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/ I
7.1 The Reynolds number, pVD/ IL, is a very important parameter in fluid mechanics. Verify that the Reynolds number is dimensionless, using both the FLT system and the MLT system for basic dimensions, and determine its value for water (at 70 "C) flowing at a velocity of 2 m/ s through a lin.diameter pipe.
fJ_VD (FL'I r' )(1. 7')(L) . ?OL() T()
Re 'f11 ()/ds num blr =
: 
~ FL2r
. (M L  3 ) ( L T I) (L ) MDLD TD
 
ML'r' s; wa.ter at 70 tJC) ~ ::
LJ= Cj77.g~" r 1YI1~
(jrul
;m2 (Ta ble B. 2 I;' Appl'l1d,~ B) .
N.S

/1112.
sf. 23 ~/O
7/
7.2 What are the dimensions of density, pressure, specific weight, surface tension, and dynamic viscosity in (a) the FLT system and (b) the MLT system? Compare your results with those given in Table 1.1 in Chapter 1.
!=
=
/aJrce . p = ?rt'S5IJre:' are a.. .::
({ = spec; lid. 41elrnt .;:
£. 
/.,2
W(ljllt Wfllt /I()/tiMe
2
HL T ..!. /1.
L3 rZL2
fl.1
2
MLT .
L
F _
 
L
r'
/. 2.\ <
. (MiT ;L .
 
 
frJ

LT
T I
( a) Ii! tne FLT .51J.s tem J (.h) /11 the. /Vj LT .5'1skm)
. P L '7 T 2. I; HL3
f::
1';;' FL2 p':' Ja.1L' r:'
(;';. FL3 ~= ML2r'2.
0= FL  J 0:: M r :"
_ J /
. FL2 T /= ML T
/: .
 7  J...
7.3 I
7.3 For the flow of a thin film of a liquid with a depth hand a free surface, two im££rtant dimensionless parameters are the Froude number, V Iv' gh, and the Weber number, pV2hl (T. Detennine the value of these two parameters for glycerin (at 20°C) flowing with a velocity of 0.5 m/s at a depth of 2 mm.
v
3.57
j (r.J / Cf;.) (0,002 1m y' (/2 ft>o ~3 ) (~5 ~) 2. fr;. tJO Zm1 )
z:
73
I .rc: _; T VLi2 
, Dk
. ,
7.'1
7.4 Water sloshes back and forth in a tank as shown in Fig. P7.4. The frequency of sloshing, w, is assumed to be a function of the acceleration of gravity, g, the average depth of the water, h, and the length of the tank, C. Develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem using g and e as repeating variables.
• FIGURE P7.4
, T' w=
Fr»rn fht. fl' +11 eo YCJYI ) 4  2 = 2 d ,'men.sJbI1Jes.s
paY'II,:,eieYs res","ret:l. lAse j ann _f_ Ci.5 Y'~/)~,,"·hn..9
variables) Thus) a..b
70=W?.1
and (T I )(L ,1.) "(l.) J, == LO TO
c/, 1" b == o Jla.:::O
1itat a. ~  I/Z
I
1lj=wVT
("t;~L) (.r;,~ T) b == Y.l I an« 1here/r,ye
o: L J (~y T)
1.1 10 J I OIl)S
7 If
7.S J
7.5 Assume that the power, 9>, required to drive a fan is a function of the fan diameter, D, the fluid density, p, the rotational speed, ill, and the flowrate, Q. Use D, ill, and p as repeating variables to determine a suitable set of pi terms.
I CU = T
( /or F) (fr:w L)
(~r r)
I+e =0 / +~ Ifc.=o
Ib +2..,:::'0
:tt (;;//PWJ tha.i a.. ==  S.I b::  3) C = / i tll1t/ 1hf~~ye
cP
.. 7Tj= fD5'Uj3
C hec,k. dlmffl,$/()I1..5 usinj MLT ~1.slem '
(J ..:.. Nl..zr3
f /)S'tu 3  (/1/...3)(L)S (,)3
o«
r;.~m The fL' the~yem J S 3 = 2 ?,' teym~ V'e~u/Y·ed.
DI co, and f 4S Y'~pea..t/f1J vav;able5. Thus;
/0 ~ b c
tr;= V D CV f
(PL T,)(L) a.(T)b(rLlfr:z.)C ..:.. r"l.°r~
..50 that
71:'
.z,
ffJL o TO
C. :::0
.3 t a.  If.c :: o
 / .b 1' 2 C :='0
(e~17 t )
75
(lor r) (loy L) (Icy T)
7. 5 1
(C{)n't )
a ::  3) .h "::' / ) c = 0 ) " 17 d 1h eY'e~Y'~
1r_= z:
d'meJ1s';IJ.5 us/n:J MLT s'1s+em .: 03 I
L T
C heck:
Q
• () I<.
7C;
7. <;; 7.6 It is desired to determine the wave height when wind blows across a lake. The wave height, H, is assumed to be a function of the wind speed, V, the water density, P, the air density, Pm the water depth, d, the distance from the shore, e, and the acceleration of gravity, g, as shown in Fig. P7.6. Use d, V, and p as repeating variables to determine a suitable set of pi terms that could be used to describe this problem.
lH
II FIGURE P7.6
#= L V= LT1 f= FL"'r2. fa.: FL'1r~ d=' L J?:dL
h1>111 the f/ in eorem ) 7  3 = If f/ d; ~ 4nd I 4.5 rej>t'IliIhJ v(lY/a6Ies.
1lj= )I da II},! C (L ) ( L ) c. (L T I) b (F L  if T 'J ) C = F ~ L 6 TO
.ferms ret{; u/rf'd. Use Thus;
( +OY' r) (~r L ) (.{;,.,.. T)
there/:Jye
77
(;;,1' r ) (ivY' 1) r s; r)
~=o I + a..... t"b  'Ie =0  b rzc =0
1r:
I
" =0 I
H

d
a =/ I
trl = fa. a ~ /I j, t C
b I. If 2) c pOL 6 TO
[PL 'I r'1) (L .. ) 0. (L rI) (FL T =
I + c = 0  if + a. tb  If C = 0 2hr2.C ;:0
that a. e 0 ~ =. 0 ~ = = ! So Thlli
) )
/+. = ;a.
If 2. 
fJ
obVJ~usl.!:J dlm enoton less .
7. fo I
( Cf/I1'i)
(.for J=) ( ;:",, L)
(~r T)
'0k.
, ,
C!.:=. 0 / t a... +1:;  If c s: 0
l/' "l'2C'::0
C :: 0
)
Thus)
7 '3
7. 7 I
7~7 The pressure rise, tsp , across a pump can be expressed as
!J.p = feD, p, co, Q)
where D is the impeller diameter. p the fluid density, W the rotational speed, and Q the flowrate. Determine a suitable set of dimensionless parameters.
ilt=' ,cL2. .D;;L ~= FLlfr2. Ct)= T1
rrpm th~ f/fhe~yeml 53= 2 fi ifi'm~ re1/J;'r'fd. U~e D)!; 'Inti W (15 r.e!~Il&I;;.1 Vt1l'id6Ies. Thus)
L1 .D4 J:, c
11J = P t to
( Pi 1) (L) 14 ( rL  "T7.) b /r") C _' ;=°L r) T ()
Sf) '/hat
/"'/:;=0
 2. rt: a.  Ifh = 0 J..6c=o
II follows thAt tl = 2) b = I j C = 2 ) tln(/ tJieY'e~te
_ ilp
, . 77j D(04J~
Check dImensions tlsJn, N L T So/S km :
IJ p . M L I T  z.. = /ti~ //' T()
D~ tv ~ (1.) 2 (HI..')(r~ 1.
hI' 7T.. .
t ' _ n; = ([JDa.;JJ4) C
(L 3T)(LJ~ (/='~T3.) b (r) C = F"l,()TO
.b=o 3 f ti.  lfb =0 1+2bC=O
1:1 k>J/ows 1haJ a. =31 b = a, C = / J Clnd 1l1ereft;re cp
. 1r2. = D3~
Check dimensIons tlSlh, Mt..T ~ttslem .'
(]) _: L 371 _ ...:. N 0 L () TO
O?>k) (LJ 3 /r=)
.. ~k..
(101" F) ( fz,y L) (fot' T)
.: Ok._
71'
7. g I
7.'8 The drag. ~, on a washer shaped plate placed normal to a stream of fluid can be expressed as
9) = f(d1, d2, V, u, p)
where d, is the outer diameter, di the inner diameter, V the fluid velocity, ji the fluid viscosity, and p the fluid density. Some experiments are to be performed in a wind tunnel to determine the drag. What dimensionless parameters would you use to organize these data?
vtJ == r do, = L dz. ; L V == L r= )A = FL =r rrpm the pi fhepf'fn1} &, 3 =..3 pi Hrtns Y'JIi,rt'd. use
d,) V; IInd!l 11.5 ~fea,6/11:J vllna/Jles. Thus)
A1 It lie
n;:P/~ 1/1
(F) (L) e (LTj b (FL 'fr:l) c = r"L~ro
(f:oy F) f+cY" L..) (ky T)
1'here~ye
/tC=O atb lfc=o
.b+ 2.C =0
«=:», ),=21
~
C .:/ I
QI1t/
tr:: a/ Vi'
I
Check (/Jmet1s/~n.s . MiT s'lstem .'
uSln_3
;t9 J1LT :l
).If) t a TO , ~/<.
~ (c)? (Lr') YHL3) ::: ..
d/' VZ; 7l' .2..
~ b c
TTl. = d:;_ d, V /
(L )(1.) t:. (LT ~ b lfL 1fT 2) C z: FDL OlD
C1 =0 /rt?. + b  Ifc. =0  .b i2c ='0
110
7.~ J
.: ~k
II)
It .fO//t:)IVS 1hlli a:> I) b =0, C =0 I tint! 1hey~lO;,e
17:.=~
2. d,
obV/()VS/fj til InfJl1SI{)l'//ess .
tJhlC.h IS fOr ~.'
Ire '::0 .2. i" t( 7' j  'Ie :: 0
/ b + 2.c =lJ
(""r r) (.;;,,,, L)
(Ir,y r)
C =/ 1/111"/ theref"ye /
(Z)
.ti /oJ/t)tus
1htt a.: I) b= I) ~:: I'
II" I
.3 d, V!,
Check. d,~ensltPl1.s usill'y MLT s'fslem ..
