Water

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Jump to: navigation, search This article is about general aspects of water. For a detailed discussion of its properties, see Properties of water. For other uses, see Water (disambiguation).

Water in three states: liquid, solid (ice), and (invisible) water vapor in the air. Clouds are accumulations of water droplets, condensed from vapor-saturated air. Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface,[1] and is vital for all known forms of life.[2] On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation.[3] Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land. Clean drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms. Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily and substantially over the last decades in almost every part of the world.[4] [5] There is a clear correlation between access to safe water and GDP per capita.[6] However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability.[7] A recent report (November 2009) suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%.[8] Water plays an important role in the world economy, as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation. Approximately 70% of freshwater is consumed by agriculture.[9]

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1 Chemical and physical properties 2 Taste and odor 3 Distribution of water in nature o 3.1 Water in the universe o 3.2 Water and habitable zone 4 Water on Earth o 4.1 Water cycle o 4.2 Fresh water storage o 4.3 Sea water o 4.4 Tides 5 Effects on life o 5.1 Aquatic life forms 6 Effects on human civilization o 6.1 Health and pollution o 6.2 Human uses  6.2.1 Agriculture  6.2.2 Water as a scientific standard  6.2.3 For drinking  6.2.4 Washing  6.2.5 Chemical uses  6.2.6 Heat exchange  6.2.7 Fire extinction  6.2.8 Recreation  6.2.9 Water industry  6.2.10 Industrial applications  6.2.11 Food processing 7 Water law, water politics and water crisis 8 Water in culture o 8.1 Religion o 8.2 Philosophy o 8.3 Literature 9 See also o 9.1 Other topics 10 References 11 Further reading o 11.1 Water as a natural resource 12 External links

Chemical and physical properties

Main articles: Water (properties), Water (data page), and Water model

Model of hydrogen bonds between molecules of water

Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.

Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902

Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter and may take many different forms on Earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky. and at even higher pressures as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice. and the liquid in aquifers in the ground. such as in the interior of giant planets. At high temperatures and pressures. it is argued that water exists as ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions. seawater and icebergs in the polar oceans. although both appear colorless in small quantities.Dew drops adhering to a spider web Capillary action of water compared to mercury Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. It is tasteless and odorless.[10] The major chemical and physical properties of water are: • Water is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure. The intrinsic color of water and ice is a very slight blue hue. Water vapor is essentially invisible as a gas. glaciers and rivers in the mountains.[11] .

These factors lead to strong attractive forces between molecules of water. Pure water has a low electrical conductivity. Ultra-violet and infrared light is strongly absorbed. not more. are known as hydrophobic (water-fearing) substances. whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. All the major components in cells (proteins. Conversely. fats and oils). It expands to occupy 9% greater volume in this solid state. carbon dioxide (carbonation) are known as hydrophilic (water-loving) substances. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate Earth's climate by buffering large fluctuations in temperature. ice. giving rise to water's high surface tension[12] and capillary forces. salts. water is a polar molecule with an electrical dipole moment.g.[13] It has the anomalous property of becoming less dense. The maximum density of water occurs at 3. Everest water boils at 68 °C (154 °F). Water also can form an unusually large number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds (four) for a molecule of its size..65 kJ·mol−1). when it is cooled down to its solid form. sugars.• Water is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. and some gases – especially oxygen. alkalis. e. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants. Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. but this increases significantly with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as sodium chloride. water deep in the ocean near geothermal vents can reach temperatures of hundreds of degrees and remain liquid. after ammonia. on the top of Mt.g. As a result.. Substances that dissolve in water. • • • • • • • . Water is a good solvent and is often[quantify] referred to[by whom?] as the universal solvent. which accounts for the fact of ice floating on liquid water.98 °C (39. DNA and polysaccharides) are also dissolved in water. The boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. Water has the second highest molar specific heat capacity of any known substance. For example. Thus aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. compared to 100 °C (212 °F) at sea level. while those that do not mix well with water (e. it carries a slight negative charge. such as trees.16 °F). as well as a high heat of vaporization (40. acids.

Water is not a fuel. giving it varying tastes and odors.[14] Elements which are more electropositive than hydrogen such as lithium. the hydrogen given off is dangerous and the reaction of water with the more electropositive of these elements may be violently explosive.ADR label for transporting goods dangerously reactive with water • Water is miscible with many liquids. Water can be split by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen. water is formed when hydrogen or hydrogen-containing compounds burn or react with oxygen or oxygen-containing compounds. The energy required to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis or any other means is greater than the energy that can be collected when the hydrogen and oxygen recombine. derives from the minerals dissolved in it. often advertised in marketing of consumer products. The advertised purity of spring and mineral water refers to absence of toxins. Being a flammable gas. it is an end-product of the combustion of hydrogen. forming a single homogeneous liquid. water vapor is completely miscible with air. • • • • Taste and odor Water can dissolve many different substances. Humans and other animals have developed senses which enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water that is too salty or putrid. The taste of spring water and mineral water. However. Distribution of water in nature . forming hydroxides. On the other hand. water and most oils are immiscible usually forming layers according to increasing density from the top. As an oxide of hydrogen. As a gas. calcium. sodium. pure H2O is tasteless and odorless. in all proportions. such as ethanol. Water forms an azeotrope with many other solvents. pollutants and microbes. potassium and caesium displace hydrogen from water.

