Disc No. TR-7 (3) Rev.

B (1993, I, 7)

EXPLANATION

OF

COLD ALIGNMENT

A1TT

MHI Turbo-Techno Co.

TRAINING CENTER

I N D E X

1. General

Page 3

2. Shaft Distance
3. Spring Foot
4. Offset Measurment and Alignment Map
(1) General
(2) Reverse Indicator Method
5. Tolerance
6. Alignment Chart 5

7

9 13

16

17

- I -

Horizontal split tupe co

(S nnpressor

econd machine)

Stearn turbine

{Reference .

machine)

Shims for di

vertical a lusting

offset

Shims for

vertical adjusting

offset

Shims for di vertical ffa justing o set

Fig. 1

- 2 -

1. General:

Correct alignment is mandatory for the successful operation of rotating machinery. Permanent misalignment will, create a number of problems such as a reduction in bearing life and coupling life, and vibration troubles.

A .. Flexible" coupling is no excuse for misalignment.

General arrangement of turbine' and compressor train is shown in Fig. 1 .

.. COLD ALIGNMENT" is the procedure that involves positioning the casings of machinery while standing still at room temperature. In the .. COLD ALIGNMENT" the relative position of both shafts can be obtained. COLD SHAFT ALIGNMENT is normally accomplished using dial indicator, feeler gauge, micrometors or a combination of these instruments

There are two similar procedures available for measuring center

offset and angular offset. One is the .. Reverse Indicator Method",

and the other is the" Rim and Face Method".

Note: The Dresser Instraction Manual recommends' A alignment hot check immediately after shutdown '.

coupling But, MHI

does not agree, because a very large error may be expected due to temperature variation on the casing and supports

- during preparation for shaft alignment.

MHI recommends that a cold alignment shall be performed after operating the equipment several times.

In abnormal situations such as high vibration conditions, a hot alignment check would be effective to find the cause and/ or to take countermeasures for it.

To take .. HOT ALIGNMENT", MHI recommends that you check the equipment with an OPTICAL SCOPE under operating conditions.

- 3 -

Gear Coupling

Coupling distance

"

Coupling hub

Coupling hub

Diaphragm Coupling

Coupling distance

- 4 -

2. Shaft Distance:

Positioning of the first machine is very important, because it establishes the fixed reference for the other machine.

Deciding which machine will be set first fixed reference unit requires consideration of the type of unit (It's size, weight, construction, etc.) and local conditions, such as available space. Usually, the unit to be positioned first will be the one that is largest and heaviest, and consequently, the most difficult to reposition. In case of a turbine and compressor train, the turbine should be selected as the reference unit.

Shaft distance (or coupling distance) should be checked each time the second machine is readjusted.

The distance between coupling hubs should take into account the type of coupling used (free-floating or thrust-transmitting) and the desired operating position of the free-floating shafts.

Factors such as thrust-force transmission and parts expansion must also be considered, axial positioning can be very critical with some types of machine sets.

(1) Shaft distance should be checked by using a micrometer or vernier caliper to measure the distance between the shaft end faces.

(2) Measurments should be taken with the machinery in normal position.

The rotor should be in axial running position, compressor rotor toward suction, turbine rotor toward exhaust and motor rotor atthe .. magnetic center",

(3) When coupling distance is measured instead of shaft distance, it should be confirmed that the coupling hubs are fitted at the specified axial position of the shaft.

- 5 -

Magnet base

Support bolt

FL

RL

Fig. 2 SPRING FOOT

- 6 -

3. Spring Foot:

The machinery should be checked to ensure that it's weight is properly distributed on all feet. If one foot is slightly out of the bed plane, internal parts will tend to distort when set bolts are tightened.

Even minor ditortion can cause noise. vibration, and parts damage.

Before proceeding to final alignment. "Spring Foot" of machinery which has a rigid frame and four feet should be eliminated as follows;

(1) The second machine is placed on the baseplate and a rough alignment is made.