)
.sirtl'Jdllf'tI df ~f~S/~I1Ies.s pl/rqmet:eY" E g . (/) w(),'/el mare camm tJl1 J':J be
,45 h,y AS ciJmfI'lS/();ftt / till" /,!si.J ,j &JY1cerl1l'd / CIS. (J)
e» II (Z) tire .f'S"';'lIaJen t .
7/1
7. 9
7.9 Under certain conditions, wind blowing past a rectangular speed limit sign can cause the sign to oscillate with a frequency w (See Fig. P7.9 and Video V9.6.) Assume that w is a function of the sign width, b, sign height, h, wind velocity, V, air density, p, and an elastic constant, k, for the supporting pole. The constant, k, has dimensions of FL. Develop a suitable set of pi terms for this problem.
• FIGURE P7.9
I.~:: r I I. ...!..L J=~ Lv::' LT1 • If 1 j' FL
vv D , /YI f::i t=: T ~':"
P;"P/?1 tn! p/ 1heoyern ~_,] = 3 pi .f=en71j Y'eZI.lIY'ttpf. Use
b.) LII tin" I 4.5 repe(L.I:I;'~ VIIY'lable.s. Thu.s~
'17; = tv btL V~c
(7 I) (L)IA. (LTjh(PL "'fT~ c= }="1. o TD
(/"r F) (t:,~L) (.fo",. T)
) 4nd 'There .fr,te.
c=:o at.b qc = 0
 I  1, +lC =0
:t i I" 1/t9I11..sfha a =1 .b :. / c = a
I )
1Ti = cuj
C he "k ell 'mel/Sf/HIS .' wb


V
(T1) (L) (L ,I)
. L~To
, 01<.:
, .
e '::0
t t a. +b7" ¥c. =0  b tZC, =0
( s; F) (p,y. L) (,.(;,;' T)
7/2
7. 9 ( e~1'J t )
TT3:
1T3:: ~ ba.vbfc'
(rL)( L)Q. { L T~ h ( FL'fT"J) c=
(toy P) (f"y L)
(/or T )
I+e. =0 lta..+blfc =0 b ..,. Za. =0
xi Ic/JOW5 1hfti a~  3; /; ':. 2) C == I) tlnd 1heye f>I'e..
k tl3 :: );3 V't
C h~CK dtmel?.:¥Ptl.s U SII1_J »u. T .s'1~klfll:
1 . ItA L2. T  2. ..:_ u
~ f  I _ M () L D T· . '. 6k,
j,3V1ot z: (L3) rLTI)2( ML3)
7/3
7./0 I
7.10 The velocity, c, at which pressure pulses travel through arteries (pulsewave velocity) is a function of the artery diameter, D, and wall thickness, h, the density of blood, p, and the modulus of elasticity, E, of the arterial wall. Determine a set of nondimensional parameters that can be used to study experimentally the relationship between the pulsewave velocity and the variables listed. Form the nondimensional parameters by
inspection. .
c.= f(D;J.)f; E)
c::: L T I 0 = L it. = L r= F L If T 2.
From fhe fL' rnetJyem) s 3 = 2. pi krms ye~tI;Yfcl.
BIf 'YJspecf'O!1) fr;y 7T, (t!.onltJin,n9 c): ~
tr. = e. VI' == (LT1)(FLlfrz) z.~ FOLcTo
I VE (f= L 2) '/z. 
ChecK. U51;'~ MLT:
c V7  VE
~ (L T)( ML3) z
(M£'r')'iz
.: 01<
/=Or 712 let
11:= fl_
2 0
whlc.1t 1.5 06// 10llS/ y dimensIon Jess. Thus)
elf?  f (i) 7 / if
7// I
7.11 Assume that the drag, 9), on an aircraft flying at supersonic speeds is a function of its velocity, V, fluid density, p, speed of sound, c, and a series of lengths, el, ••. , e;, which describe the geometry of the aircraft. Develop a set of pi terms that could be used to investigate experimentally how the drag is affected by the various factors listed. Form the pi terms by inspection.
oJ.:: f (VI 1.1 C) },) .". J(,. )
V=/..T1 t=FLlfrz c.=LT1
;'::;'Pfn 'fhe pi thetJl'etn) (Jf'fL)3 == /+i pl fff'h1S Yftptl/f'e~ tJhere L' IS the n(,(m~JI' of len11h termJ (t'= I; ; 3,; etc. ).
Bfj /J1SpeCt'{;H) .ft,y 777 (C~J1fq/111J1_g ofJ) .
7T  JtJ _:. F __ j:0l 0 TO
I  I V z.J/  (FIIfT'l.){j_r'.J 2.( L) z,
CheJ( us/nj MLT : ~
2.
/v1 /... T
FOr ~ (c()nfqin,n" c) .
Co ~
7!i. = V Or C
ClJ1d both tire ahlllous/'1 dllnfns/on Jess.
/?;r 4/1 &1J1er pt' terms c,t9nfrlln,iJ,J J.,,'
7T.. z: e, l ;1
(inti 1hes( tetms ';;/IO/VIi1j 1he ;; tire obviously dllneY/5ItJl1/ess.
Thus J
t.Jhev~ J:' IS tI series 01 p/ /trtns I ~:) ;; I e rc,
715"
..... ... ~ ... '.'~....,
7./2.
7.12 As shown in Fig. P7.l2 and Video V5.4, ajet of liquid directed against a block can tip over the block. Assume that the velocity, V, needed to tip over the block is a function of the fluid density, p, the diameter of the jet, D, the weight of the block, CW, the width of the block, b, and the distance, d, between the jet and the bottom of the block. (a) Determine a set of dimensionless parameters for this problem. Form the dimensionless parameters by inspection. (b) Use the momentum equation to determine an equation for V in terms of the other variables. (c) Compare the results of parts (a) and (b).
• FIGURE P7.12
(Il) V = f (f) D I '2J) b) d )
V:;; J.. "T I f ~ r L It T .. D:: L '2J :. f b ;; L cJ = L
nf)m 1ht! f/ 1hecrenr J '3::: 3 p/ krrns r ~tulY'ed . BIf In.s?evtloll ft:,y 11, (C£Jn1tllillAY V)
11i 0: V D Y:G 7...:. (LT1)(L) (( {:~¥Tn =" rcr
(L 7')( L) fI f71F31 _.;. f1'L 'r' .: Ok.
(jI A"LTJ
Check
f;r 71" J~i b
""
11: =
Z a
aha lor 77j d
rr
d D
al1t1. 1J~1i1 10 41111l tTJ tire 1(7' A. (~ :!...)
VDy~ == 't' d) D
(.b) tor /mfJendln~ ·/tPPlnj ClY~IIJ1rJ 0 L M ~ ':::l>
:So 1rta:l: ( b
FcI == '2u 7)
d
l_
(I)
o
7 Ito
7. J 2 ( ~,,'t )
FY'tJlt11 m~m~l1l:tlm ec>11~/4era,t.I&1I.r o rr;, (u~ €A./) = s: =;
\..::!J where ~ fA V tlnd tI ~ ::'0
So rh (L. i:
fV2.A =r
7HHS, !rpm E:'Z. (j.J
~VZA)(d) = '2U ({)
~D :171~t
V= 0it~='
If lill '/,(// ih ,4: 7r fit D 2
V= \/21cJ b ., r rrtd D~
( 2. )
£.3)
rt:.J: hlioldS b'1 &;lJ1ftJr'iI'lJ EllS. (2) ana (.)) 1'YJfl.t
fi (~) ~) = (~)(ff)
So 1It~t 1 ( ~) ~) Is ac/:.uall!1 inrleffnc/Mt ~lf i .
7/7
7 13 J
7. 13 The buoyant force, FlJ, acting on a body submerged in a fluid is a function of the specific weight, y, of the fluid and the volume, ¥, of the
body. Show, by dimensional analysis, that the buoyant force must be directly proportional to the specific weight.
Fa z: f (~.y.)
0= Fl3
.: 1Jk.
~=F
3 :z = / pi ferrn re~t"red.
FrtJm +he pt' fheoYfWl; B'1 I yj S Fe c 1tti/1 :
7r.= I
F
ChecK U51t).1 MLT:
Fe ~ ~¥
Since there IS Of} J!:1 I pt.' t:erm),"t icl/oWJ /Jurt
;:; =c
~¥
co he re C Jj 4 Ci!Jns i:411 i . Thus)
Fa = C otf
Cllld
FBoC{( 7/8
(/ )
7. /'1
7.14 The viscosity, u; of a liquid can be measured by determining the time, t, it takes for a sphere of diameter, d, to settle slowly through a distance, e, in a vertical cylinder of diameter, D, containing the liquid (see Fig. P7.14). Assume that
t = f(e, d, D, f.L, 6.y)
where 6. y is the difference in specific weights between the sphere and the liquid. Use dimensional analysis to show how I is related to f.L, and describe how such an apparatus might be used to measure viscosity.
!Dj
II FIGURE P7.14
Ll r= J=C3 )t= FC'l.r
Prp/11 1}u f / 1heoYrm) ,  3:: 3 t Y 77j ( ~n hili,';..! t ) :
17: = t L1 a d. .
I ,A4
{, )(f:CB)(L) (FL 2 T )
Check uSlh.J MI T: r d 2 ) Ii.
~ 40 ..:. [T) (N C T2. L) ~ N~LDTl> .', ~j(_
/< ( '1 L' ,I )
~r 11;. (~fIlrtilll;'.7 D).'D
tr: = d
wh;ch t:S ~{'v/()usJ~ dlti1ff1si!JlI/tss
;:';1'
jvt.= ~ D'o1:
Ilt.e &1I.S/1l11t (, 'an be d,/;ermltl~d b" !a/l·b.".dlfJ# UJl1lt A ,pfeIL (J 1/ i:.Jt(Jwn tJ J5etJsrf.;;. (PI Th CI ~ h6W 11 t;,( Vlfj·CtJSJ17 0 I
b fhfr .fIIJl CLr ea..t ht dt.l:e rmll/eA Tn rt'Uj h 4 m efl~t1J1em pJ of "f"Ju. +/m~ I:: lit (_"t1)unc+I()~ WITH. E'I./I).