Jupiter's moon Europa may have liquid water in the form as a 100 km deep subsurface ocean. hydrogen and oxygen.0004% Atmosphere of Saturn – in ices only Enceladus (moon of Saturn): 91% exoplanets known as HD 189733 b[17] and HD 209458 b.4%.Water in the universe Much of the universe's water is produced as a byproduct of star formation.40% over full atmosphere.[15] Water has been detected in interstellar clouds within our galaxy. Water and other volatiles probably comprise much of the internal structures of Uranus and Neptune and the water in the deeper layers may be in the form of ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and . Water probably exists in abundance in other galaxies. Water ice may be present on Ceres and Tethys. their birth is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust.03% Atmosphere of Jupiter: 0. because its components.002% Earth's atmosphere: ~0.[18] Liquid water is present on • Earth – 71% of surface Strong evidence suggests that liquid water is present just under the surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus. which would amount to more water than is in all the Earth's oceans. When this outflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas. Water ice is present on • • • • • • • • • Earth – mainly as ice sheets polar ice caps on Mars Moon Titan Europa Saturn's rings[19] Enceladus Pluto and Charon[19] Comets and comet source populations (Kuiper belt and Oort cloud objects). When stars are born. the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. Water vapor is present in • • • • • • • • Atmosphere of Mercury: 3. the Milky Way. Interstellar clouds eventually condense into solar nebulae and solar systems such as ours. too. and large amounts of water in Mercury's exosphere[16] Atmosphere of Venus: 0. typically 1–4% at surface Atmosphere of Mars: 0. The water observed is quickly produced in this warm dense gas. are among the most abundant elements in the universe.

the water on it may be solid even at high temperatures. If a planet is sufficiently massive. as it was observed on exoplanets Gliese 436 b[24] and GJ 1214 b. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a temperature buffer (greenhouse effect) which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis. the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist. If Earth were smaller. because of the high pressure caused by gravity. in 2008 a laboratory device which ejects and identifies particles found small amounts of the compound in the inside of volcanic pearls brought from Moon to Earth by the Apollo 15 crew in 1971.[22][23] Earth's gravity allows it to hold an atmosphere. For instance. The state of water on a planet depends on ambient pressure.[10] Some of the Moon's minerals contain water molecules. Water on Earth Main articles: Hydrology and Water distribution on Earth . a thinner atmosphere would allow temperature extremes. or about 8 million kilometers).[21] Water and habitable zone The existence of liquid water. and deeper down as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice. indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth's temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo.oxygen ions. on Earth are vital to the existence of life on Earth as we know it. and to a lesser extent its gaseous and solid forms.[20] NASA reported the detection of water molecules by NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper aboard the Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in September 2009. The Earth is located in the habitable zone of the solar system. if it were slightly closer to or farther from the Sun (about 5%. The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying levels of incoming solar radiation (insolation).[25] There are various theories about origin of water on Earth. which is determined by the planet's gravity. thus preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars).

.000 mi3). of glaciers is glaciology. which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology.360. The collective mass of water found on.000 km3 (326. distribution.000. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. and over the surface of a planet is called the hydrosphere.2% of the Earth's water. of inland waters is limnology and distribution of oceans is oceanography. Earth's approximate water volume (the total water supply of the world) is 1. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds. Groundwater and fresh water are useful or potentially useful to humans as water resources. the oceans contain 97. under. Ecological processes with hydrology are in focus of ecohydrology. The Antarctic ice sheet. contributing to the Earth's albedo. Hydrology is the study of the movement. and quality of water throughout the Earth.000. The study of the distribution of water is hydrography. is visible at the bottom.A graphical distribution of the locations of water on Earth.

Over land. from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean. Water and. evaporation and transpiration contribute another 71 Tt per year. river. runoff from the land usually reaching the sea. The majority of water on Earth is sea water. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid. between the atmosphere. water is important in both chemical and physical weathering processes. Water moves perpetually through each of these regions in the water cycle consisting of following transfer processes: • • • evaporation from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air.Liquid water is found in bodies of water. Water is important in many geological processes. are also responsible for a large amount of sediment transport that occurs on the surface of the earth. Precipitation. precipitation. and the pressure of this groundwater affects patterns of faulting. such as an ocean. at a rate of 107 Tt per year over . which make up the geologic record of Earth history. It also exists as groundwater in aquifers. Deposition of transported sediment forms many types of sedimentary rocks. On the surface of the Earth. sea. ice. groundwater. canal. about 36 Tt per year. surface water. and plants. Most water vapor over the oceans returns to the oceans. but winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea. pond. to a lesser but still significant extent. soil water. Water cycle Water cycle The water cycle (known scientifically as the hydrologic cycle) refers to the continuous exchange of water within the hydrosphere. Water in the mantle is responsible for the melt that produces volcanoes at subduction zones. Groundwater is present in most rocks. and vapor states. stream. lake. liquid. or puddle.