(2) All set bolts are first tightened solidly.

(3) Two set bolts located on the same side are loosened.

(4) Each set bolt is retightened and reloosened one by one, in tum, while measuring with a dial indicator, if the foot rise from it's shims on the baseplate. Refer to the Fig. 2.

(5) If the foot rises more than 0.05 nun at any point. the thickness of the shims should be adjusted to eliminate the" Spring Foot".

- 7 -

Dial indicator

Reference shaft

Second shaft

Alignment bracket

Fig. 3 TYPICAL SHAFT ALIGNMENT BRACKET

Steel plate

Turn 1800

Thin pipe

indicator

Alignment bracket

Fig. 4 DEFLECTION OF ALIGNMENT BRACKET

- 8 -

4. Offset Measurement and Alignment map:

(1) General;

1) Offset between the coupling hubs should be measured with dial indicators which have been checked for accuracy beforehand.

2) Typical coupling alignment bracket is shown in Fig. 3.

3) Alignment bracket deflection should be checked with the foolowing procedure. As shown in Fig. 4, an inspection tool consists of a steel plate and a pipe set into the lathe chuck. With the bracket on the top of the tool, the

indicator is set to zero. The entire assembly is then

rotated 1800 (degrees), and the indicator is now read

directly from the bottom of the alignment bracket.

This indicator reading will show the amount of deflection in the alignment bracket.

Acceptable deflection is less than 0.02 mm.

4) The alignment bracket should be mounted firmly on the coupling hub for the reference machine or the second machine.

5) The dial indicator must be solidly secured on the alignment bracket and radial to the coupling hub.

6) As a rule, the dial indicator should be set zero when it is at the top of the coupling hub, and turned in the same direction that the machine is operated. Moreover, the right side and left side of the machine should be settled when viewed from the end of the reference machine.

7) The shims for alignment should be made of brass or of

stainless steel.

The size of the shims should be nearly the

same as the machine foot. Shims and contact surface should be kept smooth, free of burrs, and clean to prevent erroneous alignment readings.

- 9 -

Reference

Second

Shaft

_.t._. ~ ._._.~._._._~

o

$

2a

(Second shaft is higher than reference shaft)

Reference Shaft

Second Shaft

o

$

2a

(Second shaft is lower than reference shaft)

Reference

Shaft Second

~ ~ .....

-ijdi'jt\i ~illi+- ' __ t--_S_h_a_ft_...J

I I It' ,~

o

$

-2b

(Second shaft is lower than reference shaft)

~~""""'" ,

Second

o

$

-2b

(Second shaft is higher than reference shaft)

Fig. 5 INDICATOR READING & OFFSET

- 10 -

8) Correction of misalignment should ne performed by changing shim thickness vertically. and minutely sliding the machine horizonta11 y.

9) The rims and the face on which a dial indicator is to be attached should be checked for runout.

Eccentricity and surface imperfections can be cancelled by rotating both shafts an equal amount at the same time.

10) The dial indicator reading shows the center offset and angular offset of the second machine against the reference machine.

Readings should be plotted on the alignment map refering to Table I and Fig. 5.

Table 1 Reading and Relative Position to be Plotted:

Rim Face
Axial position of indicator
Shaft separation
On reference On second at the bottom
shaft shaft
Negative Lower Upper Large
Sign at (-)
bottom
Positive Upper Lower Smaller
(+) - 11 -

Reference Shaft

Reference Shaft

Second Shaft

Second Shaft

Left B1 Right

B3

Fig. 6 ACTUAL READING

A3

VERTICAL PLANE Re

(Top) Reference Shaft

(Bottom)

Se

So

A3/2

Bv

Vm Vn

- - - - - ~r------fo:::f----------+o:l~

Second shaft

Bvo

Ss

HORIZONT AL PLANE (Left)

(Right)

Fig. 7 ALIGNMENT MAP (1)

- 12 -

(2) Reverse Indicator Method ;

The" Reverse Indicator Method" is the preferred procedure when the distance between the shaft ends is greater than half a coupling diameter.