7. /5 ~
7.15 * The pressure drop across a short hollowed plug placed in a circular tube through which a liquid is flowing (see Fig. P7.15) can be expressed as
Plot the results of these tests, using suitable dimensionless parameters, on loglog graph paper. Use a standard curvefitting technique to determine a general equation for b..p. What are the limits of applicability of the equation?
b..p = f(p, V, D, ,d)
where p is the fluid density, and V is the mean' velocity in the tube. Some experimental data obtained with D = 0.2 ft, p = 2.0 slugs/ft"; and V = 2 ft/s are given in the following table:
tip
d (ft) 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.15
b..p (lb/ft2) 493.8 156.2 64.0 12.6
FIGURE P7.15
4/>;; FL 2 1':: FL If, 2. ry.t')/')1 th~ 1'/ iA~~Y~n11 $3::. 2 for 77; (c~l1faiJ1l;'y IJ p) :
7T, .&  , ~Jl2.
{he"k. US/l1j MLT: ~ ~ »r
• I
V= L T
p/... 2.
. 
I ':I..
Mi.: T
.: o«
For 77;. (Contilln /11 ~ D and d ) :
D
17";,=7
( urh Ii. h /s ok 1/ /(Jusi!:! d;'meI15'~nJeS5), ThHS)
~ =
!'y.
Ii,. the da,ta. 1ft/en:
Did 3: 33 ;(·5'0
IJr/tV1 bl,7 IC/. S ~ .DO /. 33
3,00 1.58
I
( eo n t)
'/20
7.15 ¥" I
•
J
/
/
I
10
Pi2
)In't;e f"he da6a. pit>t as a s,fY4;,hi ///Je 61'7
a: /01 /()J p/"t/ the e$t(~.J;t:J,d /dy 7J,e "ILia...
Is of 1'he I'orrn
.b
71i = a. 772
tJheye TT;:' ~p/fV2 ClI1~ 77;. = D/ d· A ptJw~Y' J t{ tV 1/ I () f "1}u d 4fx 9 J;" e.J
a ::: o. ft>b ClI1~ b = 3. 9'1
Thws/ Ap f_D '3, 99
LJ  tJ. SIJ£ ::i~) 
/V1. a.,
Th Ls e f /(~I:/e> 4 J:r tJ.. P pll C4 bl t!: () ve r: 1},e_
Y'4nre of dA:I:.~ ;, 33 ~ * ~ 3. ~3
71.1
7. /ft> I
7. l~ A liquid flows with a velocity V through  a hole in the side of a large tank. Assume that
V = f(h, g, p, 0')
where h is the depth of fluid above the hole, g is the acceleration of gravity, p the fluid density, and 0' the surface tension. The following data were obtained by changing h and measuring V, with a fluid having a density = 103 kg/rn" and surface tension = 0.074 N/m.
V (m/s) 3.13 4.43 5.42 6.25 7.00
h (m) 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 Plot these data by using appropriate dimensionless variables. Could any of the original variables have been omitted?
V= LT' _p, =L d~ LT2 1= FLIfor'l. cr= FL1
Frd'M 1/1e pl' 1hefJtem J 53= 2 Pl' terms Y'e~tllY·fd.
8'1 il1S;ectltJH k>,. IT; (~fJt(JI;'ll'i7 V):
V. J_ rI .
17i = V 1 f. = (L T ") 'I,. (LJ 'I. = L· r
/7;r 77''J.. (Cf;n k;mn~ t lind rr) : 1..
IT:  !3 It 2. ~ (Ft.."r") (I. T'l.) (L) _ r: LO TO
2. 0  rL1
Check (AS 1/1 j
• O/<.
IM!)) (L Tz) (I.) 'l. = /l1/J L" T" M 71.
V V3,A. ..
n,y flte da.b:. ~J'vcn:
/. Cf 1
5.31 )(./0 If
S3.0 ox If) If
8' 2. 'I x If) 'I'
13,3 )(.'0 ~
vlVih
t. Ifl
t. 111
/. If I
1.6 r;,..,..r~~__,_.,......_...,
1.4 14:~+._:+~ .... +~~ ..... ~+,~_;~1 1.2
v
 0.8T~~+__+~4__+~~
Y 3l 0.6 ++++++Ill~ 0.4 T~____f+__+~__l____I_~~
0.2 ttt+~____f+__+i___~ O~~~+_~~+_~~~
o
70
80
10
20
30
40
50
60
Th€ qr4ph 4f1d IAble ~hDW thaI: vim J.s ,;'cleptndfHi of fJ#1r. 'I./rr ThllS; the VanQb/t's ~ anti cr ~tJ/d hI/lie been t!)mdf~c/.
722.
7./7 ""
C,m h,m H,m
2.0 0.10 0.833
4.0 0.10 0.833
2.0 0.20 0.417
4.0 0.20 0.417
2.0 0.35 0.238
4.0 0.35 0.238 *7.17 As shown in Fig. 2.16, Fig. P7.17, and Video V2.7, a rectangular barge floats in a stable configuration provided the distance between the center of gravity, CG, of the object (boat and load) and the center of buoyancy, C, is less than a certain amount, H. If this distance is greater than H, the boat will tip over. Assume H is a function of the boat's width, b, length, C, and draft, h. (a) Put this relationship into dimensionless form. (b) The results of a set of experiments with a model barge with a width of 1.0 mare shown in the table. Plot these data in dimensionless form and determine a powerlaw equation relating the dimensionless parameters.
• FIGURE P7.17
(t()
H::: f ( ~. J) ,t. )
'1/ =
FyCJ(X the fL' theoyem
• I
/ J1,spec.l,o n :
H

b
(b)
All r;.f the. p/ +errns 4Yf obvlous/; dl rnefJSltJ,,/esSl
f=i:,r file d4.~ 'liven, hlbll/akd ValUfS for H/b"ll/b, 411~ .(Ib Q JI'{' sh~i.tI h below.
h/b H/b lib
0.10 0.833 2.0
0.10 0.833 4.0
0.20 0.417 2.0 0.8
0.20 0.417 4.0 .0 0.6
......
0.35 0.238 2.0 :r: 0.4
0.35 0.238 4.0 0.2
O.
0.00 0.10 0.20 h/b
0.30
0.40
An I~Sp~c..II()·" ,,~t CIefund Is ob~/':'e,(
of 1He.H c/Ilht . reve« is 1h"i f+/ b .does ~ YJ .t / h) (, ~'.J rn e ..5i/ I?J f a« I II e p/H /.b
~Y' el, fler~A t (/11111t's I> /: ..e!J,. Thu's,
't=~(t)
an. d 1f,()1}t tJJ~ pJt>t 0 I 1;, e :da. ba.) LAS ,,:;, .e$ t.<4.. .fIt) 11
f+. . (:'&·)',06
b = 0.0933 ];;
723
7.lg+
7.18 The pressure drop, Ap, over a certain length of horizontal pipe is assumed to be a function of the velocity, V, of the fluid in the pipe, the pipe diameter, D, and the fluid density and viscosity, p and p: (a) Show that this flow can be described in dimensionless form as a "pressure coefficient," Cp = Ap/(0.5 pV2) that depends on the Reynolds number, Re = p VD/ p: (b) The following data were obtained in an experiment involving a fluid with p = 2 slugs/It', p. = 2 X 1O3Ib's1fe, and D = 0.1 ft. Plot a dimensionless graph and use a power law equation to determine the functional relationship between the pressure coefficient and the Reynolds number. (c) What are the limitations on the applicability of your equation obtained in part (b)?
V, ftls
1l.p, Ib/ff
3 11 17 20
(a. )
A r = + (~ DJ ~ f) V=LT1 D=L
192 704 1088 1280
;  '1
/.Jp::: PL
Fr~nt 1h~. p/ theorem) 5"3= 2 pl kn11s ;'elu/Ye~. 8'1 /4S'p~cJlo ~ ~r 7T,.)
7r. =A.p == I /v~
Check U$1119 NLT ~I{.slem'AA IZ.
.4 P...:.. ,, L I
I'V"': (HL3) (1,. 7j l
( P t.lf77) (L 7') (L) _ (FL.Z. T )
,_ 2., ,'L •
_ fJY'D _:. 7T2~ h 
tiS/111M L I' ~'t$leh1 :
/L?:; (/vfLa )tLT)(L) =* HDL()rlJ
)i' (11 t .. : ~ 7')
Thus
. )
J1p _

IV 2
/\._.,
¥ is a 14, I( 11 Joll) W h .{u "'~tIO j. I t( .fa c CD 'r
CUI1 oe i 1rIC,/U d£' d u:' 7T1 (/.f des/ye;): $0
S/~ce if>{ O,~
~{(,f:
i
~:t4.= cf (1J!)
Lp == 4(R(!)
Ij m« pre5SUr~ ~efftc.I;" t t1i1d Re 1Jt<f!. 'Re~I1()IJ..s ( e 1!)11!t )
,ThW5/ v..he,.t. Cp number,
, 01<.
•. OJ::..
7 2'+
7. 18 ~
(b) W :5'';, 1n~ dlJ.i:tl l' lie n J C. = . .6 p. = _L1=. . ..:.,.P_:_
r o.?V~ (o.s)(z1;f) V2
2. (:5J;t!)( V) (0. I Ft.) _
7abu 14 k III I/: a lu es 1J,e d4. i4 are
V,ftls 3 11 17 20
~ p, psf 192 704 1090 1280
I DC> V
Re 300 1100 1700 2000
Cp 21.3 5.82 3.77 3.20
(I)
...;
~ 25.0
~ 20.0 ~ c. 15.0 ~ o 10.0 ~ 5.0
(/)
£ 0.0
• Cp = 638 Re1.00
\
<,
~
e o 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Reynolds number, Re
re IJlo 'ns h' f ,~ . ~3g
(C) BII.se~ ~1'1 Ihe l//lrl46JeJ USt*d t:1nli 17te  r/llt", da.I:a." 1nL ernj>,"Y/ca I Y'~/lt,h~IIShl f) E$. (1) ' WI>t.(/tf.. (!)ld'1 be
fA. ppj/c.Q,,/,I__ I ,_,fh c.. Re'lIlDld$ n ut» ~.fy Y'4 n'i4;
3 OO.~ Re_:£ ZOO D
N o t. e: A rthfJlNlh 111 e e ~ u a. 1::1(; 11 171 J 9 hebe. 1/11 /, &J aa: b/de 11t'J rtll19~ re5"/IJ S'h(l~/1!( /l1)~ k e:« trA.f'4.lal:el" he'PI/~ Pte rlu1fe ()f d~ta used.