snow. Some of water is diverted to irrigation for agriculture. Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. This occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. for example in lakes. and hail. Sea water Sea water contains about 3. snow pack and glaciers. Rivers and seas offer opportunity for travel and commerce. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs. A mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters is hydrological transport model. A flood occurs when an area of land. it is in short supply. and in the far north and south. with some contribution from fog and dew.5% salt on average. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. It freezes at a lower temperature (about –1. Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells. or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. Through erosion. since clean. Water runoff often collects over watersheds flowing into rivers. snow collects in ice caps. This water storage is important. during winter. fresh water is essential to human and other land-based life. usually low-lying. is covered with water.land. Fresh water storage High tide (left) and low tide (right) Main article: Water resources Some runoff water is trapped for periods of time. runoff shapes the environment creating river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers. It is when a river overflows its banks or flood from the sea.9 °C) and its density increases with decreasing temperature to the . The physical properties of sea water differ from fresh water in some important respects. has several forms: most commonly rain. At high altitude. Condensed water in the air may also refract sunlight to produce rainbows. In many parts of the world. plus smaller amounts of other substances.

From a biological standpoint. The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry. Water (at right). which can be respired to water and (CO2). is an important ecological product of ocean tides.freezing point. All known forms of life . water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide.7% in the Baltic Sea to 4.0% in the Red Sea. together with carbon dioxide (CO2). It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. instead of reaching maximum density at a temperature above freezing. Tides Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of local sea levels caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. The salinity of water in major seas varies from about 0. the intertidal zone. Effects on life An oasis is an isolated water source with vegetation in desert Overview of photosynthesis and respiration. form oxygen and organic compounds (at left). Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams.

Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. a proton) donor. An acid. glucose. In catabolism. starches. that is. Without water. a hydrogen ion (H+. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. In anabolism. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7. with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e. water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e. triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. can be neutralized by a base. these particular metabolic processes could not exist.g. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body's solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body.g. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef Aquatic life forms Main articles: Hydrobiology and Aquatic plant . fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration). Water is considered to be neutral. a proton acceptor such as hydroxide ion (OH−) to form water.depend on water.

and they do so in various ways. Effects on human civilization Water fountain Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways. New York City. However as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. Paris. nearly all fish live exclusively in water. the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile. whales. such as amphibians. Shanghai. Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive. and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. Some kinds of animals. such as the lungfish. London. such as dolphins. and there are many types of marine mammals. otters. and Hong Kong owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. although some species of fish.Some marine diatoms – a key phytoplankton group Earth's surface waters are filled with life. where water is more scarce. Chicago. Islands with safe water ports. access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Montreal. Tokyo. spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. . Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes (see insect and mollusc siphons) and gills (Carcinus). the socalled cradle of civilization. was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Buenos Aires. Mesopotamia. such as dolphins and whales. have both. like Singapore. have flourished for the same reason. Fish have gills instead of lungs. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East. Marine mammals. Large metropolises like Rotterdam. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain. The earliest life forms appeared in water.

Health and pollution Environmental Science Program. which generally contains sewage and other forms of waste which require further treatment in order to be made reusable.) These terms may have different meanings in other countries and cultures. Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. about a billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water. Iowa State University student sampling water. it will still leave more than an estimated half a billion people without access to safe drinking water and over a billion without access to adequate sanitation. however. and blackwater. Therefore. and 1–2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water). but rather re-circulated as potable water in precipitation in quantities many degrees of magnitude higher than human consumption.4 million child deaths from diarrhea each year. and it is. showers and kitchen runoff. which generate blackwater.[26] Even if this difficult goal is met. and its availability is a major social and economic concern. or by a range of other methods. Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light.[27] Water. some five million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water. which is treatable and thus easily able to be made potable again. Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. or "safe for bathing". is not a finite resource. the distribution of potable and irrigation water which is scarce. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly. Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water. In the USA. that is a non-renewable resource. The World Health Organization estimates that safe water could prevent 1. and is sometimes called safe water. Greywater composes 50-80% of residential wastewater generated by a household's sanitation equipment (sinks. Most countries accepted the goal of halving by 2015 the number of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water and sanitation during the 2003 G8 Evian summit. Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillation. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water. but not toilets. which is replenished in aquifers around every 1 to 10 years). Currently. it is the relatively small quantity of water in reserve in the earth (about 1% of our drinking water supply. rather. non-potable forms of wastewater generated by humans may be referred to as greywater. rather than the actual amount of it that exists on the . This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places.

the gram was defined in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a meter. also suffer from medium or high water stress. 30% of freshwater usage is for irrigation). 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries[30] and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (United States. [28] Some 50 countries. which was measured at the time as 4 °C (39 °F). a metallic reference standard was required.earth.[29] The strain not only affects surface freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes. Water-poor countries use importation of goods as the primary method of importing water (to leave enough for local human consumption). The scale is an absolute temperature scale with the same increment as the Celsius temperature scale. one thousand times more massive. In spite of the fact that the decreed definition of the gram specified water at 0 °C—a highly reproducible temperature—the scientists chose to redefine the standard and to perform their measurements at the temperature of highest water density. . defined as exactly 273.[31] Water as a scientific standard On 7 April 1795. In the developing world.16 K or 0. which was originally defined according the boiling point (set to 100 °C) and melting point (set to 0 °C) of water. which is a key component to produce enough food.[33] The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system is based on the triple point of water. but it also degrades groundwater resources. and to the temperature of the melting ice. Work was therefore commissioned to determine precisely the mass of one liter of water. with roughly a third of the world’s population. Human uses Agriculture Irrigation of field crops The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation. and 17 of these extract more water annually than is recharged through their natural water cycles. since the manufacturing process uses around 10 to 100 times products' masses in water.01 °C."[32] For practical purposes though. the kilogram.

