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Lecture10.Phase Diagram Fe-Fe3C

Lecture10.Phase Diagram Fe-Fe3C

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METALLURGY I

(RM-1420)
Dosen:
Fahmi Mubarok, ST., MSc.
MetaIIurgy Laboratory
MechanicaI Engineering
ITS- Surabaya
2008
Crystal Structures of Iron
Fe - Fe
3
C Phase Diagram
Steels
Cast Iron
http://www.its.ac.id/personal/material.php?id÷Iahmi
CTUR X CTUR X
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 2
Review (Concept of soIubiIity)
©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division oI Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning¹ is a trademark used herein
under license.
(a) The three forms of
water - gas, liquid,
and solid - are
each a phase.
(b) Water and alcohol
have unlimited
solubility.
(c) Salt and water
have limited
solubility.
(d) Oil and water have
virtually no
solubility.
Illustration of phases
and solubility:
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X
CrystaI Structures of iron CrystaI Structures of iron
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 4
Fe Fe - - Fe Fe

C C
Phase Phase
Diagram Diagram
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X
Fe-Fe

C Phase Diagram
W #egion
Pure Iron · 0.008° wt C
Steel 0.008 · ° wt C · 2.14
Cast Isron 2.14 · °wt C · 6.70
W Phases:
u-Ferrite (u)
Austenite ()
o-Ferrite (o)
Cemenite (Fe
3
C)
W Critical temperature:
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X
Four SoIid Phases
W -Ferrite ()
Solid solution of a carbon in u-Ìron
structure
arbon only slightly soluble in matrix
W Maximum solubility of 0.022 % wt at 727
o
to about 0.008
wt% in room temperature
W Austenite ()
Solid solution of a carbon in o-Ìron
structure can accomodate more carbon than ferrite
W Maximum solubility of 2.14 % wt at 1147
o
then decreased
to 0.8 wt% at 727
o
.
W The difference in solid solubility between and u is the basis
of hardening in many steel.
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X
Four SoIid Phases
W -Ferrite ()
Solid solution of a carbon in o-Ìron
structure
technoIogicaI importance cause only stable at high
temperature.
W Maximum solubility of ferrite being 0.09 % wt at 1493
o

W Cementite (Fe

C)
Ìntermetallic e- compound
e
3
: 6.7 wt% + 93.3 wt% e
orms when solubility limit of carbon in u-ferrite is exceeded
below 727
o

rthorombic crystal structure : very hard and brittle.
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 8
Three Invariant Reactions Three Invariant Reactions
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X
Eutectoid steeI (PearIitic steeI)
W icrostructure: pearlite
- Lamellar eutectoid product
alternates plates oI u ¹ Fe3C
- Two phases grow simultaneously
W Lever rule
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 10
Formation of PearIite
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 11
Hypoeutectoid steeI
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 12
Hypoeutectoid steeI ->Lever RuIe
3
ut(total Ierrite)
Fe C (Cementite)
6.70 0.38
100°
6.70 0.022
÷ 95°
1 95° 5°

(proeutectoid Ierrite)
v(that will Iorm pearlite)
0.76 0.38
100°
(0.76 0.022)
52°
1 52° 48°