?25
7.lr J
7.19 The time, t, it takes to pour a certain volume of liquid from a cylindrical container depends on several factors, including the viscosity of the liquid. (See Video Vl.l.) Assume that for very viscous liquids the time it takes to pour out 2/3 of the initial volume depends on the initial liquid depth, e, the cylinder diameter, D, the liquid viscosity, ,_"" and the liquid specific weight, 'Y. The data shown in the following table were obtained in the laboratory. For these tests e = 45 mm, D = 67 mm, and 'Y = 9.60 kN/m3• (a) Perform a dimensional analysis and based on the data given, determine if variables used for this problem appear to be correct. Explain how you arrived at your answer. (b) If possible, determine an equation relating the pouring time and viscosity for the cylinder and liquids used in these tests. If it is not possible, indicate what additional information is needed.
t_1_1 _L _ _lZ __ L12_J _ _B_l___!_2Z 15 ~r531 83 r 145
i = {(1; ~ /'. 6' )
;.. :;; L J) = L ? =. F L "r
53 = 2 p/ ffrms refftllYed. ( con III 11'11 ;'3 t:)
(T)(PL3)(L) (;= L:J. r )
~'i ,lent :
= (T)( ML2. rt.j(L) = rr L () T" (M L' r:')
Check
.
f,,(Sln_j ML T
tyD ~
, O~
( COli fa/J1l1i.J t) tr:::L
2. D
/.5 DbV/e>qsJy d,meYlj/tJn/esS. Thus)
(/ )
7. J q ( (!.I!)I) 'i )
~~~...~~~
<j 77 ?70 87Jf 975 872
Since 7T, JS e~sen/;I4.IJ!J C.I!)f'Js1::ani: ot/er 'the. Y'anfje of. the escpertrn enba I da.,fIJ.. The. vl/nablt's 116f4 .ft,1' 1ne pYtJblem CL ppenr b be (tf)Yrecr.
Lb) The
fA,J/erIl9e.. va/ue .ft,,. TTl is
t;..o ::: K71f
171 ere It, re i:= 87Lf)L; (J.D
i::: I. 3/" f: '
fA;/t'h + I~ seU>l1ds when J't jJ In UI'J,"fJ tJ/ N'.5//WI~ Nt)"'I;_(:. ihat 1})J:S resfYl'c~c/ .f2ZU4 .. i:/~h jj 017 I'J l/~ l rd lor ...£;0:::~. ~ 7 t,) D = ~ 7/Y11/trl I tlnd r.: 9: /Pt)42N /Mf 3 a» iJ, 2/8 t> I 1J1e ;'/7 J' .f,,:,' I v» lime be I n.J pOll retl.
7 27
'J.lo 1
7.2.0 SAE 30 oil at 60 of is pumped through a 3ftdiameter pipeline at a rate of 5700 gal/min. A model of this pipeline is to be designed using a 2in.diameter pipe and water at 60 of as the working fluid. To maintain Reynolds number similarity between these two systems, what fluid velocity will be required in the model?
Ft;y Re~lJtJ/ds num btl'" ~/tn;JtlYl1!1,1 V.tm Dhf') ::: V D
"Zd", V
or
(I)
V=
and
12.7 ;'t3 s
+hen
I. so ft
s
v=
f rift) z
Thu5,; /rtJm £1. (J )
I) _ (1.2/X/()S fi) (3ft) (;, rt:)_
v"  ~  \ l.gO 
I)J1 ( tf. 5" x /0  3 if J ( ?i ft ) s
7 z s
7.21 A liquid contained in a steadily rotating cylinder with a vertical axis moves as a rigid body. In this case, as shown in Fig. P7.21 and Video V7.l, the fluid velocity, V, varies directly with the radius r so that V = rw where w is the angular velocity of the rotating cylinder. Assume that the characteristic Reynolds number for this system is based on the radius and velocity at the wall of the cylinder. (a) For a 12in. diameter cylinder rotating with an angular velocity w = 0.4 rad/s calculate the Reynolds number if the liquid has a kinematic viscosity of (i) 0.33 ft2/s or (ii) 0.33 X 102 ft2/s. (b) If the cylinder were suddenly stopped, would you expect the motion of the liquids to be similar for the two liquids of part (a)? Explain. Do the results shown in the Video V7.1 support your conclusions?
• FIGURE P7.21
(b) k /"'cJ/c~led In Ta6/(! 7. f) !he ReYl1o/r/5 ntlmbRY t s tin I~de)(. of the r4.f.J'tJ 1)1 71Je li1eyh'tl !byte on a rIJlt'c/ element if) the VI seous /hrc~ el"J the elemeci: FPy :jrnA)1 I2e suet, as I;'
(i) aoere YI.5~O{JS lorces are dt!)mlnal/i Sf) U:hfl1 the. rlrca.fU11 I elf J,,;der sh:p_s Ih.~ . .pL uid shl?s, /ft:)t<)e lie r) loY" /tfr'l('Y' £e SHc.h 4,5 In li.L.) abt)vel /I')f'rtlit 'fi:wc~ tire.
d~l71;'rUII1t,J SO when 1he rt>ttLl/n9 cr!;ntlev j/tJp.s the ILu/tl 4;>eep$ r» i:ttt:Inj lor t? s h"!'i ~n;'c/ ",f. fil?'J e. Thlls
• I • .J
1JJ~ mOt.JOll t>f 1Jte.. / I $tI/~LI J'.s n()i .5lmtlt1r .for 1he
rW() Jljtn;U of fJdyi: (a). Nt:) f 'Th« r.esuJfs show",
on Video V7. I SUfpDri 1}!JJ eonc..JlJs/~}3. '(e5.
7·ZZ I
7. Z"Z The design of a river model is to be based on Froude number similarity, and a river depth of 3 m is to correspond to a model depth of 100 mm. Under these conditions what is the prototype velocity corresponding to a model velocity of 2 m/s?
fir ;:';'"ude 17 tim bPr s/m~J4J.'jf!:J )
Vm V
::
V!~ c~ V,e?
Where d . ihf! flu,c./ deptn . Thus)
'" V= I{ff ~
!~ «;
C/l1d tu/th J ::j~
V= If[ ~ = ~3~ (2~) 1/.0 /Yn
=
.s
tJ. /~OAt1 7.23 I
7.23 The fluid dynamic characteristics of an airplane flying at 240 mph at 10,000 ft are to be investigated with the aid of a 1 :20 scale model. If the model tests are to be performed in a wind tunnel using standard air, what is the required air velocity in the wind tunnel? Is this a realistic velocity?
For d ~h4m/c.. sim; /4I'i+!J / the. ReYllolds num beY' rn us I: be the same #>Y' model as d pY'oioi'J.pe. ThUS)
(/)
(TaMe C.I) (J;IoJe I. ~)
(zo) (zv» mph)
 3750 mph
No I / f I s not ~ real/silL ve/()c/~  rnuc..h 100 J'II~h.
731
7. 2.Lf I
7.24 If an airplane travels at a speed of 1120 kmlhr at an altitude of 15 km, what is the required speed at an altitude of 7 km to satisfy Mach number similarity? Assume the air properties correspond to those for the U.S. standard atmosphere.
(¥) = (¥)
J 5" Pe1M 7 ~ mt
Th e ~ fRed (J f soul1ri ~1/11 be celc« lilted ~om the
<!:: V~/tT
,ft,r IIlr) J<.=/.Jl.tJ) Ie:: Z8/'. 'I J/~;,I<.
lsI< At1 f/I/ h Iude )
T=  s" ~o DC + 273.1£ = J./~.7 I< qt 7 ..,6".,.,
T=  3(),'1b DC of J.73,1b' = 02'12.7 J<.
Rg "(1:1::, ~I( (EZ. /./5)
(Table c..2.)
A.Jf
( B12 
= ~ ) 1(\ 20 tc~ )
,VB" ~ { I hY'
5
118D ~
hr
3JZ ~ S
(I)
732.
7. ZS I
7. ZS The ftowrate over the spillway of a dam is 27,000 ft3 imino Determine the required ftowrate for a I :30 scale model that is operated in accordance with Froude number similarity.
Froude number s/mi Itll"it~ )
Vhtt V
fiT
and
V;~i: ~ =~MI
7= V~
S i 11 C e. 1n e PI ~4) re I:e.; (p) 4'= V A) u/here A IJ If fr;1/oU/s fha/;
cP"",., ::
cp
is ~l:rflJi IftJ frem 1he velabb",htP
1/ n aPfJrtJ,I)y"iie c ;055 5~CCIOnq / cu·Pt<..)
Viti? A"", vA
7. ZID The lift and drag developed on a hydrofoil are to be determined through wind tunnel tests using standard air. If full scale tests are to be run, what is the required wind tunnel velocity corresponding to a hydrofoil velocity in seawater of 20 mph? Assume Reynolds number similarity is required.
?<O mph)
Y.:= ~
tm V
w/f>1 .1,/1;m = I
~ J;Y
For ?efjlJc/ds number s;m//gY'/fJ J Vmtl,m ::: kt
~ 7/
where J. 1.5 som« ch()ypcten'sl,~ I enJ 11t o.f. the htjdf'Dfoi /. Thus)
4/1t!
7.27 I
7. Z 1 The drag on a 2mdiameter satellite dish due to an 80 km/hr wind is to be determined through a wind tunnel test using a geometrically similar O.4mdiameter model dish. Assume standard air for both model and prototype. (a) At what air speed should the model test be run? (b) With all similarity conditions satisfied, the measured drag on the model was determined to be 170 N. What is the predicted drag on the prototype dish?
~:~.l2 V
,m 7/ ~
and w/1Jt ~ /v :: /
k :: ( 2. /)?'1 )/8'~ ~~) =
IWJ ().J.i1YYl {c h r
/7D tV


(!Vote jhA+ IJ. =J)1YtI In /}tis pt'oJ,JeWl) SJ;'~e. htJm of Re'tf/f)/ds num MY' s/m ,'/tl r,"+!J) v'll VIttf'L. = D~ ID~ 7tue. tn 'Itnf'l'o/,)
.
Tht. CBnc;' tlt;n
ThIS IS 1)rt
7 3S
7.28
7.28 As illustrated in Video V7.2, models are commonly used to study the dispersion of a gaseous pollutant from an exhaust stack located near a building complex. Similarity requirements for the pollutant source involve the following independent variables: the stack gas speed, V, the wind speed, V, the density of the atmospheric air, p, the difference in densities between the air and the stack gas, p  Ps' the acceleration of gravity, g, the kinematic viscosity of the stack gas, vs' and the stack diameter, D. (a) Based on these variables, determine a suitable set of similarity requirements for modeling the pollutant source. (b) For this type of model a typical length scale might be I :200. If the same fluids were used in model and prototype, would the similarity requirements be satisfied? Explain and support your answer with the necessary calculations.