Therefore.[36] For those who have healthy kidneys. putting them at risk of water intoxication (hyperhydration). temperature. but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. and other factors.Natural water consists mainly of the isotopes hydrogen-1 and oxygen-16. The amount of deuterium oxides or heavy water is very small. but it still affects the properties of water. humidity.[38] . Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people. standard water is defined in the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water specification. which can be fatal. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising.[34] To function properly. For drinking Main article: Drinking water A young girl drinking bottled water Water quality: fraction of population using improved water sources by country The human body contains anywhere from 55% to 78% water depending on body size. excluding extra requirements due to fluid loss from exercise or warm weather. the precise amount depends on the level of activity. but there is also small quantity of heavier isotopes such as hydrogen-2 (deuterium). the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration. Water from rivers and lakes tends to contain less deuterium than seawater. however.[37] Similar misconceptions concerning the effect of water on weight loss and constipation have also been dispelled. The popular claim that "a person should consume eight glasses of water per day" seems to have no real basis in science. though most advocates agree that 6–7 glasses of water (approximately 2 liters) daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration. it is rather difficult to drink too much water. typically 1 liter of water for an average male.[35] Medical literature favors a lower consumption.

calcium and lead)[42] and/or harmful bacteria. According to the Institute of Medicine—who recommend that. iron. suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances. while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included)."[39] The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended (including food sources): 2. Common impurities include metal salts and oxides (including copper. such as Vibrio. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene.[40] Specifically. pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated.7 liters of water total for women and 3. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms. on average.[41] Also noted is that normally. With physical exertion and heat exposure.2 liters and men 3. Humans require water that does not contain too many impurities. through urine and faeces. Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. women consume 2.4 liters (10 cups) for pregnant women and 3 liters (12 cups) for breastfeeding women since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing. water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.Hazard symbol for Not drinking water An original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Chemical uses .0 liters—this is recommended to be 2. about 20% of water intake comes from food.[44] Washing The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes.7 liters for men. through sweating.[43] The single largest (by volume) freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia. and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath.

as removing the water from the reactor also slows the nuclear reaction down . it is not usually used as a reaction solvent. Oxygen-saturated supercritical water combusts organic pollutants efficiently. which vaporizes and drives steam turbines to drive generators. water is both a coolant and a moderator. due to its availability and high heat capacity. In the U. water is a common solvent. water can also be used as a neutron moderator. Condensing steam is a particularly efficient heating fluid because of the large heat of vaporization. both as a coolant and for heating. these properties are sometimes desirable.S. Nevertheless. This provides something of a passive safety measure.[31] In the nuclear power industry. Water and steam are used as heat transfer fluids in diverse heat exchange systems. In almost all electric power stations. cooling power plants is the largest use of water.Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst. A disadvantage is that water and steam are somewhat corrosive. Heat exchange Ice used for cooling. Fire extinction ..however other methods are favored for stopping a reaction and it is preferred to keep the nuclear core covered with water so as to ensure adequate cooling. Cool water may even be naturally available from a lake or the sea. water is the coolant. In inorganic reactions. In organic reactions. because it does not dissolve the reactants well and is amphoteric (acidic and basic) and nucleophilic. Also. dissolving many ionic compounds. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research. acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. In most nuclear reactors.

beaches and waterparks are popular places for people to go to relax and enjoy recreation. Grenada. waterskiing. George's. decompose the water. producing hydrogen gas. Lakesides. Recreation Grand Anse Beach. boating.Water is used for fighting wildfires. often reported as one of the top 10 beaches in the world. and of a hydrogen explosion. St. like ice hockey and ice skating. Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a steam explosion. A hydrogen explosion may have occurred as a result of reaction between steam and hot zirconium. because impure water is electrically conductive. In addition. which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. because they float on water and the explosive boiling of water tends to spread the burning liquid. only distilled water can be used to fight fires of electric equipment. However. Many find the sound and appearance of . surfing and diving. A steam explosion occurred when the extreme over-heating of the core caused water to flash into steam. Main article: Water sport (recreation) Humans use water for many recreational purposes. such as certain metals or hot graphite. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. are played on ice. some sports. Some of these include swimming. Water is not suitable for use on fires of oils and organic solvents. West Indies. although the water involved did not come from fire-fighting at that time but the reactor's own water cooling system. as well as for exercising and for sports. which may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces. The power of such explosions was seen in the Chernobyl disaster. Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert. when substances which react with water.

