis of stratification is determined by the researcher.000/100 = 10. Every 10th person in the list will be taken as sample. More likely to produce biased samples. Eg. After this. Purposive sampling a.
data collection procedures and data analysis approaches. 13. Can be used to test an instrument. Use of marijuana in high school freshmen vs. Cohort study Persons are studied who have been born during a particular time period. trial version of the planned study. etc. 12. Can prevent a researcher from conducting a large-scale study that might be an expensive disaster. What data will be collected? Who will collect the data? Where will the data be collected? When will the data be collected? How will the data be collected? (Why. Conduct a pilot study Maniature. Cross-sectional study Examines the subjects at one point in time. evaluate the study phenomenon. seniors. Collect the data a. Less expensive and easier to conduct Eg. is answered by the purpose of the study or the research design. and is not part of this). d. c. More accurate study of changes that occur over time 1. Objectives To examine issues related to the design. Criteria for selection of data collection instrument Practicality of the instrument Reliability of the instrument • Consistency and stability Validity of the instrument b. . Etc. Data Pieces of information or facts that are collected in scientific investigations. ii. The choice of data collection method is determined by the study hypothesis or research question of the study. sample size.
Concerns that content of the instrument. Guidelines in wording questions i. e. generally. Filler questions a. ii. b. v. Interviews . iii. Age. self-report instrument. Demographic or attribute variables. 1. fill-in-the-blank c. If yes. Open-ended questions Essay. ii. often) Avoid double negative questions Neutral wording Double-barreled questions 2. Contingency questions Items that is relevant for some respondents and not for others. Types of questions a. Avoid ambiguous questions (many. few. Eg.. Items in which the researcher has no direct interest but are included in a questionnaire to reduce the emphasis on the specific purpose of other questions. iv. e. Affirmative rather than negative (never say never). Will the instrument gather data that is needed in the research. Demographic Data on the characteristics of the subjects. Must be collectively exhaustive (all possible answer provided) and mutually exclusive ( no overlap between categories) d. religion. Questionnaires Paper and pencil. Data collection methods i. educational background. Closed-ended questions Respondent is asked to choose from given alternatives. Ability to gather data that is intended to gather. Contains questions the respondents are asked to answer in writing.
Bed making techniques of student nurses. Even subtle changes in the wording of the interview may not be permitted. d. Probes o Additional prompting questions that encourage the respondent to elaborate on the topic. Unstructured Researcher attempts to describe events or behaviors as they occur. 3. Interviewer obtains responses from a subject in a face-toface encounter or through a telephone call. 2. Interviewer given a great deal of freedom to direct the course of the interview. habits. Conducted more like a normal conversation. Semi-structured interview Interviewers are generally required to ask a certain number of specific questions but additional probing questions are allowed or even encouraged. Uses a checklist. Time . Eg. Event Observation of an entire event. iii. Time sampling a. Unstructured Observations a. b.b. Unstructured interview c. Structured vs. Structured Carried out when the researcher has prior knowledge about the phenomenon of interest. Event sampling vs. Can be psychomotor skills. b. 1. with no preconceived idea of what will be seen. 1. Structured interviews Asking the same questions in the same order and in the same manner of all respondents in the study. 2. non-verbal communication. Observation method Gathering data through visual observations.
v. Physiological Measures Involve in the collection of physical data from the subjects. Observer does not let participant know of his activity. Non-participant observer-covert Generally not ethical. 1. b. Observation of events or behaviors during specified times. d. iv. Eg. 2. data collection instruments that ask respondents to report their attitudes or feelings on a continuum. Non-participant observer-overt Observer openly identifies himself and provides subjects with information about the types of data that will be collected. Attitude scales Self-report. Relationship between observer and subjects a. 3. Psychological Tests . vi. Appetite of patients during scheduled meals. Participant observer-overt Involved with the subjects openly and subjects know that they are being observed by the same. Immersion with families while observing their day-today lifestyle. Eg. Negatively worded questions are rated scored reverse. “Spy” Observer interacts with the subjects and observes their behavior without their knowledge. Eg. Rarely ethical. Semantic Differential Scales Asks subjects to indicate their position or attitude about some concept along a continuum between two adjectives. Generally more objective and accurate than many of the other data collection methods. Likert Scale Uses five or seven responses for each item ranging from Strongly Agree (5) to strongly disagree (1). Participant observer-covert “Plant”. Public behavior (can be ethical) c.