(ct) 5/" ce: v= L T1 V; L T I ;;;; FL 1fT "2. IIi d J= C'+T4
if ~ J... T 2. ys': J.. 2.7 I D= L) / 1 ~//"Ws. ~1'"/)/7I the pi.
1JJeoyt'm thAi 73 = J.j. /;;)1' hrrns a r~ rep/,IIYpt:/. /..J dln1t'115/tJ/1t1/
CI n A / '1 ~ rs ff / (; I tis .Y..) ~) J:. 1, ) tll1d.f:.;? «s e: ft!J5S, !JJe
f r ,/_ ~L. ~ d.o.,., 1'. J U 1_.
se 1; or pI erms, / rJ"~ 'In~ $/m,III!",..,..!! rBttJ/J·emellD UJtJlllu ~ :
~ ::. k 11",. D,," = V D VIttI:1.: _r~ 0$ ) __ (111)
Z7m y ~/W1 t1 ;::D"., d [) ~  I'
(j,) /=t;r Dm'I ':: I tlnd ZSh"; Ys 7he ~ec.ond j / 'm J • /11 i', "I:t
D Z~O
ret"l rt mfl1i. I..:> Urn t/s"" D ::: Zoo (see a/;()lIe)
 DI'WI
V I/s
}jc>we lie ~ flrptn 1he. ~/~d 51 m;J IlY,+':! veglll V€ WI en. f W/~
dm! :::_ J V/??1 z: vt r: V 2~O ,

V ThJS rC5IAJ.J: et!J1'7.f1,'c.fJ JJ nUl lin 1~ ret uiremert t/
re~('f/remenf:s etlflt1pC be
(!(J)n d, ~I 0/1.s . IV cJ •
With fhltt ~m Info seCl>tA tina 1hfrej,y~ 171<. j/m,,'}ar,Tt:;
slti:,she4 UJ1t/er the .s.j...a.i:et{
7.2_ cr
7.29 As shown in Fig. P7.29, a thin, flat plate contain (a) Assuming that the pressure drop, D.p, depends on the vari
ing a series of holes is to be placed in a pipe to filter out any abies listed, use dimensional analysis to develop a suitable I particles in the liquid flowing through the pipe. There is some set of dimensionless parameters for this problem. (b) Deter, concern about the large pressure drop that may develop across mine values for the model indicated in the list with a questhe plate. and it is proposed to study this problem with a geo tion mark. What will be the pressure drop scale, Ap,,/D.p? metrically similar model. The following data apply.
Prototype
Model
d=?
D = 10 mm
JL = 0.002 N's/m" p = 1000 kg/m" V=?
dhole diameter = 1.0 mm Dpipe diameter = 50 mm JLviscosity = 0.002 N's/m2 pdensity = 1000 kg/m ' Vvelocity = 0.1 m1s to 2 m/s
.. FIGURE P7.29
fa) iLlf = f (d; D/t) ~ V)
IJ.p== P L1. d= L D= L f< ~ FC2.T t~ FL'fT' V= LT"r1
FrPI71 the pi theorem, ~:3:: ~ r~i +errn5 re~UJred.J and 0
d/inef1.s10114 I ~1741'f.sIS 'J/'f!ld~. '
_, Llp _ J.,.(L e.t,b)
:fJV2. r D) ~.
i ,
o .2 0 ~" ,i)\"hi'ti
~)Jaws :: s1 V
, '~
O. 50D ~ *~\().O""i
,
i W,ht /n4t I. ~J "n,;Ja Y;+!1: ',f>9 ua:iU) J1 '.'~
· 0 . jjl=>~ _
~ V",.).
s~·h.s+, ~ rJ) 1rt~ p~ed ~c..+IOt\ !
i
fetulYrm94T.J AE fV~
L... .• ,_."".", .• J
737
7.30 I
7.30 At a large fish hatchery the fish are reared in open, arion of gravity, and Q is the discharge through the tank. waterfilled tanks. Each tank is approximately square in (a) Determine a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for shape with curved corners, and the walls are smooth. To ere this problem and the prediction equation for the velocity. If ate motion in the tanks, water is supplied through a pipe at water is to be used for the model, can all of the similarity the edge of the tank. The water is drained from the tank requirements be satisfied? Explain and support your answer through an opening at the center. (See Video V73.) A model with the necessary calculations. (b) If the flow rate into the with a length scale of I: 13 is to be used to determine the fullsized tank is 250 gpm, determine the required value for velocity, V, at various locations within the tank. Assume that the model discharge assuming Froude number similarity. V = f( e, e;, p, fL, g, Q) where e is some characteristic length What model depth will correspond to a depth of 32 in. in such as the tank width, e; represents a series of other perti the fullsized tank?
nent lengths, such as inlet pipe diameter, fluid depth, etc., p
is the fluid density, It is the fluid viscosity, g is the acceler
Fr()/71 7h~ PI' fheorem I 7  3:= Ij d//nel'1.5/~/J4/ (Jna/'Js/~ y/'e/d.s
V.1 z _ (ic.· cP z.
~  rj> T) }.5"j
) !:fP ) f~
Thu5, the s/m;/4f,·.ffj Y'eg(Jlrernellts are j"./YYI J~
J,: (J) ",,2. _ LV 2.
:::. ___.. ......
" J.;' d/tYI j. :>J
pre dtc.htJ), e g«'CL/;i~ II is
Vi z, = Vim ).~
Q Q~ .
J4st sirndtlr,f!/ Y'e~tI/refYIe,;_t. tu/fh
(j)hY) = e _Ji_ )~  ~
cp ~)1/Yn 7: j,
Ir~f)1 1he cS e c..6Jl1d S I 'm "/4 r. +!/ re ff a Ire melt. i w,th
(P"" = (b fit.
Cp ,J.
'S1I7ce fhese 1:wo reg'" Ifemf,,b are: /n ~~J1fl,~ i ,.t: hl/olAls 1h~l fhe S/i,,:/4y,'!:J Ye~alY'efY1ellfs CtH1J1()t
be sa.,!::.IShe·d. N o
=
(Coni)
738
7,30 I
G e erne in c. _s/In / / tI)'J fy rez utres fr,p.t 1 (,' ,yr1 :=!:.i.
J.m. )..
o v .t (:,y.1 z: f m1 _L
r j_ J3
50 1/1",f a/I /eY1;ths sccle as the. len;th sole . Thus)
(depTh )m"d.1 z: (/; ) (depTh ~r~b,t!Jpe
z: (~) (~Z in.) = 2. Lffo In.
73'1
7.31
7.31 DUling a storm, a snow drift is formed behind some bushes as shown in Fig. P7.31 and Video V9.4. Assume that the height of the drift, h, is a function of the number of inches of snow deposited by the storm, d, the height of the bush, H, the width of the bush, b, the wind speed, V, the acceleration of gravity, g, the air density, p, the specific weight of the snow, /'s' and the porosity of the bush, 'Tl. Note that porosity is defined as the percentage of open area of the bush. (a) Determine a suitable set of dimensionless variables for this problem. (b) A storm with 30 mph winds deposits 16 in. of snow having a specific weight of 5.0 Ib/ft", A halfsized scale model bush is to be used to investigate the drifting behind the bush. If the air density is the same for the model and the storm, determine the required specific weight of the model snow, the required wind speed for the model, and the number of inches of model snow to be deposited .
• FIGURE P7.31
i I
i
~o i
I
!
Jrnel
I
!
!
7."32 I
7 •. ~2 The drag on a sphere moving in a fluid is known to be a function of the sphere diameter, the velocity, and the fluid viscosity and density. Laboratory tests on a 4in.diameter sphere were performed in a water tunnel and some model data are plotted in Fig. P7. ". For these tests the viscosity of the water was 2.3 x 105 lbs/ft! and the water density was 1.94 slugs/It'. Estimate the drag on an 8ft diameter balloon moving in air at a velocity of 3 ft/s. Assume the air to have a viscosity of 3.7 x 107 lbs/ff and a density of 2.38 x 103 slugs/It'.
12
Model velocity. ftls nGURE P7 •. 3Z.
cO= f (d) V) f))/")
£Jnet'!.' p(9 ~ drfJJ = r) d;v spaere dt~';'et~Y' .:_ L} V N velec ;r!:J ::: L T ~I
f';v 11,,/&/ dfnsif!:J :i:: FClfr'Z.) ~ N /I",,&; VI sCtJs;i!;1 ::: F L'Z.r .
Fr~rn the. p/ ineoY'em J 53= 2 p/ ferInS re'lI.lJred, and a.. dln/ens/PHIII an4/Ysis fJ'e/d$
dJ f (f_Vd)
j/V·d2. = ~
Th(J~1 l?e'lH6/16 nUmbly $imi/lli'1t!1 ts re~"Ii"ed So 7J,At &, }/AH dt'M = t V d
fA'"' r
7 'f I
7. 33
7.33 The pressure rise, IIp, across a blast wave, as shown in Fig. P7.33, is assumed to be a function of the amount of energy released in the explosion, E, the air density, p, the speed of sound, c, and the distance from the blast, d. (a) Put this relationship in dimensionless form. (b) Consider two blasts: the prototype blast with energy release E and a model blast with 1I1000th the energy release (Em = 0.001 E). At what distance from the model blast will the pressure lise be the same as that at a distance 1 mile from the prototype blast?
f. d ..j • FIGURE P7.33
( tl) /Jp = t ( E) f) (L d)
.fjf:' FL'l.. E = FL f::: r:C~'fT" C: L r"
FrtJ/J1 the p/ theorem I 5"'3 = 2' pi krnti a. d /me,1SIt>I1t1/ tlnaJ'J sis !fJe'/cls
..6P t 13" )
jJc 2. = cffC 2.d3
w,tn 1J{~ ~/ml"q(/~~ re~~J'Y'ernf,,1: f/ed/~h()~ e IUd t,!,;t I~
.Ll 1:"" c, flm <:
there kre.
bPtm= /J~
(h) ~r ~/inaai'lf!:t I Ern1
=
! +the
,
i
i
, ,
L.... ,_ .• _" _
d:' z: G. ()tJ I ) (/it'(rli ) 3 s:: ~ )OOM':'
d ~ =: 0, 100 (fl":
7'12.