In many places where running water was not available. and companionship.e. snowmobiling or snowboarding. Water industry A water-carrier in India. fun. which requires the water to be frozen. skiing. Some keep fish and other life in aquariums or ponds for show. Humans also use water for snow sports i. A manual water pump in China . water guns or water balloons. People may also use water for play fighting such as with snowballs. water had to be transported by people. 1882.flowing water to be calming. sledding. and fountains and other water features are popular decorations.

The energy is supplied by the sun. extracted from artificial borings (wells) in the ground. Water supply facilities include water wells cisterns for rainwater harvesting. from where it flows down. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable. such as reverse osmosis. assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water.Water purification facility The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to households and industry. Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water. Industrial applications Water is used in power generation. or pumped from lakes and rivers. water purification facilities. Distillation does all three functions. while the private firms' profits are not redistributed to the local population victim of this pollution. The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems. water pipes including old aqueducts. Reducing usage by using drinking (potable) water only for human consumption is another option. Another way to remove pollution from surface runoff water is bioswale. which condenses as rain in higher altitudes. . to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material. Drinking water is often collected at springs. Desalination of abundant seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost. water supply network. tanker delivery or as bottled water. water tanks. water towers. sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources. Wastewater facilities are storm sewers and wastewater treatment plants. Thus other people pay the price of water pollution. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. dissolved substances and harmful microbes. Other water sources include rainwater collection. while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge. being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account. renewable energy source. Others[who?] argue that the market mechanism and free enterprise are best to manage this rare resource and to finance the boring of wells or the construction of dams and reservoirs. regardless of benefits to the polluter. This may involve removal of undissolved substances. Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. In some cities such as Hong Kong. More advanced techniques exist. Like other types of pollution. this does not enter standard accounting of market costs. non-polluting. Atmospheric water generators are in development. Heat from the sun evaporates water. Water may require purification for human consumption. it becomes a waste of the resource.

Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydro-electric power station. It is important for a food scientist to understand the roles that water plays within food processing to ensure the success of their products. or prevent saw blades from over-heating. Pollution includes discharged solutes (chemical pollution) and discharged coolant water (thermal pollution). Food processing Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles. very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. and is not harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. such as the steam turbine and heat exchanger. It works very well. . It is also used in the cooling of machinery to prevent over-heating. Also. Industry requires pure water for many applications and utilizes a variety of purification techniques both in water supply and discharge. Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Water plays many critical roles within the field of food science. in addition to its use as a chemical solvent. Water is also used in many industrial processes and machines. is relatively safe.

It can dramatically affect the quality of a product as well as playing a role in sanitation.[45] Boiling. Water is also used for dishwashing. and simmering are popular cooking methods that often require immersing food in water or its gaseous state. medium if it contains 5 to 10 grains and hard if it contains 11 to 20 grains. steaming.02 °C. Water hardness also affects sanitation. Water hardness is also a critical factor in food processing.[46] Water activity can be described as a ratio of the vapor pressure of water in a solution to the vapor pressure of pure water. Water right. The hardness of water also affects its pH balance which plays a critical role in food processing.51 °C. 0. as well as air pressure. increasing the number of dissolved particles lowers water's freezing point.[45] Water is classified as soft if it contains 1 to 4 grains. Water hardness is classified based on the amounts of removable calcium carbonate salt it contains per gallon. This is important to know because most bacterial growth ceases at low levels of water activity. with increasing hardness. similarly. which is in turn affected by altitude.[46] Not only does microbial growth affect the safety of food but also the preservation and shelf life of food. and Water crisis .[45] Solutes in water also affect water activity which affects many chemical reactions and the growth of microbes in food.Solutes such as salts and sugars found in water affect the physical properties of water.064 g calcium carbonate is equivalent to one grain of hardness.[vague] [45] The hardness of water may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange system. water politics and water crisis An estimate of the share of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970– 2000 Main articles: Water law. For example. Water boils at lower temperatures with the lower air pressure which occurs at higher elevations. steam. Water hardness is measured in grains.[45] Solutes in water lower water activity. hard water prevents successful production of clear beverages. The boiling and freezing points of water are affected by solutes. Water law. there is a loss of effectiveness for its use as a sanitizer. and one mole of salt per kg raises the boiling point by 1. One mole of sucrose (sugar) per kilogram of water raises the boiling point of water by 0.

global initiatives to improve the efficiency of aid delivery. 1. American Water Resources Association. Shinto. Hinduism. often this means lack of sewage disposal. in the next 20 years.2 million people died in 2000 from waterborne diseases (related to the consumption of contaminated water) or drought. Rastafari movement. 79% in 2000 and 84% in 2004.[48] In addition. potentially leaving multiple donors working on overlapping projects and recipient governments without empowerment to act. WaterAid. 40% of the world's inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Water in culture Religion Main article: Water and religion Water is considered a purifier in most religions. This goal is projected to be reached. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. have not been taken up by water sector donors as effectively as they have in education and health. Islam. Organizations concerned with water protection include International Water Association (IWA). and Wicca. World Day for Water takes place on 22 March and World Ocean Day on 8 June. In 2004. by 2015. Judaism. a ritual bath in pure water . For this reason.[5] To halve. It causes health impacts and damage to biodiversity. Taoism. 2003) from the World Water Assessment Program indicates that. Water related conventions are United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).[49] The UN World Water Development Report (WWDR.Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. Major faiths that incorporate ritual washing (ablution) include Christianity. In addition.[47] The proportion of people in developing countries with access to safe water is calculated to have improved from 30% in 1970[4] to 71% in 1990. Immersion (or aspersion or affusion) of a person in water is a central sacrament of Christianity (where it is called baptism). Water used in the production of a good or service is virtual water. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Ramsar Convention. This trend is projected to continue. but that access to it is hampered by mismanagement and corruption. A 2006 United Nations report stated that "there is enough water for everyone". the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds from easily preventable water-related diseases.6 billion people have gained access to a safe water source since 1990. including Judaism (mikvah) and Sikhism (Amrit Sanskar). such as the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. it is also a part of the practice of other religions. see toilet. Water 1st. More than 2. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water is one of the Millennium Development Goals.