Graphic Presentations Have visual appeal that may cause readers to analyze the data more closely. when the range is large you can group them into “class intervals” ii. Preexisting Data Use of existing information that has not been collected for research purposes. Analyze the data – statistical concepts i. What to do with missing data. interval. ordinal. Projective Techniques Subject is presented with an ambiguous stimuli. c. 2. To obtain group consensus without a face-to-face meeting. Frequency distribution Simply counting the occurrence of values or scores represented in the data. Patient’s chart 14. Eg. Personality Inventories Self-report measures used to assess the differences in personality traits. Plans for organizing the data should be made prior to data collection. Appropriate for tabulating all types of data (nominal. . viii. Plans for analyzing the data should be made prior to data collection. Tabulation and evaluation b. each score can be listed individually. Rorschach Inkblot Test. subject describes what the stimuli appear to represent. vii. 1. Organize the Data for Analysis a. or values of people. Bar graph Used to represent frequency distribution with nominal data or some type of ordinal data. If range of score is less than 20. 15. ratio). Delphi Technique Uses several rounds of questions to seek a consensus on a particular topic from a group of experts.1. Determine if questionnaires have been completed correctly. Eg. Visual Analogue Scale ix. Audio tapes transcribed. needs.
3. then the median is the middle value. Has X and Y axis. If the data gathered are nominal this is referred to as “nominal class”. interval. c. or ratio data. i. b. iii. If the number of values is uneven. Measures of Variability Measures how spread out values are in a distribution of values. 2. or most common value for a group of data. Mode Category or value that occurs most often in a set of data under consideration. Minimum number for the computation of percentages should be atleast 20. typical. X = Total of all values or number of values. Median Middle score or value in a group of data. Percentages Represents the proportion of a subgroup to a total group. the frequency on the vertical axis. Measures of Central Tendency Statistics that describe the average. or ratio level. i. Mean The average sum of a set of values found by adding all values and dividing by the total number of values. May be horizontal or vertical. iii. Maybe unimodal. the midpoint between the two middle values is the median. Histogram Uses bars to represent the frequency distribution of a variable that is measured at the ordinal. The class intervals are on the horizontal axis. multimodal. Range . interval. If number of values is even. bimodal. ii. Frequency polygon Graph that uses dots connected with straight lines to represent the frequency distribution or ordinal.
Indicates the average deviation or variation of all values in a set of values from the mean values of those data. The final step in the research process and yet the most important one for nursing. IQ level. . the range is 20. Made in light of the study hypothesis or research question and the theoretical framework. Eg. Communicate the findings a. Standard Deviation Most widely used when interval or ratio data are obtained. Percentile A datum point below which lies a certain percentage of the values in a frequency distribution. Highest 60. Interpret the findings a. Z-score d. iii. No matter how significant the findings may be. Distance between the highest and lowest value in a group of values or scores. ii. ii. pulse rates. lowest 40. iv. i. 16. Eg. 17. Eg. they are of little value to the nursing profession if not communicated to other collegues. Anxiety level vs. Measures of Relationships Measures the correlation between variables. Scatter Plots Scatter diagram or scattergram Graphic representation of the relationship between two variables (X and Y axis). Weight for Age charts in Pediatrics. Correlation Coefficients Pairing the value of each subjects on one variable with the value on another variable. Best method to reach a large number of nurses is the publication in research journals. NCEE Score. b. Athletic ability vs. Variance Standard deviation squared. v.
May also be done through oral presentations.c. Books. . Research seminars. Poster sessions.
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