7. 3'1 I
7.34 As winds blow past buildings, complex flow patterns can develop due to various factors such as flow separation and interactions between adjacent buildings. (See Video V7.4.) Assume that the local gage pressure, p, at a particular location on a building is a function of the air density, p, the wind speed, V, some characteristic length, e, and all other pertinent lengths, C;, needed to characterize the geometry of the building or building complex. (a) Determine a suitable set of dimensionless parameters that can be used to study the pressure distribution. (b) An eightstory building that is 100 ft tall is to be modeled in a wind tunnel. If a length scale of 1 :300 is to be used, how tall should the model building be? (c) How will a measured pressure in the model be related to the corresponding prototype pressure? Assume the same air density in model and prototype. Based on the assumed variables, does the model wind speed have to be equal to the prototype wind speed? Explain.
(a)
p = PLlFYI/nt rh~ P/ ell rnen~J~I1" I
p ::. P L +r 2. V = L T I 1 = L i,' :. 1
1"/1eDy£rn/ S3=2. pI.: kY"l11s V'e~u/redl cOld ~ a n 4. L '1 S 1:S 'J I ~ / OJ
1> _ (,R. )
jJVz  cf y:
o?) Fe r georne bY"G s/rn;lal'l'+.!J
j_'n\ _ 1:.

ti;m t,:
J. /1r1 .. ). (;'"..
T  ti
t'f .{;,//DWS ThAt «l l p(Y'/;,~e"t Jen;1hs are Scalea Jerl1fh se»!« J.~ / j., Thus, kn711 j~ /J. = \/aoo
/mode.l ne"5ht = ~~o+t: :: O,3~3 +t
7 1.f,3
7. 35" I
(Q.,)
7,35 Flow patterns that develop as winds blow past a vehicle, such as a train, are often studied in lowspeed environmental (meteorological) wind tunnels. (See Video V7.5.) Typically, the air velocities in these tunnels are in the range of 0.1 mls to 30 mls. Consider a cross wind blowing past a train locomotive. Assume that the local wind velocity, V, is a function of the approaching wind velocity (at some distance from the locomotive), U, the locomotive length, e, height, h, and width, b, the air density, p, and the air viscosity, fL. (a) Establish the similarity requirements and prediction equation for a model to be used in the wind tunnel to study the air velocity, V, around the locomotive. (b) If the model is to be used for cross winds gusting to U = 25 mis, explain why it is not practical to maintain Reynolds number similarity for a typical length scale 1 :50.
V :: P t u, J.1 J,) b) ~ f)
V== J_ T' V= L T1 J": L h = L j, == L (J= FC'tr:z. p;' I='cl.r
From 1/le.. pi 1heoY'em 7  3 s: '+ fl' Jtrrns Y'e~u/¥eel. I Q~P( il. dt'men~/~yJal aJ1o./~~J:S I fjlelds
t s: 4 ( t ) ,t ' 17)
Thus the ~im;J4YI:.f'1 Y'eguIYfm~t1.~ aye.
)_;. _ 1:. h ~ :! ~ f.__~ ~ Ir~ =:
Tm  h ::r: h .«,
=f=:=====
Tl1 e. pre d; c,+,O'~ e g ua.tti)J1 l'oS
V  v"'"
___,  
tr ~
5/~ce tn« derJ,j~ Clnt< lItS(os,i'1 of the al', fl()WIHfj 4rOUHd 1he rrat» Clnti the air In tYIf W/fid tUfme{ kldt{/1. h< pYac.f/C4l1~
fh~ same (I;'WJ~/) )'»Iz)J)) It t~J/"WJ +Y'{)m th~ lASt
5Jm//t:{yi+!J Vezu/yemenL. C wh,cJ.t J.J 1k.t ~eyf1DId~ nurnh.ey)
111 It, I:: . if ::('P. ) U
~ tt .....
t{ /enftn .scale of /:50 ClJ1c/ w;"""tk
nlJl~) w ,'fh V z: ZS'/ln/S
~ ::: &,,) (25"mt Is) = I; Z§tJ ""'Is
Tn Ij re'SlJlrfd model lie It>tif~ 1.5 rnuch hl1he.r 7ha 11
Ca 11 be a c he; v e t:I / h 1"he w;;id it.{ 11}1C. / Clnd
'1I1eY'e ';;'f'~ ,'f t s /'JtJi pytlc..f, ~If .. j .f.v /J'n11J 'nhtl ~ Re'lhO/dJ
rl u m ber S/m"!4r,"+':1. Th< ves.loretl rnodq__/ VeIOCI+'J Ij
+C'o h ltjh. I
7.36 River models are used to study many different types of flow situations. (See, for example, Video V7.6.) A certain small river has an average width and depth of 60 ft and 4 ft, respectively, and carries water at a flowrate of 700 ft3/s. A model is to be designed based on Froude number similarity so that the discharge scale is 11250. At what depth and flowrate would the model operate?
h>r ;::'rpud~ i7t1l11b~Y 5/;"J·/llr/f.!l
V",."
Vi,",~:" VI). r
W here 1 IS Some chaYde. Ler. s II C J f'J1Jih ) III/It' /11/7;, !"".:: J
::
£/)'H = CJ. I J D
J..
pYtr/;(J i!f~ deptit Df If If; the.
m o de I de p1f1 Is
J.tWt ::: (6. /I 0) (if H) z: o. tfLf() .ft
aM d foy a. e~ rres!o)1 dlit_f
»; mode J ,fl()wrtl+~ is ob+tlJned +rtJm _l?$, a ) :
CP"" z: r;;o f7P{) .rp) = 2. go/) +;3
74S"
~~3~'
7. '8'
7.38 Assume that the wall shear stress, Tw, created when a fluid flows through a pipe (see Fig. P7.38a) depends on the pipe diameter, D, the flowrate, Q, the fluid density, o, and the kinematic viscosity, u. Some model tests run in a laboratory using water in a O.2ftdiameter pipe yield the T w vs. Q data shown in Fig. P7.38b. Perform a dimensional analysis and use model data to predict the wall shear stress in a O.3ftdiameter pipe through which water flows at the rate of 1.5 ft3jS.
LWr "C f ( B ~ ) f) »
lW'~ FL' D= L G>::: L3 T'
Fr tJ (}1 1h e pc:. in eo Yl m) 5  3;' 1..
Ct a I mensJtJl1'1/ «n 4.1 '15iJ 111 et d.s
;:cr~~ == 1 ( ~ )
s/m;JttY/+,; Ye!uirernel1.t IS
LVqw (j)
b..m 11 z.: o v With "1J...m == 1/ a J1 ,(
Q_ ~.(f?g') (J$') 4'
 =. }'OD 113 s
r p h (FI ~. .p 7. is 1, ) I ~ r
/}* D If. "y D 't
L W'" Aft "'" _ l w

!trVt Q~ t Q 2
lw =(.7_ftJYt few
=: (J )(1.5 if ~)2.(O. 2.t.f:)'f (0. Zq ~~)
I.D&" o.3ft k
~
':;' o. /Zq j!,..
NO.7
~ 0.6 J 0.5
~ 0.4
(1).0.3 ro
~ 0.2
<fJ
ro 0.1 :;:
(a)
 ..
i 7:
v:
,r I
: Model data
;;A I
......, : o o
0.5 1 1.5
Flowrate, Q, ft3/S
(b)
2
• FIGURE P7.38
.
Pl' +erms ('e~ulI"'e~ I a ~~
./4.3 T. 11,
/.I = J OD  :: 0. Zt:{ r.l.3.
Lf..... • .5) MA n. .
7 4(0
7. 31 7.:3 q The pressure rise, Sp, across a centrifugal pump of a
given shape (see Fig. P7.'3'1a) can be expressed as 8 r'"',
Ap = f(D, cu, p, Q)
where D is the impeller diameter, ro the angular velocity of the impeller, p the fluid density, and Q the volume rate of flow through the pump. A model pump having a diameter of 8 in. is tested in the laboratory using water. When operated at an angular velocity of 4017' rad/ s the model pressure rise as a function of Q is shown in Fig. P7.3Yb. Use this curve to predict the pressure rise across a geometrically similar pump (prototype) for a prototype flowrate of 6 ft3 / s. The prototype has a diameter of 12 in. and operates at an angular velocity of 6017' rad/s. The prototype fluid is also water.
6
'Vi 2: 4 f~T+,~,...~
%
Q
• FIGURE P7.3'f
°o~~~~~~~~
0.5 1.0 2.0
Qm (ft3/s)
(b)
Centrifugal pump
(a)
Ll p = .f ( D/ ~.) I.; a )
I~ FL'tT1.. Q= L3TJ 2 Pi &rrms re! UI re til if 114 Ct
. / l..).::: T
fJf;_P/...2. D_·L
Fr8)111 t"he 1": thee)Y(I11/ $3::q 114/t( sis fjl el ds
ClffP jpy fJre dd£ j/iJeJ/
t/i ... z: (for !}') ( flit.):3 ( t. FP) _
(1Pt>7T ~II) /z../n. oS
~
FrOIl1 1J1e tr~/h (r;,. P7·3f j,) A tm z: s:» ?.sl.;
LJp
J
I. If f!
j;y  ~::. /. / f ft~ 7h es,
=
7, ~o
7.40 A 1150 scale model is to be used in a towing tank to study the water motion near the bottom of a shallow channel as a large barge passes over. (See Video V7.7.) Assume that the model is operated in accordance with the Froude number criteria for dynamic similitude. The prototype barge moves at a typical speed of 15 knots. (a) At what speed (in ftls) should the model be towed? (b) Near the bottom of the model channel a small particle is found to move 0.15 ft in one second so that the fluid velocity at that point is approximately 0.15 ftls. Determine the velocity at the corresponding point in the prototype channel.
Ca)
(I)
v..,., _ V i.~ 1
v y:
"'l1l'i = V fo 1 (IS" knots ')  2. J z. ...kn.+5
I knci: (0. 5W ~ ) (3. 2 i It) = /. ~ ~ #" s
V"" = (1. 12 ..knoh )(J.I~1 ~~t ) z: 3.,,& #
Prom TabJ~ A. I
(1) ;S/~C'f; ~rt>m t=~. (J)
Vt()\  V!t 1 = \[#0 ;
 
V
So 1/to..t V= '{SO (0.15 ¥) = I. D~ V 7.LfJ J
7.41 A very viscous fluid flows slowly past the sub
merged rectangular plate of Fig. P7,41. The drag, 0J, is . known to be a function of the plate height, h, plate width, b~tiuf(f velocity, V, and· fluid viscosity, JL. A model is to be used to predict the drag and during a certain model test using glycerin (JLm = 0.03 lbs/ft"), with hm = 1 in. and b; = 3 in., it was found that 0Jm = 0.2 lb when VIII = 0.5 ftls. If possible, predict the drag on a geometrically similar larger plate with h = 4 in. and b = 12 in. immersed in the same glycerin moving with a velocity of 2 ftl s. If it is not possible, explain why.