is performed for the dead in many religions including Judaism and Islam. James Legge's 1891 translation of the Dao De Jing states "The highest excellence is like (that of) water."[51] See also Water portal Sustainable development portal Main article: List of water topics • The water (data page) is a collection of the chemical and physical properties of water. along with earth. wood. fire."[50] Literature Water is used in literature as a symbol of purification.. in the ritual of misogi). the low place which all men dislike. the five daily prayers can be done in most cases (see Tayammum) after completing washing certain parts of the body using clean water (wudu). for example: "The earth was formed out of water and by water" (NIV). Water is described in many terms and contexts: • according to state o solid – ice o liquid – water . earth and air. In the theory of the four bodily humors. In Islam. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao" and "There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water. Water is mentioned numerous times in the Bible. or basic substance of the universe. The classical element of Water was also one of the five elements in traditional Chinese philosophy. Water was considered cold and moist. In Shinto. and yet for attacking things that are firm and strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it—for there is nothing (so effectual) for which it can be changed. Water is also taken as a role model in some parts of traditional and popular Asian philosophy. and metal. water is used in almost all rituals to cleanse a person or an area (e. Sherlock Holmes held that "From a drop of water. Philosophy The Ancient Greek philosopher Empedocles held that water is one of the four classical elements along with fire. In the Qur'an it is stated that "Living things are made of water" and it is often used to described Paradise. and in its occupying. water was associated with phlegm.g. a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic or a Niagara without having seen or heard of one or the other. without striving (to the contrary). Examples include the critical importance of a river in As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner and the drowning of Ophelia in Hamlet. The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things. and was regarded as the ylem.

o o • gaseous – water vapor plasma according to meteorology: o hydrometeor  precipitation precipitation according to movement • vertical (falling) precipitation o rain o freezing rain o drizzle o freezing drizzle o snow o snow pellets o snow grains o ice pellets o frozen rain o hail o ice crystals • horizontal (seated) precipitation o dew o hoarfrost o atmospheric icing o glaze ice precipitation according to state • liquid precipitation o rain o freezing rain o drizzle o freezing drizzle o dew • solid precipitation o snow o snow pellets o snow grains o ice pellets o frozen rain o hail o ice crystals o hoarfrost o atmospheric icing o glaze ice • mixed precipitation o in temperatures around 0 °C • • levitating particles  clouds  fog  mist o ascending particles (drifted by wind)  spindrift  stirred snow according to occurrence o groundwater o meltwater o meteoric water o connate water o fresh water o surface water o mineral water – contains many minerals o brackish water o .

It is in nature in normal water in very low concentration. analytical-grade or reagent-grade water – water which has been highly purified for specific uses in science or engineering. It is dangerous for ship traveling. without fouling. Often broadly classified as Type I. it contains balanced minerals that are not harmful to health (see below) o purified water. the following:  distilled water  double distilled water  deionized water  Reverse osmosis plant Water o • according to other features o soft water – contains fewer minerals o hard water – from underground. contains more minerals o distilled water. laboratory-grade. o tritiated water according to microbiology o drinking water o wastewater o stormwater or surface water according to religion o holy water • • Other topics • • • • Dihydrogen monoxide hoax Water Pasteurization Indicator Water intoxication Water pinch analysis . but is not limited to. o seawater o brine according to uses o tap water o bottled water o drinking water or potable water – useful for everyday drinking. this category of water includes.• dead water – strange phenomenon which can occur when a layer of fresh or brackish water rests on top of denser salt water. deionized water – contains no minerals o water of crystallization — water incorporated into crystalline structures o hydrates — water bound into other chemical substances o heavy water – made from heavy atoms of hydrogen – deuterium. without the two layers mixing. Type II. It was used in construction of first nuclear reactors. double distilled water. or Type III.