-

a
b
Example: alculating composition of steel with 0.38 wt%
T = 730
o

T=7
o
C
b a
The fraction of
eutectoid ferrite
thus are:
ue u
ut
95° 52°
43°

Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 1
Hypoeutectoid steeI composition (0.8 wt% C)
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 14
Hypereutectoid steeI
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 1
Hypereutectoid steeI -> Iever ruIe
ercise 10a. etermine the Iollowing composition oI 1.4 wt°C at a temperature near
eutectoid line :
a. The Iraction oI pealite and proeutectoid cementite
b. The Iraction oI total Ierrite and cementite phases
c. The Iraction oI eutectoid cementite
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 1
Hypereutectoid steeI composition (1.4 wt% C)
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 1
PIain Carbon SteeIs
1. Satisíactorv where strength and other requirement are not too se·ere
2. Used successíullv at room temperatures and in atmospheres that are not highlv
corrosi·e
3. (an be produced in a great range oí strengths at a relati·elv low cost
Limitation
1. (annot be strengthened bevond about 100.000 psi without signiíicant loss in
toughness impact resistance, and ductilitv
2. Large section cannot be made with a martensitic structure throughout
3. Rapid quench rates are necessarv íor íull hardening in medium-carbon plain carbon
steels to produce a martensitic structure. 1his rapid quenching leads to shape
distortion and cracking oí heat-treated steel
4. Show a marked soítening with increasing tempering temperature
5. Poor impact resistance at low temperatures
6. Poor corrosion resistance íor manv engineering en·ironments
¯. Oxidezed readilv at ele·ated temperatures
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 18
EIements in PIain Carbon SteeIs
J. Sulfur <0.05 °,
· Sulíur combines with iron to íorm iron sulíide leS,. which usuallv occurs as a grain
boundarv precipitation
· leS is hard and has a low melting point. it can cause cracking during hot working oí
steel hot-short,
2. Manganese 0.03 ° -1.0 °,
· 1he íuction oí manganese in counteracting the negati·e eííects oí sulíur
· Manganese combines with the sulíur persent in the steels to produce manganese
sulíide MnS,. thus no leS will íorm.
3. Phosphorus · 0.04 °,
· 1his small quantitv tends to dissol·e in íerrite. increasing the strength and hardness
slightlv
· In large quantities. phosphorus reduces ductilitv. therebv increasing the tendencv oí
the steel to crack when cold worked cold-short,
4. Silicon írom 0.05°-0.30°,
· Silicon dissol·es in íerrite. increasing the strength oí the steel without greatlv
decreasing the ductilitv
· Silicon is used as a deoxidizer. and íorms SiO
2
or silicate inclusions
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 1
AIIoying SteeIs
PIain Carbon SteeIs
!lain-carbon steels properties are not
always adequate for all engineering
applications of steel
AIIoy SteeIs
1. Alloy steels have been developed which although they cost more are
more economical for many uses
2. Ìn some applications alloy steels are the only materials that are able to
meet engineering requirements
3. The principal element that are added to make alloy steels are nickel
chromium molybdenum manganese silicon and vanadium
4. ther elements sometimes added are cobalt cooper and lead
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 20
Effect of carbon content
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 21
Hardness and Strength
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 22
Toughness and DuctiIity
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 2
Cast Iron
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 24
White Cast Iron
W hemical composition:
arbon 1.8-3.6 %
Silicon 0.5-1.9 %
Manganese 0.25-0.80 %
Sulfur 0.06-0.20 %
!hosphorus 0.06-0.18 %
W Solidification rate fast enough
W arbon combined with iron cementite (hard brittle)
W Microstructure pearlite in a white interdendritic network of
cementite
W Shows a "white¨ crystalline fractured surface
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 2
White Cast Iron
W igh compressive strength and excellent wear resistance but
extremely brittle and diIIicult to machine
W &sed where:
resistance to wear is most important
The service does not require ductility
W hite cast iron alleable cast iron (malleabilization)
W echanical properties:
ardness brinell 375 600 B
Tensile strength 20.000 70.000 psi
Compressive strength 200.000 250.000 psi
odulus oI elasticity 24 28 milion psi
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 2
White Cast Iron
Fahmi Mubarok
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ÌTS Surabaya X 2
Summary
W !earlite
W !eritectic reaction
W !hase
W !hase diagram
W !hase equilibrium
W !rimary phase
W !roeutectoid cementite
W !roeutectoid ferrite
W Solidus line
W Solubility limit
W Solvus line
W System
W Terminal solid solution
W Tie line
W Liquidus line
W Metastable
W Austenite
W ementite
W omponent
W ongruent transformation
W Equilibrium
W Eutectic phase
W Eutectic reaction
W Eutectic structure
W Eutectoid reaction
W errite
W Hypereutectoid alloy
W Hypoeutectoid alloy
W Ìntermediate solid solution
W Ìntermetallic compound
W Ìnvariant point
W Ìsomorphous
W Lever rule
Make sure you understand language and concepts:
METALLURGY I
(RM-1420)
Dosen:
Fahmi Mubarok, ST., MSc.
MetaIIurgy Laboratory
MechanicaI Engineering
ITS- Surabaya
2008
INGGU XI INGGU XI- -XIII XIII
NON "UIIBRIU
TRANSFORATION
-Isothermal transformation diagram
- Coling tranformation diagram
- Formation of martensite

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