Plate width = b
I
§iJ h
1
v
__..
__..
• FIGURE P7.41
Frt)i'Y/ the pt' theorem) S :3: 2.. ~t.: it'rms regll/rt!'d) 171111' ~
dlmen~/b""1 tll11'1/'(.$i.s '1;'e Ids
.e =f(~) *~
The. re t III red S,m,IQr/!!f tp"rI!f,OI/ /J
b _ ~
Ii  It"."
tu/It "LrPIIf the a'a~ 9111~1f
.
12 lit· = ;3111 ::::.3
If ;'11' / /1'1 .
(4)J1AJ+/~11 1$ .stl6/~1, ~~1. Thu~ the. jJred,~ftt)~
i7ti.s
/j
3. lo Ib
7. Lfz..
7.42 A square parking lot of width w is bounded on all sides by a curb of height d with only one opening of width b as shown in Fig. P7.42. During a heavy rain the lot fills with water and it is of interest to determine the time, t, it takes for the water to completely drain from the lot after the rain stops. A scale model is to be used to study this problem, and it is assumed that
t = f(w, b, d, g, /1, p)
where g is the acceleration of gravity, /1 is the fluid viscosity, and p is the fluid density. (a) A dimensional analysis indicates that two important dimensionless parameters are b/w and d/w. What additional dimensionless parameters are required? (b) For a geometrically similar model having a length scale of 1110, what is the relationship between the drain time for the model and the corresponding drain time for the actual parking lot? Assume all similarity requirements are satisfied. Can water be used as the model fluid? . Explain and justify your answer.
• FIGURE P7.42
(()...)
d:::' L d == L T' )<. ~ p[2, t= FL'fr'J
FYt?f11 the p/ theorem) 73 = t.; p/ krI"YJ 5 re~u/;p~. )Jh'C~ 1W~ "f 1}Je f/ lerm5 are b/w ~ it ci d I lcr: J +wo o.ti.d;flo~tJ/ ?/ krms are re~tI/Yfd.
B'1 /n5,fc4,()),) hi'" 70 (t~J1fll/i1lIij i)
JJ:= t IJI __: T ~ L 1...: rr'
I Yw T2 L
B ~ 'nSf,ct,()~) lor' 772. (tfJl1flllh; iJ.3 jA and f)
7T: ;: b  :~_L_Z::T:=:;::::I
2. ;0 V to 3J" (t=LLfr"')( (3/2 )( L r2) iz.
i == r
Ok
c hec/<. U1J/'!j J.1 L T :
h _
f rw,;;'
(con Ii )
750
7./.f2 I
(b )
(e~n t)
5;= Vi; I
an d thHS 1h~ JaYl e seale /J' it;' = O. 3 I /"
~ r~3J: t Vtu3J j
.$0 trJ/l.1; b = (~)3J:l (~) liz ;t:
j>~ (  w l '1 f
an« ~r # ='O;m
L!_"" = (Y1 /,_ ~
thYI W f
5/ n'c e /A/:m / tv ::/= I. ()) then )A /thY!
1n~ Slime as/ /1' an It there ~,..e h.e.. iA!>el'l 4> me mtJde I flu/d. No.
eal1l1tJ1: be
WI. tfr C4i1n{)+
7.43 Flow from a Tank
Objective: When the drain hole in the bottom of the tank shown in Fig. P7.43 1S opened, the liquid will drain out at a rate which is a function of many parameters. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the liquid depth, h, as a function of time, t, for two geometrically similar tanks and to learn how dimensional analysis can be of use in situations such as this.
Equipment: Two geometrically similar cylindrical tanks; stop watch; thermometer; ruler.
Experimental Procedure: Make appropriate measurements to show that the two tanks are geometrically similar. That is, show that the large tank is twice the size of the small tank (twice the height; twice the diameter; twice the hole diameter in the bottom). Fill the large tank with cold water of a known temperature, T, and determine the water depth, h, in the tank as a function of time, t, after the drain hole is opened. Thus, obtain h = h(t). Note that t ranges from t = 0 when h = H (where H is the initial depth of the water), to t = tfinal then the tank is completely drained (h = 0). Repeat the measurements using the small tank with the same temperature water. To ensure geometric similarity, the initial water level in the small tank must be onehalf of what it was in the large tank. Repeat the experiment for each tank with hot water. Thus you will have a total of four sets of h(t) data.
Calculations: Assume that the depth, h, of water in the tank is a function of its initial depth, H, the diameter of the tank, D, the diameter of the drain hole in the bottom of the tank, d, the time, t, after the drain is opened, the acceleration of gravity, g, and the fluid density, p, and viscosity, J,L. Develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem using H, g, and p as repeating variables. Use t as the dependent parameter. For each of the four conditions tested, calculate the dimensionless time, tgl/2/Hl/2, as a function of the dimensionless depth, h/H.
Graph: On a single graph, plot the depth, h, as ordinates and time, t, as abscissas for each of the four sets of data.
Results: On another graph, plot the dimensionless water depth, h/H, as a function of dirnensionless time, tgl/2/Hl/2, for each of the four sets of data. Based on your results, com
ment on the importance of density and viscosity for your experiment and on the usefulness of dimensional analysis.
Data: To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.
r
H
l
~ FIG U R E P7.43
7'5"2
7.'13 I
( CO'1't )
Solution for Problem 7.43: Flow from a Tank
H for big tank, in. H for small tank, in.
16.0 8.0
h, in. t, s
tg 1/2/H1/2 h/H
Big Tank with T = 57 deg C
16.0 0.0 0.0 1.000
12.0 9.2 45.2 0.750
8.0 20.0 98.3 0.500
4.0 33.8 166.1 0.250
0.0 57.0 280.1 0.000
Big Tank with T = 20 deg C
16.0 0.0 0.0 1.000
12.0 9.0 44.2 0.750
8.0 20.3 99.8 0.500
4.0 33.0 162.2 0.250
0.0 57.2 281.1 0.000
Small Tank with T = 57 deg C
8.0 0.0 0.0 1.000
7.0 3.1 21.5 0.875
5.0 9.5 66.0 0.625
3.0 18.2 126.5 0.375
1.0 30.1 209.2 0.125
0.0 41.4 287.7 0.000
Small Tank with T = 20 deg C
8.0 0.0 0.0 1.000
7.0 3.0 20.8 0.875
5.0 10.0 69.5 0.625
3.0 18.1 125.8 0.375
1.0 32.5 225.9 0.125
0.0 43.0 298.8 0.000 '753
Problem 7.43
Water depth, h, vs time, t
18 ."."'''~''''' ..~ .. ~ " __ A __ ._.
16
\
14
\
12
"\ + Big tank, T = 57 deg C
c:: 10 . • Big tank, T = 20 deg C
.s: 8 ,,_ _._ Small tank, T = 57 deg C
" , X Small tank, T = 20 deg C
6 "<. ,
4
"x <, <, ;
2 ~ <,
0
0 20 40 60 80
t,s

, "
Problem 7.43
Dimensionless Depth, h/H,
vs
Dimensionless Time, t*(g/H)J\O.5
1.20 . ~....,.,..
1.00
\
• Big tank, T = 57 deg C
0.80
\ • Big tank, T = 20 deg C
 a  Small tank, T = 57 deg C
J: 0.60 X Small tank, T = 20 deg C
 .\
.s: I
1\
OAO
\_
0.20
'~ '<.
0.00
° 100 200 300 400
t*(g/H)J\O.5 7.44 Vortex Shedding from a Circular Cylinder
Objective: Under certain conditions, the flow of fluid past a circular cylinder will produce a Karman vortex street behind the cylinder. As shown in Fig. P7.44 , this vortex street consists of a set of vortices (swirls) that are shed alternately from opposite sides of the cylinder and then swept downstream with the fluid. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the shedding frequency, w cycles (vortices) per second, of these vortices as a function : of the Reynolds number, Re, and to compare the measured results with published data.
Equipment: Water channel with an adjustable flowrate; flow meter; set of four different diameter cylinders; dye injection system; stopwatch.
Experimental Procedure: Insert a cylinder of diameter D into the holder on the bottom of the water channel. Adjust the control valve and the downstream gate on the channel to produce the desired flowrate, Q, and velocity, V. Make sure that the flowstraightening screens (not shown in the figure) are in place to reduce unwanted turbulence in the flowing water. Measure the width, b, of the channel and the depth, y, of the water in the channel so that the water velocity in the channel, V = Q/(by), can be determined, Carefully adjust the control valve on the dye injection system to inject a thin stream of dye slightly upstream of the cylinder. By viewing down onto the top of the water channel, observe the vortex shedding and measure the time, t, that it takes for N vortices to be shed from the cylinder. For a given velocity, repeat the experiment for different diameter cylinders. Repeat the experiment using different velocities. Measure the water temperature so that the viscosity can be looked up in Table B.1.
Calculations: For each of your data sets calculate the vortex shedding frequency, w = N/t, which is expressed as vortices (or cycles) per second. Also calculate the dimensionless frequency called the Strouhal number, St = wD/V, and the Reynolds number, Re = pVD/fL.
Graph: On a single graph, plot the vortex shedding frequency, w, as ordinates and the water velocity, V, as abscissas for each of the four cylinders you tested. On another graph, plot the Strouhal number as ordinates and the Reynolds number as abscissas for each of the four sets of data.
ill FIG U R E P7.44
S/de VJeW
755
Results: On your Strouhal number verses Reynolds number graph, plot the results taken from the literature and shown in the following table.
St Re
0 <50
0.16 100
0.18 150
0.19 200
0.20 300
0.21 400
0.21 600
0.21 800 Data: To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.