http://www. 13. 14.pdf. 12.ejcn. & Weaver. ^ "CIA.html#Geo. http://news.^ Water Found in Extrasolar Planet's Atmosphere – Space.html. 6. G. L. J. P.org. 5. The Skeptical Environmentalist. 1999.html.. (2007).. p.pd f#page=44. M. 3. "Why is water blue?". Retrieved 2010-07-25. ^ Water Vapor in the Climate System. 8. Special Report. Cenci. The Solar System. Boston. The Harvard University Gazette.^ Ball.1023/A:1007957229865. ISBN 0521010683. Chem.. 1998..html.jhu. ^ "Public Services". 70 (8): 612. Vital Water UNEP.References 1. Thunder Bay Press.nature.edu/~etrnsfer/water. Heyden (2006). ^ a b "MDG Report 2008". doi:10. http://mdgs. J. http://www.edu/gazette/1998/04. Un. Giles (2006). Robin J.html. "Burning water and other myths".org/waterforlifedecade/background.. Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. 4.1021/ed070p612.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx. Philip (14 September 2007). "A Global Outlook for Water Resources to the Year 2025".23/DiscoverofWater. Gapminder video 7. Smirnov (1993). 15.un. C.htm.com/App_Media/Reports/Water/Charting_Our_Water_Future_Full_Report _001. ^ a b Lomborg. 22. 2007 By Laura Blue.edu/gazette/1999/02. ISBN 053439597X. doi:10. Björn (2001). 11. December 1995 (linked 4/2007). Educ. http://www. "Water. Neil A.com 19. April 9.^ Kotz. http://www. doi:10. Retrieved 200812-20. Berati.^ a b Weird water lurking inside giant planets.dartmouth. ^ Baroni. February 25.25/telescope.com/el_marketing.cia.com/news/2007/070910/full/070910-13. Planetary Society. Time 18.^ Gary Melnick. http://www. Retrieved 2010-07-25. Brad Williamson.. "Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems". "Space Cloud Holds Enough Water to Fill Earth's Oceans 1 Million Times".01 September 2010.harvard. PMID 17035955.com/dyn/files/basic_items/69file/skeptenvironChap1. Retrieved 2008-07-05. Retrieved 2007-09-14.1602522.pdf. L.(linked 4/2007) 16. Retrieved 2010-07-25. S.org/unsd/mdg/Resources/Static/Products/Progress2008/MDG_Report_2008_En.mckinsey. https://www. 1998. ^ "United Nations". [AGU].1038/sj. Central Intelligence Agency. 17. Tettamanti. ISBN 0-13-250882-6.The world fact book". Thomson Brooks/Cole. The Harvard University Gazette. http://www.^ Braun. 9.news. ^ "Charting Our Water Future: Economic frameworks to inform decision-making" (PDF). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 (2): 279–286. Johns Hopkins University quoted in: "Discover of Water Vapor Near Orion Nebula Suggests Possible Origin of H20 in Solar System (sic)". http://www. Water Everywhere: Radio telescope finds water is common in universe". (2005).^ "MESSENGER Scientists 'Astonished' to Find Water in Mercury's Thin Atmosphere". Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity. Cambridge University Press. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and David Neufeld.^ Water Found on Distant Planet July 12. New Scientist.edu/news_info/news/home98/apr98/clouds. 2008-07-03.. Biology: Exploring Life. JHU. Sergei N.html.N (1998). http://www.harvard. Charles L. . 10. Nature News. ISBN 1592235794. Magazine issue 2776.html.phschool. Water Resources Management 12 (3): 167–184.org/news/2008/0703_MESSENGER_Scientists_Astonished_to.html. M.planetary. Headlines@Hopkins. 2.^ Campbell.lomborg. http://www. April 23. 2005-03-22. C. ^ Kulshreshtha. Treichel.un.^ a b Sparrow.