1) Install the alignment bracket to the coupling hub of the reference machine shaft. 'and set dial indicator button on the rim of the coupling hub of the second mashine (Refer to the Fig. 6 (A)).

2) Rotate the reference machine shaft, and record the dial indicator readings at four points.

Make sure that the dial indicator returns to zero at the top point. Check that the sum of the side readings is equal to the bottom reading.

A2 + A4 = A3.

B2+B4-B3

3) Remove the bracket from the reference shaft. and fit it to the second shaft (Refer to the Fig. 6 (B)).

Using the same procedure. obtain dial indicator readings on the rim of the coupling hub of the reference machine.

4) To know the corrections necessary for cold alignment. make alignment maps as follows;

a. Plot the axial positions of the coupling hub (Re & Se) and the feet (Ss & St) on a graph paper.

The abscissa should use a convenient reduced scale. such as 25 mm per division.

The ordinate should be an expanded scale such as 0.01 mm per division. Two maps are required; one is for vertical plane. and the other for horizontal plane.

b. Draw the position of the reference shaft on the center line (zero offset line) of the map horizontally.

- 13 -

Reference Second
Shaft Shaft
Left bl Right


b4 b2


b3
Second
Reference Shaft
Shaft Left al Right



a4 a2 Fig. 8 PLANNED ALIGNMENT

VERTICAL PLANE

Re

So

Se

(Top)

Second shaft

Actual Position

Reference Shaft

b3/2

a3

S5

Vm

Vn

Planned Position

(Bottom)

HORIZONT AL PLANE (Left)

Planned Position Second shaft

Reference Shaft

a2 - a4/2

Actual Position

---_.- .. -----

b2 - b4/ 2

Hm

A2-A4/2

(Right)

Fig. 9 ALIGNMENT MAP (2)

- 14 -

Hn

c. Obtain values for point A v, Bv, Ah and Bh from the measurements of the indicator according to the following formulas;

A3 B3
Ava -- Av ~- Bvo -- Bv = --
2 2
A2-A4 - Bho -- Bh B2- B4
Aho -- Ah -
2 2 d. Plot these points on the alignment map. The position

of the point on the map, above or below the reference shaft is determined by the sign (positive or negative).

e. For each of the vertical and horizontal. draw a straight line through points (Av & Bv) for the vertical and (Ah & Bh) for the horizontal, as plotted in step (d). and extend the line to intersect the foot line (Ss & St) of the second machine (Refer to Fig. 7).

f. On the basis of the planned cold alignment as shown in Fig. 8, draw the planned cold alignment positions of the second shaft on the alignment map as shown in Fig. 9.

g. Read off the distances Vm, V n, Hm and Hn between the line drawn in step (e) and the line for the planned cold position in step (f) at each foot (55 & St) for the second machine. These values represent the necessary adjustments (Refer to Fig. 9).

4) Adjust the position of the second machine.

5) Repeat step (a) through (e) until the desired values for cold alignment are obtained.

Note: If the reference shaft is raised due to high temperatures of the support, the center line for the reference shaft in the alignment map should be drawn lower than the expected shaft center line at hot through the center line for the reference shaft at cold condition (Refer to Fig. 10).

- 15 -

5. Tolerance :

Tolerance for cold alignment should be based on the speed of the machinery. the transmission torque of the machinery, the weight of the rotors, the shaft separation, type of the coupling and the friction factor of the contacting surfaces, etc.

Tolerance for cold alignment is generally 'as shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Tolerance for cold alignment

Item High speed machine Low speed machine
(~ 4,000 rpm) (;i 4.000 rpm)
Center offset of shaft 0.05 mm 0.08 mm
ends
Angular offset per 100
mm of diameter being 0.03 mm 0.05mm
measured
Distance between coup- 0.5mm
0.5mm
lings or shafts - 16 -

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