Solution for Problem 7.44: Vortex Shedding from a Circular Cylinder
T, deg F b, ft
70 0.50
Data from Literature
Q, ftA3/s y, ft D,ft N t, s 00, cycles/s V,ftls Re St Re St
0.036 0.82 0.0202 10.0 13.2 0.758 0.0878 169 0.174 50 0.00
0.036 0.82 0.0314 10.0 19.9 0.503 0.0878 263 0.180 100 0.16
0.036 0.82 0.0421 10.0 24.5 0.408 0.0878 352 0.196 150 0.18
0.036 0.82 0.0518 10.0 30.1 0.332 0.0878 433 0.196 200 0.19
300 0.20
400 0.21
0.062 0.79 0.0202 10.0 6.3 1.587 0.1570 302 0.204 600 0.21
0.062 0.79 0.0314 10.0 9.6 1.042 0.1570 469 0.208 800 0.21
0.062 0.79 0.0421 10.0 12.5 0.800 0.1570 629 0.215
0.062 0.79 0.0518 10.0 15.1 0.662 0.1570 774 0.219
0.029 0.86 0.0202 10.0 19.2 0.521 0.0674 130 0.156
0.029 0.86 0.0314 10.0 28.2 0.355 0.0674 202 0.165
0.029 0.86 0.0421 10.0 33.1 0.302 0.0674 270 0.189
0.029 0.86 0.0518 10.0 36.7 0.272 0.0674 333 0.209
0.018 0.92 0.0202 10.0 31.2 0.321 0.0391 75 0.165
0.018 0.92 0.0314 10.0 41.3 0.242 0.0391 117 0.194
0.018 0.92 0.0421 10.0 52.2 0.192 0.0391 157 0.206
0.018 0.92 0.0518 10.0 65.3 0.153 0.0391 193 0.203 00 = NIt
V = Q/(by)
St = ooDN and Re = DV/v, where
v = 1.052E5 ftA2/s
I
(Cf)/I i)
75&
(CtJn't )
+ D = 0.0202 ft _D = 0.0314 ft _._ D = 0.0421 ft ?lED = 0.0518 ft
757
0.20
• Experimental
___ Data from literature
~==============.=============:;
Problem 7.44
Shedding Frequency, 0), vs Velocity, V
1.B .,r,,
1.6 +++1·.__1 1.4 1.2
8
~ ~ 1.0 +tf/~=____j o ~ O.B ++~+___=__.L._~.t.._l
0.6 ++~~.t£~~___::~f___I 0.4 +.,....,~=7'~.::~~_+_ 0.2 O.O+~~_r~
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
V, ftls
Problem '7.4ei Strouhal NUlnI.HH, St, vs
Reynolds Number, Re
0.25

~ L. •
• •
.;:: .......  . ~
•
0.20
0.15

en
0.10
0.05
0.00
200
BOO
1000
400
600
o
Re
7.45 Head Loss across a Valve
Objective: A valve in a pipeline like that shown in Fig. P7.4S acts like a variable resistor in an electrical circuit. The amount of resistance or head loss across a valve depends on the amount that the valve is open. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the head loss characteristics of a valve by measuring the pressure drop, Ap, across the valve as a function of flowrate, Q, and to learn how dimensional analysis can be of use in situations such as this.
Equipment: Air supply with flow meter; valve connected to a pipe; manometer connected to a static pressure tap upstream of the valve; barometer; thermometer.
Experimental Procedure: Measure the pipe diameter, D. Record the barometer reading, Halm, in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law. Completely close the valve and then open it N turns from its closed position. Adjust the air supply to provide the desired flowrate, Q, of air through the valve. Record the manometer reading, h, so that the pressure drop, Sp, across the valve can be determined. Repeat the measurements for various flowrates. Repeat the experiment for various valve settings, N, ranging from barely open to wide open.
Calculations: For each data set calculate the average velocity in the pipe, V := Q/ A, where A := 7TD2/4 is the pipe area. Also calculate the pressure drop across the valve, Ap = 'Ymh, where "1m is the specific weight of the manometer fluid. For each data set also calculate the loss coefficient, KL, where the head loss is given by hL := Ap/y = KL V2/2g and "I is the specific weight of the flowing air.
Graph: On a single graph, plot the pressure drop, Ap, as ordinates and the flowrate, Q, as abscissas for each of the valve settings, N, tested.
Results: On another graph, plot the loss coefficient, KL, as a function of valve setting, N, for all of the data sets.
Data: To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.
'F°:
ree Jet
11/1 FIGURE P7,45
7'58
D, in. Hatm, in. Hg T, deg F
0.81 28.7 70
h, in. Q, ftA3/s LlP, Ib/ftA2 V,ftls
N = 2 Turns Open Data
9.20 0.235 47.8 65.7
6.50 0.195 33.8 54.5
5.04 0.169 26.2 47.2
N = 3 Turns Open Data
9.40 0.479 48.9 133.9
6.33 0.386 32.9 107.9
5.01 0.341 26.1 95.3
3.62 0.289 18.8 80.8
1.92 0.214 10.0 59.8
N = 4 Turns Open Data
9.35 0.827 48.6 231.1
7.65 0.767 39.8 214.3
6.01 0.691 31.3 193.1
4.32 0.578 22.5 161.5
3.24 0.504 16.8 140.8
2.62 0.456 13.6 127.4
1.85 0.391 9.6 109.3
0.98 0.283 5.1 79.1
N = 5 Turns Op_en Data
3.03 0.897 15.8 250.7
2.37 0.799 12.3 223.3
1.79 0.701 9.3 195.9
1.39 0.618 7.2 172.7
0.97 0.517 5.0 144.5
0.64 0.426 3.3 119.0
LlP = YH2o*h
KL = Llp/(pV2/2) where
V = Q/A = Q/(n*D2/4)
and N KL
2 9.95
2 10.21
2 10.54
3 2.45
3 2.54
3 2.57
3 2.59
3 2.50
4 0.816
4 0.777
4 0.752
4 0.772
4 0.762
4 0.752
4 0.723
4 0.731
5 0.225
5 0.222
5 0.218
5 0.217
5 0.217
5 0.211 Solution for Problem 7.45: Head Loss across a Valve
P = Patm/RT where
Patm = YHg *Hatm = 847 Ib/ftA3*(28. 7/12 ft) = 2026 Ib/ftA2 R = 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R
T = 70 + 460 = 530 deg R
Thus, p = 0.00223 slug/ftA3
7. 'IS
( Ct917 t )
Problem 7.45
Pressure Drop, ~p, vs flowrate, 0
60
50
40
N
<
~
 30
..c
c.
<l 20
10
0
0 +N = 2
N = 3
.N=4
~N=5
I ~·~I
I
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0, ftll.3/s
Problem 7.45
Loss Coefficient, Ku
vs
Number of Turns Open, N
12  .. roo ... ..
10 ~
~
8.
\ +N2
..J ····.···N = 3
6
~ \ ·.···N =4
e N = 5
4 \
2 !\.
~r,
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
N ]foO
7.46 Calibration of a Rotameter
Objective: The flowrate, Q, through a rotameter can be determined from the scale reading, SR, which indicates the vertical position of the float within the tapered tube of the rotameter as shown in Fig. P7.7S. Clearly, for a given scale reading, the flowrate depends on the density of the flowing fluid. The purpose of this experiment is to calibrate a rotameter so that it can be used for both water and air.
Equipment: Rotameter, air supply with a calibrated flow meter, water supply, weighing scale, stop watch, thermometer, barometer.
Experimental Procedure: Connect the rotameter to the water supply and adjust the flowrate, Q, to the desired value. Record the scale reading, SR, on the rotameter and measure the flowrate by collecting a given weight, W, of water that passes through the rotameter in a given time, t. Repeat for several flow rates.
Connect the rotameter to the air supply and adjust the flowrate to the desired value as indicated by the flow meter. Record the scale reading on the rotameter. Repeat for several flowrates. Record the barometer reading, Halm, in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law.
Calculations: For the water portion of the experiment, use the weight, W, and time, t, data to determine the volumetric flowrate, Q = Wlyt. The equilibrium position of the float is a result of a balance between the fluid drag force on the float, the weight of the float, and the buoyant force on the float. Thus, a typical dimensionless flowrate can be written as Q/[d(p/Vg(Pf  p))lf2], where d is the diameter of the float, V is the volume of the float, g is the acceleration of gravity, p is the fluid density, and Pf is the float density. Determine this dimensionless flowrate for each condition tested.
Graph: On a single graph, plot the flowrate, Q, as ordinates and scale reading, SR, as abscissas for both the water and air data.
Results: On another graph, plot the dimensionless flowrate as a function of scale reading for both the water and air data. Note that the scale reading is a percent of full scale and, hence, is a dimensionless quantity. Based on your results, comment on the usefulness of dimensional analysis.
Data: To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.
I
Scale reading
Float
50
!!II FIG U R E P7.46
7 (,f
7. '16 I
Solution for Problem 7.46: Calibration of a Rotameter
d, in. V, in.A3 Pt, slug/ftA3 Hatm, in. T, deg F
1.40 1.50 15.1 29.05 78
Air Flow Data
SR Q, ftA3/s (Q/d)[p/(Vg(PtP ))}1/2
14.6 0.229 0.142
21.5 0.321 0.200
28.1 0.413 0.257
33.6 0.491 0.305
39.2 0.564 0.351
44.8 0.644 0.400
50.2 0.714 0.444
55.9 0.798 0.496
63.1 0.888 0.552
68.6 0.973 0.605
73.5 1.05 0.653
76.2 1.08 0.671
Water Flow Data
SR W,lb t, s Q, ftA3/s (Q/d)[p/(Vg(PtP ))]1/2
13.1 6.52 19.9 0.0053 0.103
18.5 8.01 17.7 0.0073 0.143
24.2 7.02 10.4 0.0108 0.213
28.2 7.81 10.1 0.0124 0.244
37.1 8.20 8.4 0.0156 0.308
45.7 9.21 7.5 0.0197 0.387
52.6 8.19 5.7 0.0230 0.453 P = Patm/RT where
Patm = YHg*Hatm = 847Ib/ftA3*(29.05/12 ft) = 2050 Ib/ftA2 R = 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R
T = 78 + 460 = 538 deg R
Thus, P = 0.00222 slug/ftA3
(COil 't)
Problem 7.46
Flowrate, Q, vs Scale Reading, SR
10
,. " =F= ===
 1=1=
1
en _.,_
. ...

M ~Air
< 0.1
¢: Water
r 1 t
O r t
 •
___. lIt ....
0.01 0.00 1 +~......'.J,....,_"___i
10
SR
100
Problem 7.46 Dimensionless Flowrate vs Scale Reading
20
60
80
0.7 t+tt/_+i s 0.6 j~~~I~~+~+VJ.,+~j
~ ./
t 0.5 l~~~_t_~+~ ;4F+~~+~~j
S ..r
s 0.4 ++~+(?AL+tj
~ 0.3 j~+/)II!~++j 3:?
a
 0.2 j~ri1tl'T++jI
0.1 l~~_t_~_t_~____+_~~+___j
0.0 !I+++____j o
40
SR
~Air Water
100