122. 25. 36.D. Retrieved 2010-07-25.^ Ehlers. USA: Prentice Hall. September 24. Tanner GA (2003). Lebanon. T.com/article/dn11864-strange-alien-world-made-of-hot-ice-andsteam.fr/evian/english/navigation/2003_g8_summit/summit_documents/water__a_g8_action_plan. New Hampshire 38.html. ISBN 1402001045. http://space.shtml. Nijavalli H. Safe Water and Global Health". 2009 22.^ here L'Histoire Du Mètre. http://www. 3–18.bbc. G8.int/features/qa/70/en/. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 24.com/health/water/NU00283.^ Ravindranath. and Sulfate.daviddarling. http://www." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? by Heinz Valdin.^ Water Molecules Found on the Moon..^ Drinking Water – How Much?. Maryanna Quon Warner.^ "WBCSD Water Faacts & Trends". National Academy of Sciences.^ "Conquering Chemistry" 4th Ed.^ a b Water Use in the United States.asp? type=d&id=MTYyNTA. ed (2001). "Astronomers Find Super-Earth Using Amateur.com/?id=1cV8tziHZ5sC&pg=PA125. 30.html. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 27.edu/news/2009/pr200924. Water: a shared responsibility. Medical Physiology (2nd ed. Recommended Dietary Allowances. processes.co. http://www.^ Decree relating to the weights and measurements 33. http://www. Krafft. NASA. Retrieved 2010-03-28.org/includes/getTarget.newscientist.org web site and references within 39. "Integrated Management of Water Resources"". http://books. Sodium. Retrieved 2007-02-01.google.^ Shiga. David (6 May 2007). Jean Hopkins. Anthea.g8.^ "Water: How much should you drink every day? –". ISBN 1843390086. National Research Council. Understanding the Earth System: compartments.^ Re: What percentage of the human body is composed of water? Jeffrey Utz.). 1945.^ "Healthy Water Living". E. 40.gov 32. p. Springer. Dartmouth Medical School. New Scientist. p. Charles William McLaughlin.^ Food and Nutrition Board.^ Dietary Reference Intakes: Water. Retrieved 2010-07-25. Offthe-Shelf Technology".20. OCLC 50554808. Chloride. Factsmart. Retrieved 2010-07-25. Aguilar (16 December 2009). Englewood Cliffs. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. 26.^ "G8 "Action plan" decided upon at the 2003 Evian summit".^ Maton. IWA Publishing. 31. National Atlas.^ David A. Department of Physiology. Human Biology and Health.cfa. Who.^ UNEP International Environment (2002). ISBN 1845451775. Climate Change and Developing Countries.wbcsd. Sathaye (2002). Susan Johnson. Astronomy and Spaceflight. 23. Reprint and Circular Series.harvard. Environmentally Sound Technology for Wastewater and Stormwater Management: An International Source Book. pp. M.com. 37. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.int. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Wright (1993). Jill D. 42..^ "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day. http://www.who. The MadSci Network 35. Springer. ISBN 0781719364.^ Versteckt in Glasperlen: Auf dem Mond gibt es Wasser – Wissenschaft – Der Spiegel – Nachrichten 21.^ "World Health Organization. OCLC 231965991.. No. Dooge.^ Unesco (2006). 125. 116. 2003-06-02. La Détermination De L'Unité De Poids 34.^ Rhoades RA. http://www. 2008-06-25. OCLC 49204666. http://www.info/encyclopedia/H/habzone.^ "Habitable Zone". David LaHart. 29. I.. Berghahn Books. . Retrieved 2010-03-28. C. "J.uk/health/healthy_living/nutrition/drinks_water. OCLC 32308337. and interactions. BBC.html. Food and Nutrition Board 41. 44. Mayoclinic. 28.fr.mayoclinic.html. Potassium. New Jersey. Jayant A. Published 2008 43. "Strange alien world made of "hot ice"".

Chapter 2. William E. Springer. ISBN 1565848136. Essentials of Food Science.]. The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. beginning in 1998. Maude Barlow.^ Arthur Conan Doyle. Pollution. of Steiner Books).^ a b c d e Vaclavik. "The Science of Deduction" Further reading • • • • • OA Jones. 47.^ UNESCO. Elizabeth W (2007). Anita Roddick.. Peter H. 51. Principles of Food Chemistry. New York.^ The Millennium Development Goals Report.com. Truth And Lies About The Global Water Crisis. Bell Pond Books ( a div. second edition). MA.google. 2005 Franks. London: Pluto Press [u. ISBN 0387699392. p. Water and Power: The Politics of a Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin.com/tao/taote.^ Katharina Welle. et al (2004). Miriam R.com/?id=iCCsvwZrguUC&printsec=frontcover. Great Barrington. Lowi (1995). Gleick.^ "Internet Sacred Text Archive Home". 49. Sinners. Barbara Evans. Troubled Water: Saints. ISBN 095439593X. Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World's Water.^ a b DeMan. Retrieved 2010-07-25. D. Reisner. Water Wars: Privatization. Tony Clarke (2003). Plenum Press. E. United Nations. (Cambridge Middle East Library) William E. (published every two years. P. Sacred-texts. OCLC 231955339. Sandra (1997.. 46..com/?id=kDYJ7a1HbD0C&pg=PA434. Vandana Shiva (2002). The Holy Order of Water: Healing Earth's Waters and Ourselves. Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. http://books. ISBN 0670199273. Water Rights: Scarce Resource Allocation. G. Marks (2001). Physics Today 56 (6). Vickie A. and Christian. "Supercooled and Glassy Water".htm.google.) Marks. Marc (1993). and the Environment. Bureaucracy. 2008 48. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2. ISBN 0521431646. and Profit. November 2001 [ISBN 088010-483-X] Debenedetti. The Holy Order of Water: Healing Earths Waters and Ourselves. (2006). Postel. JN Lester and N Voulvoulis. 1972–1982 PH Gleick and associates. Josephine Tucker and Alan Nicol (2008) Is water lagging behind on Aid Effectiveness? [1] 50. 40–46 (2003).C. The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources.45. and Stanley. ISBN 1559637927. New York: Norton Press.sacredtexts. http://www. ISBN 0393034283. Washington: Island Press. Water. John M (1999). ISBN 0-7453-1837-1. a shared responsibility. A Study in Scarlet. F (Ed). ISBN 0884103900.. Downloadable PDF (1. Island Press.a. Water. ISBN 083421234X. H.9 MB) Water as a natural resource • • • • • • • • • Anderson (1991). Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Washington. . A comprehensive treatise. http://books. Pharmaceuticals: a threat to drinking water? TRENDS in Biotechnology 23(4): 163. Springer.

Rivers of Empire: Water. ISBN 0618030093. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. Folly and the Politics of Thirst.• • • Marq de Villiers (2003. Aridity. revised edition). and the Growth of the American West. ISBN 039451680X. ISBN 1573222291. Water Wars: Drought. Worster. Diane Raines Ward (2002). Donald (1992). External links Find more about water on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks • OECD Water statistics . Flood.

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